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Sample records for abc drug efflux

  1. Growth Hormone Receptor Knockdown Sensitizes Human Melanoma Cells to Chemotherapy by Attenuating Expression of ABC Drug Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Basu, Reetobrata; Baumgaertel, Nicholas; Wu, Shiyong; Kopchick, John J

    2017-03-14

    Melanoma remains one of the most therapy-resistant forms of human cancer despite recent introductions of highly efficacious targeted therapies. The intrinsic therapy resistance of human melanoma is largely due to abundant expression of a repertoire of xenobiotic efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Here, we report that GH action is a key mediator of chemotherapeutic resistance in human melanoma cells. We investigated multiple ABC efflux pumps (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1, and ABCG2) reportedly associated with melanoma drug resistance in different human melanoma cells and tested the efficacy of five different anti-cancer compounds (cisplatin, doxorubicin, oridonin, paclitaxel, vemurafenib) with decreased GH action. We found that GH treatment of human melanoma cells upregulates expression of multiple ABC transporters and increases the EC50 of melanoma drug vemurafenib. Also, vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells had upregulated levels of GH receptor (GHR) expression as well as ABC efflux pumps. GHR knockdown (KD) using siRNA in human melanoma cells treated with sub-EC50 doses of anti-tumor compounds resulted in significantly increased drug retention, decreased cell proliferation and increased drug efficacy, compared to mock-transfected controls. Our set of findings identify an unknown mechanism of GH regulation in mediating melanoma drug resistance and validates GHR as a unique therapeutic target for sensitizing highly therapy-resistant human melanoma cells to lower doses of anti-cancer drugs.

  2. Rethinking Drug Treatment Approaches in ALS by Targeting ABC Efflux Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    disease  progression,  and  found  that   chronic  treatment  with  either   the...down   disease  progression  as  reported.     In  addition  to  evaluating  the  toxicity  of   chronic  Elacridar...far underestimated issue of disease -driven pharmacoresistance mediated by the multi-drug resistance (mdr) efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein

  3. Effluxing ABC Transporters in Human Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Mannermaa, Eliisa; Turner, Helen; Häkli, Marika; Wolosin, J. Mario; Tervo, Timo; Honkakoski, Paavo; Urtti, Arto

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are able to efflux their substrate drugs from the cells. We compared expression of efflux proteins in normal human corneal epithelial tissue, primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC), and corneal epithelial cell culture model (HCE model) based on human immortal cell line. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1–6 (MRP1–6) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was studied using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Only MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP were expressed in the freshly excised human corneal epithelial tissue. Expression of MRP1 and MRP5 was localized predominantly in the basal cells of the central cornea and limbus. Functional efflux activity was shown in the cell models, but they showed over-expression of most efflux transporters compared to that of normal corneal epithelium. In conclusion, MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP are expressed in the corneal epithelium, but MDR1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, and MRP6 are not significantly expressed. HCE cell model and commercially available primary cells deviate from this expression profile. PMID:19623615

  4. Antibiotic-dependent induction of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E TtgABC efflux pump is mediated by the drug binding repressor TtgR.

    PubMed

    Terán, Wilson; Felipe, Antonia; Segura, Ana; Rojas, Antonia; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2003-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida is well known for its metabolic capabilities, but recently, it has been shown to exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. In P. putida DOT-T1E, the TtgABC efflux pump, which has a broad substrate specificity, extrudes antibiotics such as ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. We have analyzed the expression of the ttgABC efflux pump operon and its regulatory gene, ttgR, in response to several structurally unrelated antibiotics at the transcriptional level and investigated the role of the TtgR protein in this process. ttgABC and ttgR are expressed in vivo at a moderate basal level, which increases in the presence of hydrophobic antibiotics like chloramphenicol and tetracycline. In vitro experiments show that, in the absence of inducers, TtgR binds to a palindromic operator site which overlaps both ttgABC and ttgR promoters and dissociates from it in the presence of chloramphenicol and tetracycline. These results suggest that the TtgR repressor is able to bind to structurally different antibiotics, which allows induction of TtgABC multidrug efflux pump expression in response to these antimicrobial agents. This is the first case in which the expression of a drug transporter of the resistance-nodulation-division family has been shown to be regulated directly by antibiotics.

  5. Rethinking Drug Treatment Approaches in ALS by Targeting ABC Efflux Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have failed. With the exception of Riluzole (the only drug approved by the FDA for treatment of ALS), we have been...paragraph)  describes  the  subject,  purpose  and  scope  of   the  research):     Research on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS

  6. Rethinking Drug Treatment Approaches in ALS by Targeting ABC Efflux Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Despite multiple therapeutic efforts targeting a variety of underlying pathogenic mechanisms...approaches to cure the mouse the models amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have failed. With the exception of Riluzole (the only drug approved by the... Sclerosis (ALS), but there is limited progress translating effective treatments to animal models and patients, and ALS remains a disease with no

  7. The Heterodimeric ABC Transporter EfrCD Mediates Multidrug Efflux in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Lea M.; Corradi, Valentina; Hohl, Michael; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections with Enterococcus faecalis are an emerging health problem. However, drug efflux pumps contributing to intrinsic drug resistance are poorly studied in this Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we functionally investigated seven heterodimeric ABC transporters of E. faecalis that are annotated as drug efflux pumps. Deletion of ef0789-ef0790 on the chromosome of E. faecalis resulted in increased susceptibility to daunorubicin, doxorubicin, ethidium, and Hoechst 33342, and the corresponding transporter was named EfrCD. Unexpectedly, the previously described heterodimeric multidrug ABC transporter EfrAB contributes marginally to drug efflux in the endogenous context of E. faecalis. In contrast, heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis revealed that EfrAB, EfrCD, and the product of ef2226-ef2227 (EfrEF) mediate the efflux of fluorescent substrates and confer resistance to multiple dyes and drugs, including fluoroquinolones. Four of seven transporters failed to exhibit drug efflux activity for the set of drugs and dyes tested, even upon overexpression in L. lactis. Since all seven transporters were purified as heterodimers after overexpression in L. lactis, a lack of drug efflux activity is not attributed to poor expression or protein aggregation. Reconstitution of the purified multidrug transporters EfrAB, EfrCD, and EfrEF in proteoliposomes revealed functional coupling between ATP hydrolysis and drug binding. Our analysis creates an experimental basis for the accurate prediction of drug efflux transporters and indicates that many annotated multidrug efflux pumps might be incapable of drug transport and thus might fulfill other physiological functions in the cell. PMID:27381387

  8. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals.

  9. Characterization of a novel domain ‘GATE’ in the ABC protein DrrA and its role in drug efflux by the DrrAB complex

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han; Rahman, Sadia; Li, Wen; Fu, Guoxing; Kaur, Parjit

    2015-03-27

    A novel domain, GATE (Glycine-loop And Transducer Element), is identified in the ABC protein DrrA. This domain shows sequence and structural conservation among close homologs of DrrA as well as distantly-related ABC proteins. Among the highly conserved residues in this domain are three glycines, G215, G221 and G231, of which G215 was found to be critical for stable expression of the DrrAB complex. Other conserved residues, including E201, G221, K227 and G231, were found to be critical for the catalytic and transport functions of the DrrAB transporter. Structural analysis of both the previously published crystal structure of the DrrA homolog MalK and the modeled structure of DrrA showed that G215 makes close contacts with residues in and around the Walker A motif, suggesting that these interactions may be critical for maintaining the integrity of the ATP binding pocket as well as the complex. It is also shown that G215A or K227R mutation diminishes some of the atomic interactions essential for ATP catalysis and overall transport function. Therefore, based on both the biochemical and structural analyses, it is proposed that the GATE domain, located outside of the previously identified ATP binding and hydrolysis motifs, is an additional element involved in ATP catalysis. - Highlights: • A novel domain ‘GATE’ is identified in the ABC protein DrrA. • GATE shows high sequence and structural conservation among diverse ABC proteins. • GATE is located outside of the previously studied ATP binding and hydrolysis motifs. • Conserved GATE residues are critical for stability of DrrAB and for ATP catalysis.

  10. Physico-chemical factors affect chloramphenicol efflux and EmhABC efflux pump expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens cLP6a.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail; Foght, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis inhibitors such as chloramphenicol and tetracycline may be inducers of efflux pumps such as MexY in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, complicating their use for the treatment of bacterial infections. We previously determined that chloramphenicol, a substrate of the EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens cLP6a, did not induce emhABC expression. In this study, we determined the effect of physico-chemical factors on chloramphenicol efflux by EmhABC, and the expression of emhABC. Efflux assays measuring accumulation of (14)C-chloramphenicol in cell pellets showed that chloramphenicol efflux is dependent on growth temperature, pH and concentration of Mg(2+). These physico-chemical factors modulated the efflux of chloramphenicol by 26 to >50%. All conditions tested that decreased the efflux of chloramphenicol unexpectedly induced transcription of emhABC efflux genes. EmhABC activity also effectively suppressed the deleterious effect of chloramphenicol on the cell membrane of strain cLP6a, which may explain why chloramphenicol is not an inducer of emhABC. Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of an antibiotic on cell membrane integrity and fatty acid composition may be the signal that induces emhABC expression, and that inducers of other bacterial efflux pumps may include environmental factors rather than their substrates per se.

  11. Identification and functional characterization of Penicillium marneffei pleiotropic drug resistance transporters ABC1 and ABC2.

    PubMed

    Panapruksachat, Siribun; Iwatani, Shun; Oura, Takahiro; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Chindamporn, Ariya; Niimi, Kyoko; Niimi, Masakazu; Lamping, Erwin; Cannon, Richard D; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei is an endemic, AIDS-defining illness and, after tuberculosis and cryptococcosis, the third most common opportunistic infection of AIDS patients in tropical Southeast Asia. Untreated, patients have poor prognosis; however, primary amphotericin B treatment followed by prolonged itraconazole prophylaxis is effective. To identify ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that may play a role in potential multidrug resistance of P. marneffei, we identified and classified all 46 P. marneffei ABC transporters from the genome sequence. PmABC1 and PmABC2 were most similar to the archetype Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump gene CDR1. P. marneffei Abc1p (PmAbc1p) was functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although at rather low levels, and correctly localized to the plasma membrane, causing cells to be fourfold to eightfold more resistant to azoles and many other xenobiotics than untransformed cells. P. marneffei Abc2p (PmAbc2p) was expressed at similarly low levels, but it had no efflux activity and did not properly localize to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, PmAbc1p mislocalized and lost its transport activity when cells were shifted to 37 °C. We conclude that expression of PmAbc1p in S. cerevisiae confers resistance to several xenobiotics indicating that PmAbc1p may be a multidrug efflux pump.

  12. Distribution of AdeABC efflux system genes in genotypically diverse strains of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Sacha, Paweł; Czaban, Sławomir; Hauschild, Tomasz; Ojdana, Dominika; Kowalczuk, Oksana; Milewski, Robert; Poniatowski, Bogusław; Nikliński, Jacek; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly problematic hospital-associated pathogen. Different mechanisms contribute to the formation of multidrug resistance in A. baumannii, including the AdeABC efflux system. Distribution of the structural and regulatory genes encoding the AdeABC efflux system among genetically diverse clinical A. baumannii strains was achieved by using PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. The distribution of adeABRS genes is extremely high among our A. baumannii strains, except the adeC gene. We have observed a large proportion of strains presenting multidrug-resistance phenotype for several years. The efflux pump could be an important mechanism in these strains in resistance to antibiotics.

  13. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  14. Regulation of ABC Efflux Transporters at Blood-Brain Barrier in Health and Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qosa, Hisham; Miller, David S.; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    The strength of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in providing protection to the central nervous system from exposure to circulating chemicals is maintained by tight junctions between endothelial cells and by a broad range of transporter proteins that regulate exchange between CNS and blood. The most important transporters that restrict the permeability of large number of toxins as well as therapeutic agents are the ABC transporters. Among them, P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2 are the utmost studied. These efflux transporters are neuroprotective, limiting the brain entry of neurotoxins; however, they could also restrict the entry of many therapeutics and contribute to CNS pharmacoresistance. Characterization of several regulatory pathways that govern expression and activity of ABC efflux transporters in the endothelium of brain capillaries have led to an emerging consensus that these processes are complex and contain several cellular and molecular elements. Alterations in ABC efflux transporters expression and/or activity occur in several neurological diseases. Here, we review the signaling pathways that regulate expression and transport activity of P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2 as well as how their expression/activity changes in neurological diseases. PMID:26187753

  15. Research Progress on the Role of ABC Transporters in the Drug Resistance Mechanism of Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Mao, Ding-an; Liu, Li-qun

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy is not fully clear. In recent years, both animal and clinical trials have shown that the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is increased in patients with intractable epilepsy; additionally, epileptic seizures can lead to an increase in the number of sites that express ABC transporters. These findings suggest that ABC transporters play an important role in the drug resistance mechanism of epilepsy. ABC transporters can perform the funcions of a drug efflux pump, which can reduce the effective drug concentration at epilepsy lesions by reducing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to antiepileptic drugs, thus causing resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Given the important role of ABC transporters in refractory epilepsy drug resistance, antiepileptic drugs that are not substrates of ABC transporters were used to obtain ABC transporter inhibitors with strong specificity, high safety, and few side effects, making them suitable for long-term use; therefore, these drugs can be used for future clinical treatment of intractable epilepsy. PMID:26491660

  16. Reversal of ABC drug transporter-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cells: Evaluation of current strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Calcagno, Anna Maria; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters that actively efflux a variety of amphipathic compounds can cause multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells, which is a major obstacle in the success of cancer chemotherapy. The development of synthetic small molecule compounds or the identification of natural products that block ABC transporter-mediated efflux has been the conventional approach used to combat MDR. The strategy of using chemosensitizers, however, has not been successful in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, alternative approaches to identify or to synthesize compounds that can induce selective toxicity in cancer cells overexpressing one or more ABC transporters have been undertaken. This review summarizes the recent advances in identifying strategies to restore sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in multidrug resistant cancer cells. PMID:19079736

  17. The EmhABC efflux pump decreases the efficiency of phenanthrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LP6a.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail A; Smith, Angela Y; Gray, Murray R; Foght, Julia M

    2012-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LP6a, designated here as strain WEN (wild-type PAH catabolism, efflux positive), utilizes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene as a carbon source but also extrudes it into the extracellular medium using the efflux pump EmhABC. Because phenanthrene is considered a nontoxic carbon source for P. fluorescens WEP, its energy-dependent efflux seems counter-productive. We hypothesized that the efflux of phenanthrene would decrease the efficiency of its biodegradation. Indeed, an emhB disruptant strain, wild-type PAH catabolism, efflux negative (WEN), biodegraded 44% more phenanthrene than its parent strain WEP during a 6-day incubation. To determine whether efflux affected the degree of oxidation of phenanthrene, we quantified the conversion of ¹⁴C-phenanthrene to radiolabeled polar metabolites and ¹⁴CO₂. The emhB⁻ WEN strain produced approximately twice as much ¹⁴CO₂ and radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites as the WEP strain. In contrast, the mineralization of ¹⁴C-glucose, which is not a known EmhB efflux substrate, was equivalent in both strains. An early open-ring metabolite of phenanthrene, trans-4-(1-hydroxynaphth-2-yl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid, also was found to be a substrate of the EmhABC pump and accumulated in the supernatant of WEP but not WEN cultures. The analogous open-ring metabolite of dibenzothiophene, a heterocyclic analog of phenanthrene, was extruded by EmhABC plus a putative alternative efflux pump, whereas the end product 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophene was not actively extruded from either WEP or WEN cells. These results indicate that the active efflux of phenanthrene and its early metabolite(s) decreases the efficiency of phenanthrene degradation by the WEP strain. This activity has implications for the bioremediation and biocatalytic transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles.

  18. The eefABC multidrug efflux pump operon is repressed by H-NS in Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Masi, Muriel; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Villard, Claude; Pradel, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    The Enterobacter aerogenes eefABC locus, which encodes a tripartite efflux pump, was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli tolC mutant. E. aerogenes deltaacrA expressing EefABC became less susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. Data from eef::lacZ fusions showed that eefABC was not transcribed in the various laboratory conditions tested. However, increased transcription from Peef was observed in an E. coli hns mutant. In addition, EefA was detected in E. aerogenes expressing a dominant negative E. coli hns allele.

  19. Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xian-Zhi; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps play a key role in drug resistance and also serve other functions in bacteria. There has been a growing list of multidrug and drug-specific efflux pumps characterized from bacteria of human, animal, plant and environmental origins. These pumps are mostly encoded on the chromosome although they can also be plasmid-encoded. A previous article (Li X-Z and Nikaido H, Drugs, 2004; 64[2]: 159–204) had provided a comprehensive review regarding efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. In the past five years, significant progress has been achieved in further understanding of drug resistance-related efflux transporters and this review focuses on the latest studies in this field since 2003. This has been demonstrated in multiple aspects that include but are not limited to: further molecular and biochemical characterization of the known drug efflux pumps and identification of novel drug efflux pumps; structural elucidation of the transport mechanisms of drug transporters; regulatory mechanisms of drug efflux pumps; determining the role of the drug efflux pumps in other functions such as stress responses, virulence and cell communication; and development of efflux pump inhibitors. Overall, the multifaceted implications of drug efflux transporters warrant novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance in bacteria. PMID:19678712

  20. Effect of iron on expression of efflux pump (adeABC) and quorum sensing (luxI, luxR) genes in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Modarresi, Farzan; Azizi, Omid; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Valibeigi, Behnaz; Mansouri, Shahla

    2015-11-01

    Resistance-nodulation-division efflux system (RND) adeABC contributes to intrinsic resistance to various drug classes in Acinetobacter baumannii. Similarly, quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in the biofilm formation and pathogenicity of this bacterium. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of iron limitation on the expression of efflux pump (adeABC) genes and QS (luxI, luxR) system by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, DNA sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) gene was also investigated. Sixty-five multidrug-resistant isolates of A. baumannii were recovered from ICU patients of three hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The isolates were highly resistant to at least 11 antibiotics (MIC ≥64 μg/mL); however, 87% and 89% were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, respectively (MIC 0.05 μg/mL) (p ≤ 0.05). We detected the presence of RND efflux pump, QS, and bap genes with the frequencies of 92% (adeA), 61.5% (adeB), 84.6% (adeC), 80% (luxI), 61% (luxR), and 66% (bap), respectively. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in some isolates, expression of both adeABC and luxI/R was increased more than fourfold in the presence of low iron (20 μm), suggesting the additional regulatory role of iron on both efflux pump and QS system. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis on the strong biofilm forming isolates confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of bap gene and deduced sequence was similar to A. baumannii K9B410.

