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Sample records for abbreviated burn severity

  1. Which of the abbreviated burn severity index variables are having impact on the hospital length of stay?

    PubMed

    Andel, Dorothea; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Niedermayr, Monika; Hoerauf, Klaus; Schramm, Wolfgang; Andel, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Quality control is an important tool ensuring continuous medical efficacy. Outcome scores, however, are unfavorable from a statistical point of view, are not meaningful for less severely injured patients, and may put the treating physicians under pressure to limit therapeutic efforts. In this study the variables of the abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI), primarily an outcome score, were used to predict length of hospital stay (HLS), a continuous quantitative variable reflecting treatment costs and incidence of complications even in less severely injured patients. For 365 patients a multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the ABSI variables on HLS. Among survivors, age and total body surface area burned (TBSA) contributed significantly to HLS, whereas for nonsurvivors only TBSA significantly influenced HLS. Neither gender nor presence of full-thickness burn or inhalation injury showed a significant influence on HLS. The impact of age and TBSA on HLS might be used as a benchmarking system to evaluate quality of care. However, although HLS is probably widely dependent on regional health care systems, TBSA and age proved to be the only variables of the ABSI to correlate with HLS.

  2. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  3. Long term functional outcomes and quality of life following severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Druery, Martha; Brown, Tim La H; La H Brown, Tim; Muller, Michael

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to examine functional and psychological outcome of severely burned patients adults. Adult patients (n=38) admitted to the Royal Brisbane hospital with burns >40% TBSA were assessed two years post injury using the Abbreviated BSHS and a supplemental questionnaire relating to specific physiotherapy and occupational health issues. An average return to driving occurred at 36 weeks and return to work at 51 weeks. Involvement of the hands and face significantly altered the physical domain of the questionnaire and the sub-domain examining role. Genital burns altered the sexual sub-domain, but this was not gender dependant. Mobility and self care were significantly altered when a burn was >20% TBSA full thickness. The study demonstrates that these patients can develop functional independence and good quality of life. The long term outlook for patients with large burns is generally positive. Consequently, burn care professionals can be reassured that the effort is worthwhile.

  4. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score: A simple tool for stratifying severity of hand burns.

    PubMed

    Bache, Sarah E; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Frew, Quentin; Philp, Bruce; Dziewulski, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Hand burns represent a unique challenge to the burns team due to the intricate structure and unrivalled functional importance of the hand. The initial assessment and prognosis relies on consideration of the specific site involved as well as depth of the burn. We created a simple severity score that could be used by referring non-specialists and researchers alike. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score stratifies hand burns according to severity with a numerical value of between 0 (no burn) and 18 (most severe) per hand. Three independent assessors scored the photographs of 121 burned hands of 106 adult and paediatric patients, demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability (r=0.91, p<0.0001 on testing with Lin's correlation coefficient). A significant relationship was shown between the HABS score and a reliable binary outcome of the requirement for surgical excision on Mann-Whitney U testing (U=152; Z=9.8; p=0.0001). A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis found a cut off score of 5.5, indicating that those with a HABS score below 6 did not require an operation, whereas those with a score above 6 did. The HABS score was shown to be more sensitive and specific that assessment of burn depth alone. The HABS score is a simple to use tool to stratify severity at initial presentation of hand burns which will be useful when referring, and when reporting outcomes.

  5. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  6. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  7. Management of severe rheumatological disease in the burn center.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Preetham; Ahrenholz, David H; Mohr, William J; Gertner, Elie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Burn Center has evolved to become a "wound intensive care unit" treating disease processes other than those due to thermal injury. Recent data have shown that more than 16% of admissions to Burn Centers are for nonburn injuries, particularly severe dermatologic diseases. The role of the Burn Center has been expanded to include treatment of patients with severe cutaneous manifestations of rheumatologic diseases. This approach has not been described before. All collagen vascular disease admissions to the Burn Center from 2005 to 2010 have been reviewed. There were 16 admissions where intensive wound management was a major component of the disease management. Disease processes included systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, antiphospholipid syndrome, and dermatomyositis, among others. The authors describe five of these cases in detail. Comanagement of these patients by the Rheumatology and Burn services led to outstanding, successful outcomes. Collagen vascular diseases represent another area where the Burn Center may be the appropriate site for therapy.

  8. Predictors of Muscle Protein Synthesis after Severe Pediatric Burns

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Eva C.; Herndon, David N.; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases, but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months post-injury, and identify predictors that influence this response. Study design 87 children with ≥40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2 and ~ 4 weeks post-burn, and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury to determine skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Results Patients (8±6 years) had large (62, 51–72% TBSA) and deep (47±21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months post-burn compared to established values from healthy young adults. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, children >3 years old, and when burns were >80% TBSA. Conclusions Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least one year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiological response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by gender, age and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn victims. PMID:25807408

  9. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  10. The alexander surgical technique for the treatment of severe burns

    PubMed Central

    Gasperoni, M.; Neri, R.; Carboni, A.; Purpura, V.; Morselli, P.G.; Melandri, D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The extensive loss of skin in burned patients is a critical clinical condition, and the choice of an effective technique to cover and protect the damaged area has always been a challenge in the surgical field. Despite its wide clinical use, there is little data in the literature on using the Alexander technique to treat severe burns, while several studies have focused on alternative approaches. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Alexander surgical technique on 117 patients with severe burns. The characteristics of the burned patients, factors related to etiology of burns as well as adverse prognostic factors and their incidence in discharged versus deceased patients were also taken into account. Finally, a comparison is made with an alternative surgical procedure described in the literature. Our results show a satisfactory level of survival for patients with severe burns surgically treated with the Alexander technique, accounting for 63% of all clinical cases reported here. This treatment is also less expensive and more rapid than the alternative approach we compared it with. The Alexander technique is a lifesaving method for the treatment of severe burns that provides a satisfactory chance of survival at lower cost than the alternative surgical procedure examined. PMID:28289363

  11. Burn Severity Estimation Using MERIS Full Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Patricia; De Santis, Angela

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the first results of Fire Effects Modelling and Mapping (FEMM) project carried out in the framemark of the Changing Earth Science Network. The objective of this study is to test the performance of the inversion of Radiative Transfer Models (RTMs) in ENVISA T-MERIS Full Resolution data to estimate burn severity levels in terms of Composite Burn Index (CBI) levels. Nevertheless, as the RTM model was calibrated in Landsat-TM images, evaluation of its performance in MERIS imagery was needed. We tested the performance of the RTM model in several study sites located in two large fires occurred in Spain during 2009 fire season. The results were validated by comparison with burn severity maps computed from Landsat-TM imagery. The results obtained showed values of the coefficient of determination of 0.92 and 0.95 thus, the estimation of burn severity was accurate and consistent, in spite of the different spatial and spectral resolutions.

  12. Heparin Reduced Mortality and Sepsis in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, G.J.; Bonilla, A.M.; Saliba, M.J

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives. In El Salvador, before 1999, morbidity and mortality in severely burned children were high. In 1998, all children with burns of 40% or larger size died and sepsis was found. With heparin use in 1999, some similarly burned children survived, and sepsis, pain, procedures, and scars were noted to be less. This retrospective study presents the details. Methods. A study was conducted at the National Children's Hospital in El Salvador of all children with burns over 20% size treated in 1998, when no heparin was used, and in 1999, when heparin was added to burns treatment, using an ethics committee approved protocol in use in twelve other countries. Sodium aqueous heparin solution USP from an intestinal source was infused intravenously and applied topically onto burn surfaces and within blisters for the first 1-3 days post-burn. Then heparin, in diminishing doses, was continued only topically until healing. The treatments in 1998 and 1999 were otherwise the same, except that fewer procedures were needed in 1999. Results. There were no significant differences in gender, age, weight, burn aetiology, or burn size between the burned children in 1998 and those in 1999. Burn pain was relieved and pain medicine was not needed in children treated with heparin in 1999. In 1998, one child survived who had a 35% size burn, and the eight children died who had burns of 40% and over. The survival rate was one out of nine (11%). The average burn size was 51.7%. With heparin use in 1999, six of the ten children survived burns of 50.7% average size. The increase in survival with heparin from 11% to 60% and, therefore, the decrease in mortality from 89% to 40% were significant (p < 0.04). Clinical symptoms and positive blood cultures documented bacterial sepsis in the nine children in 1998. In 1999, the blood cultures for sepsis were positive in the four children who died and negative in the six who survived. The nine versus four differences in the incidence of sepsis

  13. The impact of severe burns on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns induce a pathophysiological response that affects almost every physiological system within the body. Inflammation, hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and insulin resistance are all hallmarks of the pathophysiological response to severe burns, with perturbations in metabolism known to persist for several years post injury. Skeletal muscle is the principal depot of lean tissue within the body and as the primary site of peripheral glucose disposal, plays an important role in metabolic regulation. Following a large burn, skeletal muscle functions as and endogenous amino acid store, providing substrates for more pressing functions, such as the synthesis of acute phase proteins and the deposition of new skin. Subsequently, burn patients become cachectic, which is associated with poor outcomes in terms of metabolic health and functional capacity. While a loss of skeletal muscle contractile proteins per se will no doubt negatively impact functional capacity, detriments in skeletal muscle quality, i.e. a loss in mitochondrial number and/or function may be quantitatively just as important. The goal of this review article is to summarise the current understanding of the impact of thermal trauma on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function, to offer direction for future research concerning skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in patients with severe burns, and to renew interest in the role of these organelles in metabolic dysfunction following severe burns.

  14. Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robichaud, P.R.; Lewis, S.A.; Laes, D.Y.M.; Hudak, A.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Zamudio, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after the 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado to assess the application of high resolution imagery for burn severity mapping and to compare it to standard burn severity mapping methods. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation in the burned area. The overall performance of the MTMF for predicting the ground cover components was satisfactory (r2 = 0.21 to 0.48) based on a comparison to fractional ash, soil, and vegetation cover measured on ground validation plots. The relationship between Landsat-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values and the ground data was also evaluated (r2 = 0.20 to 0.58) and found to be comparable to the MTMF. However, the quantitative information provided by the fine-scale hyperspectral imagery makes it possible to more accurately assess the effects of the fire on the soil surface by identifying discrete ground cover characteristics. These surface effects, especially soil and ash cover and the lack of any remaining vegetative cover, directly relate to potential postfire watershed response processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.; Nyman, Petter; Martin, Deborah A.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; McKinley, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire can affect soil hydraulic properties, often resulting in reduced infiltration. The magnitude of change in infiltration varies depending on the burn severity. Quantitative approaches to link burn severity with changes in infiltration are lacking. This study uses controlled laboratory measurements to determine relations between a remotely sensed burn severity metric (dNBR, change in normalised burn ratio) and soil hydraulic properties (SHPs). SHPs were measured on soil cores collected from an area burned by the 2013 Black Forest fire in Colorado, USA. Six sites with the same soil type were selected across a range of burn severities, and 10 random soil cores were collected from each site within a 30-m diameter circle. Cumulative infiltration measurements were made in the laboratory using a tension infiltrometer to determine field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, and sorptivity, S. These measurements were correlated with dNBR for values ranging from 124 (low severity) to 886 (high severity). SHPs were related to dNBR by inverse functions for specific conditions of water repellency (at the time of sampling) and soil texture. Both functions had a threshold value for dNBR between 124 and 420, where Kfs and S were unchanged and equal to values for soil unaffected by fire. For dNBRs >~420, the Kfs was an exponentially decreasing function of dNBR and S was a linearly decreasing function of dNBR. These initial quantitative empirical relations provide a first step to link SHPs to burn severity, and can be used in quantitative infiltration models to predict post-wildfire infiltration and resulting runoff.

  16. A project for monitoring trends in burn severity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Schwind, Brian; Brewer, Ken; Zhu, Zhu-Liang; Quayle, Brad; Howard, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Jeff Eidenshink, Brian Schwind, Ken Brewer, Zhi-Liang Zhu, Brad Quayle, and Elected officials and leaders of environmental agencies need information about the effects of large wildfires in order to set policy and make management decisions. Recently, the Wildland Fire Leadership Council (WFLC), which implements and coordinates the National Fire Plan (NFP) and Federal Wildland Fire Management Policies (National Fire Plan 2004), adopted a strategy to monitor the effectiveness of the National Fire Plan and the Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA). One component of this strategy is to assess the environmental impacts of large wildland fires and identify the trends of burn severity on all lands across the United States. To that end, WFLC has sponsored a six-year project, Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS), which requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess the burn severity for all large current and historical fires. Using Landsat data and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm, the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and USDA-FS Remote Sensing Applications Center will map burn severity of all fires since 1984 greater than 202 ha (500ac) in the east, and 404 ha (1,000 ac) in the west. The number of historical fires from this period combined with current fires occurring during the course of the project will exceed 9,000. The MTBS project will generate burn severity data, maps, and reports, which will be available for use at local, state, and national levels to evaluate trends in burn severity and help develop and assess the effectiveness of land management decisions. Additionally, the information developed will provide a baseline from which to monitor the recovery and health of fire-affected landscapes over time. Spatial and tabular data quantifying burn severity will augment existing information used to estimate risk associated with a range

  17. Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.; Haire, S.L.; Kinner, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the burn severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the burn severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon burned by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage area Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively.

  19. Glucose Variability is Associated With High Mortality After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Glucose Variability is Associated With High Mortality After Severe Burn Heather F. Pidcoke, MD, Sandra M. Wanek, MD, Laura S...Rohleder, John B. Holcomb, MD, Steven E. Wolf, MD, and Charles E. Wade, PhD Background: Hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality in the severely...groups were similar for days of ventilator support, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay. Mortality in the highly variable group was twice that of

  20. 1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Meier, Gretchen; Howard, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Burn severity products created by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project were used to analyse historical trends in burn severity. Using a severity metric calculated by modelling the cumulative distribution of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and Relativized dNBR (RdNBR) data, we examined burn area and burn severity of 4893 historical fires (1984–2010) distributed across the conterminous US (CONUS) and mapped by MTBS. Yearly mean burn severity values (weighted by area), maximum burn severity metric values, mean area of burn, maximum burn area and total burn area were evaluated within 27 US National Vegetation Classification macrogroups. Time series assessments of burned area and severity were performed using Mann–Kendall tests. Burned area and severity varied by vegetation classification, but most vegetation groups showed no detectable change during the 1984–2010 period. Of the 27 analysed vegetation groups, trend analysis revealed burned area increased in eight, and burn severity has increased in seven. This study suggests that burned area and severity, as measured by the severity metric based on dNBR or RdNBR, have not changed substantially for most vegetation groups evaluated within CONUS.

  1. TNF-α/IL-10 Ratio Correlates with Burn Severity and May Serve as a Risk Predictor of Increased Susceptibility to Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumi, Amy; Que, Yok-Ai; Ryan, Colleen M.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes; however, identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma. The patient population consisted of 34 adult patients having early (≤48 h since injury) blood draws following severe (≥20% total burn surface area (TBSA)) burn injury and suffering from a first infection episode at least 1 day after blood collection. Plasma TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured to explore the association between the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, hypersusceptibility to infections, burn size (TBSA), and common severity scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII), Baux, modified Baux (R-Baux), Ryan Score, and Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI)). TNF-α/IL10 plasma ratio measured shortly after burn trauma was inversely correlated with burn size and the injury severity scores investigated, and was predictive of repeated infections (≥3 infection episodes) outcome (AUROC [95%CI] of 0.80 [0.63–0.93]). Early measures of circulating TNF-α/IL10 ratio may be a previously unidentified biomarker associated with burn injury severity and predictive of the risk of hypersusceptibility to repeated infections. PMID:27761434

  2. Microvascular regeneration in meshed skin transplants after severe burns.

    PubMed

    Meier, T O; Guggenheim, M; Vetter, S T; Husmann, M; Haile, S R; Amann-Vesti, B R

    2011-09-01

    Function of the skin lymphatics as well as blood perfusion of a meshed transplant is crucial for the healing. The lymphatic regeneration and arterial perfusion of skin transplants after severe burns of the extremities had been studied in eight patients by microlymphography, laser doppler perfusion imaging and transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements 1, 6 and 18 months after transplantation. One month after transplantation, only fragmented as well as many giant lymphatic skin vessels were present in the transplant. After 6 months a normal lymphatic network had developed in all grafts. The extension of the dye in the lymphatics decreased from 4.5 (0-16) at 1 month to 3.0 (1-6) mm after 18 months, indicating improved lymph drainage capacity. The permeability of the lymphatics in the graft was normal. After 1 month, median laser flux in the transplant was 155.6% (105-246%) of the normal skin but it normalised within 18 months. By contrast, transcutaneous oxygen measurement (TcPO(2)) increased from 44 (21-47) to 55 (50-76) mmHg. In meshed transplants used to cover severely burned skin morphological and functional normal lymphatics develop within 6 months and the initially increased laser flux due to inflammatory reaction normalises. Our results provide important insights into the healing process of skin transplants after burn.

  3. Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: A brief review and suggested usage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent papers have suggested replacing the terminology of fire intensity and fire severity. Part of the problem with fire intensity is that it is sometimes used incorrectly to describe fire effects, when in fact it is justifiably restricted to measures of energy output. Increasingly, the term has created confusion because some authors have restricted its usage to a single measure of energy output referred to as fireline intensity. This metric is most useful in understanding fire behavior in forests, but is too narrow to fully capture the multitude of ways fire energy affects ecosystems. Fire intensity represents the energy released during various phases of a fire, and different metrics such as reaction intensity, fireline intensity, temperature, heating duration and radiant energy are useful for different purposes. Fire severity, and the related term burn severity, have created considerable confusion because of recent changes in their usage. Some authors have justified this by contending that fire severity is defined broadly as ecosystem impacts from fire and thus is open to individual interpretation. However, empirical studies have defined fire severity operationally as the loss of or change in organic matter aboveground and belowground, although the precise metric varies with management needs. Confusion arises because fire or burn severity is sometimes defined so that it also includes ecosystem responses. Ecosystem responses include soil erosion, vegetation regeneration, restoration of community structure, faunal recolonization, and a plethora of related response variables. Although some ecosystem responses are correlated with measures of fire or burn severity, many important ecosystem processes have either not been demonstrated to be predicted by severity indices or have been shown in some vegetation types to be unrelated to severity. This is a critical issue because fire or burn severity are readily measurable parameters, both on the ground and with

  4. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR <60 ml/min. AKI occurred in 38.5% of cases. The occurrence of AKI was associated with: elderly age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.017), overweight and obesity (p=0.055); extent and depth of burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all p<0.001), low blood pressure (p=0.014), and high WBC (p=0.010). Early AKI was detected in 28% of patients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR <60 and early deterioration of renal function, 80% with the initial GFR <60 and late worsening, and 60% with the initial GFR <60 and no worsening. Late AKI was observed in 10% of patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  5. Contamination of burn wounds by Achromobacter Xylosoxidans followed by severe infection: 10-year analysis of a burn unit population

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, A.; Perbix, W.; Fuchs, P.C.; Seyhan, H.; Schiefer, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. Until recently, Achromobacter species were described as sepsis-causing bacteria in immunocompromised patients only. Severe infections associated with Achromobacter species in burn patients have been rarely reported. We retrospectively analyzed all burn patients in our database, who were treated at the Intensive Care Burn Unit (ICBU) of the Cologne Merheim Burn Centre from January 2006 to December 2015, focusing on contamination and infection by Achromobacter species.We identified 20 patients with burns contaminated by Achromobacter species within the 10-year study period. Four of these patients showed signs of infection concomitant with detection of Achromobacter species. Despite receiving complex antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram and resistogram typing, 3 of these patients, who had extensive burns, developed severe sepsis. Two patients ultimately died of multiple organ failure. In 1 case, Achromobacter xylosoxidans was the only isolate detected from the swabs and blood samples taken during the last stage of sepsis. Achromobacter xylosoxidans contamination of wounds of severely burned immunocompromised patients can lead to systemic lethal infection. Close monitoring of burn wounds for contamination by Achromobacter xylosoxidans is essential, and appropriate therapy must be administered as soon as possible. PMID:28149253

  6. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  7. Burn severity estimation using GeoEye imagery, object-based image analysis (OBIA), and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragozi, E.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Minakou, C.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fires greatly influence the stability and functions of the forest ecosystems. The ever increasing need for accurate and detailed information regarding post-fire effects (burn severity) has led to several studies on the matter. In this study the combined use of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data (GeoEye), Objectbased image analysis (OBIA) and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements in estimating burn severity, at two different time points (2011 and 2012) is assessed. The accuracy of the produced maps was assessed and changes in burn severity between the two dates were detected using the post classification comparison approach. It was found that the produced burn severity map for 2011 was approximately 10% more accurate than that of 2012. This was mainly attributed to the increased heterogeneity of the study area in the second year, which led to an increased number of mixed class objects and consequently made it more difficult to spectrally discriminate between the severity classes. Following the post-classification analysis, the severity class changes were mainly attributed to the trees' ability to survive severe fire damage and sprout new leaves. Moreover, the results of the study suggest that when classifying CBI-based burn severity using VHR imagery it would be preferable to use images captured soon after the fire.

  8. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  9. The role of exercise in the rehabilitation of patients with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Hardee, Justin P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Severe burn trauma results in persistent skeletal muscle catabolism and prolonged immobilization. We hypothesize that structured rehabilitative exercise is a safe and efficacious strategy to restore lean body mass and physical function in burn victims. Here, we review the evidence for the utility of rehabilitative exercise training in restoring physiological function in burn survivors.

  10. Determination of Resting Energy Expenditure After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    equation. In a recent survey of 65 burn centers, Graves et al10 discovered that the most commonly used for- mulas include the Harris -Benedict formula11...accuracy by Table 1. Equations for estimating daily energy expenditure for subjects with burns Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure Harris -Benedict...predicted by using nine pre- dictive equations including 30 kcal/kg, 35 kcal/kg, 40 kcal/kg, the Harris -Benedict equation multiplied by an injury factor

  11. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Morisada, S; Nosaka, N; Tsukahara, K; Ugawa, T; Sato, K; Ujike, Y

    2015-09-30

    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive burns (SEB) treated before and after implementation of these new guidelines at this institution. The patients included in this study had a burn index (BI) ≥30 or a prognostic burn index (PBI = BI + patient's age) ≥100. The survival rate of the patients with BI ≥30 was 65.2% with the traditional treatment and 100% with the new guidelines. Likewise, the survival rate of the patients with PBI ≥100 was 61.1% with the traditional treatment compared to 100% with the new guidelines. Together, these data demonstrate that the new treatment guidelines dramatically improved the treatment outcome and survival of SEB patients.

  12. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Mao, Qingxiang; Ma, Yongda; Wang, Li; Chen, Xian; Hu, Yi; Ge, Hengjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P < 0.05). The von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α ) in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  13. Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    versus nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: clinical features, treatment outcomes, and clinical implication of antimicrobial resistance. J...Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients Jason W Bennett, MD, MSPH, Janelle...Significantly higher mortality has been demonstrated in patients who suffer severe burns com- plicated by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. The specific

  14. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn.

  15. L-Band SAR Backscatter Prospects for Burn Severity Estimation in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, Mihai; Santoro, Maurizio; de la Riva, Juan; Kasischke, Eric; Korets, Michael A.

    2010-12-01

    L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been investigated to establish the relationship between backscatter and burn severity in boreal forests. Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) dual polarized images were available for the study of the backscattering coefficient at two locations. Statistical analysis was used to assess the average backscatter coefficient as a function of burn severity level after stratifying the data by local incidence angle. Determination coefficients were used to quantify the relationship between radar data and burn severity estimates. The analysis for a given range of local incidence angle showed that HH and HV polarized backscatter decreases with burn severity for both polarizations when images are acquired under dry environmental conditions. For data acquired under wet conditions HH polarized backscatter increased with burn severity. The higher backscatter of the severely burned areas was explained by the enhanced contribution of the ground component due to higher soil moisture content. Backscatter variation between burned and unburned forest was around 2-3 dB at HH polarization and around 3-6 dB at HV polarization. This study indicates that L- band SAR backscatter trend as a function of burn severity is not significantly different when compared to previously studied mediterranean forests.

