Science.gov

Sample records for abbreviated form news-a

  1. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA, showed that, at the respondent level, th...

  2. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts) level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups) in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS) and 10 (NEWS-A) correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual-level measurement models of the NEWS

  3. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A).

    PubMed

    Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F

    2009-06-09

    The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts) level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups) in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS) and 10 (NEWS-A) correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A to different urban

  4. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader’s expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/. PMID:21498548

  5. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader's expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/.

  6. A Test Reliability Analysis of an Abbreviated Version of the Pupil Control Ideology Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Patrick V.

    A reliability analysis was conducted of an abbreviated, 10-item version of the Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), using the Cronbach's alpha technique (L. J. Cronbach, 1951) and the computation of the standard error of measurement. The PCI measures a teacher's orientation toward pupil control. Subjects were 168 preservice teachers from one private…

  7. Reliability and Validity the Brief Problem Monitor, an Abbreviated Form of the Child Behavior Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Brian J.; Gray, Hilary M.; Raber, Jacob; Birkett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The parent form of the 113 item Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is widely utilized by child psychiatrists and psychologists. This report examines the reliability and validity of a recently developed abbreviated version of the CBCL, the Brief Problem Monitor (BPM). Methods Caregivers (N=567) completed the CBCL online and the 19 BPM items were examined separately. Results Internal consistency of the BPM was high (Cronbach’s alpha=0.91) and satisfactory for the Internalizing (0.78), Externalizing (0.86), and Attention (0.87) scales. High correlations between the CBCL and BPM were identified for the total score (r=0.95) as well as the Internalizing (0.86), Externalizing (0.93), and Attention (0.97) scales. The BPM and scales were sensitive and identified significantly higher behavioral and emotional problems among children whose caregiver reported a psychiatric diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, bipolar, depression, anxiety, developmental disabilities, or Autism Spectrum Disorders relative to a comparison group that had not been diagnosed with these disorders. BPM ratings also differed by the socioeconomic status and education of the caregiver. Mothers with higher annual incomes rated their children as having 38.8% fewer total problems (Cohen’s d=0.62) as well as 42.8% lower Internalizing (d=0.53), 44.1% less Externalizing (d=0.62), and 30.9% decreased Attention (d=0.39). A similar pattern was evident for maternal education (d=0.30 to 0.65). Conclusion Overall, these findings provide strong psychometric support for the BPM although the differences based on the characteristics of the parent indicates that additional information from other sources (e.g., teachers) should be obtained to complement parental reports. PMID:24735087

  8. Expansion of a physical function item bank and development of an abbreviated form for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Bode, Rita K; Lai, Jin-shei; Dineen, Kelly; Heinemann, Allen W; Shevrin, Daniel; Von Roenn, Jamie; Cella, David

    2006-01-01

    We expanded an existing 33-item physical function (PF) item bank with a sufficient number of items to enable computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Ten items were written to expand the bank and the new item pool was administered to 295 people with cancer. For this analysis of the new pool, seven poorly performing items were identified for further examination. This resulted in a bank with items that define an essentially unidimensional PF construct, cover a wide range of that construct, reliably measure the PF of persons with cancer, and distinguish differences in self-reported functional performance levels. We also developed a 5-item (static) assessment form ("BriefPF") that can be used in clinical research to express scores on the same metric as the overall bank. The BriefPF was compared to the PF-10 from the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. Both short forms significantly differentiated persons across functional performance levels. While the entire bank was more precise across the PF continuum than either short form, there were differences in the area of the continuum in which each short form was more precise: the BriefPF was more precise than the PF-10 at the lower functional levels and the PF-10 was more precise than the BriefPF at the higher levels. Future research on this bank will include the development of a CAT version, the PF-CAT.

  9. MEDLARS Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles

    PubMed Central

    Charen, Thelma; Gillespie, Constantine J.

    1971-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine announces its adoption of the Anglo-American standard for the formulation of journal title abbreviations according to the American National Standard for the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals (1969), with individual words abbreviated, in turn, according to the International List of Periodical Title Word Abbreviations (1970). The history of the activity of the specific Z39 Committee of USASI (now ANSI) concerned with journal title abbreviations is reviewed, covering the period from 1962 to the present. A history of the National Clearinghouse for Periodical Title Word Abbreviations and of the International List is also given. Former NLM usage is compared with the forms of the present International List and examples show the major changes in NLM abbreviations. The NLM Rules for Abbreviation of Periodical Titles as derived from the new standard are appended. PMID:5146764

  10. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  11. Abbreviations and acronyms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This booklet provides a partial list of acronyms, abbreviations, and other short word forms, including their definitions, used in documents at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This list does not preclude the use of other short forms of less general usage, as long as these short forms are identified the first time they appear in a document and are defined in a glossary in the document in which they are used. This document supplements information in the GSFC Scientific and Technical Information Handbook (GHB 2200.2/April 1989). It is not intended to contain all short word forms used in GSFC documents; however, it was compiled of actual short forms used in recent GSFC documents. The entries are listed first, alphabetically by the short form, and then again alphabetically by definition.

  12. Abbreviations and acronyms guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A selected list of abbreviations and acronyms in use throughout the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. The compilation includes NASA and JPL facilities and organizations, federal government agencies, international organizations, engineering and scientific associations and societies, commercial organizations, and words and phrases with technical and financial applications.

  13. Factorial validity of an abbreviated neighborhood environment walkability scale for seniors in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Starnes, Heather A; McDonough, Meghan H; Tamura, Kosuke; James, Peter; Laden, Francine; Troped, Philip J

    2014-10-10

    Using validated measures of individuals' perceptions of their neighborhood built environment is important for accurately estimating effects on physical activity. However, no studies to date have examined the factorial validity of a measure of perceived neighborhood environment among older adults in the United States. The purpose of this measurement study was to test the factorial validity of a version of the Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-A) modified for seniors in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). A random sample of 2,920 female nurses (mean age = 73 ± 7 years) in the NHS cohort from California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania completed a 36-item modified NEWS-A for seniors. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test measurement models for both the modified NEWS-A for seniors and the original NEWS-A. Internal consistency within factors was examined using Cronbach's alpha. The hypothesized 7-factor measurement model was a poor fit for the modified NEWS-A for seniors. Overall, the best-fitting measurement model was the original 6-factor solution to the NEWS-A. Factors were correlated and internally consistent. This study provided support for the construct validity of the original NEWS-A for assessing perceptions of neighborhood environments in older women in the United States.

  14. Development and validation of an abbreviated version of the Trust in Oncologist Scale-the Trust in Oncologist Scale-short form (TiOS-SF).

    PubMed

    Hillen, Marij A; Postma, Rosa-May; Verdam, Mathilde G E; Smets, Ellen M A

    2017-03-01

    The original 18-item, four-dimensional Trust in Oncologist Scale assesses cancer patients' trust in their oncologist. The current aim was to develop and validate a short form version of the scale to enable more efficient assessment of cancer patients' trust. Existing validation data of the full-length Trust in Oncologist Scale were used to create a short form of the Trust in Oncologist Scale. The resulting short form was validated in a new sample of cancer patients (n = 92). Socio-demographics, medical characteristics, trust in the oncologist, satisfaction with communication, trust in healthcare, willingness to recommend the oncologist to others and to contact the oncologist in case of questions were assessed. Internal consistency, reliability, convergent and structural validity were tested. The five-item Trust in Oncologist Scale Short Form was created by selecting the statistically best performing item from each dimension of the original scale, to ensure content validity. Mean trust in the oncologist was high in the validation sample (response rate 86%, M = 4.30, SD = 0.98). Exploratory factor analyses supported one-dimensionality of the short form. Internal consistency was high, and temporal stability was moderate. Initial convergent validity was suggested by moderate correlations between trust scores with associated constructs. The Trust in Oncologist Scale Short Form appears to efficiently, reliably and validly measures cancer patients' trust in their oncologist. It may be used in research and as a quality indicator in clinical practice. More thorough validation of the scale is recommended to confirm this initial evidence of its validity.

  15. Methodological and Clinical Issues in Studies of the Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Children and Adolescents on Abbreviated Forms of the WISC-R: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimet, Sara G.; Adler, Shoshana Shapiro

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research from 1974 to 1988 that suggests there is promise in valid and reliable use of a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children as a means of obtaining clinically relevant information and as an emergency screening device with children with serious emotional disorders. Discusses situations in which children should…

  16. Link-topic model for biomedical abbreviation disambiguation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonho; Yoon, Juntae

    2015-02-01

    The ambiguity of biomedical abbreviations is one of the challenges in biomedical text mining systems. In particular, the handling of term variants and abbreviations without nearby definitions is a critical issue. In this study, we adopt the concepts of topic of document and word link to disambiguate biomedical abbreviations. We newly suggest the link topic model inspired by the latent Dirichlet allocation model, in which each document is perceived as a random mixture of topics, where each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Thus, the most probable expansions with respect to abbreviations of a given abstract are determined by word-topic, document-topic, and word-link distributions estimated from a document collection through the link topic model. The model allows two distinct modes of word generation to incorporate semantic dependencies among words, particularly long form words of abbreviations and their sentential co-occurring words; a word can be generated either dependently on the long form of the abbreviation or independently. The semantic dependency between two words is defined as a link and a new random parameter for the link is assigned to each word as well as a topic parameter. Because the link status indicates whether the word constitutes a link with a given specific long form, it has the effect of determining whether a word forms a unigram or a skipping/consecutive bigram with respect to the long form. Furthermore, we place a constraint on the model so that a word has the same topic as a specific long form if it is generated in reference to the long form. Consequently, documents are generated from the two hidden parameters, i.e. topic and link, and the most probable expansion of a specific abbreviation is estimated from the parameters. Our model relaxes the bag-of-words assumption of the standard topic model in which the word order is neglected, and it captures a richer structure of text than does the standard topic model by considering

  17. 40 CFR 87.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.2 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used... pressure ratio SNsmoke number [77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012] ...

  18. 40 CFR 87.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.2 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used... pressure ratio SNsmoke number [77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012] ...

  19. Machine learning with naturally labeled data for identifying abbreviation definitions.

    PubMed

    Yeganova, Lana; Comeau, Donald C; Wilbur, W John

    2011-06-09

    The rapid growth of biomedical literature requires accurate text analysis and text processing tools. Detecting abbreviations and identifying their definitions is an important component of such tools. Most existing approaches for the abbreviation definition identification task employ rule-based methods. While achieving high precision, rule-based methods are limited to the rules defined and fail to capture many uncommon definition patterns. Supervised learning techniques, which offer more flexibility in detecting abbreviation definitions, have also been applied to the problem. However, they require manually labeled training data. In this work, we develop a machine learning algorithm for abbreviation definition identification in text which makes use of what we term naturally labeled data. Positive training examples are naturally occurring potential abbreviation-definition pairs in text. Negative training examples are generated by randomly mixing potential abbreviations with unrelated potential definitions. The machine learner is trained to distinguish between these two sets of examples. Then, the learned feature weights are used to identify the abbreviation full form. This approach does not require manually labeled training data. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm on the Ab3P, BIOADI and Medstract corpora. Our system demonstrated results that compare favourably to the existing Ab3P and BIOADI systems. We achieve an F-measure of 91.36% on Ab3P corpus, and an F-measure of 87.13% on BIOADI corpus which are superior to the results reported by Ab3P and BIOADI systems. Moreover, we outperform these systems in terms of recall, which is one of our goals.

  20. A sense inventory for clinical abbreviations and acronyms created using clinical notes and medical dictionary resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sungrim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Liu, Nathan; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    To create a sense inventory of abbreviations and acronyms from clinical texts. The most frequently occurring abbreviations and acronyms from 352,267 dictated clinical notes were used to create a clinical sense inventory. Senses of each abbreviation and acronym were manually annotated from 500 random instances and lexically matched with long forms within the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS V.2011AB), Another Database of Abbreviations in Medline (ADAM), and Stedman's Dictionary, Medical Abbreviations, Acronyms & Symbols, 4th edition (Stedman's). Redundant long forms were merged after they were lexically normalized using Lexical Variant Generation (LVG). The clinical sense inventory was found to have skewed sense distributions, practice-specific senses, and incorrect uses. Of 440 abbreviations and acronyms analyzed in this study, 949 long forms were identified in clinical notes. This set was mapped to 17,359, 5233, and 4879 long forms in UMLS, ADAM, and Stedman's, respectively. After merging long forms, only 2.3% matched across all medical resources. The UMLS, ADAM, and Stedman's covered 5.7%, 8.4%, and 11% of the merged clinical long forms, respectively. The sense inventory of clinical abbreviations and acronyms and anonymized datasets generated from this study are available for public use at http://www.bmhi.umn.edu/ihi/research/nlpie/resources/index.htm ('Sense Inventories', website). Clinical sense inventories of abbreviations and acronyms created using clinical notes and medical dictionary resources demonstrate challenges with term coverage and resource integration. Further work is needed to help with standardizing abbreviations and acronyms in clinical care and biomedicine to facilitate automated processes such as text-mining and information extraction.

  1. A sense inventory for clinical abbreviations and acronyms created using clinical notes and medical dictionary resources

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungrim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Liu, Nathan; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create a sense inventory of abbreviations and acronyms from clinical texts. Methods The most frequently occurring abbreviations and acronyms from 352 267 dictated clinical notes were used to create a clinical sense inventory. Senses of each abbreviation and acronym were manually annotated from 500 random instances and lexically matched with long forms within the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS V.2011AB), Another Database of Abbreviations in Medline (ADAM), and Stedman's Dictionary, Medical Abbreviations, Acronyms & Symbols, 4th edition (Stedman's). Redundant long forms were merged after they were lexically normalized using Lexical Variant Generation (LVG). Results The clinical sense inventory was found to have skewed sense distributions, practice-specific senses, and incorrect uses. Of 440 abbreviations and acronyms analyzed in this study, 949 long forms were identified in clinical notes. This set was mapped to 17 359, 5233, and 4879 long forms in UMLS, ADAM, and Stedman's, respectively. After merging long forms, only 2.3% matched across all medical resources. The UMLS, ADAM, and Stedman's covered 5.7%, 8.4%, and 11% of the merged clinical long forms, respectively. The sense inventory of clinical abbreviations and acronyms and anonymized datasets generated from this study are available for public use at http://www.bmhi.umn.edu/ihi/research/nlpie/resources/index.htm (‘Sense Inventories’, website). Conclusions Clinical sense inventories of abbreviations and acronyms created using clinical notes and medical dictionary resources demonstrate challenges with term coverage and resource integration. Further work is needed to help with standardizing abbreviations and acronyms in clinical care and biomedicine to facilitate automated processes such as text-mining and information extraction. PMID:23813539

  2. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2 Abbreviations...

  3. 40 CFR 116.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 116.2 Section 116.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DESIGNATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES § 116.2 Abbreviations. ppm=parts per million mg=milligram(s) kg=kilogram(s) mg/l=milligrams(s) per...

  4. 40 CFR 116.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abbreviations. 116.2 Section 116.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DESIGNATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES § 116.2 Abbreviations. ppm=parts per million mg=milligram(s) kg=kilogram(s) mg/l=milligrams(s) per...

  5. 40 CFR 116.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abbreviations. 116.2 Section 116.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DESIGNATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES § 116.2 Abbreviations. ppm=parts per million mg=milligram(s) kg=kilogram(s) mg/l=milligrams(s) per...

  6. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2 Abbreviations...

  7. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2 Abbreviations...

  8. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2 Abbreviations...

  9. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Tolman, B.J.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  10. 40 CFR 86.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.203-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 600.003 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003 Section 600.003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.003 Abbreviations. The...

  12. 40 CFR 600.003 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003 Section 600.003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.003 Abbreviations. The...

  13. 40 CFR 600.003 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003 Section 600.003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.003 Abbreviations. The...

  14. Abbreviated neuropsychological assessment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philip D.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Bowie, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the best subset of neuropsychological tests for prediction of several different aspects of functioning in a large (n = 236) sample of older people with schizophrenia. While the validity of abbreviated assessment methods has been examined before, there has never been a comparative study of the prediction of different elements of cognitive impairment, real-world outcomes, and performance-based measures of functional capacity. Scores on 10 different tests from a neuropsychological assessment battery were used to predict global neuropsychological (NP) performance (indexed with averaged scores or calculated general deficit scores), performance-based indices of everyday-living skills and social competence, and case-manager ratings of real-world functioning. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were used to identify the best predictors for each of the outcomes measures. Then, the analyses were adjusted for estimated premorbid IQ, which reduced the magnitude, but not the structure, of the correlations. Substantial amounts (over 70%) of the variance in overall NP performance were accounted for by a limited number of NP tests. Considerable variance in measures of functional capacity was also accounted for by a limited number of tests. Different tests constituted the best predictor set for each outcome measure. A substantial proportion of the variance in several different NP and functional outcomes can be accounted for by a small number of NP tests that can be completed in a few minutes, although there is considerable unexplained variance. However, the abbreviated assessments that best predict different outcomes vary across outcomes. Future studies should determine whether responses to pharmacological and remediation treatments can be captured with brief assessments as well. PMID:18720182

  15. Synonym extraction and abbreviation expansion with ensembles of semantic spaces.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Aron; Moen, Hans; Skeppstedt, Maria; Daudaravičius, Vidas; Duneld, Martin

    2014-02-05

    Terminologies that account for variation in language use by linking synonyms and abbreviations to their corresponding concept are important enablers of high-quality information extraction from medical texts. Due to the use of specialized sub-languages in the medical domain, manual construction of semantic resources that accurately reflect language use is both costly and challenging, often resulting in low coverage. Although models of distributional semantics applied to large corpora provide a potential means of supporting development of such resources, their ability to isolate synonymy from other semantic relations is limited. Their application in the clinical domain has also only recently begun to be explored. Combining distributional models and applying them to different types of corpora may lead to enhanced performance on the tasks of automatically extracting synonyms and abbreviation-expansion pairs. A combination of two distributional models - Random Indexing and Random Permutation - employed in conjunction with a single corpus outperforms using either of the models in isolation. Furthermore, combining semantic spaces induced from different types of corpora - a corpus of clinical text and a corpus of medical journal articles - further improves results, outperforming a combination of semantic spaces induced from a single source, as well as a single semantic space induced from the conjoint corpus. A combination strategy that simply sums the cosine similarity scores of candidate terms is generally the most profitable out of the ones explored. Finally, applying simple post-processing filtering rules yields substantial performance gains on the tasks of extracting abbreviation-expansion pairs, but not synonyms. The best results, measured as recall in a list of ten candidate terms, for the three tasks are: 0.39 for abbreviations to long forms, 0.33 for long forms to abbreviations, and 0.47 for synonyms. This study demonstrates that ensembles of semantic spaces can

  16. Synonym extraction and abbreviation expansion with ensembles of semantic spaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Terminologies that account for variation in language use by linking synonyms and abbreviations to their corresponding concept are important enablers of high-quality information extraction from medical texts. Due to the use of specialized sub-languages in the medical domain, manual construction of semantic resources that accurately reflect language use is both costly and challenging, often resulting in low coverage. Although models of distributional semantics applied to large corpora provide a potential means of supporting development of such resources, their ability to isolate synonymy from other semantic relations is limited. Their application in the clinical domain has also only recently begun to be explored. Combining distributional models and applying them to different types of corpora may lead to enhanced performance on the tasks of automatically extracting synonyms and abbreviation-expansion pairs. Results A combination of two distributional models – Random Indexing and Random Permutation – employed in conjunction with a single corpus outperforms using either of the models in isolation. Furthermore, combining semantic spaces induced from different types of corpora – a corpus of clinical text and a corpus of medical journal articles – further improves results, outperforming a combination of semantic spaces induced from a single source, as well as a single semantic space induced from the conjoint corpus. A combination strategy that simply sums the cosine similarity scores of candidate terms is generally the most profitable out of the ones explored. Finally, applying simple post-processing filtering rules yields substantial performance gains on the tasks of extracting abbreviation-expansion pairs, but not synonyms. The best results, measured as recall in a list of ten candidate terms, for the three tasks are: 0.39 for abbreviations to long forms, 0.33 for long forms to abbreviations, and 0.47 for synonyms. Conclusions This study demonstrates

  17. 40 CFR 600.503-78 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1978 Passenger Automobiles and for 1979 and Later Model Year Automobiles (Light Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.503-78 Abbreviations. The...

  18. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations. The...

  19. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations. The...

  20. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations. The...

  1. 7 CFR 771.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 771.2 Section 771.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.2 Abbreviations and definitions. The following abbreviations and definitions apply to this part: (a) Abbreviations: APHIS means the Animal and...

  2. The Abbreviated Pluripotent Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kapinas, Kristina; Grandy, Rodrigo; Ghule, Prachi; Medina, Ricardo; Becker, Klaus; Pardee, Arthur; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Lian, Jane; Stein, Janet; van Wijnen, Andre; Stein, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells proliferate rapidly and divide symmetrically producing equivalent progeny cells. In contrast, lineage committed cells acquire an extended symmetrical cell cycle. Self-renewal of tissue-specific stem cells is sustained by asymmetric cell division where one progeny cell remains a progenitor while the partner progeny cell exits the cell cycle and differentiates. There are three principal contexts for considering the operation and regulation of the pluripotent cell cycle: temporal, regulatory andstructural. The primary temporal context that the pluripotent self-renewal cell cycle of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a short G1 period without reducing periods of time allocated to S phase, G2, and mitosis. The rules that govern proliferation in hESCs remain to be comprehensively established. However, several lines of evidence suggest a key role for the naïve transcriptome of hESCs, which is competent to stringently regulate the ESC cell cycle. This supports the requirements of pluripotent cells to self propagate while suppressing expression of genes that confer lineage commitment and/or tissue specificity. However, for the first time, we consider unique dimensions to the architectural organization and assembly of regulatory machinery for gene expression in nuclear microenviornments that define parameters of pluripotency. From both fundamental biological and clinical perspectives, understanding control of the abbreviated embryonic stem cell cycle can provide options to coordinate control of proliferation versus differentiation. Wound healing, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapy to mitigate developmental aberrations illustrate applications that benefit from knowledge of the biology of the pluripotent cell cycle. PMID:22552993

  3. An Abbreviated Protocol for High-Risk Screening Breast MRI Saves Time and Resources.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Susan C; Di Carlo, Phillip A; Lee, Bonmyong; Obadina, Eniola; Sippo, Dorothy; Mullen, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    To review the ability of an abbreviated, high-risk, screening, breast MRI protocol to detect cancer and save resources. High-risk screening breast MR images were reviewed, from both an abbreviated protocol and a full diagnostic protocol. Differences in cancer detection, scanner utilization, interpretation times, and need for additional imaging were recorded in an integrated data form, and reviewed and compared. A total of 568 MRI cases were reviewed, with the abbreviated and full protocols. No difference was found in the number of cancers detected. Scan times were decreased by 18.8 minutes per case, for a total of 10,678 minutes (178 hours). Interpretation time, on average, was 1.55 minutes for the abbreviated protocol, compared with 6.43 minutes for the full protocol. Review of the full protocol led to a significant change in the final BI-RADS(®) assessment in 12 of 568 (2.1%) cases. Abbreviated MRI is as effective as full-protocol MRI for demonstration of cancers in the high-risk screening setting, with only 12 (2.1%) cases recommended for additional MRI evaluation. The efficiency and resource savings of an abbreviated protocol would be significant, and would allow for opportunities to provide MRI for additional patients, as well as improved radiologist time management and workflow, with the potential to add real-time MRI interpretation or double reading. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Abbreviated Protocol for High-Risk Screening Breast MRI Saves Time and Resources.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Susan C; Di Carlo, Phillip A; Lee, Bonmyong; Obadina, Eniola; Sippo, Dorothy; Mullen, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    To review the ability of an abbreviated, high-risk, screening, breast MRI protocol to detect cancer and save resources. High-risk screening breast MR images were reviewed, from both an abbreviated protocol and a full diagnostic protocol. Differences in cancer detection, scanner utilization, interpretation times, and need for additional imaging were recorded in an integrated data form, and reviewed and compared. A total of 568 MRI cases were reviewed, with the abbreviated and full protocols. No difference was found in the number of cancers detected. Scan times were decreased by 18.8 minutes per case, for a total of 10,678 minutes (178 hours). Interpretation time, on average, was 1.55 minutes for the abbreviated protocol, compared with 6.43 minutes for the full protocol. Review of the full protocol led to a significant change in the final BI-RADS ® assessment in 12 of 568 (2.1%) cases. Abbreviated MRI is as effective as full-protocol MRI for demonstration of cancers in the high-risk screening setting, with only 12 (2.1 %) cases recommended for additional MRI evaluation. The efficiency and resource savings of an abbreviated protocol would be significant, and would allow for opportunities to provide MRI for additional patients, as well as improved radiologist time management and workflow, with the potential to add real-time MRI interpretation or double reading. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 600.303-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.303-77 Section 600.303-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  6. 40 CFR 600.003-77 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003-77 Section 600.003-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  7. 40 CFR 600.103-78 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.103-78 Section 600.103-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later...

  8. 21 CFR 1002.12 - Abbreviated reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abbreviated reports. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Required Manufacturers' Reports for Listed Electronic Products § 1002...

  9. 48 CFR 3002.270 - Abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abbreviations. 3002.270 Section 3002.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY.... CBCACivilian Board of Contract Appeals CFOChief Financial Officer CIOChief Information Officer COCOChief of the...

  10. Checklist of Abbreviations and Acronyms in the Physics Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha J.

    This document provides a listing of 500 abbreviations and acronyms related to physics with the definition of each. Each abbreviation was used in journals received by the Purdue University Physics Library during the years 1973-1976. (SL)

  11. 32 CFR 634.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 634.3 Section 634.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.3 Explanation of abbreviations and terms. Abbreviations...

  12. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and...

  13. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and...

  14. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and...

  15. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b...

  16. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 60.4103 Section 60.4103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....4103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this...

  18. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5...

  19. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.303 Section 96.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading. AECDauxiliary...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 60.4103 Section 60.4103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....4103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this...

  2. 40 CFR 1033.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 1033.905 Section 1033.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to...

  3. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b...

  4. General practitioner understanding of abbreviations used in hospital discharge letters.

    PubMed

    Chemali, Mark; Hibbert, Emily J; Sheen, Adrian

    2015-08-03

    To determine the incidence of abbreviation use in electronic hospital discharge letters (eDLs) and general practitioner understanding of abbreviations used in eDLsDesign, setting and participants: Retrospective audit of abbreviation use in 200 sequential eDLs was conducted at Nepean Hospital, Sydney, a tertiary referral centre, from 18 December to 31 December 2012. The 15 most commonly used abbreviations and five clinically important abbreviations were identified from the audit. A survey questionnaire using these abbreviations in context was then mailed to 240 GPs in the area covered by the Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health District to determine their understanding of these abbreviations. Number of abbreviations and frequency of their use in eDLs, and GPs' understanding of abbreviations used in the survey. 321 abbreviations were identified in the eDL audit; 48.6% were used only once. Fifty five per cent of GPs (132) responded to the survey. No individual abbreviation was correctly interpreted by all GPs. Six abbreviations were misinterpreted by more than a quarter of GPs. These were SNT (soft non-tender), TTE (transthoracic echocardiogram), EST (exercise stress test), NKDA (no known drug allergies), CTPA (computed tomography pulmonary angiogram), ORIF (open reduction and internal fixation). These abbreviations were interpreted incorrectly by 47.0% (62), 33.3% (44), 33.3% (44) 32.6% (43), 31.1% (41) and 28.0% (37) of GPs, respectively. Abbreviations used in hospital eDLs are not well understood by the GPs who receive them. This has potential to adversely affect patient care in the transition from hospital to community care.

  5. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA... application. (a) FDA will refuse to approve an abbreviated application for a new drug under section 505(j) of... FDA with respect to the active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form, or strength that is...

  6. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA... application. (a) FDA will refuse to approve an abbreviated application for a new drug under section 505(j) of... FDA with respect to the active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form, or strength that is...

  7. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA... application. (a) FDA will refuse to approve an abbreviated application for a new drug under section 505(j) of... FDA with respect to the active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form, or strength that is...

  8. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA... application. (a) FDA will refuse to approve an abbreviated application for a new drug under section 505(j) of... FDA with respect to the active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form, or strength that is...

  9. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA... application. (a) FDA will refuse to approve an abbreviated application for a new drug under section 505(j) of... FDA with respect to the active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form, or strength that is...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading. AECDauxiliary.... cylcylinder. disp.displacement. ECAEmission Control Area. EEZExclusive Economic Zone. EPAEnvironmental...

  11. Developing and Validating an Abbreviated Version of the Microscale Audit for Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS-Abbreviated).

    PubMed

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Geremia, Carrie M; Millstein, Rachel A; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Adams, Marc A; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C; Sallis, James F

    2017-06-01

    Macroscale built environment factors (e.g., street connectivity) are correlated with physical activity. Less-studied but more modifiable microscale elements (e.g., sidewalks) may also influence physical activity, but shorter audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of an abbreviated 54-item streetscape audit tool with multiple measures of physical activity in four age groups. We developed a 54-item version from the original 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS). Audits were conducted on 0.25-0.45 mile routes from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (N=758), adolescents (N=897), younger adults (N=1,655), and older adults (N=367). Active transport and leisure physical activity were measured with surveys, and objective physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Items to retain from original MAPS were selected primarily by correlations with physical activity. Mixed linear regression analyses were conducted for MAPS-Abbreviated summary scores, adjusting for demographics, participant clustering, and macroscale walkability. MAPS-Abbreviated and original MAPS total scores correlated r=.94 The MAPS-Abbreviated tool was related similarly to physical activity outcomes as the original MAPS. Destinations and land use, streetscape and walking path characteristics, and overall total scores were significantly related to active transport in all age groups. Street crossing characteristics were related to active transport in children and older adults. Aesthetics and social characteristics were related to leisure physical activity in children and younger adults, and cul-de-sacs were related with physical activity in youth. Total scores were related to accelerometer-measured physical activity in children and older adults. MAPS-Abbreviated is a validated observational measure for use in research. The length and related cost of implementation has

  12. Developing and Validating an Abbreviated Version of the Microscale Audit for Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS-Abbreviated)

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Kelli L.; Gavand, Kavita A.; Conway, Terry L.; Geremia, Carrie M.; Millstein, Rachel A.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Adams, Marc A.; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C.; Sallis, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Macroscale built environment factors (e.g., street connectivity) are correlated with physical activity. Less-studied but more modifiable microscale elements (e.g., sidewalks) may also influence physical activity, but shorter audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of an abbreviated 54-item streetscape audit tool with multiple measures of physical activity in four age groups. Methods We developed a 54-item version from the original 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS). Audits were conducted on 0.25-0.45 mile routes from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (N=758), adolescents (N=897), younger adults (N=1,655), and older adults (N=367). Active transport and leisure physical activity were measured with surveys, and objective physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Items to retain from original MAPS were selected primarily by correlations with physical activity. Mixed linear regression analyses were conducted for MAPS-Abbreviated summary scores, adjusting for demographics, participant clustering, and macroscale walkability. Results MAPS-Abbreviated and original MAPS total scores correlated r=.94 The MAPS-Abbreviated tool was related similarly to physical activity outcomes as the original MAPS. Destinations and land use, streetscape and walking path characteristics, and overall total scores were significantly related to active transport in all age groups. Street crossing characteristics were related to active transport in children and older adults. Aesthetics and social characteristics were related to leisure physical activity in children and younger adults, and cul-de-sacs were related with physical activity in youth. Total scores were related to accelerometer-measured physical activity in children and older adults. Conclusion MAPS-Abbreviated is a validated observational measure for use in research. The length and

  13. Abbreviation definition identification based on automatic precision estimates.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Comeau, Donald C; Kim, Won; Wilbur, W John

    2008-09-25

    The rapid growth of biomedical literature presents challenges for automatic text processing, and one of the challenges is abbreviation identification. The presence of unrecognized abbreviations in text hinders indexing algorithms and adversely affects information retrieval and extraction. Automatic abbreviation definition identification can help resolve these issues. However, abbreviations and their definitions identified by an automatic process are of uncertain validity. Due to the size of databases such as MEDLINE only a small fraction of abbreviation-definition pairs can be examined manually. An automatic way to estimate the accuracy of abbreviation-definition pairs extracted from text is needed. In this paper we propose an abbreviation definition identification algorithm that employs a variety of strategies to identify the most probable abbreviation definition. In addition our algorithm produces an accuracy estimate, pseudo-precision, for each strategy without using a human-judged gold standard. The pseudo-precisions determine the order in which the algorithm applies the strategies in seeking to identify the definition of an abbreviation. On the Medstract corpus our algorithm produced 97% precision and 85% recall which is higher than previously reported results. We also annotated 1250 randomly selected MEDLINE records as a gold standard. On this set we achieved 96.5% precision and 83.2% recall. This compares favourably with the well known Schwartz and Hearst algorithm. We developed an algorithm for abbreviation identification that uses a variety of strategies to identify the most probable definition for an abbreviation and also produces an estimated accuracy of the result. This process is purely automatic.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 806 - Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abbreviations and Acronyms B Appendix B to Part 806 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. B Appendix B to Part 806—Abbreviations and...

  15. Abbreviations: Their Effects on Comprehension of Classified Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol, Kirstin R.

    Two experimental designs were used to test the hypothesis that abbreviations in classified advertisements decrease the reader's comprehension of such ads. In the first experimental design, 73 high school students read four ads (for employment, used cars, apartments for rent, and articles for sale) either with abbreviations or with all…

  16. 16 CFR 300.9 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks. 300.9 Section 300.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.9 Abbreviations...

  17. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 516.3 Section 516.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.3 Explanation of abbreviations and terms. (a) The...

  18. 7 CFR 1951.852 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... which constitutes a margin or buffer for meeting obligations within the ordinary operating cycle of the business. (b) Abbreviations. The following abbreviations are applicable: B&I—Business and Industry CSA...

  19. Common Medical Abbreviations and Terminology: Modularized Instruction for Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, James L.

    A learning module to introduce nurses to the main medical abbreviations and often-used prefixes and suffixes is presented. Learning objectives of the module are: to provide the definitions of often-used suffixes and prefixes, and to identify definitions of medical abbreviations. The following materials are presented: a pretest consisting of 30…

  20. Abbreviations used in publications of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1953-01-01

    The use of abbreviations in publications of the Geological Survey is determined by several forces working in different directions. Pulling in the direction of greater condensation and the freer use of abbreviations and symbols is the desire to achieve greater economy in publications. Working in the opposite direction is the desire to have the publications used more conveniently by an increasingly heterogeneous public.

  1. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions. § 87.2 Acronyms and abbreviations. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012... 25365, May 8, 1997; 74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009] Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012, § 87... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2...

  2. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements...

  3. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.3 Section 96.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 96.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and...

  4. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 97.103 Section 97.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms...

  5. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.103 Section 96.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 96.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and...

  6. 49 CFR 179.2 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Committee. (3) ASTM means American Society for Testing and Materials. (4) [Reserved] (5) Definitions in part... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 179.2 Section 179.2... Introduction, Approvals and Reports § 179.2 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) The following apply in part 179...

  7. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.303 Section 97.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined as...

  8. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.103 Section 97.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined as...

  9. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.203 Section 96.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are...