  1. Targeting efflux pumps to overcome antifungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann R; Cardno, Tony S; Strouse, J Jacob; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Keniya, Mikhail V; Lackovic, Kurt; Monk, Brian C; Sklar, Larry A; Cannon, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to antifungal drugs is an increasingly significant clinical problem. The most common antifungal resistance encountered is efflux pump-mediated resistance of Candida species to azole drugs. One approach to overcome this resistance is to inhibit the pumps and chemosensitize resistant strains to azole drugs. Drug discovery targeting fungal efflux pumps could thus result in the development of azole-enhancing combination therapy. Heterologous expression of fungal efflux pumps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a versatile system for screening for pump inhibitors. Fungal efflux pumps transport a range of xenobiotics including fluorescent compounds. This enables the use of fluorescence-based detection, as well as growth inhibition assays, in screens to discover compounds targeting efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance. A variety of medium- and high-throughput screens have been used to identify a number of chemical entities that inhibit fungal efflux pumps.

  2. Natural and Synthetic Polymers as Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of efflux pumps is an emerging approach in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Since it has been discovered that polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as Tweens® or Pluronics® can inhibit efflux pumps, various other polymers have been investigated regarding their potential efflux pump inhibitory activity. Among them are polysaccharides, polyethylene glycols and derivatives, amphiphilic block copolymers, dendrimers and thiolated polymers. In the current review article, natural and synthetic polymers that are capable of inhibiting efflux pumps as well as their application in cancer therapy and drug delivery are discussed. PMID:17896100

  3. Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Yingying; Zhao, Zhilun; Li, Yingxing; Zou, Jin; Ma, Qi; Zhao, Yanna; Ke, Yuehua; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Huiyi; Baker, Matthew A.B.; Ge, Hao; Sun, Yujie; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Bai, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Natural variations in gene expression provide a mechanism for multiple phenotypes to arise in an isogenic bacterial population. In particular, a sub-group termed persisters show high tolerance to antibiotics. Previously, their formation has been attributed to cell dormancy. Here we demonstrate that bacterial persisters, under β-lactam antibiotic treatment, show less cytoplasmic drug accumulation as a result of enhanced efflux activity. Consistently, a number of multi-drug efflux genes, particularly the central component TolC, show higher expression in persisters. Time-lapse imaging and mutagenesis studies further establish a positive correlation between tolC expression and bacterial persistence. The key role of efflux systems, among multiple biological pathways involved in persister formation, indicates that persisters implement a positive defense against antibiotics prior to a passive defense via dormancy. Finally, efflux inhibitors and antibiotics together effectively attenuate persister formation, suggesting a combination strategy to target drug tolerance. PMID:27105118

  4. Structure and function of efflux pumps that confer resistance to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Borges-Walmsley, M Ines; McKeegan, Kenneth S; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to therapeutic drugs encompasses a diverse range of biological systems, which all have a human impact. From the relative simplicity of bacterial cells, fungi and protozoa to the complexity of human cancer cells, resistance has become problematic. Stated in its simplest terms, drug resistance decreases the chance of providing successful treatment against a plethora of diseases. Worryingly, it is a problem that is increasing, and consequently there is a pressing need to develop new and effective classes of drugs. This has provided a powerful stimulus in promoting research on drug resistance and, ultimately, it is hoped that this research will provide novel approaches that will allow the deliberate circumvention of well understood resistance mechanisms. A major mechanism of resistance in both microbes and cancer cells is the membrane protein-catalysed extrusion of drugs from the cell. Resistant cells exploit proton-driven antiporters and/or ATP-driven ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters to extrude cytotoxic drugs that usually enter the cell by passive diffusion. Although some of these drug efflux pumps transport specific substrates, many are transporters of multiple substrates. These multidrug pumps can often transport a variety of structurally unrelated hydrophobic compounds, ranging from dyes to lipids. If we are to nullify the effects of efflux-mediated drug resistance, we must first of all understand how these efflux pumps can accommodate a diverse range of compounds and, secondly, how conformational changes in these proteins are coupled to substrate translocation. These are key questions that must be addressed. In this review we report on the advances that have been made in understanding the structure and function of drug efflux pumps. PMID:13678421

  5. Prevalence of Genes of OXA-23 Carbapenemase and AdeABC Efflux Pump Associated with Multidrug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in the ICU of a Comprehensive Hospital of Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Li, Caiyun; Zhang, Haiyun; Li, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Wei, Jun

    2015-08-21

    The objective of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology and the genetic support of clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) isolates in an ICU ward of a comprehensive hospital. A total of 102 non-duplicate drug-resistant A. baumannii isolates were identified and 93 (91.1%) of them were MDR strains. Molecular analysis demonstrated that carbapenemase genes blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 were presented in all 93 MDR isolates (100%), but other carbapenemase genes, including blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaIMP-1, blaIMP-4, blaSIM, and blaVIM genes were completely absent in all isolates. In addition, genes of AdeABC efflux system were detected in 88.2% (90/102) isolates. Interestingly, an addition to efflux pump inhibitor, reserpine could significantly enhance the susceptibility of MDR isolates to moxifloxacin, cefotaxime, and imipenem (p < 0.01). Clonal relationship analysis further grouped these clinical drug-resistant isolates into nine clusters, and the MDR strains were mainly in clusters A, B, C, and D, which include 16, 13, 25, and 15 isolates, respectively. This study demonstrated that clinical isolates carrying carbapenemase-encoding genes blaOXA-23 and AdeABC efflux pump genes are the main prevalent MDR A. baumannii, and the co-expression of oxacillinase and efflux pump proteins are thus considered to be the important reason for the prevalence of this organism in the ICU of this hospital.

  6. PatA and PatB form a functional heterodimeric ABC multidrug efflux transporter responsible for the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Durmort, Claire; Bernay, Benoît; Ebel, Christine; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Croizé, Jacques; Vernet, Thierry; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-02

    All bacterial multidrug ABC transporters have been shown to work as either homodimers or heterodimers. Two possibly linked genes, patA and patB from Streptococcus pneumococcus, that encode half-ABC transporters have been shown previously to be involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. We showed that the ΔpatA, ΔpatB, or ΔpatA/ΔpatB mutant strains were more sensitive to unstructurally related compounds, i.e., ethidium bromide or fluoroquinolones, than the wild-type R6 strain. Inside-out vesicles prepared from Escherichia coli expressing PatA and/or PatB transported Hoechst 33342, a classical substrate of multidrug transporters, only when both PatA and PatB were coexpressed. This transport was inhibited either by orthovanadate or by reserpine, and mutation of the conserved Walker A lysine residue of either PatA or PatB fully abrogated Hoechst 33342 transport. PatA, PatB, and the PatA/PatB heterodimer were purified from detergent-solubilized E. coli membrane preparations. Protein dimers were identified in all cases, albeit in different proportions. In contrast to the PatA/PatB heterodimers, homodimers of PatA or PatB failed to show a vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Thus, PatA and PatB need to interact together to make a functional drug efflux transporter, and they work only as heterodimers.

  7. Abc3-Mediated Efflux of an Endogenous Digoxin-like Steroidal Glycoside by Magnaporthe oryzae Is Necessary for Host Invasion during Blast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Rajesh N.; Xue, Yang Kui; Shui, Guanghou; Wenk, Markus R.; Naqvi, Naweed I.

    2012-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae, which causes the devastating rice-blast disease, invades its host plants via a specialized infection structure called the appressorium. Previously, we showed that the ATP-Binding Cassette 3 transporter is necessary for appressorial function (host penetration) in M. oryzae. However, thus far, the molecular basis underlying impaired appressorial function in the abc3Δ remains elusive. We hypothesized that the abc3Δ appressoria accumulate excessive amounts of specific efflux substrate(s) of the Abc3 transporter in M. oryzae. We devised an innovative yeast-based strategy and identified Abc3 Transporter efflux Substrate (ATS) to be a digoxin-like endogenous steroidal glycoside that accumulates to inhibitory levels in M. oryzae abc3Δ appressoria. Exogenous ATS altered cell wall biogenesis and viability in wild-type Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but not in S. pombe expressing M. oryzae Abc3. We show that ATS associates with the Translation Elongation factor Tef2 in M. oryzae, and propose that ATS regulates ion homeostasis during pathogenesis. Excessive ATS accumulation, either intracellularly due to impaired efflux in the abc3Δ or when added exogenously to the wild type, renders M. oryzae nonpathogenic. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the host penetration defects in the abc3Δ are due to aberrant F-actin dynamics as a result of altered Tef2 function and/or ion homeostasis defects caused by excess accumulation of ATS therein. Rather surprisingly, excessive exogenous ATS or digoxin elicited the hypersensitive response in rice, even in the absence of the blast fungus. Lastly, reduced disease symptoms in the inoculated host plants in the presence of excessive digoxin suggest a potential use for such related steroidal glycosides in controlling rice-blast disease. PMID:22927822

  8. ABC-transporters: implications on drug resistance from microorganisms to human cancers.

    PubMed

    Lage, Hermann

    2003-09-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a common clinical problem in patients with infectious diseases as well as in patients with cancer. During treatment of infections or malignant tumors, the drug targets of prokaryotic or eukaryotic microorganisms and neoplastic cells are often found to be refractory to a variety of drugs that have different structures and functions. This phenomenon has been termed multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms leading to MDR are frequently caused by trans-membrane xenobiotic transport molecules belonging to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. There is an urgent need to understand the structure-function relationships of these efflux pumps that underlie their transport mechanism and drug selectivity. This knowledge may allow the rational design of new drugs that can inhibit or circumvent the activity of these MDR transport molecules. Furthermore, the development of such chemosensitizing agents would help us learn more about the physiological functions and substrates of these pump proteins. This review will discuss the current state of knowledge of the functional and structural similarities among ABC-transporters in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their impact on MDR.

  9. Properties of AdeABC and AdeIJK Efflux Systems of Acinetobacter baumannii Compared with Those of the AcrAB-TolC System of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii contains RND-family efflux systems AdeABC and AdeIJK, which pump out a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, as judged from the MIC changes occurring upon deletion of the responsible genes. However, these studies may miss changes because of the high backgrounds generated by the remaining pumps and by β-lactamases, and it is unclear how the activities of these pumps compare quantitatively with those of the well-studied AcrAB-TolC system of Escherichia coli. We expressed adeABC and adeIJK of A. baumannii, as well as E. coli acrAB, in an E. coli host from which acrAB was deleted. The A. baumannii pumps were functional in E. coli, and the MIC changes that were observed largely confirmed the substrate range already reported, with important differences. Thus, the AdeABC system pumped out all β-lactams, an activity that was often missed in deletion studies. When the expression level of the pump genes was adjusted to a similar level for a comparison with AcrAB-TolC, we found that both A. baumannii efflux systems pumped out a wide range of compounds, but AdeABC was less effective than AcrAB-TolC in the extrusion of lipophilic β-lactams, novobiocin, and ethidium bromide, although it was more effective at tetracycline efflux. AdeIJK was remarkably more effective than a similar level of AcrAB-TolC in the efflux of β-lactams, novobiocin, and ethidium bromide, although it was less so in the efflux of erythromycin. These results thus allow us to compare these efflux systems on a quantitative basis, if we can assume that the heterologous systems are fully functional in the E. coli host. PMID:25246403

  10. Energy Metabolism and Drug Efflux in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Black, Philippa A.; Warren, Robin M.; Louw, Gail E.; van Helden, Paul D.; Victor, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent drug susceptibility of microorganisms is determined by multiple factors, including growth state, the rate of drug diffusion into and out of the cell, and the intrinsic vulnerability of drug targets with regard to the corresponding antimicrobial agent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality, further exacerbated by its ability to readily evolve drug resistance. It is well accepted that drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is driven by the acquisition of chromosomal mutations in genes encoding drug targets/promoter regions; however, a comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms that fuel drug resistance in the clinical setting is currently lacking. In this context, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that active extrusion of drugs from the cell is critical for drug tolerance. M. tuberculosis encodes representatives of a diverse range of multidrug transporters, many of which are dependent on the proton motive force (PMF) or the availability of ATP. This suggests that energy metabolism and ATP production through the PMF, which is established by the electron transport chain (ETC), are critical in determining the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis. In this review, we detail advances in the study of the mycobacterial ETC and highlight drugs that target various components of the ETC. We provide an overview of some of the efflux pumps present in M. tuberculosis and their association, if any, with drug transport and concomitant effects on drug resistance. The implications of inhibiting drug extrusion, through the use of efflux pump inhibitors, are also discussed. PMID:24614376

  11. Microbial drug efflux proteins of the major facilitator superfamily.

    PubMed

    Saidijam, Massoud; Benedetti, Giulia; Ren, Qinghu; Xu, Zhiqiang; Hoyle, Christopher J; Palmer, Sarah L; Ward, Alison; Bettaney, Kim E; Szakonyi, Gerda; Meuller, Johan; Morrison, Scott; Pos, Martin K; Butaye, Patrick; Walravens, Karl; Langton, Kate; Herbert, Richard B; Skurray, Ronald A; Paulsen, Ian T; O'reilly, John; Rutherford, Nicholas G; Brown, Melissa H; Bill, Roslyn M; Henderson, Peter J F

    2006-07-01

    Drug efflux proteins are widespread amongst microorganisms, including pathogens. They can contribute to both natural insensitivity to antibiotics and to emerging antibiotic resistance and so are potential targets for the development of new antibacterial drugs. The design of such drugs would be greatly facilitated by knowledge of the structures of these transport proteins, which are poorly understood, because of the difficulties of obtaining crystals of quality. We describe a structural genomics approach for the amplified expression, purification and characterisation of prokaryotic drug efflux proteins of the 'Major Facilitator Superfamily' (MFS) of transport proteins from Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Brucella melitensis, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria meningitides and Streptomyces coelicolor. The H. pylori putative drug resistance protein, HP1092, and the S. aureus QacA proteins are used as detailed examples. This strategy is an important step towards reproducible production of transport proteins for the screening of drug binding and for optimisation of crystallisation conditions to enable subsequent structure determination.

  12. Transplacental pharmacokinetics of glyburide, rhodamine 123, and BODIPY FL prazosin: effect of drug efflux transporters and lipid solubility.

    PubMed

    Cygalova, Lenka Hahnova; Hofman, Jakub; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are the most abundantly expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters in the placenta. They recognize a large, partly overlapping spectrum of chemically unrelated compounds and affect their transplacental passage. In this study we investigate the effect of Bcrp and P-gp on the transplacental pharmacokinetics of their specific and common substrates employing the technique of dually perfused rat placenta. We show that the clearance of rhodamine 123 (P-gp substrate), glyburide (BCRP substrate) and BODIPY FL prazosin (P-gp and BCRP substrate) in fetal-to-maternal direction is 11, 11.2 and 4 times higher, respectively, than that in the maternal-to-fetal direction. In addition, all of these substances were found to be transported from the fetal compartment even against concentration gradient. We thus demonstrate the ability of placental ABC transporters to hinder maternal-to-fetal and accelerate fetal-to-maternal transport in a concentration-dependent manner. However, by means of pharmacokinetic modeling we describe the inverse correlation between lipid solubility of a molecule and its active transport by placental ABC efflux transporters. Therefore, in the case of highly lipophilic substrates, such as BODIPY FL prazosin in this study, the efficacy of efflux transporters to pump the molecule back to the maternal circulation is markedly limited.

  13. Bioluminescent imaging of drug efflux at the blood–brain barrier mediated by the transporter ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Wei, Bih-Rong; Chang, Ki-Eun; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Simpson, R. Mark; Gottesman, Michael M.; Hall, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a group of transmembrane proteins that maintain chemical homeostasis through efflux of compounds out of organelles and cells. Among other functions, ABC transporters play a key role in protecting the brain parenchyma by efflux of xenobiotics from capillary endothelial cells at the blood–brain barrier (BBB). They also prevent the entry of therapeutic drugs at the BBB, thereby limiting their efficacy. One of the key transporters playing this role is ABCG2. Although other ABC transporters can be studied through various imaging modalities, no specific probe exists for imaging ABCG2 function in vivo. Here we show that d-luciferin, the endogenous substrate of firefly luciferase, is a specific substrate for ABCG2. We hypothesized that ABCG2 function at the BBB could be evaluated by using bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase in the brain. Bioluminescence signal in the brain of mice increased with coadministration of the ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143, gefitinib, and nilotinib, but not an ABCB1 inhibitor. This method for imaging ABCG2 function at the BBB will facilitate understanding of the function and pharmacokinetic inhibition of this transporter. PMID:24297888

  14. RND-type efflux pumps in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii: major role for AdeABC overexpression and AdeRS mutations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Increased expression of chromosomal genes for resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems plays a major role in the multidrug resistance (MDR) of Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the relative contributions of the three most prevalent pumps, AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK, have not been evaluated in clinical settings. We have screened 14 MDR clinical isolates shown to be distinct on the basis of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for the presence and overexpression of the three Ade efflux systems and analyzed the sequences of the regulators AdeRS, a two-component system, for AdeABC and AdeL, a LysR-type regulator, for AdeFGH. Gene adeB was detected in 13 of 14 isolates, and adeG and the intrinsic adeJ gene were detected in all strains. Significant overexpression of adeB was observed in 10 strains, whereas only 7 had moderately increased levels of expression of AdeFGH, and none overexpressed AdeIJK. Thirteen strains had reduced susceptibility to tigecycline, but there was no correlation between tigecycline MICs and the levels of AdeABC expression, suggesting the presence of other mechanisms for tigecycline resistance. No mutations were found in the highly conserved LysR regulator of the nine strains expressing AdeFGH. In contrast, functional mutations were found in conserved domains of AdeRS in all the strains that overexpressed AdeABC with two mutational hot spots, one in AdeS near histidine 149 suggesting convergent evolution and the other in the DNA binding domain of AdeR compatible with horizontal gene transfer. This report outlines the high incidence of AdeABC efflux pump overexpression in MDR A. baumannii as a result of a variety of single mutations in the corresponding two-component regulatory system.

  15. The ABC transporter ATR1 is necessary for efflux of the toxin cercosporin in the fungus Cercospora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Daub, Margaret E

    2009-02-01

    The Cercospora nicotianae mutant deficient for the CRG1 transcription factor has marked reductions in both resistance and biosynthesis of the toxin cercosporin. We cloned and sequenced full-length copies of two genes, ATR1 and CnCFP, previously identified from a subtractive library between the wild type (WT) and a crg1 mutant. ATR1 is an ABC transporter gene and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 4368bp with one intron. CnCFP encodes a MFS transporter with homology to Cercospora kikuchii CFP, previously implicated in cercosporin export, and has an ORF of 1975bp with three introns. Disruption of ATR1 indicated atr1-null mutants had dramatic reductions in cercosporin production (25% and 20% of WT levels) in solid and liquid cultures, respectively. The ATR1 disruptants also showed moderately higher sensitivity to cercosporin. Constitutive expression of ATR1 in the crg1 mutant restored cercosporin biosynthesis and moderately increased resistance. In contrast, CnCFP overexpression in the mutant did not restore toxin production, however, it moderately enhanced toxin resistance. The results together indicate ATR1 acts as a cercosporin efflux pump in this fungus and plays a partial role in resistance.