  16. Burn Severity Assessment in the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest Using NASA Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, B.; Newcomer, M.; Delgado, D.; Gantenbein, C.; Wang, T.; Prichard, S.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    Fire severity is an increasingly critical issue for forest managers. A long history of fire suppression has led to millions of acres of dry western forests and a buildup of hazardous fuels. Satellite imagery offers a cost- effective and feasible tool for fire severity assessment and can provide near real-time data for mitigation measures. This study focused on the Tripod Complex Fire that burned more than 175,000 acres of the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest in Washington in 2006. Field data were collected in order to calculate the Composite Burn Index (CBI), a ground-based measurement of burn severity which can directly correlate with satellite measurements. These in-situ data were used to calibrate the satellite data from the Landsat TM5 sensor and the MODIS sensor on the NASA TERRA satellite. The satellite data were used to calculate the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and the relative rNBR. These algorithms use the relationship between the near infrared and the shortwave infrared pixel values to quantify burn severity. After comparing these two algorithms, it was determined that there was no significant difference between dNBR and rNBR. Using the burn severity map created with the dNBR data, an analysis was performed to examine the relationship between burn severity and variables such as slope, aspect, and vegetation type. The results showed that there was no relationship between burn severity and any of the variables in the Tripod Complex Fire.

  17. Determining relative contributions of vegetation and topography to burn severity from LANDSAT imagery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

    2013-10-01

    Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (<100 ha, n = 12), moderate (100-1,000 ha, n = 9), and large (>1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography.

  18. Contributions of Severe Burn and Disuse to Bone Structure and Strength in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Baer, L.A.; Wu, X.; Tou, J. C.; Johnson, E.; Wolf, S.E.; Wade, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14 days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by microcomputed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

  19. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... if signs of infection develop. These signs include: Drainage or pus from the burned skin Fever Increased pain Red streaks spreading from the burn Swollen lymph nodes Also call a provider right away if ...

  20. Landsat-Based Detection and Severity Analysis of Burned Sugarcane Plots in Tarlac, Philippines Using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloloy, A. B.; Blanco, A. C.; Gana, B. S.; Sta. Ana, R. C.; Olalia, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    The Philippines has a booming sugarcane industry contributing about PHP 70 billion annually to the local economy through raw sugar, molasses and bioethanol production (SRA, 2012). Sugarcane planters adapt different farm practices in cultivating sugarcane, one of which is cane burning to eliminate unwanted plant material and facilitate easier harvest. Information on burned sugarcane extent is significant in yield estimation models to calculate total sugar lost during harvest. Pre-harvest burning can lessen sucrose by 2.7% - 5% of the potential yield (Gomez, et al 2006; Hiranyavasit, 2016). This study employs a method for detecting burn sugarcane area and determining burn severity through Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) using Landsat 8 Images acquired during the late milling season in Tarlac, Philippines. Total burned area was computed per burn severity based on pre-fire and post-fire images. Results show that 75.38% of the total sugarcane fields in Tarlac were burned with post-fire regrowth; 16.61% were recently burned; and only 8.01% were unburned. The monthly dNBR for February to March generated the largest area with low severity burn (1,436 ha) and high severity burn (31.14 ha) due to pre-harvest burning. Post-fire regrowth is highest in April to May when previously burned areas were already replanted with sugarcane. The maximum dNBR of the entire late milling season (February to May) recorded larger extent of areas with high and low post-fire regrowth compared to areas with low, moderate and high burn severity. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to analyse vegetation dynamics between the burn severity classes. Significant positive correlation, rho = 0.99, was observed between dNBR and dNDVI at 5% level (p = 0.004). An accuracy of 89.03% was calculated for the Landsat-derived NBR validated using actual mill data for crop year 2015-2016.

  1. Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sarah A.; Wu, Joan Q.; Robichaud, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    An important element of evaluating a large wildfire is to assess its effects on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. After the 55 000 ha Hayman Fire on the Colorado Front Range, 24 soil and vegetation variables were measured to determine the key variables that could be used for a rapid field assessment of burn severity. The percentage of exposed mineral soil and litter cover proved to be the best predictors of burn severity in this environment. Two burn severity classifications, one from a statistical classification tree and the other a Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) burn severity map, were compared with measured ground truth burn severity at 183 plots and were 56% and 69% accurate, respectively.This study also compared water repellency measurements made with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test. At the soil surface, the moderate and highly burned sites had the strongest water repellency, yet were not significantly different from each other. Areas burned at moderate severity had 1.5 times more plots that were strongly water repellent at the surface than the areas burned at high severity. However, the high severity plots most likely had a deeper water repellent layer that was not detected with our surface tests. The WDPT and MDI values had an overall correlation of r = -0.64(p < 0.0001) and appeared to be compatible methods for assessing soil water repellency in the field. Both tests represent point measurements of a soil characteristic that has large spatial variability; hence, results from both tests reflect that variability, accounting for much of the remaining variance. The MDI is easier to use, takes about 1 min to assess a strongly water repellent soil and provides two indicators of water repellency: the time to start of infiltration and a relative infiltration rate.

  2. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  3. Temperature responses in severely burned children during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    The authors have previously described thermoregulatory responses of severely burned children during submaximal exercise in a thermoneutral environment. However, the thermoregulatory response of burned children to exercise in the heat is not well understood and could have important safety implications for rehabilitation. Children (n = 10) with >40% TBSA burns and nonburned children (n = 10) performed a 30-minute bout of treadmill exercise at 75% of their peak aerobic power in a heated environment. Intestinal temperature, burned and unburned skin temperature, and heart rate were recorded pre-exercise, every 2 minutes during exercise, and during recovery. Three of the 10 burned children completed the exercise bout in the heat; however, all the nonburned children completed the 30-minute bout. One burned child reached a core body temperature >39 degrees C at minute 23. Burned children had significantly higher core body temperature through the first 12 minutes of exercise compared with nonburned children. However, nine of 10 (90%) burned children did not become hyperthermic during exercise in the heat. Specific to this study, hyperthermia did not typically occur in burned children, relative to nonburned children. Whether this is due to an intolerance to exercise in the heat or to an inability to generate sufficient heat during exercise needs to be explored further.

  4. M2b monocytes predominated in peripheral blood of severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Jeschke, Marc G; Shigematsu, Kenji; Asai, Akira; Yoshida, Shohei; Herndon, David N; Suzuki, Fujio

    2010-12-15

    Severely burned patients were shown to be carriers of M2 monocytes, and all of the monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of severely burned patients (19 of 19 patients) were demonstrated as M2b monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(+)CCL1(+) monocytes). Low levels of M2a (IL-12(-)IL-10(+)CCL17(+) monocytes) and M2c monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(+)CXCL13(+) monocytes) were demonstrated in peripheral blood of severely burned patients (M2a, 2 of 19 patients; M2c, 5 of 19 patients). M2b, M2a, and M2c monocytes were not detected in peripheral blood of healthy donors. However, M2b monocytes appeared when healthy donor monocytes were cultured in media supplemented with burn patient serum (15%). CCL2 was detected in sera of all burn patients, and M2b monocytes were not generated from healthy donor monocytes cultured with media containing 15% burn patient sera that were previously treated with anti-CCL2 mAb. In addition, M2b monocytes were generated from healthy donor monocytes in cultures supplemented with rCCL2. These results indicate that M2b monocytes are predominant in peripheral blood of severely burned patients who are carriers of CCL2 that functions to stimulate monocyte conversion from resident monocytes to M2b monocytes.

  5. AmeriFlux US-An1 Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hobbie, John [Marine Biological Laboratory; Rocha, Adrian [Marine Biological Laboratory; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-An1 Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn. Site Description - The Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska started on July 16, 2007 by lightning. It continued until the end of September when nearby lakes had already frozen over and burned >256,000 acres, creating a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. The Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn, Moderate Burn, and Unburned sites are 40 km to the west of the nearest road and were selected in late May 2008 to determine the effects of the fire on carbon, water, and energy exchanges during the growing season. Because the fire had burned through September of the previous year, initial deployment of flux towers occurred prior to any significant vegetative regrowth, and our sampling campaign captured the full growing season in 2008. The Severe Burn site consisted of a large area in which all of the green vegetation were consumed in the fire and some of the organic matter had burnt to the mineral soil in many places. A bear damaged the tower during the last week of August 2008, and it was repaired shortly after.

  6. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype predicts pain severity in hospitalized burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Orrey, Danielle C.; Bortsov, Andrey V.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Jones, Samuel W.; Cicuto, Bryan J.; Hwang, James; Jordan, Marion H.; Holmes, James H.; Haith, Linwood R.; Roane, Brandon M.; Diatchenko, Luda; Cairns, Bruce A.; McLean, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that stress system activation after burn injury may contribute to burn-related pain. If this is the case, then genetic variations influencing the function of important stress system components, such as the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), may predict pain severity after thermal burn injury. Methods We evaluated the association between COMT genotype and pain intensity in 57 individuals hospitalized after thermal burn injury. Consenting participants at four burn centers were genotyped and completed daily 0-10 numeric rating scale pain assessments on two consecutive days including evaluation of waking, least, and worst pain. The association between COMT genotype and individual pain outcomes was calculated using a linear mixed model adjusting for sociodemographic and burn injury characteristics. Results Overall pain (combination of least, worst, and waking pain scores) was significantly higher in patients with a COMT pain vulnerable genotype (6.3 (.4) vs. 5.4 (.4), p=.037). Individuals with a COMT pain vulnerable genotype also had significantly higher “least pain” scores (3.8 (.5) vs. 2.6 (.4), p=.017) and significantly higher pain on awakening (6.8 (.5) vs. 5.3 (.4), p=.004). Differences in worst pain according to genotype group were not significant. COMT pain vulnerable genotype was a stronger predictor of overall pain severity than burn size, burn depth, or time from admission to pain interview assessment. Conclusions These findings suggest that genetic factors influencing stress system function may have an important influence on pain severity after burn injury. Further studies of genetic predictors of pain after burn injury are needed. PMID:22210062

  7. Vegetation burn severity mapping using Landsat-8 and WorldView-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Middleton, Barry R.; Hetzler, Robert; Vogel, John M.; Dye, Dennis G.

    2015-01-01

    We used remotely sensed data from the Landsat-8 and WorldView-2 satellites to estimate vegetation burn severity of the Creek Fire on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, where wildfire occurrences affect the Tribe's crucial livestock and logging industries. Accurate pre- and post-fire canopy maps at high (0.5-meter) resolution were created from World- View-2 data to generate canopy loss maps, and multiple indices from pre- and post-fire Landsat-8 images were used to evaluate vegetation burn severity. Normalized difference vegetation index based vegetation burn severity map had the highest correlation coefficients with canopy loss map from WorldView-2. Two distinct approaches - canopy loss mapping from WorldView-2 and spectral index differencing from Landsat-8 - agreed well with the field-based burn severity estimates and are both effective for vegetation burn severity mapping. Canopy loss maps created with WorldView-2 imagery add to a short list of accurate vegetation burn severity mapping techniques that can help guide effective management of forest resources on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, and the broader fire-prone regions of the Southwest.

  8. [The intermingled transplantation used in severe burn patients after eschar excision].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhen-jiang

    2008-10-01

    In the early developing stage of burn surgery, severe burn patients with large and deep burn wound often died of complications because of shortage of auto-skin. The method of intermingled transplantation composed of a large sheet of partial thickness allo-skin with punched holes for in laying small pieces of partial thickness auto-skin was first advocated by Chinese doctors (Ruijin Hospital) in 1960's. This intermingled transplantation method has saved many severe burn patients with extensive full-thickness burn wound. The mortality rate of severe burn patients has decreased and the survival rate has increased remarkably since the intermingled transplantation treatment method used in the burn units. In this paper we review the process of formation of intermingled transplantation and the mechanisms of success of this Chinese method in repairing the large wound surface area after eschar excision. We will focus our discussion on the low systemic immunological reaction, the effect of auto-skin islet, local immunological tolerance induced by in layed auto skin, the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells and the effects of some cytokines such as IL-10 in local immunological tolerance and etc. after intermingled transplantation.

  9. Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.

  10. SENTINEL-2A red-edge spectral indices suitability for discriminating burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, Alfonso; Fernández-Manso, Oscar; Quintano, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fires are a problematic and recurrent issue in Mediterranean ecosystems. Accurate discrimination between burn severity levels is essential for the rehabilitation planning of burned areas. Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) record data in three red-edge wavelengths, spectral domain especially useful on agriculture and vegetation applications. Our objective is to find out whether Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge wavelengths are suitable for burn severity discrimination. As study area, we used the 2015 Sierra Gata wildfire (Spain) that burned approximately 80 km2. A Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS)-grading map with four burn severity levels was considered as reference truth. Cox and Snell, Nagelkerke and McFadde pseudo-R2 statistics obtained by Multinomial Logistic Regression showed the superiority of red-edge spectral indices (particularly, Modified Simple Ratio Red-edge, Chlorophyll Index Red-edge, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Red-edge) over conventional spectral indices. Fisher's Least Significant Difference test confirmed that Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge spectral indices are adequate to discriminate four burn severity levels.

  11. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Balice, Randy G.; Bennett, Kathryn D.; Wright, Marjorie A.

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  12. [Preclinical treatment of severe burn trauma due to an electric arc on an overhead railway cable].

    PubMed

    Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A; Hinkelbein, J

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns due to electrical accidents occur rarely in Germany but represent a challenge for emergency physicians and their team. Apart from extensive burns cardiac arrhythmia, neurological damage caused by electric current and osseous injury corresponding to the trauma mechanism are also common. It is important to perform a survey of the pattern of injuries and treat acute life-threatening conditions immediately in the field. Furthermore, specific conditions related to burns must be considered, e.g. fluid resuscitation, thermal management and analgesia. In addition, a correct strategy for further medical care in an appropriate hospital is essential. Exemplified by this case guidelines for the treatment of severe burns and typical pitfalls are presented.

  13. Circulating Microvesicles Are Elevated Acutely following Major Burns Injury and Associated with Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Tirlapur, Nikhil; Katbeh, Umar; Singh, Suveer; Handy, Jonathan M.; Takata, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Microvesicles are cell-derived signaling particles emerging as important mediators and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, but their production in severe burn injury patients has not been described. In this pilot investigation, we measured circulating microvesicle levels following severe burns, with severe sepsis patients as a comparator group. We hypothesized that levels of circulating vascular cell-derived microvesicles are elevated acutely following burns injury, mirroring clinical severity due to the early onset and prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in these patients. Blood samples were obtained from patients with moderate to severe thermal injury burns, with severe sepsis, and from healthy volunteers. Circulating microvesicles derived from total leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells were quantified in plasma by flow cytometry. All circulating microvesicle subpopulations were elevated in burns patients on day of admission (day 0) compared to healthy volunteers (leukocyte-microvesicles: 3.5-fold, p = 0.005; granulocyte-microvesicles: 12.8-fold, p<0.0001; monocyte-microvesicles: 20.4-fold, p<0.0001; endothelial- microvesicles: 9.6-fold, p = 0.01), but decreased significantly by day 2. Microvesicle levels were increased with severe sepsis, but less consistently between patients. Leukocyte- and granulocyte-derived microvesicles on day 0 correlated with clinical assessment scores and were higher in burns ICU non-survivors compared to survivors (leukocyte MVs 4.6 fold, p = 0.002; granulocyte MVs 4.8 fold, p = 0.003). Mortality prediction analysis of area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 (p = 0.01) for total leukocyte microvesicles and 0.85 (p = 0.04) for granulocyte microvesicles. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, acute increases in circulating microvesicles following burns injury in patients and point to their potential role in propagation of sterile SIRS-related pathophysiology

  14. Mapping burn severity in a disease-impacted forest landscape using Landsat and MASTER imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-08-01

    Global environmental change has increased forest vulnerability to the occurrence of interacting disturbances, including wildfires and invasive diseases. Mapping post-fire burn severity in a disease-affected forest often faces challenges because burned and infested trees may exhibit a high similarity in spectral reflectance. In this study, we combined (pre- and post-fire) Landsat imagery and (post-fire) high-spectral resolution airborne MASTER data [MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer)/ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer)] to map burn severity in a California coastal forest environment, where a non-native forest disease sudden oak death (SOD) was causing substantial tree mortality. Results showed that the use of Landsat plus MASTER bundle performed better than using the individual sensors in most of the evaluated forest strata from ground to canopy layers (i.e., substrate, shrubs, intermediate-sized trees, dominant trees and average), with the best model performance achieved at the dominant tree layer. The mid to thermal infrared spectral bands (3.0-12.5 μm) from MASTER were found to augment Landsat's visible to shortwave infrared bands in burn severity assessment. We also found that infested and uninfested forests similarly experienced moderate to high degrees of burns where CBI (composite burn index) values were higher than 1. However, differences occurred in the regions with low burn severity (CBI values lower than 1), where uninfested stands revealed a much lower burn effect than that in infested stands, possibly due to their higher resilience to small fire disturbances as a result of higher leaf water content.

  15. Burn severity and non-native species in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczynski, Kristen M.; Beatty, Susan W.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Marshall, Kristin N.

    2011-01-01

    We examined non-native species density three years after the Tuolumne Fire, which burned 1540 ha in upper montane forest in California, USA. We sampled 60 plots, stratified by burn severity (low, moderate, or high severity) and landscape position (lowland or upland). We detected non-native species in 8 of 11 (73 %) of high severity lowland sites and in 5 of 10 (50 %) of moderate severity lowland sites but, overall, richness and abundance was low. We detected only five non-native species, of which bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare [Savi] Ten.) was the most common. Although non-native abundance is currently low, we recommend continued low intensity monitoring, especially on high severity burned lowland sites.

  16. Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 anaktuvuk river tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.; Kolden, C.; Jandt, R.; Abatzoglou, J.; Urban, F.; Arp, C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high summer temperature and record low summer precipitation, a late-season high-pressure system located over the Beaufort Sea, extremely dry soil conditions throughout the summer, and sustained southerly winds during the period of vegetation senescence. Burn severity mapping revealed that more than 80% of the ARF burned at moderate to extreme severity, while the nearby Kuparuk River Fire remained small and burned at predominantly (80%) low severity. While this study provides information that may aid in the prediction of future large tundra fires in northern Alaska, the fact that three other tundra fires that occurred in 2007 combined to burn less than 1000 ha suggests site specific complexities associated with tundra fires on the North Slope, which may hamper the development of tundra fire forecasting models.

  17. Melatonin prevents acute kidney injury in severely burned rats via the activation of SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Zhi; He, Ting; Gao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Han, Shi-Chao; Li, Yan; Shi, Ji-Hong; Han, Jun-Tao; Tao, Ke; Xie, Song-Tao; Wang, Hong-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after severe burns. Melatonin has been reported to protect against multiple organ injuries by increasing the expression of SIRT1, a silent information regulator that regulates stress responses, inflammation, cellular senescence and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on renal tissues of burned rats and the role of SIRT1 involving the effects. Rat severely burned model was established, with or without the administration of melatonin and SIRT1 inhibitor. The renal function and histological manifestations were determined to evaluate the severity of kidney injury. The levels of acetylated-p53 (Ac-p53), acetylated-p65 (Ac-p65), NF-κB, acetylated-forkhead box O1 (Ac-FoxO1), Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed to study the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggested that severe burns could induce acute kidney injury, which could be partially reversed by melatonin. Melatonin attenuated oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis accompanied by the increased expression of SIRT1. The protective effects of melatonin were abrogated by the inhibition of SIRT1. In conclusion, we demonstrate that melatonin improves severe burn-induced AKI via the activation of SIRT1 signaling. PMID:27599451

  18. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock, and even death. They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of the ...

  19. Prognostic significance of early cardiac index measurements in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Gueugniaud, P Y; Bertin-Maghit, M; Bouchard, C; Vilasco, B; Petit, P

    1994-12-01

    Invasive monitoring during early resuscitation was performed. To compare the heamodynamic results of severely burned patients, the results of 38 patients hospitalized between 1988 and 1991 in the burn centre of Lyon were retrospectively reviewed. Survivors and non-Survivors' data were compared. No difference existed between the two groups in age, unit burn score, fluid requirement and dose of dobutamine. Survivors had a significantly higher cardiac index, O2 delivery and systolic blood pressure index than non-survivors. It is suggested that the ability to sustain a high cardiac index in response to the burn injury plays a role in the outcome of the patients. There is an indication that dobutamine could have a beneficial effect in this way. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of the maintenance of high cardiac index levels by the pressors.

  20. Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury.

  1. Long-term effects of burn severity on non-native plant cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of burn severity on non-native plant invasion post-fire is of great concern to managers and researchers, especially given predicted increases in large, high severity fires. However, little else is known about long-term (>10 year) vegetation recovery and non-native plant persistence. We anal...

  2. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2015-09-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  3. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the composite burn index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire vegetation type. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  4. Optimizing burn severity assessments in Alaskan tussock tundra from optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Jenkins, L. K.; French, N. H.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade Alaskan tundra has experienced an increase in fire occurrence prompting rising concerns in the scientific community. Fire occurrence in tundra ecosystems has the potential to release a large amount of organic carbon stored in the deep organic layer, modify soil moisture and respiration, and make more organic matter available for decomposition and future burning through impacts on the active depth layer. Monitoring and characterization of fire occurrence and impacts in extensive, remote, and largely inaccessible tundra regions rely on satellite observations of land surface and require robust approaches to burn severity measurements. The relatively low fire activity in tundra regions between 1950 and 2000 has resulted in overall lack of understanding of fire impacts on tundra landscapes outside the Seward Peninsula where tundra fire record is better known. Thus satellite-based mapping of burn severity is limited by the lack of quantified knowledge of fire-induced physical changes on the landscape on the one hand and the capabilities of optical remote sensing systems to capture those characteristics on the other. Here we present an analysis of satellite mapping of burn severity using multi-date Landsat imagery and two field-based measurements of burn severity - the operationally applied Composite Burn Index (CBI) and the more simplistic Burn Severity Index (BSI), also known as the Burn Severity Code Matrix. The BSI used here is a four-point scale (unburned, low, moderate, severe) assessed for the surface substrate and vegetation layers. The BSI and CBI used to compare to the remote sensing data were determined from the field data by converting the qualitative fractional assessment of burn severity within 10 x 10 m plots to a single value. Since both indices represent mostly ocular assessment of the fire-impacted surface, they can relate well to Landsat's optical sensors measurements. The analysis shows that overall satellite indices have closer

  5. Thrombocytopenia induces multiple intracranial hemorrhages in patients with severe burns: A review of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIANDA; LIU, JINYAN; LUO, CHENGQUN; HU, FENG; LIU, RUI; CHEN, ZIZI; CHEN, YAO; XIONG, WU; XIE, JIANFEI; HE, QUANYONG; YIN, CHAOQI; WANG, SHAOHUA; ZHANG, YANWEN; ZENG, SAINAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment. PMID:23935750

  6. Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Ferree, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the

  7. Quality of life and predictors of long-term outcome after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Schulze, Julian; Seehausen, Annika; Weiler, Matthias; Wind, Gerhard; Hartmann, Bernd; Germann, Günter; Liedl, Alexandra

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the long-term quality of life after severe burn injury. In a prospective longitudinal design, N = 265 burn patients were examined 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after burn injury. A multilevel approach was used to measure stability and change in self-reported health status. Besides injury-related variables, self-report instruments included measures of quality of life, psychological distress, personality, and specific burn outcome measures. Fitting of unconditional growth models indicated that there was significant intra- and inter-individual variation in self-reported physical and mental health short form-12. Over the course of 3 years, participants reported on average a slight improvement of physical quality of life. Physical health was mainly predicted by mobility and level of burn severity. Variance in mental health status was mainly predicted by gender, mobility, neuroticism, level of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related avoidance. Thus mobility (i.e., simple abilities) seems a crucial variable for overall quality of life. An early identification and treatment of patients with high levels of depression and PTSD-related avoidance may contribute to better mental health.

  8. The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Herrick RE, Baldwin KM. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension. J Appl Physiol 1987;63(5):2122–2127. [PubMed...physical activity also shows advantages in enhancing and improving recovery from muscle catabolism after severe burn [49]. Similarly, both anabolic

  9. The management of pain associated with wound care in severe burn patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Antonio; Santoyo, Fernando L; Agulló, Alberto; Fenández-Cañamaque, José L; Vivó, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the management of pain prevention associated with burn care. Methods: Multi-centre, observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study performed in 4 burn units in Spain. Results: A total of 55 patients undergoing 64 procedures were analysed. Burns were classified as severe (90.4%), third-degree (78.2%) and caused by thermal agents (81.8%). Background analgesia consisted of non-opioid drugs (87.5%) and opioids (54.7%) [morphine (20.3%), morphine and fentanyl (14.1%) or fentanyl monotherapy (15.6%)]. Burn care was performed by experienced nurses (96.9%); 36.5% followed guidelines. The mean duration of procedures was 44 minutes (Statistical Deviation, SD: 20.2) and the mean duration of pain was 27 minutes (SD: 44.6). Procedural pain was primarily managed with opioid analgesics: fentanyl monotherapy and in combination (84%) and fentanyl monotherapy (48%) administered sublingually (89.1%). Patients described pain as different to usual baseline pain (97%), with a mean maximum intensity score of 4.2 points (SD: 3.3) on the VAS scale and a 34% increase in the intensity of pain. The mean patient and healthcare professional satisfaction score per procedure was 6/10 (SD: 1.9) and 5.5/10 (SD: 1.7), respectively. Conclusion: The results of the study describe the management of pain associated with burn care in clinical practice, helping optimise pain control. PMID:27069760

  10. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  11. Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

  12. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  13. [Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 2: the basics in definite care].

