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Sample records for abc braille study

  1. Parents' Perspectives on Braille Literacy: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents who were the primary caretakers of children in the Alphabetic and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study) revealed their perspectives about braille literacy. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was constructed by the ABC Braille research team, and researchers conducted telephone interviews with 31 parents who were the…

  2. Social Experiences of Beginning Braille Readers in Literacy Activities: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Erin, Jane N.; Barclay, Lizbeth; Sitar, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-design investigation examined the social experiences of beginning braille readers who were initially taught contracted or alphabetic braille in literacy activities as part of the ABC Braille Study. No differences in the quality or quantity of social experiences were found between the two groups over time. (Contains 4 tables.)

  3. Learning to Write in Braille: An Analysis of Writing Samples from Participants in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted (ABC) Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erin, Jane N.; Wright, Tessa S.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of data from 114 writing samples of 39 children who read braille and who were included in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille (ABC) Study between 2002 and 2005. Writing characteristics, miscues, and composition characteristics are analyzed, and two case studies are included. (Contains 1 box and 2 tables.)

  4. Children's Perceptions of Learning Braille: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Hannan, Cheryl K.; Erin, Jane N.

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of learning to read and write braille were measured using an open ended 10-item questionnaire. The data were evaluated by amount of time, level of contractedness, and level of achievement. No differences were found with respect to time or the introduction of contractions. Differences were apparent between the high- and…

  5. Acquisition of Literacy Skills by Young Children Who Are Blind: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Holbrook, M. Cay; D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2009-01-01

    The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study examined the reading and writing skills of young braille-reading students. Students who were introduced to more contractions earlier in instruction performed better on reading measures, such as vocabulary, decoding, and comprehension, but all students did well in spelling. Thus, the authors…

  6. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  7. Hand Movements and Braille Reading Efficiency: Data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tessa; Wormsley, Diane P.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Using a subset of data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study, researchers analyzed the patterns and characteristics of hand movements as predictors of reading performance. Statistically significant differences were found between one- and two-handed readers and between patterns of hand movements and reading rates. (Contains 6…

  8. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  9. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  10. Studies of Braille Reading Rates and Implications for the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Reading rate data was collected from both print and braille readers in the areas of mathematics and literary braille. Literary braille data was collected for contracted and uncontracted braille text with dropped whole-word contractions and part-word contractions as they would appear in the Unified English Braille Code. No significant differences…

  11. Transferring Standard English Braille Skills to the Unified English Braille Code: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kimbrough, B. T.; Johnson, Franklin; LeJeune, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    The enormously complex and sometimes controversial project to unify the traditional literary Braille code used in English-speaking countries with the technical and mathematical codes authorized by the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) and the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom (BAUK) proposes to change English Grade Two Braille on a…

  12. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 2--Examination by Literary Braille Users, Braille Teachers, and Transcribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To inform decision-making around the adoption of the Unified English Braille (UEB) code in the United Kingdom, a suite of research was carried out. This study involved a variety of braille stakeholders--student braille readers (in full time education), adult braille readers, braille teachers, and braille transcribers. Participants were sent…

  13. Using the Braille Lite To Study Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a strategy for using Braille Lite, a portable notetaking device in which synthetic speech and Braille are combined, to learn foreign languages independently. Instructions are provided for connecting Braille Lite to a printer, creating the proper file, inputting a foreign language, and installing ASCII tables. (Contains 3…

  14. Options for Braille Centralization. Study I--Implementation Study of Centralized Braille Book Storage and Distribution System. Part 1--Options for Braille Centralization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ManTech Technical Services Corp., Fairfax, VA.

    This final report presents results of the first phase of an effort to develop in detail the resource requirements, operating procedures, and estimated costs for several centralized braille service options at the Library of Congress. Existing procedures and services were analyzed, and three models for centralized braille services were formulated.…

  15. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. PMID:22522195

  16. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  17. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection.

  18. Analysis of the Length of Braille Texts in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth Code, and Computer Braille Code versus the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie; Wetzel, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the length of text in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth code, and the computer braille code with the Unified English Braille Code (UEBC)--also known as Unified English Braille (UEB). The findings indicate that differences in the length of text are dependent on the type of material that is transcribed and the grade…

  19. Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a fMRI study of Braille reading.

    PubMed

    Burton, H; Snyder, A Z; Conturo, T E; Akbudak, E; Ollinger, J M; Raichle, M E

    2002-01-01

    Braille reading depends on remarkable adaptations that connect the somatosensory system to language. We hypothesized that the pattern of cortical activations in blind individuals reading Braille would reflect these adaptations. Activations in visual (occipital-temporal), frontal-language, and somatosensory cortex in blind individuals reading Braille were examined for evidence of differences relative to previously reported studies of sighted subjects reading print or receiving tactile stimulation. Nine congenitally blind and seven late-onset blind subjects were studied with fMRI as they covertly performed verb generation in response to reading Braille embossed nouns. The control task was reading the nonlexical Braille string "######". This study emphasized image analysis in individual subjects rather than pooled data. Group differences were examined by comparing magnitudes and spatial extent of activated regions first determined to be significant using the general linear model. The major adaptive change was robust activation of visual cortex despite the complete absence of vision in all subjects. This included foci in peri-calcarine, lingual, cuneus and fusiform cortex, and in the lateral and superior occipital gyri encompassing primary (V1), secondary (V2), and higher tier (VP, V4v, LO and possibly V3A) visual areas previously identified in sighted subjects. Subjects who never had vision differed from late blind subjects in showing even greater activity in occipital-temporal cortex, provisionally corresponding to V5/MT and V8. In addition, the early blind had stronger activation of occipital cortex located contralateral to the hand used for reading Braille. Responses in frontal and parietal cortex were nearly identical in both subject groups. There was no evidence of modifications in frontal cortex language areas (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Surprisingly, there was also no evidence of an adaptive expansion of the somatosensory or

  20. Uncontracted or Contracted Braille for Emergent Readers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Charles, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the attitudes of teachers of students who are visually impaired or blind about the use of contracted or uncontracted Braille for emergent readers, the author posted a questionnaire on three electronic listservs from October through December 2002 and received responses from 40 teachers in India, Canada, the West Indies, and the United…

  1. Probing the Perceptual and Cognitive Underpinnings of Braille Reading. An Estonian Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Mannamaa, Mairi; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have…

  2. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  3. Teaching Adults to Read Braille Using Phonological Methods: Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Four women with visual impairments were taught 13 braille letters as phonemes and another 13 braille letters as graphemes and then were taught 10 braille words as onset-rime and another 10 braille words as whole words. Phoneme and onset-rime instruction resulted in faster and more accurate performance. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  4. Paperless Braille Reading: A Preliminary Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, M.; Ashcroft, S. C.

    The study involving three blind elementary school, six blind high school, and four blind college students was designed to establish oral reading rates and oral reading error rates for Ss reading conventional braille volumes and brailled materials with the Digi-cassette, an electronic braille reading and writing machine. Data suggested several…

  5. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  6. Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

  7. BrailleEasy: One-handed Braille Keyboard for Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Šepić, Barbara; Ghanem, Abdurrahman; Vogel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mobile technology is moving at a very fast pace. Smartphones are currently considered a primary communication platform where people exchange voice calls, text messages and emails. The human-smartphone interaction, however, is generally optimized for sighted people through the use of visual cues on the touchscreen, e.g., typing text by tapping on a visual keyboard. Unfortunately, this interaction scheme renders smartphone technology largely inaccessible to visually impaired people as it results in slow typing and higher error rates. Apple and some third party applications provide solutions specific to blind people which enables them to use Braille on smartphones. These applications usually require both hands for typing. However, Brailling with both hands while holding the phone is not very comfortable. Furthermore, two-handed Brailling is not possible on smartwatches, which will be used more pervasively in the future. Therefore, we develop a platform for one-handed Brailing consisting of a custom keyboard called BrailleEasy to input Arabic or English Braille codes within any application, and a BrailleTutor application for practicing. Our platform currently supports Braille grade 1, and will be extended to support contractions, spelling correction, and more languages. Preliminary analysis of user studies for blind participants showed that after less than two hours of practice, participants were able to type significantly faster with the BrailleEasy keyboard than with the standard QWERTY keyboard.

  8. The Use of Final-Letter Braille Contractions: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallon, Emily M.; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    Louis Braille developed a six-dot braille code in the early 1800s, thus creating an effective way for persons who are visually impaired to communicate through reading and writing (Holbrook, D'Andrea, & Sanford, 2011). Students with visual impairments require braille instruction from teachers of students with visual impairments, who are responsible…

  9. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 1--Examination by Technical Expert Braille Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The Unified English Braille (UEB) code has already been adopted by various countries. To inform the decision about UK adoption, a suite of research was carried out with UK braille readers and other stakeholders. Previous research indicates that readers of technical braille codes may be most affected by a move to UEB. In this study, six technical…

  10. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  11. Technology for Early Braille Literacy: Comparison of Traditional Braille Instruction and Instruction with an Electronic Notetaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…

  12. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF A GRADE TWO BRAILLE TRANSLATOR FOR THE HONEYWELL 222 HIGH SPEED BRAILLE PRINTER. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NELSON, CALVIN C.

    IN ORDER TO EXPLORE THE TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN BRINGING THE HONEYWELL MODEL 222 MODIFIED BRAILLE PRINTER TO FULL UTILIZATION, THREE OBJECTIVES WERE DEVELOPED--(1) EXPLORATION OF THE PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TRANSLATOR SYSTEM, (2) EXPLORATION OF A SYSTEM FOR DIRECT INPUT OF GRADE TWO BRAILLE SO THAT THE…

  13. A system for tracking braille readers using a Wii Remote and a refreshable braille display.

    PubMed

    Aranyanak, Inthraporn; Reilly, Ronan G

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a cheap and easy-to-use finger-tracking system for studying braille reading. It provides improved spatial and temporal resolution over the current available solutions and can be used with either a refreshable braille display or braille-embossed paper. In conjunction with a refreshable braille display, the tracking system has the unique capacity to implement display-change paradigms derived from sighted reading research. This will allow researchers to probe skilled braille reading in significantly more depth than has heretofore been possible.

  14. Haptic stylus and empirical studies on braille, button, and texture display.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Ki-Uk; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Junseok

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a haptic stylus interface with a built-in compact tactile display module and an impact module as well as empirical studies on Braille, button, and texture display. We describe preliminary evaluations verifying the tactile display's performance indicating that it can satisfactorily represent Braille numbers for both the normal and the blind. In order to prove haptic feedback capability of the stylus, an experiment providing impact feedback mimicking the click of a button has been conducted. Since the developed device is small enough to be attached to a force feedback device, its applicability to combined force and tactile feedback display in a pen-held haptic device is also investigated. The handle of pen-held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force, tactile and impact feedback, three haptic representation methods for texture display have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width, and shape. In addition, we evaluate its capacity to support touch screen operations by providing tactile sensations when a user rubs against an image displayed on a monitor.

  15. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds.

  16. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds. PMID:26180348

  17. Computer Braille Translation of Serials: A Demonstration, Feasibility Study, and Implications for Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Moshe

    This thesis investigates the impact of computer Braille on blind professionals in terms of their need for, the availability of, and the cost of production of Braille transcriptions of serials. Related problems of an economic, legal, and educational nature are discussed as they impinge on the area of investigation. The thesis is in three parts:…

  18. Braille Reading Rates as a Function of Reading Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, M.; Wetzel, R.

    1996-01-01

    This study of the cognitive processes of braille reading compared the reading of 23 adult braille readers in 4 different reading conditions: oral reading, silent reading, studying, and scanning. The findings support the idea that braille reading is process driven and that reading rates vary, depending on the purpose of the reading task. (Author)

  19. Tactile discrimination activates the visual cortex of the recently blind naive to Braille: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans.

    PubMed

    Sadato, Norihiro; Okada, Tomohisa; Kubota, Kiyokazu; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2004-04-01

    The occipital cortex of blind subjects is known to be activated during tactile discrimination tasks such as Braille reading. To investigate whether this is due to long-term learning of Braille or to sensory deafferentation, we used fMRI to study tactile discrimination tasks in subjects who had recently lost their sight and never learned Braille. The occipital cortex of the blind subjects without Braille training was activated during the tactile discrimination task, whereas that of control sighted subjects was not. This finding suggests that the activation of the visual cortex of the blind during performance of a tactile discrimination task may be due to sensory deafferentation, wherein a competitive imbalance favors the tactile over the visual modality.

  20. A History of Instructional Methods in Uncontracted and Contracted Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2009-01-01

    This literature review outlines the history of the braille code as used in the United States and Canada, illustrating how both the code itself and instructional strategies for teaching it changed over time. The review sets the stage for the research questions of the recently completed Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study.

  1. BRAILLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS (CAMBRIDGE, NOVEMBER 18, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

    THESE PAPERS ARE FROM THE BRAILLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY THE SENSORY AIDS EVALUATION DEVELOPMENT CENTER ON NOVEMBER 18, 1966. THE PAPERS PRESENTED ARE--"A STUDY OF BRAILLE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND USE," BY LOUIS GOLDISH, "AUTOMATED BRAILLE AND THE PROFESSION OF PROGRAMMING FOR THE BLIND," BY THEODOR D. STERLING,…

  2. Teaching Early Braille Literacy Skills within a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm to Children with Degenerative Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved…

  3. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  4. Teaching braille letters, numerals, punctuation, and contractions to sighted individuals.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Brittany C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also numerals, punctuation, symbols, and contractions; we evaluated this program with 4 sighted undergraduate participants. Exposure to this program resulted in mastery of all braille-to-print relations for each participant.

  5. Teaching braille letters, numerals, punctuation, and contractions to sighted individuals.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Brittany C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also numerals, punctuation, symbols, and contractions; we evaluated this program with 4 sighted undergraduate participants. Exposure to this program resulted in mastery of all braille-to-print relations for each participant. PMID:25943465

  6. The Unified English Braille Code: Examination by Science, Mathematics, and Computer Science Technical Expert Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, M. Cay; MacCuspie, P. Ann

    2010-01-01

    Braille-reading mathematicians, scientists, and computer scientists were asked to examine the usability of the Unified English Braille Code (UEB) for technical materials. They had little knowledge of the code prior to the study. The research included two reading tasks, a short tutorial about UEB, and a focus group. The results indicated that the…

  7. Instruction in Specialized Braille Codes, Abacus, and Tactile Graphics at Universities in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study gathered data on methods and materials that are used to teach the Nemeth braille code, computer braille, foreign-language braille, and music braille in 26 university programs in the United States and Canada that prepare teachers of students with visual impairments. Information about instruction in the abacus and the…

  8. Teaching early braille literacy skills within a stimulus equivalence paradigm to children with degenerative visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2010-01-01

    Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names.

  9. Analysis of prosody in finger braille using electromyography.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Manabi; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Finger braille is one of the communication methods for the deaf blind. The interpreter types braille codes on the fingers of deaf blind. Finger braille seems to be the most suitable medium for real-time communication by its speed and accuracy of transmitting characters. We hypothesize that the prosody information exists in the time structure and strength of finger braille typing. Prosody is the paralinguistic information that has functions to transmit the sentence structure, prominence, emotions and other form of information in real time communication. In this study, we measured the surface electromyography (sEMG) of finger movement to analyze the typing strength of finger braille. We found that the typing strength increases at the beginning of a phrase and a prominent phrase. The result shows the possibility that the prosody in the typing strength of finger braille can be applied to create an interpreter system for the deafblind.

  10. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].

    PubMed

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages.

  11. SU-E-T-401: Feasibility Study of Using ABC to Gate Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Shepard, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The current SBRT treatment techniques include free breathing (FB) SBRT and gated FB SBRT. Gated FB SBRT has smaller target and less lung toxicity with longer treatment time. The recent development of direct connectivity between the ABC and linac allowing for automated beam gating. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using ABC system to gate the lung SBRT treatment. Methods: A CIRS lung phantom with a 3cm sphere-insert and a moving chest plate was used in this study. Sinusoidal motion was used for the FB pattern. An ABC signal was imported to simulate breath holds. 4D-CT was taken in FB mode and average-intensity-projection (AIP) was used to create FB and 50% gated FB SBRT planning CT. A manually gated 3D CT scan was acquired for ABC gated SBRT planning.An SBRT plan was created for each treatment option. A surface-mapping system was used for 50% gating and ABC system was used for ABC gating. A manually gated CBCT scan was also performed to verify setup. Results: Among three options, the ABC gated plan has the smallest PTV of 35.94cc, which is 35% smaller comparing to that of the FB plan. Consequently, the V20 of the left lung reduced by 15% and 23% comparing to the 50% gated FB and FB plans, respectively. The FB plan took 4.7 minutes to deliver, while the 50% gated FB plan took 18.5 minutes. The ABC gated plan delivery took only 10.6 minutes. A stationary target with 3cm diameter was also obtained from the manually gated CBCT scan. Conclusion: A strategy for ABC gated lung SBRT was developed. ABC gating can significantly reduce the lung toxicity while maintaining the target coverage. Comparing to the 50% gated FB SBRT, ABC gated treatment can also provide less lung toxicity as well as improved delivery efficiency. This research is funded by Elekta.

  12. The Argonne Braille Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunwald, Arnold

    A project summary and 20 related papers are presented on the Argonne Braille Machine, a device which produces braille-equivalent information on magnetic tape rather than embossing dots on paper. The summary traces the machine's development while 10 papers cover such issues as user reactions, evaluation proposals, use and care of the machine, the…

  13. The Impact of Early Exposure to Uncontracted Braille Reading on Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sunggye; Erin, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the reading and spelling skills of students who were taught to read using uncontracted braille versus those who were taught to read using contracted braille. It found no descriptive differences between initial instruction in the two types of braille.

  14. Study on ADI CD bias correlating ABC function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guogui; Hao, Jingan; Xing, Bin; Jiang, Yuntao; Li, Gaorong; Zhang, Qiang; Yue, Liwan; Zu, Yanlei; Hu, Huayong; Liu, Chang; Shen, Manhua; Zhang, Shijian; He, Weiming; Zhang, Nannan; Lin, Yi-Shih; Wu, Qiang; Shi, Xuelong

    2015-03-01

    As the technology node of semiconductor industry is being driven into more advanced 28 nm and beyond, the critical dimension (CD) error budget at after-development inspection (ADI) stage and its control are more and more important and difficult (1-4). 1 nm or even 0.5 nm CD difference is critical for process control. 0.5~1 nm drift of poly linewidth will result in a detectable off-target drift of device performance. The 0.5~1 nm CD drift of hole or metal linewidth on the backend interconnecting layers can potentially contribute to the bridging of metal patterns to vias, and thereby impact yield. In this paper, we studied one function in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement, i.e. the adjustment of brightness and contrast (ABC). We revealed how the step of addressing focus and even the choice of addressing pattern may bring in a systematic error into the CD measurement. This provides a unique insight in the CD measurement and the measurement consistency of through-pitch (TP) patterns and functional patterns.

  15. Changing the Public's Attitude Toward Braille: A Grassroots Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells-Jensen, Sheri; Wells-Jensen, Jason; Belknap, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This study addressed the effect of casual exposure to braille on the attitudes toward blindness and the use of braille of three groups of sighted university students: students in two sections of a general linguistics course for language arts teachers, one taught by a blind instructor (Group 1) and the other taught by a sighted instructor (Group…

  16. How Useful Is Braille Music?: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyu-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of Braille music as a mediational means for musicians with visual impairment (MVI). Specifically, three broad issues are the focus of this study: (1) three notions as the conceptual frameworks, namely, mediation, appropriation and mastery; (2) three criteria of the usefulness of Braille music, including…

  17. Parallel versus Sequential Processing in Print and Braille Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we investigated word, pseudoword and story reading in Dutch speaking braille and print readers. To examine developmental patterns, these reading skills were assessed in both children and adults. The results reveal that braille readers read less accurately and fast than print readers. While item length has no impact on word…

  18. Computer Aided Braille Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Sibert, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    The problems involved in teaching visually impaired persons to Braille are numerous. Training while the individual is still sighted and using a computer to assist is one way of shortening the learning curve. Such a solution is presented here.

  19. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading. PMID:25879973

  20. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  1. Parallel versus sequential processing in print and braille reading.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we investigated word, pseudoword and story reading in Dutch speaking braille and print readers. To examine developmental patterns, these reading skills were assessed in both children and adults. The results reveal that braille readers read less accurately and fast than print readers. While item length has no impact on word reading accuracy and speed in the group of print readers, it has a significant impact on reading accuracy and speed in the group of braille readers, particularly in the younger sample. This suggests that braille readers rely more strongly on an enduring sequential reading strategy. Comparison of the different reading tasks suggests that the advantage in accuracy and speed of reading in adult as compared to young braille readers is achieved through semantic top-down processing.

  2. Cortical plasticity associated with Braille learning.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R H; Pascual-Leone, A

    1998-05-01

    Blind subjects who learn to read Braille must acquire the ability to extract spatial information from subtle tactile stimuli. In order to accomplish this, neuroplastic changes appear to take place. During Braille learning, the sensorimotor cortical area devoted to the representation of the reading finger enlarges. This enlargement follows a two-step process that can be demonstrated with transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping and suggests initial unmasking of existing connections and eventual establishment of more stable structural changes. In addition, Braille learning appears to be associated with the recruitment of parts of the occipital, formerly `visual', cortex (V1 and V2) for tactile information processing. In blind, proficient Braille readers, the occipital cortex can be shown not only to be associated with tactile Braille reading but also to be critical for reading accuracy. Recent studies suggest the possibility of applying non-invasive neurophysiological techniques to guide and improve functional outcomes of these plastic changes. Such interventions might provide a means of accelerating functional adjustment to blindness.

  3. Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years.

  4. A Study on Design Concept for a Braille Tactile Sensor Segment Using Softness Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongwei; Arabshahi, Sayyed Alireza; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    The purpose of this report is to introduce and discuss about the design parameters for a segment of a tactile sensor reading one dot of a Braille alphabet. A sensor segment consisting of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film sandwiched between two elastic materials is designed. Experiments and simulations are used to define and examine the design parameters. With regards to the sensor structure, Free and Clamped boundary conditions are presented and the relevant equations containing the design parameters, e.g. “bending softness”, are derived. Applying different materials and thicknesses for layers surrounding the PVDF film, simulations are used to quantize the approximate values for each design parameter. The results show that the output of sensor is mostly dependent on the bending effect near the PVDF layer, and the structure encouraging more bending produces higher output. Finally, it is concluded that the real sensor has a structure which is between Free and Clamped boundary conditions, therefore design parameters are modified to compromise between the two cases and optimum values are presented.

  5. Teaching braille line tracking using stimulus fading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only small gaps between characters. The current study extended previous line-tracking instruction using stimulus fading to teach tracking across larger gaps. After instruction, all participants showed improvement in line tracking, and 2 of 3 participants met mastery criteria for tracking across extended spaces.

  6. Tactile perception in blind Braille readers: a psychophysical study of acuity and hyperacuity using gratings and dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Grant, A C; Thiagarajah, M C; Sathian, K

    2000-02-01

    It is not clear whether the blind are generally superior to the sighted on measures of tactile sensitivity or whether they excel only on certain tests owing to the specifics of their tactile experience. We compared the discrimination performance of blind Braille readers and age-matched sighted subjects on three tactile tasks using precisely specified stimuli. Initially, the blind significantly outperformed the sighted at a hyperacuity task using Braille-like dot patterns, although, with practice, both groups performed equally well. On two other tasks, hyperacute discrimination of gratings that differed in ridge width and spatial-acuity-dependent discrimination of grating orientation, the performance of the blind did not differ significantly from that of sighted subjects. These results probably reflect the specificity of perceptual learning due to Braille-reading experience.

  7. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  8. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind’s mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  9. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  10. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  11. Braille Makes a Comeback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    A few decades ago, Braille was on the wane. Technology was seen as likely to replace the tactile communication method, as text-to-speech readers and recorded books, for example, offered access to classroom materials. Students at special schools for the blind moved into regular classrooms, which are rich in text, but not text that is accessible to…

  12. The Impact of ABC Canada's LEARN Campaign. Results of a National Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ellen

    An impact study was conducted of ABC CANADA's LEARN campaign, a national media effort aimed at linking potential literacy learners with literacy groups. Two questionnaires were administered to 94 literacy groups, with 3,557 respondents. Findings included the following: (1) 70 percent of calls to literacy groups were from adult learners aged 16-44;…

  13. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 × 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 × 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  14. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  15. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  16. Influences of age at onset of blindness on Braille reading performances with left and right hands.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, E; Philip, J

    1995-08-01

    Several previous studies suggest that early sensory deprivation produces a changed organisation of the cerebral cortex. This study compared the effects of early and late total blindness on a Braille reading task. This task is intended to induce a superiority of the left hand rather than the right because of the particular role played by the right hemisphere in Braille decoding. 38 strongly right-handed adults, accustomed to daily bimanual Braille reading, were tested. 21 subjects were born blind and 17 became blind during childhood before learning to read. Analysis indicated that previous visual experience can, under certain conditions, play a modulating role in manual superiority in Braille reading.

  17. Braille Reading Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two proposed electromechanical systems for making braille characters produced relatively inexpensively. Similar in operating principle to dotmatrix printers, two methods use electronically actuated pins to reproduce characters from information stored on magnetic tape. First, one or more pins scanned over blank page and energized at intervals to emboss text on paper, one or more dots at time. Second, handheld device containing one or more character-generator cells used by reader to scan lines of text manually.

  18. Manual braille writer

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Lawrence S.; Turner, Joe H.

    1992-01-01

    A manual-type braille writer that provides for both writing and reading in a normal left-to-right manner. In the preferred form, this braille writer has a clip board type base, and in the preferred embodiment a guide plate assembly can be moved to, and releasable fixed at, selected vertical locations along this base. The guide plate assembly is provided with a plurality of character cells uniformly spaced along rows across the guide plate assembly as well as in uniformly spaced rows. This guide plate assembly has a lower portion to be placed under a sheet of paper positioned on the clip board base and an upper portion to be positioned on top of the sheet. This upper portion is hinged with respect to the lower portion. Each character cell is typically made up of six appropriately spaced pins extending up from the lower portion that are aligned with a rosette-shaped cutout in the upper portion. A stylus member is provided that has a distal end to be fitted into the cutout of the character cell so that a recess in the end thereof presses the writing paper over the pin associated with that recess to produce a braille dot at that location. When desired, the upper portion can be lifted up so that the text already written can be read or to determine the place for initiating writing when writing has been interrupted.

  19. Manual braille writer

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, L.S.; Turner, J.H.

    1992-07-28

    A manual-type braille writer is described that provides for both writing and reading in a normal left-to-right manner. In the preferred form, this braille writer has a clip board type base, and in the preferred embodiment a guide plate assembly can be moved to, and releasable fixed at, selected vertical locations along this base. The guide plate assembly is provided with a plurality of character cells uniformly spaced along rows across the guide plate assembly as well as in uniformly spaced rows. This guide plate assembly has a lower portion to be placed under a sheet of paper positioned on the clip board base and an upper portion to be positioned on top of the sheet. This upper portion is hinged with respect to the lower portion. Each character cell is typically made up of six appropriately spaced pins extending up from the lower portion that are aligned with a rosette-shaped cutout in the upper portion. A stylus member is provided that has a distal end to be fitted into the cutout of the character cell so that a recess in the end thereof presses the writing paper over the pin associated with that recess to produce a braille dot at that location. When desired, the upper portion can be lifted up so that the text already written can be read or to determine the place for initiating writing when writing has been interrupted. 10 figs.

  20. Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, Diane P., Ed.; D'Andrea, Frances Mary, Ed.

    This collection of readings is intended to provide teachers of children who are blind or visually impaired with guidelines and strategies for teaching the reading and writing of braille. The eight chapters are: (1) "Braille as the Primary Literacy Medium: General Guidelines and Strategies" (Diane P. Wormsley); (2) "Fostering Emergent Literacy"…

  1. A computer-based program to teach braille reading to sighted individuals.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions of the braille alphabet to their printed-word counterparts. Further, each participant increased the number of words they read in a braille passage following this training. These gains were maintained at variable levels on a maintenance probe conducted 2 to 4 weeks after training.

  2. Alexia for Braille following bilateral occipital stroke in an early blind woman.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R; Keenan, J P; Catala, M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-02-01

    Recent functional imaging and neurophysiologic studies indicate that the occipital cortex may play a role in Braille reading in congenitally and early blind subjects. We report on a woman blind from birth who sustained bilateral occipital damage following an ischemic stroke. Prior to the stroke, the patient was a proficient Braille reader. Following the stroke, she was no longer able to read Braille yet her somatosensory perception appeared otherwise to be unchanged. This case supports the emerging evidence for the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading in early blind subjects.

  3. Neural networks for Braille reading by the blind.

    PubMed

    Sadato, N; Pascual-Leone, A; Grafman, J; Deiber, M P; Ibañez, V; Hallett, M

    1998-07-01

    To explore the neural networks used for Braille reading, we measured regional cerebral blood flow with PET during tactile tasks performed both by Braille readers blinded early in life and by sighted subjects. Eight proficient Braille readers were studied during Braille reading with both right and left index fingers. Eight-character, non-contracted Braille-letter strings were used, and subjects were asked to discriminate between words and non-words. To compare the behaviour of the brain of the blind and the sighted directly, non-Braille tactile tasks were performed by six different blind subjects and 10 sighted control subjects using the right index finger. The tasks included a non-discrimination task and three discrimination tasks (angle, width and character). Irrespective of reading finger (right or left), Braille reading by the blind activated the inferior parietal lobule, primary visual cortex, superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyri, ventral premotor area, superior parietal lobule, cerebellum and primary sensorimotor area bilaterally, also the right dorsal premotor cortex, right middle occipital gyrus and right prefrontal area. During non-Braille discrimination tasks, in blind subjects, the ventral occipital regions, including the primary visual cortex and fusiform gyri bilaterally were activated while the secondary somatosensory area was deactivated. The reverse pattern was found in sighted subjects where the secondary somatosensory area was activated while the ventral occipital regions were suppressed. These findings suggest that the tactile processing pathways usually linked in the secondary somatosensory area are rerouted in blind subjects to the ventral occipital cortical regions originally reserved for visual shape discrimination.

  4. A Guide to Paperless Braille Devices. Random Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This review examines electronic braille input-output devices which have a braille keyboard for data entry and/or a braille display. Four braille notetakers and two braille computer systems are evaluated, commenting on their keyboards, ease of use, documentation, and analysis of speech and/or the braille display. (JDD)

  5. Impact of a Braille-Note on Writing: Evaluating the Process, Quality, and Attitudes of Three Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Lawson, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Educators of students with visual impairments have long advocated that children who read and write in braille benefit from access to and use of a braille note-taker (BNT) with refreshable braille display. However, little research exists that evaluates whether using a BNT impacts literacy. In this single-subject study, authors investigated if using…

  6. Visual cortex activation in late-onset, Braille naive blind individuals: an fMRI study during semantic and phonological tasks with heard words.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; McLaren, Donald G

    2006-01-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in Braille literate people, which raise the question of whether Braille literacy influences cross-modal reorganization. We used fMRI to examine visual cortex activation during semantic and phonological tasks with auditory presentation of words in two late-onset blind individuals who lacked Braille literacy. Multiple visual cortical regions were activated in the Braille naive individuals. Positive BOLD responses were noted in lower tier visuotopic (e.g., V1, V2, VP, and V3) and several higher tier visual areas (e.g., V4v, V8, and BA 37). Activity was more extensive and cross-correlation magnitudes were greater during the semantic compared to the phonological task. These results with Braille naive individuals plausibly suggest that visual deprivation alone induces visual cortex reorganization. Cross-modal reorganization of lower tier visual areas may be recruited by developing skills in attending to selected non-visual inputs (e.g., Braille literacy, enhanced auditory skills). Such learning might strengthen remote connections with multisensory cortical areas. Of necessity, the Braille naive participants must attend to auditory stimulation for language. We hypothesize that learning to attend to non-visual inputs probably strengthens the remaining active synapses following visual deprivation, and thereby, increases cross-modal activation of lower tier visual areas when performing highly demanding non-visual tasks of which reading Braille is just one example.

  7. Conceptual Understanding of Shape and Space by Braille-Reading Norwegian Students in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenberg, Oliv G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here investigated the ways in which students who read braille were able to complete geometric tasks and how they constructed mental representations of the shapes of objects. Methods: Data were collected in an educational experiment conducted as a geometry course for students who read braille. A case study approach…

  8. The Development of Phonological Awareness by Braille Users: A Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…

  9. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  10. On the Efficacy of a Computer-Based Program to Teach Visual Braille Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Scheithauer and Tiger (2012) created an efficient computerized program that taught 4 sighted college students to select text letters when presented with visual depictions of braille alphabetic characters and resulted in the emergence of some braille reading. The current study extended these results to a larger sample (n?=?81) and compared the…

  11. The Impact of Assistive Technology on Curriculum Accommodation for a Braille-Reading Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Charles R.; Luckner, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Over 5 months, the authors evaluated the efficacy of electronic assistive technology (the BrailleNote mPower BT-32 notetaker and Tiger Cub Jr. embosser) and associated software components in creating curriculum materials for a middle school Braille-reading student. The authors collected data at the beginning and end of the study from parents,…

  12. Evaluation and Research Program for the Portable Braille Recorder (PBR). Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcroft, S. C.

    An evaluation and research program was designed to determine user satisfaction and the practicality, reliability, and maintainability of the Digicassette (or Portable Braille Recorder--PBR) and to study the braille reading and writing functions. Ten PBRs were placed with 14 students and 14 adults. Products of the research program included training…

  13. An Artificial Intelligence Tutor: A Supplementary Tool for Teaching and Practicing Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Tessa; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Johnson, Benny G.; Dittel, Jeffrey; Kearns, Devin M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated the usability and effectiveness of an artificial intelligence Braille Tutor designed to supplement the instruction of students with visual impairments as they learned to write braille contractions. Methods: A mixed-methods design was used, which incorporated a single-subject, adapted alternating treatments design…

  14. A Computer-Based Program to Teach Braille Reading to Sighted Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions…

  15. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  16. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  17. Resources and Information for Parents about Braille

    MedlinePlus

    ... impaired, see the AFB Press online bookstore . Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy , edited by Diane P. Wormsley ... and Kosman. Gives an overview of reading and writing with braille for young children, and how parents ...

  18. The Blind, From Braille to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truquet, Monique

    1980-01-01

    Traces the historical development of processing information for the blind from the system devised by Barbier to present systems of producing Braille documents using computers. Cites the impact of microprocessors and outlines possibilities for Braille reproductions in the future. (GS)

  19. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Han, Lei; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  20. On the efficacy of a computer-based program to teach visual Braille reading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Miller, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Scheithauer and Tiger (2012) created an efficient computerized program that taught 4 sighted college students to select text letters when presented with visual depictions of Braille alphabetic characters and resulted in the emergence of some braille reading. The current study extended these results to a larger sample (n = 81) and compared the efficacy and efficiency of the instructional program using 2 different response modalities. One variation of the program required a response in a multiple-choice format, and the other variation required a keyed response. Both instructional programs resulted in increased braille letter identification and braille reading. These skills were maintained at a follow-up session 7 to 14 days later. The mean time needed to complete the program was 22.8 min across participants. Implications of these results for future research, as well as practical implications for teaching the braille alphabet, are discussed.