  10. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.3 Section 96.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu—British...

  11. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.203 Section 97.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are defined as follows: Btu...

  12. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.103 Section 96.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are...

  13. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.303 Section 97.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined as...

  14. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and...

  15. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acronyms. 97.3 Section 97.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu-British thermal unit. CO2-carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. 90.403 Section 90.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and...

  17. Abbreviations for device names: a proposed methodology with specific examples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Murad; Dover, Jeffrey S; Alam, Murad; Goldman, Mitchel P; Kaminer, Michael S; Orringer, Jeffrey; Waldorf, Heidi; Alam, Murad; Avram, Mathew; Cohen, Joel L; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Dover, Jeffrey S; Hruza, George; Kilmer, Suzanne; Lawrence, Naomi; Lupo, Mary; Metelitsa, Andrei; Nestor, Mark; Ross, E Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many devices used in dermatology lack generic names. If investigators use commercial device names, they risk the appearance of bias. Alternatively, reliance on ad-hoc names and abbreviations may confuse readers who do not recognize these. To develop a system for assigning abbreviations to denote devices commonly used in dermatology. Secondarily, to use this system to create abbreviations for FDA-approved neurotoxins and prepackaged injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery convened a Lexicon Task Force in March 2012. One charge of this Task Force was to develop criteria for assigning abbreviations to medical devices. A modified consensus process was used. Abbreviations to denote devices were to be: based on a standardized approach; transparent to the casual reader; markedly brief; and in all cases, different than the commercial names. Three-letter all caps abbreviations, some with subscripts, were assigned to denote each of the approved neurotoxins and fillers. A common system of abbreviations for medical devices in dermatology may avoid the appearance of bias while ensuring effective communication. The proposed system may be expanded to name other devices, and the ensuing abbreviations may be suitable for journal articles, continuing medical education lectures, or other academic or clinical purposes. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  19. Abregrams or deleweds: A forty-year view of acronyms. [Abbreviations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, D.D.

    New concepts often call for new words and abbreviated forms in the language. Not linguists, but persons who first envision, describe, and use new ideas are the ones who rearrange existing word combinations or create new terminology. Professional communicators do not prescribe usage, but can influence the selection of new words and especially acronyms. A practical knowledge of etymology, usage, and trends will help communicators make more discriminating choices.

  20. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is intended...

  1. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is intended...

  2. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is intended...

  3. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is intended...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 806 - Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. B Appendix B to Part 806—Abbreviations and... IG—Inspector General IMPAC—International Merchant Purchase Authority Card LOA—Letters of Offer and...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 806 - Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. B Appendix B to Part 806—Abbreviations and... IG—Inspector General IMPAC—International Merchant Purchase Authority Card LOA—Letters of Offer and...

  6. A Preliminary Study of Clinical Abbreviation Disambiguation in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Denny, J C; Rosenbloom, S T; Miller, R A; Giuse, D A; Song, M; Xu, H

    2015-01-01

    To save time, healthcare providers frequently use abbreviations while authoring clinical documents. Nevertheless, abbreviations that authors deem unambiguous often confuse other readers, including clinicians, patients, and natural language processing (NLP) systems. Most current clinical NLP systems "post-process" notes long after clinicians enter them into electronic health record systems (EHRs). Such post-processing cannot guarantee 100% accuracy in abbreviation identification and disambiguation, since multiple alternative interpretations exist. Authors describe a prototype system for real-time Clinical Abbreviation Recognition and Disambiguation (rCARD) - i.e., a system that interacts with authors during note generation to verify correct abbreviation senses. The rCARD system design anticipates future integration with web-based clinical documentation systems to improve quality of healthcare records. When clinicians enter documents, rCARD will automatically recognize each abbreviation. For abbreviations with multiple possible senses, rCARD will show a ranked list of possible meanings with the best predicted sense at the top. The prototype application embodies three word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods to predict the correct senses of abbreviations. We then conducted three experments to evaluate rCARD, including 1) a performance evaluation of different WSD methods; 2) a time evaluation of real-time WSD methods; and 3) a user study of typing clinical sentences with abbreviations using rCARD. Using 4,721 sentences containing 25 commonly observed, highly ambiguous clinical abbreviations, our evaluation showed that the best profile-based method implemented in rCARD achieved a reasonable WSD accuracy of 88.8% (comparable to SVM - 89.5%) and the cost of time for the different WSD methods are also acceptable (ranging from 0.630 to 1.649 milliseconds within the same network). The preliminary user study also showed that the extra time costs by rCARD were about 5% of total

  7. SaRAD: a Simple and Robust Abbreviation Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Adar, Eytan

    2004-03-01

    Due to recent interest in the use of textual material to augment traditional experiments it has become necessary to automatically cluster, classify and filter natural language information. The Simple and Robust Abbreviation Dictionary (SaRAD) provides an easy to implement, high performance tool for the construction of a biomedical symbol dictionary. The algorithms, applied to the MEDLINE document set, result in a high quality dictionary and toolset to disambiguate abbreviation symbols automatically.

  8. Parafoveal and Foveal Processing of Abbreviations during Eye Fixations in Reading: Making a Case for Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Berry, Raymond W.; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of 2 distinct types: acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence [GPC] rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the GPCs are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal…

  9. Development of the Abbreviated Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale

    PubMed Central

    Swartout, Kevin M.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Cohn, Amy M.; Hagman, Brett T.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Data gathered from six independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men’s masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale (MGRS scale). The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15-items were examined with Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hyper-masculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice. PMID:25528163

  10. Development of the Abbreviated Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale.

    PubMed

    Swartout, Kevin M; Parrott, Dominic J; Cohn, Amy M; Hagman, Brett T; Gallagher, Kathryn E

    2015-06-01

    Data gathered from 6 independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men's masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) Scale. The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS Scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15 items were examined with item response theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS Scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hypermasculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS Scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. MSFC Space Station Program Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas G.

    1988-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center maintains an active history program to assure that the foundation of the Center's history is captured and preserved for current and future generations. As part of that overall effort, the Center began a project in 1987 to capture historical information and documentation on the Marshall Center's roles regarding Space Shuttle and Space Station. This document is MSFC Space Station Program Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations Listing. It contains acronyms and abbreviations used in Space Station documentation and in the Historian Annotated Bibliography of Space Station Program. The information may be used by the researcher as a reference tool.

  12. 32 CFR 651.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 651.3 Section 651.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.3 Explanation of...

  13. 7 CFR 4274.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 4274.302 Section 4274.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT AND INSURED LOANMAKING Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.302...

  14. 48 CFR 302.7000 - Common HHSAR acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The HHSAR cites numerous acquisition-related and organizational acronyms...-3(b)(3). CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 301.270(b). CFR Code of Federal Regulations....1300(c). PSC Program Support Center (in OS) 301.270(b). R&D research and development 301.607-72(b). RFI...

  15. 27 CFR 19.726 - Authorized abbreviations to identify spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... records: Kinds of spirits Abbreviations Alcohol A Brandy BR Bourbon Whisky BW Canadian Whisky CNW Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Corn Whisky CW Grain Spirits GS Irish Whisky IW Light Whisky LW Malt Whisky MW Neutral Spirits NS Neutral Spirits Grain NSG Rye Whisky RW Scotch Whisky SW Specially Denatured...

  16. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan. 91.235 Section 91.235 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  17. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan. 91.235 Section 91.235 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  18. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan. 91.235 Section 91.235 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  19. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan. 91.235 Section 91.235 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  20. 24 CFR 91.235 - Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special case; abbreviated consolidated plan. 91.235 Section 91.235 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  1. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  2. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  3. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville Pt. 552, Subpt. M, App. F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville Pt. 552, Subpt. M, App. F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552...

  5. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.303 Section 96.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.303 Measurements...

  6. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and definitions. 58.2 Section 58.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Trading Program General Provisions § 96.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and...—nitrogen oxides O2—oxygen ppm—parts per million scfh—standard cubic feet per hour SO2—sulfur dioxide yr...

  12. 48 CFR 3402.101-70 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 3402.101-70 Section 3402.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... acronyms. CAO—Chief Acquisition Officer. CO—Contracting Officer. COR—Contracting Officer's Representative...

  13. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.2 Acronyms and...

  14. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  15. 7 CFR 1755.900 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to §§ 1755.901 and 1755.902: (a) Abbreviations. (1) ADSSAll dielectric self-supporting; (2...) Dielectric cable means a cable which has neither metallic members nor other electrically conductive materials... means any fiber made of dielectric material that guides light. (24) Optical point discontinuities means...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.900 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to §§ 1755.901 and 1755.902: (a) Abbreviations. (1) ADSSAll dielectric self-supporting; (2...) Dielectric cable means a cable which has neither metallic members nor other electrically conductive materials... means any fiber made of dielectric material that guides light. (24) Optical point discontinuities means...

  17. System and Network Security Acronyms and Abbreviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    hazards of electromagnetic radiation to fuel HERO hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance HERP hazards of electromagnetic ...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 System and Network Security Acronyms...authentication and key management ALG application layer gateway ANSI American National Standards Institute AP access point API application

  18. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and... Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent... abbreviated donor history questionnaire and accompanying materials (aDHQ documents), version 1.3 dated August...

  19. An abbreviated history of osseous surgery.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Robert J; Marcuschamer, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Various forms of periodontal therapy, including surgery, have been advocated and documented in the dental literature during the last three centuries. This variety of treatment modalities has been developed to address the anatomical consequences (pocket formation and bone loss) sustained from chronic periodontal disease. The marked differences in techniques have created significant controversies between the greatest leaders in dentistry and their equally influential disciples. Nevertheless, these leaders have always shared a common goal: the preservation of the natural dentition in a harmonious environment of health, comfort, and proper function. This article discusses the history of periodontal osseous surgery, including not only the technical issues, but also the conceptual underpinnings of this form of therapeutic intervention. In the process of examining this subject closely, three main controversies in the field of periodontics are brought into sharper focus: non-surgical versus surgical periodontal therapy; gingivectomy versus osseous resective periodontal therapy; and the nature of clinical decision-making: scientific and evidenced-based versus subjective clinical judgement.

  20. Space transportation system and associated payloads: Glossary, acronyms, and abbreviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of some of the acronyms and abbreviations now in everyday use in the shuttle world is presented. It is a combination of lists that were prepared at Marshall Space Flight Center and Kennedy and Johnson Space Centers, places where intensive shuttle activities are being carried out. This list is intended as a guide or reference and should not be considered to have the status and sanction of a dictionary.

  1. Finding abbreviations in biomedical literature: three BioC-compatible modules and four BioC-formatted corpora.

    PubMed

    Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Comeau, Donald C; Yeganova, Lana; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a recently created XML format to share text data and annotations, and an accompanying input/output library to promote interoperability of data and tools for natural language processing of biomedical text. This article reports the use of BioC to address a common challenge in processing biomedical text information-that of frequent entity name abbreviation. We selected three different abbreviation definition identification modules, and used the publicly available BioC code to convert these independent modules into BioC-compatible components that interact seamlessly with BioC-formatted data, and other BioC-compatible modules. In addition, we consider four manually annotated corpora of abbreviations in biomedical text: the Ab3P corpus of 1250 PubMed abstracts, the BIOADI corpus of 1201 PubMed abstracts, the old MEDSTRACT corpus of 199 PubMed(®) citations and the Schwartz and Hearst corpus of 1000 PubMed abstracts. Annotations in these corpora have been re-evaluated by four annotators and their consistency and quality levels have been improved. We converted them to BioC-format and described the representation of the annotations. These corpora are used to measure the three abbreviation-finding algorithms and the results are given. The BioC-compatible modules, when compared with their original form, have no difference in their efficiency, running time or any other comparable aspects. They can be conveniently used as a common pre-processing step for larger multi-layered text-mining endeavors. Database URL: Code and data are available for download at the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  3. Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. [The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Options and problems in application].

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Junge, M; Ernstberger, A; Brehme, H; Hannawald, L; Langer, C; Nehmzow, J; Otte, D; Sander, U; Krettek, C; Zwipp, H

    2010-05-01

    The new AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) was released with an update by the AAAM (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine) in 2008. It is a universal scoring system in the field of trauma applicable in clinic and research. In engineering it is used as a classification system for vehicle safety. The AIS can therefore be considered as an international, interdisciplinary and universal code of injury severity. This review focuses on a historical overview, potential applications and new coding options in the current version and also outlines the associated problems.

  5. An abbreviated Reynolds stress turbulence model for airfoil flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, R. L., Jr.; Hassan, H. A.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    An abbreviated Reynolds stress turbulence model is presented for solving turbulent flow over airfoils. The model consists of two partial differential equations, one for the Reynolds shear stress and the other for the turbulent kinetic energy. The normal stresses and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy are computed from algebraic relationships having the correct asymptotic near wall behavior. This allows the model to be integrated all the way to the wall without the use of wall functions. Results for a flat plate at zero angle of attack, a NACA 0012 airfoil and a RAE 2822 airfoil are presented.

  6. Abbreviated MRI Protocols: Wave of the Future for Breast Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the use of abbreviated breast MRI protocols for improving access to screening for women at intermediate risk. Breast MRI is not a cost-effective modality for screening women at intermediate risk, including those with dense breast tissue as the only risk. Abbreviated breast MRI protocols have been proposed as a way of achieving efficiency and rapid throughput. Use of these abbreviated protocols may increase availability and provide women with greater access to breast MRI.

  7. Parafoveal and foveal processing of abbreviations during eye fixations in reading: Making a case for case

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Berry, Raymond W.; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of two distinct types: Acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the grapheme-phoneme correspondences are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal processing of these abbreviations was assessed with the use of the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975). Using this paradigm, previews of the abbreviations were either identical to the abbreviation (NASA or NCAA), orthographically legal (NUSO or NOBA), or illegal (NRSB or NRBA). The abbreviations were presented as capital letter strings within normal, predominantly lowercase sentences and also sentences in all capital letters such that the abbreviations would not be visually distinct. The results indicate that acronyms and initialisms undergo different processing during reading, and that readers can modulate their processing based on low-level visual cues (distinct capitalization) in parafoveal vision. In particular, readers may be biased to process capitalized letter strings as initialisms in parafoveal vision when the rest of the sentence is normal, lower case letters. PMID:21480754

  8. Parafoveal and foveal processing of abbreviations during eye fixations in reading: making a case for case.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Timothy J; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Berry, Raymond W; Rayner, Keith

    2011-07-01

    The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of 2 distinct types: acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence [GPC] rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the GPCs are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal processing of these abbreviations was assessed with the use of the boundary change paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975). Using this paradigm, previews of the abbreviations were either identical to the abbreviation (NASA or NCAA), orthographically legal (NUSO or NOBA), or illegal (NRSB or NRBA). The abbreviations were presented as capital letter strings within normal, predominantly lowercase sentences and also sentences in all capital letters such that the abbreviations would not be visually distinct. The results indicate that acronyms and initialisms undergo different processing during reading and that readers can modulate their processing based on low-level visual cues (distinct capitalization) in parafoveal vision. In particular, readers may be biased to process capitalized letter strings as initialisms in parafoveal vision when the rest of the sentence is normal, lowercase letters.

  9. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Celsius. ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. cccubic centimeters. CFRCode of Federal...

  10. Frequency, comprehension and attitudes of physicians towards abbreviations in the medical record.

    PubMed

    Hamiel, Uri; Hecht, Idan; Nemet, Achia; Pe'er, Liron; Man, Vitaly; Hilely, Assaf; Achiron, Asaf

    2018-05-01

    Abbreviations are common in the medical record. Their inappropriate use may ultimately lead to patient harm, yet little is known regarding the extent of their use and their comprehension. Our aim was to assess the extent of their use, their comprehension and physicians' attitudes towards them, using ophthalmology consults in a tertiary hospital as a model. We first mapped the frequency with which English abbreviations were used in the departments' computerised databases. We then used the most frequently used abbreviations as part of a cross-sectional survey designed to assess the attitudes of non-ophthalmologist physicians towards the abbreviations and their comprehension of them. Finally, we tested whether an online lecture would improve comprehension. 4375 records were screened, and 235 physicians responded to the survey. Only 42.5% knew at least 10% of the abbreviations, and no one knew them all. Ninety-two per cent of respondents admitted to searching online for the meanings of abbreviations, and 59.1% believe abbreviations should be prohibited in medical records. A short online lecture improved the number of respondents answering correctly at least 50% of the time from 1.2% to 42% (P<0.001). Abbreviations are common in medical records and are frequently misinterpreted. Online teaching is a valuable tool for physician education. The majority of respondents believed that misinterpreting abbreviations could negatively impact patient care, and that the use of abbreviations should be prohibited in medical records. Due to low rates of comprehension and negative attitudes towards abbreviations in medical communications, we believe their use should be discouraged. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. 76 FR 71601 - Record of Decision, Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study/Abbreviated Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... National Historic Trail Feasibility Study/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, National Trails... Decision on the Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail... Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study...

  12. 78 FR 26785 - Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... history questionnaire and accompanying materials (aDHQ documents), version 1.3 dated December 2012...

  13. 77 FR 12877 - Record of Decision for the General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Decision for the General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement for New River... Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan for New River Gorge National... Record of Decision can be downloaded from the NPS Planning, Environment and Public Comment (PEPC) Web...

  14. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this...

  15. 40 CFR 1048.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1048.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: °Cdegrees...

  16. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... Containers Definitions and Other Reference Information § 59.685 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part...

  18. 40 CFR 1054.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1054.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part...

  19. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.35 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: $U.S. dollars. CFRCode of...

  20. 21 CFR 314.150 - Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.150 Withdrawal of approval of an... abbreviated application for a new drug on a finding that there is an imminent hazard to the public health. FDA...

  1. 21 CFR 314.150 - Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.150 Withdrawal of approval of an... abbreviated application for a new drug on a finding that there is an imminent hazard to the public health. FDA...

  2. 21 CFR 314.101 - Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.101 Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application. (a)(1) Within 60 days after FDA receives an...

  3. 21 CFR 314.150 - Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.150 Withdrawal of approval of an... abbreviated application for a new drug on a finding that there is an imminent hazard to the public health. FDA...

  4. 21 CFR 314.101 - Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.101 Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application. (a)(1) Within 60 days after FDA receives an...

  5. 21 CFR 314.101 - Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.101 Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application. (a)(1) Within 60 days after FDA receives an...

  6. 21 CFR 314.150 - Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.150 Withdrawal of approval of an... abbreviated application for a new drug on a finding that there is an imminent hazard to the public health. FDA...

  7. 21 CFR 314.101 - Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.101 Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application. (a)(1) Within 60 days after FDA receives an...

  8. 21 CFR 314.150 - Withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.150 Withdrawal of approval of an... abbreviated application for a new drug on a finding that there is an imminent hazard to the public health. FDA...

  9. 21 CFR 314.101 - Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.101 Filing an application and receiving an abbreviated new drug application. (a)(1) Within 60 days after FDA receives an...

  10. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  11. Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

  12. Enhancing acronym/abbreviation knowledge bases with semantic information.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2007-10-11

    In the biomedical domain, a terminology knowledge base that associates acronyms/abbreviations (denoted as SFs) with the definitions (denoted as LFs) is highly needed. For the construction such terminology knowledge base, we investigate the feasibility to build a system automatically assigning semantic categories to LFs extracted from text. Given a collection of pairs (SF,LF) derived from text, we i) assess the coverage of LFs and pairs (SF,LF) in the UMLS and justify the need of a semantic category assignment system; and ii) automatically derive name phrases annotated with semantic category and construct a system using machine learning. Utilizing ADAM, an existing collection of (SF,LF) pairs extracted from MEDLINE, our system achieved an f-measure of 87% when assigning eight UMLS-based semantic groups to LFs. The system has been incorporated into a web interface which integrates SF knowledge from multiple SF knowledge bases. Web site: http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesurus.

  13. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  14. 78 FR 13071 - Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Full- Length and Abbreviated Donor History... Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaires and Accompanying Materials for Use in... full-length and abbreviated donor history questionnaires and accompanying materials, version 1.2 dated...

  15. Zipf's Law of Abbreviation and the Principle of Least Effort: Language users optimise a miniature lexicon for efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Jasmeen; Smith, Kenny; Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2017-08-01

    The linguist George Kingsley Zipf made a now classic observation about the relationship between a word's length and its frequency; the more frequent a word is, the shorter it tends to be. He claimed that this "Law of Abbreviation" is a universal structural property of language. The Law of Abbreviation has since been documented in a wide range of human languages, and extended to animal communication systems and even computer programming languages. Zipf hypothesised that this universal design feature arises as a result of individuals optimising form-meaning mappings under competing pressures to communicate accurately but also efficiently-his famous Principle of Least Effort. In this study, we use a miniature artificial language learning paradigm to provide direct experimental evidence for this explanatory hypothesis. We show that language users optimise form-meaning mappings only when pressures for accuracy and efficiency both operate during a communicative task, supporting Zipf's conjecture that the Principle of Least Effort can explain this universal feature of word length distributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does a booster intervention augment the preventive effects of an abbreviated version of the coping power program for aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Lochman, John E; Baden, Rachel E; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin; Salekin, Karen L; Windle, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Booster interventions have been presumed to be important methods for maintaining the effects of evidence-based programs for children with behavioral problems, but there has been remarkably little empirical attention to this assumption. The present study examines the effect of a child-oriented booster preventive intervention with children who had previously received an abbreviated version (24 child sessions, 10 parent sessions) of the Coping Power targeted prevention program. Two hundred and forty-one children (152 boys, 89 girls) were screened as having moderate to high levels of aggressive behavior in 4th grade, then half were randomly assigned to receive the abbreviated Coping Power program in 5th grade, and half of the preventive intervention children were then randomly assigned to a Booster condition in 6th grade. The Booster sessions consisted of brief monthly individual contacts, and were primarily with the children. Five assessments across 4 years were collected from teachers, providing a three-year follow-up for all children who participated in the project. Results indicated that the abbreviated Coping Power program (one-third shorter than the full intervention) had long-term effects in reducing children's externalizing problem behaviors, proactive and reactive aggression, impulsivity traits and callous-unemotional traits. The Booster intervention did not augment these prevention effects. These findings indicate that a briefer and more readily disseminated form of an evidence-based targeted preventive intervention was effective. The findings have potential implications for policy and guidelines about possible intervention length and booster interventions.

  17. Does a Booster Intervention Augment the Preventive Effects of an Abbreviated Version of the Coping Power Program for Aggressive Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lochman, John E.; Baden, Rachel E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Powell, Nicole P.; Qu, Lixin; Salekin, Karen L.; Windle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Booster interventions have been presumed to be important methods for maintaining the effects of evidence-based programs for children with behavioral problems, but there has been remarkably little empirical attention to this assumption. The present study examines the effect of a child-oriented booster preventive intervention with children who had previously received an abbreviated version (24 child sessions, 10 parent sessions) of the Coping Power targeted prevention program. Two hundred and forty-one children (152 boys, 89 girls) were screened as having moderate to high levels of aggressive behavior in 4th grade, then half were randomly assigned to receive the abbreviated Coping Power program in 5th grade, and half of the preventive intervention children were then randomly assigned to a Booster condition in 6th grade. The Booster sessions consisted of brief monthly individual contacts, and were primarily with the children. Five assessments across four years were collected from teachers, providing a three-year follow-up for all children who participated in the project. Results indicated that the abbreviated Coping Power program (one-third shorter than the full intervention) had long-term effects in reducing children’s externalizing problem behaviors, proactive and reactive aggression, impulsivity traits and callous-unemotional traits. The Booster intervention did not augment these prevention effects. These findings indicate that a briefer and more readily disseminated form of an evidence-based targeted preventive intervention was effective. The findings have potential implications for policy and guidelines about possible intervention length and booster interventions. PMID:23417235

  18. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  19. Regulatory considerations of pharmaceutical solid polymorphism in Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs).

    PubMed

    Raw, Andre S; Furness, M Scott; Gill, Devinder S; Adams, Richard C; Holcombe, Frank O; Yu, Lawrence X

    2004-02-23

    A sponsor of an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) must have information to show that the proposed generic product and the innovator product are both pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, and therefore, therapeutically equivalent. Many pharmaceutical solids exist in several crystalline forms and thus exhibit polymorphism. Polymorphism may result in differences in the physico-chemical properties of the active ingredient and variations in these properties may render a generic drug product to be bioinequivalent to the innovator brand. For this reason, in ANDAs, careful attention is paid to the effect of polymorphism in the context of generic drug product equivalency. This review discusses the impact of polymorphism on drug product manufacturability, quality, and performance. Conclusions from this analysis demonstrate that pharmaceutical solid polymorphism has no relevance to the determination of drug substance "sameness" in ANDAs. Three decision trees for solid oral dosage forms or liquid suspensions are provided for evaluating when and how polymorphs of drug substances should be monitored and controlled in ANDA submissions. Case studies from ANDAs are provided which demonstrate the irrelevance of polymorphism to the determination of drug substance "sameness". These case studies also illustrate the conceptual framework from these decision trees and illustrate how their general principles are sufficient to assure both the quality and the therapeutic equivalence of marketed generic drug products.

  20. Development of Abbreviated Nine-Item Forms of the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilker, Warren B.; Hansen, John A.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2012-01-01

    The Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) is a 60-item test for measuring abstract reasoning, considered a nonverbal estimate of fluid intelligence, and often included in clinical assessment batteries and research on patients with cognitive deficits. The goal was to develop and apply a predictive model approach to reduce the number of items…

  1. 78 FR 25279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Abbreviated New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... abbreviated new animal drug applications submitted to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, FDA. DATES: Submit....) Although over the last 5 fiscal years all sponsors chose to submit traditional ANADAs, some sponsors did...

  2. 78 FR 12048 - Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Abbreviated Application for Limited Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Convenience and Necessity On February 11, 2013, Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP (``Gulf Shore''), filed an abbreviated application for limited amendment to certificate of public convenience and necessity pursuant to...

  3. 21 CFR 314.94 - Content and format of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Abbreviated... that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA will periodically issue guidance on how to provide the...

  4. 21 CFR 314.99 - Other responsibilities of an applicant of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW... abbreviated application. (b) An applicant may ask FDA to waive under this section any requirement that applies...

  5. 21 CFR 314.99 - Other responsibilities of an applicant of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW... abbreviated application. (b) An applicant may ask FDA to waive under this section any requirement that applies...

  6. Advantages of using an abbreviated dossier for drug master file applications in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Sun, I-Chen

    2016-10-01

    In Taiwan, the quality of active pharmaceutical ingredients is recorded in a drug master file (DMF), the applications for which can be submitted in two dossier types, either full (complete technical information) or abbreviated (partially complete technical information with an approved document issued by developed countries). However, the advantages of the abbreviated approach remain unknown. This study compared full and abbreviated dossier profiles and reviewed their outcomes in acceptance rates and deficiencies leading to rejection. Data were collected from new submissions of both dossier types that were completed in 2014 by the Center for Drug Evaluation, Taiwan. The results revealed that the abbreviated applications took shorter review time and had a higher acceptance rate. Among the eligible types of document for abbreviated applications, Certification of Suitability to the Monographs of the European Pharmacopeia (CEP) was the most frequently used. For categorical deficiencies, both dossier types presented the deficiencies in similar sections leading to rejection, namely Manufacture (3.2.S.2), Control of drug substance (3.2.S.4), and Stability (3.2.S.7). In summary, CEP serves a favorable document for the abbreviated DMF application in which it shortens the review time, increases the acceptance rate, and its deficiencies are similar to those of the full DMF application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Defining major trauma using the 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Cameron S; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cameron, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is the most ubiquitous summary score derived from Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) data. It is frequently used to classify patients as 'major trauma' using a threshold of ISS >15. However, it is not known whether this is still appropriate, given the changes which have been made to the AIS codeset since this threshold was first used. This study aimed to identify appropriate ISS and New Injury Severity Score (NISS) thresholds for use with the 2008 AIS (AIS08) which predict mortality and in-hospital resource use comparably to ISS >15 using AIS98. Data from 37,760 patients in a state trauma registry were retrieved and reviewed. AIS data coded using the 1998 AIS (AIS98) were mapped to AIS08. ISS and NISS were calculated, and their effects on patient classification compared. The ability of selected ISS and NISS thresholds to predict mortality or high-level in-hospital resource use (the need for ICU or urgent surgery) was assessed. An ISS >12 using AIS08 was similar to an ISS >15 using AIS98 in terms of both the number of patients classified major trauma, and overall major trauma mortality. A 10% mortality level was only seen for ISS 25 or greater. A NISS >15 performed similarly to both of these ISS thresholds. However, the AIS08-based ISS >12 threshold correctly classified significantly more patients than a NISS >15 threshold for all three severity measures assessed. When coding injuries using AIS08, an ISS >12 appears to function similarly to an ISS >15 in AIS98 for the purposes of identifying a population with an elevated risk of death after injury. Where mortality is a primary outcome of trauma monitoring, an ISS >12 threshold could be adopted to identify major trauma patients. Level II evidence--diagnostic tests and criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Audit on the Use of Dangerous Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations in Paper Compared to Electronic Medication Orders: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephanie; Hoi, Sannifer; Fernandes, Olavo; Huh, Jin; Kynicos, Sara; Murphy, Laura; Lowe, Donna

    2018-04-01

    Dangerous abbreviations on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada's "Do Not Use" list have resulted in medication errors leading to harm. Data comparing rates of use of dangerous abbreviations in paper and electronic medication orders are limited. To compare rates of use of dangerous abbreviations from the "Do Not Use" list, in paper and electronic medication orders. Secondary objectives include determining the proportion of patients at risk for medication errors due to dangerous abbreviations and the most commonly used dangerous abbreviations. One-day cross-sectional audits of medication orders were conducted at a 6-site hospital network in Toronto, Canada, between December 2013 and January 2014. Proportions of paper and electronic medication orders containing dangerous abbreviation(s) were compared using a χ 2 test. The proportion of patients with at least 1 medication order containing dangerous abbreviation(s) and the top 5 dangerous abbreviations used were described. Overall, 255 patient charts were reviewed. The proportions of paper and electronic medication orders containing dangerous abbreviation(s) were 172/714 (24.1%) and 9/2207 (0.4%), respectively ( P < 0.001). Almost one-third of patients had medication order(s) containing dangerous abbreviation(s). The proportions of patients with at least 1 medication order during the audit period containing dangerous abbreviation(s) for patients with paper only, electronic only, or a hybrid of paper and electronic medication orders were 50.5%, 5%, and 47.2%, respectively. Those most commonly used were "D/C", drug name abbreviations, "OD," "cc," and "U." Electronic medication orders have significantly lower rates of dangerous abbreviation use compared to paper medication orders.

  9. Abbreviated Combined MR Protocol: A New Faster Strategy for Characterizing Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The use of an abbreviated magnetic resonance (MR) protocol has been recently proposed for cancer screening. The aim of our study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an abbreviated MR protocol combining short TI inversion recovery (STIR), turbo-spin-echo (TSE)-T2 sequences, a pre-contrast T1, and a single intermediate (3 minutes after contrast injection) post-contrast T1 sequence for characterizing breast lesions. A total of 470 patients underwent breast MR examination for screening, problem solving, or preoperative staging. Two experienced radiologists evaluated both standard and abbreviated protocols in consensus. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy for both protocols were calculated (with the histological findings and 6-month ultrasound follow-up as the reference standard) and compared with the McNemar test. The post-processing and interpretation times for the MR images were compared with the paired t test. In 177 of 470 (38%) patients, the MR sequences detected 185 breast lesions. Standard and abbreviated protocols obtained sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV, and NPV values respectively of 92%, 92%, 92%, 68%, and 98% and of 89%, 91%, 91%, 64%, and 98% with no statistically significant difference (P < .0001). The mean post-processing and interpretation time were, respectively, 7 ± 1 minutes and 6 ± 3.2 minutes for the standard protocol and 1 ± 1.2 minutes and 2 ± 1.2 minutes for the abbreviated protocol, with a statistically significant difference (P < .01). An abbreviated combined MR protocol represents a time-saving tool for radiologists and patients with the same diagnostic potential as the standard protocol in patients undergoing breast MRI for screening, problem solving, or preoperative staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AAC menu interface: effectiveness of active versus passive learning to master abbreviation-expansion codes.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Ellyn; Soderman, Melinda; Ward, Christy; Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the accuracy with which 30 young adults without disabilities learned abbreviation expansion codes associated with specific vocabulary items that were stored in an AAC device with two accessing methods: mouse access and keyboard access. Both accessing methods utilized a specialized computer application, called AAC Menu, which allowed for errorless practice. Mouse access prompted passive learning, whereas keyboard access prompted active learning. Results revealed that participants who accessed words via a keyboard demonstrated significantly higher mastery of abbreviation-expansion codes than those who accessed words via a computer mouse.

  11. [Reliability and validity studies of Turkish translation of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated].

    PubMed

    Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gülay; Yorulmaz, Orçun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and the validity of the Turkish translation of the Eysneck Personality Questionnaire Revised-abbreviated Form (EPQR-A) (Francis et al., 1992), which consists of 24 items that assess neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lying. The questionnaire was first translated into Turkish and then back translated. Subsequently, it was administered to 756 students from 4 different universities. The Fear Survey Inventory-III (FSI-III), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scales (RSES), and Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran (EMBU-C) were also administered in order to assess the questionnaire's validity. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity were subsequently evaluated. Factor analysis, similar to the original scale, yielded 4 factors; the neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lie scales. Kuder-Richardson alpha coefficients for the extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie scales were 0.78, 0.65, 0.42, and 0.64, respectively, and the test-retest reliability of the scales was 0.84, 0.82, 0.69, and 0.69, respectively. The relationships between EPQR-A-48, FSI-III, EMBU-C, and RSES were examined in order to evaluate the construct validity of the scale. Our findings support the construct validity of the questionnaire. To investigate gender differences in scores on the subscales, MANOVA was conducted. The results indicated that there was a gender difference only in the lie scale scores. Our findings largely supported the reliability and validity of the questionnaire in a Turkish student sample. The psychometric characteristics of the Turkish version of the EPQR-A were discussed in light of the relevant literature.

  12. Selecting a Short Form of the MMPI: Addendum to Faschingbauer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Faschingbauer offered guidelines in selecting MMPI short forms as substitutes for the MMPI. This reviews empirical studies of the clinical validity of MMPI short forms and discusses MMPI-168, not considered in Faschingbauer's earlier article. Empirical evidence favors the Faschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI and the MMPI-168 over others. (Author)

  13. Abbreviated Breast MRI and Digital Tomosynthesis Mammography in Screening Women With Dense Breasts | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital tomosynthesis mammography work in detecting cancer in women with dense breasts. Abbreviated breast MRI is a low cost procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer and used to create detailed pictures of the breast in less than 10 minutes.

  14. 21 CFR 314.152 - Notice of withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.152 Notice of... Administration withdraws approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug, FDA will publish a...

  15. 21 CFR 314.160 - Approval of an application or abbreviated application for which approval was previously refused...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... of an applicant, FDA may, on the basis of new data, approve an application or abbreviated application which it had previously refused, suspended, or withdrawn approval. FDA will publish a notice in the...

  16. 21 CFR 314.160 - Approval of an application or abbreviated application for which approval was previously refused...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... of an applicant, FDA may, on the basis of new data, approve an application or abbreviated application which it had previously refused, suspended, or withdrawn approval. FDA will publish a notice in the...