  16. Hedgehog signaling regulates drug sensitivity by targeting ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Bieber, Marcia M; Teng, Nelson N H

    2014-08-01

    A major challenge of successful chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is overcoming intrinsic or acquired multi-drug resistance caused by active drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Regulation of these transporters in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. We have found that abnormal expression of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway transcription factor Gli1 is involved in the regulation of ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in ovarian cancer. Hh is a known regulator of cancer cell proliferation and differentiation in several other types of invasive and metastatic malignancies. Our work has demonstrated that Gli1 is abnormally activated in a portion of ovarian cancers. Inhibition of Gli1 expression decreases ABCB1 and ABCG2 gene expression levels and enhances the response of ovarian cancer cells to certain chemotherapeutic drugs. The underlying mechanism is a direct association of Gli1 with a specific consensus sequence located in the promoter region of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. This study provides new understanding of ABC gene regulation by Hh signaling pathway, which may lead to the identification of new markers to detect and to anticipate ovarian cancer chemotherapy drug sensitivity.

  17. Drug efflux pump deficiency and drug target resistance masking in growing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fange, David; Nilsson, Karin; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that drug efflux pump deficiency not only increases the susceptibility of pathogens to antibiotics, but also seems to “mask” the effects of mutations, that decrease the affinities of drugs to their intracellular targets, on the growth rates of drug-exposed bacteria. That is, in the presence of drugs, the growth rates of drug-exposed WT and target mutated strains are the same in a drug efflux pump deficient background, but the mutants grow faster than WT in a drug efflux pump proficient background. Here, we explain the mechanism of target resistance masking and show that it occurs in response to drug efflux pump inhibition among pathogens with high-affinity drug binding targets, low cell-membrane drug-permeability and insignificant intracellular drug degradation. We demonstrate that target resistance masking is fundamentally linked to growth-bistability, i.e., the existence of 2 different steady state growth rates for one and the same drug concentration in the growth medium. We speculate that target resistance masking provides a hitherto unknown mechanism for slowing down the evolution of target resistance among pathogens. PMID:19416855

  18. AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC multidrug efflux systems are involved in enterobactin export in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Horiyama, Tsukasa; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli produces the iron-chelating compound enterobactin to enable growth under iron-limiting conditions. After biosynthesis, enterobactin is released from the cell. However, the enterobactin export system is not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that the outer membrane channel TolC is involved in enterobactin export. There are several multidrug efflux transporters belonging to resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family that require interaction with TolC to function. Therefore, several RND transporters may be responsible for enterobactin export. In this study, we investigated whether RND transporters are involved in enterobactin export using deletion mutants of multidrug transporters in E. coli. Single deletions of acrB, acrD, mdtABC, acrEF, or mdtEF did not affect the ability of E. coli to excrete enterobactin, whereas deletion of tolC did affect enterobactin export. We found that multiple deletion of acrB, acrD, and mdtABC resulted in a significant decrease in enterobactin export and that plasmids carrying the acrAB, acrD, or mdtABC genes restored the decrease in enterobactin export exhibited by the ΔacrB acrD mdtABC mutant. These results indicate that AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC are required for the secretion of enterobactin.

  19. Isolation of a point mutation associated with altered expression of the CmeABC efflux pump in a multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni population of poultry origin.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Boto, David; Acebo, Paloma; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Abad, Juan Carlos; Echeita, María Aurora; Amblar, Mónica

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from a poultry flock of broiler production in Spain. Isolates were characterised by RFLP-PCR of the flaA gene and multilocus sequence typing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of quinolones, aminoglycosides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, phenicols, macrolides and lincosamides were determined by Etest. Determinants of resistance and the regulatory region of the cmeABC operon were investigated in all isolates by PCR detection and sequencing. Expression of the CmeABC efflux pump was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and accumulation assay. Based on their molecular markers, two different populations of C. jejuni were identified: one resistant to quinolones, β-lactams and tetracyclines, considered multidrug-resistant (MDR); and another resistant only to tetracyclines. Both populations possessed the tetO gene, previously associated with tetracycline resistance. The blaOXA-61 gene was also present in both populations, although only the MDR population showed β-lactamase activity. In addition, MDR isolates possessed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene responsible for quinolone resistance. Moreover, sequencing of the regulatory region of the cmeABC operon revealed the presence of the C-32→T mutation in the MDR isolates, which was accompanied by an increase in cmeA mRNA levels compared with the non-mutant population. In conclusion, this is the first report of the mutation C-32→T in the cmeABC operon in C. jejuni isolates of veterinary origin. This mutation is associated with overexpression of the CmeABC efflux pump in a MDR population and is possibly related to enhanced tolerance to antimicrobials that favours the development of resistance.

  20. Role of the Mmr Efflux Pump in Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Liliana; Villellas, Cristina; Bailo, Rebeca; Viveiros, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Efflux pumps are membrane proteins capable of actively transporting a broad range of substrates from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell. Increased efflux activity in response to drug treatment may be the first step in the development of bacterial drug resistance. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump Mmr was significantly overexpressed in strains exposed to isoniazid. In the work to be described, we constructed mutants lacking or overexpressing Mmr in order to clarify the role of this efflux pump in the development of resistance to isoniazid and other drugs in M. tuberculosis. The mmr knockout mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, tetraphenylphosphonium, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Overexpression of mmr caused a decreased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, acriflavine, and safranin O that was obliterated in the presence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Isoniazid susceptibility was not affected by the absence or overexpression of mmr. The fluorometric method allowed the detection of a decreased efflux of ethidium bromide in the knockout mutant, whereas the overexpressed strain showed increased efflux of this dye. This increased efflux activity was inhibited in the presence of efflux inhibitors. Under our experimental conditions, we have found that efflux pump Mmr is mainly involved in the susceptibility to quaternary compounds such as ethidium bromide and disinfectants such as CTAB. The contribution of this efflux pump to isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis still needs to be further elucidated. PMID:23165464

  1. The Efflux Pump Inhibitor Reserpine Selects Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains That Overexpress the ABC Transporters PatA and PatB▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2008-01-01

    One way to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is the use of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event were also multidrug resistant. No mutations in pmrA (which encodes the efflux protein PmrA) were detected, and the expression of pmrA was unaltered in all mutants. In the reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant mutants, the overexpression of both patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, was associated with accumulation of low concentrations of antibiotics and dyes. The addition of sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of ABC efflux pumps, or the insertional inactivation of either gene restored wild-type antibiotic susceptibility and wild-type levels of accumulation. Only when patA was insertionally inactivated were both multidrug resistance and reserpine resistance lost. Strains in which patA was insertionally inactivated grew significantly more slowly than the wild type. These data indicate that the overexpression of both patA and patB confers multidrug resistance in S. pneumoniae but that only patA is involved in reserpine resistance. The selection of reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant pneumococci has implications for analogous systems in other bacteria or in cancer. PMID:18362193

  2. Genome Sequence of a Clinical Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii Belonging to the ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 Clone Lacking the AdeABC (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type) Efflux Pump

    PubMed Central

    López, M.; Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Gato, E.; Blasco, L.; Poza, M.; Fernández-García, L.; Bou, G.

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of chromosomal genes for resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux systems plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Little is known about the genetic characteristics of clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii lacking the AdeABC pump. In this study, we sequenced the genome of clinical strain Ab421 GEIH-2010 (belonging to clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 from the GEIH-REIPI Ab. 2010 project) which lacks this efflux pump. PMID:27609928

  3. Genome Sequence of a Clinical Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii Belonging to the ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 Clone Lacking the AdeABC (Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type) Efflux Pump.

    PubMed

    López, M; Álvarez-Fraga, L; Gato, E; Blasco, L; Poza, M; Fernández-García, L; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2016-09-08

    Increased expression of chromosomal genes for resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux systems plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Little is known about the genetic characteristics of clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii lacking the AdeABC pump. In this study, we sequenced the genome of clinical strain Ab421 GEIH-2010 (belonging to clone ST79/PFGE-HUI-1 from the GEIH-REIPI Ab. 2010 project) which lacks this efflux pump.

  4. Inhibition of the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP by the BDE-47 Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47: Considerations for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Marchitti, Satori A; Mazur, Christopher S; Dillingham, Caleb M; Rawat, Swati; Sharma, Anshika; Zastre, Jason; Kenneke, John F

    2017-01-01

    High body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in infants and young children have led to increased concern over their potential impact on human development. PBDE exposure can alter the expression of genes involved in thyroid homeostasis, including those of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which mediate cellular xenobiotic efflux. However, little information exists on how PBDEs interact with ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactions of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with P-gp and BCRP, using human MDR1- and BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles and stably transfected NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In P-gp membranes, BDE-47 did not affect P-gp activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited P-gp activity at low µM concentrations (IC50 = 11.7 µM). In BCRP membranes, BDE-47 inhibited BCRP activity; however, 6-OH-BDE-47 was a stronger inhibitor [IC50 = 45.9 µM (BDE-47) vs. IC50 = 9.4 µM (6-OH-BDE-47)]. Intracellular concentrations of known P-gp and BCRP substrates [((3)H)-paclitaxel and ((3)H)-prazosin, respectively] were significantly higher (indicating less efflux) in NIH-3T3-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells in the presence of 6-OH-BDE-47, but not BDE-47. Collectively, our results indicate that the BDE-47 metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP efflux activity. These findings suggest that some effects previously attributed to BDE-47 in biological systems may actually be due to 6-OH-BDE-47. Considerations for human exposure are discussed.

  5. The role of ABC transporters in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox).

    PubMed

    Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2008-05-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters play an important role in cancer drug resistance, protection against xenobiotics, and in general in the passage of drugs through cellular and tissue barriers. This review explores how human ABC transporters modulate the pharmacological effects of various drugs, and how this predictable ADME-TOX modulation can be used during the process of drug discovery and development. We provide a description of the relevant human ABC drug transporters and review the models and assay systems that can be applied for the analysis of their expected drug interactions. The use of the in vitro, in vivo, in silico models, their combination, and the emerging clinical information are evaluated with respect to their potential application in early drug screening.

  6. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. Objective: The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. Results: While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. Conclusions: This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux. PMID:24143044

  7. The Differential Binding of Antipsychotic Drugs to the ABC Transporter P-Glycoprotein Predicts Cannabinoid-Antipsychotic Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Natalia I; de Tonnerre, Erik J; Li, Kong M; Wang, Xiao Suo; Boucher, Aurelie A; Callaghan, Paul D; Kuligowski, Michael; Wong, Alex; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2017-03-29

    Cannabis use increases rates of psychotic relapse and treatment failure in schizophrenia patients. Clinical studies suggest that cannabis use reduces the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs, but there has been no direct demonstration of this in a controlled study. The present study demonstrates that exposure to the principal phytocannabinoid, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), reverses the neurobehavioral effects of the antipsychotic drug risperidone in mice. THC exposure did not influence D2 and 5-HT2A receptor binding, the major targets of antipsychotic action, but it lowered the brain concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy risperidone. As risperidone and its active metabolite are excellent substrates of the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we hypothesized that THC might increase P-gp expression at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus enhance efflux of risperidone and its metabolite from brain tissue. We confirmed that the brain disposition of risperidone and 9-hydroxy risperidone is strongly influenced by P-gp, as P-gp knockout mice displayed greater brain concentrations of these drugs than wild-type mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that THC exposure increased P-gp expression in various brain regions important to risperidone's antipsychotic action. We then showed that THC exposure did not influence the neurobehavioral effects of clozapine. Clozapine shares a very similar antipsychotic mode of action to risperidone, but unlike risperidone is not a P-gp substrate. Our results imply that clozapine or non-P-gp substrate antipsychotic drugs may be better first-line treatments for schizophrenia patients with a history of cannabis use.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 29 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.50.

  8. The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H

    2017-02-28

    Antimicrobial resistance is a current major challenge in chemotherapy and infection control. The ability of bacterial and eukaryotic cells to recognize and pump toxic compounds from within the cell to the environment before they reach their targets is one of the important mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon. Drug efflux pumps are membrane transport proteins that require energy to export substrates and can be selective for a specific drug or poly-specific that can export multiple structurally diverse drug compounds. These proteins can be classified into seven groups based on protein sequence homology, energy source and overall structure. Extensive studies on efflux proteins have resulted in a wealth of knowledge that has made possible in-depth understanding of the structures and mechanisms of action, substrate profiles, regulation and possible inhibition of many clinically important efflux pumps. This review focuses on describing known families of drug efflux pumps using examples that are well characterized structurally and/or biochemically.

  9. Interaction of BDE-47 and its Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP: Considerations for Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; also known as ABCG2), are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of xenobiotics as an important defense against chemic...

  10. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of inhibitors of bacterial drug efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily.

    PubMed

    Okandeji, Babajide O; Greenwald, Daniel M; Wroten, Jessica; Sello, Jason K

    2011-12-15

    Inhibitors of drug efflux pumps have great potential as pharmacological agents that restore the drug susceptibility of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Most attention has been focused on the discovery of small molecules that inhibit the resistance nodulation division (RND) family drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The prototypical inhibitor of RND-family efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria is MC-207,110 (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide), a C-capped dipeptide. Here, we report that C-capped dipeptides inhibit two chloramphenicol-specific efflux pumps in Streptomyces coelicolor, a Gram-positive bacterium that is a relative of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diversity-oriented synthesis of a library of structurally related C-capped dipeptides via an Ugi four component reaction and screening of the resulting compounds resulted in the discovery of a compound that is threefold more potent as a suppressor of chloramphenicol resistance in S. coelicolor than MC-207,110. Since chloramphenicol resistance in S. coelicolor is mediated by major facilitator superfamily drug efflux pumps, our findings provide the first evidence that C-capped dipeptides can inhibit drug efflux pumps outside of the RND superfamily.

  12. Microbicides Alter the Expression and Function of RND-Type Efflux Pump AdeABC in Biofilm-Associated Cells of Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Suvarna; Shah, Bhavikkumar P.; Lee, Hiu Ham

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes nosocomial infections worldwide. This microbe's propensity to form biofilms allows it to persist and to survive on clinical abiotic surfaces for long periods. In fact, A. baumannii biofilm formation and its multidrug-resistant nature severely compromise our capacity to care for patients in hospital environments. In contrast, microbicides such as cetrimide (CT) and chlorhexidine (CHX) play important roles in the prevention and treatment of infections. We assessed the efficacy of CT and CHX, either alone or in combination, in eradicating A. baumannii biofilms formed by clinical isolates, by using stainless steel washers to mimic hard abiotic surfaces found in hospital settings. We demonstrated that increasing amounts of each microbicide, alone or in combination, were able to damage and to reduce the viability of A. baumannii biofilms efficaciously. Interestingly, the adeB gene of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family is predominantly associated with acquired resistance to antimicrobials in A. baumannii. We showed that CT and CHX adversely modified the expression and function of the RND-type efflux pump AdeABC in biofilm-associated A. baumannii cells. Furthermore, we established that these microbicides decreased the negative charges on A. baumannii cell membranes, causing dysregulation of the efflux pump and leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that CT and CHX, alone or in combination, can be used efficaciously for eradication of A. baumannii from hospital surfaces, in order to reduce infections caused by this nosocomial agent. PMID:26459900

  13. Microbicides Alter the Expression and Function of RND-Type Efflux Pump AdeABC in Biofilm-Associated Cells of Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Suvarna; Shah, Bhavikkumar P; Lee, Hiu Ham; Martinez, Luis R

    2015-10-12

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes nosocomial infections worldwide. This microbe's propensity to form biofilms allows it to persist and to survive on clinical abiotic surfaces for long periods. In fact, A. baumannii biofilm formation and its multidrug-resistant nature severely compromise our capacity to care for patients in hospital environments. In contrast, microbicides such as cetrimide (CT) and chlorhexidine (CHX) play important roles in the prevention and treatment of infections. We assessed the efficacy of CT and CHX, either alone or in combination, in eradicating A. baumannii biofilms formed by clinical isolates, by using stainless steel washers to mimic hard abiotic surfaces found in hospital settings. We demonstrated that increasing amounts of each microbicide, alone or in combination, were able to damage and to reduce the viability of A. baumannii biofilms efficaciously. Interestingly, the adeB gene of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family is predominantly associated with acquired resistance to antimicrobials in A. baumannii. We showed that CT and CHX adversely modified the expression and function of the RND-type efflux pump AdeABC in biofilm-associated A. baumannii cells. Furthermore, we established that these microbicides decreased the negative charges on A. baumannii cell membranes, causing dysregulation of the efflux pump and leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that CT and CHX, alone or in combination, can be used efficaciously for eradication of A. baumannii from hospital surfaces, in order to reduce infections caused by this nosocomial agent.

  14. Phytochemicals increase the antibacterial activity of antibiotics by acting on a drug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Mowla, Rumana; Rahman, Taufiq; Venter, Henrietta

    2014-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps confer resistance upon bacteria to a wide range of antibiotics from various classes. The expression of efflux pumps are also implicated in virulence and biofilm formation. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of active drug efflux pumps. Therefore, efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of pure compounds isolated from plants to act as EPIs. In silico screening was used to predict the bioactivity of plant compounds and to compare that with the known EPI, phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Subsequently, promising products have been tested for their ability to inhibit efflux. Plumbagin nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA) and to a lesser degree shikonin, acted as sensitizers of drug-resistant bacteria to currently used antibiotics and were able to inhibit the efflux pump-mediated removal of substrate from cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of in silico screening to identify compounds that potentiate the action of antibiotics against drug-resistant strains and which might be potentially useful lead compounds for an EPI discovery program. PMID:25224951

  15. Development, Maintenance, and Reversal of Multiple Drug Resistance: At the Crossroads of TFPI1, ABC Transporters, and HIF1α

    PubMed Central

    Arnason, Terra; Harkness, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and improved therapies for many cancers are enhancing survival rates. Although many cytotoxic therapies are approved for aggressive or metastatic cancer; response rates are low and acquisition of de novo resistance is virtually universal. For decades; chemotherapeutic treatments for cancer have included anthracyclines such as Doxorubicin (DOX); and its use in aggressive tumors appears to remain a viable option; but drug resistance arises against DOX; as for all other classes of compounds. Our recent work suggests the anticoagulant protein Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 1α (TFPI1α) plays a role in driving the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR); but not maintenance; of the MDR state. Other factors; such as the ABC transporter drug efflux pumps MDR-1/P-gp (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2); are required for MDR maintenance; as well as development. The patient population struggling with therapeutic resistance specifically requires novel treatment options to resensitize these tumor cells to therapy. In this review we discuss the development, maintenance, and reversal of MDR as three distinct phases of cancer biology. Possible means to exploit these stages to reverse MDR will be explored. Early molecular detection of MDR cancers before clinical failure has the potential to offer new approaches to fighting MDR cancer. PMID:26501324

  16. Development, Maintenance, and Reversal of Multiple Drug Resistance: At the Crossroads of TFPI1, ABC Transporters, and HIF1.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Terra; Harkness, Troy

    2015-10-16

    Early detection and improved therapies for many cancers are enhancing survival rates. Although many cytotoxic therapies are approved for aggressive or metastatic cancer; response rates are low and acquisition of de novo resistance is virtually universal. For decades; chemotherapeutic treatments for cancer have included anthracyclines such as Doxorubicin (DOX); and its use in aggressive tumors appears to remain a viable option; but drug resistance arises against DOX; as for all other classes of compounds. Our recent work suggests the anticoagulant protein Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 1α (TFPI1α) plays a role in driving the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR); but not maintenance; of the MDR state. Other factors; such as the ABC transporter drug efflux pumps MDR-1/P-gp (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2); are required for MDR maintenance; as well as development. The patient population struggling with therapeutic resistance specifically requires novel treatment options to resensitize these tumor cells to therapy. In this review we discuss the development, maintenance, and reversal of MDR as three distinct phases of cancer biology. Possible means to exploit these stages to reverse MDR will be explored. Early molecular detection of MDRcancers before clinical failure has the potential to offer new approaches to fightingMDRcancer.