  1. On the efficacy of a computer-based program to teach visual Braille reading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Miller, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Scheithauer and Tiger (2012) created an efficient computerized program that taught 4 sighted college students to select text letters when presented with visual depictions of Braille alphabetic characters and resulted in the emergence of some braille reading. The current study extended these results to a larger sample (n = 81) and compared the efficacy and efficiency of the instructional program using 2 different response modalities. One variation of the program required a response in a multiple-choice format, and the other variation required a keyed response. Both instructional programs resulted in increased braille letter identification and braille reading. These skills were maintained at a follow-up session 7 to 14 days later. The mean time needed to complete the program was 22.8 min across participants. Implications of these results for future research, as well as practical implications for teaching the braille alphabet, are discussed. PMID:24114158

  2. A Cognitive Approach to Brailling Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells-Jensen, Sheri; Schwartz, Aaron; Gosche, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes a corpus of 1,600 brailling errors made by one expert braillist. It presents a testable model of braille writing and shows that the subject braillist stores standard braille contractions as part of the orthographic representation of words, rather than imposing contractions on a serially ordered string of letters. (Contains 1…

  3. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  4. Development of a measuring system of contact force during braille reading using an optical 6-axis force sensor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Oouchi, S; Yamaguchi, T; Shimojo, M; Shimada, S

    2006-01-01

    A system with an optical 6-axis force sensor was developed to measure contact force during braille reading. In using this system, we encountered two problems. One is a variability of output values depending on the contact point. This was solved by using two transformation techniques. The other is that subjects read braille in a different manner from the usual. We compared two manners of braille reading, one-handed vs two-handed, and found a small reduction in reading speed. Using this system, we collected data from four braille readers and quantitatively showed more minute contact force trajectories than those in earlier studies.

  5. The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyan, Noel H.; Blazie, Deane B.

    2011-10-01

    The Boston-based National Braille Press has established a Center for Braille Innovation (CBI), whose mission is to research and develop affordable braille literacy products. The primary focus has been to facilitate the development of dramatically lower cost electronic braille display devices, and the much-sought-after "Holy Braille" of a full-page electronic braille display. Developing affordable new braille technologies is crucial to improving the extremely low braille literacy rate (around 12%) of blind students. Our CBI team is working to aid developers of braille technology by focusing attention and resources on the development of the underlying braille actuator technologies. We are also developing braille-related information resources to aid braille display developers. The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website (http://www.nbp.org) is one of these resources. The braille specifications include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements. In addition, mentoring, helping to evaluate new braille display ideas, and openly sharing braille display technology are all part of the activities of the NBP braille innovation team. NBP has expanded the CBI project with domestic and international partners including the China Braille Press, World Braille Foundation, National Federation of the Blind, American Printing House for the Blind, American Foundation for the Blind, and many university and research partners.

  6. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model

    PubMed Central

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay ® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  7. Behavioural and electrophysiological effects related to semantic violations during braille reading.

    PubMed

    Glyn, Vania; Lim, Vanessa K; Hamm, Jeff P; Mathur, Ashwin; Hughes, Barry

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the potential to detect event related potentials (ERPs) occurring in response to a specific task in braille reading. This would expand current methodologies for studying the cognitive processes underlying braille reading. An N400 effect paradigm was utilised, whereby proficient blind braille readers read congruent- and incongruent-ending braille sentences. Kinematic and electroencephalography (EEG) data were obtained simultaneously and synchronised. The ERPs differed between the incongruent and congruent sentences in a manner consistent with the N400 effect found with a previous sighted reading paradigm, demonstrating that ERPs can be obtained during braille reading. The frequency of finger reversals and the degree of intermittency in the finger velocity were significantly higher when reading incongruent versus congruent sentence endings. Both reversals and the potential N400 effect may reflect processes involved in semantic unification. These findings have significant implications for the modelling of braille reading. The refinement of the technique will enable other ERPs to be identified and related to behavioural responses, to further our understanding of the braille reading process.

  8. A Comparison of the K-ABC and WISC-R: A Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; And Others

    The concurrent validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) was examined by comparing K-ABC scores and Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R) scores for 58 school children in primary and intermediate grades. Thirty-seven of these children had either educable mental retardation, learning disabilities, or…

  9. Braille alexia during visual hallucination in a blind man with selective calcarine atrophy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kengo; Yasuda, Hitoshi; Haneda, Masakazu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2003-04-01

    The case of a 56-year-old man who has been blind for 25 years due to retinal degeneration is herein described. The patient complained of elementary visual hallucination, during which it was difficult for him to read Braille. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked atrophy of the bilateral striate cortex. Visual hallucination as a release phenomenon of the primary visual cortex has never been reported to cause alexia for Braille. The present case supports the results of recent functional imaging studies of the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading.

  10. Vocabulary Word Instruction for Students Who Read Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Compton, Donald L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Lloyd, Blair P.

    2016-01-01

    The association made between the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a word has been shown to help children remember the meanings of words. The present study addressed whether the presence of a target word in Braille during instruction facilitated vocabulary learning more efficiently than an auditory-only instructional condition. The authors…

  11. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  12. Synthetic and Computational Studies on the ABC Trioxadispiroketal Subunit of the Marine Biotoxin Azaspiracid-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jialiang; Li, Xiaohua; Mootoo, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The trioxadispiroketal residue in the marine biotoxin azaspiracid-1, which exists in a configuration capable of exhibiting a double anomeric effect, is believed to be the thermodynamically most stable bis-spiroketal diastereomer. In order to get insight into how structural factors affect this equilibrium, a simplified ABC trioxadispiroketal analog of azaspiracid-1 was synthesized and subjected to equilbration and computational studies. Compound 7, which represents a double anomeric effect was obtained as the major isomer, together with diastereomers 14 and 15, in a respective ratio of 62:22:16. DFT calculations for 7, 14 and 15 qualitatively matched this observation. These results suggest that while a double anomeric effect may play a major role in the stability of the trioxadispiroketal configuration in the more complex natural product, the substitution pattern of the C ring is also a contributing factor. PMID:19759853

  13. Using the Braille Lite To Produce Mathematical Expressions in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a strategy for using Braille Lite, a portable notetaking device that combines synthetic speech and Braille, to produce mathematical expressions that can be easily interpreted by sighted teachers who do not use Braille. The strategy also allows students to review their work tactilely on the Braille display. (Contains 2…

  14. Origin of the Hadži ABC structure: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.

    2015-11-14

    Medium and strong hydrogen bonds are well known to give rise to broad features in the vibrational spectrum often spanning several hundred wavenumbers. In some cases, these features can span over 1000 cm{sup −1} and even contain multiple broad peaks. One class of strongly hydrogen-bonded dimers that includes many different phosphinic, phosphoric, sulfinic, and selenic acid homodimers exhibits a three-peaked structure over 1500 cm{sup −1} broad. This unusual feature is often referred to as the Hadži ABC structure. The origin of this feature has been debated since its discovery in the 1950s. Only a couple of theoretical studies have attempted to interpret the origin of this feature; however, no previous study has been able to reproduce this feature from first principles. Here, we present the first ab initio calculation of the Hadži ABC structure. Using a reduced dimensionality calculation that includes four vibrational modes, we are able to reproduce the three-peak structure and much of the broadness of the feature. Our results indicate that Fermi resonances of the in-plane bend, out-of-plane bend, and combination of these bends play significant roles in explaining this feature. Much of the broadness of the feature and the ability of the OH stretch mode to couple with many overtone bending modes are captured by including an adiabatically separated dimer stretch mode in the model. This mode modulates the distance between the monomer units and accordingly the strength of the hydrogen-bonds causing the OH stretch frequency to shift from 2000 to 3000 cm{sup −1}. Using this model, we were also able to reproduce the vibrational spectrum of the deuterated isotopologue which consists of a single 500 cm{sup −1} broad feature. Whereas previous empirical studies have asserted that Fermi resonances contribute very little to this feature, our study indicates that while not appearing as a separate peak, a Fermi resonance of the in-plane bend contributes substantially to

  15. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. Results: The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Conclusion: Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children. PMID:26942117

  16. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  17. A system for converting print into braille.

    PubMed

    Blenkhorn, P

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes a method for converting text into braille, in the form in which it is stored as in a computer. The system has been designed to be configurable for a wide range of languages and character sets, and uses a predominantly table driven method to achieve this. The algorithm is explained in the context of the conversion of text into Standard English Braille (British), and the tables for this transformation are given. Particular importance has been attached to enabling braille specialists, who are not experts in computer algorithms, to be able to modify the system for either slight modifications to an existing braille code translator, or for producing a braille code translator for a new language.

  18. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  19. Specific cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Timmann, Dagmar; Forsting, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The traditional view that the cerebellum is involved only in the control of movements has been changed recently. It has been suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in cognition and language. Likewise, besides cortical activity in sensorimotor and visual areas, an increased global activation of the cerebellum has been revealed during Braille reading in blind subjects. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is cerebellar activation during Braille reading by blind subjects other than sensorimotor activation related to finger movements. Early blind and normal sighted subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during Braille reading, tactile discrimination of nonsense dots, dots forming symbols, and finger tapping. The experiments were done in block design. Echo planar imaging sequences were carried out on a 1.5-T MR scanner. All blind individuals reading Braille showed robust activation of the posterior and lateral aspects of cerebellar hemispheral lobules Crus I bilaterally but more predominately on the right side. Additionally, activation was present in the medial cerebellum within lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominantly on the right. Discriminating nonsense dots did not reveal any activation of Crus I, but did reveal activation within the medial part of lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominately on the right. Analysis of sighted subjects during reading of printed text revealed activation of the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere in Crus I bilaterally, predominantly on the right. Tactile analysis of dots representing symbols revealed an activation in lobules IV and VIII and in right Crus II but not in Crus I. In conclusion, parts of cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects (i.e., within lobules IV, V, and VIII) overlap with the known hand representation within the cerebellum and are likely related to the sensorimotor part of the task. Cerebellar activation during Braille reading within bilateral Crus I

  20. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  1. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  2. Translator program converts computer printout into braille language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program converts print image tape files into six dot Braille cells, enabling a blind computer programmer to monitor and evaluate data generated by his own programs. The Braille output is printed 8 lines per inch.

  3. Loss of plastoglobule kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 causes conditional degreening, modified prenyl-lipids, and recruitment of the jasmonic acid pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the dou...

  4. Braille Literacy and Self-Esteem: A Report from Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elissalde, E.

    1996-01-01

    Brief excerpts from correspondence from blind persons and their families in Uruguay indicate increased self-esteem resulting from access to braille materials such as a braille newspaper. Braille literacy is seen to enhance the dialog between student and teacher, parent and child, or child and book. Knowledge of community events offered by the…

  5. Six Sensational Dots: Braille Literacy for Sighted Classmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Anna M.; Cozart, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    From the moment sighted children see their first dot, teachers find that they are fascinated by the braille code. If they are fortunate enough to have a classmate who reads braille, they have daily opportunities to observe braille used for a variety of purposes, from reading chapter books to solving problems with tactile graphics. Teachers of…

  6. Reading Rates of Young Braille-Reading Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Three tables present data from 22 braille-reading blind children, ages 6 to 12, including demographic data (such as years of braille use, IQ, age, hand movement type, and reading rate); highest and lowest reading rates, by years of braille instruction and IQ scores; and oral reading rates. The methodology used is suggested for teachers doing…

  7. Training and Availability of Braille Transcribers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corn, Anne L.; Wall, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of Braille transcribers in 40 states found Braille production systems rely on volunteers and hence Braille transcription is not considered a bona fide career. The majority cited low funding and resources as obstacles to change. Issues of certification, training, availability, and definition are discussed, along with recommendations.…

  8. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. PMID:26524502

  9. Sources of Braille Reading Materials. Reference Circular No. 86-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Linda, Comp.

    This reference circular lists sources of braille books available for loan, purchase, rental, or free (give-away) distribution. Divided into four sections, it includes general sources of braille books, sources of specialized braille materials, the major braille presses, and resources for further information about braille books and magazines.…

  10. Braille Literacy: Resources for Instruction, Writing Equipment, and Supplies. NLS Reference Circulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaco, Freddie L., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This reference circular lists instructional materials, supplies, and equipment currently available for learning braille, and cites sources about braille literacy. The resources given are intended to assist sighted individuals who are interested in learning braille or want to transcribe print materials into braille; instructors who teach braille;…

  11. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille and the Nemeth Code for Mathematics and Science Notation to Students Making the Transition from Print to Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hooper, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many students with adventitious vision loss or progressive vision loss need to transition from print to braille as a primary literacy medium. It is important that this transition is handled efficiently so that the student can have continued access to a literacy medium and make progress in the core curriculum. For this study, we used…

  12. Didymus the blind: an unknown precursor of Louis Braille and Helen Keller.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1994-01-01

    The present study presents the case of Didymus the Blind, worthy author, philosopher and theologian of the 4th century AD. Blinded by ophthalmia at the age of four years, Didymus succeeded in achieving great learning in the philosophical and natural sciences. He began his education by using a system which was remarkably like Braille, that is reading letters engraved into the surface of wood by touch and subsequently furthering his knowledge by listening. This learning process of Didymus the Blind appears as the precursor of Louis Braille who invented the educational system of reading embossed dots by touch. Like Didymus, Braille lost his vision in infancy (at three years of age). Another parallel of Didymus' career and written works is found in the example and achievements of Helen Keller.

  13. Dichaptic scanning of Braille letters by skilled blind readers: lateralization effects.

    PubMed

    Semenza, C; Zoppello, M; Gidiuli, O; Borgo, F

    1996-06-01

    Dichaptic scanning of Braille letters was studied in 14 skilled blind readers, using Posner's paradigm. A right-hand (left-hemisphere) advantage was found when letters could be matched on the basis of their names (Name Identity Condition), a genuinely linguistic task, while no effects of lateralization appeared when matching could be performed on the basis of perceptual identity (Perceptual Identity Condition) or on "Different" responses. This result provides information about the cerebral lateralization of Braille reading and casts doubts about the current claim that linguistic material, when presented in the tactile modality, is initially analysed in a spatial code by the right hemisphere.

  14. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  15. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills. PMID:26976813

  16. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Melda; Sipahi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as "reversal". Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one's finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects' performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects' Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as “reversal”. Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one’s finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects’ performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects’ Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise. PMID:26849058

  18. The K-ABC: A Construct Validity Study with the WISC-R and Stanford-Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klanderman, John; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Elementary school children (N=41) were administered Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), and Stanford-Binet. Analyses appeared to support the viability of the K-ABC as measure of the properties of mental functioning that are similar to those measured by WISC-R and…

  19. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery.

  20. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. PMID:22807026

  1. A comparative study of an ABC and an artificial absorber for truncating finite element meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Volakis, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The type of mesh termination used in the context of finite element formulations plays a major role on the efficiency and accuracy of the field solution. The performance of an absorbing boundary condition (ABC) and an artificial absorber (a new concept) for terminating the finite element mesh was evaluated. This analysis is done in connection with the problem of scattering by a finite slot array in a thick ground plane. The two approximate mesh truncation schemes are compared with the exact finite element-boundary integral (FEM-BI) method in terms of accuracy and efficiency. It is demonstrated that both approximate truncation schemes yield reasonably accurate results even when the mesh is extended only 0.3 wavelengths away from the array aperture. However, the artificial absorber termination method leads to a substantially more efficient solution. Moreover, it is shown that the FEM-BI method remains quite competitive with the FEM-artificial absorber method when the FFT is used for computing the matrix-vector products in the iterative solution algorithm. These conclusions are indeed surprising and of major importance in electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method.

  2. Electrocutaneous stimulation system for Braille reading.

    PubMed

    Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.

  3. The Handicapple a Low Cost Braille Printer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Barry

    1982-01-01

    Describes several ways in which microcomputers have been adapted to needs of the handicapped. One system consists of a Dynatyper (solenoid driven array of plastic plungers sitting above typewriter keyboard), Braillewriter, and Apple II microcomputer which produces hard-copy braille. (JN)

  4. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Dongyoung; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Heung Tae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Woobong

    2014-01-01

    Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum. PMID:25506302

  5. The Role and Characteristics of Tactile Graphics in Secondary Mathematics and Science Textbooks in Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derrick W.; Smothers, Sinikka M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine how well tactile graphics (specifically data analysis graphs) in secondary mathematics and science braille textbooks correlated with the print graphics. Method: A content analysis was conducted on 598 separate data analysis graphics from 10 mathematics and science textbooks.…

  6. Review of Research: Neuroscience and the Impact of Brain Plasticity on Braille Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Cheryl Kamei

    2006-01-01

    In this systematic review of research, the author analyzes studies of neural cortical activation, brain plasticity, and braille reading. The conclusions regarding the brain's plasticity and ability to reorganize are encouraging for individuals with degenerative eye conditions or late-onset blindness because they indicate that the brain can make…

  7. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  8. An Examination of 40 Years of Mathematics Education among Norwegian Braille-Reading Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenberg, Oliv G.; Fosse, Per; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here estimated the occurrence of braille-reading students in Norway who were educated according to their grade-level progression in mathematics from 1967 to 2007. It also analyzed the association among these students' progression in mathematics and the causes of visual impairment, the age at which the diagnosis…

  9. Evaluating Training and Implementation of the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Teaching Braille Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durando, Julie A.; Wormsley, Diane P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of training workshops in braille literacy for teachers of students who are visually impaired and have additional disabilities. Participants in the training workshops in the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach indicated general satisfaction with the training. Most reported using the approach with…

  10. Error Analysis of Brailled Instructional Materials Produced by Public School Personnel in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a detailed error analysis was performed to determine if patterns of errors existed in braille transcriptions. The most frequently occurring errors were the insertion of letters or words that were not contained in the original print material; the incorrect usage of the emphasis indicator; and the incorrect formatting of titles,…

  11. The nature of working memory for Braille.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henri; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Scherzer, Peter

    2010-05-26

    Blind individuals have been shown on multiple occasions to compensate for their loss of sight by developing exceptional abilities in their remaining senses. While most research has been focused on perceptual abilities per se in the auditory and tactile modalities, recent work has also investigated higher-order processes involving memory and language functions. Here we examined tactile working memory for Braille in two groups of visually challenged individuals (completely blind subjects, CBS; blind with residual vision, BRV). In a first experimental procedure both groups were given a Braille tactile memory span task with and without articulatory suppression, while the BRV and a sighted group performed a visual version of the task. It was shown that the Braille tactile working memory (BrWM) of CBS individuals under articulatory suppression is as efficient as that of sighted individuals' visual working memory in the same condition. Moreover, the results suggest that BrWM may be more robust in the CBS than in the BRV subjects, thus pointing to the potential role of visual experience in shaping tactile working memory. A second experiment designed to assess the nature (spatial vs. verbal) of this working memory was then carried out with two new CBS and BRV groups having to perform the Braille task concurrently with a mental arithmetic task or a mental displacement of blocks task. We show that the disruption of memory was greatest when concurrently carrying out the mental displacement of blocks, indicating that the Braille tactile subsystem of working memory is likely spatial in nature in CBS. The results also point to the multimodal nature of working memory and show how experience can shape the development of its subcomponents.

  12. The multidrug transporter Pdr5 on the 25th anniversary of its discovery: an important model for the study of asymmetric ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Golin, John; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2015-05-01

    Asymmetric ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters make up a significant proportion of this important superfamily of integral membrane proteins. These proteins contain one canonical (catalytic) ATP-binding site and a second atypical site with little enzymatic capability. The baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Pdr5 multidrug transporter is the founding member of the Pdr subfamily of asymmetric ABC transporters, which exist only in fungi and slime moulds. Because these organisms are of considerable medical and agricultural significance, Pdr5 has been studied extensively, as has its medically important homologue Cdr1 from Candida albicans. Genetic and biochemical analyses of Pdr5 have contributed important observations that are likely to be applicable to mammalian asymmetric ABC multidrug transporter proteins, including the basis of transporter promiscuity, the function of the non-catalytic deviant ATP-binding site, the most complete description of an in vivo transmission interface, and the recent discovery that Pdr5 is a molecular diode (one-way gate). In the present review, we discuss the observations made with Pdr5 and compare them with findings from clinically important asymmetric ABC transporters, such as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), Cdr1 and Tap1/Tap2. PMID:25886173

  13. The multidrug transporter Pdr5 on the 25th anniversary of its discovery: an important model for the study of asymmetric ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Golin, John; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters make up a significant proportion of this important superfamily of integral membrane proteins. These proteins contain one canonical (catalytic) ATP-binding site and a second atypical site with little enzymatic capability. The baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Pdr5 multidrug transporter is the founding member of the Pdr subfamily of asymmetric ABC transporters, which exist only in fungi and slime moulds. Because these organisms are of considerable medical and agricultural significance, Pdr5 has been studied extensively, as has its medically important homologue Cdr1 from Candida albicans. Genetic and biochemical analyses of Pdr5 have contributed important observations that are likely to be applicable to mammalian asymmetric ABC multidrug transporter proteins, including the basis of transporter promiscuity, the function of the non-catalytic deviant ATP-binding site, the most complete description of an in vivo transmission interface, and the recent discovery that Pdr5 is a molecular diode (one-way gate). In the present review, we discuss the observations made with Pdr5 and compare them with findings from clinically important asymmetric ABC transporters, such as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), Cdr1 and Tap1/Tap2. PMID:25886173

  14. Letter position coding across modalities: braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream.

  15. Letter position coding across modalities: braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream. PMID:24980219

  16. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  17. Identification of ABC transporters in Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, K E; Holt, D C; McCarthy, J; Walton, S F

    2006-06-01

    We have identified and partially sequenced 8 ABC transporters from an EST dataset of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, the causative agent of scabies. Analysis confirmed that most of the known ABC subfamilies are represented in the EST dataset including several members of the multidrug resistance protein subfamily (ABC-C). Although P-glycoprotein (ABC-B) sequences were not found in the EST dataset, a partial P-glycoprotein sequence was subsequently obtained using a degenerate PCR strategy and library screening. Thus a total of 9 potential S. scabiei ABC transporters representing the subfamilies A, B, C, E, F and H have been identified. Ivermectin is currently used in the treatment of hyper-infested (crusted) scabies, and has also been identified as a potentially effective acaricide for mass treatment programmes in scabies-endemic communities. The observation of clinical and in vitro ivermectin resistance in 2 crusted scabies patients who received multiple treatments has raised serious concerns regarding the sustainability of such programmes. One possible mechanism for ivermectin resistance is through ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein. This work forms an important foundation for further studies to elucidate the potential role of ABC transporters in ivermectin resistance of S. scabiei.

  18. Conference on New Processes for Braille Manufacture (Ramada Inn, Boston, Massachusetts, May 18-19, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

    Proceedings from a conference on braille production and services are summarized. Only equipment which is ready for use is considered. Specific methods of producing braille discussed include the following: use of plates from a stereograph, computer line printer, braille embossers or braille writers, continuous strip embossed tape from a teletype…

  19. The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, A; Wassermann, E M; Sadato, N; Hallett, M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the cortical motor output maps of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of both hands and the abductor digiti minimi of the reading hand in 6 blind proficient Braille readers. The maps were generated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We compared the maps obtained on a day in which they worked as Braille proofreaders (reading Braille for approximately 6 hours) with the maps obtained on a day they took off from work. On the work day, the maps for the FDI of the reading hand were significantly larger after the working shift than in the morning after having been off work for 2 days. These changes were not seen for the same muscle on the day off work or on any of the 2 days in the other two muscles studied. These results illustrate the rapid modulation in motor cortical outputs in relation to preceding activity and emphasize the importance of precise timing in studies of the neurophysiological correlates of skill acquisition.

  20. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers

    PubMed Central

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10762.001 PMID:26976813

  1. Reconfigurable Braille display with phase change locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soule, Cody W.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Automatically updated signs and displays for sighted people are common in today’s world. However, there is no cheap, low power equivalent available for the blind. This work demonstrates a reconfigurable Braille cell using the solid-to-liquid phase change of a low melting point alloy as a zero holding power locking mechanism. The device is actuated with the alloy in the liquid state, and is then allowed to solidify to lock the Braille dot in the actuated position. A low-cost manufacturing process is developed that includes molding of a rigid silicone to create pneumatic channels, and bonding of a thin membrane of a softer silicone on the surface for actuation. A plug of Field’s metal (melting point 62 °C) is placed in the pneumatic channels below each Braille dot to create the final device. The device is well suited for low duty cycle operation in applications such as signs, and is able to maintain its state indefinitely without additional power input. The display requires a pneumatic pressure of only 24 kPa for actuation, and reconfiguration has been demonstrated in less than a minute and a half.

  2. Using a Group Approach to Motivate Adults to Learn Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Kendra R.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching braille is one of the most time-consuming tasks for a vision rehabilitation therapist. Complicating this process, adults who might be considered to be good candidates for learning braille are often resistant to the idea (Ponchillia & Ponchillia, 1996). In an attempt to address these challenges, a combination of correspondence braille…

  3. Movement Kinematics of the Braille-Reading Finger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Barry

    2011-01-01

    A new means of measuring the movement properties of the braille-reading finger is described and exemplified in an experiment in which experienced readers of braille encountered sentences comprised of keywords in which word and orthographic frequencies were manipulated. These new data are considered in theoretical and practical terms. (Contains 2…

  4. Adaptation of the Wilson Reading System for Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Roz; McCarthy, Mary; Rines, Justine Carlone

    2014-01-01

    Teachers at Perkins School for the Blind have been teaching braille to students of all ages for many years. As part of this experience, the teachers at Perkins have seen many capable students of different ages struggle to learn to read and write braille. In particular, they observed students who were unable to sound out or decode words because of…

  5. Automated Braille production from word-processed documents.

    PubMed

    Blenkhorn, P; Evans, G

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for automatically generating Braille documents from word-processed (Microsoft Word) documents. In particular it details how, by using the Word Object Model, the translation system can map the layout information (format) in the print document into an appropriate Braille equivalent.

  6. Design and evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille stimulator with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Soluch, Pawel; Orzechowski, Mateusz; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2013-02-15

    Neural correlates of Braille reading have been widely studied with different neuroimaging techniques. Nevertheless, the exact brain processes underlying this unique activity are still unknown, due to suboptimal accuracy of imaging and/or stimuli delivery methods. To study somatosensory perception effectively, the stimulation must reflect parameters of the natural stimulus and must be applied with precise timing. In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing these characteristics requires technologically advanced solutions and there have been several successful direct tactile stimulation devices designed that allow investigation of somatotopic organization of brain sensory areas. They may, however, be of limited applicability in studying brain mechanisms related to such distinctive tactile activity as Braille reading. In this paper we describe the design and experimental evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille Character Stimulator (BCS) enabling precise and stable delivery of standardized Braille characters with high temporal resolution. Our device is fully programmable, flexible in stimuli delivery and can be easily implemented in any research unit. The Braille Character Stimulator was tested with a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters during an event-related fMRI experiment in eleven right-handed sighted adult subjects. The results show significant activations in several cortical areas, including bilateral primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices, bilateral premotor and supplementary motor areas, inferior frontal gyri, inferior temporal gyri and precuneus, as well as contralateral (to the stimulated hand) thalamus. The results validate the use of the BCS as a method of effective stimuli application in fMRI studies, in both sighted and visually impaired subjects.

  7. Proceedings, Conference on New Processes for Braille Manufacture (American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, Kentucky, February 8-9, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

    The proceedings include papers on computer translated braille (grade 2, display devices, recent developments), the new braille translation program and research at the American Printing House for the Blind, the braille electric typewriter, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology braille embosser, the braille reader, and braille transmission for…

  8. The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies Teachers. Middle Level Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliger, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Expounds the process for seeking small grants through three major steps: (1) acknowledge what grants are; (2) develop an idea to be funded and; (3) cultivate contacts for possible funding. Advises different intermediate steps and encourages social studies teachers to search for small grants. Provides a sample letter of request. (CMK)

  9. Touch the Invisible Sky: A multi-wavelength Braille book featuring NASA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, S.; Grice, N.; Daou, D.

    2008-06-01

    Multi-wavelength astronomy - the study of the Universe at wavelengths beyond the visible, has revolutionised our understanding and appreciation of the cosmos. Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer are examples of powerful, space-based telescopes that complement each other in their observations spanning the electromagnetic spectrum. While several Braille books on astronomical topics have been published, to this point, no printed material accessible to the sight disabled or Braille reading public has been available on the topic of multi-wavelength astronomy. Touch the Invisible Sky presents the first printed introduction to modern, multi-wavelength astronomy studies to the disabled sight community. On a more fundamental level, tactile images of a Universe that had, until recently, been invisible to all, sighted or non-sighted, is an important learning message on how science and technology broadens our senses and our understanding of the natural world.

  10. Pulse wave velocity is associated with muscle mass decline: Health ABC study.

    PubMed

    Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Chiodini, Paolo; Gallo, Ciro; Lakatta, Edward; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Tylavsky, Frances A; Goodpaster, Bret; de Rekeneire, Natalie; Schwartz, Ann V; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Harris, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    Age-related mechanisms that lead to sarcopenia are not entirely understood. Basal leg blood flow declines with aging by augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction and arterial stiffening, thus a dysfunction in blood vessel dynamics may have an independent role on sarcopenia. We determined whether pulse wave velocity (PWV), marker of arterial stiffness, was associated with skeletal muscle decline. Observational cohort study of older adults(70-79 years) living in Pittsburgh, PA, USA or Memphis, TN, USA. Analyses included 2,405 participants. Correlations among muscle parameters including skeletal muscle density and intermuscular adipose tissue using mid-thigh CT scans were assessed. Linear mixed models tested the association between the change in the sarcopenic index (SI) (assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) over time and baseline PWV independently of multiple confounders. SI was defined: appendicular lean mass/squared height and calculated at every follow-up (n = 6). Baseline PWV was significantly higher in black women compared to white women (930 ± 431 vs. 843 ± 366; p = 0.0001), while there were no significant differences between black and white men (943 ± 402 vs. 911 ± 375; p = 0.1786). Baseline analyses showed an independent negative association between PWV and muscle parameters after adjusting for confounders in both genders. The PWV-by-race interaction was significant in women and analyses are reported separately by race. Prospective mixed models showed that PWV was an independent determinant of the SI in all men (β = -0.1043; p = 0.0065) and in white women (β = -0.1091; p = 0.0192). In analyses examining the effect of arterial stiffness on limb lean mass over time, PWV correlated with lower leg (β = -0.2196; p = 0.0002)and arm mass (β = -0.0985; p = 0.0011) in all men and lower leg mass(β = -0.1608; p = 0.0027)in white women. In older persons, arterial stiffening is associated with skeletal muscle mass decline differently for race and

  11. EAP actuators aid the quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyan, Noel; Blazie, Deane

    2010-04-01

    The authors present the worldwide need for electronic Braille displays to promote literacy among the blind. The use of of EAP's to produce Braille displays is encouraged and detailed descriptions of the technology of Braille are presented. Prior art is covered since the early 1950's through present day displays based mostly on piezoelectric technologies. EAP's offer the promise of the "Holy Braille", the ability to display a full page of Braille electronically. Details on "how not to make a Braille display" are covered in prior art.

  12. ABC's of Being Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  13. rTMS of the occipital cortex abolishes Braille reading and repetition priming in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Kupers, R; Pappens, M; de Noordhout, A Maertens; Schoenen, J; Ptito, M; Fumal, A

    2007-02-27

    To study the functional involvement of the visual cortex in Braille reading, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over midoccipital (MOC) and primary somatosensory (SI) cortex in blind subjects. After rTMS of MOC, but not SI, subjects made significantly more errors and showed an abolishment of the improvement in reading speed following repetitive presentation of the same word list, suggesting a role of the visual cortex in repetition priming in the blind.

  14. Effectiveness of the Assessment of Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (ABC) tool: study protocol of a cluster randomised trial in primary and secondary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a growing worldwide problem that imposes a great burden on the daily life of patients. Since there is no cure, the goal of treating COPD is to maintain or improve quality of life. We have developed a new tool, the Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool, to assess and visualize the integrated health status of patients with COPD, and to provide patients and healthcare providers with a treatment algorithm. This tool may be used during consultations to monitor the burden of COPD and to adjust treatment if necessary. The aim of the current study is to analyse the effectiveness of the ABC tool compared with usual care on health related quality of life among COPD patients over a period of 18 months. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in COPD patients in both primary and secondary care throughout the Netherlands. An intervention group, receiving care based on the ABC tool, will be compared with a control group receiving usual care. The primary outcome will be the change in score on a disease-specific-quality-of-life questionnaire, the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be a different questionnaire (the COPD Assessment Test), lung function and number of exacerbations. During the 18 months follow-up, seven measurements will be conducted, including a baseline and final measurement. Patients will receive questionnaires to be completed at home. Additional data, such as number of exacerbations, will be recorded by the patients’ healthcare providers. A total of 360 patients will be recruited by 40 general practitioners and 20 pulmonologists. Additionally, a process evaluation will be performed among patients and healthcare providers. Discussion The new ABC tool complies with the 2014 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, which describe the necessity to classify patients on both their airway obstruction and a comprehensive

  15. The Reign of Confusion: ABC and the "Crisis in Iran."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    A study examined reports broadcast by ABC News between November 8, 1979 and December 7, 1979 in its series entitled "Crisis in Iran: America Held Hostage." Transcripts of approximately 50% of actual broadcasts were subjected to rhetorical critical analysis, from which the finding emerged that confusion was the predominant characteristic in ABC's…

  16. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  17. Teaching Literacy through Braille in Mainstream Settings whilst Promoting Inclusion: Reflections on Our Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Joao; Rogers, Sue; Donaldson, Marion; Gordon, Clare; Meager, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    We would describe teaching literacy through braille as one of the most rewarding and challenging aspects of the role of a Qualified Teacher for the Visually Impaired (QTVI). This article focuses on teaching literacy through braille in mainstream settings whilst promoting inclusion and meeting the social-emotional needs of children who use braille.…

  18. How a Braille Contest Serendipitously Accelerated the Use of Digital Audio Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebrugge, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    When Braille Institute in Los Angeles conceived The Braille Challenge contest more than a decade ago, the goal was to create an innovative way to promote braille literacy. Now that more than 4,500 students over the last 12 years from across the United States and Canada have chosen to participate in The Challenge, it is safe to say that it has been…

  19. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  20. Structural diversity of ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    ter Beek, Josy; Guskov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large superfamily of ATP-dependent protein complexes that mediate transport of a vast array of substrates across membranes. The 14 currently available structures of ABC transporters have greatly advanced insight into the transport mechanism and revealed a tremendous structural diversity. Whereas the domains that hydrolyze ATP are structurally related in all ABC transporters, the membrane-embedded domains, where the substrates are translocated, adopt four different unrelated folds. Here, we review the structural characteristics of ABC transporters and discuss the implications of this structural diversity for mechanistic diversity. PMID:24638992

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC)

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Herrington, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity

  2. μABC: a systematic microsecond molecular dynamics study of tetranucleotide sequence effects in B-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pasi, Marco; Maddocks, John H.; Beveridge, David; Bishop, Thomas C.; Case, David A.; Cheatham, Thomas; Dans, Pablo D.; Jayaram, B.; Lankas, Filip; Laughton, Charles; Mitchell, Jonathan; Osman, Roman; Orozco, Modesto; Pérez, Alberto; Petkevičiūtė, Daiva; Spackova, Nada; Sponer, Jiri; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Lavery, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of microsecond molecular dynamics simulations carried out by the ABC group of laboratories on a set of B-DNA oligomers containing the 136 distinct tetranucleotide base sequences. We demonstrate that the resulting trajectories have extensively sampled the conformational space accessible to B-DNA at room temperature. We confirm that base sequence effects depend strongly not only on the specific base pair step, but also on the specific base pairs that flank each step. Beyond sequence effects on average helical parameters and conformational fluctuations, we also identify tetranucleotide sequences that oscillate between several distinct conformational substates. By analyzing the conformation of the phosphodiester backbones, it is possible to understand for which sequences these substates will arise, and what impact they will have on specific helical parameters. PMID:25260586

  3. The effect of orientation on tactual braille recognition: optimal touching positions.

    PubMed

    Heller, M A

    1992-06-01

    Subjects in five experiments matched tangible braille against a visible matching code. In Experiment 1, braille recognition suffered when entire lines of braille characters were tilted in varying amounts from the upright. Experiment 2 showed that tilt lowered performance for tangible, large embossed letters, as well as for braille. However, recognition was better for print letters than it was for braille. In Experiment 3, subjects attempted to match the upright array against embossed braille that was left/right reversed, inverted up/down, or rotated +180 degrees. Performance was close to that for normal braille in the left/right reversal condition, and very low for the +180 degrees rotation group. These results on braille tilt in the "picture plane" may reflect difficulty in manipulating the tangible "image." Braille recognition performance was not lowered when the visible matching array was tilted -45 degrees or -90 degrees from the upright but the tangible stimuli were upright. In Experiment 4, recognition of left/right reversed braille that was physically horizontal (on the bottom of a shelf) was compared with that of braille left/right reversed due to its location on the back of a panel, in the vertical plane. Braille recognition accuracy was higher with braille located vertically. An additional experiment showed the beneficial effect of locating braille in the vertical, frontoparallel plane, obtained with +90 degree rotated braille. It is proposed that optimal tactual performance with tangible arrays might depend on touching position, and on the physical position of stimuli in space. Just as there are good and poor viewing positions, there may be optimal touching positions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-Huang; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao; Duan, Chun-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro. Methods: ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay. Results: Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs. PMID:27364797

  5. A Transcription System from MusicXML Format to Braille Music Notation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Gotoh, T.; Minamikawa-Tachino, R.; Tamura, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.