    PubMed

    Deisz, Robert; Kauczok, Jens; Dembinski, Rolf; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial stabilization of the burn victim during the first 24 hours (Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 1: the first 24 ours, AINS 9/12) is followed by a long lasting reconstructive period. During this time calculated fluid replacement to compensate evaporative losses by large bourn wounds is as essential as reconstruction of the integrity of the skin and the modulation of metabolic consequences following severe burn injury. Special attention has to be paid to local and systemic infections.

  14. [Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 1: the first 24 ours].

    PubMed

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kauczok, Jens; Deisz, Robert; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot

    2012-09-01

    Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial wound care comprises topical treatment of less severely injured skin and surgical debridement of severely burned areas. The first 24 hours of intensive care are focused on calculated fluid delivery to provide stable hemodynamics and avoid progression of local edema formation. In the further course wound treatment with split-thickness skin grafts is the major aim of surgical therapy. Critical care is focused on the avoidance of complications like infections and ventilator associated lung injury. Therefore, lung-protective ventilation strategies, weaning and sedation protocols, and early enteral nutrition are important cornerstones of the treatment.

  15. Effects of Exercise on Soleus in Severe Burn and Muscle Disuse Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; DeSpain, Kevin; Liu, Ming-Mei; Carlson, Brett A.; Song, Juquan; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Wolf, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Muscle loss is a sequela of severe burn and critical illness with bed rest contributing significantly to atrophy. We hypothesize that exercise will mitigate muscle loss after burn with bed rest. Materials and Methods Male rats were assigned to sham ambulatory (S/A), burn ambulatory (B/A), sham hindlimb unloading (S/H), or burn hindlimb unloading (B/H). Rats received a 40% scald burn or sham and were ambulatory or placed in hindlimb unloading, a model of bed rest. Half performed twice-daily resistance climbing. Hindlimb isometric forces were measured on day 14. Results Soleus mass and muscle function were not affected by burn alone. Mass was significantly lower in hindlimb unloading (79 vs.139 mg, p<0.001) and no exercise (103 vs.115 mg, p<0.01). Exercise significantly increased soleus mass in B/H (86 vs. 77mg, p<0.01). Hindlimb unloading significantly decreased muscle force in the twitch (31 vs. 12g, p<0.001), tetanic (55 vs. 148 g, p<0.001), and specific tetanic measurements (12 vs. 22 N/cm2, p<0.001). Effects of exercise on force depended on other factors. In B/H, exercise significantly increased twitch (14 vs. 8 g, p<0.05) and specific tetanic force (14 vs. 7 N/cm2, p<0.01). Fatigue index was lower in ambulatory (55%) and exercise (52%) versus hindlimb (69%, p=0.03) and no exercise (73%, p=0.002). Conclusions Hindlimb unloading is a significant factor in muscle atrophy. Exercise increased the soleus muscle mass, twitch, and specific force in this model. However, the fatigue index decreased with exercise in all groups. This suggests exercise contributes to functional muscle change in this model of disuse and critical illness. PMID:26104324

  16. Impact of Stress-Induced Diabetes on Outcomes in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Ali, Arham; McClean, Josef; Benjamin, Nicole; Clayton, Robert P.; Andersen, Clark R.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.; Meyer, Walter; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60-110mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80-160mg/dL following elevations above 180mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into two groups – patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n=145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98) to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0-18 years old with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. Endpoints included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure (REE), lean body mass, bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent with older children requiring more insulin, p<0.05. Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6am,glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group, p<0.05. Insulin significantly increased REE and improved BMC, p<0.05. Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia, p=0.004. There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p<0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p<0.05). Conclusions A subset of severely burned children develops burn-induced hyperglycemia. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted BMC and muscle strength, but increased REE, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies may be needed. PMID:24655871

  17. Absence of exertional hyperthermia in a 17-year-old boy with severe burns.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Lee, Jong O; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2009-01-01

    An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia=body core temperature>39 degrees C) during exercise. We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31 degrees C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17-year-old boy with a 99% TBSA burn. A 30-minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured before, during, and postexercise. The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30-minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 degrees C and increased 0.69 degrees C during exercise. After exercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature; however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low-fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he was forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia.

  18. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

  19. [Psychiatric sequelae of severe burn injuries: emotional distress and resources of occupationally versus non occupationally insured patients 1 year after burn injury].

    PubMed

    Ripper, S; Stolle, A; Seehausen, A; Klinkenberg, M; Germann, G; Hartmann, B; Renneberg, B

    2010-11-01

    Severe burn injuries are traumatic events and can have serious impact on all areas of life frequently causing high emotional distress. In a multicentre study resources and emotional distress of patients with serious burn injuries were assessed during the first hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Patients with severe burn injuries after accidents in a private environment (NBG patients) and patients after occupational accidents covered by the German Social Accident Insurance (BG patients) were compared. All patients reported marked emotional impairment, particularly during the hospitalization. At follow-up a reduction of emotional distress was detected. Nearly half of the patients received a diagnosis of one or more mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. When treating patients with burns, special attention should be given to their mental health. They should be offered psychological support to cope with the aftermath of the accident, especially after discharge from hospital when returning to their normal surroundings.

  20. Thoracic Duct Chylous Fistula Following Severe Electric Injury Combined with Sulfuric Acid Burns: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fei; Cheng, Dasheng; Qian, Mingyuan; Lu, Wei; Li, Huatao; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2016-10-11

    BACKGROUND As patients with thoracic duct injuries often suffer from severe local soft tissue defects, integrated surgical treatment is needed to achieve damage repair and wound closure. However, thoracic duct chylous fistula is rare in burn patients, although it typically involves severe soft tissue damage in the neck or chest. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient fell after accidentally contacting an electric current (380 V) and knocked over a barrel of sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid continuously poured onto his left neck and chest, causing combined electrical and sulfuric acid burn injuries to his anterior and posterior torso, and various parts of his limbs (25% of his total body surface area). During treatment, chylous fistula developed in the left clavicular region, which we diagnosed as thoracic duct chylous fistula. We used diet control, intravenous nutritional support, and continuous somatostatin to reduce the chylous fistula output, and hydrophilic silver ion-containing dressings for wound coverage. A boneless muscle flap was used to seal the left clavicular cavity, and, integrated, these led to resolution of the chylous fistula. CONCLUSIONS Patients with severe electric or chemical burns in the neck or chest may be complicated with thoracic duct injuries. Although conservative treatment can control chylous fistula, wound cavity filling using a muscle flap is an effective approach for wound healing.

  1. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Haitao, L.; Dajun, Y.; Kaifa, W.; Xiuwu, B.; Jiansen, S.; Zongchen, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn. PMID:21990986

  2. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs.

    PubMed

    Haitao, L; Dajun, Y; Kaifa, W; Xiuwu, B; Jiansen, S; Zongchen, Y

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn.

  3. The impact of non-severe burn injury on cardiac function and long-term cardiovascular pathology

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Emily; Shah, Amit; Dembo, Lawrence; Hool, Livia; Viola, Helena; Grey, Christine; Boyd, James; O’Neill, Tomas; Wood, Fiona; Duke, Janine; Fear, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injury significantly affects cardiovascular function for up to 3 years. However, whether this leads to long-term pathology is unknown. The impact of non-severe burn injury, which accounts for over 80% of admissions in developed countries, has not been investigated. Using a rodent model of non-severe burn injury with subsequent echocardiography we showed significantly increased left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and ventricular wall thickness at up to 3 months post-injury. Use of propranolol abrogated the changes in cardiac measures observed. Subsequently we investigated changes in a patient cohort with non-severe injury. Echocardiography measured at baseline and at 3 months post-injury showed increased LVESD at 3 months and significantly decreased posterior wall diameter. Finally, 32 years of Western Australian hospital records were used to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease admissions after burn injury. People who had experienced a burn had increased hospital admissions and length of stay for cardiovascular diseases when compared to a matched uninjured cohort. This study presents animal, patient and population data that strongly suggest non-severe burn injury has significant effects on cardiovascular function and long-term morbidity in some burn patients. Identification of patients at risk will promote better intervention and outcomes for burn patients. PMID:27694999

  4. The impact of non-severe burn injury on cardiac function and long-term cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Emily; Shah, Amit; Dembo, Lawrence; Hool, Livia; Viola, Helena; Grey, Christine; Boyd, James; O'Neill, Tomas; Wood, Fiona; Duke, Janine; Fear, Mark

    2016-10-03

    Severe burn injury significantly affects cardiovascular function for up to 3 years. However, whether this leads to long-term pathology is unknown. The impact of non-severe burn injury, which accounts for over 80% of admissions in developed countries, has not been investigated. Using a rodent model of non-severe burn injury with subsequent echocardiography we showed significantly increased left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and ventricular wall thickness at up to 3 months post-injury. Use of propranolol abrogated the changes in cardiac measures observed. Subsequently we investigated changes in a patient cohort with non-severe injury. Echocardiography measured at baseline and at 3 months post-injury showed increased LVESD at 3 months and significantly decreased posterior wall diameter. Finally, 32 years of Western Australian hospital records were used to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease admissions after burn injury. People who had experienced a burn had increased hospital admissions and length of stay for cardiovascular diseases when compared to a matched uninjured cohort. This study presents animal, patient and population data that strongly suggest non-severe burn injury has significant effects on cardiovascular function and long-term morbidity in some burn patients. Identification of patients at risk will promote better intervention and outcomes for burn patients.

  5. Mapping burn severity, pine beetle infestation, and their interaction at the High Park Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Brandon

    North America's western forests are experiencing wildfire and mountain pine beetle (MPB) disturbances that are unprecedented in the historic record, but it remains unclear whether and how MPB infestation influences post-infestation fire behavior. The 2012 High Park Fire burned in an area that's estimated to have begun a MPB outbreak cycle within five years before the wildfire, resulting in a landscape in which disturbance interactions can be studied. A first step in studying these interactions is mapping regions of beetle infestation and post-fire disturbance. We implemented an approach for mapping beetle infestation and burn severity using as source data three 5 m resolution RapidEye satellite images (two pre-fire, one post-fire). A two-tiered methodology was developed to overcome the spatial limitations of many classification approaches through explicit analyses at both pixel and plot level. Major land cover classes were photo-interpreted at the plot-level and their spectral signature used to classify 5 m images. A new image was generated at 25 m resolution by tabulating the fraction of coincident 5 m pixels in each cover class. The original photo interpretation was then used to train a second classification using as its source image the new 25 m image. Maps were validated using k-fold analysis of the original photo interpretation, field data collected immediately post-fire, and publicly available classifications. To investigate the influence of pre-fire beetle infestation on burn severity within the High Park Fire, we fit a log-linear model of conditional independence to our thematic maps after controlling for forest cover class and slope aspect. Our analysis revealed a high co-occurrence of severe burning and beetle infestation within high elevation lodgepole pine stands, but did not find statistically significant evidence that infected stands were more likely to burn severely than similar uninfected stands. Through an inspection of the year-to-year changes in

  6. Severe burn and disuse in the rat independently adversely impact body composition and adipokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Methods Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) sham hindlimb unloaded (SH), 3) 40% total body surface area full thickness scald burn ambulatory (BA) and 4) burn and hindlimb unloaded (BH). Animals designated to the SH and BH groups were placed in a tail traction system and their hindlimbs unloaded. Animals were followed for 14 days. Plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples were analyzed. Results SA had a progressive increase in body mass (BM), SH and BA no change and BH a reduction. Compared to SA, BM was reduced by 10% in both SH and BA and by 17% when combined in BH. Compared to SA, all groups had reductions in lean and fat body mass with BH being greater. The decrease in lean mass was associated with the rate of urinary corticosterone excretion. The loss in fat mass was associated with decreases in plasma leptin and adiponectin and an increase in ghrelin. Following the acute response to injury, BH had a greater food intake per 100 g BM. Food intake was associated with the levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. Conclusions The effects of the combination of burn and disuse in this animal model were additive, therefore in assessing metabolic changes with severe trauma both injury and disuse should be considered. Furthermore, the observed changes in adipokines, corticosterone and ghrelin provide insights for interventions to attenuate the hypermetabolic state following injury, possibly reducing catabolism and muscle loss and subsequent adverse effects on recovery and function. PMID:24099533

  7. Normalized burn ratios link fire severity with patterns of avian occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Klein, Rob; McKerrow, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    ContextRemotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratios (DNBR) provide an index of fire severity across the footprint of a fire. We asked whether this index was useful for explaining patterns of bird occurrence within fire adapted xeric pine-oak forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.ObjectivesWe evaluated the use of DNBR indices for linking ecosystem process with patterns of bird occurrence. We compared field-based and remotely sensed fire severity indices and used each to develop occupancy models for six bird species to identify patterns of bird occurrence following fire.MethodsWe identified and sampled 228 points within fires that recently burned within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We performed avian point counts and field-assessed fire severity at each bird census point. We also used Landsat™ imagery acquired before and after each fire to quantify fire severity using DNBR. We used non-parametric methods to quantify agreement between fire severity indices, and evaluated single season occupancy models incorporating fire severity summarized at different spatial scales.ResultsAgreement between field-derived and remotely sensed measures of fire severity was influenced by vegetation type. Although occurrence models using field-derived indices of fire severity outperformed those using DNBR, summarizing DNBR at multiple spatial scales provided additional insights into patterns of occurrence associated with different sized patches of high severity fire.ConclusionsDNBR is useful for linking the effects of fire severity to patterns of bird occurrence, and informing how high severity fire shapes patterns of bird species occurrence on the landscape.

  8. [A propose to suspend the use of hydroxyethyl starch for fluid resuscitation in shock phase of severe burns].

    PubMed

    Luo, Gao-xing; Peng, Yi-zhi; Wu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Based on the result of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis recently, the infusion of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) was not shown to over match routine crystalline solution in exerting resuscitation effect against hypovolemia of patients with burn shock, severe systematic infection, or other critical conditions, on the other hand, it may induce renal toxicity and other toxic and side effects. Since the pathological mechanism underlying hypovolemia during shock phase after burn is similar to that of severe systemic infection, we propose to suspend the use of HES for fluid resuscitation during the shock phase of severe burn until further elucidation.

  9. Early fluid resuscitation with hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (10%) in severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Despite large experience in the management of severe burn injury, there are still controversies regarding the best type of fluid resuscitation, especially during the first 24 hours after the trauma. Therefore, our study addressed the question whether hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 200/0.5 (10%) administered in combination with crystalloids within the first 24 hours after injury is as effective as 'crystalloids only' in severe burn injury patients. Methods 30 consecutive patients were enrolled to this prospective interventional open label study and assigned either to a traditional 'crystalloids only' or to a 'HES 200/0.5 (10%)' volume resuscitation protocol. Total amount of fluid administration, complications such as pulmonary failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, sepsis, renal failure and overall mortality were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for binary outcomes and adjustment for potential confounders was done in the multivariate regression models. For continuous outcome parameters multiple linear regression analysis was used. Results Group differences between patients receiving crystalloids only or HES 200/0.5 (10%) were not statistically significant. However, a large effect towards increased overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 7.12; P = 0.16) in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group as compared to the crystalloids only group (43.8% versus 14.3%) was present. Similarly, the incidence of renal failure was 25.0% in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group versus 7.1% in the crystalloid only group (adjusted hazard ratio 6.16; P = 0.42). Conclusions This small study indicates that the application of hyperoncotic HES 200/0.5 (10%) within the first 24 hours after severe burn injury may be associated with fatal outcome and should therefore be used with caution. Trial registration NCT01120730. PMID:20584291

  10. Clinical Trial of Imipenem/Cilastatin in Severely Burned and Infected Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    parainfluenzae ventricular F contractions (slight) for one day 7 ...... 43.0 Positive Broncho- Proteus vulgaris , 3 9 Improved Reduced in None 27 pneumonia...34"OT FILE CO.Y CLINICAL TRIAL OF IMIPENEM/CILASTATIN IN SEVERELY BURNED AND INFECTED PATIENTS Gary R. Culbertson, M.D., Albert T. McManus, PH.D., D T...antibiotic nary, two urinary tract, one wound and one bacte re- mia. Treatment was clinically successful in 13patie-; resistant organisms in the

  11. 78 FR 57486 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... Additionally, a copy of the rulemaking and its impact analysis are available on VA's Web site at http://www1.va...; certification. * * * * * (b) * * * (4) Severe burn injury: Deep partial thickness or full thickness...

  12. Burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    After three months of investigation, NASA and the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) have concluded in a report that the tether connecting the TSS-1R satellite to the space shuttle Columbia broke because unexpected electrical arcing severed it. Presenting its findings on June 4, the independent review panel led by Kenneth Szalai of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center noted that something punctured the tether and allowed electrical current to breach the insulation and jump to a nearby electrical ground.

  13. Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections are Promoted by Systemic Hyperglycemia after Severe Burn Injury in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Williams, Felicia N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injuries are associated with hyperglycemia leading to increased incidence of infections with pneumonia being one of the most prominent and adverse complication. Recently, various studies in critically ill patients indicated that increased pulmonary glucose levels with airway/blood glucose threshold over 150 mg/dl lead to an overwhelming growth of bacteria in the broncho-pulmonary system, subsequently resulting in an increased risk of pulmonary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar cutoff value exists for severely burned pediatric patients. Methods One-hundred six severely burned pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided in two groups: high (H) defined as daily average glucose levels >75% of LOS >150 mg/dl), and low (L) with daily average glucose levels >75% of the LOS <150 mg/dl). Incidences of pneumonia, atelectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were assessed. Incidence of infections, sepsis, and respiratory parameters were recorded. Blood was analyzed for glucose and insulin levels. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results Patient groups were similar in demographics and injury characteristics. Pneumonia in patients on the mechanical ventilation (L: 21% H: 32%) and off mechanical ventilation (L: 5% H: 15%), as well as ARDS were significantly higher in the high group (L: 3% H: 19%), p<0.05, while atelectasis was not different. Patients in the high group required significantly longer ventilation compared to low patients (p<0.05). Furthermore, incidence of infection and sepsis were significantly higher in the high group, p<0.05. Conclusion Our results indicate that systemic glucose levels over 150 mg/dl are associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia confirming the previous studies in critically ill patients. PMID:24074819

  14. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  15. [The correction of metabolic disorders in severely burned patients by enteral hyperalimentation].

    PubMed

    Zaets, T L; Tarasov, A V

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out of the metabolic processes, and some procedures for standardizing them, for patients with severe burns receiving uniformly distributed dosified high-calorie catheter alimentation, i.e. enteral hyperalimentation, in addition to the hospital's daily diet. Fifteen types of mixtures of Combustal were used, made and preserved ad hoc, and two commercial probe alimentation liquid products--Biosorbin-MCT (Pfrimmer-Kabi) and Fresubin (Fresenius AG). The average period taken to normalize the nitrogen balance was sixteen days counted from commencement of hyperalimentation. While it shifted the nitrogen balance figures from negative to positive, it was also seen to reduce A and C phospholipase activities in serum, while the level of excretion of nitrogenated amino acids and creatine remained high. During this time, pseudocholinesterase activity dropped, with the concentration of fibronectine in serum, which indicates low levels of biosynthetic processes and insufficiency in the reticuloendothelial system. The average value for the determination of lipids in general remained normal throughout the catheter feeding period. To ensure complete normalization of the metabolic process in patients suffering severe burns, enteral hyperalimentation must be extended for at least one month.

  16. Novel chitosan wound dressing loaded with minocycline for the treatment of severe burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shuichi; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2007-02-07

    Novel wound dressings composed of chitosan (CH) film and minocycline hydrochloride (MH) were prepared using commercial polyurethane film (Tegaderm) as a backing. CHs with deacetylation degrees of 67%, 83% and 96% (mol/mol), named CH67, CH83 and CH96, respectively, were used. Wound dressing with a large piece of Tegaderm film (4 cm x 4 cm), named CH-MH-N, and wound dressing prepared by cutting CH-MH-N to the wound size, named CH-MH-A, were developed. As CH67-MH-N and CH83-MH-N showed the sustained release of minocycline in vitro, CH67 and CH83 were used as chitosan in the in vivo studies. Various formulations were applied to severe burn wounds in rats in the early stage, and the wound status and change in the wound surface area were examined. The use of 10mg of MH and complete sealing with Tegaderm had a negative effect. MH ointment was not effective, but Geben cream was fairly effective. However, CH83-MH-A containing 2mg of MH (CH83-MH2-A) and CH83 film showed an excellent effect. Considering the elimination of pus, CH83-MH2-A tended to be better than CH83 film. CH83-MH2-A is suggested as a useful formulation for the treatment of severe burn wounds.

  17. TSG-6 secreted by human umbilical cord-MSCs attenuates severe burn-induced excessive inflammation via inhibiting activations of P38 and JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingying; Song, Huifeng; Duan, Hongjie; Chai, Jiake; Yang, Jing; Li, Xiao; Yu, Yonghui; Zhang, Xulong; Hu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Mengjing; Feng, Rui; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Yang, Longlong; Du, Jundong; Li, Tianran

    2016-01-01

    The hMSCs have become a promising approach for inflammation treatment in acute phase. Our previous study has demonstrated that human umbilical cord-MSCs could alleviate the inflammatory reaction of severely burned wound. In this study, we further investigated the potential role and mechanism of the MSCs on severe burn-induced excessive inflammation. Wistar rats were randomly divided into following groups: Sham, Burn, Burn+MSCs, Burn+MAPKs inhibitors, and Burn, Burn+MSCs, Burn+Vehicle, Burn+siTSG-6, Burn+rhTSG-6 in the both experiments. It was found that MSCs could only down-regulate P38 and JNK signaling, but had no effect on ERK in peritoneal macrophages of severe burn rats. Furthermore, suppression of P38 and JNK activations significantly reduced the excessive inflammation induced by severe burn. TSG-6 was secreted by MSCs using different inflammatory mediators. TSG-6 from MSCs and recombinant human (rh)TSG-6 all significantly reduced activations of P38 and JNK signaling induced by severe burn and then attenuated excessive inflammations. On the contrary, knockdown TSG-6 in the cells significantly increased phosphorylation of P38 and JNK signaling and reduced therapeutic effect of the MSCs on excessive inflammation. Taken together, this study suggested TSG-6 from MSCs attenuated severe burn-induced excessive inflammation via inhibiting activation of P38 and JNK signaling. PMID:27444207

  18. Simulating Local and Intercontinental Pollutant Effects of Biomass Burning: Integration of Several Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Vastano, John A.; Guild, Liane; Hlavka, Christine; Brass, James A.; Russell, Philip B. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Burning to clear land for crops and to destroy pests is an integral and largely unavoidable part of tropical agriculture. It is easy to note but difficult to quantify using remote sensing. This report describes our efforts to integrate remotely sensed data into our computer model of tropical chemical trace-gas emissions, weather, and reaction chemistry (using the MM5 mesoscale model and our own Global-Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Simulator). The effects of burning over the continents of Africa and South America have been noticed in observations from several satellites. Smoke plumes hundreds of kilometers long may be seen individually, or may merge into a large smoke pall over thousands of kilometers of these continents. These features are related to intense pollution in the much more confined regions with heavy burning. These emissions also translocate nitrogen thousands of kilometers in the tropical ecosystems, with large fixed-nitrogen losses balanced partially by locally intense fertilization downwind, where nitric acid is rained out. At a much larger scale, various satellite measurements have indicated the escape of carbon monoxide and ozone into large filaments which extend across the Tropical and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our work relates the source emissions, estimated in part from remote sensing, in part from conventional surface reports, to the concentrations of these gases over these intercontinental regions. We will mention work in progress to use meteorological satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, and Meteosat) to estimate the surface temperature and extent and height of clouds, and explain why these uses are so important in our computer simulations of global biogeochemistry. We will compare our simulations and interpretation of remote observations to the international cooperation involving Brazil, South Africa, and the USA in the TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic) and SAFARI (Southern Africa Fire Atmosphere Research

  19. Clinical Impact of Sample Interference on Intensive Insulin Therapy in Severely Burned Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nam K.; Godwin, Zachary R.; Bockhold, Jennifer C.; Passerini, Anthony G.; Cheng, Julian; Ingemason, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Severely burned patients benefit from intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for tight glycemic control (TGC). We evaluated the clinical impact of automatic correction of hematocrit and ascorbic acid interference for bedside glucose monitoring performance in critically ill burn patients. Methods The performance of two point-of-care glucose monitoring systems (GMS): (a) GMS1, an autocorrecting device, and (b) GMS2, a non-correcting device were compared. Sixty remnant arterial blood samples were collected in a prospective observational study to evaluate hematocrit and ascorbic acid effects on GMS1 vs. GMS2 accuracy paired against a plasma glucose reference. Next we enrolled 12 patients in a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive IIT targeting a TGC interval of 111–151 mg/dL and guided by either GMS1 or GMS2. GMS bias, mean insulin rate, and glycemic variability were calculated. Results In the prospective study, GMS1 results were similar to plasma glucose results (mean bias: −0.75[4.0] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.214). GMS2 results significantly differed from paired plasma glucose results (mean bias: −5.66[18.7] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.048). Ascorbic acid therapy elicited significant GMS2 performance bias (29.2[27.2], P<0.001). RCT results reported lower mean bias (P<0.001), glycemic variability (P<0.05), mean insulin rate (P<0.001), and frequency of hypoglycemia (P<0.001) in the GMS1 group than the GMS2 group. Conclusions Anemia and high dose ascorbic acid therapy negatively impact GMS accuracy and TGC in burn patients. Automatic correction of confounding factors improves glycemic control. Further studies are warranted to determine outcomes associated with accurate glucose monitoring during IIT. PMID:23884048

  20. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Pierce, R. B.; Otkin, J. A.; Schaack, T. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Silva, A. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Tornadoes in the Southeast and central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical experiments indicate that the presence of smoke during this event leads to optical thickening of shallow clouds while soot within the smoke enhances the capping inversion through radiation absorption. The smoke effects are consistent with measurements of clouds and radiation before and during the outbreak. These effects result in lower cloud bases and stronger low-level wind shear in the warm sector of the extratropical cyclone generating the outbreak, two indicators of higher probability of tornadogenesis and tornado intensity and longevity. These mechanisms may contribute to tornado modulation by aerosols, highlighting the need to consider aerosol feedbacks in numerical severe weather forecasting.