  17. Molecular Expression and Functional Evidence of a Drug Efflux Pump (BCRP) in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karla, Pradeep K.; Earla, Ravinder; Boddu, Sagar H.; Johnston, Thomas P.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) belongs to the family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify the presence and possible role of BCRP as a bar-rier for ocular drug resistance. Methods Transfected human corneal epithelial cells (SV40-HCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium with MDCKII-BCRP as positive control. [3H]-Mitoxantrone ([3H]-MTX), which is a proven substrate for organic anion transporter like BCRP, was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. Fumetremorgin C (FTC), a known specific inhibitor for BCRP and GF120918, an inhibitor for BCRP and P-gp, were added to inhibit BCRP-mediated efflux. PGP-4008, a specific inhibitor of P-gp was used to delineate the contribution of P-gp. The mRNA extracted from cells was used for RT-PCR analysis and gene expression. Membrane fractions of SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP were used for immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis. Results Efflux was inhibited significantly in the presence of FTC and GF120918. Dose-dependent inhibition of efflux by BCRP was noticed in SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP in the presence of FTC and GF120918, and the efflux was ATP-dependent. The metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP, significantly inhibited efflux. No pH-dependent efflux was noticed except at pH 5.5. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at ~429 bp, corresponding to BCRP in SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP cells. Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at ~70 kDa in the membrane fraction of SV40-HCEC and MDCKII-BCRP cells. Conclusions We have demonstrated the expression of BCRP in human corneal epithelial cells and, for the first time, demonstrated its functional activity leading to drug efflux. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further confirmed this finding. PMID:19172464

  18. Plasmid borne Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) and AdeABC efflux pump conferring carbapenem-tigecycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring TnAbaRs.

    PubMed

    Savari, Mohammad; Ekrami, Alireza; Shoja, Saeed; Bahador, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Here we studied the prevalence and mechanisms of simultaneous resistance to carbapenem and tigecycline and accumulation of resistance determinants reservoirs in genome of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) clinical isolates. Susceptibility of the isolates were measured to 18 antimicrobial agents. Genetic diversity of the microbial population was determined using the International Clonal lineage typing (IC typing), multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and plasmid profiling methods. To detect the AbaRs, Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) genes, AdeABC efflux pump genes and resistance determinants, PCR was used. Filter mating experiments were used to prove that if carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids or not. Among the A. baumannii clinical isolates, 40.8% were carbapenem-tigecycline resistant and in this population, 46.9% were belonging to IC I, IC II or IC III and 53.1% were IC variants. These isolates had fallen in 40 MLVA types and were harboring plasmids in multiple numbers and sizes. In this study, blaOXA-23-like was the most prevalent CHDL and conjugation analysis proved that the carbapenem resistance genes are located on conjugative plasmids. All efflux pump genes, except for adeC, were detected in all carbapenem-tigecycline resistant A. baumannii (CTRAb) isolates. Resistance determinants were distributed in both TnAbaRs and R plasmids with a shift toward the R plasmids. Emerging of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) with simultaneous resistance to the last line therapy including tigecycline represent emerging of extensively drug resistance (XDR) and pandrug resistance (PDR) phenotypes that would be a great threat to our public health system.

  19. Pharmacogenomics of the human ABC transporter ABCG2: from functional evaluation to drug molecular design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Tamura, Ai; Saito, Hikaru; Wakabayashi, Kanako; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2005-10-01

    In the post-genome-sequencing era, emerging genomic technologies are shifting the paradigm for drug discovery and development. Nevertheless, drug discovery and development still remain high-risk and high-stakes ventures with long and costly timelines. Indeed, the attrition of drug candidates in preclinical and development stages is a major problem in drug design. For at least 30% of the candidates, this attrition is due to poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Thus, pharmaceutical companies have begun to seriously re-evaluate their current strategies of drug discovery and development. In that light, we propose that a transport mechanism-based design might help to create new, pharmacokinetically advantageous drugs, and as such should be considered an important component of drug design strategy. Performing enzyme- and/or cell-based drug transporter, interaction tests may greatly facilitate drug development and allow the prediction of drug-drug interactions. We recently developed methods for high-speed functional screening and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis to study the substrate specificity of ABC transporters and to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms on their function. These methods would provide a practical tool to screen synthetic and natural compounds, and these data can be applied to the molecular design of new drugs. In this review article, we present an overview on the genetic polymorphisms of human ABC transporter ABCG2 and new camptothecin analogues that can circumvent AGCG2-associated multidrug resistance of cancer.

  20. Microbial Efflux Systems and Inhibitors: Approaches to Drug Discovery and the Challenge of Clinical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Kourtesi, Christina; Ball, Anthony R; Huang, Ying-Ying; Jachak, Sanjay M; Vera, D Mariano A; Khondkar, Proma; Gibbons, Simon; Hamblin, Michael R; Tegos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Conventional antimicrobials are increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multidrug-resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. The need to overcome these deficiencies has triggered exploration for novel and unconventional approaches to controlling microbial infections. Multidrug efflux systems (MES) have been a profound obstacle in the successful deployment of antimicrobials. The discovery of small molecule efflux system blockers has been an active and rapidly expanding research discipline. A major theme in this platform involves efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources. The discovery methodologies and the available number of natural EPI-chemotypes are increasing. Advances in our understanding of microbial physiology have shed light on a series of pathways and phenotypes where the role of efflux systems is pivotal. Complementing existing antimicrobial discovery platforms such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) with efflux inhibition is a subject under investigation. This core information is a stepping stone in the challenge of highlighting an effective drug development path for EPIs since the puzzle of clinical implementation remains unsolved. This review summarizes advances in the path of EPI discovery, discusses potential avenues of EPI implementation and development, and underlines the need for highly informative and comprehensive translational approaches. PMID:23569468

  1. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as modulators of ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are involved in key signaling events/pathways that regulate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Deregulated activity of TKs has been implicated in several types of cancers. In recent years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to inhibit specific kinases whose constitutive activity results in specific cancer types. These TKIs have been found to demonstrate effective anticancer activity and some of them have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use or are in clinical trials. However, these targeted therapeutic agents are also transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, resulting in altered pharmacokinetics or development of resistance to these drugs in cancer patients. This review covers the recent findings on the interactions of clinically important TKIs with ABC drug transporters. Future research efforts in the development of novel TKIs with specific targets, seeking improved activity, should consider these underlying causes of resistance to TKIs in cancer cells. PMID:22325423

  2. Efflux transporters- and cytochrome P-450-mediated interactions between drugs of abuse and antiretrovirals☆

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dhananjay; Kwatra, Deep; Minocha, Mukul; Paturi, Durga K.; Budda, Balasubrahmanyam; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug regimens and corresponding drug interactions cause many adverse reactions and treatment failures. Drug efflux transporters: P-gp, MRP, BCRP in conjunction with metabolizing enzymes (CYPs) are major factors in such interactions. Most effective combination antiretrovirals (ARV) therapy includes a PI or a NNRTI or two NRTI. Coadministration of such ARV may induce efflux transporters and/or CYP3A4 resulting in sub-therapeutic blood levels and therapeutic failure due to reduced absorption and/or increased metabolism. A similar prognosis is true for ARV-compounds and drugs of abuse combinations. Morphine and nicotine enhance CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in vitro. A 2.5 fold rise of cortisol metabolite was evident in smokers relative to nonsmokers. Altered functions of efflux transporters and CYPs in response to ARV and drugs of abuse may result in altered drug absorption and metabolism. Appropriate in vitro models can be employed to predict such interactions. Influence of genetic polymorphism, SNP and inter-individual variation in drug response has been discussed. Complexity underlying the relationship between efflux transporters and CYP makes it difficult to predict the outcome of HAART as such, particularly when HIV patients taking drugs of abuse do not adhere to HAART regimens. HIV+ pregnant women on HAART medications, indulging in drugs of abuse, may develop higher viral load due to such interactions and lead to increase in mother to child transmission of HIV. A multidisciplinary approach with clear understanding of mechanism of interactions may allow proper selection of regimens so that desired therapeutic outcome of HAART can be reached without any side effects. PMID:20932495

  3. The antibiotic resistance arrow of time: efflux pump induction is a general first step in the evolution of mycobacterial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Schmalstieg, Aurelia M; Srivastava, Shashikant; Belkaya, Serkan; Deshpande, Devyani; Meek, Claudia; Leff, Richard; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesize that low-level efflux pump expression is the first step in the development of high-level drug resistance in mycobacteria. We performed 28-day azithromycin dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies in our hollow-fiber model of disseminated Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex. Both microbial kill and resistance emergence were most closely linked to the within-macrophage area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Quantitative PCR revealed that subtherapeutic azithromycin exposures over 3 days led to a 56-fold increase in expression of MAV_3306, which encodes a putative ABC transporter, and MAV_1406, which encodes a putative major facilitator superfamily pump, in M. avium. By day 7, a subpopulation of M. avium with low-level resistance was encountered and exhibited the classic inverted U curve versus AUC/MIC ratios. The resistance was abolished by an efflux pump inhibitor. While the maximal microbial kill started to decrease after day 7, a population with high-level azithromycin resistance appeared at day 28. This resistance could not be reversed by efflux pump inhibitors. Orthologs of pumps encoded by MAV_3306 and MAV_1406 were identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium abscessus, and Mycobacterium ulcerans. All had highly conserved protein secondary structures. We propose that induction of several efflux pumps is the first step in a general pathway to drug resistance that eventually leads to high-level chromosomal-mutation-related resistance in mycobacteria as ordered events in an "antibiotic resistance arrow of time."

  4. Effect of drug efflux transporters on placental transport of antiretroviral agent abacavir.

    PubMed

    Neumanova, Zuzana; Cerveny, Lukas; Greenwood, Susan L; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek

    2015-11-01

    Abacavir is as a frequent part of combination antiretroviral therapy used in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to investigate, using in vitro, in situ and ex vivo experimental approaches, whether the transplacental pharmacokinetics of abacavir is affected by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters functionally expressed in the placenta: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 (ABCC5). In vitro transport assays revealed that abacavir is a substrate of human ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters but not of ABCC2 or ABCC5. In addition, in situ experiments using dually perfused rat term placenta confirmed interactions of abacavir with placental Abcb1/Abcg2. In contrast, uptake studies in human placental villous fragments did not reveal any interaction of abacavir with efflux transporters suggesting a large contribution of passive diffusion and/or influx mechanisms to net transplacental abacavir transfer.

  5. Tunicamycin Depresses P-Glycoprotein Glycosylation Without an Effect on Its Membrane Localization and Drug Efflux Activity in L1210 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Šereš, Mário; Cholujová, Dana; Bubenčíkova, Tatiana; Breier, Albert; Sulová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), also known as ABCB1, is a member of the ABC transporter family of proteins. P-gp is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump that is localized to the plasma membrane of mammalian cells and confers multidrug resistance in neoplastic cells. P-gp is a 140-kDa polypeptide that is glycosylated to a final molecular weight of 170 kDa. Our experimental model used two variants of L1210 cells in which overexpression of P-gp was achieved: either by adaptation of parental cells (S) to vincristine (R) or by transfection with the human gene encoding P-gp (T). R and T cells were found to differ from S cells in transglycosylation reactions in our recent studies. The effects of tunicamycin on glycosylation, drug efflux activity and cellular localization of P-gp in R and T cells were examined in the present study. Treatment with tunicamycin caused less concentration-dependent cellular damage to R and T cells compared with S cells. Tunicamycin inhibited P-gp N-glycosylation in both of the P-gp-positive cells. However, tunicamycin treatment did not alter either the P-gp cellular localization to the plasma membrane or the P-gp transport activity. The present paper brings evidence that independently on the mode of P-gp expression (selection with drugs or transfection with a gene encoding P-gp) in L1210 cells, tunicamycin induces inhibition of N-glycosylation of this protein, without altering its function as plasma membrane drug efflux pump. PMID:22174631

  6. CmeR-dependent gene Cj0561c is induced more effectively by bile salts than the CmeABC efflux pump in both human and poultry Campylobacter jejuni strains.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Hein, Ingeborg

    2011-12-01

    The multidrug efflux pump CmeABC described in the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni was shown to be an important element of bile resistance and significant for successful colonization of chicken intestines. Recently, another gene (Cj0561c) strongly suppressed by the same repressor (CmeR) that regulates expression of CmeABC was identified in C. jejuni NCTC 11168. Initial data suggested that, similarly to cmeABC, Cj0561c could be induced by bile salts. In the present study, the occurrence of the Cj0561c gene and bile-salt-dependent induction was investigated in ten poultry and eight human C. jejuni strains. The Cj0561c gene was present in all strains. When cultured without addition of bile salts, the transcription level of that gene was about tenfold higher than that of cmeABC. Bile salts cholate and taurocholate induced transcription of cmeABC 1.66-fold and 2.71-fold and that of Cj0561c 3.71-fold and 10.99-fold, respectively. Thus Cj0561c was more effectively induced by bile salts than cmeABC and taurocholate was superior to cholate as an inducer of transcription. More efficient induction of both cmeABC and Cj0561c by taurocholate might be the reason for the higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) observed with taurocholate than with cholate (100 mg/ml vs. 10 mg/ml). There was no significant difference between poultry and human C. jejuni strains concerning the transcription levels of cmeABC and Cj0561c in cultures without bile salts and concerning bile-salt-induced changes in transcription of cmeABC and Cj0561c. Thus, higher MIC values observed for taurocholate in human strains than in poultry strains (200 mg/ml vs. 75 mg/ml) could not be explained by different responses of cmeABC and Cj0561c to bile salts. Therefore, they must be due to another mechanism.

  7. Bypassing P-Glycoprotein Drug Efflux Mechanisms: Possible Applications in Pharmacoresistant Schizophrenia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoosain, Famida G.; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tomar, Lomas K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C.; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    The efficient noninvasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is often constrained by reduced permeation of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). A vast majority of bioactive agents do not readily permeate into the brain tissue due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the associated P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. The overexpression of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein has been related to the occurrence of multidrug resistance in CNS diseases. Various research outputs have focused on overcoming the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter, which mainly involve its inhibition or bypassing mechanisms. Studies into neurodegenerative disorders have shown that the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter plays a vital role in the progression of schizophrenia, with a noted increase in P-glycoprotein function among schizophrenic patients, thereby reducing therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we address the hypothesis that methods employed in overcoming P-glycoprotein in cancer and other disease states at the level of the BBB and intestine may be applied to schizophrenia drug delivery system design to improve clinical efficiency of drug therapies. In addition, the current review explores polymers and drug delivery systems capable of P-gp inhibition and modulation. PMID:26491671

  8. Spectinamides: A New Class of Semisynthetic Anti-Tuberculosis Agents that Overcome Native Drug Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Vaddady, Pavan K; Zheng, Zhong; Qi, Jianjun; Akbergenov, Rashid; Das, Sourav; Madhura, Dora B.; Rathi, Chetan; Trivedi, Ashit; Villellas, Cristina; Lee, Robin. B.; Rakesh; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L.; Sun, Dianqing; McNeil, Michael R.; Ainsa, Jose A.; Boshoff, Helena I.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the classical antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor, poor antimycobacterial activity limits its clinical application for treating tuberculosis. Using structure-based design, a novel semisynthetic series of spectinomycin analogs was generated with selective ribosomal inhibition and excellent narrow-spectrum antitubercular activity. In multiple murine infection models, these spectinamides were well tolerated, significantly reduced lung mycobacterial burden and increased survival. In vitro studies demonstrated a lack of cross-resistance with existing tuberculosis therapeutics, activity against MDR/XDR-tuberculosis, and an excellent pharmacological profile. Key to their potent antitubercular properties was their structural modification to evade the Rv1258c efflux pump, which is upregulated in MDR strains and is implicated in macrophage induced drug tolerance. The antitubercular efficacy of spectinamides demonstrates that synthetic modifications to classical antibiotics can overcome the challenge of intrinsic efflux pump-mediated resistance and expands opportunities for target based tuberculosis drug discovery. PMID:24464186

  9. In vitro characterization of axitinib interactions with human efflux and hepatic uptake transporters: implications for disposition and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Reyner, Eric L; Sevidal, Samantha; West, Mark A; Clouser-Roche, Andrea; Freiwald, Sascha; Fenner, Katherine; Ullah, Mohammed; Lee, Caroline A; Smith, Bill J

    2013-08-01

    Axitinib is an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase vascular endothelin growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transport properties of axitinib were determined in selected cellular systems. Axitinib exhibited high passive permeability in all cell lines evaluated (Papp ≥ 6 × 10(-6) cm/s). Active efflux was observed in Caco-2 cells, and further evaluation in multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells type 2 (MDCK) cells indicated that axitinib is at most only a weak substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) but not BCRP. Axitinib showed incomplete inhibition of P-gp-mediated transport of digoxin in Caco-2 cells and BCRP transport of topotecan in BCRP-transfected MDCK cells with IC50 values of 3 μM and 4.4 μM, respectively. Axitinib (10 mg) did not pose a risk for systemic drug interactions with P-gp or BCRP per regulatory guidance. A potential risk for drug interactions through inhibition of P-gp and BCRP in the gastrointestinal tract was identified because an axitinib dose of 10 mg divided by 250 mL was greater than 10-fold the IC50 for each transporter. However, a GastroPlus simulation that considered the low solubility of axitinib resulted in lower intestinal concentrations and suggested a low potential for gastrointestinal interactions with P-gp and BCRP substrates. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and OATP1B3 transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transported axitinib to a minor extent but uptake into suspended hepatocytes was not inhibited by rifamycin SV suggesting that high passive permeability predominates. Mouse whole-body autoradiography revealed that [(14)C]axitinib-equivalents showed rapid absorption and distribution to all tissues except the brain. This suggests that efflux transport of axitinib may occur at the mouse blood-brain barrier.