  6. Application of EAP materials toward a refreshable Braille display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Spigna, N.; Chakraborti, P.; Yang, P.; Ghosh, T.; Franzon, P.

    2009-03-01

    The development of a multiline, refreshable Braille display will assist with the full inclusion and integration of blind people into society. The use of both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film planar bending mode actuators and silicone dielectric elastomer cylindrical tube actuators have been investigated for their potential use in a Braille cell. A liftoff process that allows for aggressive scaling of miniature bimorph actuators has been developed using standard semiconductor lithography techniques. The PVDF bimorphs have been demonstrated to provide enough displacement to raise a Braille dot using biases less than 1000V and operating at 10Hz. In addition, silicone tube actuators have also been demonstrated to achieve the necessary displacement, though requiring higher voltages. The choice of electrodes and prestrain conditions aimed at maximizing axial strain in tube actuators are discussed. Characterization techniques measuring actuation displacement and blocking forces appropriate for standard Braille cell specifications are presented. Finally, the integration of these materials into novel cell designs and the fabrication of a prototype Braille cell are discussed.

  7. Do You Know Your ABC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Within primary schools, the core subjects of literacy and numeracy are highly regarded, and rightly so, as children need to learn to read, write and be numerically literate. This means that all children learn their ABCs at an early age, But, what about the "other ABC"--"Airway, Breathing and Circulation?" Accidents and medical…

  8. ABC Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-14

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: `Provide a weapon`s grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon`s grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.` This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments.

  9. An ABC for decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  10. An ABC for decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  11. Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S; Takayama, Shuichi

    2004-11-01

    Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use.

  12. Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use. PMID:15514025

  13. Identification of ABC Transporter Genes of Fusarium graminearum with Roles in Azole Tolerance and/or Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Deising, Holger B.; Wirsel, Stefan G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen infecting several important cereals, resulting in substantial yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Triazole fungicides are used to control diseases caused by this fungus on a worldwide scale. Our previous microarray study indicated that 15 ABC transporter genes were transcriptionally upregulated in response to tebuconazole treatment. Here, we deleted four ABC transporter genes in two genetic backgrounds of F. graminearum representing the DON (deoxynivalenol) and the NIV (nivalenol) trichothecene chemotypes. Deletion of FgABC3 and FgABC4 belonging to group I of ABC-G and to group V of ABC-C subfamilies of ABC transporters, respectively, considerably increased the sensitivity to the class I sterol biosynthesis inhibitors triazoles and fenarimol. Such effects were specific since they did not occur with any other fungicide class tested. Assessing the contribution of the four ABC transporters to virulence of F. graminearum revealed that, irrespective of their chemotypes, deletion mutants of FgABC1 (ABC-C subfamily group V) and FgABC3 were impeded in virulence on wheat, barley and maize. Phylogenetic context and analyses of mycotoxin production suggests that FgABC3 may encode a transporter protecting the fungus from host-derived antifungal molecules. In contrast, FgABC1 may encode a transporter responsible for the secretion of fungal secondary metabolites alleviating defence of the host. Our results show that ABC transporters play important and diverse roles in both fungicide resistance and pathogenesis of F. graminearum. PMID:24244413

  14. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Marta; Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR). In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is necessary to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps), multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5) and breast cancer resistance associated protein (BCRP). In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of the detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants that can act as chemosensitizers, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in (1) regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; (2) cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and (3) ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clearly suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish to underlay the mechanism to consider their use as

  15. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  16. Enhanced Image of Asteroid Braille from Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image was created from a composite of two images which were taken 914 seconds and 932 seconds after the recent Deep Space 1 (DS1) encounter with the asteroid 9969 Braille by the Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer (MICAS). Interpolated values were then computed for each pixel in the final image based on the neighboring pixels of the composite. The interpolation minimizes the spatial frequency artifacts of the final image. The Sun is illuminating Braille from below.

    Braille (also known as 1992 KD) was discovered on May 27, 1992 by astronomers Eleanor Helin and Kenneth Lawrence using the 46 centimeter (18 inch) Shmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory, while scanning the skies as part of the Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey.

    Deep Space 1 was launched into orbit around the Sun on October 24, 1998 at 5:08 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida on a Delta 7326, a variant of the Delta II rocket. An ion engine, operating for more than 1800 hours, was used to maneuver the spacecraft for an encounter with Braille. The closest approach of DS1 to the asteroid, at an approximate distance of 15 kilometers, occurred on July 29,1999 at 04:45 Universal Time, July 28 at 9:46 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time.

  17. Could Specific Braille Reading Difficulties Result from Developmental Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veispak, Anneli; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2010-01-01

    A proportion of children with visual impairments have specific reading difficulties that cannot be easily explained. This article reviews the data on problems with braille reading and interprets them from the framework of the temporal-processing deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  18. A compact electroactive polymer actuator suitable for refreshable Braille display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kailiang; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Minren; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2007-04-01

    The large strain, high elastic modulus, and easy processing of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) electrostrictive terpolymer make it very attractive to replace low strain piezoceramics and piezopolymers in many applications with much improved performance. In this paper, a compact polymer actuator is developed utilizing the electrostrictive terpolymer, which is suitable for full page Braille Display and graphic display. Key issues related to the reliability of electroactive polymers used in the compact actuators and for the mass fabrication of these polymer actuators are investigated. Making use of a recently developed conductive polymer, a screen printing deposition method was developed which enables direct deposition very thin conductive polymer electrode layer (< 0.1 μm) with strongly bonding to the terpolymer surface and short fabrication time. It was observed that the thin conductive polymer electrodes lead to the self-healing of the polymer after electric breakdown. An EAP compact Braille actuator was designed and fabricated with these terpolymer films wound on a spring core. The test results demonstrate that the EAP Braille actuator meets all the functional requirements of actuators for refreshable full Braille display, which offers compact size, reduced cost and weight.

  19. Composite View of Asteroid Braille from Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The two images on the left hand side of this composite image frame were taken 914 seconds and 932 seconds after the recent Deep Space 1 (DS1)encounter with the asteroid 9969 Braille by the Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer (MICAS). The image on the right was created by combining the two images on the left. The Sun is illuminating Braille from below , as is indicated by the arrow.

    Braille (also known as 1992 KD) was discovered on May 27, 1992 by astronomers Eleanor Helin and Kenneth Lawrence using the 46 centimeter (18 inch) Shmidt telescope at Palomar Observatory, while scanning the skies as part of the Palomar Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey.

    Deep Space 1 was launched into orbit around the Sun on October 24, 1998 at 5:08 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida on a Delta 7326, a variant of the Delta II rocket. An ion engine, operating for more than 1800 hours, was used to maneuver the spacecraft for an encounter with Braille. The closest approach of DS1 to the asteroid, at an approximate distance of 15 kilometers, occurred on July 29,1999 at 04:45 Universal Time, July 28 at 9:46 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time.

  20. On the Nonsmooth, Nonconstant Velocity of Braille Reading and Reversals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion

    2014-01-01

    Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…

  1. The ABCs of Sex Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Cites statistics on extent of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies among adolescents; describes ideological dispute over how to teach sex education; advocates teaching the ABCs of sex education: Abstinence, Be Monogamous, and Condoms. (PKP)

  2. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. Results We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone

  3. African Breast Cancer—Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO): protocol of a multicountry mobile health prospective study of breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fiona; Zietsman, Annelle; Galukande, Moses; Anele, Angelica; Adisa, Charles; Cubasch, Herbert; Parham, Groesbeck; Anderson, Benjamin O; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Schuz, Joachim; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sub-Saharan African (SSA) women with breast cancer (BC) have low survival rates from this potentially treatable disease. An understanding of context-specific societal, health-systems and woman-level barriers to BC early detection, diagnosis and treatment are needed. Methods The African Breast Cancer—Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) is a prospective hospital-based study of overall survival, impact on quality of life (QOL) and delays along the journey to diagnosis and treatment of BC in SSA. ABC-DO is currently recruiting in Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Women aged 18 years or older who present at participating secondary and tertiary hospitals with a new clinical or histocytological diagnosis of primary BC are invited to participate. For consented women, tumour characteristics, specimen and treatment data are obtained. Over a 2-year enrolment period, we aim to recruit 2000 women who, in the first instance, will be followed for between 1 and 3 years. A face-to-face baseline interview obtains information on socioeconomic, cultural and demographic factors, QOL, health and BC attitudes/knowledge, and timing of all prediagnostic contacts with caregivers in orthodox health, traditional and spiritual systems. Responses are immediately captured on mobile devices that are fed into a tailored mobile health (mHealth) study management system. This system implements the study protocol, by prompting study researchers to phone women on her mobile phone every 3 months and, failing to reach her, prompts contact with her next-of-kin. At follow-up calls, women provide updated information on QOL, care received and disease impacts on family and working life; date of death is asked of her next-of-kin when relevant. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by ethics committees of all involved institutions. All participants provide written informed consent. The findings from the study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals

  4. Braille Reading Accuracy of Students Who Are Visually Impaired: The Effects of Gender, Age at Vision Loss, and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulos, Vassilis; Papadimitriou, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study assesses the performance of students who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) in braille reading accuracy and examines potential correlations among the error categories on the basis of gender, age at loss of vision, and level of education. Methods: Twenty-one visually impaired…

  5. How the blind "see" Braille: lessons from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sadato, Norihiro

    2005-12-01

    What does the visual cortex of the blind do during Braille reading? This process involves converting simple tactile information into meaningful patterns that have lexical and semantic properties. The perceptual processing of Braille might be mediated by the somatosensory system, whereas visual letter identity is accomplished within the visual system in sighted people. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled exploration of the neural substrates of Braille reading. The primary visual cortex of early-onset blind subjects is functionally relevant to Braille reading, suggesting that the brain shows remarkable plasticity that potentially permits the additional processing of tactile information in the visual cortical areas.

  6. Adhesion to chondroitinase ABC treated dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Annalisa; Pashley, David H.; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Vita, Francesca; Falconi, Mirella; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Dentin bonding relies on complete resin impregnation throughout the demineralised hydrophilic collagen mesh. Chondroitin sulphate-glycosaminoglycans are claimed to regulate the three-dimensional arrangement of the dentin organic matrix and its hydrophilicity. The aim of this study was to investigate bond strength of two etch-and-rinse adhesives to chondroitinase ABC treated dentin. Human extracted molars were treated with chondroitinase ABC and a double labelling immunohistochemical technique was applied to reveal type I collagen and chondroitin 4/6 sulphate distribution under field emission in-lens scanning electron microscope. The immunohistochemical technique confirmed the effective removal of chondroitin 4/6 sulphate after the enzymatic treatment. Dentin surfaces exposed to chondroitinase ABC and untreated specimens prepared on untreated acid-etched dentin were bonded with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose or Prime & Bond NT. Bonded specimens were submitted to microtensile testing and nanoleakage interfacial analysis under transmission electron microscope. Increased mean values of microtensile bond strength and reduced nanoleakage expression were found for both adhesives after chondroitinase ABC treatment of the dentin surface. Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose increased its bond strength about 28%, while bonding made with Prime & Bond NT almost doubled (92% increase) compared to untreated specimens. This study supports the hypothesis that adhesion can be enhanced by removal of chondroitin 4/6 sulphate and dermatan sulphate, probably due to a reduced amount of water content and enlarged interfibrillar spaces. Further studies should validate this hypothesis investigating the stability of chondroitin 4/6 and dermatan sulphate-depleted dentin bonded interface over time. PMID:18161809

  7. Preliminary time-of-flight neutron diffraction studies of Escherichia coli ABC transport receptor phosphate-binding protein at the Protein Crystallography Station

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, K. H.; Bacik, J.; Quiocho, F. A.; Fisher, S. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential molecule for all known life. Organisms have developed many mechanisms to ensure an adequate supply, even in low-phosphate conditions. In prokaryotes phosphate transport is instigated by the phosphate-binding protein (PBP), the initial receptor for the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) phosphate transporter. In the crystal structure of the PBP–phosphate complex, the phosphate is completely desolvated and sequestered in a deep cleft and is bound by 13 hydrogen bonds: 12 to protein NH and OH donor groups and one to a carboxylate acceptor group. The carboxylate plays a key recognition role by accepting a phosphate hydrogen. PBP phosphate affinity is relatively consistent across a broad pH range, indicating the capacity to bind monobasic (H2PO4 −) and dibasic (HPO4 2−) phosphate; however, the mechanism by which it might accommodate the second hydrogen of monobasic phosphate is unclear. To answer this question, neutron diffraction studies were initiated. Large single crystals with a volume of 8 mm3 were grown and subjected to hydrogen/deuterium exchange. A 2.5 Å resolution data set was collected on the Protein Crystallography Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Initial refinement of the neutron data shows significant nuclear density, and refinement is ongoing. This is the first report of a neutron study from this superfamily. PMID:24915101

  8. ABCE1 Is a Highly Conserved RNA Silencing Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Kärblane, Kairi; Gerassimenko, Jelena; Nigul, Lenne; Piirsoo, Alla; Smialowska, Agata; Vinkel, Kadri; Kylsten, Per; Ekwall, Karl; Swoboda, Peter; Truve, Erkki; Sarmiento, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1) is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference. PMID:25659154

  9. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    Bdellovibrio -and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence–structure–function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. PMID:25707746

  10. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  11. The Social ABCs caregiver‐mediated intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: Feasibility, acceptability, and evidence of promise from a multisite study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Isabel M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Bryson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Social ABCs is a parent‐mediated intervention for toddlers with suspected or confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We undertook a multi‐site pilot study to evaluate feasibility and acceptability, and to identify trends in child and parent behavior to inform future research using a larger sample and a rigorous research design. The program involved 12 weeks of parent coaching, followed by 12 weeks' implementation, and 3‐month follow‐up assessment for 20 parent‐toddler dyads (age range: 12–32 months). Parents successfully learned the techniques and rated the intervention as highly acceptable. Paired samples t‐tests revealed significant gains in children's functional communication (responsivity, initiations), and language gains (age‐equivalents on standardized measures) commensurate with typical developmental rates. Significant increases in shared smiling and social orienting also emerged, but were attenuated at follow‐up. Parents' fidelity was positively associated with child responsivity. Training parents as mediators is a feasible and highly acceptable approach that provides a potentially cost‐effective opportunity for intensive intervention at a very young age at the first signs of ASD risk. Child and parent gains in several key variables demonstrate the promise of this intervention. Autism Res 2016, 9: 899–912. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26688077

  12. The Social ABCs caregiver-mediated intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: Feasibility, acceptability, and evidence of promise from a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Brian, Jessica A; Smith, Isabel M; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Bryson, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    The Social ABCs is a parent-mediated intervention for toddlers with suspected or confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We undertook a multi-site pilot study to evaluate feasibility and acceptability, and to identify trends in child and parent behavior to inform future research using a larger sample and a rigorous research design. The program involved 12 weeks of parent coaching, followed by 12 weeks' implementation, and 3-month follow-up assessment for 20 parent-toddler dyads (age range: 12-32 months). Parents successfully learned the techniques and rated the intervention as highly acceptable. Paired samples t-tests revealed significant gains in children's functional communication (responsivity, initiations), and language gains (age-equivalents on standardized measures) commensurate with typical developmental rates. Significant increases in shared smiling and social orienting also emerged, but were attenuated at follow-up. Parents' fidelity was positively associated with child responsivity. Training parents as mediators is a feasible and highly acceptable approach that provides a potentially cost-effective opportunity for intensive intervention at a very young age at the first signs of ASD risk. Child and parent gains in several key variables demonstrate the promise of this intervention. Autism Res 2016, 9: 899-912. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  13. ABC goal achievement predicts microvascular but not macrovascular complications over 6-years in adults with type 1 diabetes: the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Maahs, David M.; Rewers, Marian; Johnson, Richard J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis Vascular complications of type 1 diabetes are thought to cluster. We examined the prevalence and incidence of vascular complications and American Diabetes Association’s ABC goal achievements in a prospective cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that ABC achievement at baseline would predict both micro- and macrovascular complications over 6-years. Methods Participants (N=652) were 19–56 year old at baseline and re-examined 6-years later. Microvascular complications included diabetic nephropathy (DN), defined as incident albuminuria (AER≥20μg/min) or rapid GFR decline (>3.3%/year) by CKD-EPI cystatin C and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), defined as laser eye-therapy. Macrovascular complications were defined as coronary artery calcium progression (CACp), measured by electron-beam computed-tomography. ABC goals were defined as HbA1c<7.0%, BP<130/80 mmHg, LDL-C<100mg/dL. Results ABC control was suboptimal with only 6% meeting all goals. Meeting no ABC goals at baseline compared to meeting all goals was associated with increased odds of developing microvascular complications (OR: 8.5, 2.3–31.5, p=0.001), but did not reach significance for CACp (OR: 1.7, 0.8–3.9, p=0.19). Conclusion ABC achievement at baseline strongly predicted microvascular but not macrovascular complications over 6-years in adults with type 1 diabetes, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic targets to complement conventional risk factors in treating macrovascular complications. PMID:25270733

  14. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  15. A PC-based Braille library system for the sightless.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Dutta, P; Roy, S; Banerjee, S

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a novel multiclient braille reading system developed around a single low cost personal computer. The system primarily addresses the needs of the Braille libraries, where different texts are needed to be read by different users simultaneously. Moreover, the system can simultaneously cater to different texts written in different languages. This feature makes it specially suitable for use by multilingual nationalities. The major advantage of this system is its low cost, compared to the other systems available and is specially attractive for the developing or underdeveloped countries. The paper describes the system, first from the user point of view and then presents the hardware and software design details. The system performance has been evaluated by the sightless users and has shown encouraging results.

  16. Can Braille be revived? A possible impact of high-end Braille and mainstream technology on the revival of tactile literacy medium.

    PubMed

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    With a decline in use of Braille, very few attractive technological options can be offered to young learners. Various research data confirm that teachers of the visually impaired do not have sufficient skills to introduce their students to modern devices. The Mountbatten Brailler can be considered as a tool that combines Braille technology with mainstream tools commonly used by students and teachers. This combination of devices opens new possibilities for the teachers and their students to reverse the trend in the use of Braille. Thanks to features offered by the Brailler and iOS devices, sighted and blind users receive a tool for unimpaired written communication.

  17. Stability of the SB:FE and K-ABC for Young Children from Low-Income Families: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Emily J.; Lamp, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the stability of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB:FE) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) by testing a sample of 65 children from low socioeconomic status families. Mean scores for the group were roughly equivalent, correlation coefficients were high, and change scores for the majority of…

  18. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  19. Evaluation and Research Program for the Portable Braille Recorder (PBR). Volume II. Appendices to Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcroft, S. C.

    The document makes up the appendixes to the final report of a program to evaluate user satisfaction, practicality, reliability, and maintainability of the Digicassette (or Portable Braille Recorder--PBR), an electronic braille reading and writing machine and an audiotape recorder which is compact and easy to carry around. Materials include the…

  20. An Investigation of the Height of Embossed Braille Dots for Labels on Pharmaceutical Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Graeme; Weston, Annette; Whittaker, Jennifer; Wilkins, Sarah Morley; Robinson, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    European legislation requires new pharmaceutical packaging to include both the name and strength of the drug in braille on boxes and bottles. Much of the braille on medical packaging is currently produced by an embossing process on boxes. The height of the dots that can be achieved through these methods is less than 0.3 mm. The physical dimensions…

  1. Design of a Braille Learning Application for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Lutfun; Jaafar, Azizah; Ahamed, Eistiak; Kaish, A B M A

    2015-01-01

    Visually impaired students (VIS) are unable to get visual information, which has made their learning process complicated. This paper discusses the overall situation of VIS in Bangladesh and identifies major challenges that they are facing in getting education. The Braille system is followed to educate blind students in Bangladesh. However, lack of Braille based educational resources and technological solutions have made the learning process lengthy and complicated for VIS. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Braille related technological tools for VIS. Therefore, a mobile phone based Braille application, "mBRAILLE", for Android platform is designed to provide an easy Braille learning technology for VIS in Bangladesh. The proposed design is evaluated by experts in assistive technology for students with disabilities, and advanced learners of Braille. The application aims to provide a Bangla and English Braille learning platform for VIS. In this paper, we depict iterative (participatory) design of the application along with a preliminary evaluation with 5 blind subjects, and 1 sighted and 2 blind experts. The results show that the design scored an overall satisfaction level of 4.53 out of 5 by all respondents, indicating that our design is ready for the next step of development.

  2. Current Practices in Instruction in the Literary Braille Code University Personnel Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Lewis, Sandra; D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2010-01-01

    University instructors were surveyed to determine the requirements for their literary braille courses. Twenty-one instructors provided information on the textbooks they used; how they determined errors; reading proficiency requirements; and other pertinent information, such as methods of assessing mastery of the production of braille using a…

  3. U.S. National Certification in Literary Braille: History and Current Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a certification examination for teachers of students with visual impairments--the National Literary Braille Competency Test (NLBCT). It discusses the history, development, pilot testing, and validation of NLBCT and the creation of the National Certification in Literary Braille. Data on the current administration of the test…

  4. Differential Cognitive and Perceptual Correlates of Print Reading versus Braille Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2013-01-01

    The relations between reading, auditory, speech, phonological and tactile spatial processing are investigated in a Dutch speaking sample of blind braille readers as compared to sighted print readers. Performance is assessed in blind and sighted children and adults. Regarding phonological ability, braille readers perform equally well compared to…

  5. Preferences and Practices among Students Who Read Braille and Use Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Students who read braille use assistive technology to engage in literacy tasks and to access the general curriculum. There is little research on the ways in which technology has changed the reading and writing practices and preferences of students who use braille, nor is there much research on how assistive technology is learned by…

  6. Braille Telecaptioning: Making Real-Time Television Accessible to Deaf-Blind Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman-Anderson, L.

    1989-01-01

    A federal grant has been awarded to develop and test a prototype device to make closed-captioned television available to deaf-blind people. The Braille TeleCaption System, with output available in braille and large print, is currently being tested. Such new technology makes real-time viewing of news, weather, and entertainment accessible to…

  7. A Recorded Aid for Braille Music. Paper No. 3. The Prospectus Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, S. Joseph

    The Recorded Aid for Braille Music is designed to teach instrumental music to visually handicapped students through the integration of tape recordings with established methods of reading braille music notation and playing by ear. Packages of instructional materials for clarinet, flute, alto saxophone, trumpet, and trombone contain the recording,…

  8. Function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ABC proteins in lipid transport.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Antje; Devaux, Philippe F; Herrmann, Andreas

    2005-03-21

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins are implicated in the transport of lipids. In humans, members of the ABC protein families A, B, C, D and G are mutated in a number of lipid transport and metabolism disorders, such as Tangier disease, Stargardt syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, adrenoleukodystrophy or sitosterolemia. Studies employing transfection, overexpression, reconstitution, deletion and inhibition indicate the transbilayer transport of endogenous lipids and their analogs by some of these proteins, modulating lipid transbilayer asymmetry. Other proteins appear to be involved in the exposure of specific lipids on the exoplasmic leaflet, allowing their uptake by acceptors and further transport to specific sites. Additionally, lipid transport by ABC proteins is currently being studied in non-human eukaryotes, e.g. in sea urchin, trypanosomatides, arabidopsis and yeast, as well as in prokaryotes such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis. Here, we review current information about the (putative) role of both pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins in the various phenomena associated with lipid transport. Besides providing a better understanding of phenomena like lipid metabolism, circulation, multidrug resistance, hormonal processes, fertilization, vision and signalling, studies on pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins might eventually enable us to put a name on some of the proteins mediating transbilayer lipid transport in various membranes of cells and organelles. It must be emphasized, however, that there are still many uncertainties concerning the functions and mechanisms of ABC proteins interacting with lipids. In particular, further purification and reconstitution experiments with an unambiguous role of ATP hydrolysis are needed to demonstrate a clear involvement of ABC proteins in lipid transbilayer asymmetry. PMID:15749056

  9. Inter-domain communication mechanisms in an ABC importer: a molecular dynamics study of the MalFGK2E complex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A Sofia F; Baptista, António M; Soares, Cláudio M

    2011-08-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that convert the energy from ATP-binding and hydrolysis into conformational changes of the transmembrane region to allow the translocation of substrates against their concentration gradient. Despite the large amount of structural and biochemical data available for this family, it is still not clear how the energy obtained from ATP hydrolysis in the ATPase domains is "transmitted" to the transmembrane domains. In this work, we focus our attention on the consequences of hydrolysis and inorganic phosphate exit in the maltose uptake system (MalFGK(2)E) from Escherichia coli. The prime goal is to identify and map the structural changes occurring during an ATP-hydrolytic cycle. For that, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to study three potential intermediate states (with 10 replicates each): an ATP-bound, an ADP plus inorganic phosphate-bound and an ADP-bound state. Our results show that the residues presenting major rearrangements are located in the A-loop, in the helical sub-domain, and in the "EAA motif" (especially in the "coupling helices" region). Additionally, in one of the simulations with ADP we were able to observe the opening of the NBD dimer accompanied by the dissociation of ADP from the ABC signature motif, but not from its corresponding P-loop motif. This work, together with several other MD studies, suggests a common communication mechanism both for importers and exporters, in which ATP-hydrolysis induces conformational changes in the helical sub-domain region, in turn transferred to the transmembrane domains via the "coupling helices".

  10. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  11. Characterization of a pneumatic balloon actuator for use in refreshable Braille displays.

    PubMed

    Fan, Richard E; Feinman, Adam M; Wottawa, Christopher; King, Chih-Hung; Franco, Miguel L; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O

    2009-01-01

    Many existing refreshable Braille display technologies are costly or lack robust performance. A process has been developed to fabricate consistent and reliable pneumatic balloon actuators at low material cost, using a novel manufacturing process. This technique has been adapted for use in refreshable Braille displays that feature low power consumption, ease of manufacture and small form factor. A prototype refreshable cell, conforming to American Braille standards, was developed and tested. The cell was fabricated from molded PDMS to form balloon actuators with a spin-coated silicone film, and fast pneumatic driving elements and an electronic control system were developed to drive the Braille dots. Perceptual testing was performed to determine the feasibility of the approach using a single blind human subject. The subject was able to detect randomized Braille letters rapidly generated by the actuator with 100% character detection accuracy.

  12. Demonstration of Vibrational Braille Code Display Using Large Displacement Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Arouette, Xavier; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a vibrational Braille code display with large-displacement micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuator arrays. Tactile receptors are more sensitive to vibrational stimuli than to static ones. Therefore, when each cell of the Braille code vibrates at optimal frequencies, subjects can recognize the codes more efficiently. We fabricated a vibrational Braille code display that used actuators consisting of piezoelectric actuators and a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) as cells. The HDAM that encapsulated incompressible liquids in microchambers with two flexible polymer membranes could amplify the displacement of the MEMS actuator. We investigated the voltage required for subjects to recognize Braille codes when each cell, i.e., the large-displacement MEMS actuator, vibrated at various frequencies. Lower voltages were required at vibration frequencies higher than 50 Hz than at vibration frequencies lower than 50 Hz, which verified that the proposed vibrational Braille code display is efficient by successfully exploiting the characteristics of human tactile receptors.

  13. Characterization of a pneumatic balloon actuator for use in refreshable Braille displays.

    PubMed

    Fan, Richard E; Feinman, Adam M; Wottawa, Christopher; King, Chih-Hung; Franco, Miguel L; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O

    2009-01-01

    Many existing refreshable Braille display technologies are costly or lack robust performance. A process has been developed to fabricate consistent and reliable pneumatic balloon actuators at low material cost, using a novel manufacturing process. This technique has been adapted for use in refreshable Braille displays that feature low power consumption, ease of manufacture and small form factor. A prototype refreshable cell, conforming to American Braille standards, was developed and tested. The cell was fabricated from molded PDMS to form balloon actuators with a spin-coated silicone film, and fast pneumatic driving elements and an electronic control system were developed to drive the Braille dots. Perceptual testing was performed to determine the feasibility of the approach using a single blind human subject. The subject was able to detect randomized Braille letters rapidly generated by the actuator with 100% character detection accuracy. PMID:19377122

  14. A Descriptive and Analytic Study of Compensatory Reading Programs, Volume I and Appendices A,B,C. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trismen, Donald A.; And Others

    Since July 1971, the Educational Testing Service has planned and conducted a study of compensatory reading programs in United States public schools. This volume reports the results of the 1972-1973 school-year study (phase two), which involved pre- and posttesting of all students in the second, fourth, and sixth grades of a subsample of the…

  15. MdsABC-Mediated Pathway for Pathogenicity in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Song, Saemee; Lee, Boeun; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Soonhye; Kang, Ilnam; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Ha, Nam-Chul; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok; Kim, Yong-Hak

    2015-11-01

    MdsABC is a Salmonella-specific tripartite efflux pump that has been implicated in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; however, little is known about the virulence factors associated with this pump. We observed MdsABC expression-dependent alterations in the degree of resistance to extracellular oxidative stress and macrophage-mediated killing. Thin-layer chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that overexpression of MdsABC led to increased secretion of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-phosphatidylserine (PSPS), affecting the ability of the bacteria to invade and survive in host cells. Overexpression of MdsABC and external addition of PSPS similarly rendered the mdsABC deletion strain resistant to diamide. Diagonal gel analysis showed that PSPS treatment reduced the diamide-mediated formation of disulfide bonds, particularly in the membrane fraction of the bacteria. Salmonella infection of macrophages induced the upregulation of MdsABC expression and led to an increase of intracellular bacterial number and host cell death, similar to the effects of MdsABC overexpression and PSPS pretreatment on the mdsABC deletion strain. Our study shows that MdsABC mediates a previously uncharacterized pathway that involves PSPS as a key factor for the survival and virulence of S. Typhimurium in phagocytic cells.