  1. Impact of a modern firefighting protective uniform on the incidence and severity of burn injuries in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschorn, R; Brown, A

    1999-06-01

    The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest fire department in the United States, with over 11,000 firefighters. In 1994, FDNY changed to a modern firefighting protective uniform. The major difference between traditional and modern uniforms is that modern uniforms include both protective over-coat and over-pant, whereas traditional uniforms include only the over-coat. Furthermore, modern uniforms are manufactured using improved thermal protective textiles that meet or exceed current National Fire Protection Association standards for structural firefighting. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the modern uniform on the incidence and severity of FDNY burn injuries. We also evaluated the incidence and severity of other non-burn injuries to determine whether there was serious adverse impact. The number of lower-extremity burns decreased by 85% when 2 years' experience while wearing the modern uniform was compared with 2 years while wearing the traditional uniform. Upper-extremity burns and head burns decreased by 65% and 40%, respectively. Severity indicators (days lost to medical leave, hospital admissions, and skin grafts) for lower- and upper-extremity burn injuries were all substantially reduced. This occurred without significant change in the incidence or severity of trunk burns, heat exhaustion, inhalation injuries (actually decreased), or cardiac events. The reduction in the incidence and severity of burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting this workforce, has been so dramatic and without untoward effects that the introduction of the modern uniform must be characterized as a sentinel event in the history of firefighter health and safety.

  2. A Novel Means to Classify Response to Resuscitation in the Severely Burned: Derivation of the KMAC Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Possenti PP, Pineau M, D’Aiuto M. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burn patients. J Trauma 2000;49:387–91. [10] Sheridan...A novel means to classify response to resuscitation in the severely burned : Derivation of the KMAC value§,§§ Joseph F. Kelly a, Daniel F. McLaughlin...Research, United States bDepartment of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center – Houston, United States cDivision of Burn , Trauma, and

  3. TLR4 and TNF-α polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis following burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Barber, R; Aragaki, C; Rivera-Chavez, F; Purdue, G; Hunt, J; Horton, J

    2004-01-01

    Context: Sepsis, organ failure, and shock remain common among patients with moderate to severe burn injuries. The inability of clinical factors to identify at-risk patients suggests that genetic variation may influence the risk for serious infection and the outcome from severe injury. Objective: Resolution of genetic variants associated with severe sepsis following burn injury. Patients: A total of 159 patients with burns ⩾20% of their total body surface area or any smoke inhalation injury without significant non-burn related trauma (injury severity score (ISS)⩾16), traumatic or anoxic brain injury, or spinal cord injury and who survived more than 48 h post-admission. Methods: Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within bacterial recognition (TLR4 +896, CD14 –159) and inflammatory response (TNF-α –308, IL-1ß –31, IL-6 –174) loci were evaluated for association with increased risk for severe sepsis (sepsis plus organ dysfunction or septic shock) and mortality. Results: After adjustment for age, full-thickness burn size, ethnicity, and gender, carriage of the TLR4 +896 G-allele imparted at least a 1.8-fold increased risk of developing severe sepsis following a burn injury, relative to AA homozygotes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 23.2). Carriage of the TNF-α –308 A-allele imparted a similarly increased risk, relative to GG homozygotes (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.7 to 12.0). None of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions: The TLR4 +896 and TNF-α –308 polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis following burn trauma. PMID:15520404

  4. Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Case Reports Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patientpme_1091 673...patients are treated at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research. Burn patients expe- rience extrem pain during wound care, and they typi- cally...receive opioid analgesics and anxiolytics for debridement. Virtual Reality (VR) has been applied as an adjunct to opioid analgesics for procedural pain

  5. Distribution and relative abundance of forest birds in relation to burn severity in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkpatrick, C.; Conway, C.J.; Jones, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of wild and prescribed fires in montane forests of the southwestern United States has increased after a century of fire suppression and subsequent fuels accumulation. To assess the effects of recent fires (median time since fire = 6 yr) on the montane forest bird community, we surveyed birds in 8 Sky Island mountain ranges in southeastern Arizona, USA, and examined how the distribution (i.e., presence-absence) of 65 species and relative abundance of 16 species correlated with evidence of severe and less severe fire at >1,500 survey points. We detected associations between fire and bird presence-absence for 17% of the 65 species analyzed and between fire and bird relative abundance for 25% of the 16 species analyzed. Most species (73%) were positively associated with burned areas and displayed stronger associations (i.e., more extreme odds ratios) with survey points that had evidence of severe as opposed to less severe fire. Positive associations with severe fire were strong (>3 to 1 odds) for western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon), and negative associations with severe fire were strong for warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus) and red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis). Although recent fires appear to have had a positive effect on the distribution and relative abundance of several montane forest bird species in the region, these species are not the open-woodland birds that we would have expected to have benefited from fire based on previous research. Nevertheless, our results confirm associations between fire and bird presence-absence and relative abundance reported previously for 7 species of birds. Our results also provide new information for Grace's warbler (Dendroica graciae) and greater pewee (C. pertinax), 2 species for which fire data were formerly lacking. Managers can use these data to make and test predictions about the effects of future fires, both severe and less severe, on montane forest birds in the

  6. [Standardisation of the Initial Treatment of Severely Burned Patients: The Necessary Transfer of Concepts from Trauma Care].

    PubMed

    Münzberg, M; Harbers, T; Kneser, U; Grützner, P A; Reichert, B; Kremer, T; Wölfl, C G; Horter, J; Hirche, C

    2016-12-01

    The initial treatment of severely burned patients remains a huge challenge for first responders in emergency services as well as emergency doctors who do not work in a centre for severe burn injuries. The reason for this is the low number of cases in developed countries and a lack of training concepts for the specific aspects of the initial treatment of severe burn injuries. Because of guidelines with limited evidence (S1, S2k) and a lack of structured treatment approaches, uncertainties with respect to initial treatment are still visible. Even within the professional societies and on international comparison, controversial aspects remain. In contrast, optimised and standardised procedures are available for the treatment of severely injured (trauma) patients, based on PHTLS® (Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support) for preclinical and ATLS® (Advanced Trauma Life Support) for in-hospital first aid. This article takes stock of the current structure of care and the relevant evidence for the initial treatment of severe burns. Also it discusses a possible transfer and further development of concepts for primary trauma care by all disciplines involved. Nine essential steps in the primary care of burned patients are identified and evaluated. The need for the introduction of a uniform treatment algorithm is illustrated. The treatment algorithm presented in this article addresses all first responders who are faced with initial treatment in the first 24 hours outside of burn centres. As an essential, new aspect, it offers a transfer and adaptation of concepts from trauma care to standardise the care of severely burned patients.

  7. Effects of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yan, Hong; Lv, Shang-Gun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-Ping; Wan, Qian-Xue; Peng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Glutamine decreases myocardial damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine after burn injury remains unclear. Present study was to explore the protective effect of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide on myocardial damage in severe burn rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (C), burned control (B) and glycyl-glutamine dipeptide-treated (GG) groups. B and GG groups were inflicted with 30% total body surface area of full thickness burn. The GG group was given 1.5 g/kg glycyl-glutamine dipeptide per day and the B group was given the same dose of alanine via intraperitoneal injection for 3 days. The serum CK, LDH, AST, and, blood lactic acid levels, as well as the myocardium ATP and GSH contents, were measured. The indices of cardiac contractile function and histopathological change were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 post-burn hours (PBH). The serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels increased, and the myocardium ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with B group, the CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels reduced, myocardium ATP and GSH content increased in GG group. Moreover, the inhibition of cardiac contractile function and myocardial histopathological damage were reduced significantly in GG group. We conclude that myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn injury, glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiocyte energy metabolism, increasing ATP and glutathione synthesis.

  8. Signals from Fat After Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-26

    single burn ICU , 17 burn patients with an expected stay >14 days were studied. Study period began within 14 days of admission. Over 7 days, plasma...critical illness in response to inflammation and inadequacy of nutritional support [4]. Adiponec- tin is reduced in ICU patients and associated with...admitted to a single burn ICU and a comparison control group of non-fasted healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All subjects enrolled in this

  9. Computerized Decision Support System Improves Fluid Resuscitation Outcomes Following Severe Burns: An Original Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    stantial plasma volume deficit during the initial 48 hrs post burn, which engenders hypovolemic shock and generalized edema formation (4). These include a...3). Burn manage- ment requires specialized expertise and treatment options that may not normally be available at nonburn centers. In addi- tion...principal fluid shift into the surrounding interstitial space (i.e., third-spacing) that has to be treated to avoid burn shock conditions (5–6). *See

  10. Plasma proteome response to severe burn injury revealed by 18O-labeled "universal" reference-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2010-09-03

    A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled "universal" reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of approximately 35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure.

  11. Role of Central American biomass burning smoke in increasing tornado severity in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S.; Pierce, R.; Otkin, J.; Rabin, R.; Schaack, T.; Heidinger, A. K.; da Silva, A.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Violent tornadoes in the Southeast and Central US during spring are often accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. We analyzed the effect of smoke on a historic severe weather outbreak that occurred 27 April 2011 using a coupled aerosol, chemistry and weather model (WRF-Chem) and a suite of satellite and ground-based observations. Smoke from Central American biomass burning was present in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere before and during the storm outbreak. Simulations show that adding smoke to the environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development increases the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence, which is assessed by analyzing effects of smoke on meteorological conditions (tornado parameters) used by prediction centers to forecast tornado occurrence and severity. Smoke effects generate slightly lower rain rates and cloud top heights, indicating no evidence of storm invigoration for these storms and instead pointing towards convection inhibition. Further analysis shows that there are two mechanisms responsible for the parameter intensification: First, through indirect effects, stratiform clouds present during and before the outbreak became optically thicker, which reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground and produced more stable conditions and higher low-level shear in the mixed layer. Second, through semi-direct effects, soot contained in the smoke heated the aerosol layer stabilizing the atmosphere and enhancing cloud cover below the aerosol layer, producing a more stable boundary layer and conditions leading to higher probability of violent tornadoes. The inclusion of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in weather forecasts may help improve the predictability of these extreme events, which can improve the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather alerts within future operational forecast systems. Left panel: Back trajectories from the beginning of violent tornado tracks, with circles

  12. Multispectral imaging burn wound tissue classification system: a comparison of test accuracies between several common machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2016-03-01

    The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care

  13. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Čelko, Alexander Martin; Dáňová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  14. Abbreviations used in publications of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1953-01-01

    The use of abbreviations in publications of the Geological Survey is determined by several forces working in different directions. Pulling in the direction of greater condensation and the freer use of abbreviations and symbols is the desire to achieve greater economy in publications. Working in the opposite direction is the desire to have the publications used more conveniently by an increasingly heterogeneous public.

  15. Using high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map forest burn severity across spatial scales in a Pine Barrens ecosystem

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Ran; Wu, Jin; Schwager, Kathy L.; ...

    2017-01-21

    As a primary disturbance agent, fire significantly influences local processes and services of forest ecosystems. Although a variety of remote sensing based approaches have been developed and applied to Landsat mission imagery to infer burn severity at 30 m spatial resolution, forest burn severity have still been seldom assessed at fine spatial scales (≤ 5 m) from very-high-resolution (VHR) data. Here we assessed a 432 ha forest fire that occurred in April 2012 on Long Island, New York, within the Pine Barrens region, a unique but imperiled fire-dependent ecosystem in the northeastern United States. The mapping of forest burn severitymore » was explored here at fine spatial scales, for the first time using remotely sensed spectral indices and a set of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) fraction images from bi-temporal — pre- and post-fire event — WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery at 2 m spatial resolution. We first evaluated our approach using 1 m by 1 m validation points at the sub-crown scale per severity class (i.e. unburned, low, moderate, and high severity) from the post-fire 0.10 m color aerial ortho-photos; then, we validated the burn severity mapping of geo-referenced dominant tree crowns (crown scale) and 15 m by 15 m fixed-area plots (inter-crown scale) with the post-fire 0.10 m aerial ortho-photos and measured crown information of twenty forest inventory plots. Our approach can accurately assess forest burn severity at the sub-crown (overall accuracy is 84% with a Kappa value of 0.77), crown (overall accuracy is 82% with a Kappa value of 0.76), and inter-crown scales (89% of the variation in estimated burn severity ratings (i.e. Geo-Composite Burn Index (CBI)). Lastly, this work highlights that forest burn severity mapping from VHR data can capture heterogeneous fire patterns at fine spatial scales over the large spatial extents. This is important since most ecological processes associated with fire effects vary at the < 30 m scale and

  16. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  17. Protective effect of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on intestinal tissues after severe burn in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanke; Liu, Longyan; Hu, Tian; Lei, Wansheng; Wan, Fusheng; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Jinsong; Zhu, Haohao; Zhu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiaolu; Xu, Linshui; Wang, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal barrier damage after scald and burns, other trauma or major operations result in severe intestinal infections that cause serious consequences. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to protect intestinal barrier after severe burns. This study used rats that had full-thickness burn of approximately 30% of the total body surface area to investigate the effect and mechanism of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) and provide experimental evidence for application of GIK in protecting the intestine after burns or other trauma and major surgeries. The results show that the degree of intestinal damage and plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) levels in GIK (the concentrations of glucose, insulin, sodium chloride and potassium chloride were 100 g l(-1), 70 U l(-1), 9 g l(-1) and 5 g l(-1), respectively) and insulin (30 IU l(-1)) treatment groups were significantly lower than that in control group; the status of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the ratio between them in GIK and insulin groups also significantly improved compared to those in control group; intestinal tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and IL10/TNFα in GIK and insulin groups 2 days after the injury were also improved significantly compared to those in control group. All the indices including body weight detected in GIK group were improved to those in insulin group. Taken together, these results show that GIK and insulin show protective effect on intestine after severe burn, which may relate to controlling hyperglycaemia and regulating intestinal expression of NFκB and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes by GIK and insulin; the protective effect of GIK on intestinal tissue after severe burn is superior to that of using insulin alone, which may attribute to improving the nutritional status by glucose supplement and the relatively higher dose of insulin in the GIK group.

  18. 77 FR 70389 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an Automobile or Other Conveyance and... financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment. The... assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment. Pursuant to...

  19. Oxandrolone induced lean mass gain during recovery from severe burns is maintained after discontinuation of the anabolic steroid.

    PubMed

    Demling, Robert H; DeSanti, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    Weight loss and lean mass loss from burn induced catabolism can be more rapidly restored when the anabolic steroid oxandrolone is added to optimum nutrition compared to nutrition alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether the regained lean body mass (LBM) is retained 6 months after stopping oxandrolone. Forty-five severe burn patients, entering the recovery phase were randomized into a nutrition group alone or with the addition of oxandrolone, 20mg per day upon admission to the acute burn rehabilitation (RH) unit. Oxandrolone was discontinued after at least 80% of the involuntary weight loss occurring in the acute burn period, was restored. Body composition was measured using bioelectric impedence analysis (BIA). We found that patients receiving oxandrolone, in the rehabilitation unit, regained weight and lean mass two to three times faster than with nutrition alone. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). All patients were discharged from RH on a nutrition and exercise program and monitored in the outpatient burn center. After 6 months, body weight and body composition were again measured. We found that the body weight and lean mass which was restored during RH, was maintained 6 months after discontinuation of oxandrolone. Lost lean mass was not yet restored in the nutrition alone group. We can conclude that body weight and lean mass which is lost, due to burn induced catabolism, can be effectively restored in the post-burn recovery period with oxandrolone. The body weight and lost lean mass which is regained, is maintained 6 months after stopping the drug.

  20. Comparison of systemic inflammation response and vital organ damage induced by severe burns in different area

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingying; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Chai, Jiake; Yu, Yonghui; Duan, Hongjie; Song, Huifeng; Feng, Rui; Wang, Tongming; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Wang, Shaoxia; Du, Jundong

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we will establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model through comparative analysis of systemic alterations, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and infiltrated numbers of inflammatory cells in distant organ between 30% and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn. Materials and methods: The adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, 30% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group, and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group. The blood and serum samples in the 3 groups were collected and detected by blood routine examination and biochemical detection at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post burn. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were detected by ELISA. The sections of lung, renal, liver and heart were analyzed by H&E and immunohistochemical staining detection. Results: Our results showed that temperature in 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group was always hypothermia, and lower than 36°C at defined timepoints post burn, that was in 30% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group was lower than 36°C only at 48 h post burn. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in 30% and 50% groups at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post burn. The apoptosis in distant organs and the biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, troponin, CK, CK-MB, LDH, urea and creatinine in 30% and 50% groups were also increased at different degrees at defined timepoints after burn, but changes in 50% group were more obvious than that in 30% group. Conclusion: We choose 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn to establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model. PMID:26261512

  1. Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    highly predictable settings, thus lending it to preventive strategies. References Cited 1. Church, D ., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay...2006. Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 19(2):403-34. 2. Suber, F., M. C. Carroll, and F. D . Moore, Jr. 2007. Innate response to self...12 neutrophils. Infect Immun 73(6): 3693 -701. 4. Moskowitz, S. M., J. M. Foster, J. Emerson, and J. L. Burns. 2004. Clinically feasible biofilm

  2. Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    to preventive strategies. 9 References Cited 1. Church, D ., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay. 2006. Burn wound infections. Clin...Microbiol Rev 19(2):403-34. 2. Suber, F., M. C. Carroll, and F. D . Moore, Jr. 2007. Innate response to self-antigen significantly exacerbates burn wound...M. L. Vasil, and J. A. Nick. 2005. Enhanced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development mediated by human neutrophils. Infect Immun 73(6): 3693 -701. 4

  3. Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Gunn, S William A; Dibo, S

    2013-03-31

    A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions.

  4. Nutritional and Pharmacological Modulation of the Metabolic Response of Severely Burned Patients: Review of the Literature (Part II)*.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Dibo, S A

    2008-09-30

    Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiological stress and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. Increased energy expenditure to cope with this insult necessitates mobilization of large amounts of substrate from fat stores and active muscle for repair and fuel, leading to catabolism. The hypermetabolic response can last for as long as nine months to one year after injury and is associated with impaired wound healing, increased infection risks, erosion of lean body mass, hampered rehabilitation, and delayed reintegration of burn survivors into society. Reversal of the hypermetabolic response by manipulating the patient's physiological and biochemical environment through the administration of specific nutrients, growth factors, or other agents, often in pharmacological doses, is emerging as an essential component of the state of the art in severe burn management. Early enteral nutritional support, control of hyperglycaemia, blockade of catecholamine response, and use of anabolic steroids have all been proposed to attenuate hypermetabolism or to blunt catabolism associated with severe burn injury. The present study is a literature review of the proposed nutritional and metabolic therapeutic measures in order to determine evidence-based best practice. Unfortunately, the present state of our knowledge does not allow the formulation of clear-cut guidelines. Only general trends can be outlined which will certainly have some practical applications but above all will dictate future research in the field.

  5. Nutritional and pharmacological modulation of the metabolic response of severely burned patients: review of the literature (part 1).

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Dibo, S A

    2008-06-30

    Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiological stress and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. Increased energy expenditure to cope with this insult necessitates mobilization of large amounts of substrate from fat stores and active muscle for repair and fuel, leading to catabolism. The hypermetabolic response can last for as long as nine months to one year after injury and is associated with impaired wound healing, increased infection risks, erosion of lean body mass, hampered rehabilitation, and delayed reintegration of burn survivors into society. Reversal of the hypermetabolic response by manipulating the patient's physiological and biochemical environment through the administration of specific nutrients, growth factors, or other agents, often in pharmacological doses, is emerging as an essential component of the state of the art in severe burn management. Early enteral nutritional support, control of hyperglycaemia, blockade of catecholamine response, and use of anabolic steroids have all been proposed to attenuate hypermetabolism or to blunt catabolism associated with severe burn injury. The present study is a literature review of the proposed nutritional and metabolic therapeutic measures in order to determine evidence-based best practice. Unfortunately, the present state of our knowledge does not allow the formulation of clear-cut guidelines. Only general trends can be outlined which will certainly have some practical applications but above all will dictate future research in the field.

  6. Nutritional and Pharmacological Modulation of the Metabolic Response of Severely Burned Patients: Review of the Literature (Part III)*.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Dibo, S A

    2008-12-31

    Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiological stress and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. Increased energy expenditure to cope with this insult necessitates mobilization of large amounts of substrate from fat stores and active muscle for repair and fuel, leading to catabolism. The hypermetabolic response can last for as long as nine months to one year after injury and is associated with impaired wound healing, increased infection risks, erosion of lean body mass, hampered rehabilitation, and delayed reintegration of burn survivors into society.Reversal of the hypermetabolic response by manipulating the patient's physiological and biochemical environment through the administration of specific nutrients, growth factors, or other agents, often in pharmacological doses, is emerging as an essential component of the state of the art in severe burn management. Early enteral nutritional support, control of hyperglycaemia, blockade of catecholamine response, and use of anabolic steroids have all been proposed to attenuate hypermetabolism or to blunt catabolism associated with severe burn injury. The present study is a literature review of the proposed nutritional and metabolic therapeutic measures in order to determine evidence-based best practice. Unfortunately, the present state of our knowledge does not allow the formulation of clear-cut guidelines. Only general trends can be outlined which will certainly have some practical applications but above all will dictate future research in the field.