  17. 21 CFR 314.160 - Approval of an application or abbreviated application for which approval was previously refused...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... of an applicant, FDA may, on the basis of new data, approve an application or abbreviated application which it had previously refused, suspended, or withdrawn approval. FDA will publish a notice in the...

  18. 21 CFR 314.152 - Notice of withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.152 Notice of... Administration withdraws approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug, FDA will publish a...

  19. 21 CFR 314.152 - Notice of withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.152 Notice of... Administration withdraws approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug, FDA will publish a...

  20. 21 CFR 314.160 - Approval of an application or abbreviated application for which approval was previously refused...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... of an applicant, FDA may, on the basis of new data, approve an application or abbreviated application which it had previously refused, suspended, or withdrawn approval. FDA will publish a notice in the...

  1. 21 CFR 314.152 - Notice of withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.152 Notice of... Administration withdraws approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug, FDA will publish a...

  2. 21 CFR 314.160 - Approval of an application or abbreviated application for which approval was previously refused...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... of an applicant, FDA may, on the basis of new data, approve an application or abbreviated application which it had previously refused, suspended, or withdrawn approval. FDA will publish a notice in the...

  3. 21 CFR 314.152 - Notice of withdrawal of approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.152 Notice of... Administration withdraws approval of an application or abbreviated application for a new drug, FDA will publish a...

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Children's Knowledge of Text Message Abbreviations and School Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Joshi, Puja

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 88 British 10-12-year-old children's knowledge of text message (SMS) abbreviations ("textisms") and how it relates to their school literacy attainment. As a measure of textism knowledge, the children were asked to compose text messages they might write if they were in each of a set of scenarios. Their text…

  5. 40 CFR 1068.35 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? 1068.35 Section 1068.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... per cylinder. NARANational Archives and Records Administration. NOXOxides of nitrogen. SAESociety of...

  6. Evaluating an Abbreviated Version of the Paths Curriculum Implemented by School Mental Health Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jennifer E.; Werner, Shelby S.; Sweeney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    When evidence-based prevention programs are implemented in schools, adaptations are common. It is important to understand which adaptations can be made while maintaining positive outcomes for students. This preliminary study evaluated an abbreviated version of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum implemented by…

  7. 77 FR 58999 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0938] Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances... their complexity, the FDA is considering standardizing stability testing policies by adopting...

  8. 78 FR 52931 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0938] Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances... Products, Questions and Answers.'' Because of increases in the number and complexity of ANDAs and FDA's...

  9. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0938] Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug Substances....'' Because of increases in the number and complexity of ANDAs and FDA's desire to standardize generic drug...

  10. 21 CFR 314.94 - Content and format of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bioequivalence study contained in the abbreviated new drug application, a description of the analytical and... exclusivity under section 505(j)(5)(F) of the act. (9) Chemistry, manufacturing, and controls. (i) The... the act and one copy of the analytical procedures and descriptive information needed by FDA's...

  11. 21 CFR 314.94 - Content and format of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bioequivalence study contained in the abbreviated new drug application, a description of the analytical and... exclusivity under section 505(j)(5)(F) of the act. (9) Chemistry, manufacturing, and controls. (i) The... the act and one copy of the analytical procedures and descriptive information needed by FDA's...

  12. 75 FR 77897 - Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [7700-1104-SZS] Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, National Trails Intermountain Region, NM... Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Abbreviated Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Brown, Theresa C.; Fry, Mary D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an abbreviated version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (PMCEQ-A) to provide a more practical instrument for use in applied exercise settings. In the calibration step, two shortened versions' measurement and latent model values were compared to each other and the original…

  14. 40 CFR 59.685 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this subpart use? 59.685 Section 59.685 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel...

  15. 21 CFR 314.440 - Addresses for applications and abbreviated applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-600), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Metro Park North II, 7500... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Attn: [insert name of person], Metro Park North II... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addresses for applications and abbreviated...

  16. Symbolic Capital in a Virtual Heterosexual Market: Abbreviation and Insertion in Italian iTV SMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Susan C.; Zelenkauskaite, Asta

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes gender variation in nonstandard typography--specifically, abbreviations and insertions--in mobile phone text messages (SMS) posted to a public Italian interactive television (iTV) program. All broadcast SMS were collected for a period of 2 days from the Web archive for the iTV program, and the frequency and distribution of…

  17. Text-Message Abbreviations and Language Skills in High School and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jonge, Sarah; Kemp, Nenagh

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of text-message abbreviations (textisms) in Australian adolescents and young adults, and relations between textism use and literacy abilities. Fifty-two high school students aged 13-15 years, and 53 undergraduates aged 18-24 years, all users of predictive texting, translated conventional English sentences into…

  18. An abbreviated SNP panel for ancestry assignment of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper examines whether an abbreviated panel of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has the same power as a larger and more expensive panel of 95 SNPs to assign ancestry of honeybees (Apis mellifera) to three ancestral lineages. We selected 37 SNPs from the original 95 SNP panel using alle...

  19. Relax and Try This Instead: Abbreviated Habit Reversal for Maladaptive Self-Biting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin M.; Swearer, Susan M.; Friman, Patrick C.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of an abbreviated habit reversal procedure to reduce maladaptive oral self-biting in an adolescent boy in residential care. Treatment involved a combination of relaxation and two competing responses (gum chewing and tongue-lip rubbing). The intervention eliminated the biting and the tissue damage it caused.…

  20. 76 FR 62089 - General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, New River Gorge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (GMP/EIS) for New River Gorge National River, West..., and interpretation of park resources over the next 20 years. The Abbreviated Final GMP/EIS includes an analysis of agency and public comments received on the Draft GMP/EIS with NPS responses, errata sheets...

  1. 75 FR 44977 - General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (GMP/EIS) for Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, Hyde Park, New York. The Abbreviated Final GMP/EIS includes an analysis of agency and public comments received on the Draft GMP/EIS with NPS responses, errata sheets detailing editorial corrections to...

  2. The Use of Abbreviations in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Paper Titles: A Problematic Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carry out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of abbreviations in 300 randomly collected research paper titles published in the most prestigious European and US-based Astrophysics journals written in English. Our main results show that the process of shortening words and groups of words is one of the most characteristic and…

  3. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this...—American Society for Testing and Materials. ATV—all-terrain vehicle. cc—cubic centimeters. CFR—Code of...—pounds per square inches of gauge pressure. rpm—revolutions per minute. SAE—Society of Automotive...

  4. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an Abbreviated Social Support Instrument: The MOS-SSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Confirm the factor structure of the original 18-item Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) as well as two abbreviated versions in a sample of mothers with a child in mental health treatment. Method: The factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the MOS-SSS were assessed using a convenience sample…

  5. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW... suitable for an abbreviated new drug application submission by FDA through the petition procedures set forth under § 10.30 of this chapter and § 314.93. (b) FDA will publish in the list listed drugs for...

  6. 21 CFR 314.153 - Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application. 314.153 Section 314.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA...

  7. 21 CFR 314.97 - Supplements and other changes to an approved abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplements and other changes to an approved abbreviated application. 314.97 Section 314.97 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW...

  8. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW... suitable for an abbreviated new drug application submission by FDA through the petition procedures set forth under § 10.30 of this chapter and § 314.93. (b) FDA will publish in the list listed drugs for...

  9. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for reviewing... application for a new drug under section 505(j) of the act, FDA will review it and send the applicant either...

  10. 21 CFR 314.94 - Content and format of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Abbreviated... the application are required, an archival copy, a review copy, and a field copy. FDA will maintain... application based on an approved petition under § 10.30 of this chapter or § 314.93, a reference to FDA...

  11. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for reviewing... application for a new drug under section 505(j) of the act, FDA will review it and send the applicant either...

  12. 21 CFR 314.97 - Supplements and other changes to an approved abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplements and other changes to an approved abbreviated application. 314.97 Section 314.97 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW...

  13. 21 CFR 314.96 - Amendments to an unapproved abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Abbreviated... applicant on the same drug product formulation, unless the information has previously been submitted to FDA... and FDA determines that there may be bioequivalence issues or concerns with the product, FDA may...

  14. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW... suitable for an abbreviated new drug application submission by FDA through the petition procedures set forth under § 10.30 of this chapter and § 314.93. (b) FDA will publish in the list listed drugs for...

  15. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for reviewing... application for a new drug under section 505(j) of the act, FDA will review it and send the applicant either...

  16. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for reviewing... application for a new drug under section 505(j) of the act, FDA will review it and send the applicant either...

  17. 21 CFR 314.92 - Drug products for which abbreviated applications may be submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW... suitable for an abbreviated new drug application submission by FDA through the petition procedures set forth under § 10.30 of this chapter and § 314.93. (b) FDA will publish in the list listed drugs for...

  18. 21 CFR 314.100 - Timeframes for reviewing applications and abbreviated applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.100 Timeframes for reviewing... application for a new drug under section 505(j) of the act, FDA will review it and send the applicant either...

  19. 21 CFR 314.153 - Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application. 314.153 Section 314.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA...

  20. 21 CFR 314.153 - Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application. 314.153 Section 314.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA...

  1. 21 CFR 314.94 - Content and format of an abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Abbreviated... the application are required, an archival copy, a review copy, and a field copy. FDA will maintain... application based on an approved petition under § 10.30 of this chapter or § 314.93, a reference to FDA...

  2. 21 CFR 314.153 - Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application. 314.153 Section 314.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA...

  3. 21 CFR 314.153 - Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension of approval of an abbreviated new drug application. 314.153 Section 314.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA...

  4. 21 CFR 314.96 - Amendments to an unapproved abbreviated application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Abbreviated... applicant on the same drug product formulation, unless the information has previously been submitted to FDA... and FDA determines that there may be bioequivalence issues or concerns with the product, FDA may...

  5. Medical Terminology: Latin Words/Abbreviations; Special Signs and Symbols. Health Occupations Education Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (using Latin words/abbreviations; special signs and symbols) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three…

  6. Efficacy of Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training: A Quantitative Review of Behavioral Medicine Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Charles R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted quantitative review of research in which abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation training (APRT) was used as intervention for psychophysiological and stress-related disorders. Calculated strength of association between APRT and outcome measures for 29 experiments published after 1980. APRT was most strongly associated with improvement…

  7. A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Åke; Rydén, Andreas; Law, Robin J.; de Boer, Jacob; Covaci, Adrian; Alaee, Mehran; Birnbaum, Linda; Petreas, Myrto; Rose, Martin; Sakai, Shinichi; Van den Eede, Nele; van der Veen, Ike

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants. PMID:22982223

  8. Challenges and practical approaches with word sense disambiguation of acronyms and abbreviations in the clinical domain.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sungrim; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Although acronyms and abbreviations in clinical text are used widely on a daily basis, relatively little research has focused upon word sense disambiguation (WSD) of acronyms and abbreviations in the healthcare domain. Since clinical notes have distinctive characteristics, it is unclear whether techniques effective for acronym and abbreviation WSD from biomedical literature are sufficient. The authors discuss feature selection for automated techniques and challenges with WSD of acronyms and abbreviations in the clinical domain. There are significant challenges associated with the informal nature of clinical text, such as typographical errors and incomplete sentences; difficulty with insufficient clinical resources, such as clinical sense inventories; and obstacles with privacy and security for conducting research with clinical text. Although we anticipated that using sophisticated techniques, such as biomedical terminologies, semantic types, part-of-speech, and language modeling, would be needed for feature selection with automated machine learning approaches, we found instead that simple techniques, such as bag-of-words, were quite effective in many cases. Factors, such as majority sense prevalence and the degree of separateness between sense meanings, were also important considerations. The first lesson is that a comprehensive understanding of the unique characteristics of clinical text is important for automatic acronym and abbreviation WSD. The second lesson learned is that investigators may find that using simple approaches is an effective starting point for these tasks. Finally, similar to other WSD tasks, an understanding of baseline majority sense rates and separateness between senses is important. Further studies and practical solutions are needed to better address these issues.

  9. 7 CFR 759.3 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., as a result of the natural disaster. U.S. Drought Monitor is a system for classifying drought severity according to a range of abnormally dry to exceptional drought. It is a collaborative effort..., outlooks, and drought impacts on a map and in narrative form. This synthesis of indices is reported by the...

  10. 7 CFR 759.3 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., as a result of the natural disaster. U.S. Drought Monitor is a system for classifying drought severity according to a range of abnormally dry to exceptional drought. It is a collaborative effort..., outlooks, and drought impacts on a map and in narrative form. This synthesis of indices is reported by the...

  11. Evaluating evaluation forms form.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger P

    2004-02-01

    To provide a tool for evaluating evaluation forms. A new form has been developed and tested on itself and a sample of evaluation forms obtained from the graduate medical education offices of several local universities. Additional forms from hospital administration were also subjected to analysis. The new form performed well when applied to itself. The form performed equally well when applied to the other (subject) forms, although their scores were embarrassingly poor. A new form for evaluating evaluation forms is needed, useful, and now available.

  12. 76 FR 38554 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Cross...

  13. 75 FR 76259 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by...

  14. Using a genetic algorithm to abbreviate the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R).

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Yarkoni, Tal

    2015-03-01

    Some self-report measures of personality and personality disorders, including the widely used Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), are lengthy and time-intensive. In recent work, we introduced an automated genetic algorithm (GA)-based method for abbreviating psychometric measures. In Study 1, we used this approach to generate a short (40-item) version of the PPI-R using 3 large-N German student samples (total N = 1,590). The abbreviated measure displayed high convergent correlations with the original PPI-R, and outperformed an alternative measure constructed using a conventional approach. Study 2 tested the convergent and discriminant validity of this short version in a fourth student sample (N = 206) using sensation-seeking and sensitivity to reward and punishment scales, again demonstrating similar convergent and discriminant validity for the PPI-R-40 compared with the full version. In a fifth community sample of North American participants acquired using Amazon Mechanical Turk, the PPI-R-40 showed similarly high convergent correlations, demonstrating stability across language, culture, and data-collection method. Taken together, these studies suggest that the GA approach is a viable method for abbreviating measures of psychopathy, and perhaps personality measures in general. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.0001). Moreover, there was an excellent correlation between whole blood venous tacrolimus levels in the two centers (r(2) = 0.97; P < 0.0001). The blood samples were stable after long-distance transport. DBS sampling can be used in centers using limited sampling and abbreviated AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  16. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  17. No longer "if," but "when": the coming abbreviated approval pathway for follow-on biologics.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jeremiah J; David, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abbreviated approval of follow-on biologics involves answering complex scientific, legal, and policy questions. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) asserts that it lacks the statutory authority to approve follow-on versions of biologics licensed under Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA). Despite persuasive arguments to the contrary the one hundred and tenth Congress entertained four legislative proposals to give FDA this authority, each markedly different. It is no longer a question of "if," but "when" FDA will receive authority to review and license abbreviated applications for follow-on biologics. Any legislation in the one hundred and eleventh Congress must determine: (1) if FDA should be granted authority to develop an abbreviated pathway through rulemaking or guidance; (2) if human clinical trials should be mandatory or discretionary; (3) the feasibility of interchangeability determinations in light of patient safety concerns; (4) the duration of marketing exclusivity for associated products; (5) which products are eligible for follow-on approval; and (6) the degree to which uniformity is achievable between the FD&C Act and the PHSA. This paper recommends the one hundred and eleventh Congress strike a balance between patient safety, incentives for product innovation, price competition, and the need for a flexible, transparent process that capitalizes on FDA's growing expertise with follow-on biologics approvals under Section 505(b)(2) of the FD&C Act.

  18. Effects of signal salience and noise on performance and stress in an abbreviated vigil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, William Stokely

    Vigilance or sustained attention tasks traditionally require observers to detect predetermined signals that occur unpredictably over periods of 30 min to several hours (Warm, 1984). These tasks are taxing and have been useful in revealing the effects of stress agents, such as infectious disease and drugs, on human performance (Alluisi, 1969; Damos & Parker, 1994; Warm, 1993). However, their long duration has been an inconvenience. Recently, Temple and his associates (Temple et al., 2000) developed an abbreviated 12-min vigilance task that duplicates many of the findings with longer duration vigils. The present study was designed to explore further the similarity of the abbreviated task to long-duration vigils by investigating the effects of signal salience and jet-aircraft engine noise on performance, operator stress, and coping strategies. Forty-eight observers (24 males and 24 females) were assigned at random to each of four conditions resulting from the factorial combination of signal salience (high and low contrast signals) and background noise (quiet and jet-aircraft noise). As is the case with long-duration vigils (Warm, 1993), signal detection in the abbreviated task was poorer for low salience than for high salience signals. In addition, stress scores, as indexed by the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire (Matthews, Joiner, Gilliland, Campbell, & Falconer, 1999), were elevated in the low as compared to the high salience condition. Unlike longer vigils, however, (Becker, Warm, Dember, & Hancock, 1996), signal detection in the abbreviated task was superior in the presence of aircraft noise than in quiet. Noise also attenuated the stress of the vigil, a result that is counter to previous findings regarding the effects of noise in a variety of other scenarios (Clark, 1984). Examination of observers' coping responses, as assessed by the Coping Inventory for Task Situations (Matthews & Campbell, 1998), indicated that problem-focused coping was the overwhelming

  19. An abbreviated Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale for Chinese-speaking population with colorectal cancer after surgery: cultural adaptation and item reduction.

    PubMed

    Hsu, L-F; Hung, C-L; Kuo, L-J; Tsai, P-S

    2017-09-01

    No instrument is available to assess the impact of faecal incontinence (FI) of quality of life for Chinese-speaking population. The purpose of the study was to adapt the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) for patients with colorectal cancer, assess the factor structure and reduce the items for brevity. A sample of 120 participants were enrolled. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and contrasted-groups validity were assessed. Construct validity was analysed using an exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency (Cronbach's α of the total scale and four subscales = 0.98 and 0.97, 0.96, 0.92, 0.82 respectively), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥.98 for all scales with p < .001) and significant correlations of all scales with selected subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey and the Wexner scale suggested satisfactory reliability and validity. The severe FI group (with a Wexner score ≥9) scored significantly lower on the scale than the less severe FI group (with a Wexner score <9) did (p < .001). The CFA supported a two-factor structure and demonstrated an excellent model fit of the 15-item abbreviated version of the FIQL-Chinese. The FIQL-Chinese has satisfactory validity and reliability and the abbreviated version may be more practical and applicable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nuclear Forensics: A Capability at Risk (Abbreviated Version)

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    forensics are too few and are spread too thinly. Some key facilities are in need of replacement because they are old, outdated, and not built to modern environmental, health, and safety standards. Procedures and Tools. Most nuclear forensics techniques were developed to carry out Cold War missions and to satisfy a different, less restrictive set of environmental, health, and safety standards. Some of the equipment also does not reflect today's technical capabilities. The Executive Office of the President established the National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, to coordinate nuclear forensics in the United States. DHS's responsibility can only be carried out with the cooperation and support of the other agencies involved. The committee recommends that DHS and the other cooperating agencies should: 1. Streamline the organizational structure, aligning authority and responsibility; and develop and issue appropriate requirements documents. 2. Issue a coordinated and integrated implementation plan for fulfilling the requirements and sustaining and improving the program's capabilities. This plan would form the basis for the agencies' multi-year program budget requests. 3. Implement a plan to build and maintain an appropriately sized and composed nuclear forensics workforce, ensuring sufficient staffing at the national laboratories and support for university research, training programs, and collaborative relationships among the national laboratories and other organizations. 4. Adapt nuclear forensics to the challenges of real emergency situations, including, for example, conducting more realistic exercises that are unannounced and that challenge regulations and procedures followed in the normal work environment, and implementing lessons learned. The national laboratories should: 5. Optimize procedures and equipment through R&D to meet program requirements. Modeling and simulation should play an increased role in research

  1. Bacterial toxins activation of abbreviated urea cycle in porcine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajesh G; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Po-Yi; Lee, Tony J-F

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (l-citrulline-l-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes l-citrulline (l-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms l-arginine (l-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis. The possibility that ASS enzyme in this cycle was induced in the CVSMC in sepsis was examined. Blood-vessel myography technique was used for measuring porcine isolated basilar arterial tone. NO in cultured CVSMC and in condition mediums were estimated by diaminofluorescein (DAF)-induced fluorescence and Griess reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses were used to examine iNOS and ASS induction. l-cit and l-arg, which did not relax endothelium-denuded normal basilar arteries precontracted by U-46619, induced significant vasorelaxation with increased NO production in these arteries and the CVSMCs following 6-hour exposure to 20μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Pre-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and salicylate (SAL) (NFκB inhibitors), aminoguanidine (AG, an iNOS inhibitor), and nitro-l-arg (NLA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor) blocked NO synthesis in the CVSMC and attenuated l-cit- and l-arg-induced relaxation of LPS- and LTA-treated arteries. Furthermore, immunohistochemical and immunoblotting studies demonstrated that expression of basal iNOS and ASS in the smooth muscle cell of arterial segments denuded of endothelium and the cultured CVSMCs was significantly increased following 6-hour incubation with LPS or LTA. This increased i

  2. The Abbreviation of Personality, or how to Measure 200 Personality Scales with 200 Items

    PubMed Central

    Yarkoni, Tal

    2010-01-01

    Personality researchers have recently advocated the use of very short personality inventories in order to minimize administration time. However, few such inventories are currently available. Here I introduce an automated method that can be used to abbreviate virtually any personality inventory with minimal effort. After validating the method against existing measures in Studies 1 and 2, a new 181-item inventory is generated in Study 3 that accurately recaptures scores on 8 different broadband inventories comprising 203 distinct scales. Collectively, the results validate a powerful new way to improve the efficiency of personality measurement in research settings. PMID:20419061

  3. Differences and discrepancies between 2005 and 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale versions - time to standardise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this letter is to facilitate the standardisation of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codesets used to code injuries in trauma registries. We have compiled a definitive list of the changes which have been implemented between the AIS 2005 and Update 2008 versions. While the AIS 2008 codeset appears to have remained consistent since its release, we have identified discrepancies between the codesets in copies of AIS 2005 dictionaries. As a result, we recommend that use of the AIS 2005 should be discontinued in favour of the Update 2008 version. PMID:22301065

  4. Differences and discrepancies between 2005 and 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale versions - time to standardise.

    PubMed

    Ringdal, Kjetil G; Hestnes, Morten; Palmer, Cameron S

    2012-02-02

    The aim of this letter is to facilitate the standardisation of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codesets used to code injuries in trauma registries. We have compiled a definitive list of the changes which have been implemented between the AIS 2005 and Update 2008 versions. While the AIS 2008 codeset appears to have remained consistent since its release, we have identified discrepancies between the codesets in copies of AIS 2005 dictionaries. As a result, we recommend that use of the AIS 2005 should be discontinued in favour of the Update 2008 version.

  5. Abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms frequently used by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Guidelines are given for using abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms (AAIs) in documents prepared by US Department of Energy facilities managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The more than 10,000 AAIs listed represent only a small portion of those found in recent documents prepared by contributing editors of the Information Management Services organization of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document expands on AAIs listed in the Document Preparation Guide and is intended as a companion document

  6. Effects of an Abbreviated Obesity Intervention Supported by Mobile Technology: The ENGAGED Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Pfammatter, Angela; Duncan, Jennifer M.; Pictor, Alex; McFadden, H. Gene; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effects on weight loss of three abbreviated behavioral weight loss interventions with and without coaching and mobile technology. Methods Randomized controlled efficacy study of three six-month weight loss treatments delivered to 96 adults with obesity: 1) self-guided [SELF], 2) standard [STND], or 3) technology-supported [TECH]. STND and TECH received 8 in-person group treatment sessions. SELF and STND used paper diaries to self-monitor diet, activity, and weight; TECH used a smartphone application with social networking features and wireless accelerometer. Results Weight loss was greater for TECH and STND than SELF at 6 months [−5.7kg (95% CI: −7.2, −4.1) vs. −2.7kg (95% CI: −5.1, −0.3), p<.05]), but not 12 months. TECH and STND did not differ except that more STND (59%) than TECH (34%) achieved ≥5% weight loss at 6 months (P < 0.05). Self-monitoring adherence was greater in TECH than STND (P <0.001), greater in both interventions than SELF (P <0.001), and covaried with weight loss (r(84) = 0.36 − 0.51, P<.001). Conclusions Abbreviated behavioral counseling can produce clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of whether self-monitoring is performed on paper or smartphone, but long-term superiority over standard of care self-guided treatment is challenging to maintain. PMID:28494136

  7. Improving the sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated injury scale coding system.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, C F; Barancik, J I; Thode, H C

    1990-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale with Epidemiologic Modifications (AIS 85-EM) was developed to make it possible to code information about anatomic injury types and locations that, although generally available from medical records, is not codable under the standard Abbreviated Injury Scale, published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine in 1985 (AIS 85). In a population-based sample of 3,223 motor vehicle trauma cases, 68 percent of the patients had one or more injuries that were coded to the AIS 85 body region nonspecific category external. When the same patients' injuries were coded using the AIS 85-EM coding procedure, only 15 percent of the patients had injuries that could not be coded to a specific body region. With AIS 85-EM, the proportion of codable head injury cases increased from 16 percent to 37 percent, thereby improving the potential for identifying cases with head and threshold brain injury. The data suggest that body region coding of all injuries is necessary to draw valid and reliable conclusions about changes in injury patterns and their sequelae. The increased specificity of body region coding improves assessments of the efficacy of injury intervention strategies and countermeasure programs using epidemiologic methodology. PMID:2116633

  8. Development and Validation of an Abbreviated Questionnaire to Easily Measure Cognitive Failure in ICU Survivors: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Annelies; de Reus, Jorn; Donders, A Rogier T; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Cremer, Olaf L; de Lange, Dylan W; van Dijk, Diederik; Slooter, Arjen J C; Pickkers, Peter; van den Boogaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate an abbreviated version of the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire that can be used by patients as part of self-assessment to measure functional cognitive outcome in ICU survivors. A retrospective multicenter observational study. The ICUs of two Dutch university hospitals. Adult ICU survivors. None. Cognitive functioning was evaluated between 12 and 24 months after ICU discharge using the full 25-item Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ-25). Incomplete CFQ-25 questionnaires were excluded from analysis. Forward selection in a linear regression model was used in hospital A to assess which of the CFQ-25 items should be included to prevent a significant loss of correlation between an abbreviated and the full CFQ-25. Subsequently, the performance of an abbreviated Cognitive Failure Questionnaire was determined in hospital B using Pearson's correlation. A Bland-Altman plot was used to examine whether the reduced-item outcome scores of an abbreviated Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were a replacement for the full CFQ-25 outcome scores. Among 1,934 ICU survivors, 1,737 were included, 819 in hospital A, 918 in hospital B. The Pearson's correlation between the abbreviated 14-item Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ-14) and the CFQ-25 was 0.99. The mean of the difference scores was -0.26, and 95% of the difference scores fell within +5 and -5.5 on a 100-point maximum score. It is feasible to use the abbreviated CFQ-14 to measure self-reported cognitive failure in ICU survivors as this questionnaire has a similar performance as the full CFQ-25.

  9. Impact of Abbreviated Filgrastim Schedule on Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery after Irradiation in Four Mouse Strains with Different Radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Satyamitra, Merriline; Kumar, Vidya P.; Biswas, Shukla; Cary, Lynnette; Dickson, Leonora; Venkataraman, Srinivasan; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2017-01-01

    Filgrastim (Neupogen®, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) is among the few countermeasures recommended for management of patients in the event of lethal total-body irradiation. Despite the plethora of studies using filgrastim as a radiation countermeasure, relatively little is known about the optimal dose schedule of filgrastim to mitigate radiation lethality. We evaluated the efficacy of filgrastim in improving 30-day survival of CD2F1 mice irradiated with a lethal dose (LD70/30) in the AFRRI cobalt-60 facility. We tested different schedules of 1, 3, 5,10 or 16 once-daily injections of filgrastim initiated one day after irradiation. Time optimization studies with filgrastim treatment were also performed, beginning 6–48 h postirradiation. Maximum survival was observed with 3 daily doses of 0.17 mg/kg filgrastim. Survival efficacy of the 3-day treatment was compared against the conventional 16-day filgrastim treatment after irradiation in four mouse strains with varying radiation sensitivities: C3H/HeN, C57BL/6, B6C3F1 and CD2F1. Blood indices, bone marrow histopathology and colony forming unit assays were also evaluated. Filgrastim significantly increased 30-day survival (P < 0.001) with a 3-day treatment compared to 16-day treatment. Filgrastim did not prevent cytopenia nadirs, but facilitated faster recovery of white blood cells, neutrophils, red blood cells, platelets, lymphocytes and hematocrits in all four strains. Accelerated hematopoietic recovery was also reflected in faster bone marrow reconstitution and significant increase in hematopoietic progenitors (P < 0.001) in all four mouse strains. These data indicate that prompt and abbreviated filgrastim treatment has potential benefit for triage in the event of a radiological incident for treating acute hematopoietic syndrome. PMID:28362168

  10. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. Method The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. Results As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. Conclusions Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature. PMID:22952521

  11. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  12. Prediction of anaerobic power values from an abbreviated WAnT protocol.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Christopher D; Hetzler, Ronald K; Kimura, Iris F

    2008-05-01

    The traditional 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) is a widely used anaerobic power assessment protocol. An abbreviated protocol has been shown to decrease the mild to severe physical discomfort often associated with the WAnT. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a 20-second WAnT protocol could be used to accurately predict power values of a standard 30-second WAnT. In 96 college females, anaerobic power variables were assessed using a standard 30-second WAnT protocol. Maximum power values as well as instantaneous power at 10, 15, and 20 seconds were recorded. Based on these results, stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the accuracy with which mean power, minimum power, 30-second power, and percentage of fatigue for a standard 30-second WAnT could be predicted from values obtained during the first 20 seconds of testing. Mean power values showed the highest level of predictability (R2 = 0.99) from the 20-second values. Minimum power, 30-second power, and percentage of fatigue also showed high levels of predictability (R2 = 0.91, 0.84, and 0.84, respectively) using only values obtained during the first 20 seconds of the protocol. An abbreviated (20-second) WAnT protocol appears to effectively predict results of a standard 30-second WAnT in college-age females, allowing for comparison of data to published norms. A shortened test may allow for a decrease in unwanted side effects associated with the traditional WAnT protocol.

  13. Effects of an abbreviated obesity intervention supported by mobile technology: The ENGAGED randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Spring, Bonnie; Pellegrini, Christine A; Pfammatter, Angela; Duncan, Jennifer M; Pictor, Alex; McFadden, H Gene; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects on weight loss of three abbreviated behavioral weight loss interventions with and without coaching and mobile technology. A randomized controlled efficacy study of three 6-month weight loss treatments was conducted in 96 adults with obesity: 1) self-guided (SELF), 2) standard (STND), or 3) technology-supported (TECH). STND and TECH received eight in-person group treatment sessions. SELF and STND used paper diaries to self-monitor diet, activity, and weight; TECH used a smartphone application with social networking features and wireless accelerometer. Weight loss was greater for TECH and STND than SELF at 6 months (-5.7 kg [95% confidence interval: -7.2 to -4.1] vs. -2.7 kg [95% confidence interval: -5.1 to -0.3], P < 0.05) but not 12 months. TECH and STND did not differ except that more STND (59%) than TECH (34%) achieved ≥ 5% weight loss at 6 months (P < 0.05). Self-monitoring adherence was greater in TECH than STND (P < 0.001), greater in both interventions than SELF (P < 0.001), and covaried with weight loss (r(84) = 0.36-0.51, P < 0.001). Abbreviated behavioral counseling can produce clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of whether self-monitoring is performed on paper or smartphone, but long-term superiority over standard of care self-guided treatment is challenging to maintain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this paper, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF Estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF Estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. PMID:21668904

  15. Augmented cross-sectional studies with abbreviated follow-up for estimating HIV incidence.

    PubMed

    Claggett, B; Lagakos, S W; Wang, R

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010, Biometrics 66, 864-874) propose an augmented cross-sectional design that provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this article, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. © 2011, The

  16. Social anxiety in the general population: introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by the experience of stress, discomfort and fear in social situations, and is associated with substantial personal and societal burden. Two questionnaires exist that assess the aspects of social anxiety, i.e. social interaction anxiety (SIAS) and social phobia (SPS). There is no agreement in literature on the dimensionality of social anxiety. Further, the length of a questionnaire may negatively affect response rates and participation at follow-up occasions. To explore the structure of social anxiety in the general population, and to examine psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates. Our second aim was to construct abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS that can be easily used and with minimal burden. A total of 1598 adults from the general Dutch population completed a survey asking information on social anxiety, mood and demographics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as reliability analysis with item-total statistics were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for social phobia, and a 2-factor structure for the SIAS, with the second factor containing both reversely scored items. The abbreviated versions of SPS (11 items) and SIAS (10 items) show excellent discriminant and construct validity (Cronbach's α=.90 and .92), while specificity analysis showed that gender, marital status and educational level (SIAS(10): p<.0005; SPS(11): p<.0005) are important determinants of social anxiety. In the general population, social interaction anxiety and social phobia are two aspects of a higher-order factor of social anxiety. Social anxiety is validly captured by the short versions of SPS and SIAS, reducing the questionnaire burden for participants in epidemiological and biobehavioral research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Konold, Timothy R.; Collins, Jason M.; Wilson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal-crystallized abilities and nonverbal-fluid-visual abilities. With a sample of…

  18. Performance of an Abbreviated Version of the Lubben Social Network Scale among Three European Community-Dwelling Older Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubben, James; Blozik, Eva; Gillmann, Gerhard; Iliffe, Steve; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Beck, John C.; Stuck, Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: There is a need for valid and reliable short scales that can be used to assess social networks and social supports and to screen for social isolation in older persons. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-national and cross-cultural evaluation of the performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale…

  19. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  20. Txt Msg N School Literacy: Does Texting and Knowledge of Text Abbreviations Adversely Affect Children's Literacy Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Bell, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies which investigated the relationship between children's texting behaviour, their knowledge of text abbreviations and their school attainment in written language skills. In Study One, 11-12-year-old children provided information on their texting behaviour. They were also asked to translate a standard English…

  1. 77 FR 51816 - Notice of Opportunity To Withdraw Abbreviated New Drug Applications To Avoid Backlog Fee Obligations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...] Notice of Opportunity To Withdraw Abbreviated New Drug Applications To Avoid Backlog Fee Obligations... to avoid paying a fee. The fee in question is a one-time backlog fee that was established through enactment of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA). It will apply to any original ANDA that...

  2. 31 CFR 315.7 - Authorized forms of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Example: John A. Jones 123-45-6789. (2) Coownership form. A bond may be registered in the names of two...: John A. Jones 123-45-6789 or Ella S. Jones 987-65-4321. John A. Jones 123-45-6789 or (Miss, Ms. or Mrs... abbreviated to “P.O.D.” Examples: John A. Jones 123-45-6789 payable on death to Mrs. Ella S. Jones. John A...

  3. 77 FR 4226 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin Sulfate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin Sulfate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA...

  4. 75 FR 13225 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Flunixin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Flunixin AGENCY: Food and... amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug... copy of BANAMINE-S, sponsored by Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp. under NADA 101-479. The ANADA is...