  16. The Predicted ABC Transporter AbcEDCBA Is Required for Type IV Secretion System Expression and Lysosomal Evasion by Brucella ovis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Winter, Maria G.; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N.; Pires, Simone F.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Andrade, Hélida M.; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA) was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi), whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells. PMID:25474545

  17. Anticholinergic Use and Recurrent Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Findings From the Health ABC Study

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Thorpe, Joshua M.; Switzer, Galen E.; Gray, Shelly L.; Castle, Nicholas G.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Shorr, Ronald I.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although it is generally accepted that anticholinergic use may lead to a fall, results from studies assessing the association between anticholinergic use and falls are mixed. In addition, direct evidence of an association between use of anticholinergic medications and recurrent falls among community-dwelling elders is not available. Objective To assess the association between anticholinergic use across multiple anticholinergic subclasses, including over-the-counter medications, and recurrent falls. Methods This was a longitudinal analysis of 2948 participants, with data collected via interview at year 1 from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study and followed through year 7 (1997–2004). Self-reported use of anticholinergic medication was identified at years 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 as defined by the list from the 2015 American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. Dosage and duration were also examined. The main outcome was recurrent falls (≥2) in an ensuing 12-month period from each medication data collection. Results Using multivariable generalized estimating equation models, controlling for demographic, health status/behaviors, and access-to-care factors, a 34% increase in likelihood of recurrent falls in anticholinergic users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.93–1.93) was observed, but the results were not statistically significant; similar results were found with higher doses and longer duration of use. Conclusion Increased point estimates suggest an association of anticholinergic use with recurrent falls, but the associations did not reach statistical significance. Future studies are needed for more definitive evidence and to examine other measures of anticholinergic burden and associations with more intermediate adverse effects such as cognitive function. PMID:26228936

  18. Fetuin-A and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in Older Persons: The Health Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel-Fyr, Christina; Kanaya, Alka; Vittinghoff, Eric; Johnson, Karen C.; Koster, Annemarie; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Cummings, Steven R.; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Context Fetuin-A is a hepatic secretory protein that binds the insulin receptor in muscle and fat and inhibits insulin action, in vitro. In prior cross-sectional studies in humans, higher fetuin-A was associated with insulin resistance. However, the longitudinal association of fetuin-A with incident diabetes mellitus is unknown. Objective To determine whether fetuin-A levels are associated with incident diabetes in older persons Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study among 3,075 well-functioning persons aged 70 to 79 years. In this case-cohort study, we retrospectively measured fetuin-A in baseline serum among 406 randomly selected participants without prevalent diabetes, and all participants who developed incident diabetes during 6-years of follow-up. Main Outcome Measure Incident diabetes mellitus. Results Incident diabetes developed in 135 participants (10.1 cases/1,000 person-years) over 6-years. Participants with fetuin-A levels within the highest tertile (>0.97 g/L) had more than two times higher risk of incident diabetes (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 2.41; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.28–4.53; P<0.01) compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (≤0.76 g/L) in models adjusted for age, sex, race, waist circumference, body weight, physical activity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and CRP levels. The association was not affected by adipocytokine levels, but was moderately attenuated by adjustment for visceral adiposity (adjusted HR of highest vs. lowest tertile 1.72; 95% CI 0.98–3.05; P=0.06). Conclusions Among well functioning older persons, serum fetuin-A is a novel risk factor for incident diabetes that is independent of markers of insulin resistance commonly available in clinical practice, and may be partially mediated through visceral adiposity. PMID:18612115

  19. Adiponectin levels predict prediabetes risk: the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yunna; Owei, Ibiye; Wan, Jim; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Adiponectin levels display ethnic disparities, and are inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the association of adiponectin with prediabetes risk in diverse populations has not been well-studied. Here, we assessed baseline adiponectin levels in relation to incident prediabetes in a longitudinal biracial cohort. Research design and methods The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study followed non-diabetic offspring of parents with T2DM for the occurrence of prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Assessments at enrollment and during follow-up included a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, biochemistries (including fasting insulin and adiponectin levels), insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the contribution of adiponectin to risk of progression to prediabetes. Results Among the 333 study participants (mean (SD) age 44.2 (10.6) year), 151(45.3%) were white and 182 (54.8%) were black. During approximately 5.5 (mean 2.62) years of follow-up, 110 participants (33%) progressed to prediabetes (N=100) or T2DM (N=10), and 223 participants (67%) were non-progressors. The mean cohort adiponectin level was 9.41+5.30 μg/mL (range 3.1–45.8 μg/mL); values were higher in women than men (10.3+5.67 μg/mL vs 7.27+3.41 μg/mL, p<0.0001) and in white than black offspring (10.7+5.44 μg/mL vs 8.34+4.95 μg/mL, p<0.0001). Adiponectin levels correlated inversely with adiposity and glycemia, and positively with insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Baseline adiponectin strongly predicted incident prediabetes: the HR for prediabetes per 1 SD (approximately 5 μg/mL) higher baseline adiponectin was 0.48 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.86, p=0.013). Conclusions Among healthy white and black adults with parental history of T2DM, adiponectin level is a powerful risk marker of incident prediabetes

  20. The Efficacy of the Web-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in Chinese American Adolescents (Web ABC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B.; Cooper, Bruce; Lustig, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven and family-based program delivered online to promote healthy lifestyles and weights in Chinese American adolescents. Methods A randomized controlled study of a Web-based intervention was developed and conducted in 54 Chinese American adolescents (ages, 12–15 years) and their families. Data on anthropometry, blood pressure, dietary intake, physical activity, and knowledge and self-efficacy regarding physical activity and nutrition were collected at baseline and 2, 6, and 8 months after the baseline assessment. Data were analyzed using linear mixed modeling. Results The intervention resulted in significant declines in waist-to-hip ratio and diastolic blood pressure and increases in vegetable and fruit intake, level of physical activity, and knowledge about physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions This Web-based behavior program for Chinese American adolescents and their families appears feasible and effective in the short term. Longer term effects remain to be determined. This type of program can be adapted for other minority ethnic groups who are at high risk for overweight and obesity and have limited access to programs that promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:21783046

  1. The ABC of Ribosome-Related Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    The increase in multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is limiting the utility of our current arsenal of antimicrobial agents. Mechanistically understanding how bacteria obtain antibiotic resistance is a critical first step to the development of improved inhibitors. One common mechanism for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance is by employing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to actively pump the drug from the cell. The ABC-F family includes proteins conferring resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics; however, controversy remains as to whether resistance is conferred via efflux like other ABC transporters or whether another mechanism, such as ribosome protection, is at play. A recent study by Sharkey and coworkers (L. K. Sharkey, T. A. Edwards, and A. J. O'Neill, mBio 7:e01975-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01975-15) provides strong evidence that ABC-F proteins conferring antibiotic resistance utilize ribosome protection mechanisms, namely, by interacting with the ribosome and displacing the drug from its binding site, thus revealing a novel role for ABC-F proteins in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27143393

  2. The ABC of Ribosome-Related Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-05-03

    The increase in multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is limiting the utility of our current arsenal of antimicrobial agents. Mechanistically understanding how bacteria obtain antibiotic resistance is a critical first step to the development of improved inhibitors. One common mechanism for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance is by employing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to actively pump the drug from the cell. The ABC-F family includes proteins conferring resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics; however, controversy remains as to whether resistance is conferred via efflux like other ABC transporters or whether another mechanism, such as ribosome protection, is at play. A recent study by Sharkey and coworkers (L. K. Sharkey, T. A. Edwards, and A. J. O'Neill, mBio 7:e01975-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01975-15) provides strong evidence that ABC-F proteins conferring antibiotic resistance utilize ribosome protection mechanisms, namely, by interacting with the ribosome and displacing the drug from its binding site, thus revealing a novel role for ABC-F proteins in antibiotic resistance.

  3. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods.

  4. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind Braille readers

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J.; Lisak, Joy A.; Vargas, Maria G.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at about 100-ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50-ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25-ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared to 100-micron reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker: 50-Hz, 50-micron; target-masker delays ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged, but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers. PMID:20980584

  5. The integration of novel EAP-based Braille cells for use in a refreshable tactile display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Spigna, N.; Chakraborti, P.; Winick, D.; Yang, P.; Ghosh, T.; Franzon, P.

    2010-04-01

    Structures demonstrating the viability of both the hydraulic and latching Braille dot, and the dielectric elastomer fiber Braille dot have been fabricated and characterized. A hydraulic proof-of-concept structure has achieved the necessary volumetric change required to lift a Braille dot over 0.5mm at voltages under 1000V and at speeds under 100ms. Long bimorphs have been fabricated that demonstrate large tip displacements over 2mm that could be used to mechanically latch the Braille rod in the 'up' position to achieve the force requirement. The addition of radial prestrain in dielectric elastomer tubes has reduced the wall thickness and directed the strain in the axial direction which has had a dramatic impact on their resulting characteristics. The required bias voltage for the dielectric elastomer fiber Braille dot has been reduced from 15.5kV to 8.75kV while the Braille head tip displacement of a fabricated prototype has almost tripled on average and now also exceeds the required displacement for a refreshable Braille display. Finally, potential solutions to the current shortcomings of both designs in meeting all of the requirements for such a display are discussed.

  6. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind braille readers.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J; Lisak, Joy A; Vargas, Maria G; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-10-27

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at ∼100 ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50 ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25 ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared with 100 μm reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker, 50 Hz, 50 μm; target-masker delays, ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers.

  7. Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC): Establishing Construct Validity for Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…

  8. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R.; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D.; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M.; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-01-01

    ABC transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) technology to map the protein interactome of all non-mitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomy cescerevisiae, and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated interactome. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in a surprisingly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters. PMID:23831759

  9. ABC transporters, atherosclerosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Michael L; Mujawar, Zahedi; Tamehiro, Norimasa

    2010-08-01

    Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Insight into the mechanism of RCT has been gained by the study of two rare syndromes caused by the mutation of ABC transporter loci. In Tangier disease, loss of ABCA1 prevents cells from exporting cholesterol and phospholipid, thus resulting in the build-up of cholesterol in the peripheral tissues and a loss of circulating HDL. Consistent with HDL being an athero-protective particle, Tangier patients are more prone to develop atherosclerosis. Likewise, sitosterolemia is another inherited syndrome associated with premature atherosclerosis. Here mutations in either the ABCG5 or G8 loci, prevents hepatocytes and enterocytes from excreting cholesterol and plant sterols, including sitosterol, into the bile and intestinal lumen. Thus, ABCG5 and G8, which from a heterodimer, constitute a transporter that excretes cholesterol and dietary sterols back into the gut, while ABCA1 functions to export excess cell cholesterol and phospholipid during the biogenesis of HDL. Interestingly, a third protein, ABCG1, that has been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic activity in mice, may also act to transfer cholesterol to mature HDL particles. Here we review the relationship between the lipid transport activities of these proteins and their anti-atherosclerotic effect, particularly how they may reduce inflammatory signaling pathways. Of particular interest are recent reports that indicate both ABCA1 and ABCG1 modulate cell surface cholesterol levels and inhibit its partitioning into lipid rafts. Given lipid rafts may provide platforms for innate immune receptors to respond to inflammatory signals, it follows that loss of ABCA1 and ABCG1

  10. The ABCs for Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Competency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ye; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to combine pre-service teachers' self-reflection with their field experiences to enhance their cultural competency, this study adopted Schmidt's ABC's (Autobiography, Biography, and Cross-cultural Comparison) Model in two courses in a pre-service teacher education program. Through group comparisons, this study measured the impact that…

  11. Multidrug resistance-associated ABC transporters - too much of one thing, good for nothing.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Jirina; Lanova, Martina; Pachernik, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    Abstract Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cells results in multidrug resistance (MDR) which leads to unsuccessful chemotherapy. The most important MDR-associated members of ABC superfamily are ABC B1/P-glycoprotein/MDR1, ABC C1/multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1), and ABC G2/BCRP. This study is not only focused on function, substrates, and localization of these popular proteins but also on other ABC C family members such as ABC C2-6/MRP2-6 and ABC C7/CFTR. Current research is mainly oriented on the cancer-promoting role of these proteins, but important lessons could also be learned from the physiological roles of these proteins or from polymorphisms affecting their function. Thorough knowledge of structure and detailed mechanism of efflux can aid in the discovery of new chemotherapy targets in the future. Although the best way on how to deal with MDR would be to prevent its development, we describe some new promising strategies on how to conquer both inherited and induced MDRs.

  12. ABC of Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Michael

    1975-01-01

    This brief biography of Riemann is one of a series of biographical sketches in this journal. Riemann was born in Germany in 1826 and studied with Gauss among others. His numerous contributions to mathematics include the invention of a non-euclidean geometry and the founding of topology. (SD)

  13. The ABC's of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Marilyn

    Produced for primary grades, this student booklet provides a unit approach to the study of water. Each letter of the alphabet is used to represent a word dealing in some way with water. Two pages are utilized for each letter, showing the capital and lowercase form of the letter, the word, a drawing of the word or article, and a brief explanation…

  14. Novel grid-based optical Braille conversion: from scanning to wording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoosefi Babadi, Majid; Jafari, Shahram

    2011-12-01

    Grid-based optical Braille conversion (GOBCO) is explained in this article. The grid-fitting technique involves processing scanned images taken from old hard-copy Braille manuscripts, recognising and converting them into English ASCII text documents inside a computer. The resulted words are verified using the relevant dictionary to provide the final output. The algorithms employed in this article can be easily modified to be implemented on other visual pattern recognition systems and text extraction applications. This technique has several advantages including: simplicity of the algorithm, high speed of execution, ability to help visually impaired persons and blind people to work with fax machines and the like, and the ability to help sighted people with no prior knowledge of Braille to understand hard-copy Braille manuscripts.

  15. Exploring the Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.; de Pree, C.

    2010-06-01

    A tactile/Braille exhibit for the visually impaired community in the USA was launched in July 2009. The exhibit is part of the global From Earth to the Universe (FETTU) project, a Cornerstone of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the travelling tactile/Braille exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, the Crab Nebula, the Whirlpool Galaxy and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the tactile/Braille book Touch the Invisible Sky. We present some of the early observations and findings on the tactile/Braille FETTU exhibit. The new exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy for the underserved visually impaired population.

  16. Deletion of the P5abc Peripheral Element Accelerates Early and Late Folding Steps of the Tetrahymena Group I Ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Russell,R.; Tijerina, P.; Chadee, A.; Bhaskaran, H.

    2007-01-01

    The P5abc peripheral element stabilizes the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme and enhances its catalytic activity. Despite its beneficial effects on the native structure, prior studies have shown that early formation of P5abc structure during folding can slow later folding steps. Here we use a P5abc deletion variant (E{sup {Delta}P5abc}) to systematically probe the role of P5abc throughout tertiary folding. Time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that E{sup {Delta}P5abc} forms its earliest stable tertiary structure on the millisecond time scale, {approx}5-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme, and stable structure spreads throughout E{sup {Delta}P5abc} in seconds. Nevertheless, activity measurements show that the earliest detectable formation of native E{sup {Delta}P5abc} ribozyme is much slower ({approx}0.6 min{sup -1}), in a manner similar to that of the wild type. Also similar, only a small fraction of E{sup {Delta}P5abc} attains the native state on this time scale under standard conditions at 25 {sup o}C, whereas the remainder misfolds; footprinting experiments show that the misfolded conformer shares structural features with the long-lived misfolded conformer of the wild-type ribozyme. Thus, P5abc does not have a large overall effect on the rate-limiting step(s) along this pathway. However, once misfolded, E{sup {Delta}P5abc} refolds to the native state 80-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme and is less accelerated by urea, indicating that P5abc stabilizes the misfolded structure relative to the less-ordered transition state for refolding. Together, the results suggest that, under these conditions, even the earliest tertiary folding intermediates of the wild-type ribozyme represent misfolded species and that P5abc is principally a liability during the tertiary folding process.

  17. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries. PMID:11326572

  18. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.

  19. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  20. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  1. Modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand of braille readers.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, A; Cammarota, A; Wassermann, E M; Brasil-Neto, J P; Cohen, L G; Hallett, M

    1993-07-01

    We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the motor cortical areas targeting the first dorsal interosseous and the abductor digiti minimi muscles bilaterally in 10 proficient braille readers and 10 blind controls who were matched for age (mean, 50.6 yr) and age at time of blindness (mean, 7.5 yr). The proficient braille readers had learned braille at age 8 to 14 years and used it daily for 5 to 10 hours. Controls had not learned braille until age 17 to 21 years and used it daily for < 1 hour. In the controls, motor representations of the right and left first dorsal interosseous and abductor digiti minimi muscles were not significantly different. However, in the proficient braille readers, the representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle in the reading hand was significantly larger than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. Conversely, the representation of the abductor digiti minimi muscle in the reading hand was significantly smaller than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. These differences were not due to differences in motor thresholds. Our results suggest that the cortical representation of the reading finger in proficient braille readers is enlarged at the expense of the representation of other fingers.

  2. The development of compact electroactive polymer actuators suitable for use in full page Braille displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorny, Lee J.; Zellers, Brian C.; Lin, Minren; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2010-04-01

    Piezoceramic actuators, presently used in commercial Braille displays, are limited by the material's relatively small strain and brittle nature. For this reason, it is a challenge to develop full page, compact, graphic Braille displays that are affordable. A newly developed material composed of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer blended with 5% P(VDF-CTFE) electrostrictive actuators exhibits large strains (~5% at 150V/μm), fast actuation (>5 mm/s), and has a relatively high elastic modulus (1.2 GPa). This material exhibits more than double the elastic energy density and a 50% higher modulus of the original electrostrictive terpolymer. Hence, the potential for viable actuators in compact, full page Braille displays is greater than ever, provided actuators can be manufactured reliably in quantity. This talk presents recent work in scaling production of such rolled actuators. Actuators extend .5 mm, are confined to the 2.5 mm grid spacing of conventional Braille text, generate >0.5 N force and operate at less than 200V, thus meeting the primary requirements for a commercialized Braille display. To manufacture these actuators, cast films are stretched using a roll-to-roll zone drawing machine that is capable of producing quantities of 2 μm thick film with high quality. What follows is a discussion of this machine, the roll-to-roll film stretching process and an assessment of the resulting stretched film for use as linear strain actuators, like those used in our Braille cell.

  3. [Partial cross-cultural adaptation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scale for analysis of patients with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Losapio, Mirella Fiuza; Silva, Lis Gomes; Pondé, Milena Pereira; Novaes, Camila Marinho; Santos, Darci Neves dos; Argollo, Nayara; Oliveira, Ivete Maria Santos; Brasil, Heloisa Helena Alves

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the ABC (Aberrant Behavior Checklist) is to evaluate the treatment response for aberrant behavior in patients with mental retardation. The aim of this study was to describe the partial cross-cultural adaptation of the ABC scale to Brazilian Portuguese. The process included conceptual and item equivalence, two translations (T1, T2) and their back-translations (R1, R2), evaluation of referential and general equivalence, expert evaluations, a pre-test, and elaboration of the final version. Conceptual and item equivalences of the ABC were considered pertinent to Brazilian culture. Semantic equivalence showed good correspondence between R1 items and ABC. Reasonable correspondence was obtained between ABC items and R2. All of the professors understood 94.8% of the items in the scale, while relatives understood 87.9%. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ABC scale thus is available for use, with the appropriate conceptual, item, and semantic equivalence.

  4. Placental ABC transporters, cellular toxicity and stress in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-25

    The human placenta, in addition to its roles as a nutrient transfer and endocrine organ, functions as a selective barrier to protect the fetus against the harmful effects of exogenous and endogenous toxins. Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins limit the entry of xenobiotics into the fetal circulation via vectorial efflux from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Several members of the ABC family, including proteins from the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC and ABCG subfamilies, have been shown to be functional in the placenta with clinically significant roles in xenobiotic efflux. However, recent findings suggest that these transporters also protect placental tissue by preventing the cellular accumulation of cytotoxic compounds such as lipids, sterols and their derivatives. Such protective functions are likely to be particularly important in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory or oxidative stress, where the generation of toxic metabolites is enhanced. For example, ABC transporters have been shown to protect against the harmful effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress through increased expression and efflux of oxysterols and glutathione conjugated xenobiotics. However, this protective capacity may be diminished in response to the same stressors. Several studies in primary human trophoblast cells and animal models have demonstrated decreased expression and activity of placental ABC transporters with inflammatory, oxidative or metabolic stress. Several clinical studies in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory conditions such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes support these findings, although further studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the relationships between placental ABC transporter expression and activity, and placental function in stressed pregnancies. Such studies are necessary to fully understand the consequences of pregnancy disorders on placental function and viability in order to optimise pregnancy

  5. Electronic excitation spectrum of ABC-stacked multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henni, Y.; Nogajewski, K.; Ojeda Collado, H. P.; Usaj, G.; Balseiro, C. A.; Potemski, M.; Faugeras, C.

    The electronic properties of ABC graphene trilayers has attracted lot of attention recently due to their potential applications in engineering carbon-based devices with gate tunable electrical conductivity. Morever,ABC-stacked thin layers of graphite are predicted to host peculiar surface electronic states, with a flat dispersion over most of the Brillouin zone. The associated high density of states is likely to favour the emergence of exotic electronic phases, such as charge density waves or even superconductivity. We present a micro-magneto-Raman scattering study of a thin graphite flake produced by exfoliation of natural graphite, composed of ~15graphene layers, and including a large ABC-stacked domain. Exploring the low temperature Raman scattering spectrum of this domain up to B=29T,we identify inter Landau level electronic excitations within the surface flat bands,together with electronic excitations involving the gapped states in the bulk. This interband electronic excitation at B=0T can be observed,up to room temperature, directly in the Raman scattering spectrum as a broad(~ 180 cm-1) feature. Because the energy gap strongly depends on the number of layers,this electronic excitation can be used to identify and characterize ABC-stacked graphite thin layers.

  6. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  7. Transcription factors that mediate epithelial–mesenchymal transition lead to multidrug resistance by upregulating ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, M; Stephens, M A; Pathak, H; Rangarajan, A

    2011-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major deterrent in the effective treatment of metastatic cancers by chemotherapy. Even though MDR and cancer invasiveness have been correlated, the molecular basis of this link remains obscure. We show here that treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs increases the expression of several ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) associated with MDR, as well as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, selectively in invasive breast cancer cells, but not in immortalized or non-invasive cells. Interestingly, the mere induction of an EMT in immortalized and non-invasive cell lines increased their expression of ABC transporters, migration, invasion, and drug resistance. Conversely, reversal of EMT in invasive cells by downregulating EMT-inducing transcription factors reduced their expression of ABC transporters, invasion, and rendered them more chemosensitive. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the promoters of ABC transporters carry several binding sites for EMT-inducing transcription factors, and overexpression of Twist, Snail, and FOXC2 increases the promoter activity of ABC transporters. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Twist binds directly to the E-box elements of ABC transporters. Thus, our study identifies EMT inducers as novel regulators of ABC transporters, thereby providing molecular insights into the long-standing association between invasiveness and MDR. Targeting EMT transcription factors could hence serve as novel strategies to curb both metastasis and the associated drug resistance. PMID:21734725

  8. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

  9. Genetic identification of three ABC transporters as essential elements for nitrate respiration in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, C; Soppa, J

    1999-01-01

    More than 40 nitrate respiration-deficient mutants of Haloferax volcanii belonging to three different phenotypic classes were isolated. All 15 mutants of the null phenotype were complemented with a genomic library of the wild type. Wild-type copies of mutated genes were recovered from complemented mutants using two different approaches. The DNA sequences of 13 isolated fragments were determined. Five fragments were found to overlap; therefore nine different genomic regions containing genes essential for nitrate respiration could be identified. Three genomic regions containing genes coding for subunits of ABC transporters were further characterized. In two cases, genes coding for an ATP-binding subunit and a permease subunit were clustered and overlapped by four nucleotides. The third gene for a permease subunit had no additional ABC transporter gene in proximity. One ABC transporter was found to be glucose specific. The mutant reveals that the ABC transporter solely mediates anaerobic glucose transport. Based on sequence similarity, the second ABC transporter is proposed to be molybdate specific, explaining its essential role in nitrate respiration. The third ABC transporter is proposed to be anion specific. Genome sequencing has shown that ABC transporters are widespread in Archaea. Nevertheless, this study represents only the second example of a functional characterization. PMID:10430572

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  13. Applying the ABCs in provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Seema

    2012-11-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting technique designed to guard against potentially serious financial problems that can arise when an organization's accounting costs deviate significantly from its actual costs. In general, an ABC analysis considers two factors: a cost element (a directly measurable unit of cost, such as the cost of an item) and a cost driver (a directly measurable feature of the service, such as how often the item is used). ABC is best applied to specific service areas, orservice packages, for which consumption of resources is largely predictable and atomic units of services can be accurately identified. PMID:23173369

  14. Applying the ABCs in provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Seema

    2012-11-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting technique designed to guard against potentially serious financial problems that can arise when an organization's accounting costs deviate significantly from its actual costs. In general, an ABC analysis considers two factors: a cost element (a directly measurable unit of cost, such as the cost of an item) and a cost driver (a directly measurable feature of the service, such as how often the item is used). ABC is best applied to specific service areas, orservice packages, for which consumption of resources is largely predictable and atomic units of services can be accurately identified.

  15. An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sunggye

    2012-01-01

    Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

  16. Evaluation and Research Program for the Portable Braille Recorder (PBR). Volume III. Appendix 19, Digicassette Operating Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Michelle; And Others

    The operating manual for the Digicassette (or Portable Braille Recorder--PBR), an electronic braille reading and writing machine and an audiotape recorder which is compact and easy to carry around, is presented. Following a preface and an introduction are sections which address the following topics: orientation to parts and functions of the…

  17. General Education Teachers' Ratings of the Academic Engagement Level of Students Who Read Braille: A Comparison with Sighted Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardin, Julie A.; Lewis, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    English and language arts teachers of braille-reading students in general education classes rated these students' academic engagement and the academic achievement of low- and average-achieving sighted students in the same classrooms. The braille readers were found to be statistically similar to the low-achieving students with regard to effort,…

  18. Linguistic and perceptual-motor contributions to the kinematic properties of the braille reading finger.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Barry; Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Stelmach, George E

    2011-08-01

    Recordings of the dominant finger during the reading of braille sentences by experienced readers reveal that the velocity of the finger changes frequently during the traverse of a line of text. These changes, not previously reported, involve a multitude of accelerations and decelerations, as well as reversals of direction. We investigated the origin of these velocity intermittencies (as well as movement reversals) by asking readers to twice read out-loud or silently sentences comprising high- or low-frequency words which combined to make grammatical sentences that were either meaningful or nonmeaningful. In a control condition we asked braille readers to smoothly scan lines of braille comprised of meaningless cell combinations. Word frequency and re-reading each contribute to the kinematics of finger movements, but neither sentence meaning nor the mode of reading do so. The velocity intermittencies were so pervasive that they are not easily attributable either to linguistic processing, text familiarity, mode of reading, or to sensory-motor interactions with the textured patterns of braille, but seem integral to all braille finger movements except reversals. While language-related processing can affect the finger movements, the effects are superimposed on a highly intermittent velocity profile whose origin appears to lie in the motor control of slow movements.

  19. Orthographic units in the absence of visual processing: Evidence from sublexical structure in braille.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Englebretson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Reading relies on the recognition of units larger than single letters and smaller than whole words. Previous research has linked sublexical structures in reading to properties of the visual system, specifically on the parallel processing of letters that the visual system enables. But whether the visual system is essential for this to happen, or whether the recognition of sublexical structures may emerge by other means, is an open question. To address this question, we investigate braille, a writing system that relies exclusively on the tactile rather than the visual modality. We provide experimental evidence demonstrating that adult readers of (English) braille are sensitive to sublexical units. Contrary to prior assumptions in the braille research literature, we find strong evidence that braille readers do indeed access sublexical structure, namely the processing of multi-cell contractions as single orthographic units and the recognition of morphemes within morphologically-complex words. Therefore, we conclude that the recognition of sublexical structure is not exclusively tied to the visual system. However, our findings also suggest that there are aspects of morphological processing on which braille and print readers differ, and that these differences may, crucially, be related to reading using the tactile rather than the visual sensory modality.

  20. A new bistable electroactive polymer for prolonged cycle lifetime of refreshable Braille displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhi; Niu, Xiaofan; Chen, Dustin; Hu, Wei; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    ABSTRACT: Bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) amalgamating electrically induced large-strain actuation and shape memory effect present a unique opportunity for refreshable Braille displays. A new BSEP material with long-chain crosslinkers to achieve prolonged cycle lifetime of refreshable Braille displays is reported here. The modulus of the BSEP material decreases by more than three orders of magnitude from a rigid, plastic state to a rubbery state when heated above the polymer's glass transition temperature. In its rubbery state, the polymer film can be electrically actuated to buckle convexly when a high voltage is applied across a circular active area. Modifying the concentration of long-chain crosslinkers in the polymer allows not only for fine-tuning of the polymer's glass transition temperature and elasticity in the rubbery state, but also enhancement of the actuation stability. For a raised height of 0.4 mm by a Braille dot with a 1.3 mm diameter, actuation can be repeated over 2000 cycles at 70°C in the rubbery state. The actuated dome shape can be fixed by cooling the polymer below the glass transition temperature. This refreshable rigid-to-rigid actuation simultaneously provides large-strain actuation and large force support. Devices capable of displaying Braille characters over a page-size area consisting of 324 Braille cells have been fabricated.

  1. Orthographic units in the absence of visual processing: Evidence from sublexical structure in braille.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Englebretson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Reading relies on the recognition of units larger than single letters and smaller than whole words. Previous research has linked sublexical structures in reading to properties of the visual system, specifically on the parallel processing of letters that the visual system enables. But whether the visual system is essential for this to happen, or whether the recognition of sublexical structures may emerge by other means, is an open question. To address this question, we investigate braille, a writing system that relies exclusively on the tactile rather than the visual modality. We provide experimental evidence demonstrating that adult readers of (English) braille are sensitive to sublexical units. Contrary to prior assumptions in the braille research literature, we find strong evidence that braille readers do indeed access sublexical structure, namely the processing of multi-cell contractions as single orthographic units and the recognition of morphemes within morphologically-complex words. Therefore, we conclude that the recognition of sublexical structure is not exclusively tied to the visual system. However, our findings also suggest that there are aspects of morphological processing on which braille and print readers differ, and that these differences may, crucially, be related to reading using the tactile rather than the visual sensory modality. PMID:27206313

  2. Tissue-Specific Transcript Profiling for ABC Transporters in the Sequestering Larvae of the Phytophagous Leaf Beetle Chrysomela populi

    PubMed Central

    Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. Results In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant

  3. 9969 Braille: Deep Space 1 infrared spectroscopy, geometric albedo, and classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buratti, B.J.; Britt, D.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hicks, M.D.; Boice, D.C.; Brown, R.H.; Meier, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Oberst, J.; Owen, T.C.; Rivkin, A.S.; Sandel, B.R.; Stern, S.A.; Thomas, N.; Yelle, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Spectra of Asteroid 9969 Braille in the 1.25-2.6 ??m region returned by the Deep Space 1 (DS1) Mission show a ???10% absorption band centered at 2 ??m, and a reflectance peak at 1.6 ??m. Analysis of these features suggest that the composition of Braille is roughly equal parts pyroxene and olivine. Its spectrum between 0.4 and 2.5 ??m suggests that it is most closely related to the Q taxonomic type of asteroid. The spectrum also closely matches that of the ordinary chondrites, the most common type of terrestrial meteorite. The geometric albedo of Braille is unusually high (pv = 0.34), which is also consistent with its placement within the rarer classes of stony asteroids, and which suggests it has a relatively fresh, unweathered surface, perhaps due to a recent collision. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PVDF core-free actuator for Braille displays: design, fabrication process, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Gorny, Lee J.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2011-04-01

    Refreshable Braille displays require many, small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFECFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required of this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  5. Core-free rolled actuators for Braille displays using P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-01-01

    Refreshable Braille displays require many small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required for this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The terpolymer films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%) and blocking forces (1 N) at moderate electric fields (100 MV m-1). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  6. Selection of optimal artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies for structural damage identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Lei; Lu, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the sensitivities of artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies to the damages are investigated, and the optimal sensors are selected to provide the reliable structural damage identification. The sensitivity expressions for one-pin and two-pin ABC frequencies, which are the natural frequencies from structures with one and two additional constraints to its original boundary condition, respectively, are proposed. Based on the expressions, the contributions of the underlying mode shapes in the ABC frequencies can be calculated and used to select more sensitive ABC frequencies. Selection criteria are then defined for different conditions, and their performance in structural damage identification is examined with numerical studies. From the findings, conclusions are given.

  7. Plant ABC Transporters Enable Many Unique Aspects of a Terrestrial Plant's Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Ung; Song, Won-Yong; Hong, Daewoong; Ko, Donghwi; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Jang, Sunghoon; Yim, Sojeong; Lee, Eunjung; Khare, Deepa; Kim, Kyungyoon; Palmgren, Michael; Yoon, Hwan Su; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial plants have two to four times more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes than other organisms, including their ancestral microalgae. Recent studies found that plants harboring mutations in these transporters exhibit dramatic phenotypes, many of which are related to developmental processes and functions necessary for life on dry land. These results suggest that ABC transporters multiplied during evolution and assumed novel functions that allowed plants to adapt to terrestrial environmental conditions. Examining the literature on plant ABC transporters from this viewpoint led us to propose that diverse ABC transporters enabled many unique and essential aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle, by transporting various compounds across specific membranes of the plant. PMID:26902186

  8. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    PubMed

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  9. A new dynamic tactile display for reconfigurable braille: implementation and tests

    PubMed Central

    Motto Ros, Paolo; Dante, Vittorio; Mesin, Luca; Petetti, Erminio; Del Giudice, Paolo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-01-01

    Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille) or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users' preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction. We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8 × 8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7mm) as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50s−1. It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs. Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p < 0.01), obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p < 0.05). Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed solution

  10. A new dynamic tactile display for reconfigurable braille: implementation and tests.

    PubMed

    Motto Ros, Paolo; Dante, Vittorio; Mesin, Luca; Petetti, Erminio; Del Giudice, Paolo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-01-01

    Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille) or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users' preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction. We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8 × 8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7mm) as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50s(-1). It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs. Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p < 0.01), obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p < 0.05). Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  11. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps.

  12. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps. PMID:25504146

  13. Transcriptome-Based Identification of ABC Transporters in the Western Tarnished Plant Bug Lygus hesperus

    PubMed Central

    Hull, J. Joe; Chaney, Kendrick; Geib, Scott M.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Brent, Colin S.; Walsh, Douglas; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic clearance. While ABC transporters have been extensively studied in vertebrates, less is known concerning this superfamily in insects, particularly hemipteran pests. We used RNA-Seq transcriptome sequencing to identify 65 putative ABC transporter sequences (including 36 full-length sequences) from the eight ABC subfamilies in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus), a polyphagous agricultural pest. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clear orthologous relationships with ABC transporters linked to insecticide/xenobiotic clearance and indicated lineage specific expansion of the L. hesperus ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. The transcriptional profile of 13 LhABCs representative of the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies was examined across L. hesperus development and within sex-specific adult tissues. All of the transcripts were amplified from both reproductively immature and mature adults and all but LhABCA8 were expressed to some degree in eggs. Expression of LhABCA8 was spatially localized to the testis and temporally timed with male reproductive development, suggesting a potential role in sexual maturation and/or spermatozoa protection. Elevated expression of LhABCC5 in Malpighian tubules suggests a possible role in xenobiotic clearance. Our results provide the first transcriptome-wide analysis of ABC transporters in an agriculturally important hemipteran pest and, because ABC transporters are known to be important mediators of insecticidal resistance, will provide the basis for future biochemical and toxicological studies on the role of this protein family in insecticide resistance in Lygus species. PMID:25401762

  14. Recovery of nerve injury-induced alexia for Braille using forearm anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Anders; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran

    2008-04-16

    Nerve injuries in the upper extremity may severely affect hand function. Cutaneous forearm anaesthesia has been shown to improve hand sensation in nerve-injured patients. A blind man who lost his Braille reading capability after an axillary plexus injury was treated with temporary cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. After treatment sensory functions of the hand improved and the patient regained his Braille reading capability. The mechanism behind the improvement is likely unmasking of inhibited or silent neurons, but after repeated treatment sessions at increasing intervals the improvement has remained at 1-year follow-up, implying a structural change in the somatosensory cortex.

  15. Bistable electroactive polymer for refreshable Braille display with improved actuation stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofan; Brochu, Paul; Stoyanov, Hristiyan; Yun, Sung Ryul; Pei, Qibing

    2012-04-01

    Poly(t-butyl acrylate) is a bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP) capable of rigid-to-rigid actuation. The BSEP combines the large-strain actuation of dielectric elastomers with shape memory property. We have introduced a material approach to overcome pull-in instability in poly(t-butyl acrylate) that significantly improves the actuation lifetime at strains greater than 100%. Refreshable Braille display devices with size of a smartphone screen have been fabricated to manifest a potential application of the BSEP. We will report the testing results of the devices by a Braille user.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of chondroitinase ABC on primary and secondary brain injury after stroke in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-ran; Liao, Song-jie; Ye, Lan-xiang; Gong, Qiong; Ding, Qiao; Zeng, Jin-sheng; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-16

    Focal cerebral infarction causes secondary damage in the ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of putative inhibitory components, and its degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) promotes post-injury neurogenesis. This study investigated the role of ChABC in the primary and secondary injury post stroke in hypertension. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and were subjected to continuous intra-infarct infusion of ChABC (0.12 U/d for 7 days) 24 h later. Neurological function was evaluated by a modified neurologic severity score. Neurons were counted in the peri-infarct region and the ipsilateral VPN 8 and 14 days after MCAO by Nissl staining and NeuN labeling. The expressions of CSPGs, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin (SYN) were detected with immunofluorescence or Western blotting. The intra-infarct infusion of ChABC, by degrading accumulated CSPGs, rescued neuronal loss and increased the levels of GAP-43 and SYN in both the ipsilateral cortex and VPN, indicating enhancd neuron survival as well as augmented axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, eventually improving overall neurological function. The study demonstrated that intra-infarct ChABC infusion could salvage the brain from both primary and secondary injury by the intervention on the neuroinhibitory environment post focal cerebral infarction.