  7. Five-Year Outcomes after Oxandrolone Administration in Severely Burned Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura J; Herndon, David N; Rodriguez, Noe A; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Meyer, Walter; Lee, Jong; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxandrolone, an anabolic agent, has been administered for 1 year post burn with beneficial effects in pediatric patients. However, the long-lasting effects of this treatment have not been studied. This single-center prospective trial determined the long-term effects of 1 year of oxandrolone administration in severely burned children; assessments were continued for up to 4 years post-therapy. Study Design Patients 0–18 years old with burns covering >30% of the total body surface area were randomized to receive placebo (n=152) or oxandrolone, 0.1 mg/kg twice daily for 12 months (n=70). At hospital discharge, patients were randomized to a 12 week exercise program or to standard of care. Resting energy expenditure (REE), standing height, weight, lean body mass, muscle strength, bone mineral content (BMC), cardiac work, rate pressure product (RPP), sexual maturation, and concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes were monitored. Results Oxandrolone significantly decreased REE, RPP, and increased IGF-1 secretion during the first year after burn injury, and in combination with exercise significantly increased lean body mass and muscle strength. Oxandrolone-treated children exhibited improved height percentile and BMC content compared to controls. The maximal effect of oxandrolone was found in children aged 7–18 years. No deleterious side effects were attributed to long-term administration. Conclusions Administration of oxandrolone improves the long-term recovery of severely burned children in height, BMC, cardiac work and muscle strength; the increase in BMC is likely to occur by means of IGF 1. These benefits persist for up to 5 years post burn. PMID:22463890

  8. Abbreviated neuropsychological assessment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philip D.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Bowie, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the best subset of neuropsychological tests for prediction of several different aspects of functioning in a large (n = 236) sample of older people with schizophrenia. While the validity of abbreviated assessment methods has been examined before, there has never been a comparative study of the prediction of different elements of cognitive impairment, real-world outcomes, and performance-based measures of functional capacity. Scores on 10 different tests from a neuropsychological assessment battery were used to predict global neuropsychological (NP) performance (indexed with averaged scores or calculated general deficit scores), performance-based indices of everyday-living skills and social competence, and case-manager ratings of real-world functioning. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were used to identify the best predictors for each of the outcomes measures. Then, the analyses were adjusted for estimated premorbid IQ, which reduced the magnitude, but not the structure, of the correlations. Substantial amounts (over 70%) of the variance in overall NP performance were accounted for by a limited number of NP tests. Considerable variance in measures of functional capacity was also accounted for by a limited number of tests. Different tests constituted the best predictor set for each outcome measure. A substantial proportion of the variance in several different NP and functional outcomes can be accounted for by a small number of NP tests that can be completed in a few minutes, although there is considerable unexplained variance. However, the abbreviated assessments that best predict different outcomes vary across outcomes. Future studies should determine whether responses to pharmacological and remediation treatments can be captured with brief assessments as well. PMID:18720182

  9. EPA calls outdoor burn bans for several Northwest Indian Reservations beginning Friday

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle -- November 25, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is calling a ban on outdoor burning for the following Indian reservations in Washington State due to stagnant air conditions and high air quality monitor readings in parts of our regio

  10. Reverse-flow anterolateral thigh perforator: an ad hoc flap for severe post-burn knee contracture.

    PubMed

    Ismail, H A; El-Bassiony, L E

    2016-03-31

    We evaluate function outcomes of the reverse-flow ALT perforator flap to reconstruct severe post-burn knee contracture. Between October 2012 and December 2014, 10 patients with severe post-burn knee contracture were subjected to reconstruction with 10 ipsilateral reversed-flow ALT perforator flaps. All the patients were male. Ages ranged from 15 to 47 years (mean = 32 years). Time from burn injury to patient presentation ranged from 2-8 months. All patients demonstrated post-burn flexion contracture of the knee joint, ranging from 35 to 75 degrees. Flap sizes ranged from 8×16 to 12×26 cm. The flaps and skin grafts were carried out without major complications. Only minor complications occurred, such as transient, mild congestion immediately after inset in two flaps. Two flaps developed superficial necrosis at the distal edge. One case sustained partial skin graft loss due to haematoma. One case complained of skin hyperpigmentation and hypertrophic scars around the graft. Secondary debulking procedures were required in two cases. The entire donor sites were closed by partial thickness skin graft with acceptable appearance, except one case that was closed primarily. Eight out of ten patients (80%) demonstrated gradual improvement in range of knee motion after a specialized rehabilitation program. Two patients (20%) did not get back full range of motion. RALT perforator flap is the cornerstone for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the knee with acceptable aesthetic and functional results provided that the following items are fulfilled: inclusion of muscle cuff around the pedicle, the pivot point, prevention of pedicle compression after transfer and early surgical intervention on the post-burn knee contracture.

  11. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    PubMed

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]), and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity, than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety, somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID symptoms. In summary, the

  12. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  13. Severe post-burn neck contracture release and skin graft harvest using tumescent local anaesthesia as the sole anesthetic technique.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Mukesh Kumar; Puneet, Pulak; Rani, Kanchan; Shree, Divya

    2012-02-01

    Severe post-burn contractures in the neck often cause anatomical distortion and restriction of neck movements, resulting in varying degrees of difficulty in airway management. Any mode of anesthesia that may obviate the need for imperative airway control may be desirable in such situations in which a difficult airway may be anticipated. Here we present one such situation where tumescent local anesthesia was employed to manage a case of severe post-burn neck contractures posted for contracture release and split-skin grafting. The other benefits of this method were minimal blood loss and excellent postoperative analgesia. In conclusion, it can be emphasized that the application of tumescent anesthesia is an important anesthetic tool in patients with predicted difficult airway management.

  14. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  15. Abbreviations and acronyms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This booklet provides a partial list of acronyms, abbreviations, and other short word forms, including their definitions, used in documents at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This list does not preclude the use of other short forms of less general usage, as long as these short forms are identified the first time they appear in a document and are defined in a glossary in the document in which they are used. This document supplements information in the GSFC Scientific and Technical Information Handbook (GHB 2200.2/April 1989). It is not intended to contain all short word forms used in GSFC documents; however, it was compiled of actual short forms used in recent GSFC documents. The entries are listed first, alphabetically by the short form, and then again alphabetically by definition.

  16. Prone Positioning Improves Oxygenation in Adult Burn Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Burn Inten- sive Care Unit ( ICU ) is a 16-bed unit within a tertiary academic military teaching hospital and Level I trauma center. It serves active-duty...position on a standard ICU bed. All pron- ing procedures were performed under the direct supervision of an intensivist with prior PP experience. Wound care...PP initiation; and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after PP initiation. Compli- cations related to PP and to the patient’s ICU course were identified

  17. Severe Burn and Disuse in the Rat Independently Adversely Impact Body Composition and Adipokines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-07

    injury when oxygen and nutrient delivery to tissue increases, allowing for a further increase in metabolic activity [1]. The burn-induced imbalance of...leptin, resistin and adiponectin, were analyzed, as well as the gut de- rived hormone ghrelin. Leptin, which plays a role in the regulation of energy...0.00001, n = 35) (Figure 6a). Adiponectin, a protein hormone , modulates glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. Significant differ- ences were

  18. Incidence of Systemic Fungal Infection and Related Mortality Following Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    improved fungal care. It has been shown that identification of pathogens purely by histopathogic diagnosis is inadequate due to varying fungal genus and...of 57.5% (range, 1–97), and median full-thickness burn of 35.5% (range, 0–92). Identification of fungus in autopsied patients is shown in Figs. 1 and 2...had Mucor, 7 patients had Fusarium, 3 patients had Alternaria, 4 patients had Penicillium , 2 patients had Cladosporium, 2 patients had Trichsoporon, 1

  19. The Effect of Burn Severity on Short-Term Post-Fire Boreal Vegetation Recovery in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyler, J. W.; Smithwick, E.; Mack, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Fire is the dominant disturbance in the interior boreal region of Alaska and is predicted to increase with climate warming. This variation in the boreal fire regime could play a critical role in climate feedbacks by altering forest productivity and succession and, consequently, biogeochemical cycling, carbon sequestration, and surface energy fluxes. Due to limited fine-scale studies, however, it is not known how increased burn severity (i.e.-amount of organic material consumed) alters post-fire recovery of vegetation productivity, nor how the relationship between severity and post-fire recovery varies across heterogeneous landscapes. In examining fires from the 2004 Alaska fire season (n=72), the objective of this research was to determine how between and within fire variation in burn severity and related variables (pre-fire vegetation, elevation, insolation, etc.) mediates short-term post-fire recovery at the regional scale (i.e.-interior Alaska) and at the landscape scale (i.e.-a single fire complex).The Normalized Burn Ratio was used to measure burn severity and MODIS NDVI was used as a proxy for vegetation recovery. For the between fire analysis, remotely sensed data was overlaid on the fire perimeters in a GIS to create a multivariate dataset with variables aggregated by fire. The dependent variables for each fire were percent NDVI growing season change from 2003 to 2005 (i.e.-productivity drop) and from 2005 to 2007 (i.e.-productivity recovery), while the independent variables included mean dNBR, elevation, and insolation, and percentages of pre-fire land cover types. This dataset was explored in a geovisualization application (GeoViz Toolkit) to help interpret a more detailed adjusted R-square multivariate regression.The top 3 models (R-square ~ 0.60) for the productivity drop per fire showed that fires in higher elevations and containing higher percentages of pre-fire conifer forest were correlated with larger drops in NDVI. In contrast, the models for

  20. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  1. Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires

  2. Resuscitation after severe burn injury using high-dose ascorbic acid: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Resuscitation of burn victims with high-dose ascorbic acid (vitamin C [VC]) was reported in Japan in the year 2000. Benefits of VC include reduction in fluid requirements, resulting in less tissue edema and body weight gain. In turn, these patients suffer less respiratory impairment and reduced requirement for mechanical ventilation. Despite these results, few burn centers resuscitate patients with VC in fear that it may increase the risk of renal failure. A retrospective review of 40 patients with greater than 20% TBSA between 2007 and 2009 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: one received only lactated Ringer's (LR) solution and another received LR solution plus 66 mg/kg/hr VC. Both groups were resuscitated with the Parkland formula to maintain stable hemodynamics and adequate urine output (>0.5 ml/kg/hr). Patients with >10-hour delay in transfer to the burn center were excluded. Data collected included age, gender, weight, %TBSA, fluid administered in the first 24 hours, urine output in the first 24 hours, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. PaO2 in millimeters mercury:%FIO2 ratio and positive end-expiratory pressure were measured at 12-hour intervals, and hematocrit was measured at 6-hour intervals. Comorbidities, mortality, pneumonia, fasciotomies, and renal failure were also noted. After 7 patients were excluded, 17 patients were included in the VC group and 16 in the LR group. VC and LR were matched for age (42 ± 16 years vs 50 ± 20 years, P = .2), burn size (45 ± 21%TBSA vs 39 ± 15%TBSA, P = .45), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (17 ± 7 vs 18 ± 8, P = .8), and gender. Fluid requirements in the first 24 hours were 5.3 ± 1 ml/kg/%TBSA for VC and 7.1 ± 1 ml/kg/%TBSA for LR (P < .05). Urine output was 1.5 ± 0.4 ml/kg/hr for VC and 1 ± 0.5 ml/kg/hr for LR (P < .05). Vasopressors were needed in four VC patients and nine LR patients (P = .07). VC patients required vasopressors to maintain mean

  3. Does soil burn severity affect the post-fire runoff and interrill erosion response? A review based on meta-analysis of field rainfall simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Fernández, C.; Vega, J. A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil burn severity has been widely used to describe the impacts of fire on soils and is increasingly being recognised as a decisive factor controlling post-fire erosion rates. However, there is no unique definition of the term and the relationship between soil burn severity and post-fire hydrological and erosion response has not yet been fully established. The objective of this work was to review the existing literature on the role of soil burn severity on post-fire runoff and erosion ratios. To this end, a meta-analysis was carried out of the runoff and inter-rill erosion data from field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's) that compared burnt and unburnt conditions. In this study, 109 individual observations were analysed that covered a wide geographical range, various types of land cover (forest, shrubland, and grassland) and two types of fire types (wildfire and prescribed fire). The effect size of the post-fire runoff and erosion response was determined for four key factors: (i) soil burn severity; (ii) time-since-fire; (iii) rainfall intensity; and (iv) bare soil cover. Statistical meta-analysis showed that fire occurrence had a significant effect on the hydrological and erosive response. However, this effect was only significantly higher with increasing soil burn severity for inter-rill erosion, and not for runoff. This study furthermore highlighted the incoherencies between existing burn severity classifications, and proposed an unambiguous classification.

  4. The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

  5. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  6. Towards Comprehensive Clinical Abbreviation Disambiguation Using Machine-Labeled Training Data

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Gregory P.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; McEwan, Reed; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviation disambiguation in clinical texts is a problem handled well by fully supervised machine learning methods. Acquiring training data, however, is expensive and would be impractical for large numbers of abbreviations in specialized corpora. An alternative is a semi-supervised approach, in which training data are automatically generated by substituting long forms in natural text with their corresponding abbreviations. Most prior implementations of this method either focus on very few abbreviations or do not test on real-world data. We present a realistic use case by testing several semi-supervised classification algorithms on a large hand-annotated medical record of occurrences of 74 ambiguous abbreviations. Despite notable differences between training and test corpora, classifiers achieve up to 90% accuracy. Our tests demonstrate that semi-supervised abbreviation disambiguation is a viable and extensible option for medical NLP systems. PMID:28269852

  7. Towards Comprehensive Clinical Abbreviation Disambiguation Using Machine-Labeled Training Data.

    PubMed

    Finley, Gregory P; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; McEwan, Reed; Melton, Genevieve B

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviation disambiguation in clinical texts is a problem handled well by fully supervised machine learning methods. Acquiring training data, however, is expensive and would be impractical for large numbers of abbreviations in specialized corpora. An alternative is a semi-supervised approach, in which training data are automatically generated by substituting long forms in natural text with their corresponding abbreviations. Most prior implementations of this method either focus on very few abbreviations or do not test on real-world data. We present a realistic use case by testing several semi-supervised classification algorithms on a large hand-annotated medical record of occurrences of 74 ambiguous abbreviations. Despite notable differences between training and test corpora, classifiers achieve up to 90% accuracy. Our tests demonstrate that semi-supervised abbreviation disambiguation is a viable and extensible option for medical NLP systems.

  8. The Abbreviated Pluripotent Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kapinas, Kristina; Grandy, Rodrigo; Ghule, Prachi; Medina, Ricardo; Becker, Klaus; Pardee, Arthur; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Lian, Jane; Stein, Janet; van Wijnen, Andre; Stein, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells proliferate rapidly and divide symmetrically producing equivalent progeny cells. In contrast, lineage committed cells acquire an extended symmetrical cell cycle. Self-renewal of tissue-specific stem cells is sustained by asymmetric cell division where one progeny cell remains a progenitor while the partner progeny cell exits the cell cycle and differentiates. There are three principal contexts for considering the operation and regulation of the pluripotent cell cycle: temporal, regulatory andstructural. The primary temporal context that the pluripotent self-renewal cell cycle of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a short G1 period without reducing periods of time allocated to S phase, G2, and mitosis. The rules that govern proliferation in hESCs remain to be comprehensively established. However, several lines of evidence suggest a key role for the naïve transcriptome of hESCs, which is competent to stringently regulate the ESC cell cycle. This supports the requirements of pluripotent cells to self propagate while suppressing expression of genes that confer lineage commitment and/or tissue specificity. However, for the first time, we consider unique dimensions to the architectural organization and assembly of regulatory machinery for gene expression in nuclear microenviornments that define parameters of pluripotency. From both fundamental biological and clinical perspectives, understanding control of the abbreviated embryonic stem cell cycle can provide options to coordinate control of proliferation versus differentiation. Wound healing, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapy to mitigate developmental aberrations illustrate applications that benefit from knowledge of the biology of the pluripotent cell cycle. PMID:22552993

  9. The abbreviated pluripotent cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Kapinas, Kristina; Grandy, Rodrigo; Ghule, Prachi; Medina, Ricardo; Becker, Klaus; Pardee, Arthur; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Lian, Jane; Stein, Janet; van Wijnen, Andre; Stein, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells proliferate rapidly and divide symmetrically producing equivalent progeny cells. In contrast, lineage committed cells acquire an extended symmetrical cell cycle. Self-renewal of tissue-specific stem cells is sustained by asymmetric cell division where one progeny cell remains a progenitor while the partner progeny cell exits the cell cycle and differentiates. There are three principal contexts for considering the operation and regulation of the pluripotent cell cycle: temporal, regulatory, and structural. The primary temporal context that the pluripotent self-renewal cell cycle of hESCs is a short G1 period without reducing periods of time allocated to S phase, G2, and mitosis. The rules that govern proliferation in hESCs remain to be comprehensively established. However, several lines of evidence suggest a key role for the naïve transcriptome of hESCs, which is competent to stringently regulate the embryonic stem cell (ESC) cell cycle. This supports the requirements of pluripotent cells to self-propagate while suppressing expression of genes that confer lineage commitment and/or tissue specificity. However, for the first time, we consider unique dimensions to the architectural organization and assembly of regulatory machinery for gene expression in nuclear microenviornments that define parameters of pluripotency. From both fundamental biological and clinical perspectives, understanding control of the abbreviated ESC cycle can provide options to coordinate control of proliferation versus differentiation. Wound healing, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapy to mitigate developmental aberrations illustrate applications that benefit from knowledge of the biology of the pluripotent cell cycle.

  10. 40 CFR 600.103-78 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.103-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003...

  11. 40 CFR 600.003-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.003-77 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations used in...

  12. Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Severely Burned Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: A Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    FiO2: fraction of inspired oxygen; IHD: intermittent hemodialysis ; IQR: interquartile range; ISS: injury severity score; MODS: multiple organ...were compared. Definitions During the period after November 2005 our staff intensivists utilized the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage...for acute renal fail- ure which included: fluid resuscitation, minimization of nephro- toxic agents, and utilization of hemodialysis if classic

  13. Interactive effects of burn severity and canopy cover on ecophysiology of tree seedlings in boreal forests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires are an important disturbance because they improve habitat conditions for establishing plants. Fires of differing severity can have dramatically different impacts on habitat, particularly when coupled with canopy-level disturbances. In a boreal forest, we outplanted seedlings of four specie...

  14. SIRT1 protects rat lung tissue against severe burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating the apoptosis of PMVECs via p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; He, Ting; Jia, Wenbin; Yang, Longlong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Shi, Jihong; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator type-1 (SIRT1) has been reported to be involved in the cardiopulmonary protection. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced remote acute lung injury (ALI) is currently unknown. The present study aims to investigate the role of SIRT1 in burn-induced remote ALI and the involved signaling pathway. We observed that SIRT1 expression in rat lung tissue after burn injury appeared an increasing trend after a short period of suppression. The upregulation of SIRT1 stimulated by resveratrol exhibited remission of histopathologic changes, reduction of cell apoptosis, and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat pulmonary tissues suffering from severe burn. We next used primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) challenged by burn serum (BS) to simulate in vivo rat lung tissue after burn injury, and found that BS significantly suppressed SIRT1 expression, increased cell apoptosis, and activated p38 MAPK signaling. The use of resveratrol reversed these effects, while knockdown of SIRT1 by shRNA further augmented BS-induced increase of cell apoptosis and activation of p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results indicate that SIRT1 might protect lung tissue against burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating PMVEC apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling, suggesting its potential therapeutic effects on the treatment of ALI. PMID:25992481

  15. 40 CFR 88.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.203-94 Section 88.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.203-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations...

  16. 40 CFR 88.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abbreviations. 88.203-94 Section 88.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.203-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations...

  17. A randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of liquid versus powdered recombinant human growth hormone in treating patients with severe burns

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GUOXIAN; SHAO, HUAWEI; PAN, XUANLIANG

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) promotes protein utilization and synthesis, and is widely used as a therapy to treat severe burns. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of different forms of rhGH on patients with severe burns. A total of 29 adult severe burns patients were enrolled between February 2009 and November 2011, and randomly assigned to either treatment group (T, liquid rhGH) or control group (C, powder rhGH). From days 5 to 7 following the infliction of burns, both patient groups received rhGH at 0.067 mg/kg/d, once for 10 days. Median serum pre-albumin levels increased in both groups following treatment, the elevation from baseline was significantly higher in the T group on day 10 compared to the C group (88 mg/l vs. 65 mg/l, P=0.046). C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose and body weight decreased in both groups. Body weight was significantly lower in the T compared to the C group at baseline, Day 5 and Day 10 (P=0.046, P=0.018 and P=0.006, respectively), however the decrease from baseline levels were not significantly different. Wound healing time was similar between groups (P=0.270). In conclusion the early use of liquid rather than powder rhGH may be more beneficial for treating adult patients with severe burns. PMID:27123246

  18. Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Hervé Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Piérard, Gérald E.; Damas, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies. PMID

  19. Lineage -CD34+CD31+ cells that appear in association with severe burn injury are inhibitory on the production of antimicrobial peptides by epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shohei; Lee, Jong O; Nakamura, Kiwamu; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Hendon, David N; Kobayashi, Makiko; Suzuki, Fujio

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are major host defense effectors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections. Due to the lack of such peptide production, severely burned hosts are greatly susceptible to P. aeruginosa burn wound infection. β-Defensin (HBD) production by normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) was inhibited by lineage(-)CD34(+) cells isolated from peripheral blood of severely burned patients. Lineage(-)CD34(+) cells obtained from severely burned patients were characterized as CD31(+), while healthy donor lineage(-)CD34(+) cells were shown to be CD31(-) cells. Lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(-) cells did not show any inhibitory activities on HBD-1 production by NHEK. CCL2 and IL-10 released from lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells were shown to be inhibitory on the peptide production by NHEK, while these soluble factors were not produced by lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(-) cells. After treatment with a mixture of mAbs for CCL2 and IL-10, the culture fluids of lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells did not show any inhibitory activities on HBD-1 production by NHEK. Lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells that appear in association with burn injuries play a role on the inhibition of antimicrobial peptide production by skin keratinocytes through the production of CCL2 and IL-10.

  20. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  1. The efficacy of acute administration of pamidronate on the conservation of bone mass following severe burn injury in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gordon L; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Kulkarni, Gayathri; Sherrard, Donald J; Sanford, Arthur P; Herndon, David N

    2005-06-01

    Bone loss is a known complication of severe burn injury. It is, in part, due to increased endogenous glucocorticoids that contribute to the reduction in bone formation and osteoblast differentiation, hypercalciuria secondary to hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency. In this study we attempted to prevent post-burn bone loss by acute intravenous administration of the bisphosphonate pamidronate. We enrolled 43 children, with burns of > 40% total body surface area, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, administering the study drug within 10 days of burn injury and again 1 week later. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed prior to drug therapy, at hospital discharge and at 6 months post-burn. Urine specimens were obtained at baseline and discharge for determination of calcium and free deoxypyridinoline. Blood was obtained along with the urine specimens for measurement of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and ionized calcium (Ca) levels. Following doxycycline labeling, intra-operative iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained, and bone histomorphometry was determined. At time of discharge there were no differences in total body bone mineral content (BMC), but lumbar spine BMC was significantly higher in the pamidronate group (P < 0.005). By 6 months post-burn the differences in lumbar spine BMC persisted, but, now, total body BMC was significantly higher in the pamidronate group (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometry and levels of urine Ca and free deoxypyridinoline failed to show significant increases in bone formation or decreases in bone resorption. Pamidronate did not exacerbate the hypocalcemia in burn patients. In summary, acute intravenous pamidronate administration following burns may help to preserve bone mass, perhaps by inhibiting the glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes.

  2. Amino acid infusion fails to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis up to one year post injury in children with severe burns

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Matthew; Diaz, Eva C; Jennings, Kristofer; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background Burn injury results in increased skeletal muscle protein turnover, where the magnitude of protein breakdown outweighs synthesis resulting in muscle wasting. The impact of increased amino acid (AA) provision on skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in severely burned patients during their convalescence after discharge from hospital is not known. Subsequently, the purpose of this study was to determine skeletal muscle FSR in response to AA infusion in severely burned pediatric patients at discharge from hospital, and at six and twelve months post injury. Methods Stable isotope infusion studies were performed in the postprandial state and during intravenous AA infusion. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained and isotope enrichment determined in order to calculate skeletal muscle FSR. Patients were studied at discharge from hospital (n=11), and at six (n=15), and twelve months (n=14) post injury. Results The cohorts of patients studied at each time point post injury were not different with regards to age, body mass or burn size. AA infusion failed to stimulate FSR above basal values at discharge from hospital (0.27±0.04 vs. 0.26±0.06 %·hr−1), six months post injury (0.20±0.04 vs. 0.22±0.03 %·hr−1), and twelve months post injury (0.16±0.03 vs. 0.15±0.05 %·hr−1). Daily FSR was numerically lower at six months post burn (5.51±0.79 %·day−1) and significantly (P<0.05) lower at 12 months post burn (3.67±0.65 %·day−1) relative to discharge group (6.32±1.02 %·day−1). Discussion The findings of the current study suggest that the deleterious impact of burn injury on skeletal muscle AA metabolism persists for up to one year post injury. In light of these findings, nutritional and pharmacological strategies aimed at attenuating muscle protein breakdown post burn may be a more efficacious approach to maintaining muscle mass in severely burned patients. PMID:23694875

  3. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation

  4. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA...