  10. The role of drug efflux pumps in Malassezia pachydermatis and Malassezia furfur defence against azoles.

    PubMed

    Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Immediato, Davide; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of efflux pump modulators (EPMs) on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole (FLZ) and voriconazole (VOR) in Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis. The in vitro efficacy of azoles, in combination with EPMs (ie haloperidol-HAL, promethazine-PTZ and cyclosporine A-CYS), against 21 M. furfur from bloodstream infection patients and 14 M. pachydermatis from the skin of dogs with dermatitis, was assessed using a broth microdilution chequerboard analysis. Data were analysed using the model-fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) method. The MIC of FLZ and VOR of Malassezia spp. decreased in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of HAL and/or PTZ. The synergic effect was observed only in strains with FLZ MIC≥128 μg/mL for M. furfur, FLZ MIC≥64 μg/mL for M. pachydermatis and VOR MIC≥4 μg/mL in both Malassezia spp. These results suggest that the drug efflux pumps are involved as defence mechanisms to azole drugs in Malassezia yeast. The synergism might be related to an increased expression of efflux pump genes, eventually resulting in azole resistance phenomena. Finally, the above FLZ and VOR MIC values might be considered the cut-off to discriminate susceptible and resistant strains.

  11. The Role of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic ABC Transporter Family in Failure of Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, Raafat; Saleh, Ekram; Hashim, Amna; Soliman, Nehal; Dallah, Alaa; Elrasheed, Azza; Elakraa, Ghada

    2017-01-01

    Over the years chemotherapy failure has been a vital research topic as researchers have been striving to discover reasons behind it. The extensive studies carried out on chemotherapeutic agents confirm that resistance to chemotherapy is a major reason for treatment failure. “Resistance to chemotherapy,” however, is a comprehensive phrase that refers to a variety of different mechanisms in which ATP-binding cassette (ABC) mediated efflux dominates. The ABC is one of the largest gene superfamily of transporters among both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; it represents a variety of genes that code for proteins, which perform countless functions, including drug efflux – a natural process that protects cells from foreign chemicals. Up to date, chemotherapy failure due to ABC drug efflux is an active research topic that continuously provides further evidence on multiple drug resistance (MDR), aiding scientists in tackling and overcoming this issue. This review focuses on drug resistance by ABC efflux transporters in human, viral, parasitic, fungal and bacterial cells and highlights the importance of the MDR permeability glycoprotein being the mutual ABC transporter among all studied organisms. Current developments and future directions to overcome this problem are also discussed. PMID:28119610

  12. Reducing Both Pgp Overexpression and Drug Efflux with Anti-Cancer Gold-Paclitaxel Nanoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hongyu; Jia, Jianbo; Li, Liwen; Zhai, Shumei; Yan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Repeated administrations of anti-cancer drugs to patients often induce drug resistance. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) facilitates an efficient drug efflux, preventing cellular accumulation of drugs and causing multi-drug resistance (MDR). In this study, we developed a gold-paclitaxel nanoconjugate system to overcome MDR. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with β-cyclodextrin enclosing paclitaxel (PTX) molecules and PEG molecules. GNP conjugates were effectively endocytosed by both drug-sensitive human lung cancer H460 cells and Pgp-overexpressed drug-resistant H460PTX cells. Compared with PTX, PGNPs did not induce the Pgp overexpression in drug-sensitive H460 cells after long-term treatment and also avoided being pumped out of cells by overexpressed Pgp molecules in H460PTX with a 17-fold lower EC50 compared to PTX. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry further confirmed that fluorescent labeled PGNPs (f-PGNPs) maintained a high cellular PTX level in both H460 and H460PTX cells. These results demonstrated that nano-drug conjugates were able to avoid the development of drug resistance in sensitive cells and evade Pgp-mediated drug resistance and to maintain a high cytotoxicity in drug-resistant cancer cells. These findings exemplify a powerful nanotechnological approach to the long-lasting issue of chemotherapy-induced drug resistance. PMID:27467397

  13. Erythromycin resistance by L4/L22 mutations and resistance masking by drug efflux pump deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lovmar, Martin; Nilsson, Karin; Lukk, Eliisa; Vimberg, Vladimir; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2009-01-01

    We characterized the effects of classical erythromycin resistance mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of the large ribosomal subunit on the kinetics of erythromycin binding. Our data are consistent with a mechanism in which the macrolide erythromycin enters and exits the ribosome through the nascent peptide exit tunnel, and suggest that these mutations both impair passive transport through the tunnel and distort the erythromycin-binding site. The growth-inhibitory action of erythromycin was characterized for bacterial populations with wild-type and L22-mutated ribosomes in drug efflux pump deficient and proficient backgrounds. The L22 mutation conferred reduced erythromycin susceptibility in the drug efflux pump proficient, but not deficient, background. This ‘masking' of drug resistance by pump deficiency was reproduced by modelling with input data from our biochemical experiments. We discuss the general principles behind the phenomenon of drug resistance ‘masking', and highlight its potential importance for slowing down the evolution of drug resistance among pathogens. PMID:19197244

  14. Two Distinct Major Facilitator Superfamily Drug Efflux Pumps Mediate Chloramphenicol Resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor▿

    PubMed Central

    Vecchione, James J.; Alexander, Blair; Sello, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, and thiamphenicol are used as antibacterial drugs in clinical and veterinary medicine. Two efflux pumps of the major facilitator superfamily encoded by the cmlR1 and cmlR2 genes mediate resistance to these antibiotics in Streptomyces coelicolor, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The transcription of both genes was observed by reverse transcription-PCR. Disruption of cmlR1 decreased the chloramphenicol MIC 1.6-fold, while disruption of cmlR2 lowered the MIC 16-fold. The chloramphenicol MIC of wild-type S. coelicolor decreased fourfold and eightfold in the presence of reserpine and Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, respectively. These compounds are known to potentiate the activity of some antibacterial drugs via efflux pump inhibition. While reserpine is known to potentiate drug activity against gram-positive bacteria, this is the first time that Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide has been shown to potentiate drug activity against a gram-positive bacterium. PMID:19687245

  15. Adaptive and mutational resistance: role of porins and efflux pumps in drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Lucía; Hancock, Robert E W

    2012-10-01

    The substantial use of antibiotics in the clinic, combined with a dearth of new antibiotic classes, has led to a gradual increase in the resistance of bacterial pathogens to these compounds. Among the various mechanisms by which bacteria endure the action of antibiotics, those affecting influx and efflux are of particular importance, as they limit the interaction of the drug with its intracellular targets and, consequently, its deleterious effects on the cell. This review evaluates the impact of porins and efflux pumps on two major types of resistance, namely, mutational and adaptive types of resistance, both of which are regarded as key phenomena in the global rise of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. In particular, we explain how adaptive and mutational events can dramatically influence the outcome of antibiotic therapy by altering the mechanisms of influx and efflux of antibiotics. The identification of porins and pumps as major resistance markers has opened new possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies directed specifically against these mechanisms.

  16. Expression of Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 5 (MRP5) on Cornea and Its Role in Drug Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Karla, Pradeep K.; Quinn, Tim L.; Herndon, Betty L.; Thomas, Priscilla; Pal, Dhananjay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux. Methods RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance. Results RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511–54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor

  17. Regulation of ABC Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2015-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters at the blood-brain barrier function as ATP-driven xenobiotic efflux pumps and limit delivery of small molecule drugs to the brain. Here I review recent progress in understanding the regulation of the expression and transport activity of these transporters and comment on how this new information might aid in improving drug delivery to the brain. PMID:25670036

  18. Recent Advances in Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) Efflux Pump Inhibitors of Gram-Positive Bacteria S. aureus

    PubMed Central

    Handzlik, Jadwiga; Matys, Anna; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on recent achievements in the search for new chemical compounds able to inhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in Gram-positive pathogens. An analysis of the results of the search for new efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) for Gram-positive bacteria, which have been performed over the last decade, indicates that almost all efforts are focused on the NorA (MFS) efflux pump in S. aureus. Considering the chemical structures of the NorA EPIs that have been identified, it can be observed that the most active agents belong to the families of compounds possessing conjugated double bonds, e.g., chalcones, piperine-like compounds, N-cinnamoylphenalkylamides or citral amide derivatives. Indole-, dihydronaphthyl-, 2-chloro-5-bromo-phenyl- or piperidine moieties seem to be profitable for the EPI properties, as well. These results, together with an increasing knowledge about a variety of efflux pumps that are involved in MDR of Gram-positive pathogens underline that further search for new EPIs should pay more attention to develop MDR efflux protein targets, including SMR, MATE, ABC or other members of the MFS family. PMID:27029290

  19. Recent Advances in Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) Efflux Pump Inhibitors of Gram-Positive Bacteria S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Handzlik, Jadwiga; Matys, Anna; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2013-02-05

    The paper focuses on recent achievements in the search for new chemical compounds able to inhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in Gram-positive pathogens. An analysis of the results of the search for new efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) for Gram-positive bacteria, which have been performed over the last decade, indicates that almost all efforts are focused on the NorA (MFS) efflux pump in S. aureus. Considering the chemical structures of the NorA EPIs that have been identified, it can be observed that the most active agents belong to the families of compounds possessing conjugated double bonds, e.g., chalcones, piperine-like compounds, N-cinnamoylphenalkylamides or citral amide derivatives. Indole-, dihydronaphthyl-, 2-chloro-5-bromo-phenyl- or piperidine moieties seem to be profitable for the EPI properties, as well. These results, together with an increasing knowledge about a variety of efflux pumps that are involved in MDR of Gram-positive pathogens underline that further search for new EPIs should pay more attention to develop MDR efflux protein targets, including SMR, MATE, ABC or other members of the MFS family.

  20. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model.

    PubMed

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay (®) (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  1. Active transmembrane drug transport in microgravity: a validation study using an ABC transporter model

    PubMed Central

    Vaquer, Sergi; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Rabadán, Arnau; González, Albert; Fenollosa, Felip; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to influence the expression of ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters in bacteria, fungi and mammals, but also to modify the activity of certain cellular components with structural and functional similarities to ABC transporters. Changes in activity of ABC transporters could lead to important metabolic disorders and undesired pharmacological effects during spaceflights. However, no current means exist to study the functionality of these transporters in microgravity. To this end, a Vesicular Transport Assay ® (Solvo Biotechnology, Hungary) was adapted to evaluate multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) trans-membrane estradiol-17-β-glucuronide (E17βG) transport activity, when activated by adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) during parabolic flights. Simple diffusion, ATP-independent transport and benzbromarone inhibition were also evaluated. A high accuracy engineering system was designed to perform, monitor and synchronize all procedures. Samples were analysed using a validated high sensitivity drug detection protocol. Experiments were performed in microgravity during parabolic flights, and compared to 1g on ground results using identical equipment and procedures in all cases. Our results revealed that sufficient equipment accuracy and analytical sensitivity were reached to detect transport activity in both gravitational conditions. Additionally, transport activity levels of on ground samples were within commercial transport standards, proving the validity of the methods and equipment used. MRP2 net transport activity was significantly reduced in microgravity, so was signal detected in simple diffusion samples. Ultra-structural changes induced by gravitational stress upon vesicle membranes or transporters could explain the current results, although alternative explanations are possible. Further research is needed to provide a conclusive answer in this regard. Nevertheless, the present validated technology opens new and

  2. Effect of Pluronic P85 on ATPase Activity of Drug Efflux Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Li, Shu; Li, Yili; Alakhov, Valery Yu.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Pluronic block copolymers are potent sensitizers of multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. The sensitization effect by Pluronics is a result of two processes acting in concert: i) intracellular ATP depletion, and ii) inhibition of ATPase activity of drug efflux proteins. This work characterizes effects of Pluronic P85 on ATPase activities of Pgp, MRP1, and MRP2 drug efflux transport proteins and interaction of these proteins with their substrates, vinblastine, and leucotriene C4. Methods Using membranes overexpressing Pgp, MRP1, and MRP2, the current study evaluates effects of Pluronic P85 (P85) on the kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, Vmax/Km) of ATP hydrolysis by these ATPases. Results The decreases in the maximal reaction rates (Vmax) and increases in apparent Michaelis constants (Km) for these transporters in the presence of various concentrations of P85 were observed. The mechanism of these effects may involve i) conformational changes of the transporter due to membrane fluidization and/or ii) nonspecific steric hindrance of the drug-binding sites by P85 chains embedded into cellular membranes. The extent of these alterations was increased in the row MRP1 < MRP2 << Pgp. Conclusions These data suggest that there are unifying pathways for the inhibition of Pgp and MRPs by the block copolymer. However, the effect of P85 on Pgp ATPase activity is considerably greater compared with the effects on MRP1 and MRP2 ATPases. This may be a reason for greater inhibitory effects of Pluronic in Pgp- compared with MRP-overexpressing cells. PMID:15648254

  3. Differential roles of RND efflux pumps in antimicrobial drug resistance of sessile and planktonic Burkholderia cenocepacia cells.

    PubMed

    Buroni, Silvia; Matthijs, Nele; Spadaro, Francesca; Van Acker, Heleen; Scoffone, Viola C; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Riccardi, Giovanna; Coenye, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is notorious for causing respiratory tract infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Infections with this organism are particularly difficult to treat due to its high level of intrinsic resistance to most antibiotics. Multidrug resistance in B. cenocepacia can be ascribed to different mechanisms, including the activity of efflux pumps and biofilm formation. In the present study, the effects of deletion of the 16 operons encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux pumps in B. cenocepacia strain J2315 were investigated by determining the MICs of various antibiotics and by investigating the antibiofilm effect of these antibiotics. Finally, the expression levels of selected RND genes in treated and untreated cultures were investigated using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Our data indicate that the RND-3 and RND-4 efflux pumps are important for resistance to various antimicrobial drugs (including tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) in planktonic B. cenocepacia J2315 populations, while the RND-3, RND-8, and RND-9 efflux systems protect biofilm-grown cells against tobramycin. The RND-8 and RND-9 efflux pumps are not involved in ciprofloxacin resistance. Results from the RT-qPCR experiments on the wild-type strain B. cenocepacia J2315 suggest that there is little regulation at the level of mRNA expression for these efflux pumps under the conditions tested.

  4. Confinement-Induced Drug-Tolerance in Mycobacteria Mediated by an Efflux Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Luthuli, Brilliant B; Purdy, Georgiana E; Balagaddé, Frederick K

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world's deadliest curable disease, responsible for an estimated 1.5 million deaths annually. A considerable challenge in controlling this disease is the prolonged multidrug chemotherapy (6 to 9 months) required to overcome drug-tolerant mycobacteria that persist in human tissues, although the same drugs can sterilize genetically identical mycobacteria growing in axenic culture within days. An essential component of TB infection involves intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that multiply within macrophages and are significantly more tolerant to antibiotics compared to extracellular mycobacteria. To investigate this aspect of human TB, we created a physical cell culture system that mimics confinement of replicating mycobacteria, such as in a macrophage during infection. Using this system, we uncovered an epigenetic drug-tolerance phenotype that appears when mycobacteria are cultured in space-confined bioreactors and disappears in larger volume growth contexts. Efflux mechanisms that are induced in space-confined growth environments contribute to this drug-tolerance phenotype. Therefore, macrophage-induced drug tolerance by mycobacteria may be an effect of confined growth among other macrophage-specific mechanisms.

  5. Confinement-Induced Drug-Tolerance in Mycobacteria Mediated by an Efflux Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Luthuli, Brilliant B.; Purdy, Georgiana E.; Balagaddé, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the world’s deadliest curable disease, responsible for an estimated 1.5 million deaths annually. A considerable challenge in controlling this disease is the prolonged multidrug chemotherapy (6 to 9 months) required to overcome drug-tolerant mycobacteria that persist in human tissues, although the same drugs can sterilize genetically identical mycobacteria growing in axenic culture within days. An essential component of TB infection involves intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that multiply within macrophages and are significantly more tolerant to antibiotics compared to extracellular mycobacteria. To investigate this aspect of human TB, we created a physical cell culture system that mimics confinement of replicating mycobacteria, such as in a macrophage during infection. Using this system, we uncovered an epigenetic drug-tolerance phenotype that appears when mycobacteria are cultured in space-confined bioreactors and disappears in larger volume growth contexts. Efflux mechanisms that are induced in space-confined growth environments contribute to this drug-tolerance phenotype. Therefore, macrophage-induced drug tolerance by mycobacteria may be an effect of confined growth among other macrophage-specific mechanisms. PMID:26295942

  6. Prediction and Early Evaluation of Anticancer Therapy Response: From Imaging of Drug Efflux Pumps to Targeted Therapy Response.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingqing; Li, Zheng; Li, Shaoshun

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) describes the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy and has been ascribed to the overexpression of drug efflux pumps. Molecular imaging of drug efflux pumps is helpful to identify the patients who may be resistant to the chemotherapy and thus will avoid the unnecessary treatment and increase the therapeutic effectiveness. Imaging probes targeting drug efflux pumps can non-invasively evaluate the Pgp function and play an important role in identification of MDR, prediction of response, and monitoring MDR modulation. On the other hand, new anticancer agents based on molecular targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and angiogenic factor receptor may potentially be combined with chemotherapeutic drugs to overcome the MDR. Imaging of molecular targets visualize treatment response of patients at molecular level vividly and help to select right patients for certain targeted anticancer therapy. Among all the imaging modalities, nuclear imaging including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has the greatest promise for rapid translation to the clinic and can realize quantitative visualization of biochemical processes in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the nuclear imaging probes utilized for predicting and evaluating the early anticancer therapy response.99mTc labeled agents and PET based radiopharmaceuticals like 18F-Paclitaxel, 11C-Verapamil for drug efflux pumps imaging will be discussed here. Moreover, molecular imaging probes used for targeted therapy response evaluation like 18F-Tamoxifen,89Zr-Trastuzumab will also be introduced in this review.