  17. Cry1ab/c in different stages of growth in transgenic rice Bt-shanyou63.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Shen, Wenjing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the mRNA level and the corresponding protein level of the cry1Ab/c gene is not well characterized in transgenic rice (Bt-ShanYou63). In this study, we compared cry1Ab/c mRNA and its protein expression in leaves at different growth stages in Bt-ShanYou63 rice. The results demonstrated that both cry1Ab/c mRNA and its protein levels changed at all of the growth stages. The cry1Ab/c transcript levels in the leaves were highest during the grain filling stage (3.29, cry/actin) and lowest during the seeding stage (1.06, cry/actin), and the protein levels of Cry1Ab/c was also highest at the grain filling stage (5.71 microgram x g-1 fresh weight, fw) and lowest during the seeding stage (2.08 microgram x g(-1) fw). There was a significant correlation between cry1Ab/c mRNA levels and the protein concentrations (r=0.742, p < 0.01). However, a linear relationship was not observed between cry1Ab/c mRNA levels and the protein levels, and the trend for mRNA expression levels was not consistent with the Cry1Ab/c protein levels in the same growth period in Bt-ShanYou63 rice. PMID:26709785

  18. The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Atanu; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni

    2015-01-01

    In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms. PMID:26407965

  19. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph.; Bourlos, Dimitrios N.; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S.; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. Purpose: To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. Results: The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. Conclusion: The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI). PMID:27453894

  20. Fungal ABC transporters and microbial interactions in natural environments.

    PubMed

    Schoonbeek, Henk-jan; Raaijmakers, Jos M; De Waard, Maarten A

    2002-11-01

    In natural environments, microorganisms are exposed to a wide variety of antibiotic compounds produced by competing organisms. Target organisms have evolved various mechanisms of natural resistance to these metabolites. In this study, the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in interactions between the plant-pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas bacteria was investigated in detail. We discovered that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas spp., induced expression of several ABC transporter genes in B. cinerea. Phenazines strongly induced expression of BcatrB, and deltaBcatrB mutants were significantly more sensitive to these antibiotics than their parental strain. Treatment of B. cinerea germlings with PCN strongly affected the accumulation of [14C]fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide known to be transported by BcatrB, indicating that phenazines also are transported by BcatrB. Pseudomonas strains producing phenazines displayed a stronger antagonistic activity in vitro toward ABcatrB mutants than to the parental B. cinerea strain. On tomato leaves, phenazine-producing Pseudomonas strains were significantly more effective in reducing gray mold symptoms incited by a ABcatrB mutant than by the parental strain. We conclude that the ABC transporter BcatrB provides protection to B. cinerea in phenazine-mediated interactions with Pseudomonas spp. Collectively, these results indicate that fungal ABC transporters can play an important role in antibiotic-mediated interactions between bacteria and fungi in plant-associated environments. The implications of these findings for the implementation and sustainability of crop protection by antagonistic microorganisms are discussed. PMID:12423022

  1. Phase transition in the ABC model.

    PubMed

    Clincy, M; Derrida, B; Evans, M R

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-beta/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero beta(c). The value of beta(c)=2pi square root 3 and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions. PMID:16241312

  2. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Liam K. R.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to an in vitro translation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosome in vitro. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection. PMID:27006457

  3. The cloning of a human ABC gene (ABC3) mapping to chromosome 16p13.3

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, T.D.; Van Raay, T.J.; Petry, L.R.

    1997-01-15

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, or traffic ATPases, constitute a large family of proteins responsible for the transport of a wide variety of substrates across cell membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We describe a human ABC protein with regions of strong homology to the recently described murine ABC1 and ABC2 transporters. The gene for this novel protein, human ABC3, maps near the polycystic kidney disease type 1 (PKD1) gene on chromosome 16p13.3. The ABC3 gene is expressed at highest levels in lung compared to other tissues. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Structural insights into ABC transporter mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, Michael L.; Davidson, Amy L.; Chen, Jue

    2010-07-27

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport substances across the membrane. In recent years, crystal structures of several ABC transporters have become available. These structures show that both importers and exporters oscillate between two conformations: an inward-facing conformation with the substrate translocation pathway open to the cytoplasm and an outward-facing conformation with the translocation pathway facing the opposite side of the membrane. In this review, conformational differences found in the structures of homologous ABC transporters are analyzed to understand how alternating-access is achieved. It appears that rigid-body rotations of the transmembrane subunits, coinciding with the opening and closing of the nucleotide-binding subunits, couples ATP hydrolysis to substrate translocation.

  5. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  6. Braille and Tactile Graphics: Youths with Visual Impairments Share Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Data were collected from youths with visual impairment about their experiences with tactile graphics and braille materials used in mathematics and science classes. Methods: Youths answered questions and explored four tactile graphics made using different production methods. They located specific information on each graphic and shared…

  7. The Development of Accepted Performance Items to Demonstrate Competence in Literary Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sandra; D'Andrea, Frances Mary; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This research attempted to establish the content validity of several performance statements that are associated with basic knowledge, production, and reading of braille by beginning teachers. Methods: University instructors (n = 21) and new teachers of students with visual impairments (n = 20) who had taught at least 2 braille…

  8. Phoneme, Grapheme, Onset-Rime and Word Analysis in Braille with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.; Hoekman, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of sighted pre-school children were taught to name six braille letters: one group received phoneme instruction and the other grapheme instruction. Ten boys and ten girls (average age 4:5 years) participated. There was a statistically significant advantage for the phoneme group (Experiment 1). In a repeated measures design, 16 sighted…

  9. Differential cognitive and perceptual correlates of print reading versus braille reading.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol

    2013-01-01

    The relations between reading, auditory, speech, phonological and tactile spatial processing are investigated in a Dutch speaking sample of blind braille readers as compared to sighted print readers. Performance is assessed in blind and sighted children and adults. Regarding phonological ability, braille readers perform equally well compared to print readers on phonological awareness, better on verbal short-term memory and significantly worse on lexical retrieval. The groups do not differ on speech perception or auditory processing. Braille readers, however, have more sensitive fingers than print readers. Investigation of the relations between these cognitive and perceptual skills and reading performance indicates that in the group of braille readers auditory temporal processing has a longer lasting and stronger impact not only on phonological abilities, which have to satisfy the high processing demands of the strictly serial language input, but also directly on the reading ability itself. Print readers switch between grapho-phonological and lexical reading modes depending on the familiarity of the items. Furthermore, the auditory temporal processing and speech perception, which were substantially interrelated with phonological processing, had no direct associations with print reading measures.

  10. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  11. New Dots Downunder: The Implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentle, Frances; Steer, Michael; Howse, Josie

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors will outline and describe the recent implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australia's complex school systems. The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (NSW/DEC) played a leading role in the process. The education sector at all levels in Australia appears to have embraced the introduction…

  12. Results of an Online Refresher Course to Build Braille Transcription Skills in Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Tina S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Robbins, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Certified transcribers, non-certified transcribers, volunteers, paraeducators, and teachers of students with visual impairments transcribe braille materials for K-12 students (those in kindergarten through 12th grade), and their training and level of preparedness varies greatly (Corn & Wall, 2002; Herzberg & Stough, 2007; Rosenblum &…

  13. Communicating a New ABC: Advocacy, Partnerships, and Implementing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Reiterates some key points and responds to challenges issued by the speakers to the Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference. Notes that Paula Pomerenke spoke about formalizing support of Plain Language across the continents and about ABC's continuing need to strengthen relationships with practitioners. Suggests the ABC build…

  14. Consideration of Remote Support System for Deaf-Blind Persons using Body-Braille and Cellular Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Sadao; Harakawa, Tetsumi

    New type of remote support system for handicapped persons is proposed in this paper. Body-Braille system is consisted of six small vibrators which have been used in cellular phones. And this system is put on the any part of human body. Supports method are similar to usual Braille, and the impaired persons acquire the communication or information about circumferences by reading the vibration patterns on the skin which are consisted of six on-off vibrations of small motors. This paper has shown the remote support system and experiment in which Body-Braille system and cellular phone are connected to realize its functions. The deaf-blind persons have cellular phone with small camera, and remote supporter can get the necessary information by receiving images from the phone, and then send recognition result to subject using Body-Braille. From the results of the experiment, proposed support system has been clarified to be effective.

  15. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  16. The Impact of the Perspectives of Teachers and Parents on the Literacy Media Selections for Independent Study of Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios S.; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Katsoulis, Philippos

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the choices of literacy media for independent study of students with visual impairments. The predictors that were taken into account were teachers' use of technology, experience in teaching, and mastery of braille and the knowledge of braille of students, parents, and close friends.

  17. The New ABC of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusa, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new alphabet of the arts that shows how the arts world has been transformed the past five years. Beginning with "A" for assessment and continuing through "Y" for year end, the ABC of the arts illustrates the ways in which the arts world is judged, managed, and evaluated, and shows that the skill of arts management is to…

  18. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

  19. The ABC's of Learning in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Minta M.

    Learning in infancy is based on activity, beginnings, and curiosity, the so-called ABC's. Earliest behavior consists of mass activity, the period from birth to 24 months of sensory-motor development which provides the foundation for all future learning. Adults must provide space, toys, and affectionate care to help infants proceed through…

  20. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  1. Astrocytic and vascular remodeling in the injured adult rat spinal cord after chondroitinase ABC treatment.

    PubMed

    Milbreta, Ulla; von Boxberg, Ysander; Mailly, Philippe; Nothias, Fatiha; Soares, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    Upregulation of extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) is a primary cause for the failure of axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury (SCI), and the beneficial effect of their degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is widely documented. Little is known, however, about the effect of ChABC treatment on astrogliosis and revascularization, two important factors influencing axon regrowth. This was investigated in the present study. Immediately after a spinal cord hemisection at thoracic level 8-9, we injected ChABC intrathecally at the sacral level, repeated three times until 10 days post-injury. Our results show an effective cleavage of CSPG glycosaminoglycan chains and stimulation of axonal remodeling within the injury site, accompanied by an extended period of astrocyte remodeling (up to 4 weeks). Interestingly, ChABC treatment favored an orientation of astrocytic processes directed toward the injury, in close association with axons at the lesion entry zone, suggesting a correlation between axon and astrocyte remodeling. Further, during the first weeks post-injury, ChABC treatment affected the morphology of laminin-positive blood vessel basement membranes and vessel-independent laminin deposits: hypertrophied blood vessels with detached or duplicated basement membrane were more numerous than in lesioned untreated animals. In contrast, at later time points, laminin expression increased and became more directly associated with newly formed blood vessels, the size of which tended to be closer to that found in intact tissue. Our data reinforce the idea that ChABC injection in combination with other synergistic treatments is a promising therapeutic strategy for SCI repair.

  2. Chondroitinase ABC Treatment Results in Greater Tensile Properties of Self-Assembled Tissue-Engineered Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Roman M.; Revell, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen content and tensile properties of engineered articular cartilage have remained inferior to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and compressive properties. Based on a cartilage explant study showing greater tensile properties after chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC) treatment, C-ABC as a strategy for cartilage tissue engineering was investigated. A scaffold-less approach was employed, wherein chondrocytes were seeded into non-adherent agarose molds. C-ABC was used to deplete GAG from constructs 2 weeks after initiating culture, followed by 2 weeks culture post-treatment. Staining for GAG and type I, II, and VI collagen and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Additionally, quantitative total collagen, type I and II collagen, and sulfated GAG content were measured, and compressive and tensile mechanical properties were evaluated. At 4 wks, C-ABC treated construct ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus increased 121% and 80% compared to untreated controls, reaching 0.5 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. These increases were accompanied by increased type II collagen concentration, without type I collagen. As GAG returned, compressive stiffness of C-ABC treated constructs recovered to be greater than 2 wk controls. C-ABC represents a novel method for engineering functional articular cartilage by departing from conventional anabolic approaches. These results may be applicable to other GAG-producing tissues functioning in a tensile capacity, such as the musculoskeletal fibrocartilages. PMID:19344291

  3. Clinico-Pathologic Function of Cerebral ABC Transporters – Implications for the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pahnke, Jens; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krohn, Markus; Walker, Lary C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has become evident that ABC transporters fulfill important barrier functions in normal organs and during disease processes. Most importantly, resistance to drugs in cancer cells led to intense oncological and pharmacological investigations in which researchers were able to highlight important pharmacological interactions of chemotherapeuticals with ABC transporter function. Recently, the development of neurodegenerative diseases and the maintenance of neuronal stem cells have been linked to the activity of ABC transporters. Here, we summarize findings from cell culture experiments, animal models and studies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, we discuss pharmacological interactions and computational methods for risk assessment. PMID:18690837

  4. Phylodynamic Inference with Kernel ABC and Its Application to HIV Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Art F.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The shapes of phylogenetic trees relating virus populations are determined by the adaptation of viruses within each host, and by the transmission of viruses among hosts. Phylodynamic inference attempts to reverse this flow of information, estimating parameters of these processes from the shape of a virus phylogeny reconstructed from a sample of genetic sequences from the epidemic. A key challenge to phylodynamic inference is quantifying the similarity between two trees in an efficient and comprehensive way. In this study, I demonstrate that a new distance measure, based on a subset tree kernel function from computational linguistics, confers a significant improvement over previous measures of tree shape for classifying trees generated under different epidemiological scenarios. Next, I incorporate this kernel-based distance measure into an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework for phylodynamic inference. ABC bypasses the need for an analytical solution of model likelihood, as it only requires the ability to simulate data from the model. I validate this “kernel-ABC” method for phylodynamic inference by estimating parameters from data simulated under a simple epidemiological model. Results indicate that kernel-ABC attained greater accuracy for parameters associated with virus transmission than leading software on the same data sets. Finally, I apply the kernel-ABC framework to study a recent outbreak of a recombinant HIV subtype in China. Kernel-ABC provides a versatile framework for phylodynamic inference because it can fit a broader range of models than methods that rely on the computation of exact likelihoods. PMID:26006189

  5. Effects of multiple chondroitinase ABC applications on tissue engineered articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Roman M.; Responte, Donald J.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasing tensile properties and collagen content is a recognized need in articular cartilage tissue engineering. This study tested the hypothesis that multiple applications of chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degrading enzyme, could increase construct tensile properties in a scaffold-less approach for articular cartilage tissue engineering. Developing constructs were treated with C-ABC at 2 wks, 4 wks, or both 2 and 4 wks. At 4 and 6 wks, construct sulfated GAG composition, collagen composition, and compressive and tensile biomechanical properties were assessed, along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for collagens type I, II, and VI, and the proteoglycan decorin. At 6 wks, the tensile modulus and ultimate tensile strength of the group treated at both 2 and 4 wks were significantly increased over controls by 78% and 64%, reaching values of 3.4 and 1.4 MPa, respectively. Collagen concentration also increased 43%. Further, groups treated at either 2 wks or 4 wks alone also had increased tensile stiffness compared to controls. Surprisingly, though GAG was depleted in the treated groups, by 6 wks there were no significant differences in compressive stiffness. IHC showed abundant collagen type II and VI in all groups, with no collagen type I. Further, decorin staining was reduced following C-ABC treatment, but returned during subsequent culture. The results support the use of C-ABC in cartilage tissue engineering for increasing tensile properties. PMID:19123232

  6. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. PMID:27449595

  7. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR.

  8. A model for rotation and shape of Asteroid 9969 Braille from ground-based observations and images obtained during the deep space 1 (DS1) flyby

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberst, J.; Mottola, S.; Di, Martino M.; Hicks, M.; Buratti, B.; Soderblom, L.; Thomas, N.

    2001-01-01

    Image data from the DS1 encounter with Asteroid 9969 Braille and data from a coordinated ground-based photometric observing campaign are combined to study the physical properties of this small Mars crosser. From telescope data the object's brightness was found to vary by up to 0.5 mag from night to night, with the most probable synodic rotational period being 226.4 ?? 1.3 h (9.4 days) and a mean lightcurve magnitude R(1, ?? = 24??) = 17.04 ?? 0.10. During the flyby of the spacecraft, two frame images from a range of approximately 13,500 km and phase angle 82.4??, which impose strong constraints on size, shape, and albedo of the object, were obtained. Using telescope and flyby data in combination, the asteroid is estimated to have a size of 2.1 ?? 1 ?? 1 km3 and shown to have photometric properties similar to the asteroid 4 Vesta, notably a comparably high albedo. The high albedo supports the notion (L. Soderblom et al. 1999, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 31,) that Braille is of the V or Q taxonomic type. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Nanostructured assemblies from amphiphilic ABC multiblock polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-02-01

    Amphiphilic AB diblock copolymers containing a water compatible segment can self-assemble in aqueous media to give supramolecular structures that include simple spherical micelles and macromolecular vesicles termed polymersomes. Amphiphilic ABA triblocks with hydrophobic end blocks can adopt analogous structures but can also form gels at high polymer concentrations. The structural and chemical diversity demonstrated in block copolymer micelles and gels makes them attractive for applications ranging from drug delivery to personal care products to nanoreactors. The inclusion of a third block in amphiphilic ABC triblock systems can lead to a much wider array of self-assembled structures that depend not only on composition but also on block sequence, architecture and incompatibility considerations. I will present our recent efforts on tuning micelle and gel structure and behavior using controlled architecture ABC triblocks. The combination of diverse polymer segments into a single macromolecule is a powerful method for development of self-assembled structures with both new form and new function.

  10. Three ways to learn the ABCs.

    PubMed

    Ng, M; Yanofsky, M F

    2000-02-01

    The ABC model of flower development represents a milestone in explaining how the fate of emerging floral organ primordia is specified. This model states that organ identity is specified by different combinations of the activities of the A, B and C class homeotic genes. In spite of the remarkable simplicity of this model, the complex regulatory interactions that establish the initial pattern of A, B and C gene activity have yet to be fully explained. It has been shown that the LEAFY gene functions early to promote flower meristem identity, and that it is subsequently required for the normal expression of the ABC genes. Recently, LEAFY has been identified as an immediate upstream regulator of the floral homeotic genes, thus opening up an avenue to examine the transcriptional interactions that underlie floral patterning. PMID:10679448

  11. Pharmacological correction of misfolding of ABC proteins☆

    PubMed Central

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L.; Stockner, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Freissmuth, Michael; Chiba, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system distinguishes between correctly and incorrectly folded proteins to prevent processing of aberrantly folded conformations along the secretory pathway. Non-synonymous mutations can lead to misfolding of ABC proteins and associated disease phenotypes. Specific phenotypes may at least partially be corrected by small molecules, so-called pharmacological chaperones. Screening for folding correctors is expected to open an avenue for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25027379

  12. Analyzing health care operations using ABC.

    PubMed

    Ross, Thomas K

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of health care created a climate in which cost was subordinate to medical treatment. Current reimbursement constraints have increased the need for providers to be cost conscious, but they have discovered that current accounting practices do not provide the appropriate information to determine the cost of service or make decisions. This article argues that activity-based costing (ABC) can bridge the gap between the medical and financial communities and provide a foundation for performance improvement. PMID:15151193

  13. Pharmacological correction of misfolding of ABC proteins.

    PubMed

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Stockner, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Freissmuth, Michael; Chiba, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system distinguishes between correctly and incorrectly folded proteins to prevent processing of aberrantly folded conformations along the secretory pathway. Non-synonymous mutations can lead to misfolding of ABC proteins and associated disease phenotypes. Specific phenotypes may at least partially be corrected by small molecules, so-called pharmacological chaperones. Screening for folding correctors is expected to open an avenue for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25027379

  14. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    PubMed Central

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly. PMID:26079628

  15. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  16. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Lu, S G; Chen, X; Levard, T; Diglio, P J; Gorny, L J; Rahn, C D; Zhang, Q M

    2015-06-16

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  17. A Comparison of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jerald W.; Baglio, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 233 individuals with severe mental retardation examined the validity of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) through correlation with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). DASH-II as a whole was found to have a high degree of convergent validity with the ABC total score. (CR)

  18. Anger and the ABC model underlying Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Smith, Phillip N

    2004-06-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should display greater trait anger than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this prediction regarding the ABC model. 186 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Second Edition to measure irrational thinking and trait anger, respectively. Students who scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance scored significantly higher on Trait Anger than did those who scored lower on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs which is central to the model.

  19. A test of the ABC model underlying rational emotive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Leslie, Yvonne M

    2003-02-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should respond to daily stressors or hassles differently than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this aspect of the ABC model. 192 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Hassles Scale to measure irrational thinking and daily hassles, respectively. Students who scored higher on overall irrational thinking reported a significantly higher frequency of hassles than did those who scored lower on overall irrational thinking, while students who scored higher on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance reported a significantly greater intensity of hassles than did those who scored lower on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs central to this model.

  20. Touch the Invisible Sky: A Multi-Wavelength Braille Book Featuring Tactile NASA Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N.; Steel, S.; Daou, D.

    2008-06-01

    According to the American Foundation for the Blind and the National Federation of the Blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States. Because astronomy is often visually based, many people assume that it cannot be made accessible. A new astronomy book, Touch the Invisible Sky, makes wavelengths not visible to human eyes, accessible to all audiences through text in print and Braille and with pictures that are touchable and in color.

  1. What Does the K-ABC Tell Us about Students with Learning Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.

    Three studies were designed to explore the pattern of scores on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) by 18 students in elementary level learning disability (LD) resource programs (Study 1), 133 elementary level students referred for learning problems (Study 2), and 67 elementary students referred for severe learning disabilities…

  2. Functional and Structural Neuroplasticity Induced by Short-Term Tactile Training Based on Braille Reading

    PubMed Central

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Nowicka, Anna; Kozak, Anna; Szwed, Marcin; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters. Functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were used to assess resulting changes. The strongest training-induced effect was found in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), where we observed bilateral augmentation in activity accompanied by an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the contralateral SI. Increases of white matter fractional anisotropy were also observed in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the thalamus. Outside of somatosensory system, changes in both structure and function were found in i.e., the fusiform gyrus, the medial frontal gyri and the inferior parietal lobule. Our results provide evidence for functional remodeling of the somatosensory pathway and higher ordered multimodal brain areas occurring as a result of short-lasting tactile learning, and add to them a novel picture of extensive white matter plasticity. PMID:27790087

  3. Admixture mapping of white cell count: genetic locus responsible for lower white blood cell count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart studies.

    PubMed

    Nalls, Michael A; Wilson, James G; Patterson, Nick J; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A; Patel, Kushang V; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Files, Joe C; Hardy, Cheryl L; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Taylor, Herman A; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across >or= 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10(-12)). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained approximately 20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.

  4. Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nalls, Michael A.; Wilson, James G.; Patterson, Nick J.; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A.; Patel, Kushang V.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Files, Joe C.; Hardy, Cheryl L.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad

    2008-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across ≥ 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10−12). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained ∼20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications. PMID:18179887

  5. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  6. A Theoretical Rationale for Using the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education with Students Who Have Mild to Moderate Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, Diane P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the components of the Individualized Meaning-centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education (I-M-ABLE) for teaching braille reading and writing to students who are blind and have additional cognitive impairments. The components of I-M-ABLE are: (1) selecting and teaching the Key Vocabulary; (2) teaching the efficient use of…

  7. Development and Demonstration of Communication Systems for the Blind and Deaf/Blind. Braille Communication Terminals and Tactile Paging Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, George F.

    Described is the BRAILLEMBOSS, a braille page printer, which is useful as a short run braille producer and as an employment and education tool for the blind and deaf blind. Examples of applications are given, including its use by computer programers, students, taxpayer service representatives, and news broadcasters. The machine is, for blind…

  8. Mechanisms underlying the synergistic enhancement of self-assembled neocartilage treated with chondroitinase-ABC and TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Responte, Donald J.; Arzi, Boaz; Natoli, Roman M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a platform for in vitro cartilage formation would enhance the study of cartilage development, pathogenesis, and regeneration. To improve neocartilage formation, our group developed a novel self-assembly process for articular chondrocytes, which has been improved in this study using a novel combination of catabolic and anabolic agents. TGF-β1 was applied in conjunction with the enzyme chondroitinase-ABC (C-ABC) to additively increase tensile properties and synergistically enhance collagen content. Additionally, microarray analysis indicated that TGF-β1 up-regulated MAPK signaling in contrast to C-ABC, which did not enrich genetic pathways. The lack of genetic signaling spurred investigation of the biophysical role of C-ABC, which showed that C-ABC treatment increased collagen fibril diameter and density. After four weeks of culture in nude mice, neocartilage exhibited stability and maturation. This study illustrated an innovative strategy for improving in vitro and in vivo articular cartilage formation and elucidated mechanisms underlying TGF-β1 and C-ABC treatment. PMID:22284584

  9. Racial Disparities in Health Care Access and Cardiovascular Disease Indicators in Black and White Older Adults in the Health ABC Study

    PubMed Central

    ROOKS, RONICA N.; SIMONSICK, ELEANOR M.; HARRIS, TAMARA B.; KLESGES, LISA M.; NEWMAN, ANNE B.; AYONAYON, HILSA

    2009-01-01

    Black adults consistently exhibit higher rates and poorer outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to other racial groups, even after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Whether factors related to health care access can further explain racial disparities in CVD have not been thoroughly examined. Using logistic regression we examined racial and health care [i.e. health insurance and access to care] associations with CVD indicators [i.e. hypertension, low ankle-arm index, and left ventricular hypertrophy] in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, a longitudinal study of 3,075 well-functioning adults aged 70–79 in 1997. We found older Black versus White adults had significantly worse health care. Overall, health care only slightly reduced the significant association between being Black and CVD, while race remained strongly associated with CVD after adjusting for demographics, SES, body mass index, and comorbidity. Research on health care quality may contribute to our understanding of these disparities. PMID:18625758

  10. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David . E-mail: dsarrut@univ-lyon2.fr; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sebastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm{sup 3} and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.

  11. Canine olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa can be engineered to produce active chondroitinase ABC.

    PubMed

    Carwardine, Darren; Wong, Liang-Fong; Fawcett, James W; Muir, Elizabeth M; Granger, Nicolas

    2016-08-15

    A multitude of factors must be overcome following spinal cord injury (SCI) in order to achieve clinical improvement in patients. It is thought that by combining promising therapies these diverse factors could be combatted with the aim of producing an overall improvement in function. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms following SCI present a significant block to axon regeneration. Digestion of CSPGs by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) leads to axon regeneration, neuronal plasticity and functional improvement in preclinical models of SCI. However, the enzyme activity decays at body temperature within 24-72h, limiting the translational potential of ChABC as a therapy. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have shown huge promise as a cell transplant therapy in SCI. Their beneficial effects have been demonstrated in multiple small animal SCI models as well as in naturally occurring SCI in canine patients. In the present study, we have genetically modified canine OECs from the mucosa to constitutively produce enzymatically active ChABC. We have developed a lentiviral vector that can deliver a mammalian modified version of the ChABC gene to mammalian cells, including OECs. Enzyme production was quantified using the Morgan-Elson assay that detects the breakdown products of CSPG digestion in cell supernatants. We confirmed our findings by immunolabelling cell supernatant samples using Western blotting. OECs normal cell function was unaffected by genetic modification as demonstrated by normal microscopic morphology and the presence of the low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NGF)) following viral transduction. We have developed the means to allow production of active ChABC in combination with a promising cell transplant therapy for SCI repair. PMID:27423610

  12. Effect of body temperature on chondroitinase ABC's ability to cleave chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Plaas, Anna H; Howland, Dena R

    2007-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC (Ch'ase ABC) is a bacterial lyase that degrades chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This enzyme has received significant attention as a potential therapy for promoting central nervous system and peripheral nervous system repair based on its degradation of CS GAGs. Determination of the stability of Ch'ase ABC activity at temperatures equivalent to normal (37 degrees C) and elevated (39 degrees C) body temperatures is important for optimizing its clinical usage. We report here data obtained from examining enzymatic activity at these temperatures across nine lots of commercially available protease-free Ch'ase ABC. CS GAG degrading activity was assayed by using 1) immunohistochemical detection of unsaturated disaccharide stubs generated by digestion of proteoglycans in tissue sections and 2) fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and quantify unsaturated disaccharide digestion products. Our results indicate that there is a significant effect of lot and time on enzymatic thermostability. Average enzymatic activity is significantly decreased at 1 and 3 days at 39 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, the average activity seen after 1 day was significantly different between the two temperatures. Addition of bovine serum albumin as a stabilizer significantly preserved enzymatic activity at 1 day, but not 3 days, at 39 degrees C. These results show that the CS GAG degrading activity of Ch'ase ABC is significantly decreased with incubation at body temperature over time and that all lots do not show equal thermostability. These findings are important for the design and interpretation of experimental and potential clinical studies involving Ch'ase ABC.

  13. Contrasting RCC, RVU, and ABC for managed care decisions. A case study compares three widely used costing methods and finds one superior.

    PubMed

    West, T D; Balas, E A; West, D A

    1996-08-01

    To obtain cost data needed to improve managed care decisions and negotiate profitable capitation contracts, most healthcare provider organizations use one of three costing methods: the ratio-of-costs-to-charges method, the relative value unit method, or the activity-based costing method. Although the ratio-of-costs to charges is used by a majority of provider organizations, a case study that applied these three methods in a renal dialysis clinic found that the activity-based costing method provided the most accurate cost data. By using this costing method, healthcare financial managers can obtain the data needed to make optimal decisions regarding resource allocation and cost containment, thus assuring the longterm financial viability of their organizations. PMID:10158925

  14. Class C ABC transporters and Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Terry L; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion is carried out by core machinery that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. This is comprised of Rab GTPases and their effectors, and SNARE proteins, which together are sufficient to drive the fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes. However, an outer layer of factors that are specific to individual trafficking pathways in vivo regulates the spatial and temporal occurrence of fusion. The homotypic fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar lysosomes utilizes a growing set of factors to regulate the fusion machinery that include members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Yeast vacuoles have five class C ABC transporters that are known to transport a variety of toxins into the vacuole lumen as part of detoxifying the cell. We have found that ABCC transporters can also regulate vacuole fusion through novel mechanisms. For instance Ybt1 serves as negative regulator of fusion through its effects on vacuolar Ca2+ homeostasis. Additional studies showed that Ycf1 acts as a positive regulator by affecting the efficient recruitment of the SNARE Vam7. Finally, we discuss the potential interface between the translocation of lipids across the membrane bilayer, also known as lipid flipping, and the efficiency of fusion. PMID:25610719

  15. The ABC of Vitamin D: A Qualitative Study of the Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Vitamin D Deficiency amongst Selected Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bonevski, Billie; Bryant, Jamie; Lambert, Sylvie; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In Australia, vitamin D supply in food is limited, and sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. However skin cancer risk is high, and the need to gain some sun exposure for adequate vitamin D is challenging public health messages to use protection in the sun. The complex vitamin D public health message may be confusing the public and, in particular, those at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study explored vitamin D and sun exposure attitudes, knowledge and practices of some groups considered at risk of vitamin D deficiency and those delivering healthy sun exposure messages to children. Method: 52 adults participated in six focus groups. Results: Results corroborated with previous research showing low levels of vitamin D knowledge. Individual and environmental barriers to receiving adequate sun exposure were also identified. Conclusions and Implications: The message advocating balanced sun exposure to produce adequate vitamin D needs to be made clearer and be more effectively communicated. Findings provide insights to aid development of appropriate public health messages for safe sun exposure and vitamin D, especially for vulnerable groups. PMID:23503169

  16. Protection Provided by an Encapsulated Live Attenuated ΔabcBA Strain of Brucella ovis against Experimental Challenge in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Patrícia C.; Macêdo, Auricélio A.; Silva, Teane M. A.; Ximenes, Luana C. A.; Brandão, Humberto M.; Paixão, Tatiane A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Brucella ovis ΔabcBA strain as a vaccine candidate in the murine model. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously or intraperitoneally immunized with a single dose or three doses of the B. ovis ΔabcBA strain and then were challenged with wild-type B. ovis. Single or multiple immunizations provided only mild protection, with significantly smaller numbers of wild-type B. ovis CFU in the livers of immunized mice but not in the spleens. Encapsulation of B. ovis ΔabcBA significantly improved protection against experimental challenges in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, immunization with encapsulated B. ovis ΔabcBA markedly prevented lesions in the spleens and livers of experimentally challenged mice. These results demonstrated that the encapsulated B. ovis ΔabcBA strain confers protection to mice; therefore, this strain has potential as a vaccine candidate for rams. PMID:25947146

  17. Grosnaja ABCs: Magnesium isotope compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Three CAI's from the Grosnaja CV3 chondrite were analyzed for their magnesium isotopic compositions by the ion microprobe. The selected CAI's represent three distinct types: GR4(compact Type A), GR7(Type B) and GR2(Type C). Petrographic studies indicate that all three Grosnaja inclusions were subjected to secondary alterations. The Type A CAI GR4 is primarily composed of melilite with spinel and pyroxene occurring as minor phases. The rim of the inclusion does not exhibit distinct layered structure and secondary alteration products (garnet, Fe-rich olivine and Na-rich plagioclase) are present in some localized areas near the rim region. The average major element compositions of different mineral phases in GR4 are given. Preliminary REE data suggest a depletion of HREE relative to LREE by about a factor of 3 without any clear indication of interelement fractionation. The CAI GR7 has textural and minerological characteristics similar to Type B inclusions. The REE data show a pattern that is similar to Group 6 with enrichment in Eu and Yb. In addition, a depletion of HREE compared to LREE is also evident in this object. Melilite composition shows a broad range of akermanite content (Ak(sub 15-55)). Detailed petrographic study is in progress. GR2 is a anorthite-rich Type C inclusion with large plagioclase laths intergrown with Ti-rich pyroxene. The average plagioclase composition is close to pure anorthite (An99).

  18. The Role of the Atypical Kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in Abscisic Acid Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase) is represented in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement, and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling. PMID:27047531

  19. The Role of the Atypical Kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in Abscisic Acid Responses.

    PubMed

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase) is represented in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement, and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling. PMID:27047531

  20. APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  1. ABC makes the switch to digital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, R. G.

    1984-05-01

    The digital satellite-distribution system being completed for the ABC radio network is briefly characterized. Audio programming on 19 channels at 15 kHz is digitized at the studio and transmitted by microwave to the uplink facility for distribution via Satcom I-R to 1800 affiliates with affiliate-owned receivers. A data channel comprising several 32-kbit/sec subchannels operates through network-owned data cards and printers installed in the affiliate ground stations to provide internal communication (to all affiliates, a selected group, or a single station) using soft addresses, data-distribution services for station customers, or the proposed 900-MHz nationwide paging service.

  2. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  3. K-ABC/McCarthy Performance for Repeating and Nonrepeating Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.; Lyon, Mark A.