  5. Psychometric Properties of a Proposed Short Form of the BASC Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Daniel J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    A 25 item short form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool (TRS-P) was developed by the BASC authors to serve as an emotional/behavioral indicator for an academic intervention study targeting preschool-aged students. The BASC screener is thought to fulfill a need for an abbreviated behavior rating…

  6. Doctors' Perceptions and Practices of Breaking Bad News: A Qualitative Study From Greece.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidou, Despoina; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ploumpidis, Dimitrios; Stylianidis, Stylianos; Tountas, Yannis

    2017-06-01

    There is limited information about doctors' communication behaviors and their salient beliefs with regard to bad news disclosure in Greece. In this qualitative study we investigated the self-reported practices of doctors on breaking bad news, their perceptions about the factors affecting the delivery of such news, and their beliefs about the most appropriate disclosure manner. A focus group discussion and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five resident and specialist doctors from primary health care and hospital settings participated. We analyzed the collected data with content analysis techniques. Participants were found to acknowledge the importance of appropriate and effective delivery of bad news; however, none of them reported the implementation of empirically informed communication practices. They described communication patterns mainly formed by their work experience and often guided by the patient's family requests. Doctor, patient, and family characteristics and organizational features and resources were reported to affect the delivery of bad news. Participants perceived the most appropriate disclosure manner as an individualized approach to each patient's unique needs. They suggested an interdisciplinary, collaborative management of the delivery process and the establishment of formal supportive services. These findings may provide useful information for the development of tailored, empirically informed curriculum interventions and educational programs in order to address several barriers to communication. Sociocultural characteristics that influence the disclosure practice, as well as physicians' perceptions that are consistent with the optimal information delivery, should be taken into account. System-level strategies that focus on the development of patient-centered communication also need to be prioritized.

  7. Abbreviation of the Follow-Up NIH Stroke Scale Using Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Ali; Frankel, Michael R.; Rangaraju, Srikant

    2017-01-01

    Background The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a 15-item measure of stroke-related neurologic deficits that, when measured at 24 h, is highly predictive of long-term functional outcome. We hypothesized that a simplified 24-h scale that incorporates the most predictive components of the NIHSS can retain prognostic accuracy and have improved interrater reliability. Methods In a post hoc analysis of the Interventional Management of Stroke-3 (IMS-3) trial, we performed principal component (PC) analysis to resolve the 24-h NIHSS into PCs. In the PCs that explained the largest proportions of variance, key variables were identified. Using these key variables, the prognostic accuracies (area under the curve [AUC]) for good outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0–2) and poor outcome (mRS 5–6) of various abbreviated NIHSS iterations were compared with the total 24-h NIHSS. The results were validated in the NINDS intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (NINDS-TPA) study cohort. Based on previously published data, interrater reliability of the abbreviated 24-h NIHSS (aNIHSS) was compared to the total 24-h NIHSS. Results In 545 IMS-3 participants, 2 PCs explained 60.8% of variance in the 24-h NIHSS. The key variables in PC1 included neglect, arm and leg weakness; while PC2 included level-of-consciousness (LOC) questions, LOC commands, and aphasia. A 3-variable aNIHSS (aphasia, neglect, arm weakness) retained excellent prognostic accuracy for good outcome (AUC = 0.90) as compared to the total 24-h NIHSS (AUC = 0.91), and it was more predictive (p < 0.001) than the baseline NIHSS (AUC = 0.73). The prognostic accuracy of the aNIHSS for good outcome was validated in the NINDS-TPA trial cohort (aNIHSS: AUC = 0.89 vs. total 24-h NIHSS: 0.92). An aNIHSS >9 predicted very poor outcomes (mRS 0–2: 0%, mRS 4–6: 98.5%). The estimated interrater reliability of the aNIHSS was higher than that of the total 24-h NIHSS across 6 published datasets (mean weighted kappa 0.80 vs. 0

  8. Defining constants, equations, and abbreviated tables of the 1975 US Standard Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Reber, C. A.; Jacchia, L. G.; Huang, F. T.; Cole, A. E.; Kantor, A. J.; Keneshea, T. J.; Zimmerman, S. P.; Forbes, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1975 (COESA, 1975) is an idealized, steady-state representation of the earth's atmosphere from the surface of the earth to 1000-km altitude, as it is assumed to exist in a period of moderate solar activity. From 0 to 86 km, the atmospheric model is specified in terms of the hydrostatic equilibrium of a perfect gas, with that portion of the model from 0 to 51 geopotential kilometers being identical with that of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1962 (COESA, 1962). Between 51 and 86 km, the defining temperature-height profile has been modified from that of the 1962 Standard to lower temperatures between 51 and 69.33 km, and to greater values between 69.33 and 86 km. Above 86 km, the model is defined in terms of quasi-dynamic considerations involving the vertical component of the flux of molecules of individual gas species. These conditions lead to the generation of independent number-density distributions of the major species, N2, O2, O, Ar, Ne, and H, consistent with observations. The detailed definitions of the model are presented along with graphs and abbreviated tables of the atmospheric properties of the 1975 Standard.

  9. The Modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Use with Children.

    PubMed

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) can be observed in children from primary school age into the teenage years and adulthood, but many MA rating scales are only suitable for use with adults or older adolescents. We have adapted one such rating scale, the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), to be used with British children aged 8-13. In this study, we assess the scale's reliability, factor structure, and divergent validity. The modified AMAS (mAMAS) was administered to a very large ( n = 1746) cohort of British children and adolescents. This large sample size meant that as well as conducting confirmatory factor analysis on the scale itself, we were also able to split the sample to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of items from the mAMAS alongside items from child test anxiety and general anxiety rating scales. Factor analysis of the mAMAS confirmed that it has the same underlying factor structure as the original AMAS, with subscales measuring anxiety about Learning and Evaluation in math. Furthermore, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the mAMAS alongside scales measuring test anxiety and general anxiety showed that mAMAS items cluster onto one factor (perceived to represent MA). The mAMAS provides a valid and reliable scale for measuring MA in children and adolescents, from a younger age than is possible with the original AMAS. Results from this study also suggest that MA is truly a unique construct, separate from both test anxiety and general anxiety, even in childhood.

  10. Development of an abbreviated Career Indecision Profile-65 using item response theory: The CIP-Short.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Tracey, Terence J G

    2017-03-01

    The current study developed an abbreviated version of the Career Indecision Profile-65 (CIP-65; Hacker, Carr, Abrams, & Brown, 2013) by using item response theory. In order to improve the efficiency of the CIP-65 in measuring career indecision, the individual item performance of the CIP-65 was examined with respect to the ordering of response occurrence and gender differential item functioning. The best 5 items of each scale of the CIP-65 (i.e., neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts) were retained in the CIP-Short using a sample of 588 college students. A validation sample (N = 174) supported the reliability and structural validity of the CIP-Short. The convergent and divergent validity of the CIP-Short was additionally supported in the findings of a hypothesized differential relational pattern in a separate sample (N = 360). While the current study supported the CIP-Short being a sound brief measure of career indecision, the limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System.

    PubMed

    Lesko, Mehdi M; Woodford, Maralyn; White, Laura; O'Brien, Sarah J; Childs, Charmaine; Lecky, Fiona E

    2010-08-06

    The purpose of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is to code various types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) based on their anatomical location and severity. The Marshall CT Classification is used to identify those subgroups of brain injured patients at higher risk of deterioration or mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and how AIS coding can be translated to the Marshall Classification Initially, a Marshall Class was allocated to each AIS code through cross-tabulation. This was agreed upon through several discussion meetings with experts from both fields (clinicians and AIS coders). Furthermore, in order to make this translation possible, some necessary assumptions with regards to coding and classification of mass lesions and brain swelling were essential which were all approved and made explicit. The proposed method involves two stages: firstly to determine all possible Marshall Classes which a given patient can attract based on allocated AIS codes; via cross-tabulation and secondly to assign one Marshall Class to each patient through an algorithm. This method can be easily programmed in computer softwares and it would enable future important TBI research programs using trauma registry data.

  12. Comparison of Turkish Injury Scale (TIS) with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS).

    PubMed

    Günay, Yasemin; Yavuz, M Fatih; Eşiyok, Burcu

    2003-03-12

    According to the Turkish Penal Code, Section 456, an assailant is punished in a correlation to the severity of the victim's injury. In this study, the injury scale used in Turkey in the basis code 456 is compared with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). For this aim, a total of 984 cases out of the total amount reported at the Traumatology Section of the Turkish Council for Forensic Medicine were randomly selected and evaluated retrospectively. In all, 40.7% of injuries were caused by blunt trauma, whereas 59.3% were caused by a penetrating trauma. According to the Turkish Injury Scale (TIS), 40.3% of the cases were scored to be of a first degree of injury, 15.6% as second degree and 44.1% as third degree. When compared, the score points 3, 4 and 5 in the AIS were seen to be nearly equivalent to the TIS of third degree. From this point of view, in the modified AIS 91.1% of first degree of injury, 51.2% of second degree and 97.2% of third degree of injury are harmonious with TIS. Generally, 83.2% of the cases are harmonious with the AIS system. The purpose of this study is to determine what was the source of differences and to focus on particular traumatic lesions in order to determine a possible rearrangement of the Turkish Injury Scale.

  13. Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is to code various types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) based on their anatomical location and severity. The Marshall CT Classification is used to identify those subgroups of brain injured patients at higher risk of deterioration or mortality. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and how AIS coding can be translated to the Marshall Classification Methods Initially, a Marshall Class was allocated to each AIS code through cross-tabulation. This was agreed upon through several discussion meetings with experts from both fields (clinicians and AIS coders). Furthermore, in order to make this translation possible, some necessary assumptions with regards to coding and classification of mass lesions and brain swelling were essential which were all approved and made explicit. Results The proposed method involves two stages: firstly to determine all possible Marshall Classes which a given patient can attract based on allocated AIS codes; via cross-tabulation and secondly to assign one Marshall Class to each patient through an algorithm. Conclusion This method can be easily programmed in computer softwares and it would enable future important TBI research programs using trauma registry data. PMID:20691038

  14. [Does abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with carbohydrates increase the anesthetic risk?].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Kátia Gomes Bezerra de; Balsan, Maiumy; Oliveira, Sérgio de Souza; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of possible anesthetic complications related with the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with a solution of 12.5% dextrinomaltose within the ACERTO (from the Portuguese for Acceleration of Total Postoperative Recovery) project. All patients undergoing different types of digestive tract and abdominal wall surgeries within a new protocol of perioperative conducts, established by the ACERTO project, between August 2005 and December 2007 were evaluated. All patients received oral nutritional supplementation (12.5% dextrinomaltose) six and two hours before the procedure. Data were collected prospectively without the knowledge of the professionals in the department. The length of preoperative fasting and anesthetic complications related with the short fasting time (pulmonary aspiration) were recorded. Three hundred and seventy five patients, 174 male (46.4%) and 201 female (53.6%), ages 18 to 90 years, were evaluated. The mean preoperative fasting time was four hours, ranging from two to 20 hours. Pulmonary aspiration was not observed during the procedures. The length of fasting was longer (p < 0.01) when combined anesthesia (blockade + general) was used. Adopting the multidisciplinary preoperative measures of the ACERTO project was not associated with any preoperative fasting-associated complications. Dextrinomaltose is a useful and safe nutritional supplement for the patient.

  15. Developing Methodologies to Find Abbreviated Laboratory Test Names in Narrative Clinical Documents by Generating High Quality Q-Grams.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmo; Choi, Jinwook

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory test names are used as basic information to diagnose diseases. However, this kind of medical information is usually written in a natural language. To find this information, lexicon based methods have been good solutions but they cannot find terms that do not have abbreviated expressions, such as "neuts" that means "neutrophils". To address this issue, similar word matching can be used; however, it can be disadvantageous because of significant false positives. Moreover, processing time is longer as the size of terms is bigger. Therefore, we suggest a novel q-gram based algorithm, named modified triangular area filtering, to find abbreviated laboratory test terms in clinical documents, minimizing the possibility to impair the lexicons' precision. In addition, we found the terms using the methodology with reasonable processing time. The results show that this method can achieve 92.54 precision, 87.72 recall, 90.06 f1-score in test sets when edit distance threshold(τ) = 3.

  16. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  17. [Validation of the abbreviated Zarit scales for measuring burden syndrome in the primary caregiver of an elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Vélez Lopera, Johana María; Berbesí Fernández, Dedsy; Cardona Arango, Doris; Segura Cardona, Angela; Ordóñez Molina, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    To determine which abbreviated Zarit Scale (ZS) better evaluates the burden of the caregiver of an elderly patient in Medellin, Colombia. Validation study. Primary Care setting in the city of Medellin. Primary caregiver of dependent elderly patients over 65 years old. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the different abbreviated Zarit scales, plus performing a reliability analysis using the Cronbach Alpha coefficient. The abbreviated scales obtained a sensitivity of between 36.84 and 81.58%, specificity between 95.99 and 100%, positive predictive values between 71.05 and 100%, and negative predictive values of between 91.64 and 97.42%. The scale that better determined caregiver burden in Primary Care was the Bedard Screening scale, with a sensitivity of 81.58%, a specificity of 96.35% and positive and negative predictive values of 75.61% and 97.42%, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 314.151 - Withdrawal of approval of an abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j)(5) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.151 Withdrawal...

  19. 21 CFR 314.151 - Withdrawal of approval of an abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j)(5) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.151 Withdrawal...

  20. 21 CFR 314.151 - Withdrawal of approval of an abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j)(5) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.151 Withdrawal...

  1. 21 CFR 314.151 - Withdrawal of approval of an abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j)(5) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.151 Withdrawal...

  2. 21 CFR 314.151 - Withdrawal of approval of an abbreviated new drug application under section 505(j)(5) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.151 Withdrawal...

  3. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city.

    PubMed

    Alrukban, Mohammed O; Albadr, Badr O; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad

    2014-05-01

    Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001), respectively. Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.

  4. Preferences and attitudes of the Saudi population toward receiving medical bad news: A primary study from Riyadh city

    PubMed Central

    Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Factors such as marital status, age, and gender, and education play significant roles in how bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task. PMID:24987276

  5. News: A Consumer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doig, Ivan; Doig, Carol

    A guide to news media, this book describes how to tell when a report is biased; provides tips on spotting hoaxes and public relations ploys in the news; gives standards to judge expert opinion and reliable sources; lists critics and other sources of help for the news consumer; discusses the endless contest among politicians, newsmen, and…

  6. Abbreviated HIV counselling and testing and enhanced referral to care in Uganda: a factorial randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Kamya, Moses R; Fatch, Robin; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Baveewo, Steven; Szekeres, Gregory; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A

    2013-09-01

    HIV counselling and testing and linkage to care are crucial for successful HIV prevention and treatment. Abbreviated counselling could save time; however, its effect on HIV risk is uncertain and methods to improve linkage to care have not been studied. We did this factorial randomised controlled study at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Participants were randomly assigned to abbreviated or traditional HIV counselling and testing; HIV-infected patients were randomly assigned to enhanced linkage to care or standard linkage to care. All study personnel except counsellors and the data officer were masked to study group assignment. Participants had structured interviews, given once every 3 months. We compared sexual risk behaviour by counselling strategy with a 6·5% non-inferiority margin. We used Cox proportional hazards analyses to compare HIV outcomes by linkage to care over 1 year and tested for interaction by sex. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00648232). We enrolled 3415 participants; 1707 assigned to abbreviated counselling versus 1708 assigned to traditional. Unprotected sex with an HIV discordant or status unknown partner was similar in each group (232/823 [27·9%] vs 251/890 [28·2%], difference -0·3%, one-sided 95% CI 3·2). Loss to follow-up was lower for traditional counselling than for abbreviated counselling (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·61, 95% CI 0·44-0·83). 1003 HIV-positive participants were assigned to enhanced linkage (n=504) or standard linkage to care (n=499). Linkage to care did not have a significant effect on mortality or receipt of co-trimoxazole. Time to treatment in men with CD4 cell counts of 250 cells per μL or fewer was lower for enhanced linkage versus standard linkage (adjusted HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·41-0·87) and time to HIV care was decreased among women (0·80, 0·66-0·96). Abbreviated HIV counselling and testing did not adversely affect risk behaviour. Linkage to care interventions might decrease time to enrolment

  7. [Performance of an abbreviated mini mental examination to detect dementia in older people].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Daniel; Lavados, Manuel; Rojas, Paula; Henríquez, Claudio; Silva, Fernando; Guillón, Marta

    2017-07-01

    The usefulness of the abbreviated Mini-Mental State Examination included in the Chilean Functional assessment of elderly people (MM-SE-EFAM) to detect Dementia has not been determined. To assess the performance of the MMSE-EFAM to detect dementia. We studied a non-probabilistic sample of subjects older than 65 years who had been assessed by the MMSE-EFAM in a Chilean primary care center during a period of 6 months. Patients underwent clinical evaluation by a neurologist blinded to MMSE-EFAM score, to establish the diagnosis of dementia using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Besides, the full Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was applied. The clinical diagnosis of Dementia was established in 13 of the 54 peoples evaluated. MMSE-EFAM had a sensitivity of 30.8% (95% confidence intervals (CI); 9-61.4) and a specificity of 90.2% (95% CI; 76.9%-97.3%), while MMSE had a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% CI; 54.6-98.1) and a specificity of 58.5% (95% CI; 42.1-73.7). In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.77 (95% CI; 0.61-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI; 0.70-0.95) for MMSE-EFAM and MMSE, respectively. Socio-demographic variables did not influence test performance in both cases. MMSE-EFAM has a low sensitivity to detect patients with Dementia and it is not an effective screening tool. These results are in agreement with the evidence and international guidelines that do not support the use of cognitive screening tools to detect dementia in the older general population.

  8. Application of Abbreviated Protocol of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Breast Cancer Screening in Dense Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Huang, Min; Shen, Yu-Ying; Liu, Chen-Lu; Xu, Chuan-Xiao

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of an abbreviated protocol (AP) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison to a full diagnostic protocol (FDP) of MRI in the breast cancer screening with dense breast tissue. There are 478 female participants with dense breast tissue and negative mammography results, who were imaged with MRI using AP and FDP. The AP and FDP images were analyzed separately, and the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection were calculated. The chi-square test and receiver operating characteristics curves were used to assess the breast cancer diagnostic capabilities of the two protocols. Sixteen cases of breast cancer from 478 patients with dense breasts were detected using the FDP method, with pathologic confirmation of nine cases of ductal carcinoma in situ, six cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, and one case of mucinous carcinoma. Fifteen cases of breast cancer were successfully screened using the AP method. The sensitivity showed no obvious significant difference between AP and FDP (χ 2  = 0.592, P = 0.623), but the specificity showed a statistically significant difference (χ 2  = 4.619, P = 0.036). The receiver operating characteristics curves showed high efficacy of both methods in the detection of breast cancer in dense breast tissue (the areas under the curve were 0.931 ± 0.025 and 0.947 ± 0.024, respectively), and the ability to diagnose breast cancer was not statistically significantly different between the two methods. The AP of MRI may improve the detection rate of breast cancer in dense breast tissue, and it may be useful in efficient breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validity and reliability of Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) among older Iranian.

    PubMed

    Foroughan, Mahshid; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Jafari, Zahra; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Farahani, Ida G; Rashedi, Vahid

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among older people and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Persian version of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) as a screening tool for dementia. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. One hundred and one older adults who were members of Iranian Alzheimer Association and 101 of their siblings were entered into this study by convenient sampling. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for diagnosing dementia and the Mini-Mental State Examination were used as the study tools. The gathered data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the receiver-operating characteristic. The AMTS could successfully differentiate the dementia group from the non-dementia group. Scores were significantly correlated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis for dementia and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). Educational level (P < 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.015) were positively associated with AMTS, whereas (P < 0.001) was negatively associated with AMTS. Total Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90. The scores 6 and 7 showed the optimum balance between sensitivity (99% and 94%, respectively) and specificity (85% and 86%, respectively). The Persian version of the AMTS is a valid cognitive assessment tool for older Iranian adults and can be used for dementia screening in Iran. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Common Filing Deficiencies in Abbreviated New Drug Applications Containing Clinical Endpoint Studies.

    PubMed

    Fermaglich, Lewis J; Chen, Ru; Kim, Carol Y; Chuh, Eunjung Esther; Thomas, Teena; Shetty, Daiva; Lee, Julia; Young, Johnny; Fan, Ying

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize common deficiencies identified in the filing reviews of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) with clinical endpoint bioequivalence studies and skin irritation, sensitization, and adhesion (I/S/A) studies received by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 2007 and 2017, to help applicants avoid common deficiencies, minimize "refuse-to-receive" (RTR) actions, "information requests," and ANDA approval delays. Multiple internal FDA databases were searched to evaluate and summarize common deficiencies identified in ANDA submissions containing clinical endpoint studies and skin I/S/A studies that required review by the Division of Clinical Review. A total of 275 ANDA submissions with filing reviews from January 2007 to June 2017 were analyzed in this report. Two hundred eighteen (79.3%) filing reviews contained one or more deficiencies. Seventy-nine (28.7%) ANDAs were issued RTR letters because of major clinical deficiencies, specifically bioequivalence and clinical deficiencies, accounting for 9% of overall identified deficiencies. Twenty-two other categories of deficiencies are summarized into 4 main categories: missing information related to the clinical studies other than data sets (38%), missing data sets (35%), formulation issues (12%), and organization/format issues (6%). The most common deficiency in the "missing information related to the clinical studies other than data sets" category was "missing clarification of information" (22%). We also noted that the Division of Filing Review has identified these same types of deficiencies since assuming responsibility of the filing assessment for ANDAs with clinical endpoint BE studies and skin I/S/A studies. In conclusion, to minimize "refuse-to-receive" actions, "information requests," and approval of ANDA delays for generic drug products, applicants should submit full clinical study reports, including all data sets for drug products recommending clinical

  11. Psychometrically Improved, Abbreviated Versions of Three Classic Measures of Impulsivity and Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Leeman, Robert F.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Anticevic, Alan; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Krystal, John H.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported impulsivity confers risk factor for substance abuse. However, the psychometric properties of many self-report impulsivity measures have been questioned, thereby undermining the interpretability of study findings using these measures. To better understand these measurement limitations and to suggest a path to assessing self-reported impulsivity with greater psychometric stability, we conducted a comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS) using data from 1,449 individuals who participated in substance use research. For each measure, we evaluated: 1) latent factor structure, 2) measurement invariance, 3) test-criterion relationships between the measures, and 4) test-criterion relations with drinking and smoking outcomes. Notably, we could not replicate the originally published latent structure for the BIS, BIS/BAS, or BSCS or any previously published alternative factor structures (English language). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we identified psychometrically improved, abbreviated versions of each measure (i.e., 8-item, 2 factor BIS-11 [RMSEA = .06, CFI = .95]; 13-item, 4 factor BIS/BAS [RMSEA = .04, CFI = .96]; 7-item, 2 factor BSCS [RMSEA = .05, CFI = .96]). These versions evidenced: 1) stable, replicable factor structures, 2) scalar measurement invariance, ensuring our ability to make statistically interpretable comparisons across subgroups of interest (e.g., sex, race, drinking/smoking status), and 3) test-criterion relationships with each other and with drinking/smoking. This study provides strong support for using these psychometrically improved impulsivity measures, which improve data quality directly through better scale properties and indirectly through reducing response burden. PMID:24885848

  12. What's in a name? Word inflation, punctuation, abbreviation and cloud formation.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Susie J; Schofield, Pieta G

    2016-12-01

    The title of a journal paper offers a crucial portal into any scientific field. It determines whether interested readers locate the paper and whether others have enough interest sparked to lead them to read the abstract. This article looks at authored journal paper titles in Medical Education over its first 50 years (n = 6357) of publication and Medical Teacher over its first 35 years of publication, revealing both trends in areas of interest and how those interests are worded. Word clouds per decade showed a shift from teaching to learning and from examination to assessment, and new foci on learning, patients, research and feedback in both journals. The average length of title in Medical Education peeked in the 2000s, dropping to 70 characters in the 2010s, with no titles being longer than 140 characters (the length of a tweet) in this last decade. Abbreviations were used sparingly. The use of humorous titles, although not common, has increased in recent years. The use of the colon showed a marked increase in the 1980s, dropping a little in the 2000s but resurging in the 2010s. Titles posed as a question increased steadily, appearing to plateau in the 2000s at 11%. The use of humour and questions suggests that the authors of these articles are submitting papers to be selected by the human rather than just the virtual eye. We also hypothesise that the use of humour may indicate a maturation of medical education as a subject. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Abbreviated MRI Protocols for Detecting Breast Cancer in Women with Dense Breasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Huang, Min; Shen, Yu-Ying; Liu, Chen-Lu; Xu, Chuan-Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of two abbreviated protocols (AP) of MRI in breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. This was a retrospective study in 356 participants with dense breast tissue and negative mammography results. The study was approved by the Nanjing Medical University Ethics Committee. Patients were imaged with a full diagnostic protocol (FDP) of MRI. Two APs (AP-1 consisting of the first post-contrast subtracted [FAST] and maximum-intensity projection [MIP] images, and AP-2 consisting of AP-1 combined with diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) and FDP images were analyzed separately, and the sensitivities and specificities of breast cancer detection were calculated. Of the 356 women, 67 lesions were detected in 67 women (18.8%) by standard MR protocol, and histological examination revealed 14 malignant lesions and 53 benign lesions. The average interpretation time of AP-1 and AP-2 were 37 seconds and 54 seconds, respectively, while the average interpretation time of the FDP was 3 minutes and 25 seconds. The sensitivities of the AP-1, AP-2, and FDP were 92.9, 100, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities of the three MR protocols were 86.5, 95.0, and 96.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference among the three MR protocols in the diagnosis of breast cancer ( p > 0.05). However, the specificity of AP-1 was significantly lower than that of AP-2 ( p = 0.031) and FDP ( p = 0.035), while there was no difference between AP-2 and FDP ( p > 0.05). The AP may be efficient in the breast cancer screening of dense breast tissue. FAST and MIP images combined with DWI of MRI are helpful to improve the specificity of breast cancer detection.

  14. The exponential function transforms the Abbreviated Injury Scale, which both improves accuracy and simplifies scoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, M D; Fan, W H; Qiu, W S; Zhang, Z L; Mo, Y N; Qiu, F

    2014-06-01

    We present here the exponential function which transforms the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). It is called the Exponential Injury Severity Score (EISS), and significantly outperforms the venerable but dated New Injury Severity Score (NISS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) as a predictor of mortality. The EISS is defined as a change of AIS values by raising each AIS severity score (1-6) by 3 taking a power of AIS minus 2 and then summing the three most severe injuries (i.e., highest AIS), regardless of body regions. EISS values were calculated for every patient in two large independent data sets: 3,911 and 4,129 patients treated during a 6-year period at the Class A tertiary hospitals in China. The power of the EISS to predict mortality was then compared with previously calculated NISS values for the same patients in each of the two data sets. We found that the EISS is more predictive of survival [Zhejiang: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): NISS = 0.932, EISS = 0.949, P = 0.0115; Liaoning: AUC: NISS = 0.924, EISS = 0.942, P = 0.0139]. Moreover, the EISS provides a better fit throughout its entire range of prediction (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic for Zhejiang: NISS = 21.86, P = 0.0027, EISS = 13.52, P = 0.0604; Liaoning: NISS = 23.27, P = 0.0015, EISS = 15.55, P = 0.0164). The EISS may be used as the standard summary measure of human trauma.

  15. Tangent function transformation of the Abbreviated Injury Scale improves accuracy and simplifies scoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Muding; Qiu, Wusi; Qiu, Fang; Mo, Yinan; Fan, Wenhui

    2015-03-16

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) are widely used for anatomic severity assessments after trauma. We present here the Tangent Injury Severity Score (TISS), which transforms the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) as a predictor of mortality. The TISS is defined as the sum of the tangent function of AIS/6 to the power 3.04 multiplied by 18.67 of a patient's three most severe AIS injuries regardless of body regions. TISS values were calculated for every patient in two large independent data sets: 3,908 and 4,171 patients treated during a 6-year period at level-3 first-class comprehensive hospitals: the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University and Fengtian Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical College, China. The power of TISS to predict mortality was compared with previously calculated NISS values for the same patients in each data set. The TISS is more predictive of survival than NISS (Hangzhou: receiver operating characteristic (ROC): NISS = 0.929, TISS = 0.949; p = 0.002; Shenyang: ROC: NISS = 0.924, TISS = 0.942; p = 0.008). Moreover, TISS provides a better fit throughout its entire range of prediction (Hosmer Lemeshow statistic for Hangzhou NISS = 29.71; p < 0.001, TISS = 19.59; p = 0.003; Hosmer Lemeshow statistic for Shenyang NISS = 33.49; p < 0.001, TISS = 21.19; p = 0.002). The TISS shows more accurate prediction of prognosis and a linear relation to mortality. The TISS might be a better injury scoring tool with simple computation.

  16. The natural logarithm transforms the abbreviated injury scale and improves accuracy scoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhiliang; Qiu, Fang; Zhang, Keming

    2012-11-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) are widely used for anatomic severity assessments, but they do not display a linear relation to mortality. The mortality rates are significantly different between pairs of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) triplets that generate the same ISS/NISS total. The Logarithm Injury Severity Score (LISS) is defined as a change in AIS values by raising each AIS severity score (1-6) by taking the natural logarithm to a power of 5.53 multiplied by 1.7987 and then adding the three most severe injuries (i.e. highest AIS), regardless of body region. LISS values were calculated for every patient in three large independent data sets: 3,784, 4,436, and 4,018 patients treated over a six-year period at Class A tertiary comprehensive hospitals in China. The power of LISS to predict morality was then compared with previously calculated NISS values for the same patients in each of the three data sets. We found that LISS is more predictive of survival as well (Hangzhou: receiver operating characteristic (ROC): NISS=0.931, LISS=0.949, p=0.006; Similarly, Zhejiang and Shenyang: ROC NISS vs. LISS, p<0.05). Moreover, LISS provides a better fit throughout its entire range of predicting (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic for Hangzhou NISS=15.76, p=0.027; LISS=13.79, p=0.055; Similarly, for Zhejiang and Shenyang). LISS should be used as the standard summary measure of human trauma.

  17. Abbreviated injury scale scoring in traffic fatalities: comparison of computerized tomography and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Ibsen, Marlene

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the value of postmortem computerized tomography (CT) for Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scoring and Injury Severity Scoring (ISS) of traffic fatalities. This is a prospective investigation of a consecutive series of 52 traffic fatalities from Southern Denmark that were CT scanned and autopsied. The AIS and ISS scores based on CT and autopsy (AU) were registered in a computer database and compared. Kappa values for reproducibility of AIS-severity scores and ISS scores were calculated. On an average, there was a 94% agreement between AU and CT in detecting the presence or absence of lesions in the various anatomic regions, and the severity scores were the same in 90% of all cases (range, 75-100%). When different severity scoring was obtained, CT detected more lesions with a high severity score in the facial skeleton, pelvis, and extremities, whereas AU detected more lesions with high scores in the soft tissues (especially in the aorta), cranium, and ribs. The kappa value for reproducibility of AIS scores confirmed that the agreement between the two methods was good. The lowest kappa values (>0.6) were found for the facial skeleton, cerebellum, meninges, neck organs, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. In these areas, the kappa value provided moderate agreement between CT and AU. For all other areas, there was a substantial agreement between the two methods. The ISS scores obtained by CT and by AU were calculated and were found to be with no or moderate variation in 85%. Rupture of the aorta was often overlooked by CT, resulting in too low ISS scoring. The most precise postmortem AIS and ISS scorings of traffic fatalities was obtained by a combination of AU and CT. If it is not possible to perform an AU, then CT may be used as an acceptable alternative for AIS scoring. We have identified one important obstacle for postmortem ISS scoring, namely that aorta ruptures are not easily detected by post mortem CT.

  18. Construct validity of the abbreviated mental test in older medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Antonelli Incalzi, R; Cesari, M; Pedone, C; Carosella, L; Carbonin, P U

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate validity and internal structure of the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT), and to assess the dependence of the internal structure upon the characteristics of the patients examined. Cross-sectional examination using data from the Italian Group of Pharmacoepidemiology in the Elderly (GIFA) database. Twenty-four acute care wards of Geriatrics or General Medicine. Two thousand eight hundred and eight patients consecutively admitted over a 4-month period. Demographic characteristics, functional status, medical conditions and performance on AMT were collected at discharge. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the AMT <7 versus a diagnosis of dementia made according to DSM-III-R criteria were computed. The internal structure of AMT was assessed by principal component analysis. The analysis was performed on the whole population and stratified for age (<65, 65-80 and >80 years), gender, education (<6 or >5 years) and presence of congestive heart failure (CHF). AMT achieved high sensitivity (81%), specificity (84%) and negative predictive value (99%), but a low positive predictive value of 25%. The principal component analysis isolated two components: the former component represents the orientation to time and space and explains 45% of AMT variance; the latter is linked to memory and attention and explains 13% of variance. Comparable results were obtained after stratification by age, gender or education. In patients with CHF, only 48.3% of the cumulative variance was explained; the factor accounting for most (34.6%) of the variance explained was mainly related to the three items assessing memory. AMT >6 rules out dementia very reliably, whereas AMT <7 requires a second level cognitive assessment to confirm dementia. AMT is bidimensional and maintains the same internal structure across classes defined by selected social and demographic characteristics, but not in CHF patients. It is likely that its internal structure depends on the type of patients. The

  19. The Abbreviated Mental Test 4 for cognitive screening of older adults presenting to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adam H; Briggs, Robert; Nabeel, Shamis; O'Neill, Desmond; Kennelly, Sean P

    2017-12-01

    A commonly cited reason for the infrequent detection of cognitive impairment in the Emergency Department (ED) is the lack of an appropriate screening tool. The Abbreviated Mental Test 4 (AMT4) is a brief instrument recommended for cognitive screening of older adults in the ED. However, its exact utility in the detection of altered mental status in the ED is yet to be fully determined. The present study evaluated the ability of the AMT4 to identify impaired mental status in the ED, defined as positive scores on either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU for delirium, the standardized Mini Mental State Examination as a general cognitive screener or the Eight-item Interview to Differentiate Aging and Dementia for dementia. Of 196 adults at least 70 years of age (mean: 78.5±5.9), the AMT4 had a sensitivity of 0.53 (0.42-0.63) and a specificity of 0.96 (0.89-0.99) for impaired mental status in the ED. The AMT4 was positive in almost all patients (92%; 24/26) screening positive for delirium, but less than half (47.8%; 22/46) of those screening positive for probable dementia, and less than a quarter (22.2%; 6/27) of those screening positive for probable cognitive impairment. The present study found that the limited sensitivity of the AMT4 in identifying the majority of cognitively impaired persons restricts its use in isolation as a general cognitive screener in the ED.