  7. PET and SPECT Radiotracers to Assess Function and Expression of ABC Transporters in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) are expressed in high concentrations at various physiological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, blood-tumor barrier), where they impede the tissue accumulation of various drugs by active efflux transport. Changes in ABC transporter expression and function are thought to be implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The availability of a non-invasive imaging method which allows for measuring ABC transporter function or expression in vivo would be of great clinical use in that it could facilitate the identification of those patients that would benefit from treatment with ABC transporter modulating drugs. To date three different kinds of imaging probes have been described to measure ABC transporters in vivo: i) radiolabelled transporter substrates ii) radiolabelled transporter inhibitors and iii) radiolabelled prodrugs which are enzymatically converted into transporter substrates in the organ of interest (e.g. brain). The design of new imaging probes to visualize efflux transporters is inter alia complicated by the overlapping substrate recognition pattern of different ABC transporter types. The present article will describe currently available ABC transporter radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and critically discuss strengths and limitations of individual probes and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21434859

  8. Nonradioactive rubidium ion efflux assay and its applications in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Terstappen, Georg C

    2004-10-01

    The recent sequencing of the human genome has created comprehensive information of all potential drug targets. Based on current estimations for the total number of genes, around 400 poreforming ion channel genes can be expected corresponding to about 1.3% of the human genome. Since many ion channels are involved in diseases and the currently marketed drugs act only on a small fraction of these pore-forming membrane proteins, there is a big opportunity for innovative ion channel drug discovery. In fact, recent advances in the development of functional ion channel assays are currently enabling a more systematic exploitation of this important target class. In particular, fluorescence-based methods, automated electrophysiology, and ion flux assays are most important in this regard. This article will briefly describe these methods focusing on the nonradioactive Rb(+) efflux assay that I developed in the early 1990s since it has found widespread application in drug discovery and development and greatly displaced (86)Rb(+) assays for the analysis of K(+) and nonselective cation channels in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Switch-Loop Flexibility Affects Transport of Large Drugs by the Promiscuous AcrB Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å2 are less well transported than other substrates. PMID:24914123

  10. An ATP-driven efflux pump is a novel pathogenicity factor in rice blast disease.

    PubMed Central

    Urban, M; Bhargava, T; Hamer, J E

    1999-01-01

    Cells tolerate exposure to cytotoxic compounds through the action of ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters. Phytopathogenic fungi encounter toxic environments during plant invasion as a result of the plant defense response. Here we demonstrate the requirement for an ABC transporter during host infection by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. The ABC1 gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. The ABC1 insertional mutant and a gene-replacement mutant arrest growth and die shortly after penetrating either rice or barley epidermal cells. The ABC1-encoded protein is similar to yeast ABC transporters implicated in multidrug resistance, and ABC1 gene transcripts are inducible by toxic drugs and a rice phytoalexin. However, abc1 mutants are not hypersensitive to antifungal compounds. The non-pathogenic, insertional mutation in ABC1 occurs in the promoter region and dramatically reduces transcript induction by metabolic poisons. These data strongly suggest that M.grisea requires the up-regulation of specific ABC transporters for pathogenesis; most likely to protect itself against plant defense mechanisms. PMID:9927411

  11. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone, but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). They inhibited the binding of [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.3 and 22.6 μM, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of this photoaffinity analog to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of this transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared to the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function. PMID:18065489

  12. Evaluation of a series of 2-napthamide derivatives as inhibitors of the drug efflux pump AcrB for the reversal of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinhu; Mowla, Rumana; Guo, Liwei; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Rahman, Taufiq; De Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Ma, Shutao; Venter, Henrietta

    2017-02-15

    Drug efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance to dangerous pathogens which makes these pumps important drug targets. We have synthesised a novel series of compounds based on a 2-naphthamide pharmacore aimed at inhibiting the efflux pumps from Gram-negative bacteria. The archeatypical transporter AcrB from Escherichia coli was used as model efflux pump as AcrB is widely conserved throughout Gram-negative organisms. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial action, ability to potentiate the action of antibiotics and for their ability to inhibit Nile Red efflux by AcrB. None of the compounds were antimicrobial against E. coli wild type cells. Most of the compounds were able to inhibit Nile Red efflux indicating that they are substrates of the AcrB efflux pump. Three compounds were able to synergise with antibiotics and reverse resistance in the resistant phenotype. Compound A3, 4-(isopentyloxy)-2-naphthamide, reduced the MICs of erythromycin and chloramphenicol to the MIC levels of the drug sensitive strain that lacks an efflux pump. A3 had no effect on the MIC of the non-substrate rifampicin indicating that this compound acts specifically through the AcrB efflux pump. A3 also does not act through non-specific mechanisms such as outer membrane or inner membrane permeabilisation and is not cytotoxic against mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel chemical compound with great potential to further optimisation as inhibitor of drug efflux pumps.

  13. Optimization of the Caco-2 permeability assay to screen drug compounds for intestinal absorption and efflux.

    PubMed

    Press, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In vitro permeability assays are a valuable tool for scientists during lead compound optimization. As a majority of discovery projects are focused on the development of orally bioavailable drugs, correlation of in vitro permeability data to in vivo absorption results is critical for understanding the structural-physicochemical relationship (SPR) of drugs exhibiting low levels of absorption. For more than a decade, the Caco-2 screening assay has remained a popular, in vitro system to test compounds for both intestinal permeability and efflux liability. Despite advances in artificial membrane technology and in silico modeling systems, drug compounds still benefit from testing in cell-based epithelial monolayer assays for lead optimization. This chapter provides technical information for performing and optimizing the Caco-2 assay. In addition, techniques are discussed for dealing with some of the most pressing issues surrounding in vitro permeability assays (i.e., low aqueous solubility of test compounds and low postassay recovery). Insights are offered to help researchers avoid common pitfalls in the interpretation of in vitro permeability data, which can often lead to the perception of misleading results for correlation to in vivo data.

  14. Combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine plus efavirenz: in vitro modulation of ABC transporter and intracellular drug accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Laurence; Pruvost, Alain; Guyot, Anne-Cécile; Farinotti, Robert; Mabondzo, Aloïse

    2009-03-01

    Efflux proteins have been shown to greatly affect the uptake of antiretroviral drugs by cells and to hamper their access to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication site. This study evaluated the factors that may lead to drug-drug interactions between emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir (TFV), and efavirenz (EFV), including the modulation of efflux transporter expression and function. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers were used to determine whether or not an interaction between antiretroviral drugs and target cells occurred in any combination of FTC, TFV, EFV, FTC-TFV, TFV-EFV, or FTC-TFV-EFV. Following 20 h of treatment, intracellular drug concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Efflux transporter functionality and inhibitor drug properties were assessed by measuring fluorescent dye efflux. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), ABCC 1 to 6 (multidrug resistance-associated protein), and OAT (organic anion transporter) expression in response to the treatments was quantified by semiquantitative real-time PCR. Cells treated with a double combination (FTC-TFV or TFV-EFV) or the triple combination (FTC-TFV-EFV) produced higher FTC and TFV intracellular concentrations than cells treated with FTC or TFV alone. However, no change in the EFV intracellular concentration was observed. FTC tended to induce abcc5 mRNA expression and EFV tended to induce abcc1 and abcc6 mRNA expression, whereas TFV tended to reduce mdr1, abcc1, abcc5, and abcc6 mRNA expression. Under these conditions, a decrease in the functionality of ABCC was observed, and this decrease was associated with the direct inhibitory actions of these drugs. This in vitro study reveals a benefit of the combination FTC-TFV-EFV in terms of the intracellular FTC and TFV concentrations and highlights the pharmacological mechanisms that lead to this effect.

  15. Drug Efflux Transporters Are Overexpressed in Short-Term Tamoxifen-Induced MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krisnamurti, Desak Gede Budi; Louisa, Melva; Anggraeni, Erlia; Wanandi, Septelia Inawati

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is the first line drug used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to tamoxifen remains a major challenge in the treatment of cancer. One of the mechanisms related to MDR is decrease of drug influx via overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), or BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein). We aimed to investigate whether the sensitivity of tamoxifen to the cells is maintained through the short period and whether the expressions of several drug efflux transporters have been upregulated. We exposed MCF7 breast cancer cells with tamoxifen 1 μM for 10 passages (MCF7 (T)). The result showed that MCF7 began to lose their sensitivity to tamoxifen from the second passage. MCF7 (T) also showed a significant increase in all transporters examined compared with MCF7 parent cells. The result also showed a significant increase of CC50 in MCF7 (T) compared to that in MCF7 (97.54 μM and 3.04 μM, resp.). In conclusion, we suggest that the expression of several drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein, MRP2, and BCRP might be used and further studied as a marker in the development of tamoxifen resistance. PMID:26981116

  16. Assessment of three Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division drug efflux transporters of Burkholderia cenocepacia in intrinsic antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Burkholderia cenocepacia are opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria that can cause chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. These bacteria demonstrate a high-level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance to most clinically useful antibiotics complicating treatment. We previously identified 14 genes encoding putative Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) efflux pumps in the genome of B. cenocepacia J2315, but the contribution of these pumps to the intrinsic drug resistance of this bacterium remains unclear. Results To investigate the contribution of efflux pumps to intrinsic drug resistance of B. cenocepacia J2315, we deleted 3 operons encoding the putative RND transporters RND-1, RND-3, and RND-4 containing the genes BCAS0591-BCAS0593, BCAL1674-BCAL1676, and BCAL2822-BCAL2820. Each deletion included the genes encoding the RND transporter itself and those encoding predicted periplasmic proteins and outer membrane pores. In addition, the deletion of rnd-3 also included BCAL1672, encoding a putative TetR regulator. The B. cenocepacia rnd-3 and rnd-4 mutants demonstrated increased sensitivity to inhibitory compounds, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in drug resistance. Moreover, the rnd-3 and rnd-4 mutants demonstrated reduced accumulation of N-acyl homoserine lactones in the growth medium. In contrast, deletion of the rnd-1 operon had no detectable phenotypes under the conditions assayed. Conclusion Two of the three inactivated RND efflux pumps in B. cenocepacia J2315 contribute to the high level of intrinsic resistance of this strain to some antibiotics and other inhibitory compounds. Furthermore, these efflux systems also mediate accumulation in the growth medium of quorum sensing molecules that have been shown to contribute to infection. A systematic study of RND efflux systems in B. cenocepacia is required to provide a full picture of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in this opportunistic bacterium. PMID:19761586

  17. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  18. Reversal of the Drug Binding Pocket Defects of the AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump Protein of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Soparkar, Ketaki; Kinana, Alfred D.; Weeks, Jon W.; Morrison, Keith D.; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The AcrB protein of Escherichia coli, together with TolC and AcrA, forms a contiguous envelope conduit for the capture and extrusion of diverse antibiotics and cellular metabolites. In this study, we sought to expand our knowledge of AcrB by conducting genetic and functional analyses. We began with an AcrB mutant bearing an F610A substitution in the drug binding pocket and obtained second-site substitutions that overcame the antibiotic hypersusceptibility phenotype conferred by the F610A mutation. Five of the seven unique single amino acid substitutions—Y49S, V127A, V127G, D153E, and G288C—mapped in the periplasmic porter domain of AcrB, with the D153E and G288C mutations mapping near and at the distal drug binding pocket, respectively. The other two substitutions—F453C and L486W—were mapped to transmembrane (TM) helices 5 and 6, respectively. The nitrocefin efflux kinetics data suggested that all periplasmic suppressors significantly restored nitrocefin binding affinity impaired by the F610A mutation. Surprisingly, despite increasing MICs of tested antibiotics and the efflux of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, the TM suppressors did not improve the nitrocefin efflux kinetics. These data suggest that the periplasmic substitutions act by influencing drug binding affinities for the distal binding pocket, whereas the TM substitutions may indirectly affect the conformational dynamics of the drug binding domain. IMPORTANCE The AcrB protein and its homologues confer multidrug resistance in many important human bacterial pathogens. A greater understanding of how these efflux pump proteins function will lead to the development of effective inhibitors against them. The research presented in this paper investigates drug binding pocket mutants of AcrB through the isolation and characterization of intragenic suppressor mutations that overcome the drug susceptibility phenotype of mutations affecting the drug binding pocket. The data reveal a remarkable structure

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: species distribution, fluconazole resistance and drug efflux pump gene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hui; Liu, Fa-Di; Xia, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Zhi-Qin; Zhu, Na; Yan-Yan; Ying, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Tian

    2014-10-01

    The increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the emergence of fluconazole resistance are an indisputable fact. However, little information is available regarding the correlation between fluconazole resistance in vaginal Candida albicans and the expression of drug efflux pump genes. In this study, we investigated the species distribution, fluconazole susceptibility profiles and the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida strains. In total, 785 clinical Candida isolates were collected from patients with VVC. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species(n = 529) followed by C. glabrata (n = 164) and C. krusei (n = 57). Of all Candida isolates, 4.7% were resistant to fluconazole. We randomly selected 18 fluconazole resistant isolates of C. albicans to evaluate the expression of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 genes. Compared with fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolates, CDR1 gene expression displayed 3.16-fold relative increase, which was statistically significant. CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 overexpression was observed in several fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates, but statistical significance was not achieved. These results demonstrate a high frequency of non-albicans species (32.6%); however, C. albicans is the most common Candida species implicated in vaginitis, and this strain displays considerable fluconazole resistance. Meanwhile, our study further indicates that fluconazole resistance in C. albicans may correlate with CDR1 gene overexpression.

  20. Sorafenib overcomes irinotecan resistance in colorectal cancer by inhibiting the ABCG2 drug-efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Mazard, Thibault; Causse, Annick; Simony, Joelle; Leconet, Wilhem; Vezzio-Vie, Nadia; Torro, Adeline; Jarlier, Marta; Evrard, Alexandre; Del Rio, Maguy; Assenat, Eric; Martineau, Pierre; Ychou, Marc; Robert, Bruno; Gongora, Celine

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), tumor resistance is a frequent cause of chemotherapy failure. Therefore, new treatment options are needed to improve survival of patients with irinotecan-refractory CRCs, particularly those bearing KRAS mutations that preclude the use of anti-EGFR therapies. In this study, we investigated whether sorafenib could reverse irinotecan resistance, thereby enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of routinely used irinotecan-based chemotherapy. We used both in vitro (the HCT116, SW48, SW620, and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines and four SN-38-resistant HCT-116 and SW48 clones) and in vivo models (nude mice xenografted with SN-38-resistant HCT116 cells) to test the efficacy of sorafenib alone or in combination with irinotecan or its active metabolite, SN-38. We have shown that sorafenib improved the antitumoral activity of irinotecan in vitro, in both parental and SN-38-resistant colon adenocarcinoma cell lines independently of their KRAS status, as well as in vivo, in xenografted mice. By inhibiting the drug-efflux pump ABCG2, sorafenib favors irinotecan intracellular accumulation and enhances its toxicity. Moreover, we found that sorafenib improved the efficacy of irinotecan by inhibiting the irinotecan-mediated p38 and ERK activation. In conclusion, our results show that sorafenib can suppress resistance to irinotecan and suggest that sorafenib could be used to overcome resistance to irinotecan-based chemotherapies in CRC, particularly in KRAS-mutated tumors.

  1. Ion Channel Blockers as Antimicrobial Agents, Efflux Inhibitors, and Enhancers of Macrophage Killing Activity against Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Perdigão, João; Couto, Isabel; Portugal, Isabel; Martins, Marta; Amaral, Leonard; Anes, Elsa; Viveiros, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Given the ability of M. tuberculosis to survive as an intracellular pathogen and its propensity to develop resistance to the existing antituberculosis drugs, its treatment requires new approaches. Here the antimycobacterial properties of verapamil, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, flupenthixol and haloperidol were investigated against a panel of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains, both in vitro and on human-infected macrophages. These compounds are efflux inhibitors that share among them the characteristic of being ion channel blockers. In vitro, all compounds exhibited synergistic inhibitory activities when combined with isoniazid and rifampicin, and were able to inhibit active efflux, demonstrating their role as efflux inhibitors. Gene expression analysis showed that M. tuberculosis efflux genes were overexpressed in response to antibiotic exposure, in vitro and within macrophages, irrespective of their resistance pattern. These compounds displayed a rapid and high killing activity against M. tuberculosis, associated with a decrease in intracellular ATP levels demonstrating that the bactericidal action of the ion channel blockers against M. tuberculosis clinical strains is associated with their interference with energy metabolism. The compounds led to a decrease in the intracellular mycobacterial load by increasing phagosome acidification and activating lysosomal hydrolases. The results presented in this study enable us to propose the following mechanism of action for these compounds: a) in the bacteria, the compounds generate a cascade of events involving the inhibition of the respiratory chain complexes and energy production for efflux activity. Indirectly, this reduce the resistance level to antituberculosis drugs potentiating their activity; b) on the host cell, the treatment with the ion channel blockers increases phagosome acidification and induces the expression of phagosomal hydrolases, leading to bacterial growth restriction irrespective of their

  2. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; vanDam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal amounts of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid, whereas the classical DRM/lipid raft markers Src, caveolin-1 and flotillin display the same gradient distribution. DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts themselves are severely depleted of sphingolipids. The fatty acid profile of the remaining sphingolipids as well as that of the glycerophospholipids shows several differences compared with control, most prominently an increase in highly saturated C16 species. The glycerophospholipid headgroup composition is unchanged in sphingolipid-depleted cells and cell-derived detergent-free lipid rafts. Sphingolipid depletion does not alter the localization of MRP1 (multidrug-resistance-related protein 1) in DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts or MRP1-mediated efflux of carboxyfluorescein. We conclude that extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity in two cell lines and does not affect the function of the lipid-raft-associated protein MRP1. PMID:20604746

  3. A2A adenosine receptor modulates drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from toxic substances within the peripheral circulation. It maintains brain homeostasis and is a hurdle for drug delivery to the CNS to treat neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and brain tumors. The drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is highly expressed on brain endothelial cells and blocks the entry of most drugs delivered to the brain. Here, we show that activation of the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) with an FDA-approved A2A AR agonist (Lexiscan) rapidly and potently decreased P-gp expression and function in a time-dependent and reversible manner. We demonstrate that downmodulation of P-gp expression and function coincided with chemotherapeutic drug accumulation in brains of WT mice and in primary mouse and human brain endothelial cells, which serve as in vitro BBB models. Lexiscan also potently downregulated the expression of BCRP1, an efflux transporter that is highly expressed in the CNS vasculature and other tissues. Finally, we determined that multiple pathways, including MMP9 cleavage and ubiquitinylation, mediated P-gp downmodulation. Based on these data, we propose that A2A AR activation on BBB endothelial cells offers a therapeutic window that can be fine-tuned for drug delivery to the brain and has potential as a CNS drug-delivery technology. PMID:27043281

  4. ABC transporters and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Begley, David J

    2004-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) form a very effective barrier to the free diffusion of many polar solutes into the brain. Many metabolites that are polar have their brain entry facilitated by specific inwardly-directed transport mechanisms. In general the more lipid soluble a molecule or drug is, the more readily it will tend to partition into brain tissue. However, a very significant number of lipid soluble molecules, among them many useful therapeutic drugs have lower brain permeability than would be predicted from a determination of their lipid solubility. These molecules are substrates for the ABC efflux transporters which are present in the BBB and BCSB and the activity of these transporters very efficiently removes the drug from the CNS, thus limiting brain uptake. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was the first of these ABC transporters to be described, followed by the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) and more recently breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). All are expressed in the BBB and BCSFB and combine to reduce the brain penetration of many drugs. This phenomenon of "multidrug resistance" is a major hurdle when it comes to the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, not to mention the problem of cancer chemotherapy in general. Therefore, the development of strategies for bypassing the influence of these ABC transporters and for the design of effective drugs that are not substrates and the development of inhibitors for the ABC transporters becomes a high imperative for the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Interaction of gatifloxacin with efflux transporters: a possible mechanism for drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to screen the interactions of fourth generation fluoroquinolone-gatifloxacin with efflux pumps i.e. P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP. Mechanism of gatifloxacin interaction with efflux transporters may explain its acquired resistance. Such clarification may lead to the development of strategies to overcome efflux and enhance its bioavailability at target site. This process will aid in the reduction of dose volume, further eliminating the chances of systemic toxicity from topical gatifloxacin eye drops. MDCK cell lines transfected with the targeted efflux transporters were used for this study. [14C] Erythromycin was selected as a model substrate for P-gp and MRP2 whereas Hoechst 33342 was employed as a substrate for BCRP. Uptake and transport studies of these substrates were performed in the presence of gatifloxacin to delineate its interaction with efflux transporters. Further the efflux ratio in the presence of gatifloxacin was calculated from bidirectional transport studies. The concentration of [14C] erythromycin and Hoechst 33342 were measured using scintillation counter and fluorescence plate reader respectively. A concentration dependent inhibition effect in the presence of gatifloxacin was revealed on [14C] erythromycin uptake. The efflux ratio (BL-AP/AP-BL) of substrates was found to approach unity at higher gatifloxacin concentrations. Increased concentration of gatifloxacin did not elevate uptake of Hoechst 33342. All these studies were validated with known inhibitors as positive control. Uptake and transport studies support the hypothesis that gatifloxacin is a substrate for P-gp, MRP2 but not for BCRP. Possible interactions of gatifloxacin with P-gp and MRP2 may be a possible mechanism for acquired resistance of gatifloxacin. This information can be further extended to design prodrugs or formulations in order to prevent development of acquired resistance and improve therapeutic efficacy with its reduction in side effects. PMID:20573570

  6. Induction of the MexXY efflux pump in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is dependent on drug-ribosome interaction.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Katy; Sobel, Mara L; El Garch, Farid; Poole, Keith; Plésiat, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    MexXY is an inducible efflux system that contributes to the natural resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics. Experiments involving real-time PCR after reverse transcription in reference strain PAO1 showed concentration-dependent induction of gene mexY by various ribosome inhibitors (e.g., chloramphenicol, tetracycline, macrolides, and aminoglycosides) but not by antibiotics acting on other cellular targets (e.g., beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones). Confirming a functional link between the efflux system and the translational machinery, ribosome protection by plasmid-encoded proteins TetO and ErmBP increased the resistance of a DeltamexAB-oprM mutant of PAO1 to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively, as well as the concentrations of both drugs required to induce mexY. Furthermore, spontaneous mutations resulting in specific resistance to dihydrostreptomycin or spectinomycin also raised the minimal drug concentration for mexXY induction in strain PAO1. While strongly upregulated in a PAO1 mutant defective in gene mexZ (which codes for a putative repressor of operon mexXY), gene mexY remained inducible by agents such as tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin, suggesting additional regulatory loci for mexXY. Altogether, these data demonstrate physiological interplays between MexXY and the ribosome and are suggestive of an alternative function for MexXY beyond antibiotic efflux.