    This study compares the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) profiles of successful and unsuccessful preschoolers with learning disabilities. Subjects, 40 preschool students, were tested at the beginning and at the end of the preschool year and were placed into repeating or…

  4. Generating Symmetry in the Asymmetric ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Pdr5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakeshkumar P.; Kueppers, Petra; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Pdr5 is a plasma membrane-bound ABC transporter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is involved in the phenomenon of resistance against xenobiotics, which are clinically relevant in bacteria, fungi, and humans. Many fungal ABC transporters such as Pdr5 display an inherent asymmetry in their nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) unlike most of their human counterparts. This degeneracy of the NBSs is very intriguing and needs explanation in terms of structural and functional relevance. In this study, we mutated nonconsensus amino acid residues in the NBSs to its consensus counterpart and studied its effect on the function of the protein and effect on yeast cells. The completely “regenerated” Pdr5 protein was severely impaired in its function of ATP hydrolysis and of rhodamine 6G transport. Moreover, we observe alternative compensatory mechanisms to counteract drug toxicity in some of the mutants. In essence, we describe here the first attempts to restore complete symmetry in an asymmetric ABC transporter and to study its effects, which might be relevant to the entire class of asymmetric ABC transporters. PMID:24733388

  5. The yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-H) mouse reveals neuroprotection as a novel mechanism underlying chondroitinase ABC-mediated repair after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lucy M; Starkey, Michelle L; Akrimi, Sonia F; Davies, Meirion; McMahon, Stephen B; Bradbury, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-24

    Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury due to its potent effects on restoring function to spinal-injured adult mammals. However, there is limited mechanistic insight as to the underlying effects of ChABC treatment, where the effects are mediated, and which signaling pathways are involved in ChABC-mediated repair. Here we use a transgenic (YFP-H) mouse to demonstrate that cortical layer V projection neurons undergo severe atrophy 4 weeks after thoracic dorsal column injury and that ChABC is neuroprotective for these neurons after ICV infusion. ChABC also prevented cell atrophy after localized delivery to the spinal cord, suggesting a possible retrograde neuroprotective effect mediated at the injury site. Furthermore, neuroprotection of corticospinal cell somata coincided with increased axonal sprouting in the spinal cord. In addition, Western blot analysis of a number of kinases important in survival and growth signaling revealed a significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 at the spinal injury site after in vivo ChABC treatment, indicating that activated ERK may play a role in downstream repair processes after ChABC treatment. Total forms of PKC and AKT were also elevated, indicating that modification of the glial scar by ChABC promotes long-lasting signaling changes at the lesion site. Thus, using the YFP-H mouse as a novel tool to study degenerative changes and repair after spinal cord injury we demonstrate, for the first time, that ChABC treatment regulates multiple signaling cascades at the injury site and exerts protective effects on axotomized corticospinal projection neurons.

  6. The ABCs of School Choice, 2009-2010 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the 2009-2010 edition of the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "ABCs of School Choice". The "ABCs of School Choice" provides the latest in up-to-date and accurate information about the many school choice success stories taking place throughout the country. Readers will find this guide an essential resource on…

  7. To What Extent Does Attention Affect K-ABC Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed the protocols of 52 clinic-referred children who were administered the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) as well as version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), a laboratory measure of attention. Results demonstrated significant interrelationships among K-ABC and CPT scores. (Author/ABL)

  8. ABCs of Being Smart: S Is for Supporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Joanne Foster's article "R We There Yet?" was first published in "Parenting for High Potential" ("PHP") in 2006, which became the springboard for the "ABCs of Being Smart" series of columns. At that time, Foster invited "PHP" readers to think about their own versions of the "ABCs of Being…

  9. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  10. Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonali; Jamshad, Mohammed; Knowles, Timothy J; Morrison, Kerrie A; Downing, Rebecca; Cant, Natasha; Collins, Richard; Koenderink, Jan B; Ford, Robert C; Overduin, Michael; Kerr, Ian D; Dafforn, Timothy R; Rothnie, Alice J

    2014-07-15

    ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters carry out many vital functions and are involved in numerous diseases, but study of the structure and function of these proteins is often hampered by their large size and membrane location. Membrane protein purification usually utilizes detergents to solubilize the protein from the membrane, effectively removing it from its native lipid environment. Subsequently, lipids have to be added back and detergent removed to reconstitute the protein into a lipid bilayer. In the present study, we present the application of a new methodology for the extraction and purification of ABC transporters without the use of detergent, instead, using a copolymer, SMA (polystyrene-co-maleic acid). SMA inserts into a bilayer and assembles into discrete particles, essentially solubilizing the membrane into small discs of bilayer encircled by a polymer, termed SMALPs (SMA lipid particles). We show that this polymer can extract several eukaryotic ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1; ABCC1), MRP4 (ABCC4), ABCG2 and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ABCC7), from a range of different expression systems. The SMALP-encapsulated ABC transporters can be purified by affinity chromatography, and are able to bind ligands comparably with those in native membranes or detergent micelles. A greater degree of purity and enhanced stability is seen compared with detergent solubilization. The present study demonstrates that eukaryotic ABC transporters can be extracted and purified without ever being removed from their lipid bilayer environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for the future study of their structure and function.

  11. Single liposome analysis of peptide translocation by the ABC transporter TAPL

    PubMed Central

    Zollmann, Tina; Moiset, Gemma; Tumulka, Franz; Tampé, Robert; Poolman, Bert; Abele, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to drive solute transport across biological membranes. Members of this superfamily have crucial roles in cell physiology, and some of the transporters are linked to severe diseases. However, understanding of the transport mechanism, especially of human ABC exporters, is scarce. We reconstituted the human lysosomal polypeptide ABC transporter TAPL, expressed in Pichia pastoris, into lipid vesicles (liposomes) and performed explicit transport measurements. We analyzed solute transport at the single liposome level by monitoring the coincident fluorescence of solutes and proteoliposomes in the focal volume of a confocal microscope. We determined a turnover number of eight peptides per minute, which is two orders of magnitude higher than previously estimated from macroscopic measurements. Moreover, we show that TAPL translocates peptides against a large concentration gradient. Maximal filling is not limited by an electrochemical gradient but by trans-inhibition. Countertransport and reversibility studies demonstrate that peptide translocation is a strictly unidirectional process. Altogether, these data are included in a refined model of solute transport by ABC exporters. PMID:25646430

  12. Structural basis for substrate specificity of an amino acid ABC transporter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Ge, Jingpeng; Heuveling, Johanna; Schneider, Erwin; Yang, Maojun

    2015-04-21

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates, ranging from ions to macromolecules, either out of or into the cytosol (hence defined as importers or exporters, respectively). It has been demonstrated that ABC exporters and importers function through a common mechanism involving conformational switches between inward-facing and outward-facing states; however, the mechanism underlying their functions, particularly substrate recognition, remains elusive. Here we report the structures of an amino acid ABC importer Art(QN)2 from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis composed of homodimers each of the transmembrane domain ArtQ and the nucleotide-binding domain ArtN, either in its apo form or in complex with substrates (Arg, His) and/or ATPs. The structures reveal that the straddling of the TMDs around the twofold axis forms a substrate translocation pathway across the membrane. Interestingly, each TMD has a negatively charged pocket that together create a negatively charged internal tunnel allowing amino acids carrying positively charged groups to pass through. Our structural and functional studies provide a better understanding of how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates.

  13. Watching conformational dynamics of ABC transporters with single-molecule tools.

    PubMed

    Husada, Florence; Gouridis, Giorgos; Vietrov, Ruslan; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Ploetz, Evelyn; de Boer, Marijn; Poolman, Bert; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play crucial roles in cellular processes, such as nutrient uptake, drug resistance, cell-volume regulation and others. Despite their importance, all proposed molecular models for transport are based on indirect evidence, i.e. functional interpretation of static crystal structures and ensemble measurements of function and structure. Thus, classical biophysical and biochemical techniques do not readily visualize dynamic structural changes. We recently started to use single-molecule fluorescence techniques to study conformational states and changes of ABC transporters in vitro, in order to observe directly how the different steps during transport are coordinated. This review summarizes our scientific strategy and some of the key experimental advances that allowed the substrate-binding mechanism of prokaryotic ABC importers and the transport cycle to be explored. The conformational states and transitions of ABC-associated substrate-binding domains (SBDs) were visualized with single-molecule FRET, permitting a direct correlation of structural and kinetic information of SBDs. We also delineated the different steps of the transport cycle. Since information in such assays are restricted by proper labelling of proteins with fluorescent dyes, we present a simple approach to increase the amount of protein with FRET information based on non-specific interactions between a dye and the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) column material used for final purification.

  14. Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC transporters and their role in phospholipid transport.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jonathan A; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S

    2013-03-01

    Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle trafficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis, etc. P(4)-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membrane proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P(4)-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P(4)-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism.

  15. The ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory in Himalaya for aerosol, ozone and halocarbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Bonasoni, P; Laj, P; Angelini, F; Arduini, J; Bonafè, U; Calzolari, F; Cristofanelli, P; Decesari, S; Facchini, M C; Fuzzi, S; Gobbi, G P; Maione, M; Marinoni, A; Petzold, A; Roccato, F; Roger, J C; Sellegri, K; Sprenger, M; Venzac, H; Verza, G P; Villani, P; Vuillermoz, E

    2008-03-01

    In this work we present the new ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory (Nepal, 27.95 N, 86.82 E) located in the Himalayas, specifically in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. This measurement station has been set-up with the aim of investigating natural and human-induced environmental changes at different scales (local, regional and global). After an accurate instrumental set-up at ISAC-CNR in Bologna (Italy) in autumn 2005, the ABC-Pyramid Observatory for aerosol (physical, chemical and optical properties) and trace gas measurements (ozone and climate altering halocarbons) was installed in the high Khumbu valley in February 2006. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of aerosol particles (optical and physical properties), ozone (O3) and meteorological parameters as well as weekly samplings of particulate matter (for chemical analyses) and grab air samples for the determination of 27 halocarbons, have been carried out. These measurements provide data on the typical atmospheric composition of the Himalayan area between India and China and make investigations of the principal differences and similarities between the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons possible. The study is carried out within the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR "SHARE-Asia" (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment in Asia) and UNEP-"ABC" (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) projects. With the name of "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" the station is now part of the Observatory program of the ABC project.

  16. Small volume low mechanical stress cytometry using computer-controlled Braille display microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yi-Chung; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Futai, Nobuyuki; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes a micro flow cytometer system designed for efficient and non-damaging analysis of samples with small numbers of precious cells. The system utilizes actuation of Braille-display pins for micro-scale fluid manipulation and a fluorescence microscope with a CCD camera for optical detection. The microfluidic chip is fully disposable and is composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slab with microchannel features sealed against a thin deformable PDMS membrane. The channels are designed with diffusers to alleviate pulsatile flow behaviors inherent in pin actuator-based peristaltic pumping schemes to maximize hydrodynamic focusing of samples with minimal disturbances in the laminar streams within the channel. A funnel connected to the microfluidic channel is designed for efficient loading of samples with small number of cells and is also positioned on the chip to prevent physical damages of the samples by the squeezing actions of Braille pins during actuation. The sample loading scheme was characterized by both computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation and experimental observation. A fluorescein solution was first used for flow field investigation, followed by use of fluorescence beads with known relative intensities for optical detection performance calibration. Murine myoblast cells (C2C12) were exploited to investigate cell viability for the sample loading scheme of the device. Furthermore, human promyelocytic leukemia (HL60) cells stained by hypotonic DNA staining buffer were also tested in the system for cell cycle analysis. The ability to efficiently analyze cellular samples where the number of cells is small was demonstrated by analyzing cells from a single embryoid body derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Consequently, the designed microfluidic device reported in this paper is promising for easy-to-use, small sample size flow cytometric analysis, and has potential to be further integrated with other Braille display-based microfluidic

  17. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L.; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  18. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  19. Loss of Plastoglobule Kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 Causes Conditional Degreening, Modified Prenyl-Lipids, and Recruitment of the Jasmonic Acid Pathway[W

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Peter K.; Poliakov, Anton; Giacomelli, Lisa; Friso, Giulia; Appel, Mason; McQuinn, Ryan P.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rowland, Elden; Ponnala, Lalit; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the double mutant (k1 k3) displayed rapid chlorosis upon high light stress. Also, k1 k3 showed a slower, but irreversible, senescence-like phenotype during moderate light stress that was phenocopied by drought and nitrogen limitation, but not cold stress. This senescence-like phenotype involved degradation of the photosystem II core and upregulation of chlorophyll degradation. The senescence-like phenotype was independent of the EXECUTER pathway that mediates genetically controlled cell death from the chloroplast and correlated with increased levels of the singlet oxygen–derived carotenoid β-cyclocitral, a retrograde plastid signal. Total PG volume increased during light stress in wild type and k1 k3 plants, but with different size distributions. Isolated PGs from k1 k3 showed a modified prenyl-lipid composition, suggesting reduced activity of PG-localized tocopherol cyclase (VTE1), and was consistent with loss of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4. Plastid jasmonate biosynthesis enzymes were recruited to the k1 k3 PGs but not wild-type PGs, while pheophytinase, which is involved in chlorophyll degradation, was induced in k1 k3 and not wild-type plants and was localized to PGs. Thus, the ABC1K1/3 complex contributes to PG function in prenyl-lipid metabolism, stress response, and thylakoid remodeling. PMID:23673981

  20. Multiplexed hydraulic valve actuation using ionic liquid filled soft channels and Braille displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei; Chen, Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung; Meiners, Jens-Christian; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic actuation with multilayer soft lithography enables operation of up to thousands of valves in parallel using far fewer control lines. However, it is dependent on macroscopic switches and external pressure sources that require interconnects and limit portability. The authors present a more portable and multiplexed valve actuation strategy that uses a grid of mechanically actuated Braille pins to hydraulically, rather than pneumatically, deform elastic actuation channels that act as valves. Experimental and theoretical analyses show that the key to reliable operation of the hydraulic system is the use of nonvolatile ionic liquids as the hydraulic fluid.

  1. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  2. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  3. A Case for Increased Training in the Nemeth Code of Braille Mathematics for Teachers of Students Who Are Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the lack of preparation teachers of students with visual impairments have in the Nemeth Code (the Braille code for mathematics). It then describes a Windows-based tutorial for sighted persons to learn the Nemeth Code, a tutorial for teachers with blindness, and how to access the tutorials. (Contains 10 references.) (CR)

  4. An Exploration in Braille Speed Reading: Report and Evaluation of the 1973 McBride Institute in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Vearl G.; And Others

    Intended for teacher educators, the document provides four presentations on the methods and effectiveness of the Braille Speed Reading Institute. A general background of the Institute by A. Ensign traces the development of the project from a request made by a teacher of the blind and partially sighted to the completion and finalization of details…

  5. Transient Thermal State of an Active Braille Matrix with Incorporated Thermal Actuators by Means of Finite Element Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alutei, Alexandra-Maria; Szelitzky, Emoke; Mandru, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the transient thermal analysis for a developed thermal linear actuator based on wax paraffin used to drive the cells of a Braille device. A numerical investigation of transient heat transfer phenomenon during paraffin melting and solidification in an encapsulated recipient has been carried out using the ANSYS…

  6. Preclinical properties and human in vivo assessment of 123I-ABC577 as a novel SPECT agent for imaging amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Maya, Yoshifumi; Okumura, Yuki; Kobayashi, Ryohei; Onishi, Takako; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Barret, Olivier; Alagille, David; Jennings, Danna; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Tamagnan, Gilles; Tanaka, Akihiro; Shirakami, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging of amyloid-β in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, may support earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we assessed the novel single photon emission computed tomography tracer (123)I-ABC577 as a potential imaging biomarker for amyloid-β in the brain. The radio-iodinated imidazopyridine derivative (123)I-ABC577 was designed as a candidate for a novel amyloid-β imaging agent. The binding affinity of (123)I-ABC577 for amyloid-β was evaluated by saturation binding assay and in vitro autoradiography using post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue. Biodistribution experiments using normal rats were performed to evaluate the biokinetics of (123)I-ABC577. Furthermore, to validate (123)I-ABC577 as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease, we performed a clinical study to compare the brain uptake of (123)I-ABC577 in three patients with Alzheimer's disease and three healthy control subjects. (123)I-ABC577 binding was quantified by use of the standardized uptake value ratio, which was calculated for the cortex using the cerebellum as a reference region. Standardized uptake value ratio images were visually scored as positive or negative. As a result, (123)I-ABC577 showed high binding affinity for amyloid-β and desirable pharmacokinetics in the preclinical studies. In the clinical study, (123)I-ABC577 was an effective marker for discriminating patients with Alzheimer's disease from healthy control subjects based on visual images or the ratio of cortical-to-cerebellar binding. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, (123)I-ABC577 demonstrated clear retention in cortical regions known to accumulate amyloid, such as the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and posterior cingulate. In contrast, less, more diffuse, and non-specific uptake without localization to these key regions was observed in healthy controls. At 150 min after injection, the cortical standardized uptake value ratio increased by ∼ 60% in patients with

  7. Local Delivery of High-Dose Chondroitinase ABC in the Sub-Acute Stage Promotes Axonal Outgrowth and Functional Recovery after Complete Spinal Cord Transection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chu-Hsun; Lin, Chi-Te; Lee, Meng-Jen; Tsai, May-Jywan; Huang, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ming-Chao; Lin, Yi-Lo; Chen, Ching-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are glial scar-associated molecules considered axonal regeneration inhibitors and can be digested by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to promote axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). We previously demonstrated that intrathecal delivery of low-dose ChABC (1 U) in the acute stage of SCI promoted axonal regrowth and functional recovery. In this study, high-dose ChABC (50 U) introduced via intrathecal delivery induced subarachnoid hemorrhage and death within 48 h. However, most SCI patients are treated in the sub-acute or chronic stages, when the dense glial scar has formed and is minimally digested by intrathecal delivery of ChABC at the injury site. The present study investigated whether intraparenchymal delivery of ChABC in the sub-acute stage of complete spinal cord transection would promote axonal outgrowth and improve functional recovery. We observed no functional recovery following the low-dose ChABC (1 U or 5 U) treatments. Furthermore, animals treated with high-dose ChABC (50 U or 100 U) showed decreased CSPGs levels. The extent and area of the lesion were also dramatically decreased after ChABC treatment. The outgrowth of the regenerating axons was significantly increased, and some partially crossed the lesion site in the ChABC-treated groups. In addition, retrograde Fluoro-Gold (FG) labeling showed that the outgrowing axons could cross the lesion site and reach several brain stem nuclei involved in sensory and motor functions. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) open field locomotor scores revealed that the ChABC treatment significantly improved functional recovery compared to the control group at eight weeks after treatment. Our study demonstrates that high-dose ChABC treatment in the sub-acute stage of SCI effectively improves glial scar digestion by reducing the lesion size and increasing axonal regrowth to the related functional nuclei, which promotes locomotor recovery. Thus, our results will aid in

  8. ABC-Transporter Expression Does Not Correlate with Response to Irinotecan in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trumpi, K.; Emmink, B.L.; Prins, A.M.; van Oijen, M.G.H.; van Diest, P.J.; Punt, C.J.A.; Koopman, M.; Kranenburg, O.; Rinkes, I.H.M. Borel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Active efflux of irinotecan by ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters, in particular ABCB1 and ABCG2, is a well-established drug resistance mechanism in vitro and in pre-clinical mouse models, but its relevance in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the association between ABC-transporter expression and tumour response to irinotecan in patients with metastatic CRC. Methods: Tissue microarrays of a large cohort of metastatic CRC patients treated with irinotecan in a prospective study (CAIRO study; n=566) were analysed for expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to assess the association of ABC transporter expression with irinotecan response. Gene expression profiles of 17 paired tumours were used to assess the concordance of ABCB1/ABCG2 expression in primary CRC and corresponding metastases. Results: The response to irinotecan was not significantly different between primary tumours with positive versus negative expression of ABCB1 (5.8 vs 5.7 months, p=0.696) or ABCG2 (5.7 vs 6.1 months, p=0.811). Multivariate analysis showed neither ABCB1 nor ABCG2 were independent predictors for progression free survival. There was a mediocre to poor concordance between ABC-transporter expression in paired tumours. Conclusion: In metastatic CRC, ABC-transporter expression in the primary tumour does not predict irinotecan response. PMID:26516354

  9. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Mingshan; Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu; Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling; Yan, Zhiling; Wu, Qingyun; Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xuejiao; and others

    2015-07-10

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys{sup 38} to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy.

  10. Toward Determining ATPase Mechanism in ABC Transporters: Development of the Reaction Path–Force Matching QM/MM Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y.; Ojeda-May, P.; Nagaraju, M.; Pu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous ATP-dependent membrane proteins involved in translocations of a wide variety of substrates across cellular membranes. To understand the chemomechanical coupling mechanism as well as functional asymmetry in these systems, a quantitative description of how ABC transporters hydrolyze ATP is needed. Complementary to experimental approaches, computer simulations based on combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have provided new insights into the catalytic mechanism in ABC transporters. Quantitatively reliable determination of the free energy requirement for enzymatic ATP hydrolysis, however, requires substantial statistical sampling on QM/MM potential. A case study shows that brute force sampling of ab initio QM/MM (AI/MM) potential energy surfaces is computationally impractical for enzyme simulations of ABC transporters. On the other hand, existing semiempirical QM/MM (SE/MM) methods, although affordable for free energy sampling, are unreliable for studying ATP hydrolysis. To close this gap, a multiscale QM/MM approach named reaction path–force matching (RP–FM) has been developed. In RP–FM, specific reaction parameters for a selected SE method are optimized against AI reference data along reaction paths by employing the force matching technique. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for a proton transfer reaction in the gas phase and in solution. The RP–FM method may offer a general tool for simulating complex enzyme systems such as ABC transporters. PMID:27498639

  11. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn’t show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  12. Pleiotropic effects of the vacuolar ABC transporter MLT1 of Candida albicans on cell function and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Kaemmer, Philipp; Förster, Toni M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Coste, Alix T.; Andes, David R.; Hube, Bernhard; Sanglard, Dominique; Chauhan, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinder; d'Enfert, Christophe; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Among the several mechanisms that contribute to MDR (multidrug resistance), the overexpression of drug-efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily is the most frequent cause of resistance to antifungal agents. The multidrug transporter proteins Cdr1p and Cdr2p of the ABCG subfamily are major players in the development of MDR in Candida albicans. Because several genes coding for ABC proteins exist in the genome of C. albicans, but only Cdr1p and Cdr2p have established roles in MDR, it is implicit that the other members of the ABC family also have alternative physiological roles. The present study focuses on an ABC transporter of C. albicans, Mlt1p, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and specifically transports PC (phosphatidylcholine) into the vacuolar lumen. Transcriptional profiling of the mlt1∆/∆ mutant revealed a down-regulation of the genes involved in endocytosis, oxidoreductase activity, virulence and hyphal development. High-throughput MS-based lipidome analysis revealed that the Mlt1p levels affect lipid homoeostasis and thus lead to a plethora of physiological perturbations. These include a delay in endocytosis, inefficient sequestering of reactive oxygen species (ROS), defects in hyphal development and attenuated virulence. The present study is an emerging example where new and unconventional roles of an ABC transporter are being identified. PMID:27026051

  13. Toward Determining ATPase Mechanism in ABC Transporters: Development of the Reaction Path-Force Matching QM/MM Method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Ojeda-May, P; Nagaraju, M; Pu, J

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous ATP-dependent membrane proteins involved in translocations of a wide variety of substrates across cellular membranes. To understand the chemomechanical coupling mechanism as well as functional asymmetry in these systems, a quantitative description of how ABC transporters hydrolyze ATP is needed. Complementary to experimental approaches, computer simulations based on combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potentials have provided new insights into the catalytic mechanism in ABC transporters. Quantitatively reliable determination of the free energy requirement for enzymatic ATP hydrolysis, however, requires substantial statistical sampling on QM/MM potential. A case study shows that brute force sampling of ab initio QM/MM (AI/MM) potential energy surfaces is computationally impractical for enzyme simulations of ABC transporters. On the other hand, existing semiempirical QM/MM (SE/MM) methods, although affordable for free energy sampling, are unreliable for studying ATP hydrolysis. To close this gap, a multiscale QM/MM approach named reaction path-force matching (RP-FM) has been developed. In RP-FM, specific reaction parameters for a selected SE method are optimized against AI reference data along reaction paths by employing the force matching technique. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated for a proton transfer reaction in the gas phase and in solution. The RP-FM method may offer a general tool for simulating complex enzyme systems such as ABC transporters. PMID:27498639

  14. Pleiotropic effects of the vacuolar ABC transporter MLT1 of Candida albicans on cell function and virulence.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Kaemmer, Philipp; Förster, Toni M; Singh, Ashutosh; Coste, Alix T; Andes, David R; Hube, Bernhard; Sanglard, Dominique; Chauhan, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinder; d'Enfert, Christophe; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-06-01

    Among the several mechanisms that contribute to MDR (multidrug resistance), the overexpression of drug-efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily is the most frequent cause of resistance to antifungal agents. The multidrug transporter proteins Cdr1p and Cdr2p of the ABCG subfamily are major players in the development of MDR in Candida albicans Because several genes coding for ABC proteins exist in the genome of C. albicans, but only Cdr1p and Cdr2p have established roles in MDR, it is implicit that the other members of the ABC family also have alternative physiological roles. The present study focuses on an ABC transporter of C. albicans, Mlt1p, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and specifically transports PC (phosphatidylcholine) into the vacuolar lumen. Transcriptional profiling of the mlt1∆/∆ mutant revealed a down-regulation of the genes involved in endocytosis, oxidoreductase activity, virulence and hyphal development. High-throughput MS-based lipidome analysis revealed that the Mlt1p levels affect lipid homoeostasis and thus lead to a plethora of physiological perturbations. These include a delay in endocytosis, inefficient sequestering of reactive oxygen species (ROS), defects in hyphal development and attenuated virulence. The present study is an emerging example where new and unconventional roles of an ABC transporter are being identified. PMID:27026051

  15. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngjin

    2016-02-01

    To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC50) of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC50 of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml), a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC50 of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn't show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide. PMID:26889110

  16. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  17. Control of soft machines using actuators operated by a Braille display.

    PubMed

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Shepherd, Robert F; Morin, Stephen A; Gupta, Unmukt; Sani, Idin Zhalehdoust; Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Whitesides, George M

    2014-01-01

    One strategy for actuating soft machines (e.g., tentacles, grippers, and simple walkers) uses pneumatic inflation of networks of small channels in an elastomeric material. Although the management of a few pneumatic inputs and valves to control pressurized gas is straightforward, the fabrication and operation of manifolds containing many (>50) independent valves is an unsolved problem. Complex pneumatic manifolds-often built for a single purpose-are not easily reconfigured to accommodate the specific inputs (i.e., multiplexing of many fluids, ranges of pressures, and changes in flow rates) required by pneumatic systems. This paper describes a pneumatic manifold comprising a computer-controlled Braille display and a micropneumatic device. The Braille display provides a compact array of 64 piezoelectric actuators that actively close and open elastomeric valves of a micropneumatic device to route pressurized gas within the manifold. The positioning and geometries of the valves and channels in the micropneumatic device dictate the functionality of the pneumatic manifold, and the use of multi-layer soft lithography permits the fabrication of networks in a wide range of configurations with many possible functions. Simply exchanging micropneumatic devices of different designs enables rapid reconfiguration of the pneumatic manifold. As a proof of principle, a pneumatic manifold controlled a soft machine containing 32 independent actuators to move a ball above a flat surface.

  18. Batch fabrication of optical actuators using nanotube-elastomer composites towards refreshable Braille displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, C. J.; Campanella, H.; Marshall, J. E.; Torras, N.; Zinoviev, K.; Terentjev, E. M.; Esteve, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an opto-actuable device fabricated using micro-machined silicon moulds. The actuating component of the device is made from a composite material containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) matrix. We demonstrate the fabrication of a patterned LCE-CNT film by a combination of mechanical stretching and thermal cross-linking. The resulting poly-domain LCE-CNT film contains ‘blister-shaped’ mono-domain regions, which reversibly change their shape under light irradiation and hence can be used as dynamic Braille dots. We demonstrate that blisters with diameters of 1.0 and 1.5 mm, and wall thickness 300 µm, will mechanically contract under irradiation by a laser diode with optical power up to 60 mW. The magnitude of this contraction was up to 40 µm, which is more than 10% of their height in the ‘rest’ state. The stabilization time of the material is less than 6 s for both actuation and recovery. We also carried out preliminary tests on the repeatability of this photo-actuation process, observing no material or performance degradation. This manufacturing approach establishes a starting point for the design and fabrication of wide-area tactile actuators, which are promising candidates for the development of new Braille reading applications for the visually impaired.

  19. Perceptual correlates of changes in cortical representation of fingers in blind multifinger Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Sterr, A; Müller, M M; Elbert, T; Rockstroh, B; Pantev, C; Taub, E

    1998-06-01

    The mature mammalian nervous system alters its functional organization in a use-dependent manner. Enhanced stimulation of a body part enlarges its cortical representational zones and may change its topographic order. Little is known about the perceptual and behavioral relevance of these plastic alterations in cortical organization. We used blind Braille readers who use several fingers on each hand and who do so for many hours each day as a model to investigate this issue. Magnetic source imaging indicated that the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers was frequently topographically disordered in these subjects; in addition, they frequently misperceived which of these fingers was being touched by a light tactile stimulus. In contrast, neither the disordered representation nor mislocalizations were observed in sighted controls. Blind non-teacher Braille readers who used only one finger for reading were not significantly different from the sighted controls. Thus, use-dependent cortical reorganization can be associated with functionally relevant changes in the perceptual and behavioral capacities of the individual.

  20. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min

    2007-11-01

    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  1. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  2. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  3. MDR-ABC transporters: biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Márki-Zay, János; Tauberné Jakab, Katalin; Szerémy, Péter; Krajcsi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    MDR-ABC transporters are widely expressed in cell types relevant to pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports demonstrate the interaction of small molecule drugs with MDR-ABC transporters. Cell-based assays for disease relevant cell types can be easily gated and could reveal specific drug targets and may increase significance and utilisation of data in clinical practice. Many commonly used DMARDs (e.g. methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide/teriflunomide, hydroxychloroquine) are ABCG2 substrates. Consequently, the activity of this transporter in patients should be determined to understand the disposition and pharmacokinetics of the therapy. In addition, MDR-ABC transporters transport a variety of endobiotics that play important roles in cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, MDR-ABC transporters are important biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23711386

  4. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  5. ABC and IFC: Modules Detection Method for PPI Network

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiujuan; Tian, Jianfang

    2014-01-01

    Many clustering algorithms are unable to solve the clustering problem of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks effectively. A novel clustering model which combines the optimization mechanism of artificial bee colony (ABC) with the fuzzy membership matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed ABC-IFC clustering model contains two parts: searching for the optimum cluster centers using ABC mechanism and forming clusters using intuitionistic fuzzy clustering (IFC) method. Firstly, the cluster centers are set randomly and the initial clustering results are obtained by using fuzzy membership matrix. Then the cluster centers are updated through different functions of bees in ABC algorithm; then the clustering result is obtained through IFC method based on the new optimized cluster center. To illustrate its performance, the ABC-IFC method is compared with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering and IFC method. The experimental results on MIPS dataset show that the proposed ABC-IFC method not only gets improved in terms of several commonly used evaluation criteria such as precision, recall, and P value, but also obtains a better clustering result. PMID:24991575

  6. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals. PMID:26042641

  7. ABC transporter research: going strong 40 years on

    PubMed Central

    Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, ABC transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins. In humans, their functions are diverse and underpin numerous key physiological processes, as well as being causative factors in a number of clinically relevant pathologies. Advances in our understanding of these diseases have come about through combinations of genetic and protein biochemical investigations of these transporters and the power of in vitro and in vivo investigations is helping to develop genotype–phenotype understanding. However, the importance of ABC transporter research goes far beyond human biology; microbial ABC transporters are of great interest in terms of understanding virulence and drug resistance and industrial biotechnology researchers are exploring the potential of prokaryotic ABC exporters to increase the capacity of synthetic biology systems. Plant ABC transporters play important roles in transport of hormones, xenobiotics, metals and secondary metabolites, pathogen responses and numerous aspects of development, all of which are important in the global food security area. For 3 days in Chester, this Biochemical Society Focused Meeting brought together researchers with diverse experimental approaches and with different fundamental questions, all of which are linked by the commonality of ABC transporters. PMID:26517919

  8. Structural basis for the mechanism of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Beis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are primary transporters that couple the energy stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the movement of molecules across the membrane. ABC transporters can be divided into exporters and importers; importers mediate the uptake of essential nutrients into cells and are found predominantly in prokaryotes whereas exporters transport molecules out of cells or into organelles and are found in all organisms. ABC exporters have been linked with multi-drug resistance in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. ABC transporters are powered by the hydrolysis of ATP and transport their substrate via the alternating access mechanism, whereby the protein alternates between a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is accessible from the outside of the membrane, outward-facing and one in which it is inward-facing. In this mini-review, the structures of different ABC transporter types in different conformations are presented within the context of the alternating access mechanism and how they have shaped our current understanding of the mechanism of ABC transporters.

  9. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals.

  10. Convergent Validity between Two Motor Tests: Movement-ABC and PDMS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Peersman, Wim; Lenoir, Matthieu; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Thirty-one 4- and 5-year-old children (mean age 4 years 11 months, SD 6 months), all recruited from a clinical setting, took part in the study. Children were tested on the…

  11. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  12. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Auricelio A; Silva, Ana P C; Mol, Juliana P S; Costa, Luciana F; Garcia, Luize N N; Araújo, Marcio S; Martins Filho, Olindo A; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2015-01-01

    Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment. PMID:26366863

  13. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Auricelio A.; Silva, Ana P. C.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Luciana F.; Garcia, Luize N. N.; Araújo, Marcio S.; Martins Filho, Olindo A.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2015-01-01

    Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment. PMID:26366863

  14. Application of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm in search of optimal release of Aswan High Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md S.; El-shafie, A.

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a study on developing an optimum reservoir release policy by using ABC algorithm. The decision maker of a reservoir system always needs a guideline to operate the reservoir in an optimal way. Release curves have developed for high, medium and low inflow category that can answer how much water need to be release for a month by observing the reservoir level (storage condition). The Aswan high dam of Egypt has considered as the case study. 18 years of historical inflow data has used for simulation purpose and the general system performance measuring indices has measured. The application procedure and problem formulation of ABC is very simple and can be used in optimizing reservoir system. After using the actual historical inflow, the release policy succeeded in meeting demand for about 98% of total time period.

  15. Agreement of manual cell counts and automated counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) hematology analyzer for analysis of equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Van de Water, Eline; Oosterlinck, Maarten; Duchateau, Luc; Pille, Frederik

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the scil Vet abc Plus(+) (SCIL Animal Care Company, Altorf, France), an impedance hematology analyzer, can accurately quantify and differentiate nucleated blood cells (NBCs) in equine synovial fluid. Synovial fluid samples (n=242) in different stages of experimentally induced inflammation were analyzed with and without hyaluronidase pretreatment and compared to manual hemocytometer counts and smear reviews. No significant effect of hyaluronidase pretreatment was observed. Total nucleated cell counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) were significantly higher compared to the manual method (P=0.02), yet the difference was small and clinically irrelevant (ratio manual/automated count equal to 0.97 with 95% CI [0.95, 1.00]). Differential cell counts of the scil Vet abc Plus(+) were not accurate. In conclusion, the scil Vet abc Plus(+) hematology analyzer is highly accurate for quantification, but not accurate for differentiation of NBCs in equine synovial fluid.