  5. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA...

  6. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA...

  7. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA...

  8. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA...

  9. A European hospital survey to determine the extent of psychological services offered to patients with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, N E; Faber, A W; Taal, L A

    2001-02-01

    Analogous to a hospital survey in North America (the US and Canada) a survey in Europe was performed to determine the extent of psychological services offered in burn units. The questionnaire used to acquire this information was exactly the same in both continents. One hundred and seventy questionnaires and self-addressed stamped envelopes were sent to the medical manager of the European burn units with the request to pass the questionnaire to the person who provides psychological care to patients in the burn units. The questionnaire was translated into four other languages. Response was 103 (62.8%). The questions posed inquired after what percentage of patients received psychological testing, psychological therapy, displayed symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress, what percentage is given referral and if emotional follow-up is arranged. Also questions about whether staff members of the burn unit displayed symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress were enclosed. Results indicated that few burn units in Europe provide formal psychological testing for their patients and in half of the European hospitals, less than 20% of the patients receive psychological therapy or counselling during their stay in the hospital. Aftercare services are also capable of improvement. Compared with North America, Europe provided less psychological services. No statistical differences were found between countries within Europe.

  10. Superthin Abdominal Wall Glove-Like Flap Combined With Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Reconstruction in Severely Burned Hands or With Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Qiu, Le; Ma, Ben; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-Jie; Peszel, April; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Severe burn and infection to hands always involves the deep structures, such as tendons, joints, and bones. These wounds cannot be closed immediately and therefore creates a high risk for complication. We presented 9 cases with deep dermal burns to the dorsal of the hand (6 electrical burns and 3 thermal crush injuries) with wound infections in 2 cases. The vacuum-assisted closure system was used continuously until the flap reconstruction was performed. A random pattern and superthin abdominal wall skin flap-like glove was designed. The flap was transferred to the defected portion of the dorsum of the hand and resected from the abdominal wall about 3 weeks later. The flaps in 8 of the patients treated by this technique survived completely and partial necrosis of the distal flap occurred in 1 patient. The defect resolved after operative treatment and the function of the hands and fingers were successfully salvaged. All patients resulted in having a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no or minor discomfort at the abdominal donor area. Integration of the vacuum-assisted closure system and the superthin abdominal wall glove-like flap reconstruction appeared to be successful and should be considered in patients with severely burned hands.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply...

  15. 40 CFR 116.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abbreviations. 116.2 Section 116.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DESIGNATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES § 116.2 Abbreviations. ppm=parts per million mg=milligram(s) kg=kilogram(s) mg/l=milligrams(s)...

  16. 40 CFR 117.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abbreviations. 117.2 Section 117.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 117.2 Abbreviations. NPDES...

  17. 40 CFR 600.003 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003 Section 600.003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.003 Abbreviations....

  18. 40 CFR 600.003 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003 Section 600.003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.003 Abbreviations....

  19. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Tolman, B.J.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  20. 40 CFR 300.4 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Introduction § 300.4 Abbreviations. (a) Department and Agency Title Abbreviations: ATSDR—Agency for Toxic... and Atmospheric Administration OSHA—Occupational Health and Safety Administration RSPA—Research and...—Remedial Investigation ROD—Record of Decision RPM—Remedial Project Manager RRC—Regional Response Center...

  1. Abbreviation and acronym disambiguation in clinical discourse.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Sergeui; Pedersen, Ted; Chute, Christopher G

    2005-01-01

    Use of abbreviations and acronyms is pervasive in clinical reports despite many efforts to limit the use of ambiguous and unsanctioned abbreviations and acronyms. Due to the fact that many abbreviations and acronyms are ambiguous with respect to their sense, complete and accurate text analysis is impossible without identification of the sense that was intended for a given abbreviation or acronym. We present the results of an experiment where we used the contexts harvested from the Internet through Google API to collect contextual data for a set of 8 acronyms found in clinical notes at the Mayo Clinic. We then used the contexts to disambiguate the sense of abbreviations in a manually annotated corpus.

  2. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  3. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984–2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984–2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046–2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire

  4. Use of a pediatric oxygenator integrated in a veno-venous hemofiltration circuit to remove CO2: a case report in a severe burn patient with refractory hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Renwart, Ludovic; Amand, Théo; Erpicum, Marie; Morimont, Philippe; Dubois, Bernard; Massion, Paul B

    2014-11-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome management is currently based on lung protective ventilation. Such strategy may lead to hypercapnic acidosis. We report a case of refractory hypercapnia in a severe burn adult, treated with simplified veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal technique. We integrated a pediatric oxygenator in a continuous veno-venous hemofiltration circuit. This technique, used during at least 96h, was feasible, sure and efficient with carbon dioxide removal rate up to 32%.

  5. Molecular pathology of brain edema after severe burns in forensic autopsy cases with special regard to the importance of reference gene selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Guan, Da-Wei; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Brain edema is believed to be linked to high mortality incidence after severe burns. The present study investigated the molecular pathology of brain damage and responses involving brain edema in forensic autopsy cases of fire fatality (n = 55) compared with sudden cardiac death (n = 11), mechanical asphyxia (n = 13), and non-brain injury cases (n = 22). Postmortem mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of aquaporins (AQPs), claudin5 (CLDN5), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined. Prolonged deaths due to severe burns showed an increase in brain water content, but relative mRNA quantification, using different normalization methods, showed inconsistent results: in prolonged deaths due to severe burns, higher expression levels were detected for all markers when three previously validated reference genes, PES1, POLR2A, and IPO8, were used for normalization, higher for AQP1 and MMP9 when GAPDH alone was used for normalization and higher for MMP9, but lower for MMP2 when B2M alone was used for normalization. Additionally, when B2M alone was used for normalization, higher expression of AQP4 was detected in acute fire deaths. Furthermore, the expression stability values of these five reference genes calculated by geNorm demonstrated that B2M was the least stable one, followed by GAPDH. In immunostaining, only AQP1 and MMP9 showed differences among the causes of death: they were evident in most prolonged deaths due to severe burns. These findings suggest that systematic analysis of gene expressions using real-time PCR might be a useful procedure in forensic death investigation, and validation of reference genes is crucial.

  6. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  7. Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone.

  8. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ≤60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion.

  9. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  10. Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Scleral Contact Lens Carrier in an Animal Model of Severe Acute Alkaline Burn

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Caldwell, Delmar; Watson, Richard; Blanco-Mezquita, Tomas; Zhang, Shijia; Bunnell, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) overlaid on a scleral contact lens (SCL) carrier in a rabbit model of ocular alkaline burn. Materials and Methods After inducing alkaline burn in 11 New Zealand white rabbits, hASCs cultured on SCLs were placed on the right eye of 5 rabbits, SCLs without cells were used in 5, and no treatment was applied in 1 eye. Each eye was examined and photographed for corneal vascularization, opacities, and epithelial defect in week 1, 2, and 4 after surgery. After 1 month, rabbits were killed and the corneas were removed and cut in half for electron and light microscopy examination. Results Human adipose-derived stem cells were attached to SCL surface and confluent easily. Human adipose-derived stem cells on SCL eyes showed smaller epithelial defect, less corneal opacity, corneal neovascularization relative to SCL eyes. Both groups showed no symblepharon. However, the cornea in the untreated eye was melted in 2 weeks and developed severe symblepharon. Conclusion Human adipose-derived stem cells on SCL can reduce inflammation and corneal haziness in severe ocular alkaline burn injury in rabbits. PMID:24901976

  11. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in

  12. 40 CFR 600.503-78 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1978 Passenger Automobiles and for 1979 and Later Model Year Automobiles (Light Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.503-78 Abbreviations....

  13. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations....

  14. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... addition, the following abbreviations shall apply to this subpart: ASTR—All States Trading Region HEV—hybrid electric vehicle. LEV—low emission vehicle. NMOG—non-methane organic gases. NTR—Northeast...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... addition, the following abbreviations shall apply to this subpart: ASTR—All States Trading Region HEV—hybrid electric vehicle. LEV—low emission vehicle. NMOG—non-methane organic gases. NTR—Northeast...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... addition, the following abbreviations shall apply to this subpart: ASTR—All States Trading Region HEV—hybrid electric vehicle. LEV—low emission vehicle. NMOG—non-methane organic gases. NTR—Northeast...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... addition, the following abbreviations shall apply to this subpart: ASTR—All States Trading Region HEV—hybrid electric vehicle. LEV—low emission vehicle. NMOG—non-methane organic gases. NTR—Northeast...

  18. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations....

  19. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations....

  20. Effects of a Hospital Based Wellness and Exercise Program on Quality of Life of Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Marta; Celis, Mario M; Meyer, Walter; Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa; McEntire, Serina J.; Fuchs, Helen; Richardson, Lisa; Holzer, Charles; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of a 12-week Wellness and Exercise (W&E) program on the quality of life of pediatric burn survivors with burns of ≥ 40% total body surface area. We hypothesized this comprehensive regimen would improve physical and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Children were recruited for participation upon their discharge from the ICU. They were not taking anabolic/cardiovascular agents. Seventeen children participated in the W&E group and 14 children in the Standard of Care (SOC) group. Quality of life was assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) at discharge and 3 months. Children completed the CHQ-CF 87 and caregivers completed the CHQ-PF 28. Results The mean age of children in the W&E group was 14.07y±3.5 and mean TBSA was 58%±11.8. The mean age of children in the SOC group was 13.9y±3.1 and mean TBSA was 49%±7.8. ANOVA did not reveal statistically significant differences between the groups. Matched paired t-tests revealed that parents with children in the W&E group reported significant improvements with their children’s physical functioning, role/social physical functioning, mental health, overall physical and psychosocial functioning post-exercise. Conclusions These results are clinically relevant in that a comprehensive W&E program may be beneficial in promoting physical and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:22985974

  1. Preliminary results from the comparison of simple limbal epithelial transplantation with conjunctival limbal autologous transplantation in severe unilateral chronic ocular burns

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ritu; Dokania, Pallavi; Manudhane, Aditi; Goyal, Jawahar Lal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes of simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) with conjunctival-limbal autologous transplantation (CLAU) in severe unilateral ocular chemical burns. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of unilateral chronic ocular burns with more than 270° limbal stem cell deficiency and a healthy fellow eye were divided into two groups – ten patients of Group A underwent SLET while ten patients of Group B were operated for CLAU. Patients were followed up for 6 months and assessed for a stable epithelialized ocular surface, extent of reduction in vascularization and forniceal reconstruction, improvement in corneal clarity and visual acuity. Results: A stable epithelialized corneal surface was obtained in all patients, with a significant reduction in the mean clock hours of vascularization in both the groups (P < 0.001). The mean symblepharon score showed a statistically significant reduction from 1.80 ± 1.14 to 0.30 ± 0.63 in Group A and 1.70 ± 1.06 to 0.15 ± 0.24 in Group B at 6 months. Corneal clarity, as well as best-corrected visual acuity, showed a statistically significant improvement in both the groups. Conclusion: Both the procedures, SLET and CLAU, were equally effective in achieving a stable ocular surface, forniceal reconstruction, and regression of corneal vascularization. The requirement of minimal donor tissue in SLET makes it a preferred option over CLAU in cases of uniocular chronic ocular burns. PMID:28300738

  2. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S.; Forster, N.; Giovanoli, P.; Guggenheim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed. PMID:26668566

  3. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M

    2015-03-31

    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  4. IGF-I/IGFBP-3 equilibrates ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines, which are predictors for organ function in severely burned pediatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Barrow, Robert E.; Suzuki, Fujiyo; Rai, Jyoti; Benjamin, Deb; Herndon, David N.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines can be associated with hepatic, cardiac, and renal function after a severe trauma and can be used as predictors for clinical outcome. Furthermore, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in combination with its principle binding protein (IGFBP-3) equilibrates pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios and improves homeostasis of severely burned pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen severely burned children were given a continuous infusion of IGF-I/BP-3 for 5 days after wound excision and grafting; seven were given saline during the same time period to serve as controls. Patient demographics and mortality were determined. Five days after excision and grafting, cardiac function was determined and blood samples were taken for serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, creatinine, pre-albumin, cholinesterase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma). RESULTS: There were no differences between IGF-I/BP-3 and controls in age, gender, burn size, or mortality. Serum IGF-I in burned children given the IGF-I/BP-3 complex increased from 102 + 15 to 433 + 33 microg/ml and IGFBP-3 increased from 1.5 + 0.2 to 3.0 + 0.2 microg/ml (p < 0.05). Serum pre-albumin and cholinesterase increased with IGF-I/BP-3, whereas serum creatinine decreased when compared to controls (p < 0.05). IGF-I/BP-3 increased cardiac index by 16% and stroke volume index by 15% (p < 0.05). These improvements in organ homeostasis were associated with decreased ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines in the IGF-I/BP-3 group when compared to controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines may indicate a higher risk for the incidence of multi-organ failure. We therefore suggest that ratios of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines can be used to predict organ function. We further conclude that IGF

  5. Modelling human burn injuries in a three-dimensional virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, J; Giretzlehner, M; Ruhmer, M; Haller, H; Rodemund, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a work-in-progress report on our research project BurnCase, a virtual environment for modelling human burn injuries. The goal of the project is to simplify and improve the diagnosis and medical treatment of burns. Due to the lack of electronic and computational support for current diagnosis methods, enormous variations regarding the approximated size of burned skin regions exist. And although Simplifications like the Rule-Of-Nines-Method ([Weidringer, 2002]), Lund and Browder ([LundBrowder, 1944]) and others try to compensate for these errors, the fact remains that different physicians overestimate the BSA (Body Surface Area) by 20% up to 50%, depending on the different experience and subjectivity of the approximation process. Nevertheless, different supporting mechanisms have been developed to assist the process of burn region transfer so that after transferring all burned regions on the virtual human body, calculations can be applied in order to evaluate standard indices like the ABSI (Abbreviated Burn Severity Index), and Baux ([Baux, 1989]) as well as ICD10 (International Classification of Diseases) diagnosis encoding. The virtual body simulation is based on state-of-the-art 3D computer graphics (OpenGL). Thus a simulation system, providing a graphical user interface, allows surgeons to transfer a patient's burn injury regions onto an appropriate 3-dimensional model. As such, the BurnCase system improves surface determination by calculating region surfaces up to a precision of one cm2. This improves the average variation to less than 5%, limited by the precision of the surface transfer onto the virtual model. The system already allows the transfer of burned regions by using standard input devices. For this purpose different reference models of human bodies have been created in order to receive appropriate results based on measured physical data of different patients. Moreover, an underlying database stores all entered case studies so that it is

  6. Serum albumin level as a risk factor for mortality in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Alejandra Aguayo-Becerra, Olivia; Torres-Garibay, Carlos; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; de Guadalupe Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Andalón-Dueñas, Elizabeth; Espinosa Partida, Arturo; Álvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Del Socorro; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; Alejandro González-Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypoalbuminemia is a common clinical deficiency in burn patients and is associated with complications related to increased extravascular fluid, including edema, abnormal healing, and susceptibility to sepsis. Some prognostic scales do not include biochemical parameters, whereas others consider them together with comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum albumin can predict mortality in burn patients. METHODS: We studied burn patients ≥16 years of age who had complete clinical documentation, including the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index, serum albumin, globulin, and lipids. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine the cut-off level of albumin that predicts mortality. RESULTS: In our analysis of 486 patients, we found that mortality was higher for burns caused by flame (p = 0.000), full-thickness burns (p = 0.004), inhalation injuries (p = 0.000), burns affecting >30% of the body surface area (p = 0.001), and burns associated with infection (p = 0.008). Protein and lipid levels were lower in the patients who died (p<0.05). Albumin levels showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (84% and 83%, respectively), and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (0.869) had a cut-off of 1.95 g/dL for mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with albumin levels <2 g/dL had a mortality risk of >80%, with 84% sensitivity and 83% specificity. At admission, the albumin level could be used as a sensitive and specific marker of burn severity and an indicator of mortality. PMID:23917657

  7. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  8. Burn Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs - Fire and Burn Prevention - - Fire Safe Kids - - Senior Smoke Alarm Program - - National Scald Campaign - - Community Services - Burn Survivor Support - - Camp Beyond the Scars - - Retreats - - Burn Survivor & Caregiver Support Groups - - Scholarship Program - - Emergency Needs & Special Assistance Fund - - Red ...

  9. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  10. [The pain from burns].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  11. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  12. A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Åke; Rydén, Andreas; Law, Robin J.; de Boer, Jacob; Covaci, Adrian; Alaee, Mehran; Birnbaum, Linda; Petreas, Myrto; Rose, Martin; Sakai, Shinichi; Van den Eede, Nele; van der Veen, Ike

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants. PMID:22982223

  13. A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ake; Rydén, Andreas; Law, Robin J; de Boer, Jacob; Covaci, Adrian; Alaee, Mehran; Birnbaum, Linda; Petreas, Myrto; Rose, Martin; Sakai, Shinichi; Van den Eede, Nele; van der Veen, Ike

    2012-11-15

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants.

  14. 49 CFR 172.308 - Authorized abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized abbreviations. 172.308 Section 172.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  15. 49 CFR 172.308 - Authorized abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized abbreviations. 172.308 Section 172.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  16. 49 CFR 172.308 - Authorized abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized abbreviations. 172.308 Section 172.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  17. 49 CFR 172.308 - Authorized abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized abbreviations. 172.308 Section 172.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  18. 21 CFR 1002.12 - Abbreviated reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Radiation Safety Abbreviated Report” which shall include: (a) Firm and model identification. (b) A brief description of operational characteristics that affect radiation emissions, transmission, or leakage or that control exposure. (c) A list of applications or uses. (d) Radiation emission, transmission, or...

  19. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training...

  20. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training...

  1. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training...

  2. 77 FR 7546 - Definitions and Abbreviations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...-AA87 Definitions and Abbreviations AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Rural Utilities Service... interest with prior Agency approval. By defining ``interest'' in the definition section of the regulation... definitions, which has thirty seven terms use in the Guaranteed Loanmaking. The definitions and...

  3. 77 FR 7517 - Definitions and Abbreviations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4279 RIN 0570-AA87 Definitions and Abbreviations AGENCY...'' in the definition section of the regulation and clarifying the Agency's policy as it relates to...) discusses the definitions, which has thirty-seven terms used in the Guaranteed Loanmaking. The...

  4. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training...

  5. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training...

  6. 21 CFR 1002.12 - Abbreviated reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... “Radiation Safety Abbreviated Report” which shall include: (a) Firm and model identification. (b) A brief description of operational characteristics that affect radiation emissions, transmission, or leakage or...

  7. 21 CFR 1002.12 - Abbreviated reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... “Radiation Safety Abbreviated Report” which shall include: (a) Firm and model identification. (b) A brief description of operational characteristics that affect radiation emissions, transmission, or leakage or...

  8. 21 CFR 1002.12 - Abbreviated reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... “Radiation Safety Abbreviated Report” which shall include: (a) Firm and model identification. (b) A brief description of operational characteristics that affect radiation emissions, transmission, or leakage or...

  9. 21 CFR 1002.12 - Abbreviated reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... “Radiation Safety Abbreviated Report” which shall include: (a) Firm and model identification. (b) A brief description of operational characteristics that affect radiation emissions, transmission, or leakage or...

  10. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2...

  11. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  12. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations...

  13. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations...

  14. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts...

  15. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 96.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II...

  16. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO 2 Trading Program General Provisions § 96.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III...

  17. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined...

  18. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts...

  19. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined...

  20. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined...

  1. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined...

  2. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined...

  3. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 96.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows:...

  4. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 96.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows:...

  5. 40 CFR 97.403 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.403 Section 97.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program § 97.403 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations,...

  6. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Trading Program General Provisions § 96.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III...

  7. 40 CFR 97.403 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.403 Section 97.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program § 97.403 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations,...

  8. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 96.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows:...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 60.4103 Section 60.4103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....4103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in...

  10. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined...

  11. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 96.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II...

  12. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO 2 Trading Program General Provisions § 96.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III...

  13. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts...

  14. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 96.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading....

  16. 32 CFR 245.6 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 245.6 Section 245.6...) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT) Explanation of Terms, Acronyms and Abbreviations § 245.6 Abbreviations and acronyms. AADC—Area Air Defense Commander ADE—Air Defense Emergency...

  17. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.303 Section 96.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts...

  18. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart....

  19. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 89.3...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General § 89.3 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 89. AECD Auxiliary emission control...

  20. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.303 Section 96.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts...

  1. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  2. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart....

  3. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart....

  4. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  5. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  6. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart....

  7. 40 CFR 60.4103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 60.4103 Section 60.4103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....4103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in...

  8. 32 CFR 245.6 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 245.6 Section 245.6...) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT) Explanation of Terms, Acronyms and Abbreviations § 245.6 Abbreviations and acronyms. AADC—Area Air Defense Commander ADE—Air Defense Emergency...

  9. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  10. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart....

  11. 40 CFR 90.5 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 90.5...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS General § 90.5 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 90. AECD—Auxiliary...

  12. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in §...

  13. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply...

  14. Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.

    PubMed

    Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral burning is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described.

  15. Burn Wise

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  16. Hypocupremia in a major burn.

    PubMed

    Brian, J E; Caldwell, F T; Woody, R C; Bowser-Wallace, B H

    1987-03-01

    Trace element deficiency in burns is an area which apparently has not been investigated. We recently encountered a severely burned patient with profound copper depletion. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and delayed healing may have been secondary to this deficiency. Further study is needed to clearly delineate the role of acquired copper deficiency in recovering burned patients.

  17. Assessment and management of patients with burns.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Martyn; Swales, Beverley

    Burns are a common injury in the UK. Most burns are limited in size and depth and are therefore suitable for management in the community. Primary care and non-specialist clinicians need to understand initial assessment of the burn and when referral to a specialist burns unit is indicated. Successful treatment of minor burns and ongoing care of severe burns in the community requires careful selection of dressings to support wound healing and achieve optimal outcomes for patients.

  18. Pain in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  19. Concepts for Intuitive and Abbreviated Planning Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    developing a military planning process that is easier to perform, more effective, and more consistent with natural human reasoning capabilities than...eleven specific concepts that should be considered in development of an abbreviated, intuitive planning process . This report also presents a...prototype process to serve as a framework in which to consider how intuitive planning concepts might be synthesized with existing planning procedures

  20. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease, peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...70%); 13 for other compli- ations, such as biliary or perineal conditions (26%); and 4 or feeding access (8%). For the civilians, 2 had trauma

  1. Limbal Stem Cell Allografts and Corneal Transplant in a Patient with Severe Corneal Melting and Perforation due to Thermokeratoplasty and Cross-Linking Treatment Burn

    PubMed Central

    Garduño-Vieyra, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Claudia Ruth; Hernandez-Da Mota, Sergio E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report corneal stem cell allografts in a patient with a persistent epithelial defect as well as corneal melting and perforation due to severe ultraviolet light burn and thermokeratoplasty treatment for keratoconus. Methods A 21-year-old female patient with corneal melting, perforation and a persistent epithelial defect in her left eye secondary to iatrogenic treatment for keratoconus, thermokeratoplasty and cross-linking was treated with penetrating keratoplasty, using a 9.0-mm diameter corneal graft and limbal stem cell allograft implants. At the end of the procedure, subtenonian injections of a combination of bevacizumab and triamcinolone were given. Results The patient had a favorable outcome 48 h after surgery, with an improvement of symptoms and a complete corneal healing. By the third week after surgery, she had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/60 and a clear corneal graft, which remained stable for the 9 months of follow-up. Conclusions Treatment with limbal stem cell allografts and penetrating keratoplasty in a female patient with a large corneal defect and melting in her left eye was effective. Larger studies are warranted to explore the real impact of this procedure. PMID:23185178

  2. Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Young J.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day of the long-range transport (LTP) period was mainly due to EC particle growth from in-cloud processing with secondary aerosols such as sulfate and organic aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of biomass burning (BB) aerosol increased sharply from 0.89 to 0.94 under a relative humidity >70%, suggesting that organic aerosols emitted from rice straw burning contained high amounts of hydrophilic compounds. The contribution of aerosol water content to the total light extinction coefficient (bext) was determined as 51.4% and 68.4% during the BB and BB + LTP periods, respectively, indicating that the haze episodes were highly enhanced by an increase in aerosol water content. The Asian dust event was characterized by the highest SSA (0.92 ± 0.02), the lowest mass scattering efficiency of fine particles (2.5 ± 1.0 m2 g-1), and the lowest hygroscopic nature (humidity-dependent light scattering enhancement factor, f(80%), which is defined by the ratio of light scattering coefficient at 80% relative humidity to that at dry condition, = ˜1.37). Based on the Ångström exponent (α) values observed at the source region of the Asian continent and the downwind area of South Korea during the BB + LTP period, it was found that the α value of urban aerosols decreased ˜11% for 1-2 days of the transport, probably due to the increase in particle size through water uptake. Increasing rates of surface PM10 mass concentrations at western coastal areas of the South Korean peninsula were in the range 2.4-14.4 μgm-3 h-1 at the beginning of the BB + LTP period (24 October 2005, 0700-2300 LT). Based on

  3. Cement Burns

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munir; Moynagh, M.; Lawlor, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cement burns account for relatively few admissions to a burn unit; however, these burns deserve separate consideration because of special features of diagnosis and management. Cement burns, even though potentially disabling, have rarely been reported in literature. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients admitted with cement burns injuries to the national burns unit at the St James's Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, over a 10-year period for the years 1996–2005. Results: A total of 46 patients with cement burns were admitted. The majority of patients were aged 16–74 years (mean age = 32 years). Eighty-seven percent of injuries occurred in an industrial and 13% in a domestic setting. The upper and lower extremities were involved in all the patients, and the mean total body surface area affected was 6.5%. The mean length of hospital stay was 21 days with a range of 1–40 days. Thirty-eight (82%) were surgically managed involving debridement and split-thickness skin graft (SSG) and four (9%) were conservatively managed. A further four did not have data available. Conclusion: Widespread inexperience in dealing with this group of cement burns patients and delays in referral to burns unit highlights the potential for greater levels of general awareness and knowledge in both prevention and treatment of these burns. As well, early debridement and split-thickness skin grafting at diagnosis constitutes the best means of reducing the high socioeconomic costs and allows for early return to work. PMID:18091981

  4. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  5. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is...