  20. Defining acute aortic syndrome after trauma: Are Abbreviated Injury Scale codes a useful surrogate descriptor?

    PubMed

    Leach, R; McNally, Donal; Bashir, Mohamad; Sastry, Priya; Cuerden, Richard; Richens, David; Field, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The severity and location of injuries resulting from vehicular collisions are normally recorded in Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) code; we propose a system to link AIS code to a description of acute aortic syndrome (AAS), thus allowing the hypothesis that aortic injury is progressive with collision kinematics to be tested. Standard AIS codes were matched with a clinical description of AAS. A total of 199 collisions that resulted in aortic injury were extracted from a national automotive collision database and the outcomes mapped onto AAS descriptions. The severity of aortic injury (AIS severity score) and stage of AAS progression were compared with collision kinematics and occupant demographics. Post hoc power analyses were used to estimate maximum effect size. The general demographic distribution of the sample represented that of the UK population in regard to sex and age. No significant relationship was observed between estimated test speed, collision direction, occupant location or seat belt use and clinical progression of aortic injury (once initiated). Power analysis confirmed that a suitable sample size was used to observe a medium effect in most of the cases. Similarly, no association was observed between injury severity and collision kinematics. There is sufficient information on AIS severity and location codes to map onto the clinical AAS spectrum. It was not possible, with this data set, to consider the influence of collision kinematics on aortic injury initiation. However, it was demonstrated that after initiation, further progression along the AAS pathway was not influenced by collision kinematics. This might be because the injury is not progressive, because the vehicle kinematics studied do not fully represent the kinematics of the occupants, or because an unknown factor, such as stage of cardiac cycle, dominates. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level IV.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of the Kampala Trauma Score using estimated Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and physician opinion.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew; Forson, Paa Kobina; Oduro, George; Stewart, Barclay; Dike, Nkechi; Glover, Paul; Maio, Ronald F

    2017-01-01

    The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) has been proposed as a triage tool for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of KTS in predicting emergency department outcomes using timely injury estimation with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and physician opinion to calculate KTS scores. This was a diagnostic accuracy study of KTS among injured patients presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital A&E, Ghana. South African Triage Scale (SATS); KTS component variables, including AIS scores and physician opinion for serious injury quantification; and ED disposition were collected. Agreement between estimated AIS score and physician opinion were analyzed with normal, linear weighted, and maximum kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of KTS-AIS and KTS-physician opinion was performed to evaluate each measure's ability to predict A&E mortality and need for hospital admission to the ward or theatre. A total of 1053 patients were sampled. There was moderate agreement between AIS criteria and physician opinion by normal (κ=0.41), weighted (κ lin =0.47), and maximum (κ max =0.53) kappa. A&E mortality ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.93, KTS-physician opinion 0.89, and SATS 0.88 with overlapping 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Hospital admission ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.73, KTS-physician opinion 0.79, and SATS 0.71 with statistical similarity. When evaluating only patients with serious injuries, KTS-AIS (ROC 0.88) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.88) performed similarly to SATS (ROC 0.78) in predicting A&E mortality. The ROC area for KTS-AIS (ROC 0.71; 95%CI 0.66-0.75) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.74; 95%CI 0.69-0.79) was significantly greater than SATS (ROC 0.57; 0.53-0.60) with regard to need for admission. KTS predicted mortality and need for admission from the ED well when early estimation of the number of serious injuries was used, regardless of method (i.e. AIS criteria or physician opinion

  2. Double coding and mapping using Abbreviated Injury Scale 1998 and 2005: identifying issues for trauma data.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Cameron S; Niggemeyer, Louise E; Charman, Debra

    2010-09-01

    The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS05) potentially represents a significant change in injury spectrum classification, due to a substantial increase in the codeset size and alterations to the agreed severity of many injuries compared to the previous version (AIS98). Whilst many trauma registries around the world are moving to adopt AIS05 or its 2008 update (AIS08), its effect on patient classification in existing registries, and the optimum method of comparing existing data collections with new AIS05 collections are unknown. The present study aimed to assess the potential impact of adopting the AIS05 codeset in an established trauma system, and to identify issues associated with this change. A current subset of consecutive major trauma patients admitted to two large hospitals in the Australian state of Victoria were double-coded in AIS98 and AIS05. Assigned codesets were also mapped to the other AIS version using code lists supplied in the AIS05 manual, giving up to four AIS codes per injury sustained. Resulting codesets were assessed for agreement in codes used, injury severity and calculated severity scores. 602 injuries sustained by 109 patients were compared. Adopting AIS05 would lead to a decrease in the number of designated major trauma patients in Victoria, estimated at 22% (95% confidence interval, 15-31%). Differences in AIS level between versions were significantly more likely to occur amongst head and chest injuries. Data mapped to a different codeset performed better in paired comparisons than raw AIS98 and AIS05 codesets, with data mapping of AIS05 codes back to AIS98 giving significantly higher levels of agreement in AIS level, ISS and NISS than other potential comparisons, and resulting in significantly fewer conversion problems than attempting to map AIS98 codes to AIS05. This study provides new insights into AIS codeset change impact. Adoption of AIS05 or AIS08 in established registries will decrease major trauma patient numbers

  3. Abbreviated Injury Scale: not a reliable basis for summation of injury severity in trauma facilities?

    PubMed

    Ringdal, Kjetil G; Skaga, Nils Oddvar; Hestnes, Morten; Steen, Petter Andreas; Røislien, Jo; Rehn, Marius; Røise, Olav; Krüger, Andreas J; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2013-05-01

    Injury severity is most frequently classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) as a basis for the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), which are used for assessment of overall injury severity in the multiply injured patient and in outcome prediction. European trauma registries recommended the AIS 2008 edition, but the levels of inter-rater agreement and reliability of ISS and NISS, associated with its use, have not been reported. Nineteen Norwegian AIS-certified trauma registry coders were invited to score 50 real, anonymised patient medical records using AIS 2008. Rater agreements for ISS and NISS were analysed using Bland-Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). A clinically acceptable LoA range was set at ± 9 units. Reliability was analysed using a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering. Ten coders submitted their coding results. Of their AIS codes, 2189 (61.5%) agreed with a reference standard, 1187 (31.1%) real injuries were missed, and 392 non-existing injuries were recorded. All LoAs were wider than the predefined, clinically acceptable limit of ± 9, for both ISS and NISS. The joint ICC (range) between each rater and the reference standard was 0.51 (0.29,0.86) for ISS and 0.51 (0.27,0.78) for NISS. The joint ICC (range) for inter-rater reliability was 0.49 (0.19,0.85) for ISS and 0.49 (0.16,0.82) for NISS. Univariate linear regression analyses indicated a significant relationship between the number of correctly AIS-coded injuries and total number of cases coded during the rater's career, but no significant relationship between the rater-against-reference ISS and NISS ICC values and total number of cases coded during the rater's career. Based on AIS 2008, ISS and NISS were not reliable for summarising anatomic injury severity in this study. This result indicates a limitation in their use

  4. The utility of abbreviated patient-reported outcomes for predicting survival in early stage colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tina; Speers, Caroline H; Kennecke, Hagen F; Cheung, Winson Y

    2017-05-15

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly used in clinical settings. Prior research suggests that PROs collected at baseline may be associated with cancer survival, but most of those studies were conducted in patients with breast or lung cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between prospectively collected PROs and cancer-specific outcomes in patients with early stage colorectal cancer. Patients who had newly diagnosed stage II or III colorectal cancer from 2009 to 2010 and had a consultation at the British Columbia Cancer Agency completed the brief Psychosocial Screen for Cancer (PSSCAN) questionnaire, which collects data on patients' perceived social supports, quality of life (QOL), anxiety and depression, and general health. PROs from the PSSCAN were linked with the Gastrointestinal Cancers Outcomes Database, which contains information on patient and tumor characteristics, treatment details, and cancer outcomes. Cox regression models were constructed for overall survival (OS), and Fine and Gray regression models were developed for disease-specific survival (DSS). In total, 692 patients were included. The median patient age was 67 years (range, 26-95 years), and the majority had colon cancer (61%), were diagnosed with stage III disease (54%), and received chemotherapy (58%). In general, patients felt well supported and reported good overall health and QOL. On multivariate analysis, increased fatigue was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.99; P = .00007) and DSS (HR, 1.63; P = .03), as was lack of emotional support (OS: HR, 4.36; P = .0003; DSS: HR, 1.92; P = .02). Although most patients described good overall health and QOL and indicated that they were generally well supported, patients who experienced more pronounced fatigue or lacked emotional support had a higher likelihood of worse OS and DSS. These findings suggest that abbreviated PROs can inform and assist clinicians to identify patients who have a worse

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of the Kampala Trauma Score using estimated Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and physician opinion

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew; Forson, Paa Kobina; Oduro, George; Stewart, Barclay; Dike, Nkechi; Glover, Paul; Maio, Ronald F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) has been proposed as a triage tool for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of KTS in predicting emergency department outcomes using timely injury estimation with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and physician opinion to calculate KTS scores. Methods This was a diagnostic accuracy study of KTS among injured patients presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital A&E, Ghana. South African Triage Scale (SATS); KTS component variables, including AIS scores and physician opinion for serious injury quantification; and ED disposition were collected. Agreement between estimated AIS score and physician opinion were analyzed with normal, linear weighted, and maximum kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of KTS-AIS and KTS-physician opinion was performed to evaluate each measure’s ability to predict A&E mortality and need for hospital admission to the ward or theatre. Results A total of 1,053 patients were sampled. There was moderate agreement between AIS criteria and physician opinion by normal (κ=0.41), weighted (κlin=0.47), and maximum (κmax=0.53) kappa. A&E mortality ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.93, KTS-physician opinion 0.89, and SATS 0.88 with overlapping 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Hospital admission ROC area for KTS-AIS was 0.73, KTS-physician opinion 0.79, and SATS 0.71 with statistical similarity. When evaluating only patients with serious injuries, KTS-AIS (ROC 0.88) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.88) performed similarly to SATS (ROC 0.78) in predicting A&E mortality. The ROC area for KTS-AIS (ROC 0.71; 95%CI 0.66–0.75) and KTS-physician opinion (ROC 0.74; 95%CI 0.69–0.79) was significantly greater than SATS (ROC 0.57; 0.53–0.60) with regard to need for admission. Conclusions KTS predicted mortality and need for admission from the ED well when early estimation of the number of serious injuries was used, regardless of method

  6. Validation of an abbreviated version of the Denver HIV risk score for prediction of HIV infection in an urban ED.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Haukoos, Jason S; Rothman, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the performance of an abbreviated version of the Denver HIV Risk Score in 2 urban emergency departments (ED) with known high undiagnosed HIV prevalence. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected prospectively between November 2005 and December 2009 as part of an ED-based nontargeted rapid HIV testing program from 2 sites. Demographics; HIV testing history; injection drug use; and select high-risk sexual behaviors, including men who have sex with men, were collected by standardized interview. Information regarding receptive anal intercourse and vaginal intercourse was either not collected or collected inconsistently and was thus omitted from the model to create its abbreviated version. The study cohort included 15184 patients with 114 (0.75%) newly diagnosed with HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 0.41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21%-0.71%) for those with a score less than 20, 0.29% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.52%) for those with a score of 20 to 29, 0.65% (95% CI, 0.48%-0.87%) for those with a score of 30 to 39, 2.38% (95% CI, 1.68%-3.28%) for those with a score of 40 to 49, and 4.57% (95% CI, 2.09%-8.67%) for those with a score of 50 or higher. External validation resulted in good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71-0.79). The calibration regression slope was 0.92 and its R(2) was 0.78. An abbreviated version of the Denver HIV Risk Score had comparable performance to that reported previously, offering a promising alternative strategy for HIV screening in the ED where limited sexual risk behavior information may be obtainable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abbreviated Mindfulness Intervention for Job Satisfaction, Quality of Life, and Compassion in Primary Care Clinicians: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fortney, Luke; Luchterhand, Charlene; Zakletskaia, Larissa; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rakel, David

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Burnout, attrition, and low work satisfaction of primary care physicians are growing concerns and can have a negative influence on health care. Interventions for clinicians that improve work-life balance are few and poorly understood. We undertook this study as a first step in investigating whether an abbreviated mindfulness intervention could increase job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion among primary care clinicians. METHODS A total of 30 primary care clinicians participated in an abbreviated mindfulness course. We used a single-sample, pre-post design. At 4 points in time (baseline, and 1 day, 8 weeks, and 9 months postintervention), participants completed a set of online measures assessing burnout, anxiety, stress, resilience, and compassion. We used a linear mixed-effects model analysis to assess changes in outcome measures. RESULTS Participants had improvements compared with baseline at all 3 follow-up time points. At 9 months postintervention, they had significantly better scores (1) on all Maslach Burnout Inventory burnout subscales—Emotional Exhaustion (P =.009), Depersonalization (P = .005), and Personal Accomplishment (P <.001); (2) on the Depression (P =.001), Anxiety (P =.006), and Stress (P = .002) subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21; and (3) for perceived stress (P = .002) assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale. There were no significant changes on the 14-item Resilience Scale and the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale. CONCLUSIONS In this uncontrolled pilot study, participating in an abbreviated mindfulness training course adapted for primary care clinicians was associated with reductions in indicators of job burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress. Modified mindfulness training may be a time-efficient tool to help support clinician health and well-being, which may have implications for patient care. PMID:24019272

  8. Assessing the criterion validity of four highly abbreviated measures from the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS).

    PubMed

    Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Zemon, Vance; Holtzer, Roee; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John; Beier, Meghan; Farrell, Eileen; Snyder, Stacey; Schairer, Laura C; Glukhovsky, Lisa; Botvinick, Jason; Sloan, Jessica; Picone, Mary Ann; Kim, Sonya; Foley, Frederick W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in multiple sclerosis. As self-reported cognitive functioning is unreliable, brief objective screening measures are needed. Utilizing widely used full-length neuropsychological tests, this study aimed to establish the criterion validity of highly abbreviated versions of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Sorting Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) in order to begin developing an MS-specific screening battery. Participants from Holy Name Medical Center and the Kessler Foundation were administered one or more of these four measures. Using test-specific criterion to identify impairment at both -1.5 and -2.0 SD, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses of BVMT-R Trial 1, Trial 2, and Trial 1 + 2 raw data (N = 286) were run to calculate the classification accuracy of the abbreviated version, as well as the sensitivity and specificity. The same methods were used for SDMT 30-s and 60-s (N = 321), D-KEFS Sorting Free Card Sort 1 (N = 120), and COWAT letters F and A (N = 298). Using these definitions of impairment, each analysis yielded high classification accuracy (89.3 to 94.3%). BVMT-R Trial 1, SDMT 30-s, D-KEFS Free Card Sort 1, and COWAT F possess good criterion validity in detecting impairment on their respective overall measure, capturing much of the same information as the full version. Along with the first two trials of the California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition (CVLT-II), these five highly abbreviated measures may be used to develop a brief screening battery.

  9. Abbreviated mindfulness intervention for job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion in primary care clinicians: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fortney, Luke; Luchterhand, Charlene; Zakletskaia, Larissa; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rakel, David

    2013-01-01

    Burnout, attrition, and low work satisfaction of primary care physicians are growing concerns and can have a negative influence on health care. Interventions for clinicians that improve work-life balance are few and poorly understood. We undertook this study as a first step in investigating whether an abbreviated mindfulness intervention could increase job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion among primary care clinicians. A total of 30 primary care clinicians participated in an abbreviated mindfulness course. We used a single-sample, pre-post design. At 4 points in time (baseline, and 1 day, 8 weeks, and 9 months postintervention), participants completed a set of online measures assessing burnout, anxiety, stress, resilience, and compassion. We used a linear mixed-effects model analysis to assess changes in outcome measures. Participants had improvements compared with baseline at all 3 follow-up time points. At 9 months postintervention, they had significantly better scores (1) on all Maslach Burnout Inventory burnout subscales-Emotional Exhaustion (P =.009), Depersonalization (P = .005), and Personal Accomplishment (P <.001); (2) on the Depression (P =.001), Anxiety (P =.006), and Stress (P = .002) subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21; and (3) for perceived stress (P = .002) assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale. There were no significant changes on the 14-item Resilience Scale and the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale. In this uncontrolled pilot study, participating in an abbreviated mindfulness training course adapted for primary care clinicians was associated with reductions in indicators of job burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress. Modified mindfulness training may be a time-efficient tool to help support clinician health and well-being, which may have implications for patient care.

  10. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  11. Efficacy of abbreviated Stanford V chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: mature results of the G4 trial.

    PubMed

    Advani, R H; Hoppe, R T; Baer, D; Mason, J; Warnke, R; Allen, J; Daadi, S; Rosenberg, S A; Horning, S J

    2013-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of an abbreviated Stanford V regimen in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). PATIENTS AND METHODS PATIENTS: with untreated nonbulky stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic HL were eligible for the G4 study. Stanford V chemotherapy was administered for 8 weeks followed by radiation therapy (RT) 30 Gy to involved fields (IF). Freedom from progression (FFP), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated. All 87 enrolled patients completed the abbreviated regimen. At a median follow-up of 10 years, FFP, DSS and OS are 94%, 99% and 94%, respectively. Therapy was well tolerated with no treatment-related deaths. Mature results of the abbreviated Stanford V regimen in nonbulky early-stage HL are excellent and comparable to the results from other contemporary therapies.

  12. A Glossary of Terms, Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations Related to the National Airspace System (NAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    System ACAS Airborne Collision Avoidance System ACB Adjacent Center Backup ACC ACCumulator ACC Area Control Center ACCAS Alto Cumulus CAtellanuS ACCC...subsystem) FFC For Further Clearance FFF Form, Fit, and Function FFF Form, Fix, and Function FFLT Familiarize FLighT FFM Far Field Monitor (associated with

  13. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W. Ian; Negredo, Ana I.; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Peters, Clarence J.; Tenorio, Antonio; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that consist of several words or which (should) contain diacritical marks, the current orthographic identity of species and virus names, and the similar pronunciation of several virus abbreviations in the absence of guidance for the correct use of vernacular names. To rectify this problem, we suggest (1) to retain the current species names Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus, but to replace the name Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus [sic] with Taï Forest ebolavirus and Lake Victoria marburgvirus with Marburg marburgvirus; (2) to revert the virus names of the type marburgviruses and ebolaviruses to those used for decades in the field (Marburg virus instead of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Ebola virus instead of Zaire ebolavirus); (3) to introduce names for the remaining viruses reminiscent of jargon used by laboratory virologists but nevertheless different from species names (Reston virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus), and (4) to introduce distinct abbreviations for the individual viruses (RESTV for Reston virus, SUDV for Sudan virus, and TAFV for Taï Forest virus), while retaining that for Marburg virus (MARV) and reintroducing that used over decades for Ebola virus (EBOV). Paying tribute to developments in the field, we propose (a) to create a new ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) for one member virus (Bundibugyo virus, BDBV); (b) to assign a second virus to the species Marburg marburgvirus (Ravn virus, RAVV) for better reflection of now available high-resolution phylogeny; and (c) to create a new tentative genus (Cuevavirus) with one tentative species (Lloviu cuevavirus) for the recently

  14. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W; Johnson, Karl M; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W Ian; Negredo, Ana I; Netesov, Sergey V; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo; Peters, Clarence J; Tenorio, Antonio; Volchkov, Viktor E; Jahrling, Peter B

    2010-12-01

    The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that consist of several words or which (should) contain diacritical marks, the current orthographic identity of species and virus names, and the similar pronunciation of several virus abbreviations in the absence of guidance for the correct use of vernacular names. To rectify this problem, we suggest (1) to retain the current species names Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus, but to replace the name Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus [sic] with Taï Forest ebolavirus and Lake Victoria marburgvirus with Marburg marburgvirus; (2) to revert the virus names of the type marburgviruses and ebolaviruses to those used for decades in the field (Marburg virus instead of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Ebola virus instead of Zaire ebolavirus); (3) to introduce names for the remaining viruses reminiscent of jargon used by laboratory virologists but nevertheless different from species names (Reston virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus), and (4) to introduce distinct abbreviations for the individual viruses (RESTV for Reston virus, SUDV for Sudan virus, and TAFV for Taï Forest virus), while retaining that for Marburg virus (MARV) and reintroducing that used over decades for Ebola virus (EBOV). Paying tribute to developments in the field, we propose (a) to create a new ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) for one member virus (Bundibugyo virus, BDBV); (b) to assign a second virus to the species Marburg marburgvirus (Ravn virus, RAVV) for better reflection of now available high-resolution phylogeny; and (c) to create a new tentative genus (Cuevavirus) with one tentative species (Lloviu cuevavirus) for the recently

  15. A STUDY OF THE CONCURRENT VALIDITY OF THE MINNESOTA TESTS OF CREATIVE THINKING, ABBR. FORM VII, FOR EIGHTH GRADE INDUSTRIAL ARTS STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUENK, LESTER G.

    THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ESTABLISH THE CONCURRENT VALIDITY OF THE MINNESOTA TESTS OF CREATIVE THINKING, ABBREVIATED FORM VII, (MTCT VII) BY DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ITS SCORES AND CREATIVE ABILITY AS MEASURED BY ACCUMULATED TEACHER RATINGS OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROJECTS AND INVESTIGATOR-DEVELOPED TESTS OF CREATIVITY. THE…

  16. The Abbreviated Injury Scale and its correlation with preventable traumatic accidental deaths: a study from South Delhi.

    PubMed

    Rautji, R; Bhardwaj, D N; Dogra, T D

    2006-04-01

    Anatomic trauma scoring systems are fundamental to trauma research. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and its derivative, the Injury Severity Score (ISS), are the most frequently used scales. In a prospective study, 400 autopsies of road traffic accident victims performed between January 2002 and December 2003 were coded according to the AIS and ISS methods. All the cases were classified into different injury groups according to the Injury Severity Scale. Fifty-eight cases (14.5%) were assigned an ISS value of <25; 244 (61%) cases were valued between 25-49; 38 cases (9.5%) were valued between 50-74 and 60 (15%) cases had a value of 75. On analysis of medical care, in cases with ISS<50, about 96% of the victims did not receive optimal care quickly enough with a lack of pre-hospital resuscitation measures and lengthy transportation time to hospital being of major importance.

  17. National trends in pediatric blunt spleen and liver injury management and potential benefits of an abbreviated bed rest protocol.

    PubMed

    Dodgion, Christopher M; Gosain, Ankush; Rogers, Andrew; St Peter, Shawn D; Nichol, Peter F; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that an abbreviated bed rest protocol (ABRP) may safely reduce length of stay (LOS) and resource utilization in pediatric blunt spleen and liver injury (BSLI) patients. This study evaluates national temporal trends in BLSI management and estimates national reduction in LOS using an ABRP. Pediatric patients (<18 years old) sustaining BLSI were identified in the Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2009. Yearly rates of injury and operative intervention were examined and stratified by type of injury. APSA guidelines and the reported ABRP were applied based on abbreviated injury score (AIS) and compared with actual LOS. 22,153 patients were identified. Over the study period, operative rates for spleen and liver injuries and overall mortality significantly declined: LOS=3.1 days (±1.6) and 2.7 days (±1.9) for spleen and liver, respectively. If APSA guidelines were followed, the rates were LOS=3.7 days (±1.1) and 3.4 days (±0.7), respectively. Application of the ABRP would result in LOS=1.3 days (±0.5) for all BSLI patients. An ABRP could potentially save 1.7 hospital days/patient or 36,964 patient hospital days nationally. Our study confirms a significant national decrease in operative intervention and overall mortality in patients with BSLI. Additionally, it appears that a shorter observation period than the APSA guidelines is being utilized. The implementation of ABRP holds potential in further reducing LOS and resource utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric properties of the abbreviated version of the Scale to Assess Unawareness in Mental Disorder in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Scale to Assess Unawareness in Mental Disorder (SUMD) is widely used in clinical trials and epidemiological studies but more rarely in clinical practice because of its length (74 items). In clinical practice, it is necessary to provide shorter instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the abbreviated version of the SUMD. Methods Design: We used data from four cross-sectional studies conducted in several psychiatric hospitals in France. Inclusion criteria: a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on DSM-IV criteria. Data collection: socio-demographic and clinical data (including duration of illness, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Calgary Depression Scale); quality of life; SUMD. Statistical analysis: confirmatory factor analyses, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, Rasch statistics, relationships between the SUMD and other parameters. We tested two different scoring models and considered the response ‘not applicable’ as ‘0’ or as missing data. Results Five hundred and thirty-one patients participated in this study. The 3-factor structure of the SUMD (awareness of the disease, consequences and need for treatment; awareness of positive symptoms; and awareness of negative symptoms) was confirmed using LISREL confirmatory factor analysis for the two models. Internal item consistency and reliability were satisfactory for all dimensions. External validity testing revealed that dimension scores correlated significantly with all PANSS scores, especially with the G12 item (lack of judgement and awareness). Significant associations with age, disease duration, education level, and living arrangements showed good discriminant validity. Conclusion The abbreviated version of the SUMD appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring insight in patients with schizophrenia and may be used by clinicians to accurately assess insight in clinical settings. PMID:24053640

  19. Measuring health outcomes of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with chronic environmental conditions using an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Roy; Sampalli, Tara; Fox, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study. PMID:21197341

  20. Safety of oral glutamine in the abbreviation of preoperative fasting: a double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Borges Dock-Nascimento, D; Aguilar-Nascimento, J E D; Caporossi, C; Sepulveda Magalhães Faria, M; Bragagnolo, R; Caporossi, F Stephan; Linetzky Waitzberg, D

    2011-01-01

    No study so far has tested a beverage containing glutamine 2 h before anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery. The aim of the study was to investigate: 1) the safety of the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 h with a carbohydrate-L-glutamine-rich drink; and 2) the residual gastric volume (RGV) measured after the induction of anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Randomized controlled trial with 56 women (42 (17-65) years-old) submitted to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomized to receive either conventional preoperative fasting of 8 hours (fasted group, n = 12) or one of three different beverages drunk in the evening before surgery (400 mL) and 2 hours before the initiation of anesthesia (200 mL). The beverages were water (placebo group, n = 12), 12.5% (240 mOsm/L) maltodextrine (carbohydrate group, n = 12) or the latter in addition to 50 g (40 g in the evening drink and 10 g in the morning drink) of L-glutamine (glutamine group, n = 14). A 20 F nasogastric tube was inserted immediately after the induction of general anesthesia to aspirate and measure the RGV. Fifty patients completed the study. None of the patients had either regurgitation during the induction of anesthesia or postoperative complications. The median (range) of RGV was 6 (0-80) mL. The RGV was similar (p = 0.29) between glutamine group (4.5 [0-15] mL), carbohydrate group (7.0 [0-80] mL), placebo group (8.5 [0-50] mL), and fasted group (5.0 [0-50] mL). The abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 h with carbohydrate and L-glutamine is safe and does not increase the RGV during induction of anesthesia.

  1. Impact of abbreviated lecture with interactive mini-cases vs traditional lecture on student performance in the large classroom.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leisa L; Nykamp, Diane L; Momary, Kathryn M

    2014-12-15

    To compare the impact of 2 different teaching and learning methods on student mastery of learning objectives in a pharmacotherapy module in the large classroom setting. Two teaching and learning methods were implemented and compared in a required pharmacotherapy module for 2 years. The first year, multiple interactive mini-cases with inclass individual assessment and an abbreviated lecture were used to teach osteoarthritis; a traditional lecture with 1 inclass case discussion was used to teach gout. In the second year, the same topics were used but the methods were flipped. Student performance on pre/post individual readiness assessment tests (iRATs), case questions, and subsequent examinations were compared each year by the teaching and learning method and then between years by topic for each method. Students also voluntarily completed a 20-item evaluation of the teaching and learning methods. Postpresentation iRATs were significantly higher than prepresentation iRATs for each topic each year with the interactive mini-cases; there was no significant difference in iRATs before and after traditional lecture. For osteoarthritis, postpresentation iRATs after interactive mini-cases in year 1 were significantly higher than postpresentation iRATs after traditional lecture in year 2; the difference in iRATs for gout per learning method was not significant. The difference between examination performance for osteoarthritis and gout was not significant when the teaching and learning methods were compared. On the student evaluations, 2 items were significant both years when answers were compared by teaching and learning method. Each year, students ranked their class participation higher with interactive cases than with traditional lecture, but both years they reported enjoying the traditional lecture format more. Multiple interactive mini-cases with an abbreviated lecture improved immediate mastery of learning objectives compared to a traditional lecture format, regardless of

  2. Abbreviated breast magnetic resonance protocol: Value of high-resolution temporal dynamic sequence to improve lesion characterization.

    PubMed

    Oldrini, Guillaume; Fedida, Benjamin; Poujol, Julie; Felblinger, Jacques; Trop, Isabelle; Henrot, Philippe; Darai, Emile; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the added value of ULTRAFAST-MR sequence to an abbreviated FAST protocol in comparison with FULL protocol to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in a population of women, regardless of breast MR imaging indication. From March 10th to September 22th, 2014, we retrospectively included a total of 70 consecutive patients with 106 histologically proven lesions (58 malignant and 48 benign) who underwent breast MR imaging for preoperative breast staging (n=38), high-risk screening (n=7), problem solving (n=18), and nipple discharge (n=4) with 12 time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) acquisitions during contrast inflow interleaved in a regular high-resolution dynamic MRI protocol (FULL protocol). Two readers scored MR exams as either positive or negative and described significant lesions according to Bi-RADS lexicon with a TRICKS images (ULTRAFAST), an abbreviated protocol (FAST) and all images (FULL protocol). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated for each protocol and compared with McNemar's test. For all readers, the combined FAST-ULTRAFAST protocol significantly improved the reading with a specificity of 83.3% and 70.8% in comparison with FAST protocol or FULL protocol, respectively, without change in sensitivity. By adding ULTRAFAST protocol to FAST protocol, readers 1 and 2 were able to correctly change the diagnosis in 22.9% (11/48) and 10.4% (5/48) of benign lesions, without missing any malignancy, respectively. Both interpretation and image acquisition times for combined FAST-ULTRAFAST protocol and FAST protocol were shorter compared to FULL protocol (p<0.001). Compared to FULL protocol, adding ULTRAFAST to FAST protocol improves specificity, mainly in correctly reclassifying benign masses and reducing interpretation and acquisition time, without decreasing sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sanofi Pharmaceuticals, Inc., et al.; withdrawal of approval of 21 new drug applications and 62 abbreviated new drug applications--FDA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1998-05-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is withdrawing approval of 21 new drug applications (NDA's) and 62 abbreviated new drug applications (ANDA's). The holders of the applications notified the agency in writing that the drug products were no longer marketed and requested that the approval of the applications be withdrawn.

  4. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... application for a drug product becomes effective on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 for... on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 if the applicant certifies under § 314.50(i...

  5. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... application for a drug product becomes effective on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 for... on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 if the applicant certifies under § 314.50(i...

  6. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... application for a drug product becomes effective on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 for... on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 if the applicant certifies under § 314.50(i...

  7. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... application for a drug product becomes effective on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 for... on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 if the applicant certifies under § 314.50(i...

  8. 21 CFR 314.107 - Effective date of approval of a 505(b)(2) application or abbreviated new drug application under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated... application for a drug product becomes effective on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 for... on the date FDA issues an approval letter under § 314.105 if the applicant certifies under § 314.50(i...

  9. Psychometric Support for an Abbreviated Version of the California School Climate and Safety Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelez, Jennica L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The California School Climate and Safety Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF) was developed as a streamlined version (54 items) of the original CSCSS (102 items) for school safety teams to gather information regarding student perceptions of campus climate, safety, and experience of victimization. Using a longitudinal dataset, this study implemented…

  10. Development and validation of a complementary map to enhance the existing 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Many trauma registries have used the Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 Revision Update 98 (AIS98) to classify injuries. In the current AIS version (Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 Update 2008 - AIS08), injury classification and specificity differ substantially from AIS98, and the mapping tools provided in the AIS08 dictionary are incomplete. As a result, data from different AIS versions cannot currently be compared. The aim of this study was to develop an additional AIS98 to AIS08 mapping tool to complement the current AIS dictionary map, and then to evaluate the completed map (produced by combining these two maps) using double-coded data. The value of additional information provided by free text descriptions accompanying assigned codes was also assessed. Methods Using a modified Delphi process, a panel of expert AIS coders established plausible AIS08 equivalents for the 153 AIS98 codes which currently have no AIS08 map. A series of major trauma patients whose injuries had been double-coded in AIS98 and AIS08 was used to assess the maps; both of the AIS datasets had already been mapped to another AIS version using the AIS dictionary maps. Following application of the completed (enhanced) map with or without free text evaluation, up to six AIS codes were available for each injury. Datasets were assessed for agreement in injury severity measures, and the relative performances of the maps in accurately describing the trauma population were evaluated. Results The double-coded injuries sustained by 109 patients were used to assess the maps. For data conversion from AIS98, both the enhanced map and the enhanced map with free text description resulted in higher levels of accuracy and agreement with directly coded AIS08 data than the currently available dictionary map. Paired comparisons demonstrated significant differences between direct coding and the dictionary maps, but not with either of the enhanced maps. Conclusions The newly-developed AIS98 to AIS08

  11. Development and validation of a complementary map to enhance the existing 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Cameron S; Franklyn, Melanie; Read-Allsopp, Christine; McLellan, Susan; Niggemeyer, Louise E

    2011-05-08

    Many trauma registries have used the Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 Revision Update 98 (AIS98) to classify injuries. In the current AIS version (Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 Update 2008 - AIS08), injury classification and specificity differ substantially from AIS98, and the mapping tools provided in the AIS08 dictionary are incomplete. As a result, data from different AIS versions cannot currently be compared. The aim of this study was to develop an additional AIS98 to AIS08 mapping tool to complement the current AIS dictionary map, and then to evaluate the completed map (produced by combining these two maps) using double-coded data. The value of additional information provided by free text descriptions accompanying assigned codes was also assessed. Using a modified Delphi process, a panel of expert AIS coders established plausible AIS08 equivalents for the 153 AIS98 codes which currently have no AIS08 map. A series of major trauma patients whose injuries had been double-coded in AIS98 and AIS08 was used to assess the maps; both of the AIS datasets had already been mapped to another AIS version using the AIS dictionary maps. Following application of the completed (enhanced) map with or without free text evaluation, up to six AIS codes were available for each injury. Datasets were assessed for agreement in injury severity measures, and the relative performances of the maps in accurately describing the trauma population were evaluated. The double-coded injuries sustained by 109 patients were used to assess the maps. For data conversion from AIS98, both the enhanced map and the enhanced map with free text description resulted in higher levels of accuracy and agreement with directly coded AIS08 data than the currently available dictionary map. Paired comparisons demonstrated significant differences between direct coding and the dictionary maps, but not with either of the enhanced maps. The newly-developed AIS98 to AIS08 complementary map enabled transformation of the

  12. Estimation of abbreviated mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve during early posttransplant period by limited sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, A-H; Nazemian, F; Abtahi, B; Naghibi, M; Gholami, K; Rezaee, S; Nazari, M-R A; Rajabi, O

    2008-12-01

    Area under the concentration curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) could help to optimize therapeutic drug monitoring during the early post-renal transplant period. The aim of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate an abbreviated MPA AUC within the first month after renal transplantation. In this study we selected 19 patients in the early posttransplant period with normal renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate > 70 mL/min). Plasma MPA concentrations were measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MPA AUC(0-12h) was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the minimal and convenient time points of MPA levels that could be used to derive model equations best fitted to MPA AUC(0-12h). The regression equation for AUC estimation that gave the best performance was AUC = 14.46 C(10) + 15.547 (r(2) = .882). The validation of the method was performed using the jackknife method. Mean prediction error of this model was not different from zero (P > .05) and had a high root mean square prediction error (8.06). In conclusion, this limited sampling strategy provided an effective approach for therapeutic drug monitoring during the early posttransplant period.