  7. Synthetic interaction between the TipN polarity factor and an AcrAB-family efflux pump implicates cell polarity in bacterial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Viollier, Patrick H

    2014-05-22

    Quinolone antibiotics are clinically important drugs that target bacterial DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Although the AcrAB-family efflux pumps generally protect bacteria from such drugs, the physiological role of these efflux systems and their interplay with other cellular events are poorly explored. Here, we report an intricate relationship between antibiotic resistance and cell polarity in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. We show that a polarity landmark protein, TipN, identified by virtue of its ability to direct flagellum placement to the new cell pole, protects cells from toxic misregulation of an AcrAB efflux pump through a cis-encoded nalidixic acid-responsive transcriptional repressor. Alongside the importance of polarity in promoting the inheritance and activity of virulence functions including motility, we can now ascribe to it an additional role in drug resistance that is distinct from classical efflux mechanisms.

  8. Evaluation of current methods used to analyze the expression profiles of ABC transporters yields an improved drug-discovery database

    PubMed Central

    Orina, Josiah N.; Calcagno, Anna Maria; Wu, Chung-Pu; Varma, Sudhir; Shih, Joanna; Lin, Min; Eichler, Gabriel; Weinstein, John N.; Pommier, Yves; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Gillet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy remains a major challenge in the treatment of cancer. Resistance exists against every effective anti-cancer drug and can develop by multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms can act individually or synergistically, leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), in which the cell becomes resistant to a variety of structurally and mechanistically unrelated drugs in addition to the drug initially administered. Although extensive work has been done to characterize MDR mechanisms in vitro, the translation of this knowledge to the clinic has not been successful. Therefore, identifying genes and mechanisms critical to the development of MDR in vivo and establishing a reliable method for analyzing highly homologous genes from small amounts of tissue is fundamental to achieving any significant enhancement in our understanding of multidrug resistance mechanisms and could lead to treatments designed to circumvent it. In this study, we use a previously established database that allows the identification of lead compounds in the early stages of drug discovery that are not ABC transporter substrates. We believe this can serve as a model for appraising the accuracy and sensitivity of current methods used to analyze the expression profiles of ABC transporters. We found two platforms to be superior methods for the analysis of expression profiles of highly homologous gene superfamilies. This study also led to an improved database by revealing previously unidentified substrates for ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2, transporters that contribute to multidrug resistance. PMID:19584229

  9. Distribution and expression of the Ade multidrug efflux systems in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Pagdepanichkit, Sirawit; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2016-09-01

    One hundred Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates were examined for inhibitory effect of reserpine and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of 4 resistant-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux systems, including AdeABC, AdeDE, AdeIJK, and AdeFGH, using RT-PCR. Ten A. baumannii isolates expressing AdeABC, AdeIJK, or AdeFGH were randomly selected for determination of transcription level and regulatory mutations. While all the isolates were resistant to multiple drugs, the reserpine and CCCP experiment showed that the multidrug resistance phenotype in most A. baumannii isolates was associated with efflux pumps. Most isolates expressed at least one of the RND-type efflux pumps tested (97%). AdeIJK expression was most common (97%), but none of the isolates produced AdeDE. Fifty-two percent of the A. baumannii isolates simultaneously produced up to 3 RND-type efflux systems (i.e., AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK). No good correlation between the expression of RND-type efflux pumps and the type of antimicrobial resistance was observed. Overexpression of AdeABC, AdeIJK, and AdeFGH was not always related to the presence of mutations in their corresponding regulatory genes. This study highlights (i) the universal presence of the RND-type efflux pumps with variable levels of expression level among the A. baumannii in this collection and (ii) the complexity of their regulation of expression.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of the combination between cytotoxic drug and efflux transporter inhibitors based on a tumour growth inhibition model.

    PubMed

    Sostelly, Alexandre; Payen, Léa; Guitton, Jérôme; Di Pietro, Attilio; Falson, Pierre; Honorat, Mylène; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Gèze, Annabelle; Freyer, Gilles; Tod, Michel

    2014-04-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters such as ABCG2 confer resistance to various anticancer drugs including irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN38. Early quantitative evaluation of efflux transporter inhibitors-cytotoxic combination requires quantitative drug-disease models. A proof-of-concept study has been carried out for studying the effect of a new ABCG2 transporter inhibitor, MBLI87 combined to irinotecan in mice xenografted with cells overexpressing ABCG2. Mice were treated with irinotecan alone or combined to MBLI87, and tumour size was periodically measured. To model those data, a tumour growth inhibition model was developed. Unperturbed tumour growth was modelled using Simeoni's model. Drug effect kinetics was accounted for by a Kinetic-Pharmacodynamic approach. Effect of inhibitor was described with a pharmacodynamic interaction model where inhibitor enhances activity of cytotoxic. This model correctly predicted tumour growth dynamics from our study. MBLI87 increased irinotecan potency by 20% per μmol of MBLI87. This model retains enough complexity to simultaneously describe tumour growth and effect of this type of drug combination. It can thus be used as a template to early evaluate efflux transporter inhibitors in-vivo.

  11. Regulation of ABC transporters blood-brain barrier: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Miller, David S

    2015-01-01

    The brain capillary endothelial cells that constitute the blood-brain barrier express multiple ABC transport proteins on the luminal, blood-facing, plasma membrane. These transporters function as ATP-driven efflux pumps for xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites. High expression of these ABC transporters at the barrier is a major obstacle to the delivery of therapeutics, including chemotherapeutics, to the CNS. Here, I review the signals that alter ABC transporter expression and transport function with an emphasis on P-glycoprotein, Mrp2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), the efflux transporters for which we have the most detailed picture of regulation. Recent work shows that transporter protein expression can be upregulated in response to inflammatory and oxidative stress, therapeutic drugs, diet, and persistent environmental pollutants; as a consequence, drug delivery to the brain is reduced (potentially bad and ugly). In contrast, basal transport activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP can be reduced through complex signaling pathways that involve events in and on the brain capillary endothelial cells. Targeting these signaling events provides opportunities to rapidly and reversibly increase brain accumulation of drugs that are substrates for the transporters (potentially good). The clinical usefulness of targeting signaling to reduce efflux transporter activity and improve drug delivery to the CNS remains to be established.

  12. Identification of efflux-mediated multi-drug resistance in bacterial clinical isolates by two simple methods.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, instrument-free, user-friendly methods that can readily be implemented by a routine microbiology laboratory are described for the detection of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) isolates that overexpress efflux pump (EP) systems responsible for the MDR phenotype. The first method employs the universal EP substrate ethidium bromide (EB) at varying concentrations in agar-containing plates upon which the contents of an overnight culture are swabbed as spokes of a wheel. In this method, named the EB-agar cartwheel method, it is assumed that the smallest concentration of EB that produces fluorescence of the bacterial mass represents the highest concentration of EB that the bacteria can exclude. Consequently, as the efflux system(s) of a given MDR clinical bacterial isolate is overexpressed relative to that of a reference strain, the minimal concentration of EB producing fluorescence is significantly greater. A simple formula is provided which affords the ranking of MDR clinical isolates with respect to the degree of their efflux capacity. The second method, which can be used after the first one, determines whether the MDR phenotype is based upon an overexpressed efflux system. This method employs a 24-well microplate with separate wells containing or lacking an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) and Kirby-Bauer discs that correspond to the antibiotics to which the MDR strain is resistant. After the wells are inoculated with the MDR clinical isolate, the plate is incubated overnight and each well is evaluated by eye for evidence of growth. Comparison of growth to the relevant control enables the observer to determine the following outcomes: no growth produced by the EPI-antibiotic combination (i.e., reversal of antibiotic resistance); reduced growth produced by the EPI-antibiotic combination; no difference in growth, i.e., EPI does not affect the resistance to the given antibiotic. If the first method showed that there was a significant difference between the minimum

  13. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Microarray analysis of efflux pump genes in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during stress induced by common anti-tuberculous drugs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anuj Kumar; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Mradula; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Sharma, Vishnu Dutt

    2010-03-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has become one of the major problems in public health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance has been central to tuberculosis research in recent times. DNA microarray technology provides the platform to study the genomic variations related to these mechanisms on a comprehensive level. To investigate the role of efflux pumps in drug resistance, we have constructed a custom DNA microarray containing 25 drug efflux pump genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Indian Patent file no. 2071/DEL/2007) and monitored changes in the expression of these genes on exposure of common anti-tuberculous drugs. Expression profiling of efflux pump genes in multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates showed overexpression of 10 genes following exposure to various anti-tuberculous drugs. Although two of these genes (Rv3065 and Rv2938) have already been reported to be active drug efflux pumps in M. tuberculosis in earlier studies, the increased activities of other eight efflux pump genes (Rv1819, Rv2209, Rv2459, Rv2477c, Rv2688, Rv2846, Rv2994, and Rv3728) have been demonstrated in multidrug-resistant isolates by us for the first time. After confirmation of differential expressions of these genes by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, it was observed that a simultaneous overexpression of efflux pump genes Rv2459, Rv3728, and Rv3065 was associated with resistance to the combination of isoniazid and ethambutol, and these drugs, along with streptomycin, were identified to group together, where efflux-mediated drug resistance appears to be important in M. tuberculosis and follows a constant pattern of induction in multidrug-resistant isolates. Isoniazid and ethambutol combination was also found to be affected in 10% (6/60) of the clinical isolates in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone in resazurin microtitre plate assay, supporting the role of efflux pumps in the resistance to these

  15. Moving out: from sterol transport to drug resistance - the ABCG subfamily of efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Karobi; Silverton, Latoya; Limpert, Katy; Im, Kate; Dean, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins are typically ATP-driven transmembrane pumps that have been evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans. In humans these transporters are subdivided into seven subfamilies, ranging from A to G. The ABCG subfamily of transporters is the primary focus of this review. This subfamily of proteins has been conserved throughout evolution and plays a central role in several cellular processes, such as sterol homeostasis and multidrug resistance. Functional polymorphisms/mutations in some of these G-subfamily transporters have clinical consequences in humans.

  16. Further studies on colistin (polymyxin E)-induced cell leakage in mycobacteria: Mg++ efflux in Mycobacterium avium and its effects on drug-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, N; Potar, M C; Henrotte, J G; Franck, G; David, H L

    1988-04-01

    Action of colistin (polymyxin E) was investigated on the opportunistic pathogenic species Mycobacterium avium ATCC 15769 (resistant strain, MIC greater than 100 micrograms/ml). Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950: a colistin-susceptible strain (MIC 25 micrograms/ml), was used as a parallel control for Mg++ efflux experiments. After the addition of 100 micrograms/ml of colistin to bacteria suspended in a buffer, both loss of viability and Mg++ efflux were followed for one week. Although there was an initial Mg++ efflux in both strains, it soon attained a plateau in case of the resistant strain without any loss of viability until 48 h, whereas in case of the susceptible strain, Mg++ efflux was about 3 times higher than former, a plateau was attained only 24 h after the drug addition, and the loss of viability started only 6 h after the drug addition. Consequently, the loss of viability of M. avium with later incubation times (6 days) was not due to the action of colistin on the cytoplasmic Mg++ efflux solely, but some additional effect was implicated. The drug-susceptibility of extracellularly-growing and intracellularly-growing (in the J-774 macrophage cell line) M. avium to the antibiotics tested could not be potentiated when they were used in combination with 5 micrograms/ml of colistin (maximal obtainable serum level in man) or the polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), nor in the case of bacteria pretreated with these molecules.

  17. Resistance-nodulation-division efflux pump acrAB is modulated by florfenicol and contributes to drug resistance in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Rodrigo; Oliver, Cristian; Valdivia, Sharin; Valenzuela, Karla; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Olavarría, Víctor H; Valenzuela, Paulina; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Romero, Alex; Cárcamo, Juan G; Figueroa, Jaime E; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-06-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fastidious intracellular pathogen responsible for high mortality rates in farmed salmonids, with serious economic consequences for the Chilean aquaculture industry. Oxytetracycline and florfenicol are the most frequently used antibiotics against P. salmonis, but routine use could contribute to drug resistance. This study identified differentiated florfenicol susceptibilities in two P. salmonis strains, LF-89 and AUSTRAL-005. The less susceptible isolate, AUSTRAL-005, also showed a high ethidium bromide efflux rate, indicating a higher activity of general efflux pump genes than LF-89. The P. salmonis genome presented resistance nodulation division (RND) family members, a family containing typical multidrug resistance-related efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, efflux pump acrAB genes were overexpressed in AUSTRAL-005 following exposure to the tolerated maximal concentration of florfenicol, in contrast to LF-89. These results indicate that tolerated maximum concentrations of florfenicol can modulate RND gene expression and increase efflux pump activity. We propose that the acrAB efflux pump is essential for P. salmonis survival at critical florfenicol concentrations and for the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.

  18. Consecutive salinomycin treatment reduces doxorubicin resistance of breast tumor cells by diminishing drug efflux pump expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Adam; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chemoresistance is a major challenge for the successful therapy of breast cancer. The discovery of salinomycin as an anticancer stem cell drug provides progress in overcoming chemoresistance. However, it remains to be elucidated whether salinomycin treatment is able to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. In the present study, we consecutively treated epithelial MCF-7 and BT-474 breast cancer cells as well as mesenchymal MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 436 cells with salinomycin, and analyzed the gene expression of the two prominent multiple drug resistance (MDR) genes, MDR1 and BCRP1. We found that repeated treatment with salinomycin generated resistance against this drug in all cell lines and increased the chemosensitivity towards doxorubicin. Drug efflux pump gene expression and pump activity of MDR1 and BCRP1 were downregulated in almost all cell lines, except for MDR1 in the MDA-MB 231 cells. Consequently, the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation was increased compared to the respective parental cells. Our findings suggest a novel treatment option for MDR tumors by sensitizing these tumors via salinomycin pretreatment.

  19. Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in MDR1-transfected versus wildtype cell lines affect P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Kuteykin-Teplyakov, Konstantin; Luna-Tortós, Carlos; Ambroziak, Kamila; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport. Experimental approach: Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine. Key results: In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells. Conclusions and implications: Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport. PMID:20590635

  20. Transcriptional regulation of drug efflux genes by EvgAS, a two-component system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Yoko; Oshima, Taku; Mori, Hirotada; Aono, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2003-10-01

    A constitutively active mutant of histidine kinase sensor EvgS was found to confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) to an acrA-deficient Escherichia coli, indicating the relationship between the two-component system EvgAS and the expression of the MDR system. The observed MDR also depended on an outer-membrane channel, TolC. Microarray and S1 mapping assays indicated that, in the presence of this constitutive mutant EvgS, the level of transcription increased for some MDR genes, including the drug efflux genes emrKY, yhiUV, acrAB, mdfA and tolC. Transcription in vitro of emrK increased by the addition of phosphorylated EvgA. Transcription activation of tolC by the activated EvgS was, however, dependent on both EvgAS and PhoPQ (Mg(2+)-responsive two-component system), in agreement with the presence of the binding site (PhoP box) for the regulator PhoP in the tolC promoter region. Transcription in vitro of yhiUV also appears to require an as-yet-unidentified additional transcriptional factor besides EvgA. Taken together we propose that the expression of the MDR system is under a complex regulatory network, including the phosphorylated EvgA serving as the master regulator.

  1. Development of Fluorine-18 Labeled Metabolically Activated Tracers for Imaging of Drug Efflux Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sander, Kerstin; Galante, Eva; Gendron, Thibault; Yiannaki, Elena; Patel, Niral; Kalber, Tammy L; Badar, Adam; Robson, Mathew; Johnson, Sean P; Bauer, Florian; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Kuntner, Claudia; Kottke, Tim; Weizel, Lilia; Dickens, David; Erlandsson, Kjell; Hutton, Brian F; Lythgoe, Mark F; Stark, Holger; Langer, Oliver; Koepp, Matthias; Årstad, Erik

    2015-08-13

    Increased activity of efflux transporters, e.g., P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), at the blood-brain barrier is a pathological hallmark of many neurological diseases, and the resulting multiple drug resistance represents a major clinical challenge. Noninvasive imaging of transporter activity can help to clarify the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and facilitate diagnosis, patient stratification, and treatment monitoring. We have developed a metabolically activated radiotracer for functional imaging of P-gp/BCRP activity with positron emission tomography (PET). In preclinical studies, the tracer showed excellent initial brain uptake and clean conversion to the desired metabolite, although at a sluggish rate. Blocking with P-gp/BCRP modulators led to increased levels of brain radioactivity; however, dynamic PET did not show differential clearance rates between treatment and control groups. Our results provide proof-of-concept for development of prodrug tracers for imaging of P-gp/BCRP function in vivo but also highlight some challenges associated with this strategy.