  6. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is...

  7. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is...

  8. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is...

  9. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is...

  10. 7 CFR 4274.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Statewide Nonmetropolitan Median Household Income..., the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. (b) Abbreviations....

  11. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  12. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and.... The draft guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and...

  13. 40 CFR 97.703 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.703 Section 97.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... 2 Trading Program § 97.703 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements,...

  14. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms....

  15. 40 CFR 97.503 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.503 Section 97.503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Season Trading Program § 97.503 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements,...

  16. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.203 Section 97.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms....

  17. 40 CFR 97.503 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.503 Section 97.503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Season Trading Program § 97.503 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements,...

  18. 40 CFR 97.703 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.703 Section 97.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... 2 Trading Program § 97.703 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements,...

  19. 40 CFR 97.603 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.603 Section 97.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... 1 Trading Program § 97.603 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements,...

  20. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.203 Section 97.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms....

  1. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.203 Section 97.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms....

  2. 40 CFR 97.603 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.603 Section 97.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... 1 Trading Program § 97.603 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements,...

  3. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms....

  4. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms....

  5. 7 CFR 767.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 767.2 Section 767.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Overview § 767.2 Abbreviations and...

  6. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or...

  7. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or...

  8. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or...

  9. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or...

  10. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or...

  11. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  12. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.... (a) Who may submit an abbreviated plan? A jurisdiction that is not a CDBG entitlement community under... abbreviated plan may be submitted for the HUD-administered Small Cities program (except that an...

  13. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.... (a) Who may submit an abbreviated plan? A jurisdiction that is not a CDBG entitlement community under... abbreviated plan may be submitted for the HUD-administered Small Cities program (except that an...

  14. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.... (a) Who may submit an abbreviated plan? A jurisdiction that is not a CDBG entitlement community under... abbreviated plan may be submitted for the HUD-administered Small Cities program (except that an...

  15. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.... (a) Who may submit an abbreviated plan? A jurisdiction that is not a CDBG entitlement community under... abbreviated plan may be submitted for the HUD-administered Small Cities program (except that an...

  16. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.... (a) Who may submit an abbreviated plan? A jurisdiction that is not a CDBG entitlement community under... abbreviated plan may be submitted for the HUD-administered Small Cities program (except that an...

  17. 7 CFR 3555.10 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Agency in a Federal Register notice describing how to calculate the maximum allowable interest... abbreviations. The definitions and abbreviations in this section apply to this part. Acceleration. Demand for... who live or propose to live in the dwelling as their primary residence for all or part of the...

  18. 32 CFR 507.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... abbreviations and terms. (a) Abbreviations. (1) AFB—Air Force Base. (2) DA—Department of the Army. (3) DCSPER... unit insignia. (6) ROTC—Reserve Officers' Training Corps. (7) SSI—shoulder sleeve insignia. (8) TIOH—The Institute of Heraldry. (9) USAF—United States Air Force. (b) Terms—(1) Cartoon. A drawing...

  19. 32 CFR 507.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... abbreviations and terms. (a) Abbreviations. (1) AFB—Air Force Base. (2) DA—Department of the Army. (3) DCSPER... unit insignia. (6) ROTC—Reserve Officers' Training Corps. (7) SSI—shoulder sleeve insignia. (8) TIOH—The Institute of Heraldry. (9) USAF—United States Air Force. (b) Terms—(1) Cartoon. A drawing...

  20. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  1. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  2. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.103 Section 97.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined...

  3. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1037.805 Section 1037.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Information § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms,...

  4. 40 CFR 97.703 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.703 Section 97.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... 2 Trading Program § 97.703 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart are defined as follows: Btu—British thermal unit CO2—carbon...

  5. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.203 Section 97.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are defined as follows:...

  6. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.103 Section 96.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II...

  7. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.303 Section 97.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined...

  8. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.303 Section 97.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined...

  9. 48 CFR 302.7000 - Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Common HHSAR acronyms and... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Common HHSAR Acronyms and Abbreviations 302.7000 Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The HHSAR cites numerous acquisition-related and organizational...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.805 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Information § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and... the convenience of the user, the added text is set forth as follows: § 1037.805 Symbols, acronyms,...

  11. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.103 Section 96.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II...

  12. 40 CFR 97.403 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.403 Section 97.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program § 97.403 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart are defined as follows: Btu—British thermal unit CO2—carbon dioxide...

  13. 48 CFR 302.7000 - Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Common HHSAR acronyms and... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Common HHSAR Acronyms and Abbreviations 302.7000 Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The HHSAR cites numerous acquisition-related and organizational...

  14. 40 CFR 97.603 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.603 Section 97.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... 1 Trading Program § 97.603 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart are defined as follows: Btu—British thermal unit CO2—carbon...

  15. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.203 Section 96.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III...

  16. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu-British thermal unit....

  17. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  18. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.3 Section 96.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows:...

  19. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.3 Section 96.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows:...

  20. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.203 Section 96.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III...

  1. 48 CFR 302.7000 - Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common HHSAR acronyms and... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Common HHSAR Acronyms and Abbreviations 302.7000 Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The HHSAR cites numerous acquisition-related and organizational...

  2. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.203 Section 97.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are defined as follows:...

  3. 40 CFR 97.503 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.503 Section 97.503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Season Trading Program § 97.503 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart are defined as follows: Btu—British thermal unit CO2—carbon...

  4. 48 CFR 302.7000 - Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Common HHSAR acronyms and... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Common HHSAR Acronyms and Abbreviations 302.7000 Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The HHSAR cites numerous acquisition-related and organizational...

  5. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  6. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. § 87.2 Acronyms and abbreviations. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18,...

  7. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.103 Section 97.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined...

  8. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu-British thermal unit....

  9. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms...

  10. Features of Word Omission and Abbreviation in Telexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Helena; Dudley-Evans, Tony

    1986-01-01

    Features of telexes used for business correspondence are discussed, including omission of parts of verbs, definite and indefinite articles, pronouns, and prepositions, and also word abbreviations. The telex is different from other abbreviated texts (such as telegrams), and Business English courses should include instruction in telex writing.…

  11. Burn Pits

    MedlinePlus

    ... unexploded ordnance, petroleum and lubricant products, plastics, rubber, wood, and discarded food. Burning waste in open air ... Regulations Web Policies No FEAR Act Whistleblower Rights & Protections Site Index USA.gov White House Inspector General ...

  12. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns. PMID:25114621

  13. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813

  14. A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload to allow for sufficient vital organ perfusion. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective cohort study of 132 consecutive critically burned patients. These patients underwent resuscitation guided by MAP (>65 mmHg), urinary output (0.5 to 1 ml/kg), TPTD and lactate levels. Fluid therapy was adjusted to achieve a cardiac index (CI) >2.5 L/minute/m2 and an intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) >600 ml/m2, and to optimize lactate levels. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models. We also used Pearson or Spearman methods and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 98 men and 34 women (mean age, 48 ± 18 years) was studied. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 35% ± 22%. During the early resuscitation phase, lactate levels were elevated (2.58 ± 2.05 mmol/L) and TPTD showed initial hypovolemia by the CI (2.68 ± 1.06 L/minute/m2) and the ITBVI (709 ± 254 mL/m2). At 24 to 32 hours, the CI and lactic levels were normalized, although the ITBVI remained below the normal range (744 ± 276 ml/m2). The mean fluid rate required to achieve protocol targets in the first 8 hours was 4.05 ml/kg/TBSA burned, which slightly increased in the next 16 hours. Patients with a urine output greater than or less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour did not show differences in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CI, ITBVI or lactate levels. Conclusions Initial hypovolemia may be detected by TPTD monitoring during the early resuscitation phase. This hypovolemia might not be reflected by blood

  15. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

  16. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  17. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  18. Parafoveal and Foveal Processing of Abbreviations during Eye Fixations in Reading: Making a Case for Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Berry, Raymond W.; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of 2 distinct types: acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence [GPC] rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the GPCs are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal…

  19. 24 CFR 50.2 - Terms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for HUD assistance or insurance. (b) The following abbreviations are used throughout this part: AS/CPD...—Environmental Assessment EIS—Environmental Impact Statement FONSI—Finding of No Significant Impact...

  20. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it…

  1. Burn Wise - Outreach Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  2. The wound/burn guidelines - 6: Guidelines for the management of burns.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuichiro; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Sakai, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Akira; Hayashi, Masahiro; Madokoro, Naoki; Asano, Yoshihide; Abe, Masatoshi; Ishii, Takayuki; Isei, Taiki; Ito, Takaaki; Inoue, Yuji; Imafuku, Shinichi; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Ogawa, Fumihide; Kadono, Takafumi; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kukino, Ryuichi; Kono, Takeshi; Kodera, Masanari; Takahara, Masakazu; Tanioka, Miki; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Takeo; Matsuo, Koma; Yamasaki, Osamu; Le Pavoux, Andres; Tachibana, Takao; Ihn, Hironobu

    2016-09-01

    Burns are a common type of skin injury encountered at all levels of medical facilities from private clinics to core hospitals. Minor burns heal by topical treatment alone, but moderate to severe burns require systemic management, and skin grafting is often necessary also for topical treatment. Inappropriate initial treatment or delay of initial treatment may exert adverse effects on the subsequent treatment and course. Therefore, accurate evaluation of the severity and initiation of appropriate treatment are necessary. The Guidelines for the Management of Burn Injuries were issued in March 2009 from the Japanese Society for Burn Injuries as guidelines concerning burns, but they were focused on the treatment for extensive and severe burns in the acute period. Therefore, we prepared guidelines intended to support the appropriate diagnosis and initial treatment for patients with burns that are commonly encountered including minor as well as moderate and severe cases. Because of this intention of the present guidelines, there is no recommendation of individual surgical procedures.

  3. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  4. Burn Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    areas involving large areas of skin the patient is exposed to death first from shock . . .’’ [10]. In describing the pathophysiology leading to the shock...state seen in burns he postulated that various irritants , mental and physical, caused vasomotor paresis leading to accumulation of blood in the...resuscitation volumes. Subsequent studies suggested a decrease in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Oda et al., in 2006, published their experience

  5. Management of burns in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Sittah, G.S.; Chahine, F.M.; Janom, H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Burns are one of the most devastating forms of trauma worldwide. While geriatric burns are uncommon in the developing world - accounting for less than 5% of burns in South Asian and Middle Eastern countries - they account for almost 20% of burns in economically developed countries such as the USA. The elderly population in general is at higher risk for burn injury, moreover mortality rate, as well as severity of complications, is more pronounced in this group of patients. A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate risk factors as well as pathophysiological and immunological conditions that affect response to burn injury in the elderly population. Surgical and medical interventions used for the management of geriatric burns remain a field of controversy and ongoing debate. Improvement of burn management with reduction in mortality in this age group warrants addressing survivors’ quality of life, with a special focus on rehabilitation and support. PMID:28289356

  6. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  7. Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

  8. Development of the Abbreviated Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale.

    PubMed

    Swartout, Kevin M; Parrott, Dominic J; Cohn, Amy M; Hagman, Brett T; Gallagher, Kathryn E

    2015-06-01

    Data gathered from 6 independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men's masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) Scale. The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS Scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15 items were examined with item response theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS Scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hypermasculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS Scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice.

  9. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  10. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  11. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  12. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes.

  13. Detection of sentence boundaries and abbreviations in clinical narratives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western languages the period character is highly ambiguous, due to its double role as sentence delimiter and abbreviation marker. This is particularly relevant in clinical free-texts characterized by numerous anomalies in spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and with a high frequency of short forms. Methods The problem is addressed by two binary classifiers for abbreviation and sentence detection. A support vector machine exploiting a linear kernel is trained on different combinations of feature sets for each classification task. Feature relevance ranking is applied to investigate which features are important for the particular task. The methods are applied to German language texts from a medical record system, authored by specialized physicians. Results Two collections of 3,024 text snippets were annotated regarding the role of period characters for training and testing. Cohen's kappa resulted in 0.98. For abbreviation and sentence boundary detection we can report an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure using a 10-fold cross validation of 0.97 for the training set. For test set based evaluation we obtained an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure of 0.95 for abbreviation detection and 0.94 for sentence delineation. Language-dependent resources and rules were found to have less impact on abbreviation detection than on sentence delineation. Conclusions Sentence detection is an important task, which should be performed at the beginning of a text processing pipeline. For the text genre under scrutiny we showed that support vector machines exploiting a linear kernel produce state of the art results for sentence boundary detection. The results are comparable with other sentence boundary detection methods applied to English clinical texts. We identified abbreviation detection as a supportive task for sentence delineation. PMID:26099994

  14. MSFC Space Station Program Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas G.

    1988-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center maintains an active history program to assure that the foundation of the Center's history is captured and preserved for current and future generations. As part of that overall effort, the Center began a project in 1987 to capture historical information and documentation on the Marshall Center's roles regarding Space Shuttle and Space Station. This document is MSFC Space Station Program Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations Listing. It contains acronyms and abbreviations used in Space Station documentation and in the Historian Annotated Bibliography of Space Station Program. The information may be used by the researcher as a reference tool.

  15. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  16. A half-century of burn epidemiology and burn care in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Chace, Reeve; Hallagan, Lee D; Clark, David E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the changes in incidence, severity, and mortality in burn injuries in the state of Maine over the past 50 years from both prevention and treatment perspectives. The authors analyzed the data from multiple sources, including the U.S. Census, death certificates, hospital discharge abstracts, and institutional burn registries in Maine and Boston. The average annual number of burn-related deaths decreased from 53 in 1960-1964 to 14 in 2004-2008. The Maine age-adjusted rate of burn deaths was 8.6% above the national rate in 1960 and 1.4% below it in 2006. The annual number of burn patients admitted to Maine hospitals declined by 65% from 1978 to 2009. Since 1999, 12% of hospitalized patients in Maine were treated in an American Burn Association-certified burn center in Boston. Mortality for Maine burn patients, including those treated at Boston hospitals, is directly related to age and burn severity and similar to stratified mortality in the National Burn Repository. Incidence, severity, and mortality of burn injuries in Maine have decreased dramatically over the past 5 decades. Prevention programs, legislation, and a regionalized system of burn care have all likely contributed to bringing Maine's morbidity and mortality rate below the national average.

  17. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

  18. Utility of a clinically derived abbreviated form of the WAIS-III.

    PubMed

    Wymer, Joy H; Rayls, Katrina; Wagner, Mark T

    2003-12-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) often poses problems for many populations due to the length of administration. Twenty geriatric subjects were administered the full WAIS-III. Three abbreviated forms of the WAIS-III (Satz-Mogel abbreviation; seven-subtest short form; and a clinically derived abbreviation) were evaluated by rescoring original full WAIS-III protocols. Results showed that the abbreviated WAIS-III protocols were highly correlated with complete protocols, and classification rules were the highest for the clinically derived abbreviation. The clinically derived abbreviation was reevaluated in a college LD/ADHD population yielding similarly high correlations. Results support the use of abbreviated forms of the WAIS-III in the evaluation of elderly patients and young adults, and point to the clinically derived abbreviation as providing the smallest discrepancies from FSIQ.

  19. 75 FR 77897 - Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental... National Historic Trail Feasibility Study. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of... Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility...

  20. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  1. 16 CFR 300.9 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks. 300.9 Section 300.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.9...

  2. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... RESPONSIBILITIES Purpose, Legal Authority, Federal Laws and Authorities § 58.2 Terms, abbreviations and definitions...: (i) With respect to environmental responsibilities under programs listed in § 58.1(b)(1), (2),...

  3. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... RESPONSIBILITIES Purpose, Legal Authority, Federal Laws and Authorities § 58.2 Terms, abbreviations and definitions...: (i) With respect to environmental responsibilities under programs listed in § 58.1(b)(1), (2),...

  4. 40 CFR 310.4 - What abbreviations should I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution Contingency Plan also known as the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR part 300). NRC—National....4 Section 310.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... following abbreviations appear in this part: CERCLA—The Comprehensive Environmental Response,...

  5. Emergence of Abbreviation in Early Mother-Infant Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Micheline; Villachan-Lyra, Pompeia; Lyra, Maria C. D. P.

    Using concepts of "dialogical highlighting dynamics" and "abbreviation" developed by Lyra and colleagues (e.g., Lyra & Rossetti-Ferreira, 1995), this study investigated how early mother-infant relationships develop, particularly the changing nature of the communication dynamics and the tendency toward stability exhibited in…

  6. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan; FSAFarm Service Agency; IMPIndividual-Type Minor Program loan; OLOperating Loan; USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture. (b) Definitions. Association-Type Minor Program loans (AMP): Loans to...

  7. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan; FSAFarm Service Agency; IMPIndividual-Type Minor Program loan; OLOperating Loan; USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture. (b) Definitions. Association-Type Minor Program loans (AMP): Loans to...

  8. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan; FSAFarm Service Agency; IMPIndividual-Type Minor Program loan; OLOperating Loan; USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture. (b) Definitions. Association-Type Minor Program loans (AMP): Loans to...

  9. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan; FSAFarm Service Agency; IMPIndividual-Type Minor Program loan; OLOperating Loan; USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture. (b) Definitions. Association-Type Minor Program loans (AMP): Loans to...

  10. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan; FSAFarm Service Agency; IMPIndividual-Type Minor Program loan; OLOperating Loan; USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture. (b) Definitions. Association-Type Minor Program loans (AMP): Loans to...

  11. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.3...

  12. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.3...

  13. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.3...

  14. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.3...

  15. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.3...

  16. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  17. 32 CFR 507.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 507.3 Section 507.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL...—Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. (4) DSCP—Defense Supply Center Philadelphia. (5)...

  18. 32 CFR 245.6 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Damage Assessment CDS—Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada) CERAP—Center-RAPCON CJCS—Chairman, Joint Chiefs... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 245.6 Section 245.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville Pt. 552, Subpt. M, App. F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville Pt. 552, Subpt. M, App. F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part...

  1. 16 CFR 300.9 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks..., ditto marks, and asterisks. (a) In disclosing required information, words or terms shall not be designated by ditto marks or appear in footnotes referred to by asterisks or other symbols in...

  2. 27 CFR 19.726 - Authorized abbreviations to identify spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... records: Kinds of spirits Abbreviations Alcohol A Brandy BR Bourbon Whisky BW Canadian Whisky CNW Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Corn Whisky CW Grain Spirits GS Irish Whisky IW Light Whisky LW Malt Whisky MW Neutral Spirits NS Neutral Spirits Grain NSG Rye Whisky RW Scotch Whisky SW Specially...

  3. 48 CFR 3402.101-70 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 3402.101-70 Section 3402.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.... FSA—Federal Student Aid. HCA—Head of the Contracting Activity. IPv6—Internet Protocol version 6....

  4. 48 CFR 3402.101-70 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 3402.101-70 Section 3402.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.... FSA—Federal Student Aid. HCA—Head of the Contracting Activity. IPv6—Internet Protocol version 6....

  5. 48 CFR 3402.101-70 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 3402.101-70 Section 3402.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.... FSA—Federal Student Aid. HCA—Head of the Contracting Activity. IPv6—Internet Protocol version 6....

  6. 48 CFR 3402.101-70 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Abbreviations and acronyms. 3402.101-70 Section 3402.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.... FSA—Federal Student Aid. HCA—Head of the Contracting Activity. IPv6—Internet Protocol version 6....

  7. 32 CFR 518.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 518.3 Section 518.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.3...

  8. 32 CFR 518.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 518.3 Section 518.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.3...

  9. 32 CFR 518.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 518.3 Section 518.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.3...

  10. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations and symbols. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS... indicated airspeed. ICAO means International Civil Aviation Organization. IFR means instrument flight...

  11. FASTING ABBREVIATION AMONG PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO ONCOLOGIC SURGERY: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    PINTO, Andressa dos Santos; GRIGOLETTI, Shana Souza; MARCADENTI, Aline

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The abbreviation of perioperative fasting among candidates to elective surgery have been associated with shorter hospital stay and decreased postoperative complications. Objective To conduct a systematic review from randomized controlled trials to detect whether the abbreviation of fasting is beneficial to patients undergoing cancer surgery compared to traditional fasting protocols. Method A literature search was performed in electronic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO, EMBASE and Cochrane, without time restriction. Were used the descriptors: "preoperative fasting", "cancer", "diet restriction" and "perioperative period". Randomized trials were included in adults of both sexes, with diagnosis of cancer. Exclusion criteria were: use of parenteral nutrition and publications in duplicate. All analyzes, selections and data extraction were done blinded manner by independent evaluators. Results Four studies were included, with a total of 150 patients, 128 with colorectal cancer and 22 gastric cancer. The articles were published from 2006 to 2013. The main outcome measures were heterogeneous, which impaired the unification of the results by means of meta-analysis. Compared to traditional protocols, patients undergoing fasting abbreviation with the administration of fluids containing carbohydrates had improvements in glycemic parameters (fasting glucose and insulin resistance), inflammatory markers (interleukin 6 and 10) and indicators of malnutrition (grip strength hand and CRP/albumin ratio), and shorter hospital stay. The methodological quality of the reviewed articles, however, suggests that the results should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions The abbreviation of perioperative fasting in patients with neoplasm appears to be beneficial. PMID:25861075

  12. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.2 Acronyms...

  13. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.2 Acronyms...

  14. 40 CFR 310.4 - What abbreviations should I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What abbreviations should I know? 310... Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, also known as Superfund. EPA or the Agency—Environmental Protection Agency. EPCRA—Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-499, 42...

  15. 32 CFR 651.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 651.3 Section 651.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.3 Explanation...

  16. 32 CFR 651.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 651.3 Section 651.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.3 Explanation...

  17. 32 CFR 651.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 651.3 Section 651.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.3 Explanation...

  18. 32 CFR 651.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 651.3 Section 651.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.3 Explanation...

  19. 32 CFR 651.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 651.3 Section 651.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.3 Explanation...

  20. 7 CFR 1951.852 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 1951.852 Section 1951.852 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 1980.302 Section 1980.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 1980.302 Section 1980.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville Pt. 552, Subpt. M, App. F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville Pt. 552, Subpt. M, App. F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following... per hour. mV—Millivolt N2—Nitrogen. NDIR—Nondispersive infrared. NLEV—Refers to the National Low... oxide. No.—Number. O2—Oxygen. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. NO2—Nitrogen dioxide. NOX—Oxides...