  13. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS. PMID:26648893

  14. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  15. Using the abbreviated injury severity and Glasgow Coma Scale scores to predict 2-week mortality after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Shelly D; Bee, Tiffany; Webb, Sharon; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R; Hesdorffer, Dale

    2011-11-01

    Prediction of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains elusive. We tested the use of a single hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Score, GCS Motor Score, and the Head component of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Score to predict 2-week cumulative mortality in a large cohort of TBI patients admitted to the eight U.S. Level I trauma centers in the TBI Clinical Trials Network. Data on 2,808 TBI patients were entered into a centralized database. These TBI patients were categorized as severe (GCS score, 3-8), moderate (9-12), or complicated mild (13-15 with positive computed tomography findings). Intubation and chemical paralysis were recorded. The cumulative incidence of mortality in the first 2 weeks after head injury was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the magnitude of the risk for 2-week mortality. Two-week cumulative mortality was independently predicted by GCS, GCS Motor Score, and Head AIS. GCS Severity Category and GCS Motor Score were stronger predictors of 2-week mortality than Head AIS. There was also an independent effect of age (<60 vs. ≥60) on mortality after controlling for both GCS and Head AIS Scores. Anatomic and physiologic scales are useful in the prediction of mortality after TBI. We did not demonstrate any added benefit to combining the total GCS or GCS Motor Scores with the Head AIS Score in the short-term prediction of death after TBI.

  16. Mortality prediction of head Abbreviated Injury Score and Glasgow Coma Scale: analysis of 7,764 head injuries.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, Demetrios; Kuncir, Eric; Murray, James; Velmahos, George C; Rhee, Peter; Chan, Linda

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the prognostic value and limitations of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and head Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and correlated head AIS with GCS. We studied 7,764 patients with head injuries. Bivariate analysis was performed to examine the relationship of GCS, head AIS, age, gender, and mechanism of injury with mortality. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors associated with mortality. The overall mortality in the group of head injury patients with no other major extracranial injuries and no hypotension on admission was 9.3%. Logistic regression analysis identified head AIS, GCS, age, and mechanism of injury as significant independent risk factors of death. The prognostic value of GCS and head AIS was significantly affected by the mechanism of injury and the age of the patient. Patients with similar GCS or head AIS but different mechanisms of injury or ages had significantly different outcomes. The adjusted odds ratio of death in penetrating trauma was 5.2 (3.9, 7.0), p < 0.0001, and in the age group > or = 55 years the adjusted odds ratio was 3.4 (2.6, 4.6), p < 0.0001. There was no correlation between head AIS and GCS (correlation coefficient -0.31). Mechanism of injury and age have a major effect in the predictive value of GCS and head AIS. There is no good correlation between GCS and head AIS.

  17. An SEM Assessment of the Internal Structure and Predictive Validity of the Abbreviated Early Adolescent HOME Inventory.

    PubMed

    Green, Samuel B; Pennar, Amy L; Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory is designed to assess the quality and quantity of support, stimulation, and structure provided to children in the home environment. HOME has been widely used for research and applied purposes. We focused on an abbreviated version of the Early Adolescent HOME (EA-HOME-A) that was administered to 15-year-old adolescents and their parents ( N = 958) as part of the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Our study had two objectives. First, we hypothesized and tested a bifactor model that specified a general factor in support of the use of the HOME total score and group factors for subsets of items in support of the content domain scores. Second, we applied structural equation modeling to relate the EA-HOME-A factors to outcome factors assessing maladaptive behaviors, autonomy, self-control, and cognitive-academic performance. The results supported the construct validity of the EA-HOME-A with respect to its internal structure as well as its correlates.

  18. Testing the Abbreviated Food Technology Neophobia Scale and its relation to satisfaction with food-related life in university students.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Hueche, Clementina; Höger, Yesli

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to test the relationships between food neophobia, satisfaction with food-related life and food technology neophobia, distinguishing consumer segments according to these variables and characterizing them according to willingness to purchase food produced with novel technologies. A survey was conducted with 372 university students (mean aged=20.4years, SD=2.4). The questionnaire included the Abbreviated version of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (AFTNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and a 6-item version of the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Using confirmatory factor analysis, it was confirmed that SWFL correlated inversely with FNS, whereas FNS correlated inversely with AFTNS. No relationship was found between SWFL and AFTNS. Two main segments were identified using cluster analysis; these segments differed according to gender and family size. Group 1 (57.8%) possessed higher AFTNS and FNS scores than Group 2 (28.5%). However, these groups did not differ in their SWFL scores. Group 1 was less willing to purchase foods produced with new technologies than Group 2. The AFTNS and the 6-item version of the FNS are suitable instruments to measure acceptance of foods produced using new technologies in South American developing countries. The AFTNS constitutes a parsimonious alternative for the international study of food technology neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep Problem of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Assessed by Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire-Abbreviated in Indonesia and Japan.

    PubMed

    Irwanto; Rehatta, Nancy Margarita; Hartini, Sri; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-07-04

    Sleep problems are associated with problems of cognitive functioning, learning, attention and school performance. It has been found that sleep problems are highly prevalent in children with Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), with rates ranging from 40% to 80%. We aimed to identify the prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD in Indonesia and Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Surabaya, Indonesia and Kobe, Japan. Children aged 4 -10 years old were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire-Abbreviated (CSHQ-A) was used in this research to assess the sleep problems, consisted of 22 questions (NICHD SECCYD-Wisconsin). Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test to compare the CSHQ-A scores between Indonesian and Japanese children, while the proportion of sleep problems was evaluated by chi-square test with 95% confidence interval. Fifty children with ASD were included in this study, 25 children from Kobe, Japan and 25 children from Surabaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD was 60% (15 children) in Indonesia and 16% (4 children) in Japan respectively. There were significant differences in total waking during the night and in morning wake for the CSHQ-A between children from Indonesia and Japan (p<0.005). The prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD was higher in children from Indonesia than from Japan.

  20. Modeling the structure of the attitudes and belief scale 2 using CFA and bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Attitudes and Belief Scale-2 (ABS-2: DiGiuseppe, Leaf, Exner, & Robin, 1988. The development of a measure of rational/irrational thinking. Paper presented at the World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburg, Scotland.) is a 72-item self-report measure of evaluative rational and irrational beliefs widely used in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy research contexts. However, little psychometric evidence exists regarding the measure's underlying factor structure. Furthermore, given the length of the ABS-2 there is a need for an abbreviated version that can be administered when there are time demands on the researcher, such as in clinical settings. This study sought to examine a series of theoretical models hypothesized to represent the latent structure of the ABS-2 within an alternative models framework using traditional confirmatory factor analysis as well as utilizing a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, this study also sought to develop a psychometrically sound abbreviated version of the ABS-2. Three hundred and thirteen (N = 313) active emergency service personnel completed the ABS-2. Results indicated that for each model, the application of bifactor modeling procedures improved model fit statistics, and a novel eight-factor intercorrelated solution was identified as the best fitting model of the ABS-2. However, the observed fit indices failed to satisfy commonly accepted standards. A 24-item abbreviated version was thus constructed and an intercorrelated eight-factor solution yielded satisfactory model fit statistics. Current results support the use of a bifactor modeling approach to determining the factor structure of the ABS-2. Furthermore, results provide empirical support for the psychometric properties of the newly developed abbreviated version.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid and determination of area under the curve by abbreviated sampling strategy in Chinese liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Peng, Chenghong; Yu, Zhicheng; Shen, Baiyong; Deng, Xiaxing; Qiu, Weihua; Fei, Yue; Shen, Chuan; Zhou, Guangwen; Yang, Weiping; Li, Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to: (i) define the clinical pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in Chinese liver transplant recipients; and (ii) develop a regression model best fitted for the prediction of MPA area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(12)) by abbreviated sampling strategy. Forty liver transplant patients received mycophenolate mofetil 1g as a single dose twice daily in combination with tacrolimus. MPA concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography before dose (C(0)) and at 0.5 (C(0.5)), 1 (C(1)), 1.5 (C(1.5)), 2 (C(2)), 4 (C(4)), 6 (C(6)), 8 (C(8)), 10 (C(10)) and 12 (C(12)) hours after administration on days 7 and 14. A total of 72 pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained. MPA AUC(12) was calculated with 3P97 software. The trough concentrations (C(0)) of tacrolimus and hepatic function were also measured simultaneously. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the models for estimated MPA AUC(12). The agreement between predicted MPA AUC(12) and observed MPA AUC(12) was investigated by Bland-Altman analysis. The pattern of MPA concentrations during the 12-hour interval on day 7 was very similar to that on day 14. In the total of 72 profiles, the mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and time to reach C(max) (t(max)) were 9.79 +/- 5.26 mg/L and 1.43 +/- 0.78 hours, respectively. The mean MPA AUC(12) was 46.50 +/- 17.42 mg . h/L (range 17.99-98.73 mg . h/L). Correlation between MPA C(0) and MPA AUC(12) was poor (r(2) = 0.300, p = 0.0001). The best model for prediction of MPA AUC(12) was by using 1, 2, 6 and 8 hour timepoint MPA concentrations (r(2) = 0.921, p = 0.0001). The regression equation for estimated MPA AUC(12) was 5.503 + 0.919 . C(1) + 1.871 . C(2) + 3.176 . C(6) + 3.664 . C(8). This model had minimal mean prediction error (1.24 +/- 11.19%) and minimal mean absolute prediction error (8.24 +/- 7.61%). Sixty-three of 72 (88%) estimated MPA AUC(12) were within 15% of MPA AUC

  2. An Abbreviated Protocol for In Vitro Generation of Functional Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Massumi, Mohammad; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Nalla, Amarnadh; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Nagy, Kristina; Neely, Eric; Gull, Rida; Nagy, Andras; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to yield glucose-responsive pancreatic beta-cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro will facilitate the development of the cell replacement therapies for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. Here, through the sequential in vitro targeting of selected signaling pathways, we have developed an abbreviated five-stage protocol (25–30 days) to generate human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-like Cells (ES-DBCs). We showed that Geltrex, as an extracellular matrix, could support the generation of ES-DBCs more efficiently than that of the previously described culture systems. The activation of FGF and Retinoic Acid along with the inhibition of BMP, SHH and TGF-beta led to the generation of 75% NKX6.1+/NGN3+ Endocrine Progenitors. The inhibition of Notch and tyrosine kinase receptor AXL, and the treatment with Exendin-4 and T3 in the final stage resulted in 35% mono-hormonal insulin positive cells, 1% insulin and glucagon positive cells and 30% insulin and NKX6.1 co-expressing cells. Functionally, ES-DBCs were responsive to high glucose in static incubation and perifusion studies, and could secrete insulin in response to successive glucose stimulations. Mitochondrial metabolic flux analyses using Seahorse demonstrated that the ES-DBCs could efficiently metabolize glucose and generate intracellular signals to trigger insulin secretion. In conclusion, targeting selected signaling pathways for 25–30 days was sufficient to generate ES-DBCs in vitro. The ability of ES-DBCs to secrete insulin in response to glucose renders them a promising model for the in vitro screening of drugs, small molecules or genes that may have potential to influence beta-cell function. PMID:27755557

  3. Applicability of an established management algorithm for destructive colon injuries after abbreviated laparotomy: a 17-year experience.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Shahan, Charles P; Cullinan, Darren R; Marino, Katy A; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2014-04-01

    For more than a decade, operative decisions (resection plus anastomosis vs diversion) for colon injuries, at our institution, have followed a defined management algorithm based on established risk factors (pre- or intraoperative transfusion requirements of more than 6 units packed RBCs and/or presence of significant comorbid diseases). However, this management algorithm was originally developed for patients managed with a single laparotomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this algorithm to destructive colon injuries after abbreviated laparotomy (AL) and to determine whether additional risk factors should be considered. Consecutive patients over a 17-year period with colon injuries after AL were identified. Nondestructive injuries were managed with primary repair. Destructive wounds were resected at the initial laparotomy followed by either a staged diversion (SD) or a delayed anastomosis (DA) at the subsequent exploration. Outcomes were evaluated to identify additional risk factors in the setting of AL. We identified 149 patients: 33 (22%) patients underwent primary repair at initial exploration, 42 (28%) underwent DA, and 72 (49%) had SD. Two (1%) patients died before re-exploration. Of those undergoing DA, 23 (55%) patients were managed according to the algorithm and 19 (45%) were not. Adherence to the algorithm resulted in lower rates of suture line failure (4% vs 32%, p = 0.03) and colon-related morbidity (22% vs 58%, p = 0.03) for patients undergoing DA. No additional specific risk factors for suture line failure after DA were identified. Adherence to an established algorithm, originally defined for destructive colon injuries after single laparotomy, is likewise efficacious for the management of these injuries in the setting of AL. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proper coding of the Abbreviated Injury Scale: can clinical parameters help as surrogates in estimating blood loss?

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M; Holstein, J H; Moersdorf, P; Kristen, A; Lefering, R; Pohlemann, T; Pizanis, A

    2014-08-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) requires the estimation of the lost blood volume for some severity assignments. This study aimed to develop a rule of thumb for facilitating AIS coding by using objective clinical parameters as surrogate markers of blood loss. Using the example of pelvic ring fractures, a retrospective analysis of TraumaRegister DGU(®) data from 2002 to 2011 was performed. As potential surrogate markers of blood loss, we recorded the hemoglobin (Hb) level, systolic blood pressure (SBP), base excess (BE), Quick's value, units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused before intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality within 24 h. We identified 11,574 patients with pelvic ring fractures (Tile/OTA classification: 39 % type A, 40 % type B, 21 % type C). Type C fractures were 73.1 % AISpelvis 4 and 26.9 % AISpelvis 5. Type B fractures were 47 % AISpelvis 3, 47 % AISpelvis 4, and 6 % AISpelvis 5. In type C fractures, cut-off values of <7 g/dL Hb, <90 mmHg SBP, <-9 mmol/L BE, <35 % Quick's value, >15 units PRBCs, and death within 24 h had a positive predictive value of 47 % and a sensitivity of 62 % for AISpelvis 5. In type B fractures, these cut-off values had poor sensitivity (48 %) and positive predictive value (11 %) for AISpelvis 5. We failed to develop a rule of thumb for facilitating a proper future AIS coding using the example of pelvic ring fractures. The estimation of blood loss for severity assignment still remains a noteworthy weakness in the AIS coding of traumatic injuries.

  5. The Value of Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Scale in the Management of Traumatic Injuries of Parenchymal Abdominal Organs.

    PubMed

    Grandić, Leo; Olić, Ivna; Pogorelić, Zenon; Mrklić, Ivana; Perko, Zdravko

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of etiology, types of injury, levels of consciousness and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) values on the selection of treatment modality and survival in patients with injuries of parenchymal abdominal organs. Case records of 224 patients treated for traumatic injury of parenchymal abdominal organs from January 2003 until December 2015 were reviewed. Th e values of ISS and AIS of injury severity were calculated and compared to the values obtained according to the etiology, state of consciousness and survival. Of the 224 patients, 172 (76.8%) were treated by surgical approach and 52 (23.2%) were treated conservatively. Th e mean patient age was 40.1}18.3 years. Th ere were 97 (43.3%) polytrauma cases. Of the 224 injured patients, 143 (63.8%) were treated with transfusions of blood products. Two hundred and six (92%) patients survived. Th e mean AIS and ISS values were significantly lower in patients that survived (AIS=3; ISS=28) than in those that died (AIS=5; ISS=34) (p< 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in AIS and ISS values between conscious (AIS=2.7; ISS=25.9) and unconscious (AIS=3.2; ISS=33) patients (p< 0.001). Of the 224 patients that did not survive, 18 (8%) were hemodynamically unstable. Survival depended on hemodynamic stability at admission; the ISS and AIS values were associated with the injuries and state of consciousness at admission. Hemodynamic stability, state of consciousness, and ISS and AIS values were the quality predictors of survival after abdominal traumatic injury.

  6. Impact of the version of the abbreviated injury scale on injury severity characterization and quality assessment of trauma care.

    PubMed

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Matsuoka, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to investigate the impact of AIS 2008 on the characterization of injury severity and quality assessment of trauma care. We identified all blunt trauma patients in the Japan Trauma Data Bank. First, we converted AIS 98 codes to AIS 2008 codes using a mapping table. Next, we compared Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) and New ISSs (NISSs) based on AIS 98 and AIS 2008. We compared the proportion of major trauma (ISS >15) between the two AISs. We derived risk-adjusted models using the two AISs and separately ranked hospitals according to the observed-to-expected death (OE) ratio. We counted the number of performance outliers for the two rankings. We analyzed the association between the percent change in OE ratios and the proportion of NISS outliers (change in NISS of <-12). There were 19,899 subjects. The ISSs and NISSs based on AIS 2008 were significantly less than those based on AIS 98. The proportion of major trauma was 46.3% and 38.9% for AIS 98 and AIS 2008, respectively (p < 0.001). The numbers of performance outliers were different between the two rankings. There was a significant positive linear relationship between the percent change in the OE ratio and the proportion of NISS outliers. The use of different AIS versions influenced the selection of major trauma patients and affected the quality assessment of the trauma care. Researchers should be aware of these findings when selecting the version of the AIS.

  7. Abbreviated right-sided heart echocardiogram and the STOP-Bang questionnaire-a useful relationship for preoperative patient evaluation?

    PubMed

    Evans, Rebecca E; Zimmerman, Joshua; Shishido, Sonia; Heath, Elise; Bledsoe, Amber; Johnson, Ken

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) explore the incidence of right-sided heart dysfunction (RHD) and STOP-Bang questionnaire responses consistent with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and (2) assess the relationship between patients with STOP-Bang questionnaire responses consistent with OSA and echocardiographic findings suggestive of RHD. Observational study. Tertiary academic center preoperative clinic. Two hundred patients presenting for elective surgery to the University of Utah preoperative clinic. Abbreviated transthoracic right-sided echocardiogram and STOP-Bang questionnaire. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tissue Doppler-derived tricuspid lateral annular systolic velocity (S'), and the tricuspid inflow E wave to tricuspid annular tissue Doppler e' wave ratio (E/e') for the presence of RHD, as well as responses to STOP-Bang questionnaire. A total of 140 echocardiograms were analyzed after exclusion of participants with incomplete STOP-Bang questionnaires and inadequate images. Thirty-five patients (25%) reported 5 or more positive responses to the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Forty-six patients (35%) had abnormal right-sided heart measurements. Of the 35 patients with STOP-Bang scores 5 or greater, 11 (31%) had evidence of RHD. No correlation was observed between STOP-Bang scores and the echocardiography metrics of RHD. This preliminary study suggests that there are numerous sources of RHD, among one of which is sleep apnea, and/or the STOP-Bang questionnaire is not a sensitive tool for predicting RHD. We conclude that although the STOP-Bang questionnaire is easy to implement in a preoperative clinical setting, it is not useful in identifying patients at risk for RHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 25749 - Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug Application Field Alert Reports: Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... language)-enabled Adobe PDF form, Form FDA 3331--Automated to submit new drug application (NDA) and...-enabled Adobe PDF form, Form FDA 3331--Automated, will be available for piloting between May 1, 2013, and... modernize the FAR submission and review pathway using an XML-enabled PDF form to enable integration with...

  9. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOEpatents

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  10. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    Two years ago John Kinchin and myself were lucky enough to attend the Goldsmith's particle physics course. As well as many interesting lectures and activities, this course included a visit to CERN. To most physics teachers CERN is Mecca, a hallowed place where gods manipulate and manufacture matter. The experience of being there was even better. Alison Wright was an enthusiastic and very knowledgeable host who ensured the visit went smoothly and we all learned a lot. While we were there, John and I discussed the possibility of bringing a party of A-level students to see real physics in action. In February of this year we managed it. 33 students from two schools, Boston Grammar School and Northampton School for Boys, and four staff left England and caught the 2 am ferry to France. Many hours and a few `short cuts' later we arrived at our hotel in St Genis, not far from CERN. The first day was spent sight-seeing in Lausanne and Geneva. The Olympic museum in Lausanne is well worth a visit. Unfortunately, the famous fountain in Geneva was turned off, but then you can't have everything. The following morning we turned up at CERN late due to the coach's brakes being iced up! We were met once again by Alison Wright who forgave us and introduced the visit by giving an excellent talk on CERN, its background and its reason for existing. At this point we met another member of our Goldsmith's course and his students so we joined forces once again. We then piled back into the coach to re-cross the border and visit ALEPH. ALEPH is a monster of a detector 150 m below ground. We divided into four groups, each with a very able and knowledgeable guide, and toured the site. The size and scale of the detector are awesome and the students were suitably impressed. We repeated the speed of sound experiment of two years ago at the bottom of a 150 m concrete shaft (320 m s-1), posed for a group photo in front of the detector (figure 1) and returned to the main site for lunch in the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams, Christine Sutton and Andrew Morrison of PPARC, but most especially Alison Wright of CERN and John Kinchin of Boston Grammar School who did all the hard work and organization. The week gave students a unique chance to see the principles of physics being applied in many different ways and I am sure this has reinforced their knowledge and understanding. Some students also took the opportunity to practise their language skills. The only remaining question is: what next? I'll have to think about it in the summer when I have some slack time. Hmm, SLAC, that gives me an idea....

  11. Some Common Abbreviations

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood test for CA-125 A to measure cancer activity. CABG Coronary artery bypass graft A type of ... NKDA No known drug allergies NSAID Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ... detect cervical cancer. PAT Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia A disturbance of the ...

  12. Mapping Abbreviated Injury Scale data from 1990 to 1998 versions: a stepping-stone in the contemporary evaluation of trauma.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Cameron S; Lang, Jacelle; Russell, Glen; Dallow, Natalie; Harvey, Kathy; Gabbe, Belinda; Cameron, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Many trauma registries have used the 1990 revision of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS; AIS90) to code injuries sustained by trauma patients. Due to changes made to the AIS codeset since its release, AIS90-coded data lacks currency in the assessment of injury severity. The ability to map between the 1998 revision of AIS (AIS98) and the current (2008) AIS version (AIS08) already exists. The development of a map for transforming AIS90-coded data into AIS98 would therefore enable contemporary injury severity estimates to be derived from AIS90-coded data. Differences between the AIS90 and AIS98 codesets were identified, and AIS98 maps were generated for AIS90 codes which changed or were not present in AIS98. The effectiveness of this map in describing the severity of trauma using AIS90 and AIS98 was evaluated using a large state registry dataset, which coded injury data using AIS90 over several years. Changes in Injury Severity Scores (ISS) calculated using AIS90 and mapped AIS98 codesets were assessed using three distinct methods. Forty-nine codes (out of 1312) from the AIS90 codeset changed or were not present in AIS98. Twenty-four codes required the assignment of maps to AIS98 equivalents. AIS90-coded data from 78,075 trauma cases were used to evaluate the map. Agreement in calculated ISS between coded AIS90 data and mapped AIS98 data was very high (kappa=0.971). The ISS changed in 1902 cases (2.4%), and the mean difference in ISS across all cases was 0.006 points. The number of cases classified as major trauma using AIS98 decreased by 0.8% compared with AIS90. A total of 3102 cases (4.0%) sustained at least one AIS90 injury which required mapping to AIS98. This study identified the differences between the AIS90 and AIS98 codesets, and generated maps for the conversion process. In practice, the differences between AIS90- and AIS98-coded data were very small. As a result, AIS90-coded data can be mapped to the current AIS version (AIS08) via AIS98, with little

  13. Estimating severity of burn in children: Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score versus Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI).

    PubMed

    Berndtson, Allison E; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of our study is to validate the Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score and compare the accuracy of PRISM predicted outcomes to the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI). We hypothesized that the PRISM score is more accurate in predicting mortality and hospital length of stay than the ABSI in children with severe burns. All children <18 years of age admitted to a regional pediatric burn center between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2010 were reviewed. Those with a Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burn ≥20% who were admitted within 7 days of injury were selected for our study. Measured parameters included: demographics, burn characteristics, PRISM and ABSI scores at admission, and outcomes (mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), ventilator days and cause of death). A total of 83 patients met criteria and had complete data sets. The mean age (±SEM) was 8.0±0.6 years, mean % TBSA burn 49.9±2.1%, 62.7% were male, and 45.8% had inhalation injury. Hospital LOS was 74.4±7.9 days, with 31.5±4.9 ventilator days. Mean PRISM score ranged from 14.2 to 16.0, with ABSI scores 7.9 to 8.5. Actual overall mortality was 18.1% compared to a PRISM predicted mortality of 19.8±2.5% (p<0.001, r=0.570). ABSI predicted mortality varied from 10 to 20% for a score of 7.9 to 30-50% for a score of 8.5. Logistic regression showed that both PRISM (p<0.001) and ABSI (p<0.001) mortality predictions accurately estimated actual mortality, which remained true in a combined model. ABSI was predictive of hospital LOS (p<0.001) and ventilator days (p<0.001) while PRISM was not (p=0.326 and p=0.863). Both PRISM and ABSI scores are predictive of mortality in severely burned children. Only ABSI correlates with hospital length of stay and ventilator days, and thus may also be more useful in predicting ICU resource utilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Non-Pivotal Bioequivalence Studies Submitted in Abbreviated New Drug Submissions for Delayed-Release Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjeet; Jiang, Xiaojian; Stier, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    The US FDA's rule on "Requirements for Submission of Bioequivalence Data" requiring submission of all bioequivalence (BE) studies conducted on the same formulation of the drug product submitted for approval was published in Federal Register in January 2009. With the publication of this rule, we evaluated the impact of data from non-pivotal BE studies in assessing BE and identified the reasons for failed in vivo BE studies for generic oral delayed-release (DR) drug products only. We searched the Agency databases from January 2009 toDecember 2016 to identify Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) submitted for DR drug products containing non-pivotal BE studies. Out of 202 ANDAs, 43 ANDAs contained 102 non-pivotal BE studies. Forty-nine non-pivotal BE studies were conducted on the to-be-marketed (TBM) formulation and 53 were conducted on formulations different from the TBM formulation. These experimental formulations primarily differed in the ratio of components of the enteric coating layer and/or amount (i.e., %w/w) of enteric coating layer. Of the 49 non-pivotal BE studies conducted on the TBM formulation, 41 failed to meet the BE acceptance criteria. The majority of failed non-pivotal BE studies on the TBM DR generic products had insufficient power, which was expected as these studies are exploratory in nature and not designed to have adequate power to pass the BE statistical criteria. In addition, among the failed non-pivotal BE studies on the TBM DR generic products, the most commonly failing pharmacokinetic parameter was Cmax. The data from these non-pivotal BE studies indicate that inadequate BE study design can lead to failure of the BE on the same formulation. Also, the non-pivotal BE studies on formulations different from the TBM formulation help us link the formulation design to the product performance in vivo. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue

  15. Efficacy of an Abbreviated Induction Regimen of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate for Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis: 3 Days of Therapy Is Equivalent to 14 Days

    PubMed Central

    Livermore, Joanne; Howard, Susan J.; Sharp, Andrew D.; Goodwin, Joanne; Gregson, Lea; Felton, Timothy; Schwartz, Julie A.; Walker, Catherine; Moser, Bill; Müller, Werner; Harrison, Thomas S.; Perfect, John R.; Hope, William W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is an urgent global health problem. Induction regimens using 14 days of amphotericin B deoxycholate (dAmB) are considered the standard of care but may not be suitable for resource-poor settings. We investigated the efficacy of conventional and abbreviated regimens of dAmB for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. We examined the extent to which immunological effectors contribute to the antifungal effect. We bridged the results to humans as a first critical step to define regimens suitable for further study in clinical trials. There were significant differences in the murine plasma-versus-cerebrum dAmB concentration-time profiles. dAmB was detectable in the cerebrum throughout the experimental period, even following the administration of only three doses of 3 mg/kg. dAmB induced a fungistatic effect in the cerebrum with a 2- to 3-log10 CFU/g reduction compared with controls. The effect of 3 days of therapy was the same as that of daily therapy for 14 days. There was no evidence of increased numbers of CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells in treated mice to account for the persistent antifungal effect of an abbreviated regimen. The administration of dAmB at 1 mg/kg/day for 3 days was the same as daily therapy in rabbits. The bridging studies suggested that a human regimen of 0.7 mg/kg/day for 3 days resulted in nearly maximal antifungal activity in both the cerebrum and cerebrospinal fluid. An abbreviated regimen (3 days of therapy) of dAmB appears to be just as effective as conventional induction therapy for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. PMID:24473125

  16. Relationship of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-Second Edition and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in children referred for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Raggio, Donald J; Scattone, Dorothy; May, Warren

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Increasingly, psychologists are using brief measures of intelligence, but scant information exists regarding their clinical utility in various populations. 44 children referred for evaluation of ADHD were administered the KBIT-2 and WASI in counterbalanced order. Results of this study indicated the WASI to be a more stable measure of ADHD children's intelligence, that the KBIT-2 Vocabulary scores were significantly lower than the WASI Verbal score, and that there was significant variability within participants.

  17. Forms, Forms and More Forms. Book Seven. Project Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Doris; And Others

    This Project Drive booklet titled Forms, Forms, and More Forms is one of eight booklets designed for intermediate-level English-as-a-second-language students and low-level adult basic education/basic reading students. The goal of the booklet is to aid the student in developing the oral and sight vocabulary necessary for a basic driver training…

  18. Evaluation of a Short-Form of the Berg Card Sorting Test

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher J.; Mueller, Shane T.; Gray, Hilary M.; Raber, Jacob; Piper, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The Psychology Experimental Building Language http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ Berg Card Sorting Test is an open-source neurobehavioral test. Participants (N = 207, ages 6 to 74) completed the Berg Card Sorting Test. Performance on the first 64 trials were isolated and compared to that on the full-length (128 trials) test. Strong correlations between the short and long forms (total errors: r = .87, perseverative response: r = .83, perseverative errors r = .77, categories completed r = .86) support the Berg Card Sorting Test-64 as an abbreviated alternative for the full-length executive function test. PMID:23691107

  19. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate themore » temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.« less

  20. Abbreviated closure for remote damage control laparotomy in extreme environments: A randomized trial of sutures versus wound clamps comparing terrestrial and weightless conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Tien, Colonel Homer; LaPorta, Anthony J; Lavell, Kit; Leslie, Tim; McBeth, Paul B; Roberts, Derek J; Ball, Chad G

    2017-05-01

    Far-Forward Damage Control Laparotomies (DCLs) might provide direct-compression of visceral hemorrhage, however, suturing is a limiting factor, especially for non-physicians. We thus compared abbreviated skin closures comparing skin-suture (SS) versus wound-clamp (WC), on-board a research aircraft in weightlessness (0g) and normal gravity (1g). Surgeons conducted DCLs on a surgical-simulator; onboard the hangered-aircraft (1g), or during parabolic flight (0g), randomized to either WC or SS. Ten surgeons participated. Two (40%) surgeons randomized to suture in 0g were incapacitated with motion-sickness, and none were able to close in either 1 or 0g. With WC, two completely closed in 1g as did three in 0g, despite having longer incisions (p = 0.016). Overall skin-closure with WC was significantly greater in both 1g (p = 0.016) and 0g (p = 0.008). WC was more effective in 1g and particularly 0g. Future studies should address the utility of abbreviated WC abdominal closure to facilitate potential Far-Forward DCL. ID ISRCTN/77929274. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mortality Risk in Pediatric Motor Vehicle Crash Occupants: Accounting for Developmental Stage and Challenging Abbreviated Injury Scale Metrics.

    PubMed

    Doud, Andrea N; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Petty, John K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Survival risk ratios (SRRs) and their probabilistic counterpart, mortality risk ratios (MRRs), have been shown to be at odds with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severity scores for particular injuries in adults. SRRs have been validated for pediatrics but have not been studied within the context of pediatric age stratifications. We hypothesized that children with similar motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries may have different mortality risks (MR) based upon developmental stage and that these MRs may not correlate with AIS severity. The NASS-CDS 2000-2011 was used to define the top 95% most common AIS 2+ injuries among MVC occupants in 4 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years. Next, the National Trauma Databank 2002-2011 was used to calculate the MR (proportion of those dying with an injury to those sustaining the injury) and the co-injury-adjusted MR (MRMAIS) for each injury within 6 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18, 0-18, and 19+ years. MR differences were evaluated between age groups aggregately, between age groups based upon anatomic injury patterns and between age groups on an individual injury level using nonparametric Wilcoxon tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. Correlation between AIS and MR within each age group was also evaluated. MR and MRMAIS distributions of the most common AIS 2+ injuries were right skewed. Aggregate MR of these most common injuries varied between the age groups, with 5- to 9-year-old and 10- to 14-year-old children having the lowest MRs and 0- to 4-year-old and 15- to 18-year-old children and adults having the highest MRs (all P <.05). Head and thoracic injuries imparted the greatest mortality risk in all age groups with median MRMAIS ranging from 0 to 6% and 0 to 4.5%, respectively. Injuries to particular body regions also varied with respect to MR based upon age. For example, thoracic injuries in adults had significantly higher MRMAIS than such injuries among 5- to 9-year-olds and 10- to 14-year

  2. Examining the reliability and validity of an abbreviated Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) in four samples.

    PubMed

    Ruchensky, Jared R; Edens, John F; Donnellan, M Brent; Witt, Edward A

    2017-02-01

    A recently developed 40-item short-form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005) has shown considerable promise as an alternative to the long-form of the instrument (Eisenbarth, Lilienfeld, & Yarkoni, 2015). Beyond the initial construction of the short-form, however, Eisenbarth et al. only evaluated a small number of external correlates in a German college student sample. In this study, we evaluate the internal consistency of the short-form scales in 4 samples previously administered the full PPI-R (3 U.S. college student samples and 1 U.S. forensic psychiatric inpatient sample) and examine a wide range of external correlates to compare the nomological nets of the short- and long-forms. Across all 4 samples, correlations between each short-form scale and its corresponding long-form scale were uniformly high (all rs > .75). In terms of external correlates, the pattern of associations was exceedingly similar, for the short-form and long-form composites with a largely trivial reduction in effect size. Collectively, our findings offer considerable support for the utility of this new short-form as a substitute for the full PPI-R. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Adapting the Abbreviated Impactor Measurement (AIM) concept to make appropriate inhaler aerosol measurements to compare with clinical data: a scoping study with the "Alberta" idealized throat (AIT) inlet.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jolyon; Copley, Mark; Sizer, Yvonne; Russell, Theresa; Solomon, Derek

    2012-08-01

    The Abbreviated Impactor Measurement (AIM) concept simplifies determination of aerodynamic size metrics for inhaler quality control testing. A similar approach is needed to compare in vitro particle size distribution metrics with human respiratory tract (HRT) deposition. An abbreviated impactor based on the Andersen eight-stage cascade impactor (ACI) was developed having two size-fractionating stages with cut-points at 4.7 and 1.1 μm aerodynamic diameter at 28.3 L/min, to distinguish between coarse (CPM), fine (FPM), and extra-fine (EPM) mass fractions likely to deposit in the oropharynx, airways of the lungs, or be exhaled, respectively. In vitro data were determined for pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI)-delivered salbutamol (100 μg/actuation ex valve) with an "Alberta" idealized adult upper airway (throat) inlet (AIM-pHRT). Corresponding benchmark data for a full resolution Andersen eight-stage cascade impactor with "Alberta" idealized throat (ACI-AIT) and ACI-Ph.Eur./USP inlet were obtained with the same product. Mass recoveries (μg/actuation; mean ± SD) were equivalent at 100.5 ± 0.7; 97.2 ± 4.9 and 101.5 ± 9.5 for the AIM-pHRT, ACI-AIT, and ACI-Ph.Eur./USP induction port, respectively [one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), p=0.64]. Corresponding values of CPM were 59.2 ± 4.2; 58.4 ± 2.4, and 65.6 ± 5.8; the AIT captured larger particles more efficiently than the Ph.Eur./USP induction port, so that less large particle mass was apparent in the upper stages of the ACI-AIT (p ≤ 0.037). Equivalent values of FPM were similar regardless of inlet/abbreviation at 41.3 ± 4.2; 38.7 ± 3.0, and 35.9 ± 3.8 (p=0.054), and EPM measures (1.7 ± 0.3; 2.0 ± 0.5; 2.1 ± 0.3) were also comparable (p=0.32). The AIT inlet significantly increased the capture of the coarse fraction compared with that collected by the Ph.Eur./USP induction port. Measures obtained using the AIM-pHRT apparatus were comparable with those obtained with the ACI-AIT.