  16. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  17. Regulation of P-glycoprotein and other ABC drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are important, selective elements of the blood-brain barrier. They line the luminal plasma membrane of the brain capillary endothelium, facing the vascular space, both protecting the CNS from entry of neurotoxicants and limiting access of therapeutic drugs to the brain parenchyma. Recent studies highlight the multiple signaling pathways through which the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and other ABC transporters are modulated in response to xenobiotics, stress and disease. They show that increased transporter expression occurs in response to signals that activate specific transcription factors including, PXR, CAR, NF-κB and AP-1, and reduced transporter activity occurs rapidly and reversibly in response to signaling through Src kinase, protein kinase C and estrogen receptors. A detailed understanding of such regulation can provide the basis for improved neuroprotection and enhanced therapeutic drug delivery to the brain. PMID:20417575

  18. Molecular examination of bone marrow stromal cells and chondroitinase ABC-assisted acellular nerve allograft for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Hua; Li, Wen-Yuan; Guan, Li-Xin; Deng, Lingxiao; Liu, Yan-Cui; Liu, Gui-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying combinatorial bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) therapy in a model of acellular nerve allograft (ANA) repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were used as nerve donors and Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group (ANA treated with DMEM only); Group II, Ch-ABC group (ANA treated with Ch-ABC only); Group III, BMSC group (ANA seeded with BMSCs only); Group IV, Ch-ABC + BMSCs group (Ch-ABC treated ANA then seeded with BMSCs). After 8 weeks, the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the regenerated tissues were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Axonal regeneration, motor neuron protection and functional recovery were examined by immunohistochemistry, horseradish peroxidase retrograde neural tracing and electrophysiological and tibialis anterior muscle recovery analyses. It was observed that combination therapy enhances the growth response of the donor nerve locally as well as distally, at the level of the spinal cord motoneuron and the target muscle organ. This phenomenon is likely due to the propagation of retrograde and anterograde transport of growth signals sourced from the graft site. Collectively, growth improvement on the donor nerve, target muscle and motoneuron ultimately contribute to efficacious axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Thorough investigation of molecular peripheral nerve injury combinatorial strategies are required for the optimization of efficacious therapy and full functional recovery following ANA. PMID:27698684

  19. Molecular examination of bone marrow stromal cells and chondroitinase ABC-assisted acellular nerve allograft for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Hua; Li, Wen-Yuan; Guan, Li-Xin; Deng, Lingxiao; Liu, Yan-Cui; Liu, Gui-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying combinatorial bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC) therapy in a model of acellular nerve allograft (ANA) repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were used as nerve donors and Wistar rats (n=48) were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) control group (ANA treated with DMEM only); Group II, Ch-ABC group (ANA treated with Ch-ABC only); Group III, BMSC group (ANA seeded with BMSCs only); Group IV, Ch-ABC + BMSCs group (Ch-ABC treated ANA then seeded with BMSCs). After 8 weeks, the expression of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the regenerated tissues were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Axonal regeneration, motor neuron protection and functional recovery were examined by immunohistochemistry, horseradish peroxidase retrograde neural tracing and electrophysiological and tibialis anterior muscle recovery analyses. It was observed that combination therapy enhances the growth response of the donor nerve locally as well as distally, at the level of the spinal cord motoneuron and the target muscle organ. This phenomenon is likely due to the propagation of retrograde and anterograde transport of growth signals sourced from the graft site. Collectively, growth improvement on the donor nerve, target muscle and motoneuron ultimately contribute to efficacious axonal regeneration and functional recovery. Thorough investigation of molecular peripheral nerve injury combinatorial strategies are required for the optimization of efficacious therapy and full functional recovery following ANA.

  20. The Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, Kimberly; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.; Steel, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project, a NASA-funded tactile exhibit for the visually impaired community was launched in July 2009 at the Martin Luther King Library in D.C. The exhibit is part of the global FETTU exhibit, a project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, Crab Nebula, Whirlpool Galaxy, and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the NASA-funded Braille/tactile book Touch the Invisible Sky. Multiple geographic locations and venue types have been targeted for the displays. The FETTU-tactile exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy, bridging a gap in learning. This exhibit is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under proposal 08-EPO08-0068 issued through the Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Cloning of two novel ABC transporters mapping on human chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Luciani, M.F.; Savary, S.; Chimini, G. ); Denizot, F. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1994-05-01

    The family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters or traffic ATPases is composed of several membrane-associated proteins that transport a great variety of solutes across cellular membranes. Two novel mammalian members of the family, ABC1 and ABC2, have been identified by a PCR-based approach. They belong to a group of traffic ATPases encoded as a single multifunctional protein, such as CFTR, STE 6, and P-glycoproteins. Their peculiar structural features and close relationship to ABC transporters involved in nodulation suggest that ABC1 and ABC2 define a novel subgroup of mammalian traffic ATPases. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Effective learning and retention of braille letter tactile discrimination skills in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Maisam; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) may differ from typical readers in aspects other than reading. The notion of a general deficit in the ability to acquire and retain procedural ('how to') knowledge as long-term procedural memory has been proposed. Here, we compared the ability of elementary school children, with and without reading difficulties (DD, typical readers), to improve their tactile discrimination with practice and tested the children's ability to retain the gains. Forty 10-11-year-olds practiced the tactile discrimination of four braille letters, presented as pairs, while blindfolded. In a trial, participants were asked to report whether the target stimuli were identical or different from each other. The structured training session consisted of six blocks of 16 trials each. Performance was re-tested at 24 hours and two weeks post-training. Both groups improved in speed and in accuracy. In session 1, children with DD started as significantly less accurate and were slower than the typical readers but showed rapid learning and successfully closed the gap. Only two children with DD failed to benefit from training and were not included in subsequent data analyses. At 24 hours post-training both groups showed effective retention of the gains in speed and accuracy. Importantly, children with DD were able to retain the gains in speed and accuracy, over a two-week interval as effectively as typical readers. Thus, children with DD were as effective in the acquisition and retention of tactile discrimination of braille letters as typical readers of the same age. The results do not support the notion of a general procedural learning disability in DD.

  3. ArgR is an essential local transcriptional regulator of the arcABC operon in Streptococcus suis and is crucial for biological fitness in an acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Fulde, Marcus; Willenborg, Joerg; de Greeff, Astrid; Benga, Laurentiu; Smith, Hilde E; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and can also cause severe infections in humans. Despite its clinical relevance, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its virulence. Recently, we identified a new putative virulence factor in S. suis, the arginine deiminase system (ADS), an arginine catabolic enzyme system encoded by the arcABC operon, which enables S. suis to survive in an acidic environment. In this study, we focused on ArgR, an ADS-associated regulator belonging to the ArgR/AhrC arginine repressor family. Using an argR knockout strain we were able to show that ArgR is essential for arcABC operon expression and necessary for the biological fitness of S. suis. By cDNA expression microarray analyses and quantitative real-time RT-PCR we found that the arcABC operon is the only gene cluster regulated by ArgR, which is in contrast to the situation in many other bacteria. Reporter gene analysis with gfp under the control of the arcABC promoter demonstrated that ArgR is able to activate the arcABC promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with fragments of the arcABC promoter and recombinant ArgR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against ArgR, revealed that ArgR interacts with the arcABC promoter in vitro and in vivo by binding to a region from -147 to -72 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Overall, our results show that in S. suis, ArgR is an essential, system-specific transcriptional regulator of the ADS that interacts directly with the arcABC promoter in vivo.

  4. ABC transporters involved in export of cell surface glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kos, Veronica; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-09-01

    Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell surface oligo- and polysaccharides in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent investigations of the structure and function of ABC transporters involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide O antigens have revealed two fundamentally different strategies for coupling glycan polymerization to export. These mechanisms are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of characteristic nonreducing terminal modifications on the export substrates, which serve as chain termination and/or export signals, and by the presence (or absence) of a discrete substrate-binding domain in the nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide of the ABC transporter. A bioinformatic survey examining ABC exporters from known oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis loci identifies conserved nucleotide-binding domain protein families that correlate well with themes in the structures and assembly of glycans. The familial relationships among the ABC exporters generate hypotheses concerning the biosynthesis of structurally diverse oligo- and polysaccharides, which play important roles in the biology of bacteria with different lifestyles.

  5. ABC Transporters Involved in Export of Cell Surface Glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kos, Veronica; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell surface oligo- and polysaccharides in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent investigations of the structure and function of ABC transporters involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide O antigens have revealed two fundamentally different strategies for coupling glycan polymerization to export. These mechanisms are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of characteristic nonreducing terminal modifications on the export substrates, which serve as chain termination and/or export signals, and by the presence (or absence) of a discrete substrate-binding domain in the nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide of the ABC transporter. A bioinformatic survey examining ABC exporters from known oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis loci identifies conserved nucleotide-binding domain protein families that correlate well with themes in the structures and assembly of glycans. The familial relationships among the ABC exporters generate hypotheses concerning the biosynthesis of structurally diverse oligo- and polysaccharides, which play important roles in the biology of bacteria with different lifestyles. PMID:20805402

  6. Transient thermal state of an active Braille matrix with incorporated thermal actuators by means of finite element method.

    PubMed

    Aluţei, Alexandra-Maria; Szelitzky, Emoke; Mândru, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the transient thermal analysis for a developed thermal linear actuator based on wax paraffin used to drive the cells of a Braille device. A numerical investigation of transient heat transfer phenomenon during paraffin melting and solidification in an encapsulated recipient has been carried out using the ANSYS v.12 software. The researchers offer data on the heat distribution in the proposed model of the actuator as well as on the material properties required for these applications and provide the opportunity to identify new problems specific to thermal actuation, such as the heater properties and the cooling process of the active material in the structure of the Braille cell.

  7. A Putative Bacterial ABC Transporter Circumvents the Essentiality of Signal Peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Smith, Peter A.; Date, Shailesh V.; Kajihara, Kimberly K.; Truong, Chau Linda; Modrusan, Zora; Yan, Donghong; Kang, Jing; Xu, Min; Shah, Ishita M.; Mintzer, Robert; Kofoed, Eric M.; Cheung, Tommy K.; Arnott, David; Koehler, Michael F. T.; Heise, Christopher E.; Brown, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type I signal peptidase of Staphylococcus aureus, SpsB, is an attractive antibacterial target because it is essential for viability and extracellularly accessible. We synthesized compound 103, a novel arylomycin-derived inhibitor of SpsB with significant potency against various clinical S. aureus strains (MIC of ~1 µg/ml). The predominant clinical strain USA300 developed spontaneous resistance to compound 103 with high frequency, resulting from single point mutations inside or immediately upstream of cro/cI, a homolog of the lambda phage transcriptional repressor cro. These cro/cI mutations led to marked (>50-fold) overexpression of three genes encoding a putative ABC transporter. Overexpression of this ABC transporter was both necessary and sufficient for resistance and, notably, circumvented the essentiality of SpsB during in vitro culture. Mutation of its predicted ATPase gene abolished resistance, suggesting a possible role for active transport; in these bacteria, resistance to compound 103 occurred with low frequency and through mutations in spsB. Bacteria overexpressing the ABC transporter and lacking SpsB were capable of secreting a subset of proteins that are normally cleaved by SpsB and instead were cleaved at a site distinct from the canonical signal peptide. These bacteria secreted reduced levels of virulence-associated proteins and were unable to establish infection in mice. This study reveals the mechanism of resistance to a novel arylomycin derivative and demonstrates that the nominal essentiality of the S. aureus signal peptidase can be circumvented by the upregulation of a putative ABC transporter in vitro but not in vivo. PMID:27601569

  8. Substrate binding by a bacterial ABC transporter involved in polysaccharide export

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kimber, Matthew S.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-04-02

    ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell-surface glycoconjugates in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These include the O-antigenic polysaccharide (O-PS) portion of lipopolysaccharide, a crucial virulence determinant in Gram-negative pathogens. O-PSs are synthesized by one of two fundamentally different pathways. Escherichia coli O serotypes O8 and O9a provide the prototype systems for studying O-PS export via ABC transporters. The transporter is composed of the transmembrane component Wzm and the nucleotide-binding component Wzt. Although the N-terminal domain of Wzt is a conventional ABC protein, the C-terminal domain of Wzt (C-Wzt) is a unique structural element that determines the specificity of the transporter for either the O8 or O9a O-PS. We show here that the two domains of Wzt can function when expressed as separate polypeptides; both are essential for export. In vitro, C-Wzt binds its cognate O-PS by recognizing a residue located at the nonreducing end of the polymer. The crystal structure of C-WztO9a is reported here and reveals a {beta} sandwich with an immunoglobulin-like topology that contains the O-PS-binding pocket. Substrate interactions with nucleotide-binding domains have been demonstrated in an ABC exporter previously. However, to our knowledge substrate binding by a discrete, cytoplasmic accessory domain in an extended nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide has not previously been demonstrated. Elucidation of the substrate-recognition system involved in O-PS export provides insight into the mechanism that coordinates polymer biosynthesis, termination, and export.

  9. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Catherine A.; Park, Hee Jun; Mazur, Courtney M.; Aaron, Roy K.

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods. PMID:27391810

  10. SrrAB Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Cell Death through Regulation of cidABC Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Windham, Ian H.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Vinai C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The death and lysis of a subpopulation in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells are thought to benefit the surviving population by releasing extracellular DNA, a critical component of the biofilm extracellular matrix. Although the means by which S. aureus controls cell death and lysis is not understood, studies implicate the role of the cidABC and lrgAB operons in this process. Recently, disruption of the srrAB regulatory locus was found to cause increased cell death during biofilm development, likely as a result of the sensitivity of this mutant to hypoxic growth. In the current study, we extended these findings by demonstrating that cell death in the ΔsrrAB mutant is dependent on expression of the cidABC operon. The effect of cidABC expression resulted in the generation of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and was independent of acetate production. Interestingly, consistently with previous studies, cidC-encoded pyruvate oxidase was found to be important for the generation of acetic acid, which initiates the cell death process. However, these studies also revealed for the first time an important role of the cidB gene in cell death, as disruption of cidB in the ΔsrrAB mutant background decreased ROS generation and cell death in a cidC-independent manner. The cidB mutation also caused decreased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, which suggests a complex role for this system in ROS metabolism. Overall, the results of this study provide further insight into the function of the cidABC operon in cell death and reveal its contribution to the oxidative stress response. IMPORTANCE The manuscript focuses on cell death mechanisms in Staphylococcus aureus and provides important new insights into the genes involved in this ill-defined process. By exploring the cause of increased stationary-phase death in an S. aureus ΔsrrAB regulatory mutant, we found that the decreased viability of this mutant was a consequence of the overexpression of the cidABC

  11. Structural analysis of bacterial ABC transporter inhibition by an antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Shivani; Rougé, Lionel; Swem, Danielle L; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Wu, Ping; Russell, Stephen J; Alexander, Mary Kate; Tam, Christine; Nishiyama, Mireille; Starovasnik, Melissa A; Koth, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers play critical roles in nutrient acquisition and are potential antibacterial targets. However, structural bases for their inhibition are poorly defined. These pathways typically rely on substrate binding proteins (SBPs), which are essential for substrate recognition, delivery, and transporter function. We report the crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus SBP for Mn(II), termed MntC, in complex with FabC1, a potent antibody inhibitor of the MntABC pathway. This pathway is essential and highly expressed during S. aureus infection and facilitates the import of Mn(II), a critical cofactor for enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). Structure-based functional studies indicate that FabC1 sterically blocks a structurally conserved surface of MntC, preventing its interaction with the MntB membrane importer and increasing wild-type S. aureus sensitivity to oxidative stress by more than 10-fold. The results define an SBP blocking mechanism as the basis for ABC importer inhibition by an engineered antibody fragment.

  12. Release of Entropic Spring Reveals Conformational Coupling Mechanism in the ABC Transporter BtuCD-F.

    PubMed

    Prieß, Marten; Schäfer, Lars V

    2016-06-01

    Substrate translocation by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involves coupling of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to conformational changes in the transmembrane domains. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the atomic-level mechanism of conformational coupling in the ABC transporter BtuCD-F, which imports vitamin B12 across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Our simulations show how an engineered disulfide bond across the NBD dimer interface reduces conformational fluctuations and hence configurational entropy. As a result, the disulfide bond is under substantial mechanical stress. Releasing this entropic spring, as is the case in the wild-type transporter, combined with analyzing the pairwise forces between individual residues, unravels the coupling mechanism. The identified pathways along which force is propagated from the NBDs via the coupling helix to the transmembrane domains are composed of highly conserved residues, underlining their functional relevance. This study not only reveals the details of conformational coupling in BtuCD-F, it also provides a promising approach to other long-range conformational couplings, e.g., in ABC exporters or other ATP-driven molecular machines.

  13. Using ABC and microsatellite data to detect multiple introductions of invasive species from a single source

    PubMed Central

    Benazzo, A; Ghirotto, S; Vilaça, S T; Hoban, S

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species to new locations (that is, biological invasions) can have major impact on biodiversity, agriculture and public health. As such, determining the routes and modality of introductions with genetic data has become a fundamental goal in molecular ecology. To assist with this goal, new statistical methods and frameworks have been developed, such as approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) for inferring invasion history. Here, we present a model of invasion accounting for multiple introductions from a single source (MISS), a heretofore largely unexplored model. We simulate microsatellite data to evaluate the power of ABC to distinguish between single and multiple introductions from the same source, under a range of demographic parameters. We also apply ABC to microsatellite data from three invasions of bumblebee in New Zealand. In addition, we assess the performance of several methods of summary statistics selection. Our simulated results suggested good ability to distinguish between one- and two-wave models over much but not all of the parameter space tested, independent of summary statistics used. Globally, parameter estimation was good except for bottleneck timing. For one of the bumblebee species, we clearly rejected the MISS model, while for the other two we found inconclusive results. Since a second wave may provide genetic reinforcement to initial colonists, help relieve inbreeding among founders, or increase the hazard of the invasion, its detection may be crucial for managing invasions; we suggest that the MISS model could be considered as a potential model in future theoretical and empirical studies of invasions. PMID:25920671

  14. Regulation of ABC efflux transporters at blood-brain barrier in health and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Miller, David S; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2015-12-01

    The strength of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in providing protection to the central nervous system from exposure to circulating chemicals is maintained by tight junctions between endothelial cells and by a broad range of transporter proteins that regulate exchange between CNS and blood. The most important transporters that restrict the permeability of large number of toxins as well as therapeutic agents are the ABC transporters. Among them, P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2 are the utmost studied. These efflux transporters are neuroprotective, limiting the brain entry of neurotoxins; however, they could also restrict the entry of many therapeutics and contribute to CNS pharmacoresistance. Characterization of several regulatory pathways that govern expression and activity of ABC efflux transporters in the endothelium of brain capillaries have led to an emerging consensus that these processes are complex and contain several cellular and molecular elements. Alterations in ABC efflux transporters expression and/or activity occur in several neurological diseases. Here, we review the signaling pathways that regulate expression and transport activity of P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2 as well as how their expression/activity changes in neurological diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection.

  15. Release of Entropic Spring Reveals Conformational Coupling Mechanism in the ABC Transporter BtuCD-F.

    PubMed

    Prieß, Marten; Schäfer, Lars V

    2016-06-01

    Substrate translocation by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involves coupling of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to conformational changes in the transmembrane domains. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the atomic-level mechanism of conformational coupling in the ABC transporter BtuCD-F, which imports vitamin B12 across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Our simulations show how an engineered disulfide bond across the NBD dimer interface reduces conformational fluctuations and hence configurational entropy. As a result, the disulfide bond is under substantial mechanical stress. Releasing this entropic spring, as is the case in the wild-type transporter, combined with analyzing the pairwise forces between individual residues, unravels the coupling mechanism. The identified pathways along which force is propagated from the NBDs via the coupling helix to the transmembrane domains are composed of highly conserved residues, underlining their functional relevance. This study not only reveals the details of conformational coupling in BtuCD-F, it also provides a promising approach to other long-range conformational couplings, e.g., in ABC exporters or other ATP-driven molecular machines. PMID:27276259

  16. [Aphasia without amusia in a blind organist. Verbal alexia-agraphia without musical alexia-agraphia in braille].

    PubMed

    Signoret, J L; van Eeckhout, P; Poncet, M; Castaigne, P

    1987-01-01

    A 77 year old right handed male was blind since the age of 2. He presented with an infarction involving the territory of the left middle cerebral artery involving the temporal and the inferior parietal lobes. He had learned to read and write language as well as read and write music in braille, ultimately becoming a famous organist and composer. There were no motor or sensory deficits. Wernicke's aphasia with jargonaphasia, major difficulty in repetition, anomia and a significant comprehension deficit without word deafness was present; verbal alexia and agraphia in braille were also present. There was no evidence of amusia. He could execute in an exemplary fashion pieces of music for the organ in his repertory as well as improvise. All his musical capabilities: transposition, modulation, harmony, rythm, were preserved. The musical notation in braille remained intact: he could read by touch and play unfamiliar scores, he could also read and sing the musical notes, he could copy and write a score. Nine months after the stroke his aphasia remained unchanged. Nevertheless he composed pieces for the organ which were published. Such data highly suggest the independence of linguistic and musical competences, defined as the analysis and organization of sounds according to the rules of music. This independence in an extremely talented musician leads to a discussion of the role of the right hemisphere in the anatomical-functional processes at the origin of musical competence. The use of braille in which the same constellations of dots correspond either to letters of the alphabet or musical notes supports the independence between language and music. PMID:3616363

  17. Role of an ABC importer in mycobacterial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, P K; Bhatt, K; Banerjee, S K; Misra, P

    1999-08-01

    Phosphate specific transporter (Pst) in bacteria is involved in phosphate transport. Pst is a multisubunit system which belongs to the ABC family of transporters. The import function of this transporter is known to be operative at media phosphate concentrations below the millimolar range. However, we found amplification of this transporter in a laboratory generated ciprofloxacin resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis colony (CIPr) which was grown in a condition when phosphate scavenging function of this operon was inoperative. Our results therefore argue the role of this ABC importer in conferring high level of fluoroquinolone resistance in CIPr.

  18. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC. PMID:10156656

  19. Plant cuticular lipid export requires an ABC transporter.

    PubMed

    Pighin, Jamie A; Zheng, Huanquan; Balakshin, Laura J; Goodman, Ian P; Western, Tamara L; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka; Samuels, A Lacey

    2004-10-22

    A waxy protective cuticle coats all primary aerial plant tissues. Its synthesis requires extensive export of lipids from epidermal cells to the plant surface. Arabidopsis cer5 mutants had reduced stem cuticular wax loads and accumulated sheetlike inclusions in the cytoplasm of wax-secreting cells. These inclusions represented abnormal deposits of cuticular wax and resembled inclusions found in a human disorder caused by a defective peroxisomal adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter. We found that the CER5 gene encodes an ABC transporter localized in the plasma membrane of epidermal cells and conclude that it is required for wax export to the cuticle.

  20. Rapid quantification of murine ABC mRNAs by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan Ru; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2002-12-01

    Several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are critically involved in cholesterol and phospholipid efflux, reverse cholesterol transport, and play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Quantification of ABC mRNA is important in studying the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We have developed a one-step real time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for measuring mRNA levels of ABCA1, ABCG1, and ABCA2 in murine tissues using the TaqMan(TM) technology. It has significant methodological benefits when compared to classic Northern blotting or semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Using this method, we found high expression levels of ABCA1 in liver and macrophages, and of ABCG1 in the brain and macrophages. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 were further induced in macrophages loaded with acLDL. In contrast, ABCA2 was expressed exclusively in the brain with low expression levels in the macrophages. This method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible quantification of ABC mRNA, and can be performed with nanograms of total RNA sample, thus making it a superior method for studying the regulation of ABC transporters in cholesterol efflux and its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in murine models.

  1. Regulation of Expression of abcA and Its Response to Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Villet, Regis A.; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Wang, Yin; Estabrooks, Zoe; Medeiros, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The ATP-dependent transporter gene abcA in Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to hydrophobic β-lactams. In strain ISP794, abcA is regulated by the transcriptional regulators MgrA and NorG and shares a 420-nucleotide intercistronic region with the divergently transcribed pbp4 gene, which encodes the transpeptidase Pbp4. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to iron-limited media, oxidative stress, and acidic pH (5.5) for 0.5 to 2 h had no effect on abcA expression. In contrast, nutrient limitation produced a significant increase in abcA transcripts. We identified three additional regulators (SarA, SarZ, and Rot) that bind to the overlapping promoter region of abcA and pbp4 in strain MW2 and investigated their role in the regulation of abcA expression. Expression of abcA is decreased by 10.0-fold in vivo in a subcutaneous abscess model. In vitro, abcA expression depends on rot and sarZ regulators. Moenomycin A exposure of strain MW2 produced an increase in abcA transcripts. Relative to MW2, the MIC of moenomycin was decreased 8-fold for MW2ΔabcA and increased 10-fold for the MW2 abcA overexpresser, suggesting that moenomycin is a substrate of AbcA. PMID:24509312

  2. Martian Braille

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Just north of the hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum, the remnants of a formerly extensive layer of material remain as isolated knobs and buttes. Note the transition from north to south in the size and frequency of these features, a reflection of the decreasing elevation along this trend.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0, Longitude 353 East (7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  3. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Adak, M. Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data. PMID:26927124

  4. RuvABC-dependent double-strand breaks in dnaBts mutants require recA.

    PubMed

    Seigneur, M; Ehrlich, S D; Michel, B

    2000-11-01

    Replication fork arrest can cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs are caused by the action of the Holliday junction resolvase RuvABC, indicating that they are made by resolution of Holliday junctions formed at blocked forks. In this work, we study the homologous recombination functions required for RuvABC-mediated breakage in cells deficient for the accessory replicative helicase Rep or deficient for the main Escherichia coli replicative helicase DnaB. We show that, in the rep mutant, RuvABC-mediated breakage occurs in the absence of the homologous recombination protein RecA. In contrast, in dnaBts mutants, most of the RuvABC-mediated breakage depends on the presence of RecA, which suggests that RecA participates in the formation of Holliday junctions at forks blocked by the inactivation of DnaB. This action of RecA does not involve the induction of the SOS response and does not require any of the recombination proteins essential for the presynaptic step of homologous recombination, RecBCD, RecF or RecO. Consequently, our observations suggest a new function for RecA at blocked replication forks, and we propose that RecA acts by promoting homologous recombination without the assistance of known presynaptic proteins. PMID:11069680

  5. Investigation of the quaternary structure of an ABC transporter in living cells using spectrally resolved resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Deo Raj

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has become an important tool to study proteins inside living cells. It has been used to explore membrane protein folding and dynamics, determine stoichiometry and geometry of protein complexes, and measure the distance between two molecules. In this dissertation, we use a method based on FRET and optical micro-spectroscopy (OptiMiS) technology, developed in our lab, to probe the structure of dynamic (as opposed to static) protein complexes in living cells. We use this method to determine the association stoichiometry and quaternary structure of an ABC transporter in living cells. Specifically, the transporter we investigate originates from the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a Gram-negative bacterium with several virulence factors, lipopolysaccharides being one of them. This pathogen coexpresses two unique forms of lipopolysaccharides on its surface, the A- and B-bands. The A-band polysaccharides, synthesized in the cytoplasm, are translocated into the periplasm through an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter consisting of a transmembranar protein, Wzm, and a nucleotide-binding protein, Wzt. In P. aeruginosa, all of the biochemical studies of A-band LPS are concentrated on the stages of the synthesis and ligation of polysaccharides (PSs), leaving the export stage involving ABC transporter unexplored. The mode of PS export through ABC transporters is still unknown. This difficulty is due to the lack of information about sub-unit composition and structure of this bi-component ABC transporter. Using the FRET-OptiMiS combination method developed by our lab, we found that Wzt forms a rhombus-shaped homo-tetramer which becomes a square upon co-expression with Wzm, and that Wzm forms a square-shaped homo-tetramer both in the presence and absence of Wzt. Based on these results, we propose a structural model for the double-tetramer complex formed by the bi-component ABC transporter in living cells. An understanding of the

  6. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  7. Selections from the ABC 2009 Annual Convention, Portsmouth, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2010-01-01

    The "My Favorite Assignment" Session at the 2009 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Portsmouth, Virginia, featured over a dozen teachers sharing pedagogical innovations in a fast-paced, 4-minute format designed by Dan Dietrich. The wide variety of ideas and techniques presented makes these sessions popular ABC…

  8. The Library ABC's Game: Sneaking in Learning through Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Teaching library terminology and definitions can be a real bore. Unfortunately, no matter how one looks at it, students need to learn a set of basic library words and their meanings. The Library ABC's game teaches elementary age students library terms and definitions, and it is effective, efficient, easy, exciting, and fun. Introduce the Library…

  9. The K-ABC in Historical and Contemporary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1984-01-01

    The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is examined with particular attention to evolution of current psychometric concepts and methods, as well as the historical sources of popular misconceptions. The K-ABC reveals sophisticated applications of current test construction methodology but requires knowledgeable examiners. (Author/CL)

  10. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service…

  11. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  12. Beyond the ABCs: The Pleasures of the Alphabet Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Debra H.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies seven types of alphabet books: letter shapes, word play, art play, topical/thematic, multicultural, narrative, and puzzles. Presents annotations of around 30 titles. Suggests that alphabet books are not intended just for the emergent reader--there is a wide range of ABC books with intriguing stories, captivating illustrations, playful…

  13. ABCs of Being Smart... G Is for Gifted!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Giftedness can generate speculation, misconceptions, expectations, pride, innuendo, apprehension, puzzlement--and the list goes on. What does it mean to be a gifted learner? In this installment of the series "ABCs of Being Smart," the author grapples with the term gifted, giving a glimpse into giftedness, along with some general guidelines for…

  14. Combination treatment with anti-Nogo-A and chondroitinase ABC is more effective than single treatments at enhancing functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong-Rong; Andrews, Melissa R; Wang, Difei; Warren, Philippa; Gullo, Miriam; Schnell, Lisa; Schwab, Martin E; Fawcett, James W

    2013-09-01

    Anti-Nogo-A antibody and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme are two promising treatments that promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Treatment with them has encouraged axon regeneration, sprouting and functional recovery in a variety of spinal cord and central nervous system injury models. The two compounds work, in part, through different mechanisms, so it is possible that their effects will be additive. In this study, we used a rat cervical partial SCI model to explore the effectiveness of a combination of anti-Nogo-A, ChABC, and rehabilitation. We found that spontaneous recovery of forelimb functions reflects the extent of the lesion on the ipsilateral side. We applied a combination treatment with acutely applied anti-Nogo-A antibody followed by delayed ChABC treatment starting at 3 weeks after injury, and rehabilitation starting at 4 weeks, to accommodate the requirement that anti-Nogo-A be applied acutely, and that rehabilitation be given after the cessation of anti-Nogo-A treatment. We found that single treatment with either anti-Nogo-A or ChABC, combined with rehabilitation, produced functional recovery of similar magnitude. The combination treatment, however, was more effective. Both single treatments produced increases in sprouting and axon regeneration, but the combination treatment produced greater increases. Anti-Nogo-A stimulated growth of a greater number of axons with a diameter of > 3 μm, whereas ChABC treatment stimulated increased growth of finer axons with varicosities. These results point to different functions of Nogo-A and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in axonal regeneration. The combination of anti-Nogo-A, ChABC and rehabilitation shows promise for enhancing functional recovery after SCI.

  15. GintABC1 encodes a putative ABC transporter of the MRP subfamily induced by Cu, Cd, and oxidative stress in Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    González-Guerrero, Manuel; Benabdellah, Karim; Valderas, Ascensión; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Ferrol, Nuria

    2010-02-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence putatively encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (GintABC1) was isolated from the extraradical mycelia of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequence indicated that GintABC1 encodes a 1513 amino acid polypeptide, containing two six-transmembrane clusters (TMD) intercalated with sequences characteristics of the nucleotide binding domains (NBD) and an extra N-terminus extension (TMD0). GintABC1 presents a predicted TMD0-(TMD-NBD)(2) topology, typical of the multidrug resistance-associated protein subfamily of ABC transporters. Gene expression analyses revealed no difference in the expression levels of GintABC1 in the extra- vs the intraradical mycelia. GintABC1 was up-regulated by Cd and Cu, but not by Zn, suggesting that this transporter might be involved in Cu and Cd detoxification. Paraquat, an oxidative agent, also induced the transcription of GintABC1. These data suggest that redox changes may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of GintABC1 by Cd and Cu.

  16. Functional Dynamics Revealed by the Structure of the SufBCD Complex, a Novel ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Protein That Serves as a Scaffold for Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kei; Yuda, Eiki; Tanaka, Naoyuki; Katayama, Sumie; Iwasaki, Kenji; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kurisu, Genji; Outten, F Wayne; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Wada, Kei

    2015-12-11

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type ATPases are chemomechanical engines involved in diverse biological pathways. Recent genomic information reveals that ABC ATPase domains/subunits act not only in ABC transporters and structural maintenance of chromosome proteins, but also in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis. A novel type of ABC protein, the SufBCD complex, functions in the biosynthesis of nascent Fe-S clusters in almost all Eubacteria and Archaea, as well as eukaryotic chloroplasts. In this study, we determined the first crystal structure of the Escherichia coli SufBCD complex, which exhibits the common architecture of ABC proteins: two ABC ATPase components (SufC) with function-specific components (SufB-SufD protomers). Biochemical and physiological analyses based on this structure provided critical insights into Fe-S cluster assembly and revealed a dynamic conformational change driven by ABC ATPase activity. We propose a molecular mechanism for the biogenesis of the Fe-S cluster in the SufBCD complex.

  17. 75 FR 49549 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... operation of this trackage in FD 35356, ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line...

  18. Cost Analysis of Selected Patient Categories within a Dermatology Department Using an ABC Approach

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Šárka; Popesko, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Present trends in hospital management are facilitating the utilization of more accurate costing methods, which potentially results in superior cost-related information and improved managerial decision-making. However, the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC), which was designed for cost allocation purposes in the 1980s, is not widely used by healthcare organizations. This study analyzes costs related to selected categories of patients, those suffering from psoriasis, varicose ulcers, eczema and other conditions, within a dermatology department at a Czech regional hospital. Methods: The study was conducted in a hospital department where both inpatient and outpatient care are offered. Firstly, the diseases treated at the department were identified. Further costs were determined for each activity using ABC. The study utilized data from managerial and financial accounting, as well as data obtained through interviews with departmental staff. Using a defined cost-allocation procedure makes it possible to determine the cost of an individual patient with a given disease more accurately than via traditional costing procedures. Results: The cost analysis focused on the differences between the costs related to individual patients within the selected diagnoses, variations between inpatient and outpatient treatments and the costs of activities performed by the dermatology department. Furthermore, comparing the costs identified through this approach and the revenue stemming from the health insurance system is an option. Conclusions: Activity-Based Costing is more accurate and relevant than the traditional costing method. The outputs of ABC provide an abundance of additional information for managers. The benefits of this research lie in its practically-tested outputs, resulting from calculating the costs of hospitalization, which could prove invaluable to persons involved in hospital management and decision-making. The study also defines the managerial implications of

  19. Individually programmable cell stretching microwell arrays actuated by a Braille display.

    PubMed

    Kamotani, Yoko; Bersano-Begey, Tommaso; Kato, Nobuhiro; Tung, Yi-Chung; Huh, Dongeun; Song, Jonathan W; Takayama, Shuichi

    2008-06-01

    Cell culture systems are often static and are therefore nonphysiological. In vivo, many cells are exposed to dynamic surroundings that stimulate cellular responses in a process known as mechanotransduction. To recreate this environment, stretchable cell culture substrate systems have been developed, however, these systems are limited by being macroscopic and low throughput. We have developed a device consisting of 24 miniature cell stretching chambers with flexible bottom membranes that are deformed using the computer-controlled, piezoelectrically actuated pins of a Braille display. We have also developed efficient image capture and analysis protocols to quantify morphological responses of the cells to applied strain. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were found to show increasing degrees of alignment and elongation perpendicular to the radial strain in response to cyclic stretch at increasing frequencies of 0.2, 1, and 5 Hz, after 2, 4, and 12h. Mouse myogenic C2C12 cells were also found to align in response to the stretch, while A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells did not respond to stretch.