  6. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  7. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  9. Le Sigle. Apercu linguistique II (Abbreviations. A Linguistic Summary. Part Two)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehenot, Daniel

    1976-01-01

    The second in a series of articles on abbreviations, such as UNESCO or SNCC. Topics treated are: formation, pronunciation and capitalization; special characteristics of the formation of abbreviations; abbreviations specially made for a purpose, such as advertising; and those which show a bit of humor. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  10. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  11. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  12. A conceptual model for the link between Central American biomass burning aerosols and severe weather over the south central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; van den Heever, Susan C.; Reid, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Each spring, smoke particles from fires over the Yucatan Peninsula and south Mexico cross over the Gulf of Mexico into the United States (US) under the control of moist oceanic air flow from the southwestern branch of the subtropical (Bermuda) high. Smoke can be transported deep into the south central US, where dry lines and warm conveyor belts are frequently formed and cause deep convection and severe weather. Lyons et al (1998 Science 282 77-80) and Murray et al (2000 Geophys. Res. Lett. 27 2249-52) noticed a ~50% increase of lightning along the smoke transport path over the south central US during the May 1998 Central American smoke episode. Here we present a conceptual model of coherent microphysical and meteorological mechanisms through which smoke may impact convective clouds and subsequently result in more severe weather over the south central US. The conceptual model depicts a chain of processes in which smoke particles are first activated as cloud condensation nuclei when they are entrained into the warm conveyor belt, a convective zone formed over the south central US as a result of the encounter between the mid-latitude trough and the subtropical Bermuda high. As the convection continues with deepening of the mid-latitude trough, the greater concentration of water cloud condensation nuclei delays the warm rain processes, enhances the development of ice clouds, and invigorates the updrafts, all of which contribute to the formation of severe weather such as hail and lightning. The conceptual model is based on the reasoning of physical mechanisms revealed in previous studies (over the tropical biomass region), and is supported here through the analysis of satellite data, ground observations, aerosol transport model results, and idealized cloud resolving simulations of a day in May 2003 when record tornado events occurred over the south central US. Further assessment of this conceptual model is discussed for future investigations.

  13. Civilian blast-related burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, J.N.; Tan, A.; Dziewulski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is limited English literature describing the experience of a civilian hospital managing blast-related burn injuries. As the largest regional burn unit, we reviewed our cases with the aim of identifying means to improve current management. A 6-year retrospective analysis of all patients coded as sustaining blast-related burns was conducted through the unit’s burns database. Medical case notes were reviewed for information on burn demographics, management and outcomes. 42 patients were identified. Male to female ratio was 37:5. Age range was 12-84 years, (mean=33 years). Total body surface area (%TBSA) burn ranged from 0.25% to 60%, (median=1%). The most common burn injury was flame (31/42, 73.8%). Gas explosions were the most common mechanism of injury (19 cases; 45.2%). 7/42 cases (16.7%) had full ATLS management pre-transfer to the burns unit. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 0-43 (median=2). 17/42 (40.4%) patients required admission. 37/36 (88.1%) patients were managed conservatively of which 1 patient later required surgery due to deeper burns. 5/42 (11.9%) patients required surgical management at presentation and these were noted to be burns with >15% TBSA requiring resuscitation. One case required emergency escharotomies and finger amputations. All patients survived their burn injuries. Blast-related burn injuries are generally uncommon in the civilian setting. Following proper assessment, most of these cases can be deemed as minor injuries and managed conservatively. Improvement in burns management education and training at local emergency departments would provide efficient patient care and avoid unnecessary referrals to a burns unit. PMID:27857651

  14. Synonym extraction and abbreviation expansion with ensembles of semantic spaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Terminologies that account for variation in language use by linking synonyms and abbreviations to their corresponding concept are important enablers of high-quality information extraction from medical texts. Due to the use of specialized sub-languages in the medical domain, manual construction of semantic resources that accurately reflect language use is both costly and challenging, often resulting in low coverage. Although models of distributional semantics applied to large corpora provide a potential means of supporting development of such resources, their ability to isolate synonymy from other semantic relations is limited. Their application in the clinical domain has also only recently begun to be explored. Combining distributional models and applying them to different types of corpora may lead to enhanced performance on the tasks of automatically extracting synonyms and abbreviation-expansion pairs. Results A combination of two distributional models – Random Indexing and Random Permutation – employed in conjunction with a single corpus outperforms using either of the models in isolation. Furthermore, combining semantic spaces induced from different types of corpora – a corpus of clinical text and a corpus of medical journal articles – further improves results, outperforming a combination of semantic spaces induced from a single source, as well as a single semantic space induced from the conjoint corpus. A combination strategy that simply sums the cosine similarity scores of candidate terms is generally the most profitable out of the ones explored. Finally, applying simple post-processing filtering rules yields substantial performance gains on the tasks of extracting abbreviation-expansion pairs, but not synonyms. The best results, measured as recall in a list of ten candidate terms, for the three tasks are: 0.39 for abbreviations to long forms, 0.33 for long forms to abbreviations, and 0.47 for synonyms. Conclusions This study demonstrates

  15. [Plasma endotoxin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and organ functions in patients with major burns].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Noah, E M; Pallua, N

    2001-07-01

    Sepsis is one of the most frequent causes of death after major burn injury. Usually, sepsis appears as a consequence of a gram-negative bacteriaemia with release of endotoxins. In this study, the plasma endotoxin levels of seven patients (three female, four male; average age 51.3 +/- 23.8 years) with burns between 43.5 and 78 % Total Body Surface Area (Abbreviated Burn Severity Index 8 - 12) were determined for five days after thermal trauma every three hours by ELISA and compared with the concentration of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A calculation of the Horrowitz-Index (PaO(2)/FiO(2)) and the Pressure-Adjusted Heart Rate (HR x CVP/MAP) took place to show a possible correlation between the endotoxin concentration and the cardiopulmonary organ function. Additionally, we analysed whether operative treatment can influence the level of plasma endotoxin in the early phase after burn injury. At any time after burn trauma, endotoxins could be detected in the plasma of all patients. Between the second and third day, there was a considerable increase in the endotoxin concentration with a maximum after 57 hours of 0.48 +/- 0.32 EU/ml. Two patients with sepsis and death in the further course had a rather distinctive increase. From the fourth day on, occasional episodes of increases in endotoxin concentration were noted. Postoperatively, there was a short increase in plasma endotoxin on the second and fourth day. The plasma endotoxin level showed no correlation with the PCT and CRP or with the oxygenation in the patients' blood. However, a positive correlation could be observed with the Pressure-Adjusted Heart Rate (p = 0.0061; r(2) = 0.212). An explanation for the endotoxin increase after 57 hours could be the translocation of intestinal bacteria, the beginning of bacterial colonisation or decomposition products of the burn wound with protein-protein complexes. Later on, infectious diseases such as pneumonia with gram-negative bacteria are of importance

  16. Risk factors for nosocomial burn wound infection caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Recep; Dal, Tuba; Bozkurt, Fatma; Deveci, Ozcan; Palanc, Ylmaz; Arslan, Eyüp; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Hoşoğlu, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii infections in burn patients may lead to delays in wound healing, graft losses, and development of sepsis. Determining the risk factors for multidrug resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB) infections is essential for infection control. In the present study, the authors aimed to evaluate risk factors for wound infections caused by A. baumannii in burn patients. The study was conducted at Dicle University Hospital Burn Center, from April 2011 to July 2012, to investigate the risk factors for MDR-AB infections. The data of both the case and control group patients and the result of wound cultures were recorded on a daily basis, on individual forms given for each patient, and analyzed. A total of 30 cases infected with MDR-AB, and 60 uninfected control patients, were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) was 7.7 ± 15.4 years in infected patients and 11.4 ± 16.5 years in uninfected patients. The mean total burn surface area was 13.5 ± 10.9% in uninfected patients and 34.7 ± 16.2% in infected patients. The mean total burn surface area, the abbreviated burn severity index, acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II score, day of admission to hospital, length of hospital stay, first excision day, prior usage of third-generation cephalosporins, and stay in intensive care unit of the infected patients were significantly higher (P < .001) than those of patients without infection. Univariate analysis found that high acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II score, first excision time of wound, invasive device usage, admission day to hospital, and prior usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics were risk factors for nosocomial infections. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to multidrug resistance in A. baumannii. A combination of an early diagnosis of wound infections, appropriate antimicrobial treatments, surgical debridement, and early wound closure may be effective in the management.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out.

  18. Interactive Hangman teaches amino acid structures and abbreviations.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Britney O; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying structures, hints to the answers were written in "amino acid sentences" for the students to translate. Students were required to draw the structure of the corresponding letter they wished to guess on a whiteboard. Each student received a reference sheet of the structures and abbreviations, but was required to draw from memory when guessing a letter. Preassessments and postassessments revealed a drastic improvement in the students' ability to recognize and draw structures from memory. This activity provides a fun, educational game to play in biochemistry discussion sections or during long incubations in biochemistry laboratories.

  19. Space transportation system and associated payloads: Glossary, acronyms, and abbreviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of some of the acronyms and abbreviations now in everyday use in the shuttle world is presented. It is a combination of lists that were prepared at Marshall Space Flight Center and Kennedy and Johnson Space Centers, places where intensive shuttle activities are being carried out. This list is intended as a guide or reference and should not be considered to have the status and sanction of a dictionary.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following... per hour. mV—Millivolt N2—Nitrogen. NDIR—Nondispersive infrared. NLEV—Refers to the National Low... oxide. No.—Number. O2—Oxygen. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. NO2—Nitrogen dioxide. NOX—Oxides...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following... per hour. mV—Millivolt N2—Nitrogen. NDIR—Nondispersive infrared. NLEV—Refers to the National Low... oxide. No.—Number. O2—Oxygen. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. NO2—Nitrogen dioxide. NOX—Oxides...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following... per hour. mV—Millivolt N2—Nitrogen. NDIR—Nondispersive infrared. NLEV—Refers to the National Low... oxide. No.—Number. O2—Oxygen. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. NO2—Nitrogen dioxide. NOX—Oxides...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following... per hour. mV—Millivolt N2—Nitrogen. NDIR—Nondispersive infrared. NLEV—Refers to the National Low... oxide. No.—Number. O2—Oxygen. OEM—Original equipment manufacturer. NO2—Nitrogen dioxide. NOX—Oxides...

  4. Nutrition in burns: Galveston contributions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

  5. Word Sense Disambiguation of clinical abbreviations with hyperdimensional computing.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sungrim; Berster, Bjoern-Toby; Xu, Hua; Cohen, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Automated Word Sense Disambiguation in clinical documents is a prerequisite to accurate extraction of medical information. Emerging methods utilizing hyperdimensional computing present new approaches to this problem. In this paper, we evaluate one such approach, the Binary Spatter Code Word Sense Disambiguation algorithm, on 50 ambiguous abbreviation sets derived from clinical notes. This algorithm uses reversible vector transformations to encode ambiguous terms and their context-specific senses into vectors representing surrounding terms. The sense for a new context is then inferred from vectors representing the terms it contains. One-to-one BSC-WSD achieves average accuracy of 94.55% when considering the orientation and distance of neighboring terms relative to the target abbreviation, outperforming Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes classifiers. Furthermore, it is practical to deal with all 50 abbreviations in an identical manner using a single one-to-many BSC-WSD model with average accuracy of 93.91%, which is not possible with common machine learning algorithms.

  6. Validation of the burns itch questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, N E; Hofland, H W; Hendrickx, H; Van de Steenoven, J; Boekelaar, A; Nieuwenhuis, M K

    2016-05-01

    Itch (pruritus) is a common multidimensional complaint after burn that can persist for months to years. A questionnaire able to investigate itch and its consequences is imperative for clinical and research purposes. The current study investigated the factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the Burns Itch Questionnaire (BIQ), a questionnaire particularly focusing on itch in the burns population. The BIQ was completed by 195 respondents at 3 months after burn. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to investigate the factor structure. EFA showed the BIQ comprised three latent factors: itch severity, sleep interference and daily life interference. This was re-evaluated in a confirmatory factor analysis that yielded good fit indices after removing two items. The three subscales showed to have high internal consistency (.89) and were able to distinguish between patients with severe and less severe complaints. In conclusion, the BIQ showed to be useful in persons suffering from itch following burns.

  7. Burn Injuries: Causes, Consequences, Knowledge, Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healer, Cheryl V.; And Others

    This report covers Phase I of the Burn Injury Education Demonstration Project, a four-phased project designed to explore the feasibility of using educational intervention strategies to increase knowledge and appropriate behaviors and attitudes to reduce the number and severity of burns. Phase I involved a comprehensive needs assessment conducted…

  8. Investigation of abbreviated 4 and 8 item versions of the PTSD Checklist 5.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Szafranski, Derek D; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Gros, Daniel F

    2016-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant public health concern associated with marked impairment across the lifespan. Exposure to traumatic events alone, however, is insufficient to determine if an individual has PTSD. PTSD is a heterogeneous diagnosis such that assessment of all 20 symptoms is problematic in time-limited treatment settings. Brief assessment tools that identify those at risk for PTSD and measure symptom severity are needed to improve access to care and assess treatment response. The present study evaluated abbreviated measures of PTSD symptoms derived from the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) - a 20-item validated measure of PTSD symptoms - across two studies. In the first, using a community sample of adults exposed to a traumatic event, 4-and 8-item versions of the PCL-5 were identified that were highly correlated with the full PCL-5. In the second, using a sample of combat veterans, the 4-and 8-item measures had comparable diagnostic utility to the total-scale PCL-5. These results provide support for an abbreviated measure of the PCL-5 as an alternative to the 20-item total scale.

  9. [Quantification of crop residue burned areas based on burning indices using Landsat 8 image].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-hang; Song, Kai-shar; Wen, Zhi-dan; Shao, Tian-tian; Li, Bo-nan; Qi, Cai

    2015-11-01

    Crop residue burning leads to atmospheric pollution and is an enormous waste of crop residue resource. Crop residue burning can be monitored timely in large regions as the fire points can be recognized through remotely sensed image via thermal infrared bands. However, the area, the detailed distribution pattern and especially the severity of the burning areas cannot be derived only by the thermal remote sensing approach. The burning index, which was calculated with two or more spectral bands at where the burned and unburned areas have distinct spectral characteristics, is widely used in the forest fire investigation. However its potential application for crop residue burning evaluation has not been explored. With two Landsat 8 images that cover a part of the Songnen Plain, three burning indices, i.e., the normalized burned ratio (NBR), the normalized burned ratio incorporating the thermal band (NBRT), and the burned area index (BAI), were used to classify the crop residue burned and unburned areas. The overall classification accuracies were 91.9%, 92.3%, and 87.8%, respectively. The correlation analysis between the indices and the crop residue coverage indicated that the NBR and NBRT were positively correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.73 and 0.64, respectively) with linear regression models, while the BAI was exponentially correlated with the crop residue coverage (R2 = 0.68). The results indicated that the use of burning indices in crop residue burning monitoring could quantify crop residue burning severity and provide valuable data for evaluating atmospheric pollution.

  10. Enhanced Albumin Synthesis in Severely Burned Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Wenjun Z. Martini ,* Steven E. Wolf,* David L. Chinkes,† Kevin K. Chung,* Michael A. Dubick,* Lorne Blackbourne,* and Yong-Ming Yu‡ *US Army Institute...liver enzymes. Plasma 364 SHOCK, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 364Y368, 2010 Address reprint requests to Wenjun Z. Martini , PhD, US Army Institute of Surgical...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martini W. Z., Wolf S. E., Chinkes D. L., Chung K. K., Dubick M. A

  11. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Journal's website MONTHLY HEADLINES from MSKTC (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center) The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care professionals. The ABA Web site is not intended ...

  12. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  13. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  14. Exercise behaviors after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  15. Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, H; Montevalian, A; Motabar, A R; Safari, R; Parvas, M S; Vasigh, M

    2012-09-30

    We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children's increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface area and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the burn surface area. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for burn injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe burns. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in burn wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive burn wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame burn, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface area burned above 40%, and sepsis.

  16. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  17. Electric heating pad burns.

    PubMed

    Bill, T J; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    Patients with sensory deficits are especially prone to heating pad burns. Two cases are reported of patients with anesthetic skin who received partial and full-thickness burns of their feet from an electric heating pad. These burn injuries could have been prevented if the patients understood the potential hazard of heating pads.

  18. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly.

  19. Parafoveal and foveal processing of abbreviations during eye fixations in reading: Making a case for case

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Berry, Raymond W.; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of two distinct types: Acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the grapheme-phoneme correspondences are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal processing of these abbreviations was assessed with the use of the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975). Using this paradigm, previews of the abbreviations were either identical to the abbreviation (NASA or NCAA), orthographically legal (NUSO or NOBA), or illegal (NRSB or NRBA). The abbreviations were presented as capital letter strings within normal, predominantly lowercase sentences and also sentences in all capital letters such that the abbreviations would not be visually distinct. The results indicate that acronyms and initialisms undergo different processing during reading, and that readers can modulate their processing based on low-level visual cues (distinct capitalization) in parafoveal vision. In particular, readers may be biased to process capitalized letter strings as initialisms in parafoveal vision when the rest of the sentence is normal, lower case letters. PMID:21480754

  20. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  1. IASI measurements of reactive trace species in biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coheur, P.-F.; Clarisse, L.; Turquety, S.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work presents observations of a series of short-lived species in biomass burning plumes from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), launched onboard the MetOp-A platform in October 2006. The strong fires that have occurred in the Mediterranean Basin - and particularly Greece - in August 2007, and those in Southern Siberia and Eastern Mongolia in the early spring of 2008 are selected to support the analyses. We show that the IASI infrared spectra in these fire plumes contain distinctive signatures of ammonia (NH3), ethene (C2H4), methanol (CH3OH) and formic acid (HCOOH) in the atmospheric window between 800 and 1200 cm-1, with some noticeable differences between the plumes. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3COOONO2, abbreviated as PAN) was also observed with good confidence in some plumes and a tentative assignment of a broadband absorption spectral feature to acetic acid (CH3COOH) is made. For several of these species these are the first reported measurements made from space in nadir geometry. The IASI measurements are analyzed for plume height and concentration distributions of NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. The Greek fires are studied in greater detail for the days associated with the largest emissions. In addition to providing information on the spatial extent of the plume, the IASI retrievals allow an estimate of the total mass emissions for NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. Enhancement ratios are calculated for the latter relative to carbon monoxide (CO), giving insight in the chemical processes occurring during the transport, the first day after the emission.

  2. Pharmacological Sparing of Protein in Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-10

    protein breakdown rates and factors other than insulin resistance are responsible for stimulating the net protein catabolism of severe burn injury and...suggest that the " insulin resistance " of sepsis may be different from that of severe trauma uncompli- cated by infection, we further tested the effect of...suggesting that factors other than insulin resistance were responsible for mediating the deranged protein metabolism of burns and sepsis. From studies by

  3. Long hair, smoking, and deep facial burns.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe deep facial burn injuries by cigarette lighters in longhaired adults and to report our experience in their treatment. Eight consecutive cigarette lighter burn victims are treated in the Helsinki Burn Center in the year 2006. Seven of the patients were women; their mean age was 50 years. All were under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury. The mean burnt area was 3.5% TBSA. The burnt areas were primarily forehead, cheek, and ipsilateral ear. After a conservative treatment, all the patients underwent an operation, whereby the nonhealing burns were excised and covered with autologous split thickness skin grafts. Postoperative period was uneventful in all the patients. Besides having severe detrimental effects on general health status and wound healing, smoking is the leading cause of residential and total fire deaths worldwide. The patients in this article suffered deep facial burns because of cigarette lighters.

  4. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children.

  5. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.

  6. Burn care professionals' attitudes and practices regarding discussions of sexuality and intimacy with adult burn survivors.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Rutter, Cindy E; Lessard, Collette R; Pressman, Melissa Singer; Jost, Janet Cusick; Bosch, James; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2010-01-01

    Burn injury survival means coping with more than just the physical changes and disabilities often encountered after burn injury. Overall quality of life is important, and issues such as sexuality and intimacy are significant facets of quality of life. A literature review revealed limited research regarding current burn center practices related to sexuality and intimacy concerns of burn survivors and their partners. A 28-item survey, designed by seasoned burn care professionals and survivors, was distributed to burn care practitioners attending general sessions at several burn conferences in the United States. Seventy-one (86%) of the invited respondents completed the survey, with nursing representing the majority (63%). Mean tenure working in burn care was 10 years. Mean age of respondents was 40.5 years, with 75% being female and 25% male. Nearly half (47%) reported that specific staff was not designated to discuss sexuality and intimacy with survivors in their center. Sixty-two percent reported that special training regarding sexuality and intimacy was not available at their burn center. Only 14% of respondents indicated that they were "very comfortable" initiating conversation regarding these topics. Fifty-five percent said they were only likely to discuss sexuality and intimacy if the patient/partner initiated the discussion; however, 95% agreed that the patient should not have this responsibility. Although results represent findings from only 37 burn centers, the issues of sexuality and intimacy are not being effectively addressed in the participating centers. Designated staff to provide education is lacking, and there is limited comfort on the part of health care providers in initiating such conversations. These factors seem to often prevent burn care professionals from adequately addressing burn survivor's sexuality and intimacy needs and establish the need for further development of training and educational materials specific to sexuality, intimacy, and

  7. Acute and Perioperative Care of the Burn-Injured Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Edward A.; Shank, Erik; Woodson, Lee; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Care of burn-injured patients requires knowledge of the pathophysiologic changes affecting virtually all organs from the onset of injury until wounds are healed. Massive airway and/or lung edema can occur rapidly and unpredictably after burn and/or inhalation injury. Hemodynamics in the early phase of severe burn injury are characterized by a reduction in cardiac output, increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Approximately 2–5 days after major burn injury, a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic state develops. Electrical burns result in morbidity much higher than expected based on burn size alone. Formulae for fluid resuscitation should serve only as guideline; fluids should be titrated to physiologic end points. Burn injury is associated basal and procedural pain requiring higher than normal opioid and sedative doses. Operating room concerns for the burn-injured patient include airway abnormalities, impaired lung function, vascular access, deceptively large and rapid blood loss, hypothermia and altered pharmacology. PMID:25485468

  8. Cooling of burns: Mechanisms and models.

    PubMed

    Wright, E H; Harris, A L; Furniss, D

    2015-08-01

    The role of cooling in the acute management of burns is widely accepted in clinical practice, and is a cornerstone of basic first aid in burns. This has been underlined in a number of animal models. The mechanism by which it delivers its benefit is poorly understood, but there is a reduction in burns progression over the first 48 h, reduced healing time, and some subjective improvements in scarring when cooling is administered after burning. Intradermal temperature normalises within a matter of seconds to a few minutes, yet the benefits of even delayed cooling persist, implying it is not simply the removal of thermal energy from the damaged tissues. Animal models have used oedema formation, preservation of dermal perfusion, healing time and hair retention as indicators of burns severity, and have shown cooling to improve these indices, but pharmacological or immunological blockade of humoural and cellular mediators of inflammation did not reproduce the benefit of cooling. More recently, some studies of tissue from human and animal burns have shown consistent, reproducible, temporal changes in gene expression in burned tissues. Here, we review the experimental evidence of the role and mechanism of cooling in burns management, and suggest future research directions that may eventually lead to improved treatment outcomes.

  9. Bizarre paediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W

    2000-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.

  10. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  11. 21 CFR 314.150 - Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application. 314.150 Section 314.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... application or abbreviated application. (a) The Food and Drug Administration will notify the applicant,...

  12. 16 CFR 303.5 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks... Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks prohibited. (a) In disclosing required information, words or terms shall not be designated by ditto marks or appear in footnotes referred to by asterisks or other...

  13. Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

  14. 78 FR 26785 - Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of Blood and Blood Components'' dated May 2013. The guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and accompanying......

  15. Comparing the Empirical Validity of the Standard Form with Two Abbreviated MMPIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmark, Charles S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The standard form Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and two abbreviated forms were compared with direct measures of psychopathology obtained from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The multiple correlation coefficients between the BPRS ratings and the corresponding MMPI and abbreviated-form scales were significantly high…

  16. 16 CFR 303.5 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks... Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks prohibited. (a) In disclosing required information, words or terms shall not be designated by ditto marks or appear in footnotes referred to by asterisks or other...

  17. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... NONROAD PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  18. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  19. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  20. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  1. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  3. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  4. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... NONROAD PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  5. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  6. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  7. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: °—degrees....

  8. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  9. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  10. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  11. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  12. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  13. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  14. 40 CFR 1039.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and...-IGNITION ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1039.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part:...

  15. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  16. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  18. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  19. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: °—degrees....