  4. Feasibility of abbreviated cycles of immunochemotherapy for completely resected limited-stage CD20+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CISL 12-09).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Sohn, Byeong Seok; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Huh, Jooryung; Suh, Cheolwon

    2017-02-21

    The appropriate number of chemotherapy cycles for limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients without gross residual lesions after complete resection, has not been specifically questioned. We performed a multicenter, single-arm, phase 2 study to investigate the feasibility of 3 cycles of abbreviated R-CHOP chemotherapy in low-risk patients with completely resected localized CD20+ DLBCL. Between December 2010 and May 2013, we recruited 23 patients. One was excluded due to ineligibility, and hence, 22 were included in the final analysis. The primary sites comprised the intestine (n = 15), cervical lymph nodes (n = 4), stomach (n = 1), tonsil (n = 1), and spleen (n = 1). All patients successfully completed the 3 cycles of planned R-CHOP chemotherapy. Over a median follow-up of 39.5 months (95% confidence interval, 29.9-47.1 months), both the estimated 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates was 95% confidence interval, 85.9-104.1%. Only one patient with an international prognostic index of 2 experienced relapse and died. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity condition included neutropenia (n = 8, 36.4%). Three patients experienced grade 3 febrile neutropenia, but no grade 3 or 4 non-hematologic toxicity was observed. DLBCL patients without residual lesions after resection were enrolled and R-CHOP chemotherapy was repeated at 3-week-intervals over 3 cycles. The primary endpoint was 2-year disease-free survival. Three cycles of abbreviated R-CHOP immunochemotherapy is feasible for completely resected low risk localized DLBCL.

  5. Abbreviated AUC monitoring of cyclosporine more adequately identified patients at risk for acute rejection during induction of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation than recommended C2 concentration values.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, P; Ortiz, A M; Jara, A; Vilches, S

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of cyclosporine (CsA) is critical during the induction of immunosuppressive therapy. Although most centers have incorporated C2 levels, our unit still uses an abbreviated AUC model which includes concentrations at C1, C2, and C6 post-dose (AUC(1-6)). The objective of this study was to compare both strategies of CsA monitoring during the first 30 days after kidney transplantation. The study included 89 recipients induced with CsA microemulsion and steroids. AUC(1-6) profiles were performed around days 3, 10, and 30 after transplantation with a target of 5500 to 6000 ng*h/mL considered therapeutic. For comparison purposes, a value of C2 >/= 1500 ng/mL was also considered therapeutic. Mean C2 and AUC(1-6) values were low dated with biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (BPAR) during the study period. Twenty patients received living donor kidneys and overall there were 46 females. During this period, 253 AUC(1-6) were performed including 44 (17.4%) below the therapeutic range. When the analysis included only C2, 171 (67.6%) were below the therapeutic target (P < .001). Five patients experience BPAR and only AUC(1-6) at day 10 discriminated rejectors versus nonrejectors (5645 +/- 1390 and 8221 +/- 2502, respectively; P = .008). C2 was not significantly different at any time in either group. In this study, abbreviated AUC monitoring more adequately identified patients at risk for acute rejection than C2. Recommended C2 concentration levels need to be redefined in our patients.

  6. Bacteria form tellurium nanocrystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers have found two bacterial species that produce tellurium oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors for growth, leaving elemental tellurium in the form of nanoparticles. The crystals from the two organisms exhibit distinctively different structures. Bacillus selenitireducens initially forms nanorods that cluster together to form rosettes. Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms irregularly-shaped nanospheres that coalesce into larger composite aggregates.

  7. Handbook of Poetic Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron, Ed.

    Intended for secondary teachers and student writers but useful for anyone interested in poetic forms, this book defines 74 basic poetic forms, summarizes their histories, quotes examples from noted poets, and offers professional tricks of the trade on how to use each form. The book covers the following poetic forms: abstract poem, acrostic,…

  8. Maass Forms and Quantum Modular Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolen, Larry

    This thesis describes several new results in the theory of harmonic Maass forms and related objects. Maass forms have recently led to a flood of applications throughout number theory and combinatorics in recent years, especially following their development by the work of Bruinier and Funke the modern understanding Ramanujan's mock theta functions due to Zwegers. The first of three main theorems discussed in this thesis concerns the integrality properties of singular moduli. These are well-known to be algebraic integers, and they play a beautiful role in complex multiplication and explicit class field theory for imaginary quadratic fields. One can also study "singular moduli" for special non-holomorphic functions, which are algebraic but are not necessarily algebraic integers. Here we will explain the phenomenon of integrality properties and provide a sharp bound on denominators of symmetric functions in singular moduli. The second main theme of the thesis concerns Zagier's recent definition of a quantum modular form. Since their definition in 2010 by Zagier, quantum modular forms have been connected to numerous different topics such as strongly unimodal sequences, ranks, cranks, and asymptotics for mock theta functions. Motivated by Zagier's example of the quantum modularity of Kontsevich's "strange" function F(q), we revisit work of Andrews, Jimenez-Urroz, and Ono to construct a natural vector-valued quantum modular form whose components. The final chapter of this thesis is devoted to a study of asymptotics of mock theta functions near roots of unity. In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. The theory of mock theta functions has been brought to fruition using the framework of harmonic Maass forms, thanks to Zwegers. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan's original definition. Here we prove that Ramanujan's examples do indeed satisfy his

  9. Multinational Experiment 7: Access to the Global Commons. Objective 3.3 Lexicon and Abbreviations. Version 1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-28

    operation in Europe OSINT Open Source Intelligence PDA Personal Digital Assistant SME Subject Matter Expert SWGCA Special Working Group on the...Form Approved Report Documentation Page OMB No. 0704-0/88 · 1 d’ the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and...illegal and covert activity of exploiting vulnerabilities and collecting protected information or intelligence in cyberspace (MNE 7 Outcome 3 Working

  10. Forms of Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stiffness, inflammation, swelling and, sometimes, destruction of joints. Gout — a form of arthritis that occurs when uric ... the joints. Some 2.1 million Americans have gout. Lupus — a form of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, ...

  11. Forms Management Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To establish EPA’s Forms Management Program; to describe the requisite roles, responsibilities, and procedures necessary for the successful management of EPA forms; and to more clearly fulfill EPA’s obligations in this regard.

  12. Procurement Forms | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data Construction Specific Forms Pre-Award Documents Construction and manuals) Cost and Pricing Data Definitions Design-Build / Price Proposal Form Information

  13. Cefpodoxime proxetil. An appraisal of its use in antibacterial cost-containment programmes, as stepdown and abbreviated therapy in respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Balfour, J A; Benfield, P

    1996-08-01

    Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally administered prodrug which is converted in vivo to the third generation cephalosporin cefpodoxime. Cefpodoxime has a similar spectrum of antibacterial activity to the parenteral cephalosporins ceftriaxone and cefotaxime and a long elimination half-life, which allows once- or twice-daily administration. Cefpodoxime proxetil has proven efficacy in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and upper respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue and urinary tract infections. It has been evaluated for use in cost-containment programmes, as stepdown (parenteral-to-oral conversion) therapy in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and as abbreviated therapy in upper respiratory tract infections. Substituting oral for parenteral therapy can achieve considerable savings (in acquisition, delivery and labour costs). Moreover, oral administration has advantages for the patient in terms of comfort and mobility, avoids the hazards of parenteral delivery and may allow earlier discharge from hospital, or even allow home treatment from the outset in low-risk patients. As hospitalisation is usually the major cost component in treating serious infections, considerable savings can be made in this way. Pharmacy-driven stepdown programmes in 2 US hospitals have achieved cost savings by targeting patients with community-acquired pneumonia for early conversion from intravenous ceftriaxone therapy to oral cefpodoxime proxetil. Costs were compared with those from a control group of patients who continued to receive intravenous ceftriaxone until physicians deemed that oral therapy (with various agents) was appropriate. In one study, duration of parenteral therapy in the cefpodoxime proxetil group was reduced from 6.18 to 3.82 days and duration of hospitalisation was reduced from 10.06 to 6.23 days (p < 0.02), with corresponding hospitalisation cost reductions of $US7300 per patient. However, clinical trial data relating to the efficacy of cefpodoxime

  14. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  15. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  16. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial: harmonising optimal strategy for treatment of coronary artery stenosis - coronary intervention with next-generation drug-eluting stent platforms and abbreviated dual antiplatelet therapy (HOST-IDEA) trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi-Hoon; Han, Jung-Kyu; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung Woo; Lee, Hae-Young; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Lee, Namho; Cha, Tae-Joon; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Lee, Seung Uk; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Jin Won; Cho, Jin-Man; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Pyun, Wook Bum; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2017-10-11

    We have recently seen the introduction of newer generation drug-eluting stents with ultrathin struts that use advanced polymer technologies. However, the efficacy and safety of these newest stents have not yet been fully explored. In addition, there are still controversies over the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after stent implantation, particularly for ultrathin stents with the newest polymer technologies. The HOST-IDEA trial is a randomised, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority trial and the first study to directly compare two of these ultrathin sirolimus-eluting stents: Orsiro stent with biodegradable polymer, and polymer-free Coroflex ISAR (CX-ISAR) stent. This study has a scheme of 2×2 factorial design according to the stent type and DAPT duration (3 vs 12 months). A total of 2152 patients will be randomised and stratified to demonstrate the non-inferiority of CX-ISAR to Orsiro, or of the abbreviated DAPT duration to the conventional 12 months (both in 1:1 ratio). For the comparison of stent type, the primary endpoint is target lesion failure (TLF), which is a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation. For the comparison of DAPT duration, the net adverse clinical event is the coprimary endpoint, which is defined as a composite of TLF, definite/probable stent thrombosis and major bleeding. All the institutions involved in this study are required to have ethical approval prior to patient enrolment. This multicentre study will recruit patients through competitive registration, but institutions that have not yet obtained ethical approvals have made it impossible to enrol patients in a centralised web database. The final results will be presented at relevant international conferences and will be materialised in the form of papers. NCT02601157; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  17. The Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale as a screening instrument for personality disorders in substance-dependent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Brigitte P M; Damen, Katinka F M; Hoffman, Tonko O; Vellema, Sietske L

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are considered to be potential predictors of treatment outcome in substance-dependent patients and potential treatment matching variables. There is a need for a brief and simple screening instrument for PDs that can be used in routine psychological assessment, especially in a treatment setting for previously substance-dependent criminal offenders, where a high prevalence of PDs is expected. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), a commonly used screening interview for PDs, in a population of inpatient criminal offenders with a history of substance dependence. Various statistical procedures were used to establish reliability and validity measures, such as Kuder-Richardson 20, confirmative factor analysis, receiver operating characteristic analysis and multitrait multimethod matrix. The SAPAS was administered to 101 inpatient criminal offenders with a history of substance dependence at baseline. Within three weeks, participants were administered the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality in order to assess the presence of PDs. Results show limited evidence to make firm conclusions on the psychometric qualities of the SAPAS as a screening instrument for comorbid PDs in a substance dependence treatment setting for criminal offenders. Suggestions for improvement concerning the psychometric qualities of the SAPAS as a screening instrument for this population are noted. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparison of the abbreviated minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (aMACFIMS) and the brief international cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis (BICAMS).

    PubMed

    Gromisch, Elizabeth S; Portnoy, Jeffrey G; Foley, Frederick W

    2018-05-15

    Cognitive impairment is a prevalent and often intrusive problem among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Valid and reliable assessments, including quick screening measures, are crucial. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) was developed for this reason. While it lends itself to use in locations where formal neuropsychological resources might be limited, it does not include measures of verbal fluency or executive functioning, domains assessed as part of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS). Given previous evidence that shortened MACFIMS measures have strong criterion validity, this study aimed to determine which of these should be included in the abbreviated MACFIMS (aMACFIMS), and how the aMACFIMS compares to the BICAMS. One hundred forty-seven PwMS were included in the analyses. A stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the measures in the aMACFIMS. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves assessed the classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The batteries' sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were then compared. Compared to the BICAMS, the final aMACFIMS had higher specificity (87% versus 72%) and positive predictive value (86% versus 77%), but lower sensitivity (71% versus 81%). The aMACFIMS has several benefits, including reduced administration time and the addition of a verbal fluency/executive functioning measure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale and Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool: Data from amateur sports players in live-match conditions.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Christopher; Meares, Susanne; Shores, E Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Sports-related concussion is a growing public health concern. A short, simple sideline assessment tool is essential for evaluation of concussion at an amateur participation level. The current study examined responses to sideline assessment measures in a sample of amateur Australian Rules Football players competing in real-time live matches who had not sustained a concussion on the day of testing. Participants (N = 127) completed the Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale (A-WPTAS) and the Pocket Concussion Recognition Tool (Pocket CRT), which contains the Maddocks Questions (assessing orientation and recent memory) and the Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The study showed 98.4% of participants passed the A-WPTAS, while 81.9% passed the Maddocks Questions. Participants endorsed a mean of 4.16 (SD = 4.02) symptoms on the PCSS, with 86.6% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a mild level or greater and 40.2% endorsing at least 1 symptom at a moderate or severe level. The current results suggest the Maddocks Questions may not be sufficient for use in an amateur sports context. To reduce the risk for a false positive diagnosis of concussion, it is recommended that the Pocket CRT be complemented with the A-WPTAS for use in an amateur sports context.

  20. Classification of the severe trauma patient with the Abbreviated Injury Scale: degree of correlation between versions 98 and 2005 (2008 update).

    PubMed

    Abajas Bustillo, Rebeca; Leal Costa, César; Ortego Mate, María Del Carmen; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seguí Gómez, María; Durá Ros, María Jesús

    2018-02-01

    To explore differences in severity classifications according to 2 versions of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS): version 2005 (the 2008 update) and the earlier version 98. To determine whether possible differences might have an impact on identifying severe trauma patients. Descriptive study and cross-sectional analysis of a case series of patients admitted to two spanish hospitals with out-of-hospital injuries between February 2012 and February 2013. For each patient we calculated the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and the AIS scores according to versions 98 and 2005. The sample included 699 cases. The mean Severity (SD) age of patients was 52.7 (29.2) years, and 388 (55.5%) were males. Version 98 of the AIS correlated more strongly with both the ISS (2.6%) and the NISS (2.9%). The 2008 update of the AIS (version 2005) classified fewer trauma patients than version 98 at the severity levels indicated by the ISS and NISS.

  1. Relative precision of inhaler aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) metrics by full resolution and abbreviated andersen cascade impactors (ACIs): part 2--investigation of bias in extra-fine mass fraction with AIM-HRT impactor.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nagel, Mark W; Doyle, Cathy C; Ali, Rubina S; Avvakoumova, Valentina I; Christopher, J David; Quiroz, Jorge; Strickland, Helen; Tougas, Terrence; Lyapustina, Svetlana

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to resolve an anomalously high measure of extra-fine particle fraction (EPF) determined by the abbreviated cascade impactor possibly relevant for human respiratory tract (AIM-HRT) in the experiment described in Part 1 of this two-part series, in which the relative precision of abbreviated impactors was evaluated in comparison with a full resolution Andersen eight-stage cascade impactor (ACI). Evidence that the surface coating used to mitigate particle bounce was laterally displaced by the flow emerging from the jets of the lower stage was apparent upon microscopic examination of the associated collection plate of the AIM-HRT impactor whose cut point size defines EPF. A filter soaked in surfactant was floated on top of this collection plate, and further measurements were made using the same pressurized metered-dose inhaler-based formulation and following the same procedure as in Part 1. Measures of EPF, fine particle, and coarse particle fractions were comparable with those obtained with the ACI, indicating that the cause of the bias had been identified and removed. When working with abbreviated impactors, this precaution is advised whenever there is evidence that surface coating displacement has occurred, a task that can be readily accomplished by microscopic inspection of all collection plates after allowing the impactor to sample ambient air for a few minutes.

  2. A Rocky Planet Forms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-25

    An artist's rendition of how a rocky planet forms. As a rocky planet forms, the planet-forming material gathers in a process known as "accretion." It grows larger in size, and increases in temperature, along with the pressure at its core. The energy from this initial planet forming process causes the planet's elements to heat up and melt. Upon melting, layers form and separate. The heavier elements sink to the bottom, the lighter ones float to the top. This material then separates into layers as it cools, which is known as "differentiation." A fully formed planet slowly emerges, with an upper layer known as the crust, the mantle in the middle, and a solid iron core. InSight is short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport. The InSight mission will help answer key questions about how the rocky planets of the solar system, as well as how rocky exoplanets, formed. So while InSight is a Mars mission, it's also more than a Mars mission. The lander seeks the fingerprints of the processes that formed the rocky planets of the solar system, more than 4 billion years ago. It measures the planet's "vital signs:" its "pulse" (seismology), "temperature" (heat flow) and "reflexes" (precision tracking). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22233

  3. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  4. Giro form reading machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  5. The "Energy" of Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Jane; Sweeney, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    Examines three types of "energy" of form as form relates to content: "dynamos," potential energy; "energeia," that energy which sustains movement toward an end; and "ergon," that energy which is associated with perfected habit. Uses some examples from contemporary political rhetoric to illustrate this analysis. (JMF)

  6. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R [Idaho Falls, ID; Clark, Denis E [Idaho Falls, ID; Smartt, Herschel B [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Karen S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  7. Spin forming development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  8. Handprinted Forms and Characters

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Handprinted Forms and Characters (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 19 contains NIST's entire corpus of training materials for handprinted document and character recognition. It supersedes NIST Special Databases 3 and 7.

  9. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao; Haneda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tadayoshi; Morita, Shizuo; Fukuchi, Masakazu

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  10. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov Websites

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils << 1 Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  11. New Methodology for an Expert-Designed Map From International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ Severity Injury.

    PubMed

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Weaver, Ashley A; Gillich, Patrick J; Price, Janet P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    There has been a longstanding desire for a map to convert International Classification of Diseases (ICD) injury codes to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to reflect the severity of those diagnoses. The Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) was tasked by European Union representatives to create a categorical map classifying diagnoses codes as serious injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+), minor/moderate injury (AIS 1/2), or indeterminate. This study's objective was to map injury-related ICD-9-CM (clinical modification) and ICD-10-CM codes to these severity categories. Approximately 19,000 ICD codes were mapped, including injuries from the following categories: amputations, blood vessel injury, burns, crushing injury, dislocations/sprains/strains, foreign body, fractures, internal organ, nerve/spinal cord injury, intracranial, laceration, open wounds, and superficial injury/contusion. Two parallel activities were completed to create the maps: (1) An in-person expert panel and (2) an electronic survey. The panel consisted of expert users of AIS and ICD from North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The panel met in person for 5 days, with follow-up virtual meetings to create and revise the maps. Additional qualitative data were documented to resolve potential discrepancies in mapping. The electronic survey was completed by 95 injury coding professionals from North America, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand over 12 weeks. ICD-to-AIS maps were created for: ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM. Both maps indicated whether the corresponding AIS 2005/Update 2008 severity score for each ICD code was AIS 3+, 1/2, or indeterminable. Though some ICD codes could be mapped to multiple AIS codes, the maximum severity of all potentially mapped injuries determined the final severity categorization. The in-person panel consisted of 13 experts, with 11 Certified AIS specialists (CAISS) with a median of 8 years and an average of 15 years of coding experience

  12. Composite hot drape forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This program was initiated to replace labor-intensive ply-by-ply layup of composite I-beam posts and angle stiffeners used in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) rack structure. Hot drape forming (HDF) has been successfully implemented by BCAG for 777 composite I-stringers and by Bell Helicopter/Textron for the V-22 I-stingers. The two companies utilize two vastly different approaches to the I-beam fabrication process. A drape down process is used by Bell Helicopter where the compacted ply charge is placed on top of a forming mandrel and heated. When the heated ply charge reached a set temperature, vacuum pressure is applied and the plies are formed over the mandrel. The BCAG 777 process utilizes an inverted forming process where the ply stack is placed on a forming table and the mandrel is inverted and placed upon the ply stack. A heating and vacuum bladder underneath the ply stack form the play stack up onto the mandrels after reaching the temperature setpoint. Both methods have their advantages, but the drape down process was selected for SSF because it was more versatile and could be fabricated from readily available components.

  13. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality - abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV).

    PubMed

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Moran, Paul; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-07-30

    Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS) for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys.

  14. Discriminating Ability of Abbreviated Impactor Measurement Approach (AIM) to Detect Changes in Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of an Albuterol/Salbutamol pMDI Aerosol.

    PubMed

    David Christopher, J; Patel, Rajni B; Mitchell, Jolyon P; Tougas, Terrence P; Goodey, Adrian P; Quiroz, Jorge; Andersson, Patrik U; Lyapustina, Svetlana

    2017-11-01

    This article reports on results from a two-lab, multiple impactor experiment evaluating the abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept, conducted by the Cascade Impaction Working Group of the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The goal of this experiment was to expand understanding of the performance of an AIM-type apparatus based on the Andersen eight-stage non-viable cascade impactor (ACI) for the assessment of inhalation aerosols and sprays, compared with the full-resolution version of that impactor described in the pharmacopeial compendia. The experiment was conducted at two centers with a representative commercially available pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) containing albuterol (salbutamol) as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Metrics of interest were total mass (TM) emitted from the inhaler, impactor-sized mass (ISM), as well as the ratio of large particle mass (LPM) to small particle mass (SPM). ISM and the LPM/SPM ratio together comprise the efficient data analysis (EDA) metrics. The results of the comparison demonstrated that in this study, the AIM approach had adequate discrimination to detect changes in the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the ACI-sampled aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD), and therefore could be employed for routine product quality control (QC). As with any test method considered for inclusion in a regulatory filing, the transition from an ACI (used in development) to an appropriate AIM/EDA methodology (used in QC) should be evaluated and supported by data on a product-by-product basis.

  15. Validation of a modified table to map the 1998 Abbreviated Injury Scale to the 2008 scale and the use of adjusted severities.

    PubMed

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen; Ueno, Masato; Watanabe, Hiroaki

    2011-12-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2008 (AIS 2008) is the most recent injury coding system. A mapping table from a previous AIS 98 to AIS 2008 is available. However, AIS 98 codes that are unmappable to AIS 2008 codes exist in this table. Furthermore, some AIS 98 codes can be mapped to multiple candidate AIS 2008 codes with different severities. We aimed to modify the original table to adjust the severities and to validate these changes. We modified the original table by adding links from unmappable AIS 98 codes to AIS 2008 codes. We applied the original table and our modified table to AIS 98 codes for major trauma patients. We also assigned candidate codes with different severities the weighted averages of their severities as an adjusted severity. The proportion of cases whose injury severity scores (ISSs) were computable were compared. We also compared the agreement of the ISS and New ISS (NISS) between manually determined AIS 2008 codes (MAN) and mapped codes by using our table (MAP) with unadjusted or adjusted severities. All and 72.3% of cases had their ISSs computed by our modified table and the original table, respectively. The agreement between MAN and MAP with respect to the ISS and NISS was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.939 for ISS and 0.943 for NISS). Using adjusted severities, the agreements of the ISS and NISS improved to 0.953 (p = 0.11) and 0.963 (p = 0.007), respectively. Our modified mapping table seems to allow more ISSs to be computed than the original table. Severity scores exhibited substantial agreement between MAN and MAP. The use of adjusted severities improved these agreements further.

  16. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies. PMID:22105401

  17. Fever Control Management Is Preferable to Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale 3-4: A Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Toru; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Yamashita, Susumu; Oda, Yasutaka; Dohi, Kenji; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In our prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT)-the Brain Hypothermia (B-HYPO) study-we could not show any difference on neurological outcomes in patients probably because of the heterogeneity in the severity of their traumatic condition. We therefore aimed to clarify and compare the effectiveness of the two therapeutic temperature management regimens in severe (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3-4) or critical trauma patients (AIS 5). In the present post hoc B-HYPO study, we re-evaluated data based on the severity of trauma as AIS 3-4 or AIS 5 and compared Glasgow Outcome Scale score and mortality at 6 months by per-protocol analyses. Consequently, 135 patients were enrolled. Finally, 129 patients, that is, 47 and 31 patients with AIS 3-4 and 36 and 15 patients with AIS 5 were allocated to the mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) and fever control groups, respectively. No significant intergroup differences were observed with regard to age, gender, scores on head computed tomography (CT) scans, and surgical operation for traumatic brain injury (TBI), except for Injury Severity Score (ISS) in AIS 5. The fever control group demonstrated a significant reduction of TBI-related mortality compared with the MTH group (9.7% vs. 34.0%, p = 0.02) and an increase of favorable neurological outcomes (64.5% vs. 51.1%, p = 0.26) in patients with AIS 3-4, although the latter was not statistically significant. There was no difference in mortality or favorable outcome in patients with AIS 5. Fever control may be considered instead of MTH in patients with TBI (AIS 3-4).

  18. Usefulness of the abbreviated injury score and the injury severity score in comparison to the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Brandon P; Caesar, R Ruth; Parks, Jennifer; Madden, Christopher; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid; Carlile, Mary C; Harper, Caryn R; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R

    2007-04-01

    Assessment of injury severity is important in the management of patients with brain trauma. We aimed to analyze the usefulness of the head abbreviated injury score (AIS), the injury severity score (ISS), and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as measures of injury severity and predictors of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data were prospectively collected from 410 patients with TBI. AIS, ISS, and GCS were recorded at admission. Subjects' outcomes after TBI were measured using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) at 12 months postinjury. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed. Outcome information was obtained from 270 patients (66%). ISS was the best predictor of GOS-E (rs = -0.341, p < 0.001), followed by GCS score (rs = 0.227, p < 0.001), and head AIS (rs = -0.222, p < 0.001). When considered in combination, GCS score and ISS modestly improved the correlation with GOS-E (R = 0.335, p < 0.001). The combination of GCS score and head AIS had a similar effect (R = 0.275, p < 0.001). Correlations were stronger from patients 8). GCS score, AIS, and ISS are weakly correlated with 12-month outcome. However, anatomic measures modestly outperform GCS as predictors of GOS-E. The combination of GCS and AIS/ISS correlate with outcome better than do any of the three measures alone. Results support the addition of anatomic measures such as AIS and ISS in clinical studies of TBI. Additionally, most of the variance in outcome is not accounted for by currently available measures of injury severity.

  19. Comparisons of survival predictions using survival risk ratios based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Abbreviated Injury Scale trauma diagnosis codes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John R; Ragone, Andrew V; Greenwald, Lloyd

    2005-09-01

    We conducted a comparison of methods for predicting survival using survival risk ratios (SRRs), including new comparisons based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) versus Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) six-digit codes. From the Pennsylvania trauma center's registry, all direct trauma admissions were collected through June 22, 1999. Patients with no comorbid medical diagnoses and both ICD-9 and AIS injury codes were used for comparisons based on a single set of data. SRRs for ICD-9 and then for AIS diagnostic codes were each calculated two ways: from the survival rate of patients with each diagnosis and when each diagnosis was an isolated diagnosis. Probabilities of survival for the cohort were calculated using each set of SRRs by the multiplicative ICISS method and, where appropriate, the minimum SRR method. These prediction sets were then internally validated against actual survival by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. The 41,364 patients had 1,224 different ICD-9 injury diagnoses in 32,261 combinations and 1,263 corresponding AIS injury diagnoses in 31,755 combinations, ranging from 1 to 27 injuries per patient. All conventional ICD-9-based combinations of SRRs and methods had better Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic fits than their AIS-based counterparts. The minimum SRR method produced better calibration than the multiplicative methods, presumably because it did not magnify inaccuracies in the SRRs that might occur with multiplication. Predictions of survival based on anatomic injury alone can be performed using ICD-9 codes, with no advantage from extra coding of AIS diagnoses. Predictions based on the single worst SRR were closer to actual outcomes than those based on multiplying SRRs.

  20. Fever Control Management Is Preferable to Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale 3–4: A Multi-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kawakita, Kenya; Yamashita, Susumu; Oda, Yasutaka; Dohi, Kenji; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In our prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT)—the Brain Hypothermia (B-HYPO) study—we could not show any difference on neurological outcomes in patients probably because of the heterogeneity in the severity of their traumatic condition. We therefore aimed to clarify and compare the effectiveness of the two therapeutic temperature management regimens in severe (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3–4) or critical trauma patients (AIS 5). In the present post hoc B-HYPO study, we re-evaluated data based on the severity of trauma as AIS 3–4 or AIS 5 and compared Glasgow Outcome Scale score and mortality at 6 months by per-protocol analyses. Consequently, 135 patients were enrolled. Finally, 129 patients, that is, 47 and 31 patients with AIS 3–4 and 36 and 15 patients with AIS 5 were allocated to the mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) and fever control groups, respectively. No significant intergroup differences were observed with regard to age, gender, scores on head computed tomography (CT) scans, and surgical operation for traumatic brain injury (TBI), except for Injury Severity Score (ISS) in AIS 5. The fever control group demonstrated a significant reduction of TBI-related mortality compared with the MTH group (9.7% vs. 34.0%, p = 0.02) and an increase of favorable neurological outcomes (64.5% vs. 51.1%, p = 0.26) in patients with AIS 3–4, although the latter was not statistically significant. There was no difference in mortality or favorable outcome in patients with AIS 5. Fever control may be considered instead of MTH in patients with TBI (AIS 3–4). PMID:26413933

  1. Comparisons of the Outcome Prediction Performance of Injury Severity Scoring Tools Using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 90 Update 98 (AIS 98) and 2005 Update 2008 (AIS 2008).

    PubMed

    Tohira, Hideo; Jacobs, Ian; Mountain, David; Gibson, Nick; Yeo, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was revised in 2005 and updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to compare the outcome prediction performance of AIS-based injury severity scoring tools by using AIS 2008 and AIS 98. We used all major trauma patients hospitalized to the Royal Perth Hospital between 1994 and 2008. We selected five AIS-based injury severity scoring tools, including Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), modified Anatomic Profile (mAP), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma (ASCOT). We selected survival after injury as a target outcome. We used the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC) as a performance measure. First, we compared the five tools using all cases whose records included all variables for the TRISS (complete dataset) using a 10-fold cross-validation. Second, we compared the ISS and NISS for AIS 98 and AIS 2008 using all subjects (whole dataset). We identified 1,269 and 4,174 cases for a complete dataset and a whole dataset, respectively. With the 10-fold cross-validation, there were no clear differences in the AUROCs between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based scores. With the second comparison, the AIS 98-based ISS performed significantly worse than the AIS 2008-based ISS (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference between the AIS 98- and AIS 2008-based NISSs. Researchers should be aware of these findings when they select an injury severity scoring tool for their studies.

  2. Specific abbreviated injury scale values are responsible for the underestimation of mortality in penetrating trauma patients by the injury severity score.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Susan E; Barbosa, Ronald R; Diggs, Brian S; Schreiber, Martin A; Holcomb, J B; Wade, C E; Brasel, K J; Vercruysse, G; MacLeod, J; Dutton, R P; Hess, J R; Duchesne, J C; McSwain, N E; Muskat, P; Johannigamn, J; Cryer, H M; Tillou, A; Cohen, M J; Pittet, J F; Knudson, P; De Moya, M A; Schreiber, M A; Tieu, B; Brundage, S; Napolitano, L M; Brunsvold, M; Sihler, K C; Beilman, G; Peitzman, A B; Zenait, M S; Sperry, J; Alarcon, L; Croce, M A; Minei, J P; Kozar, R; Gonzalez, E A; Stewart, R M; Cohn, S M; Mickalek, J E; Bulger, E M; Cotton, B A; Nunez, T C; Ivatury, R; Meredith, J W; Miller, P; Pomper, J; Marin, B

    2011-08-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is widely used as a method for rating severity of injury. The ISS is the sum of the squares of the three worst Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) values from three body regions. Patients with penetrating injuries tend to have higher mortality rates for a given ISS than patients with blunt injuries. This is thought to be secondary to the increased prevalence of multiple severe injuries in the same body region in patients with penetrating injuries, which the ISS does not account for. We hypothesized that the mechanism-based difference in mortality could be attributed to certain ISS ranges and specific AIS values by body region. Outcome and injury scoring data were obtained from transfused patients admitted to 23 Level I trauma centers. ISS values were grouped into categories, and a logistic regression model was created. Mortality for each ISS category was determined and compared with the ISS 1 to 15 group. An interaction term was added to evaluate the effect of mechanism. Additional logistic regression models were created to examine each AIS category individually. There were 2,292 patients in the cohort. An overall interaction between ISS and mechanism was observed (p = 0.049). Mortality rates between blunt and penetrating patients with an ISS between 25 and 40 were significantly different (23.6 vs. 36.1%; p = 0.022). Within this range, the magnitude of the difference in mortality was far higher for penetrating patients with head injuries (75% vs. 37% for blunt) than truncal injuries (26% vs. 17% for blunt). Penetrating trauma patients with an AIS head of 4 or 5, AIS abdomen of 3, or AIS extremity of 3 all had adjusted mortality rates higher than blunt trauma patients with those values. Significant differences in mortality between blunt and penetrating trauma patients exist at certain ISS and AIS category values. The mortality difference is greatest for head injured patients.

  3. A comparative validation of the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale against diagnostic criteria of apathy.