  20. Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC): Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Chapp-Jumbo, Emmanuel; Wan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the widely reported ethnic differences in prevalence, the incidence of type 2 diabetes was surprisingly similar (~11%) among individuals from the different US ethnic groups in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Because DPP participants had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline, we hypothesized that ethnic disparities are initiated at the pre-IGT stage during evolution of type 2 diabetes. The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) is designed to test that hypothesis by tracking the natural history of early dysglycemia in a biracial cohort comprising offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes. The POP-ABC study has an enrollment target of 400 participants (200 African American, 200 Caucasian), aged 18–75 years, with at least 1 parent with type 2 diabetes. All subjects must have normal fasting glucose and/or normal glucose tolerance, as determined by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects are recruited over ~3 years and followed for another 2 years, with repeated metabolic assessments. The latter include OGTT, body composition, indirect calorimetry, euglycemic clamp, beta cell function, and biochemistries. Repository specimens (DNA, RNA and proteome) are obtained for future studies. The primary outcome is the occurrence of prediabetes (IGT and/or impaired fasting glucose). The sample size provides 85% power to detect a hazard ratio of 1.75 between Black and White offspring in the primary outcome (alpha=.05). Secondary endpoints include behavioral, biochemical and socioeconomic predictors of dysglycemia. The POP-ABC study will elucidate the nosogeny of ethnic disparities in glucose dysregulation. PMID:21462727

  1. Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC): design and methods.

    PubMed

    Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Edeoga, Chimaroke; Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Chapp-Jumbo, Emmanuel; Wan, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the widely reported ethnic differences in prevalence, the incidence of type 2 diabetes was surprisingly similar (approximately 11%) among individuals from the different US ethnic groups in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Because DPP participants had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at baseline, we hypothesized that ethnic disparities are initiated at the pre-IGT stage during evolution of type 2 diabetes. The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) is designed to test that hypothesis by tracking the natural history of early dysglycemia in a biracial cohort comprising offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes. The POP-ABC study has an enrollment target of 400 participants (200 African American, 200 Caucasian), aged 18-65 years, with at least 1 parent with type 2 diabetes. All subjects must have normal fasting glucose and/ or normal glucose tolerance, as determined by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects are recruited over approximately 3 years and followed for another 2 years, with repeated metabolic assessments. The latter include OCTT, body composition, indirect calorimetry, euglycemic clamp, beta cell function, and biochemistries. Repository specimens (DNA, RNA and proteome) are obtained for future studies. The primary outcome is the occurrence of prediabetes (ICT and/or impaired fasting glucose). The sample size provides 85% power to detect a hazard ratio of 1.75 between Black and White offspring in the primary outcome (alpha = .05). Secondary endpoints include behavioral, biochemical and socioeconomic predictors of dysglycemia. The POP-ABC study will elucidate the nosogeny of ethnic disparities in glucose dysregulation. PMID:21462727

  2. Inactivation of MuxABC-OpmB transporter system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa leads to increased ampicillin and carbenicillin resistance and decreased virulence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Chen, Lin; Shen, Lixin; Surette, Michael; Duan, Kangmin

    2011-02-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) pumps play important roles in bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen which exhibits high level resistance to antibiotics. There are total of 12 RND pumps present in the P. aeruginosa PAOl genome. The recently characterized MuxABC-OpmB system has been shown to play a role in resistance to novobiocin, aztreonam, macrolides, and tetracycline in a multiple knockout mutation. In this study, we examined the expression levels of all the 12 RND pump gene clusters and tested the involvement of MuxABC-OpmB in pathogenicity. The results indicated that in addition to the four known constitutively expressed RND pumps, mexAB-oprM, mexGHI-opmD, mexVW, and mexXY, relatively high levels of expression were observed with mexJK and muxABC-opmB in the conditions tested. Inactivation of muxA in the muxABC-opmB operon resulted in elevated resistance to ampicillin and carbenicillin. The mutant also showed attenuated virulence in both Brassica rapa pekinensis and Drosophila melanogaster infection models. The decreased virulence at least in part was due to decreased twitching motility in the mutant. These results indicate that the RND pump MuxABC-OpmB is associated with ampicillin and carbenicillin susceptibility and also involved in pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa.

  3. The Yersinia pestis Siderophore, Yersiniabactin, and the ZnuABC system both contribute to Zinc acquisition and the development of lethal septicemic plague in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bobrov, Alexander G.; Kirillina, Olga; Fetherston, Jacqueline D.; Miller, M. Clarke; Burlison, Joseph A.; Perry, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial pathogens must overcome host sequestration of zinc (Zn2+), an essential micronutrient, during the infectious disease process. While the mechanisms to acquire chelated Zn2+ by bacteria are largely undefined, many pathogens rely upon the ZnuABC family of ABC transporters. Here we show that in Yersinia pestis, irp2, a gene encoding the synthetase (HMWP2) for the siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) is required for growth under Zn2+-deficient conditions in a strain lacking ZnuABC. Moreover, growth stimulation with exogenous, purified apo-Ybt provides evidence that Ybt may serve as a zincophore for Zn2+ acquisition. Studies with the Zn2+-dependent transcriptional reporter znuA∷lacZ indicate that the ability to synthesize Ybt affects the levels of intracellular Zn2+. However, the outer membrane receptor Psn and TonB as well as the inner membrane (IM) ABC transporter YbtPQ, that are required for Fe3+ acquisition by Ybt, are not needed for Ybt-dependent Zn2+ uptake. In contrast, the predicted IM protein YbtX, a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, was essential for Ybt-dependent Zn2+ uptake. Finally, we show that the ZnuABC system and the Ybt synthetase HMWP2, presumably by Ybt synthesis, both contribute to the development of a lethal infection in a septicemic plague mouse model. PMID:24979062

  4. Introduction of argon beam coagulation functionality to robotic procedures using the ABC D-Flex probe: equivalency to an existing laparoscopic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchel, Renée. A.; Barnes, Kelli S.; Taylor, Kenneth D.

    2015-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: The ABC® D-Flex Probe utilizes argon beam coagulation (ABC) technology to achieve hemostasis during minimally invasive surgery. A handle on the probe allows for integration with robotic surgical systems and introduces ABC to the robotic toolbox. To better understand the utility of D-Flex, this study compares the performance of the D-Flex probe to an existing ABC laparoscopic probe through ex vivo tissue analysis. METHODS: Comparisons were performed to determine the effect of four parameters: ABC device, tissue type, activation duration, and distance from tissue. Ten ABC D-Flex probes were used to create 30 burn samples for each comparison. Ex vivo bovine liver and porcine muscle were used as tissue models. The area and depth of each burn was measured using a light microscope. The resulting dimensional data was used to correlate tissue effect with each variable. RESULTS: D-Flex created burns which were smaller in surface area than the laparoscopic probe at all power levels. Additionally, D-Flex achieved thermal penetration levels equivalent to the laparoscopic probe. CONCLUSION: D-Flex implements a small 7F geometry which creates a more focused beam. When used with robotic precision, quick localized superficial hemostasis can be achieved with minimal collateral damage. Additionally, D-Flex achieved equivalent thermal penetration levels at lower power and argon flow-rate settings than the laparoscopic probe.

  5. Insights into how nucleotide-binding domains power ABC transport.

    PubMed

    Newstead, Simon; Fowler, Philip W; Bilton, Paul; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Sadler, Peter J; Campopiano, Dominic J; Sansom, Mark S P; Iwata, So

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism by which nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of ABC transporters power the transport of substrates across cell membranes is currently unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of an NBD, FbpC, from the Neisseria gonorrhoeae ferric iron uptake transporter with an unusual and substantial domain swap in the C-terminal regulatory domain. This entanglement suggests that FbpC is unable to open to the same extent as the homologous protein MalK. Using molecular dynamics we demonstrate that this is not the case: both NBDs open rapidly once ATP is removed. We conclude from this result that the closed structures of FbpC and MalK have higher free energies than their respective open states. This result has important implications for our understanding of the mechanism of power generation in ABC transporters, because the unwinding of this free energy ensures that the opening of these two NBDs is also powered. PMID:19748342

  6. TaAbc1, a member of Abc1-like family involved in hypersensitive response against the stripe rust fungal pathogen in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaojie; Duan, Yinghui; Yin, Shuining; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Li; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-01-01

    To search for genes involved in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) defense response to the infection of stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), we identified and cloned a new wheat gene similar to the genes in the Abc1-like gene family. The new gene, designated as TaAbc1, encodes a 717-amino acid, 80.35 kD protein. The TaAbc1 protein contains two conserved domains shared by Abc1-like proteins, two trans-membrane domains at the C-terminal, and a 36-amino acid chloroplast targeting presequence at the N-terminal. Characterization of TaAbc1 expression revealed that gene expression was tissue-specific and could be up-regulated by biotic agents (e.g., stripe rust pathogen) and/or by an abiotic stress like wounding. High-fold induction was associated with the hypersensitive response (HR) triggered only by avirulent stripe rust pathotypes, suggesting that TaAbc1 is a rust-pathotype specific HR-mediator. Down-regulating TaAbc1 reduced HR but not the overall resistance level in Suwon11 to CYR23, suggesting TaAbc1 was involved in HR against stripe rust, but overall host resistance is not HR-dependent.

  7. On the energy-dependence of Hoechst 33342 transport by the ABC transporter LmrA.

    PubMed

    Venter, Henrietta; Velamakanni, Saroj; Balakrishnan, Lekshmy; van Veen, Hendrik W

    2008-02-15

    LmrA is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporter from Lactococcus lactis, and is a structural homologue of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the overexpression of which is associated with multidrug resistance in tumours. We recently observed that a truncated version of LmrA lacking the nucleotide-binding domain mediates a proton motive force-dependent ethidium transport reaction by catalyzing proton-ethidium symport. This finding raised the question whether proton motive force-dependent transport can also be observed for other drugs, and whether this reaction is also relevant for full-length LmrA. Furthermore, the observations on LmrA-MD raised the question whether ATP-dependent transport by LmrA in intact cells could be due to the activity of independent ABC transporters that might become upregulated in the lactococcal cells due to the overexpression of LmrA; the recently identified ABC multidrug transporter LmrCD was put forward as a possible candidate. Here, we investigated the energy coupling to the transport of the amphiphilic dye Hoechst 33342 in proteoliposomes containing purified LmrA. For this purpose, LmrA was obtained from lactococcal cells lacking the genomic lmrA and lmrCD genes, in which LmrA was expressed from a plasmid. To separate ATP-dependence from proton motive force-dependence, we also used mutant LmrA proteins, which were affected in their ability to hydrolyse ATP. Our studies in proteoliposomes demonstrate that LmrA can catalyze Hoechst 33342 transport independent of auxiliary proteins, in an ATP-dependent fashion and a transmembrane chemical proton gradient (interior acidic)-dependent fashion.

  8. Nucleotide-induced conformational dynamics in ABC transporters from structure-based coarse grained modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechsig, Holger

    2016-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP molecules. Our understanding of their activity is still hampered since the conformational dynamics underlying the operation of such proteins cannot yet be resolved in detailed molecular dynamics studies. Here a coarse grained model which allows to mimic binding of nucleotides and follow subsequent conformational motions of full-length transporter structures in computer simulations is proposed and implemented. To justify its explanatory quality, the model is first applied to the maltose transporter system for which multiple conformations are known and we find that the model predictions agree remarkably well with the experimental data. For the MalK subunit the switching from open to the closed dimer configuration upon ATP binding is reproduced and, moreover, for the full-length maltose transporter, progression from inward-facing to the outward-facing state is correctly obtained. For the heme transporter HmuUV, for which only the free structure could yet be determined, the model was then applied to predict nucleotide-induced conformational motions. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact, while, at the same time, a pronounced rotation of the transmembrane domains was observed. This finding is supported by normal mode analysis, and, comparison with structural data of the homologous vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD suggests that the observed rotation mechanism may contribute a common functional aspect for this class of ABC transporters. Although in HmuuV noticeable rearrangement of essential transmembrane helices was detected, there are no indications from our simulations that ATP binding alone may facilitate propagation of substrate molecules in this transporter

  9. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  10. High-level assessment of LANL ABC Design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-15

    An annual weapon`s grade Pu disposition goal should be stated and related to the amount of Pu that needs to be disposed of. It needs to be determined to what extent it is possible to destroy Pu without building up any new Pu, i.e., how realistic this goal is. The strong positive Doppler coefficient for a Pu core might require the addition of some fertile material to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient. This in turn will affect the net Pu disposition rate. If a fertile material is required throughout the life of the ABC to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient, the difference between the molten salt ABC and other reactors in regard to Pu disposition is not a principled difference anymore but one of degree. A rationale has then to be developed that explains why {open_quotes}x{close_quotes} kg production of fissile material are acceptable but {open_quotes}y{close_quotes} kg are not. It is important to determine how a requirement for electricity production will impact on the ABC design choices. It is conceivable that DOE will not insist on electricity generation. In this case advantage has to be taken in terms of design simplifications and relaxed operating conditions.

  11. Jean Langlais (1907-91): an historical case of a blind organist with stroke-induced aphasia and Braille alexia but without amusia.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C A H; Larner, A J

    2008-11-01

    The subject of a prior report of a blind organist with aphasia and Braille alexia without amusia, published in French, has been identified as Jean Langlais. His artistic and medical history is presented, the latter via translation of the original 1987 paper.

  12. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and chondroitinase ABC transplantation on locomotor recovery in the contusion model of spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarveazad, Arash; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Babahajian, Asrin; Janzade, Atusa; Fallah, Ali; Moradi, Fateme; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Younesi, Mohammadreza; Goudarzi, Farjam; Mohammad Taghi Joghataei

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most serious clinical diseases and its treatment has been a subject of interest to researchers. There are two important therapeutic strategies in the treatment of SCI: replacing lost tissue cells through cells implantation and scar elimination. Therefore, in this study we used human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) implantation and injection of Chondroitinase ABC. Aim of present study was to answer to this question: which one is more efficient for Improvement of locomotor recovery after SCI in rat? Transplantation of hADSCs or injection of ChABC. Materials and Methods: The spinal cord of rats was injured by contusion using a weight-drop at the level of T8-9, the hADSCs and Chondroitinase ABC were infused in to the spinal cord tissue after injury. BBB test was performed and recorded for each animal weekly for 8 weeks. After the 8th weeks, Serial cross-sections were stained with cresyl violet and examined under a light microscope and area of cavity in the spinal cord was measured. Results: At 8th weeks after injection, hADSCs and ChABC significantly promote locomotor function (P<0.01) and spinal cords of hADSCs and ChABC group had cavities much smaller than those of the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Results of the present study shows dealing with inappropriate neuro-inhibitory environment and glial scar by ChABC have equal role compare to cell therapy (with hADSCs) for improving motor function after SCI and this result in adoption of proper therapeutic strategies for SCI intervention is important. PMID:25691946

  13. ABC1K atypical kinases in plants; filling the organellar kinase void

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Peter K.; Davis, Jerrold I.; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly few protein kinases have been demonstrated in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we discuss the “activity of bc1 complex kinase” (ABC1K) protein family which we suggest locate in mitochondria and plastids, thus filling the kinase void. The ABC1Ks are atypical protein kinases and their ancestral function is the regulation of quinone synthesis. ABC1Ks have proliferated from 1–2 members in non-photosynthetic organisms to more than 16 members in algae and higher plants. In this review we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ABC1K family, provide a functional domain analysis for angiosperms and a nomenclature for ABC1Ks in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays). Finally, we hypothesize that targets of ABC1Ks include enzymes of prenyl-lipid metabolism as well as components of the organellar gene expression machineries. PMID:22694836

  14. In situ electron microscopy of Braille microsystems: photo-actuation of ethylene vinyl acetate/carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaniková, Klaudia; Krupa, Igor; Račko, Dušan; Šmatko, Vasilij; Campo, Eva M.; Pavlova, Ewa; Omastová, Mária

    2015-02-01

    The development of new types of tactile displays based on the actuation of composite materials can aid the visually impaired. Micro/nano systems based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymeric matrices enriched with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can produce ensembles capable of light-induced actuation. In this report, we investigate two types of commercial EVA copolymers matrices containing 28 and 50 wt% vinyl-acetate (VA). Non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes was achieved through a compatibilization technique that appends the pyrenenyl and cholesteryl groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) surface. EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by casting from a solution. These composites were shaped into Braille elements using molds. The deformation of the Braille element (BE) under light-emitting diode (LED) illumination was observed for the first time by in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superior actuation performance promoted by the EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites indicates that these materials will be useful in the future as light-driven micro/nano system actuators.

  15. ABC inventory analysis and economic order quantity concept in hospital pharmacy purchasing.

    PubMed

    Ballentine, R; Ravin, R L; Gilbert, J R

    1976-06-01

    ABC inventory analysis and the economic order quantity (EOQ) concept were studied as alternatives to the cyclical ordering system used by the pharmacy in a 558-bed general hospital. The inventory was divided into A, B or C groups according to the annual dollar value of the items. Two samples were selected to be studied (the first consisting of 10% of the total inventory and the second consisting of 10% of the A, or high cost, items). For each item in both samples the EOQ was calculated to estimate the proposed annual inventory cost as compared to the actual cost as determined from past inventory records. In the first sample, there was a statistically significant mean annual savings of $4.13 +/- $0.36 (S.E.) using the proposed annual cost. In the second sample there was a mean savings of $2.42 +/- $0.60 (S.E.) using the proposed method, which was not statistically significant. Most of the savings with the proposed ABC-EOQ system would occur with the low dollar value items (B and C items) which were being purchased too frequently.

  16. Creating an iPhone application for collecting continuous ABC data.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data-collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to an e-mail account after observations have concluded. Further suggestions are provided to customize the ABC data- collection system for individual preferences and clinical needs.

  17. Improvement of proteolytic and oxidative stability of Chondroitinase ABC I by cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh; Golestani, Abolfazl; Asadikaram, GholamReza

    2016-10-01

    Recently, utilization of the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) has received considerable attention in treatment of spinal cord injury. cABC I removes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans which are inhibitory to axon growth and enhances nerve regeneration. Therefore, determination of cABC I resistance to proteolysis and oxidation provides valuable information for optimizing its clinical application. In this work, proteolytic stability of cABC I to trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as its oxidative resistance to H2O2 was measured. Moreover, the effect of cosolvents glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I proteolytic and oxidative stability was determined. The results indicated that cABC I is highly susceptible to proteolysis and oxidation. Comparison of proteolytic patterns demonstrated a high degree of similarity which confirmed the exposure of specific regions of cABC I to proteolysis. However, proteolytic degradation was significantly reduced in the presence of cosolvents. In addition, cosolvents decreased the rate of both cABC I proteolytic and oxidative inactivation. Notably, the degree of stabilization provided by these cosolvents varied greatly. These findings indicated the high potential of cosolvents in protein stabilization to proteolysis and oxidative inactivation.

  18. Structure, biosynthesis, and function of bacterial capsular polysaccharides synthesized by ABC transporter-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Willis, Lisa M; Whitfield, Chris

    2013-08-30

    Bacterial capsules are formed primarily from long-chain polysaccharides with repeat-unit structures. A given bacterial species can produce a range of capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) with different structures and these help distinguish isolates by serotyping, as is the case with Escherichia coli K antigens. Capsules are important virulence factors for many pathogens and this review focuses on CPSs synthesized via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent processes in Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria utilizing this pathway are often associated with urinary tract infections, septicemia, and meningitis, and E. coli and Neisseria meningitidis provide well-studied examples. CPSs from ABC transporter-dependent pathways are synthesized at the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane through the concerted action of glycosyltransferases before being exported across the inner membrane and translocated to the cell surface. A hallmark of these CPSs is a conserved reducing terminal glycolipid composed of phosphatidylglycerol and a poly-3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) linker. Recent discovery of the structure of this conserved lipid terminus provides new insights into the early steps in CPS biosynthesis.

  19. Pharmacogenomics of the human ABC transporter ABCG2: from functional evaluation to drug molecular design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Tamura, Ai; Saito, Hikaru; Wakabayashi, Kanako; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    In the post-genome-sequencing era, emerging genomic technologies are shifting the paradigm for drug discovery and development. Nevertheless, drug discovery and development still remain high-risk and high-stakes ventures with long and costly timelines. Indeed, the attrition of drug candidates in preclinical and development stages is a major problem in drug design. For at least 30% of the candidates, this attrition is due to poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Thus, pharmaceutical companies have begun to seriously re-evaluate their current strategies of drug discovery and development. In that light, we propose that a transport mechanism-based design might help to create new, pharmacokinetically advantageous drugs, and as such should be considered an important component of drug design strategy. Performing enzyme- and/or cell-based drug transporter, interaction tests may greatly facilitate drug development and allow the prediction of drug-drug interactions. We recently developed methods for high-speed functional screening and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis to study the substrate specificity of ABC transporters and to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms on their function. These methods would provide a practical tool to screen synthetic and natural compounds, and these data can be applied to the molecular design of new drugs. In this review article, we present an overview on the genetic polymorphisms of human ABC transporter ABCG2 and new camptothecin analogues that can circumvent AGCG2-associated multidrug resistance of cancer.

  20. MntABC and MntH Contribute to Systemic Staphylococcus aureus Infection by Competing with Calprotectin for Nutrient Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Zhang, Yaofang; Moore, Jessica L.; Farrand, Allison J.; Hood, M. Indriati; Rathi, Subodh; Chazin, Walter J.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, vertebrates limit access to manganese and zinc, starving invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, of these essential metals in a process termed “nutritional immunity.” The manganese and zinc binding protein calprotectin is a key component of the nutrient-withholding response, and mice lacking this protein do not sequester manganese from S. aureus liver abscesses. One potential mechanism utilized by S. aureus to minimize host-imposed manganese and zinc starvation is the expression of the metal transporters MntABC and MntH. We performed transcriptional analyses of both mntA and mntH, which revealed increased expression of both systems in response to calprotectin treatment. MntABC and MntH compete with calprotectin for manganese, which enables S. aureus growth and retention of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity. Loss of MntABC and MntH results in reduced staphylococcal burdens in the livers of wild-type but not calprotectin-deficient mice, suggesting that these systems promote manganese acquisition during infection. During the course of these studies, we observed that metal content and the importance of calprotectin varies between murine organs, and infection leads to profound changes in the anatomical distribution of manganese and zinc. In total, these studies provide insight into the mechanisms utilized by bacteria to evade host-imposed nutrient metal starvation and the critical importance of restricting manganese availability during infection. PMID:23817615

  1. Haeckel's ABC of evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Keuck, Gerhard

    2002-11-01

    One of the central, unresolved controversies in biology concerns the distribution of primitive versus advanced characters at different stages of vertebrate development. This controversy has major implications for evolutionary developmental biology and phylogenetics. Ernst Haeckel addressed the issue with his Biogenetic Law, and his embryo drawings functioned as supporting data. We re-examine Haeckel's work and its significance for modern efforts to develop a rigorous comparative framework for developmental studies. Haeckel's comparative embryology was evolutionary but non-quantitative. It was based on developmental sequences, and treated heterochrony as a sequence change. It is not always clear whether he believed in recapitulation of single characters or entire stages. The Biogenetic Law is supported by several recent studies -- if applied to single characters only. Haeckel's important but overlooked alphabetical analogy of evolution and development is an advance on von Baer. Haeckel recognized the evolutionary diversity in early embryonic stages, in line with modern thinking. He did not necessarily advocate the strict form of recapitulation and terminal addition commonly attributed to him. Haeckel's much-criticized embryo drawings are important as phylogenetic hypotheses, teaching aids, and evidence for evolution. While some criticisms of the drawings are legitimate, others are more tendentious. In opposition to Haeckel and his embryo drawings, Wilhelm His made major advances towards developing a quantitative comparative embryology based on morphometrics. Unfortunately His's work in this area is largely forgotten. Despite his obvious flaws, Haeckel can be seen as the father of a sequence-based phylogenetic embryology. PMID:12475051

  2. The ABCs of artificial antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyun V; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2004-04-01

    Artificial antigen presentation aims to accelerate the establishment of therapeutic cellular immunity. Artificial antigen-presenting cells (AAPCs) and their cell-free substitutes are designed to stimulate the expansion and acquisition of optimal therapeutic features of T cells before therapeutic infusion, without the need for autologous antigen-presenting cells. Compelling recent advances include fibroblast AAPCs that process antigens, magnetic beads that are antigen specific, novel T-cell costimulatory combinations, the augmentation of therapeutic potency of adoptively transferred T lymphocytes by interleukin-15, and the safe use of dendritic cell-derived exosomes pulsed with tumor antigen. Whereas the safety and potency of the various systems warrant further preclinical and clinical studies, these emerging technologies are poised to have a major impact on adoptive T-cell therapy and the investigation of T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:15060556

  3. Improved avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) staining.

    PubMed

    Cattoretti, G; Berti, E; Schiró, R; D'Amato, L; Valeggio, C; Rilke, F

    1988-02-01

    A considerable intensification of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining system (ABC) was obtained by sequentially overlaying the sections to be immunostained with an avidin-rich and a biotin-rich complex. Each sequential addition contributed to the deposition of horseradish peroxidase on the immunostained site and allowed the subsequent binding of a complementary complex. With this technique a higher dilution of the antisera could be used and minute amounts of antigen masked by the fixative could be demonstrated on paraffin sections.

  4. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  5. ABCs of Public Education in North Carolina: A Journey toward Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    In 1995, the North Carolina General Assembly directed the North Carolina State Board of Education to develop a plan to bolster student growth and performance in grades 4-8 throughout the state. In response, the board developed the ABCs of Public Education. (ABC stands for Accountability; teaching the Basics of reading, writing, and mathematics;…

  6. Manipulating the glial scar: chondroitinase ABC as a therapy for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Carter, Lucy M

    2011-03-10

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are potent inhibitors of growth in the adult CNS. Use of the enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) as a strategy to reduce CSPG inhibition in experimental models of spinal cord injury has led to observations of a remarkable capacity for repair. Here we review the evidence that treatment with ChABC, either as an individual therapy or in combination with other strategies, can have multiple beneficial effects on promoting repair following spinal cord injury. These include promoting regeneration of injured axons, plasticity of uninjured pathways and neuroprotection of injured projection neurons. More importantly, ChABC therapy has been demonstrated to promote significant recovery of function to spinal injured animals. Thus, there is robust pre-clinical evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of ChABC treatment following spinal cord injury. Furthermore, these effects have been replicated in a number of different injury models, with independent confirmation by different laboratories, providing an important validation of ChABC as a promising therapeutic strategy. We discuss putative mechanisms underlying ChABC-mediated repair as well as potential issues and considerations in translating ChABC treatment into a clinical therapy for spinal cord injury.

  7. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  8. Multidrug-Resistance Transporter AbcA Secretes Staphylococcus aureus Cytolytic Toxins.

    PubMed

    Yoshikai, Hirono; Kizaki, Hayato; Saito, Yuki; Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-15

    Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are Staphylococcus aureus cytolytic toxins that lyse erythrocytes and neutrophils and have important functions in the S. aureus infectious process. The molecular mechanisms of PSM secretion, however, are not well understood. Here we report that knockout of the multidrug-resistance ABC transporter AbcA, which contributes to S. aureus resistance against antibiotics and chemicals, diminished the secreted amount of PSM, leading to the accumulation of PSM in the intracellular fraction. The amount of PSM in the culture supernatants of the abcA knockout mutants was restored by introduction of the wild-type abcA gene, whereas it was not completely restored by introduction of mutant abcA genes encoding AbcA mutant proteins carrying amino acid substitutions in the adenosine triphosphate binding motifs. The abcA knockout mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. These findings suggest that the multidrug resistance transporter AbcA secretes PSMs and contributes to S. aureus virulence.

  9. Creating an iPhone Application for Collecting Continuous ABC Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data- collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to…

  10. Multidrug-Resistance Transporter AbcA Secretes Staphylococcus aureus Cytolytic Toxins.

    PubMed

    Yoshikai, Hirono; Kizaki, Hayato; Saito, Yuki; Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-15

    Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are Staphylococcus aureus cytolytic toxins that lyse erythrocytes and neutrophils and have important functions in the S. aureus infectious process. The molecular mechanisms of PSM secretion, however, are not well understood. Here we report that knockout of the multidrug-resistance ABC transporter AbcA, which contributes to S. aureus resistance against antibiotics and chemicals, diminished the secreted amount of PSM, leading to the accumulation of PSM in the intracellular fraction. The amount of PSM in the culture supernatants of the abcA knockout mutants was restored by introduction of the wild-type abcA gene, whereas it was not completely restored by introduction of mutant abcA genes encoding AbcA mutant proteins carrying amino acid substitutions in the adenosine triphosphate binding motifs. The abcA knockout mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. These findings suggest that the multidrug resistance transporter AbcA secretes PSMs and contributes to S. aureus virulence. PMID:26160745

  11. Characterization of Two ABC Transporters from Biocontrol and Phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABC transporter genes from four strains of Fusarium oxysporum [two biocontrol and two phytopathogenic (f. sp. lycopersici Race 1) isolates] indicated that this gene is well conserved. However, sequences of promoter regions of FoABC1 differed between 8 phytopathogenic and 11 biocontrol strains of F....

  12. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  13. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  14. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  15. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  16. Modulation of Expression and Activity of ABC Transporters by the Phytoestrogen Genistein. Impact on Drug Disposition.

    PubMed

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, María Laura

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. They also mediate multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Isoflavones, such as genistein (GNT), belong to a class of naturally-occurring compounds found at high concentrations in commonly consumed soya based-foods and dietary supplements. GNT and its metabolites interact with ABC transporters as substrates, inhibitors and/or modulators of their expression. This review compiles information about regulation of ABC transporters by GNT with special emphasis on the three major groups of ABC transporters involved in excretion of endo- and xenobiotics as follows: Pglycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1), a group of multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs, ABCC subfamily) and ABCG2 (BCRP), an ABC half-transporter. The impact of these regulations on potential GNT-drug interactions is further considered. PMID:27048380

  17. Nucleotide binding domain 1 of the human retinal ABC transporter functions as a general ribonucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Biswas, E E

    2001-07-27

    Members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily are transmembrane proteins that are found in a variety of tissues which transport substances across cell membranes in an energy-dependent manner. The retina-specific ABC protein (ABCR) has been linked through genetic studies to a number of inherited visual disorders, including Stargardt macular degeneration and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Like other ABC transporters, ABCR is characterized by two nucleotide binding domains and two transmembrane domains. We have cloned and expressed the 522-amino acid (aa) N-terminal cytoplasmic region (aa 854-1375) of ABCR containing nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) with a purification tag at its amino terminus. The expressed recombinant protein was found to be soluble and was purified using single-step affinity chromatography. The purified protein migrated as a 66 kDa protein on SDS-PAGE. Analysis of the ATP binding and hydrolysis properties of the NBD1 polypeptide demonstrated significant differences between NBD1 and NBD2 [Biswas, E. E., and Biswas, S. B. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 15879-15886]. NBD1 was active as an ATPase, and nucleotide inhibition studies suggested that nucleotide binding was not specific for ATP and all four ribonucleotides can compete for binding. Further analysis demonstrated that NBD1 is a general nucleotidase capable of hydrolysis of ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP. In contrast, NBD2 is specific for adenosine nucleotides (ATP and dATP). NBD1 bound ATP with a higher affinity than NBD2 (K(mNBD1) = 200 microm vs K(mNBD2) = 631 microm) but was less efficient as an ATPase (V(maxNBD1) = 28.9 nmol min(-)(1) mg(-)(1) vs V(maxNBD2) = 144 nmol min(-)(1) mg(-)(1)). The binding efficiencies for CTP and GTP were comparable to that observed for ATP (K(mCTP) = 155 microm vs K(mGTP) = 183 microm), while that observed for UTP was decreased 2-fold (K(mUTP) = 436 microm). Thus, the nucleotide binding preference of NBD1 is as follows: CTP > GTP > ATP > UTP. These

  18. Overexpression, Membrane Preparation, and Purification of a Typical Multidrug ABC Transporter BmrA.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Benjamin; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The production and purification is normally the first step in any biophysical or biochemical study of a new target protein. For membrane proteins, due to their generally low expression levels and hydrophobic properties this is often a major hurdle. Some multidrug transporters are members of one of the largest families of membrane proteins, the ABC ("ATP-binding cassette"), and are responsible for the uptake and export of a wide variety of molecules. This can lead to resistance when those molecules are antibiotics or chemotherapy drugs. To better understand their role in multidrug resistance pure and active protein is required. Here we outline a protocol to produce a highly pure and functionally active multidrug transporter BmrA that is suitable for use in biophysical and biochemical studies. We show that BmrA can be heterologously overexpressed in huge amount in E. coli and extracted from the membrane in a functionally active form. PMID:27485334

  19. The role of ABC and SLC transporters in the pharmacokinetics of dietary and herbal phytochemicals and their interactions with xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lu, Jun; Paxton, James W

    2012-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence that many compounds, known as phytochemicals (PCs), which are derived from dietary plants and herbs, may have a role in combating a number of chronic diseases. Despite many in vitro studies elucidating the mechanism(s) of action of various PCs, there are still reservations with regard to their health benefits in vivo, particularly as there is a paucity of research on their oral bioavailability, their pharmacokinetics, and the concentrations achieved at their site(s) of action. Recently various transporters, including the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and the solute carrier (SLC) transporters, have been cloned and functional analyses have suggested that they play significant roles in the absorption and disposition of most drugs and PCs. While some SLC transporters facilitate absorption of PCs into the systemic circulation, various efflux pumps, including the ABC transporters, actively transport the PC back into the gastro-intestinal (GI) lumen, thus preventing further penetration into the body. Some ABC transporters also act in concert with Phase 1 and 2 metabolizing enzymes as a defensive barrier in the intestines and liver. If the PC overcomes the defence mechanisms of the gut and the liver, it will enter the systemic circulation and be distributed to the other organs of the body and possible site(s) of action. PCs can usually pass with ease through the pores of the capillaries of organs such as the heart and lungs, but with difficulty into pharmacological sanctuaries, such as the brain, testis, or foetus. Such sanctuaries contain a number of efflux transporters in their protective membrane, which restrict the penetration of xenobiotics, including PCs. The ABC and SLC transporters are also abundantly expressed in the liver and kidney and regulate the excretion of many compounds, including PCs and their metabolites. It is also becoming apparent that there is a complex interplay between various PCs and their ability to modulate the

  20. 75 FR 11991 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of...