    PubMed

    Leontjevas, Ruslan; Evers-Stephan, Alexandra; Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Thewissen, Viviane; Gerritsen, Debby L; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2012-03-01

    To compare the Neuropsychiatric Inventory apathy subscale (NPIa) with the abbreviated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-10) on discriminant validity and on their performance to distinguish residents as apathetic or nonapathetic. Cross-sectional design. Nursing home. 100 residents of 4 dementia special care units (n = 58) and 3 somatic units (n = 42). Primary professional caregivers were interviewed to score the AES-10 and NPIa. The elderly care physician and the psychologist of each unit examined residents for clinical apathy using diagnostic criteria. The AES-10 and NPIa correlated moderately with each other (r(s) = 0.62, P < .0001). The AES-10 correlated weakly (r(s) = 0.27, P = .024) and the NPIa moderately (r(s) = 0.46, P = .001) with the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.72 (P < .01) for AES-10 and 0.67 (P < .05) for NPIa. The AES-10 produced higher sums of sensitivity and negative predictive value than the NPIa. Explorative analyses revealed that both instruments produced higher scores in dementia independently of having an apathy diagnosis, whereas AUCs were significant in nondementia (AES-10: AUC = 0.88, P < .001; NPIa: AUC = 0.77, P = .023), but not in dementia. Both the AES-10 and NPIa may be used to distinguish apathetic from nonapathetic residents in a heterogeneous sample with and without dementia, or in residents without dementia. The AES-10 may be preferable to the NPIa apathy subscale when ruling out or screening for apathy. The performance of the scales against diagnostic criteria of apathy in dementia need to be further examined. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening for personality disorder in incarcerated adolescent boys: preliminary validation of an adolescent version of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale (SAPAS-AV)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Personality disorder (PD) is associated with significant functional impairment and an elevated risk of violent and suicidal behaviour. The prevalence of PD in populations of young offenders is likely to be high. However, because the assessment of PD is time-consuming, it is not routinely assessed in this population. A brief screen for the identification of young people who might warrant further detailed assessment of PD could be particularly valuable for clinicians and researchers working in juvenile justice settings. Method We adapted a rapid screen for the identification of PD in adults (Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale; SAPAS) for use with adolescents and then carried out a study of the reliability and validity of the adapted instrument in a sample of 80 adolescent boys in secure institutions. Participants were administered the screen and shortly after an established diagnostic interview for DSM-IV PDs. Nine days later the screen was readministered. Results A score of 3 or more on the screening interview correctly identified the presence of DSM-IV PD in 86% of participants, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Internal consistency was modest but comparable to the original instrument. 9-days test-retest reliability for the total score was excellent. Convergent validity correlations with the total number of PD criteria were large. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity, reliability, and usefulness of the screen in secure institutions for adolescent male offenders. It can be used in juvenile offender institutions with limited resources, as a brief, acceptable, staff-administered routine screen to identify individuals in need of further assessment of PD or by researchers conducting epidemiological surveys. PMID:22846474

  5. Utility of an abbreviated version of the stanford-binet intelligence scales (5th ed.) in estimating 'full scale' IQ for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Conal; O'Connell, Helen; Lillis, Mary; Tarpey, Sarah Louise; O'Reilly, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales allows 'full scale' IQ (FSIQ) to be estimated using an abridged version of the test-the abbreviated battery IQ (ABIQ). Set within a public early intervention team service, the current cross-sectional study investigated the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for 40 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3-5 years. A strong ABIQ-FSIQ association was yielded (r = 0.89; r 2  = 0.808) and the ABIQ did not over-estimate mean FSIQ above a clinically-relevant threshold; however, clinically significant over-estimation occurred in 17.5% of individual cases. While the findings provide support for the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for young children with ASD, caution relating to the over-estimation of FSIQ is warranted. Careful clinical judgment-ideally based on examination of previous cognitive assessment results (if available), thorough interactional observations, and close multi-disciplinary consultation-is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. Autism Res 2018, 11: 503-508. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We investigated the utility of a shortened version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales in estimating IQ for 40 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The findings provide qualified support for the instrument: acceptably accurate IQ estimation was achieved for most cases; but not so for a sizeable minority (17.5%). Careful clinical judgment is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The relationship between form and function throughout the history of excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2018-02-05

    The concept of excitation-contraction coupling is almost as old as Journal of General Physiology It was understood as early as the 1940s that a series of stereotyped events is responsible for the rapid contraction response of muscle fibers to an initial electrical event at the surface. These early developments, now lost in what seems to be the far past for most young investigators, have provided an endless source of experimental approaches. In this Milestone in Physiology, I describe in detail the experiments and concepts that introduced and established the field of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. More recent advances are presented in an abbreviated form, as readers are likely to be familiar with recent work in the field. © 2018 Franzini-Armstrong.

  7. Accuracy of Short Forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: Third Edition.

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra; Hendriksen, Jos; Dek, Joelle; Kooij, Andress

    2016-04-01

    This article investigated the accuracy of six short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third edition (WPPSI-III-NL) in estimating intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in healthy children aged 4 to 7 years (N = 1,037). Overall, accuracy for each short form was studied, comparing IQ equivalences based on the short forms with the original WPPSI-III-NL Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores. Next, our sample was divided into three groups: children performing below average, average, or above average, based on the WPPSI-III-NL FSIQ estimates of the original long form, to study the accuracy of WPPSI-III-NL short forms at the tails of the FSIQ distribution. While studying the entire sample, all IQ estimates of the WPPSI-III-NL short forms correlated highly with the FSIQ estimates of the original long form (all rs ≥ .83). Correlations decreased significantly while studying only the tails of the IQ distribution (rs varied between .55 and .83). Furthermore, IQ estimates of the short forms deviated significantly from the FSIQ score of the original long form, when the IQ estimates were based on short forms containing only two subtests. In contrast, unlike the short forms that contained two to four subtests, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning) and the General Ability Index short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Comprehension, Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concepts) produced less variations when compared with the original FSIQ score. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Methods for forming particles

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  9. Microbicide dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Rohan, L C; Devlin, B; Yang, H

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are topically applied, user controlled dosage forms that are being developed to prevent the transmission of HIV during coitus. Early candidates focused on coitally dependent dosage forms such as gels and creams. More recent development has focused on broadening the coitally dependent options through the introduction of films and fast dissolving tablets. Additionally, it has become important to have longer acting products to minimize the burden of user compliance and thus vaginal rings have been developed providing sustained delivery of antiretroviral drugs. This chapter discusses the history of microbicides along with a detailed description of coitally dependent products, gels, films, tablets diaphragms, as well as coitally independent dosage forms such as vaginal rings and the introduction of a new technology, electrospun fibers.

  10. Physical forms of MIPs.

    PubMed

    Biffis, Andrea; Dvorakova, Gita; Falcimaigne-Cordin, Aude

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art in the development of methodologies for the preparation of MIPs in predetermined physical forms is critically reviewed, with particular attention being paid to the forms most widely employed in practical applications, such as spherical beads in the micro- to nanometer range, microgels, monoliths, membranes. Although applications of the various MIP physical forms are mentioned, the focus of the paper is mainly on the description of the various preparative methods. The aim is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in the field, as well as with a mean for critically evaluating the various proposed methodologies towards an envisaged application. The review covers the literature up to early 2010, with special emphasis on the developments of the last 10 years.

  11. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  12. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  13. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  14. Literature: Internal Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    This curriculum guide in literature, developed as part of a total English curriculum for pre-kindergarten through grade 10, suggests that students can best understand literature by recognizing its internal forms (i.e., characteristics that recur in settings, characters, and narrative patterns). Materials cover (1) an overview for teachers on the…

  15. High energy forming facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciurlionis, B.

    1967-01-01

    Watertight, high-explosive forming facility, 25 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, withstands repeated explosions of 10 pounds of TNT equivalent. The shell is fabricated of high strength steel and allows various structural elements to deform or move elastically and independently while retaining structural integrity.

  16. Helical tape forming device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, J. E.; Cole, P. T.

    1969-01-01

    Using a device that is not limited to a minimum thickness or width-to-thickness ratio, a very thin metal tape or ribbon is formed into a continuous flat wound helical coil. The device imparts the desired circular shape by squeeze rolling it with an unequal force across its width.

  17. Basic Learning of Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    i Serrano, Magda Mària; Musquera Felip, Sílvia; Beriain Sanzol, Luis

    2018-01-01

    "Form is 'what', Design is 'how'" (Kahn, 1960). Learning about the formal universe and the wide range of possibilities it offers should be one of the purposes of the early subjects in architectural studies. This article aims to explain the contents of a first course of architectural design and demonstrate how, using a methodology based…

  18. Forms of Soft Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Dorothy

    1978-01-01

    For the past several years, students at Madison Senior High School in San Diego have responded to the tactile texture and draping quality of soft materials. They experimented enthusiastically with three-dimensional forms made out of foam rubber. Here is the result of their efforts and experimentation. (Author/RK)

  19. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  20. Low Temperature Sheet Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges-Schwieger, Kathrin; Hübner, Sven; Behrens, Bernd-Arno

    2011-05-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels change their lattice during forming operations by strain-induced alpha'-martensite formation. Temperatures below T = 20° C can accelerate the phase transformation while temperatures above T = 60° C may suppress the formation of martensite during the forming operation. In past investigations, the effect of high-strength martensitic regions in an austenitic ductile lattice was used in crash relevant parts for transportation vehicles. The local martensitic regions act as reinforcements leading to an increase in crash energy absorption. Moreover, they control the folding behavior as well as the force-distance-characteristic and increase the buckling resistance. This paper deals with a concerted thermomechanical drawing process to increase the local formation of alpha'-martensite caused by low temperatures.

  1. Assessment of the effects and limitations of the 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map using a large population-based dataset.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Cameron S; Franklyn, Melanie

    2011-01-07

    Trauma systems should consistently monitor a given trauma population over a period of time. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) are commonly used to quantify injury severities in trauma registries. To reflect contemporary trauma management and treatment, the most recent version of the AIS (AIS08) contains many codes which differ in severity from their equivalents in the earlier 1998 version (AIS98). Consequently, the adoption of AIS08 may impede comparisons between data coded using different AIS versions. It may also affect the number of patients classified as major trauma. The entire AIS98-coded injury dataset of a large population based trauma registry was retrieved and mapped to AIS08 using the currently available AIS98-AIS08 dictionary map. The percentage of codes which had increased or decreased in severity, or could not be mapped, was examined in conjunction with the effect of these changes to the calculated ISS. The potential for free text information accompanying AIS coding to improve the quality of AIS mapping was explored. A total of 128280 AIS98-coded injuries were evaluated in 32134 patients, 15471 patients of whom were classified as major trauma. Although only 4.5% of dictionary codes decreased in severity from AIS98 to AIS08, this represented almost 13% of injuries in the registry. In 4.9% of patients, no injuries could be mapped. ISS was potentially unreliable in one-third of patients, as they had at least one AIS98 code which could not be mapped. Using AIS08, the number of patients classified as major trauma decreased by between 17.3% and 30.3%. Evaluation of free text descriptions for some injuries demonstrated the potential to improve mapping between AIS versions. Converting AIS98-coded data to AIS08 results in a significant decrease in the number of patients classified as major trauma. Many AIS98 codes are missing from the existing AIS map, and across a trauma population the AIS08 dataset

  2. Assessment of the effects and limitations of the 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map using a large population-based dataset

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma systems should consistently monitor a given trauma population over a period of time. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) are commonly used to quantify injury severities in trauma registries. To reflect contemporary trauma management and treatment, the most recent version of the AIS (AIS08) contains many codes which differ in severity from their equivalents in the earlier 1998 version (AIS98). Consequently, the adoption of AIS08 may impede comparisons between data coded using different AIS versions. It may also affect the number of patients classified as major trauma. Methods The entire AIS98-coded injury dataset of a large population based trauma registry was retrieved and mapped to AIS08 using the currently available AIS98-AIS08 dictionary map. The percentage of codes which had increased or decreased in severity, or could not be mapped, was examined in conjunction with the effect of these changes to the calculated ISS. The potential for free text information accompanying AIS coding to improve the quality of AIS mapping was explored. Results A total of 128280 AIS98-coded injuries were evaluated in 32134 patients, 15471 patients of whom were classified as major trauma. Although only 4.5% of dictionary codes decreased in severity from AIS98 to AIS08, this represented almost 13% of injuries in the registry. In 4.9% of patients, no injuries could be mapped. ISS was potentially unreliable in one-third of patients, as they had at least one AIS98 code which could not be mapped. Using AIS08, the number of patients classified as major trauma decreased by between 17.3% and 30.3%. Evaluation of free text descriptions for some injuries demonstrated the potential to improve mapping between AIS versions. Conclusions Converting AIS98-coded data to AIS08 results in a significant decrease in the number of patients classified as major trauma. Many AIS98 codes are missing from the existing AIS map, and across

  3. Comparison of whole-body post mortem 3D CT and autopsy evaluation in accidental blunt force traumatic death using the abbreviated injury scale classification.

    PubMed

    Daly, Barry; Abboud, Samir; Ali, Zabiullah; Sliker, Clint; Fowler, David

    2013-02-10

    Although 3D CT imaging data are available on survivors of accidental blunt trauma, little similar data has been collected and classified on major injuries in victims of fatal injuries. This study compared the sensitivity of post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) with that of conventional autopsy for major trauma findings classified according to the trauma Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Whole-body 3D PMCT imaging data and full autopsy findings were analyzed on 21 victims of accidental blunt force trauma death. All major injuries were classified on the AIS scale with ratings from 3 (serious) to 6 (unsurvivable). Agreement between sensitivity of autopsy and PMCT for major injuries was determined. A total of 195 major injuries were detected (mean per fatality, 9.3; range, 1-14). Skeletal injuries by AIS grade included 37 grade 3, 45 grade 4, 12 grade 5, and 2 grade 6 major findings. Soft tissue injuries included 10 grade 3, 68 grade 4, 16 grade 5, and 5 grade 6 major findings. Of these, PMCT detected 165 (88 skeletal, 77 soft tissue), and autopsy detected 127 (59 skeletal, 68 soft tissue). PMCT agreed with autopsy in 86% and 76% of skeletal and soft tissue injuries, respectively. PMCT detected an additional 37 skeletal and 31 soft tissue injuries that were not identified at autopsy. Autopsy detected 8 skeletal and 22 soft tissue injuries that were not detected by PMCT. PMCT was more sensitive for skeletal (P=0.05) and head and neck region injury (P=0.043) detection. PMCT showed a trend for greater sensitivity than autopsy, but this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.083). 3D PMCT detected significantly more skeletal injuries than autopsy and a similar number of soft tissue injuries to autopsy and promises to be a sensitive tool for detection and classification of skeletal injuries in fatal blunt force accidental trauma. Use of the AIS scale allows standardized categorization and quantification of injuries that contribute to death in such cases and allows more

  4. Effect of admission fascia iliaca compartment blocks on post-operative abbreviated mental test scores in elderly fractured neck of femur patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Odor, Peter M; Chis Ster, Irina; Wilkinson, Iain; Sage, Frederic

    2017-01-05

    Post-operative cognitive impairment is common in elderly patients following surgery for hip fracture, with undertreated pain being an important etiological factor. Non-opioid based analgesic techniques, such as nerve blocks, may help reduce the risk of cognitive complications. The aim of this study was to investigate whether receiving a fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) as part of a pre-operative analgesic regime increased the odds of high post-operative abbreviated mental test scores (AMTS) when compared with conventional analgesia without a nerve block. A retrospective data analysis of a cohort of 959 patients, aged ≥ 65 years with a diagnosis of hip fracture and admitted to a single hospital over a two-year period was performed. A standardized analgesic regime was used on all patients, and 541/959 (56.4%) of included patients received a FICB. Provision of the FICB was primarily determined by availability of an anesthetist, rather than by patient status and condition. Post-operative cognitive ordinal outcomes were defined by AMTS severity as high (score of ≥9/10), moderate, (score of 7-8) and low (score of ≤6). A multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed on patient status and clinical care factors, including admission AMTS, age, gender, source of admission, time to surgery, type of anesthesia and ASA score. Admission FICB was associated with higher adjusted odds for a high AMTS (score of ≥9) relative to lower AMTS (score of ≤8) than conventional analgesia only (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.27-2.54; p = 0.001). Increasing age, lower AMTS on admission to hospital, and being admitted from a residential or nursing home were associated with worse cognitive outcomes. Mode of anesthesia or surgery did not significantly influence post-operative AMTS. Post-operative AMTS is influenced by pre-operative analgesic regimes in elderly patients with hip fracture. Provision of a FICB to patients on arrival to hospital may improve early

  5. GlassForm

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT).

  6. Pre-Enlistment Forms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-14

    Mar 14, 75 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE AND PREPARATION OF ENLISTMENT OR REENLISTMENT AGREEMENT - ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES DD FORM 4 1. Use. a...Forces. Any individual dis- charged from DEP and not immediately enlisted in a regular component will, upon enlistment in an armed service, require a new ...Annex If enlistment options or programs have changed since original enlistment in the DEP, enter in the first space for Annex - the new annex(es). In the

  7. Space form of motionsickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendantov, G. L.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Spacesickness under weightlessness conditions is explained mainly by disruption of the activity of the functional system perceiving space and participating in carrying out the balancing function, consisting, in particular, of the vestibular, proprioceptive, interoceptive, visual and cutaneomechanical analyzers. It can be assumed that, under specific conditions, Coriolis acceleration also is a cause of spacesickness. Adaptation is possible by formation of a new functional system which is adequate to the new mechanical conditions of weightlessness. Selection, training, creation of optimum conditions in the spacecraft cabin, medicinal, and technical improvement of spacecraft play an important role in prophylaxis of the space form of seasickness.

  8. Parent News: A Compilation of 1997 Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 issues of "Parent News" (an electronic Internet magazine for parents, prepared for the National Parent Information Network) published during 1997. Each monthly issue contains feature articles describing the activities of the National Parent Information Network, summarizing research useful to parents,…

  9. Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

  10. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration.

    PubMed

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

  11. Television and Its News: A Discrepancy Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Gary Warren

    This exploratory endeavor utilized a functional discrepancy model of mass communication research to examine the audience experience with television generally and its news in particular. Specifically, gratifications sought from television in general and gratifications perceived as being obtained from television news are analyzed for a random sample…

  12. Television and the News: A Critical Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skornia, Harry J.

    This book contains a documented critical analysis of the state of broadcast journalism in the United States. It also examines the conditions that prevent news broadcasting as a practice from being a profession, and suggests steps needed to achieve professionalism in providing the kind of news service the nation needs but is not getting. Some of…

  13. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  14. Many forms of culture.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adam B

    2009-04-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology, the author considers three kinds of cultures: religion, socioeconomic status, and region within a country. These cultures vary in a number of psychologically interesting ways. By studying more types of culture, psychologists stand to enrich how they define culture, how they think about universality and cultural specificity, their views of multiculturalism, how they do research on culture, and what dimensions of culture they study. Broadening the study of culture will have far-reaching implications for clinical issues, intergroup relations, and applied domains. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Spray-formed tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  16. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  17. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  18. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  19. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  20. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  1. Cavitation During Superplastic Forming

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically (i.e., from the outside) during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic behaviour. PMID:28824142

  2. Cavitation During Superplastic Forming.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John

    2011-07-08

    Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically (i.e., from the outside) during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic behaviour.

  3. How delusion is formed?

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Suk; Kang, Ung Gu

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, delusions have been considered to be the products of misinterpretation and irrationality. However, some theorists have argued that delusions are normal or rational cognitive responses to abnormal experiences. That is, when a recently experienced peculiar event is more plausibly explained by an extraordinary hypothesis, confidence in the veracity of this extraordinary explanation is reinforced. As the number of such experiences, driven by the primary disease process in the perceptual domain, increases, this confidence builds and solidifies, forming a delusion. We tried to understand the formation of delusions using a simulation based on Bayesian inference. We found that (1) even if a delusional explanation is only marginally more plausible than a non-delusional one, the repetition of the same experience results in a firm belief in the delusion. (2) The same process explains the systematization of delusions. (3) If the perceived plausibility of the explanation is not consistent but varies over time, the development of a delusion is delayed. Additionally, this model may explain why delusions are not corrected by persuasion or rational explanation. This Bayesian inference perspective can be considered a way to understand delusions in terms of rational human heuristics. However, such experiences of "rationality" can lead to irrational conclusions, depending on the characteristics of the subject. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How desert varnish forms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Randall S.; Kolb, Vera M.; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Engel, Michael H.; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Brasier, Martin; Staley, James T., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    Desert varnish is a black, manganese-rich rock coating that is widespread on Earth. The mechanism underlying its formation, however, has remained unresolved. We present here new data and an associated model for how desert varnish forms, which substantively challenges previously accepted models. We tested both inorganic processes (e.g. clays and oxides cementing coatings) and microbial methods of formation. Techniques used in this preliminary study include SEM-EDAX with backscatter, HRTEM of focused ion beam prepared (FIB) wafers and several other methods including XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and Tof-SIMS. The only hypothesis capable of explaining a high water content, the presence of organic compounds, an amorphous silica phase (opal-A) and lesser quantities of clays than previously reported, is a mechanism involving the mobilization and redistribution of silica. The discovery of silica in desert varnish suggests labile organics are preserved by interaction with condensing silicic acid. Organisms are not needed for desert varnish formation but Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and other organic compounds are passively incorporated and preserved as organominerals. The rock coatings thus provide useful records of past environments on Earth and possibly other planets. Additionally this model also helps to explain the origin of key varnish and rock glaze features, including their hardness, the nature of the "glue" that binds heterogeneous components together, its layered botryoidal morphology, and its slow rate of formation.

  5. Forms of war.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Bartelt, D

    2007-08-01

    Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  6. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  7. 76 FR 61725 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Case Submission Form, Case Assistance Form; (Form DHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ..., Case Assistance Form; (Form DHS-7001), Online Ombudsman Form DHS-7001 AGENCY: Office of the Citizenship... System'' to ``Online Ombudsman Form DHS-7001''. The instructions have been updated to reflect the... Services Ombudsman--001 Virtual Ombudsman System (March 2010) to reflect the name change to Online...

  8. A new species of small and highly abbreviated caecilian (Gymnophiona: Indotyphlidae) from the Seychelles island of Praslin, and a recharacterization of Hypogeophis brevis Boulenger, 1911.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Wilkinson, Mark; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Gower, David J

    2017-10-06

    A new species of indotyphlid caecilian amphibian, Hypogeophis pti sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens from the Seychelles island of Praslin. The type series was collected in 2013 and 2014, and a referred specimen previously identified as H. brevis Boulenger, 1911 was collected from an unspecified Seychelles locality in 1957. The new species most closely resembles the Seychelles endemic Hypogeophis brevis in being short (maximum known total length in life ca. 120 mm) and long snouted, but differs by having a less anteriorly positioned tentacular aperture and fewer primary annuli and vertebrae. In having only 67-69 vertebrae, H. pti sp. nov. is the most abbreviated extant species of caecilian reported to date.

  9. Outcomes of both abbreviated hyper-CVAD induction followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation and conventional chemotherapy for mantle cell lymphoma: a 10-year single-centre experience with literature review.

    PubMed

    Alwasaidi, Turki Abdulaziz; Hamadah, Abdulaziz; Altouri, Sultan; Tay, Jason; McDiarmid, Sheryl; Faught, Carolyn; Allan, David; Huebsch, Lothar; Bredeson, Christopher; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We retrospectively evaluated consecutive patients diagnosed with Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) between 01 January 2000 and 31 December 2009. Eighty eight patients with MCL were included in the analysis of whom 46 (52%) received abbreviated Hyper-CVAD (a total of two cycles; with addition of Rituximab since 2005) with an intention of proceeding to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT), with a median age of 58 years. Response rate to induction at auto-HCT time was 89% and complete response was 61%. Forty four patients received an auto-HCT with a 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 31.2% and 62.5%, respectively. There were 42 nontransplant eligible patients with a median age of 72 years, and 5-year PFS and OS were 0.0% and 39.9%, respectively. The median survival and PFS in the auto-HCT eligible group were 68 and 33 months, compared to 32 and 12 months in nontransplant eligible group, without a plateauing of the survival curves in either group. Treatment-related mortality in the auto-HCT eligible group was 10.9% (n = 5); two patients died during R-Hyper-CVAD and 3 (6.8%) experienced transplant-related mortality. An abbreviated R-Hyper-CVAD-based induction strategy followed by consolidative auto-HCT is feasible and provides moderate potential of long-term survival. Further research to define risk-adapted strategies; to optimize disease control, is required. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sample Premanufacture Notification (PMN) Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For users who need to submit a Premanufacture notice for new chemical substances, this document provides and example form. This form is not for submission, but it will help you figure out how to model your own form to submit to the agency.

  11. Forms of History Textbook Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaauw, Jan

    2017-01-01

    History textbooks in contemporary democracies have often been exposed to censorship and other forms of interference. This article presents the idea of a classification of these forms as a novel way to contemplate the ambivalent relationship between democratic authority and historical instruction. The model primarily distinguishes official forms of…

  12. Index of NASA prefixed forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth information for the guidance of all users of the NASA Forms Management Program System. It is issued in accordance with the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation (FIRMR), Subpart 201-9.1. This Handbook sets forth an alpha-functional index of NASA-prefixed forms by title, identifying number, and unit of issue. The automated processing two-letter code (NF) has been substituted for the spelling out of the NASA form-prefix preceding the form number. To indicate a description in lieu of a distinct title, the entire reference under the Form Title/Description column has been enclosed in parentheses. A list of current forms, shown by number and page, is included for cross-reference and to preclude the ordering of those forms which have been deleted from the system. This Handbook will be updated, as appropriate. NHB 1420.2H dated July 1986, is cancelled.

  13. WAIS-IV Seven-Subtest Short Form: Validity and Clinical Use in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bulzacka, Ewa; Meyers, John E; Boyer, Laurent; Le Gloahec, Tifenn; Fond, Guillaume; Szöke, Andrei; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2016-09-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF) for WAIS-IV in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder. Seventy patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the full version of the WAIS-IV. Four different versions of the Ward's SF were then calculated. The subtests used were: Similarities, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Information, Coding, Picture Completion, and Block Design (BD version) or Matrix Reasoning (MR version). Prorated and regression-based formulae were assessed for each version. The actual and estimated factorial indexes reflected the typical pattern observed in schizophrenia. The four SFs correlated significantly with their full-version counterparts, but the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) correlated below the acceptance threshold for all four versions. The regression-derived estimates showed larger differences compared to the full form. The four forms revealed comparable but generally low clinical category agreement rates for factor indexes. All SFs showed an acceptable reliability, but they were not correlated with clinical outcomes. The WAIS-IV SF offers a good estimate of WAIS-IV intelligence quotient, which is consistent with previous results. Although the overall scores are comparable between the four versions, the prorated forms provided a better estimation of almost all indexes. MR can be used as an alternative for BD without substantially changing the psychometric properties of the SF. However, we recommend a cautious use of these abbreviated forms when it is necessary to estimate the factor index scores, especially PRI, and Processing Speed Index. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Digitalization in roll forming manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmaier, A.; Dietl, T.; Ferreira, P.

    2017-09-01

    Roll formed profiles are used in automotive chassis production as building blocks for the body-in-white. The ability to produce profiles with discontinuous cross sections, both in width and in depth, allows weight savings in the final automotive chassis through the use of load optimized cross sections. This has been the target of the 3D Roll Forming process. A machine concept is presented where a new forming concept for roll formed parts in combination with advanced robotics allowing freely positioned roll forming tooling in 3D space enables the production of complex shapes by roll forming. This is a step forward into the digitalization of roll forming manufacturing by making the process flexible and capable of rapid prototyping and production of small series of parts. Moreover, data collection in a large scale through the control system and integrated sensors lead to an increased understanding of the process and provide the basis to develop self-optimizing roll forming machines, increasing the productivity, quality and predictability of the roll-forming process. The first parts successfully manufactured with this new forming concept are presented.

  15. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-05-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO2-laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  16. FormTracer. A mathematica tracing package using FORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Strodthoff, Nils

    2017-10-01

    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/7rd29h4p3m.1 Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: Mathematica and FORM Nature of problem: Efficiently compute traces of large expressions Solution method: The expression to be traced is decomposed into its subspaces by a recursive Mathematica expansion algorithm. The result is subsequently translated to a FORM script that takes the traces. After FORM is executed, the final result is either imported into Mathematica or exported as optimized C/C++/Fortran code. Unusual features: The outstanding features of FormTracer are the simple interface, the capability to efficiently handle an arbitrary number of Lie groups in addition to Dirac and Lorentz tensors, and a customizable input-syntax.

  17. Seal for fluid forming tools

    DOEpatents

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich [Beverly Hills, MI; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis [Milford, MI

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  18. System for forming janus particles

    DOEpatents

    Hong, Liang [Midland, MI; Jiang, Shan [Champaign, IL; Granick, Steve [Champaign, IL

    2011-01-25

    The invention is a method of forming Janus particles, that includes forming an emulsion that contains initial particles, a first liquid, and a second liquid; solidifying the first liquid to form a solid that contains at least a portion of the initial particles on a surface of the solid; and treating the exposed particle sides with a first surface modifying agent, to form the Janus particles. Each of the initial particles on the surface has an exposed particle side and a blocked particle side.

  19. Confectionery-based dose forms.

    PubMed

    Tangso, Kristian J; Ho, Quy Phuong; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and syrups are prescribed in the normal course of practice. However, concerns about patient preferences and market demands have given rise to the exploration of novel unconventional dosage forms. Among these, confectionery-based dose forms have strong potential to overcome compliance problems. This report will review the availability of these unconventional dose forms used in treating the oral cavity and for systemic drug delivery, with a focus on medicated chewing gums, medicated lollipops, and oral bioadhesive devices. The aim is to stimulate increased interest in the opportunities for innovative new products that are available to formulators in this field, particularly for atypical patient populations.

  20. Implications Of The Security Cooperation Office Transition in Afghanistan For Special Operations Forces: An Abbreviated Report of the Study’s Primary Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    for working in an interagency environment can lead to mission success. From the Iraq case study , one former U.S. Forces–Iraq official felt that...of six historical case studies in which the mission of special operations forces (SOF) in country transitioned over time to some level of inclusion...explanation of the methodology applied for case study selec- tion, as well as adopted interview protocols, are provided in the long- form version of

  1. 78 FR 58605 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-EMP, Form 8453-F, Form 8453-FE, Form 8879-F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Declaration and Signature for Electronic and Magnetic Made Filing; Form 8453-FE, U.S. Estate or Trust... information or copies of the form and instructions should be directed to Gerald J. Shields, Internal Revenue....Shields@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Employment Tax Declaration for an IRS e-file Return...

  2. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  3. When Permission Forms Work Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    Public schools routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities of potential liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. This article presents a case involving a student who sustained bicycle injuries…

  4. Automated Test-Form Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  5. [Galenic forms for oral medication].

    PubMed

    El Semman, Ousseid; Certain, Agnès; Bouziane, Faouzia; Arnaud, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Galenic science is interested in the art and the way of formulating an active principle with an excipient in order for it to be administered to the patient. The pharmaceutical forms envisage different administration routes, including by mouth. Nurses need to handle and sometimes modify the pharmaceutical form of a drug to make it easier for the patient to take. This requires vigilance.

  6. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-09-06

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  7. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Claar, Terry D.; Silkowski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  8. Forms and Formalities: A Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Glenn; Warpinski, Robert

    This report provides a selection of examples of National Diffusion Network participant forms utilized between Developer/Demonstrators, State Facilitators, and Local Educational Agencies. They were selected to demonstrate variety and to be a source of ideas for others. Forms are grouped in five categories: needs assessment, adoption agreement,…

  9. Cutting Costs on Computer Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Robert V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Using the experience of Ford Motor Company, Oscar Meyer, and IBM, this article shows that companies are enjoying high quality product performance and substantially lower costs by converting from premium white bond computer stock forms to blended bond forms. School administrators are advised to do likewise. (MLH)

  10. Spatial forms and mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Price, Mark C

    2009-01-01

    Four studies investigated how general mental imagery might be involved in mediating the phenomenon of 'synaesthetic' spatial forms - i.e., the experience that sequences such as months or numbers have spatial locations. In Study 1, people with spatial forms scored higher than controls on visual imagery self-report scales. This is consistent with the suggestion that strong general imagery is at least a necessary condition to experience spatial forms. However self-reported spatial imagery did not differ between groups, suggesting either that the spatial nature of forms is mediated by special synaesthetic mechanisms, or that forms are depictive visual images rather than explicit spatial models. A methodological implication of Study 1 was that a general tendency for people with spatial forms to use imagery strategies might account for some of their previously-reported behavioural differences with control groups. This concern was supported by Studies 2-4. Normal participants were encouraged to visually image the months in various spatial layouts, and spatial associations for months were tested using left/right key presses to classify month names as belonging to the first or second half of the year (Studies 2-3) or as odd/even (Study 4). Reaction times showed month-SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes) effects of similar magnitude to previously-reported data from spatial form participants (Price and Mentzoni, 2008). Additionally, reversing the spatial associations within instructed images was sufficient to reverse the direction of observed month-SNARC effects (i.e., positive vs negative slope), just as different spatial forms were previously shown to modulate the direction of effects (ibid.). Results challenge whether previously observed behavioural differences between spatial form and control groups need to be explained in terms of special synaesthetic mechanisms rather than intentional imagery strategies. It is argued that usually strong general

  11. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Anderson, Mark T.; Ganguli, Rahul; Lu, Yunfeng

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

  12. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

    1999-01-12

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

  13. Process for forming planarized films

    DOEpatents

    Pang, Stella W.; Horn, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.

  14. Tier II Forms and Instructions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Facilities must comply with the new requirements on the Tier II emergency and hazardous chemical inventory form starting reporting year 2013, which is due by March 1, 2014. Some states may have specific requirements for reporting and submission.

  15. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  16. INDIPAY Financial Data Request Forms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The INDIPAY financial data request form requires the individual to provide financial information to support its claim of inability to pay the civil penalty. Both an English and Spanish version are provided.

  17. Positive geometries and canonical forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; Lam, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Recent years have seen a surprising connection between the physics of scattering amplitudes and a class of mathematical objects — the positive Grassmannian, positive loop Grassmannians, tree and loop Amplituhedra — which have been loosely referred to as "positive geometries". The connection between the geometry and physics is provided by a unique differential form canonically determined by the property of having logarithmic singularities (only) on all the boundaries of the space, with residues on each boundary given by the canonical form on that boundary. The structures seen in the physical setting of the Amplituhedron are both rigid and rich enough to motivate an investigation of the notions of "positive geometries" and their associated "canonical forms" as objects of study in their own right, in a more general mathematical setting. In this paper we take the first steps in this direction. We begin by giving a precise definition of positive geometries and canonical forms, and introduce two general methods for finding forms for more complicated positive geometries from simpler ones — via "triangulation" on the one hand, and "push-forward" maps between geometries on the other. We present numerous examples of positive geometries in projective spaces, Grassmannians, and toric, cluster and flag varieties, both for the simplest "simplex-like" geometries and the richer "polytope-like" ones. We also illustrate a number of strategies for computing canonical forms for large classes of positive geometries, ranging from a direct determination exploiting knowledge of zeros and poles, to the use of the general triangulation and push-forward methods, to the representation of the form as volume integrals over dual geometries and contour integrals over auxiliary spaces. These methods yield interesting representations for the canonical forms of wide classes of positive geometries, ranging from the simplest Amplituhedra to new expressions for the volume of arbitrary convex

  18. Genetic forms of pituitary dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, D L

    1971-05-01

    Pituitary dwarfism represents a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders which may be classified on the basis of: associated developmental anomalies or degenerative disease; deficiency of, or peripheral insensitivity to HGH; the number of deficient hormones; the associated metabolic disturbances; and the mode of inheritance. Hereditary forms of pituitary dwarfism include: congenital absence of the pituitary, panhypopituitary dwarfism (autosomal and X-linked recessive forms), isolated HGH deficiency (Types I and II), Laron type of dwarfism, and peripheral unresponsiveness to HGH (the African Pygmies).

  19. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOEpatents

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  20. Methods of forming CIGS films

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2017-09-19

    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.