  2. Multidrug Efflux Pumps Attenuate the Effect of MGMT Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tomaszowski, Karl-Heinz; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Kaina, Bernd

    2015-11-02

    Various mechanisms of drug resistance attenuate the effectiveness of cancer therapeutics, including drug transport and DNA repair. The DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a key factor determining the resistance against alkylating anticancer drugs inducing the genotoxic DNA lesions O(6)-methylguanine and O(6)-chloroethylguanine, and MGMT inactivation or depletion renders cells more susceptible to treatment with methylating and chloroethylating agents. Highly specific and efficient inhibitors of the repair protein MGMT were designed, including O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)BG) and O(6)-(4-bromothenyl)guanine (O(6)BTG) that are nontoxic on their own. Unfortunately, these inhibitors do not select between MGMT in normal and cancer cells, causing nontarget effects in the healthy tissue. Therefore, a targeting strategy for MGMT inhibitors is required. Here, we used O(6)BG and O(6)BTG conjugated to β-d-glucose (O(6)BG-Glu and O(6)BTG-Glu, respectively) in order to selectively inhibit MGMT in tumors, harnessing their high demand for glucose. Both glucose conjugates efficiently inhibited MGMT in several cancer cell lines, but with different extents of sensitization to DNA alkylating agents, with lomustine being more effective than temozolomide. We further show that the glucose conjugates are subject to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated efflux, involving P-glycoprotein, MRP1, and BCRP, which impacts the efficiency of MGMT inhibition. Surprisingly, also O(6)BG and O(6)BTG were subject to an active transport out of the cell. We also show that pharmacological inhibition of efflux transporters increases the induction of cell death following treatment with these MGMT inhibitors and temozolomide. We conclude that strategies of attenuating the efflux by ABC transporters are required for achieving successful MGMT targeting.

  3. Changes in dopamine efflux associated with extinction, CS-induced and d-amphetamine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by rats.

    PubMed

    Di Ciano, P; Blaha, C D; Phillips, A G

    2001-05-01

    The present experiment employed chronoamperometry with stearate-graphite paste electrodes to monitor dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens during extinction and subsequent reinstatement of bar-pressing for a conditioned stimulus (CS) following presentation of a CS or following a systemic injection of d-amphetamine. Rats self-administered d-amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg per infusion) for 3 h a day on 6 consecutive days. Each infusion was paired with a flashing light CS. On the 7th day, rats self-administered d-amphetamine for 1 h, followed by 10 h of extinction. Presentation of the CS 2 days following extinction induced small and transient increases in responding for the CS, with no significant associated increases in DA efflux. Lower rates of responding were observed in rats that had received random presentations of the CS during d-amphetamine self-administration, and in an experimentally-naïve control group. A subsequent systemic injection of d-amphetamine increased dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens in all groups and was most effective in reinstating bar-pressing in the CS-d-amphetamine paired group. This is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to psychostimulant drugs, and a drug-paired CS, can reinstate drug-seeking behavior. Together, these findings suggest that enhanced DA efflux may contribute to the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior induced by the single administration of a psychostimulant drug, but not transient reinstatement induced by presentation of a drug-paired CS alone following extinction.

  4. Function and frustration of multi-drug ABC exporter protein and design of model proteins for drug delivery using protein hydration thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Urry, Dan W; Urry, Kelley D; Szaflarski, Witold; Nowicki, Michal; Zabel, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism is presented whereby simultaneous hydrolysis of two molecules of ATP in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter protein, Sav 1866, opens a transmembrane channel to pump drug out of the cell and confers drug resistance, e.g., gives rise to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA. The proposed mechanism suggests pharmaceutical design strategies for overloading the capacity of two molecules of ATP to open access to the channel for export. Structural homology of Staphylococcus aureus, Sav 1866, to human P-glyco-protein and MRP2, suggests a similar mechanism could be relevant to human carcinoma cells. The transport mechanism utilizes two thermodynamic quantities -DeltaG(HA), the change in Gibbs free energy for hydrophobic association, and DeltaG(ap), an apolar-polar repulsive free energy for hydration, derived from studies on designed elastic-contractile model proteins (ECMPs). These quantities also allow design of remarkably biocompatible ECMPs as drug delivery vehicles with remarkable control of release profiles and of ECMPs that provide the means of developing pharmaceuticals for blocking multi-drug resistance.

  5. ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity. PMID:21118087

  6. RNA expression analysis of efflux pump genes in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Sang; Kim, Young Jin; Kang, Hee Yoon; Kim, Chang-Ki; Cho, Sun Young; Lee, Hee Joo

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an important communicable disease. Various mechanisms of resistance to antituberculosis drugs have been reported; these are principally mutations in target genes. However, not all M. tuberculosis resistance can be explained by mutations in such genes. Other resistance mechanisms associated with drug transport, such as efflux pumps, have also been reported. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of three putative efflux pumps and mutations in target genes associated with injectable agents and fluoroquinolones with clinical MDR and XDR-TB isolates. Thirty clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis that had been phenotypically characterized were obtained from the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis. Of these, 14 were MDR-TB isolates resistant to at least one injectable aminoglycoside (amikacin; AMK, kanamycin; KAN, and/or capreomycin; CPM) and 16 were XDR-TB isolates. M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27249) was used as a reference strain. Five putative genes (Rv1258c, Rv2686c, Rv2687c, Rv2688c and pstB) were selected for analysis in this study. Sequencing was performed to detect mutations in rrs and eis genes. qRT-PCR was performed to investigate expression levels of five efflux pump genes. Of the 30 isolates, 25 strains had mutations in rrs associated with resistance to KAN, CPM and AMK and two strains had eis mutations, as well as mutations in rrs. pstB (Rv0933) exhibited increased expression and Rv2687c and Rv2688c exhibited decreased expression compared to the reference strain. Increased expression of pstB in clinical drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates may contribute to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. In our case, overexpression of Rv1258c may have been associated with resistance to kanamycin. No correlation was evident between Rv2686c, Rv2687c or Rv2688c expression and fluoroquinolone resistance. To explore the details of efflux pump drug-resistance mechanisms, further studies on

  7. A D-octapeptide drug efflux pump inhibitor acts synergistically with azoles in a murine oral candidiasis infection model.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazumi; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Ishijima, Sanae A; Niimi, Kyoko; Tansho, Shigeru; Ono, Yasuo; Monk, Brian C; Holmes, Ann R; Harding, David R K; Cannon, Richard D; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Clinical management of patients undergoing treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis with azole antifungals can be impaired by azole resistance. High-level azole resistance is often caused by the overexpression of Candida albicans efflux pump Cdr1p. Inhibition of this pump therefore represents a target for combination therapies that reverse azole resistance. We assessed the therapeutic potential of the D-octapeptide derivative RC21v3, a Cdr1p inhibitor, in the treatment of murine oral candidiasis caused by either the azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolate MML611 or its azole-susceptible parental strain MML610. RC21v3, fluconazole (FLC), or a combination of both drugs were administered orally to immunosuppressed ICR mice at 3, 24, and 27 h after oral inoculation with C. albicans. FLC protected the mice inoculated with MML610 from oral candidiasis, but was only partially effective in MML611-infected mice. The co-application of RC21v3 (0.02 μmol per dose) potentiated the therapeutic performance of FLC for mice infected with either strain. It caused a statistically significant decrease in C. albicans cfu isolated from the oral cavity of the infected mice and reduced oral lesions. RC21v3 also enhanced the therapeutic activity of itraconazole against MML611 infection. These results indicate that RC21v3 in combination with azoles has potential as a therapy against azole-resistant oral candidiasis.

  8. Mass spectrometry reveals synergistic effects of nucleotides, lipids, and drugs binding to a multidrug resistance efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Julien; Wang, Sheila C; Politis, Argyris; Reading, Eamonn; Ma, Jerome; Biggin, Philip C; Zhou, Min; Tao, Houchao; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey; Morgner, Nina; Robinson, Carol V

    2013-06-11

    Multidrug resistance is a serious barrier to successful treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, wherein chemotherapeutics are exported from target cells by membrane-embedded pumps. The most prevalent of these pumps, the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), consists of two homologous halves each comprising one nucleotide-binding domain and six transmembrane helices. The transmembrane region encapsulates a hydrophobic cavity, accessed by portals in the membrane, that binds cytotoxic compounds as well as lipids and peptides. Here we use mass spectrometry (MS) to probe the intact P-gp small molecule-bound complex in a detergent micelle. Activation in the gas phase leads to formation of ions, largely devoid of detergent, yet retaining drug molecules as well as charged or zwitterionic lipids. Measuring the rates of lipid binding and calculating apparent KD values shows that up to six negatively charged diacylglycerides bind more favorably than zwitterionic lipids. Similar experiments confirm binding of cardiolipins and show that prior binding of the immunosuppressant and antifungal antibiotic cyclosporin A enhances subsequent binding of cardiolipin. Ion mobility MS reveals that P-gp exists in an equilibrium between different states, readily interconverted by ligand binding. Overall these MS results show how concerted small molecule binding leads to synergistic effects on binding affinities and conformations of a multidrug efflux pump.

  9. ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowska, Natalia; Li, Kong M.; Wang, Xiao Suo; Booth, Jessica; Stuart, Jordyn; McGregor, Iain S.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is currently being investigated as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of CNS disorders like schizophrenia and epilepsy. ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) mediate pharmacoresistance in these disorders. P-gp and Bcrp are expressed at the blood brain barrier (BBB) and reduce the brain uptake of substrate drugs including various antipsychotics and anticonvulsants. It is therefore important to assess whether CBD is prone to treatment resistance mediated by P-gp and Bcrp. Moreover, it has become common practice in the drug development of CNS agents to screen against ABC transporters to help isolate lead compounds with optimal pharmacokinetic properties. The current study aimed to assess whether P-gp and Bcrp impacts the brain transport of CBD by comparing CBD tissue concentrations in wild-type (WT) mice versus mice devoid of ABC transporter genes. P-gp knockout (Abcb1a/b−∕−), Bcrp knockout (Abcg2−∕−), combined P-gp/Bcrp knockout (Abcb1a/b−∕−Abcg2−∕−) and WT mice were injected with CBD, before brain and plasma samples were collected at various time-points. CBD results were compared with the positive control risperidone and 9-hydroxy risperidone, antipsychotic drugs that are established ABC transporter substrates. Brain and plasma concentrations of CBD were not greater in P-gp, Bcrp or P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice than WT mice. In comparison, the brain/plasma concentration ratios of risperidone and 9-hydroxy risperidone were profoundly higher in P-gp knockout mice than WT mice. These results suggest that CBD is not a substrate of P-gp or Bcrp and may be free from the complication of reduced brain uptake by these transporters. Such findings provide favorable evidence for the therapeutic development of CBD in the treatment of various CNS disorders. PMID:27257556

  10. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition.

  11. Efflux inhibition with verapamil potentiates bedaquiline in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shashank; Cohen, Keira A; Winglee, Kathryn; Maiga, Mamoudou; Diarra, Bassirou; Bishai, William R

    2014-01-01

    Drug efflux is an important resistance mechanism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that verapamil, an efflux inhibitor, profoundly decreases the MIC of bedaquiline and clofazimine to M. tuberculosis by 8- to 16-fold. This exquisite susceptibility was noted among drug-susceptible and drug-resistant clinical isolates. Thus, efflux inhibition is an important sensitizer of bedaquiline and clofazimine, and efflux may emerge as a resistance mechanism to these drugs.

  12. Effects of short-term abstinence from escalating doses of D-amphetamine on drug and sucrose-evoked dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Giada; Ahn, Soyon; Phillips, Anthony G

    2007-04-01

    Abstinence from high doses of psychostimulant drugs, in both humans and rodents, is linked to adverse psychological effects including anhedonia, a core symptom of major depression, manifested behaviorally as decreased responding for rewarding stimuli. The present study used brain microdialysis in freely moving rats to examine the effect of D-amphetamine (D-amph) withdrawal on changes in extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) evoked by D-amph or behavior related to sucrose consumption. D-amph was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) according to an escalating dose (ED) schedule (from 1 to 10 mg/kg, 3 doses/day). We first confirmed the development of tolerance by monitoring DA efflux in the NAc in response to 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of D-amph administered during the ED schedule of drug administration and again in response to the 5 mg/kg dose of D-amph 72 h following the last 10 mg/kg D-amph injection. In a separate study, DA efflux in the NAc was first shown to be increased significantly during both preparatory and consummatory phases of responding for a 4% sucrose solution. Withdrawal from the ED schedule of D-amph caused a selective attenuation of DA efflux only during the preparatory phase of the sucrose test. These results provided convincing evidence of neurochemical adaptation within the mesocorticolimbic DA pathway during and following the administration of an ED schedule of D-amph as well as suppressed neurochemical responses to a psychostimulant drug and cues associated with a natural reward after withdrawal from drug treatment. Accordingly, these findings support the hypothesis that downregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA function maintained during D-amph withdrawal may account for the selective disruption of motivated behavior reported in studies employing psychostimulant drug withdrawal as a model of depression in rodents.

  13. Verapamil, and its metabolite norverapamil, inhibit macrophage-induced, bacterial efflux pump-mediated tolerance to multiple anti-tubercular drugs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kristin N; Szumowski, John D; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2014-08-01

    Drug tolerance likely represents an important barrier to tuberculosis treatment shortening. We previously implicated the Mycobacterium tuberculosis efflux pump Rv1258c as mediating macrophage-induced tolerance to rifampicin and intracellular growth. In this study, we infected the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains and found that tolerance developed to most antituberculosis drugs, including the newer agents moxifloxacin, PA-824, linezolid, and bedaquiline. Multiple efflux pump inhibitors in clinical use for other indications reversed tolerance to isoniazid and rifampicin and slowed intracellular growth. Moreover, verapamil reduced tolerance to bedaquiline and moxifloxacin. Verapamil's R isomer and its metabolite norverapamil have substantially less calcium channel blocking activity yet were similarly active as verapamil at inhibiting macrophage-induced drug tolerance. Our finding that verapamil inhibits intracellular M. tuberculosis growth and tolerance suggests its potential for treatment shortening. Norverapamil, R-verapamil, and potentially other derivatives present attractive alternatives that may have improved tolerability.

  14. In vitro and in silico analysis of the efficiency of tetrahydropyridines as drug efflux inhibitors in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lande; Carrion, Lillian Lucas; von Groll, Andrea; Costa, Sofia Santos; Junqueira, Elisabete; Ramos, Daniela Fernandes; Cantos, Jéssica; Seus, Vinicius Rosa; Couto, Isabel; Fernandes, Liana da Silva; Bonacorso, Hélio Gauze; Martins, Marcos Antônio Pinto; Zanatta, Nilo; Viveiros, Miguel; Machado, Karina S; Almeida da Silva, Pedro Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate tetrahydropyridine derivatives as efflux inhibitors and to understand the mechanism of action of the compounds by in silico studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, fluorometric methods and docking simulations were performed. The compounds NUNL02, NUNL09 and NUNL10 inhibited efflux, and NUNL02 is very likely a substrate of the transporter protein AcrB. Docking studies suggested that the mechanism of action could be by competition with substrate for binding sites and protein residues. We showed for the first time the potential of tetrahydropyridines as efflux inhibitors and highlighted compound NUNL02 as an AcrB-specific inhibitor. Docking studies suggested that competition is the putative mechanism of action of these compounds.

  15. [The role of cell wall organization and active efflux pump systems in multidrug resistance of bacteria].

    PubMed

    Hasdemir, Ufuk

    2007-04-01

    Multiple antibiotic resistance of clinically important bacteria are of major concern worldwide. Alterations of drug targets or enzymatic inactivation of antimicrobial agents are the well known mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance. Besides these well known mechanisms, recent studies have shown that a further resistance mechanism, active drug efflux, has become increasingly important in the current threat of multidrug resistance. It involves certain bacterial transport proteins which pump out toxic antimicrobial compounds from the cell. Drug efflux pump proteins in bacteria fall into five distinct protein super families [ATP binding cassette super family (ABC), Major facilitator super family (MFS), Small multidrug resistance super family (SMR), Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) super family, Resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) super family] and are mostly encoded by chromosomal genes. Among them, the members of RND protein super family are widely distrubuted in Gram negative bacteria and play siginificant role in both, intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance of these bacteria with very wide substrate specificity. RND type multidrug efflux proteins usually function together with an outer membrane canal protein (OMP) and a membrane fusion protein (MFP) to pump out drugs. AcrAB-TolC of Escherichia coli and MexAB-OprM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the typical examples of these tripartite systems. They are constitutively expressed in wild type cells and play significant role in intrinsic resistance of these bacteria. However, multidrug resistance which is of major clinical significance, rises as a result of overexpression of these pump systems due to mutations and elevated levels of resistance are recorded to structurally unrelated antimicrobial drugs such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactams, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, aminoglycosides and toxic compunds. Synthesis of RND type pump proteins are regulated by complex genetic

  16. Channel-tunnels: outer membrane components of type I secretion systems and multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C

    2003-01-01

    For translocation across the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, substances have to overcome two permeability barriers, the inner and outer membrane. Channel-tunnels are outer membrane proteins, which are central to two distinct export systems: the type I secretion system exporting proteins such as toxins or proteases, and efflux pumps discharging antibiotics, dyes, or heavy metals and thus mediating drug resistance. Protein secretion is driven by an inner membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter while drug efflux occurs via an inner membrane proton antiporter. Both inner membrane transporters are associated with a periplasmic accessory protein that recruits an outer membrane channel-tunnel to form a functional export complex. Prototypes of these export systems are the hemolysin secretion system and the AcrAB/TolC drug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, which both employ TolC as an outer membrane component. Its remarkable conduit-like structure, protruding 100 A into the periplasmic space, reveals how both systems are capable of transporting substrates across both membranes directly from the cytosol into the external environment. Proteins of the channel-tunnel family are widespread within Gram-negative bacteria. Their involvement in drug resistance and in secretion of pathogenic factors makes them an interesting system for further studies. Understanding the mechanism of the different export apparatus could help to develop new drugs, which block the efflux pumps or the secretion system.

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Is Determinant for ABCB1 and ABCG2 Drug-Efflux Transporters Function

    PubMed Central

    Atisha-Fregoso, Yemil; Lima, Guadalupe; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Baños-Peláez, Miguel; Fragoso-Loyo, Hilda; Jakez-Ocampo, Juan; Contreras-Yáñez, Irazú; Llorente, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare drug efflux function of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with active disease and in remission. Methods Twenty two active RA patients (DAS28 ≥3.2) and 22 patients in remission (DAS28<2.6) were selected from an early RA clinic. All patients were evaluated at study inclusion and six months later. ABCB1 and ABCG2 functional activity was measured in peripheral lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells able to extrude substrates for ABCB1 and ABCG2 was recorded. Results Active patients had higher ABCB1 and ABCG2 activity compared with patients in remission (median [interquartile range]): 3.9% (1.4–22.2) vs (1.3% (0.6–3.2), p = 0.003 and 3.9% (1.1–13.3) vs 0.9% (0.5–1.9) p = 0.006 respectively. Both transporters correlated with disease activity assessed by DAS28, rho = 0.45, p = 0.002 and rho = 0.47, p = 0.001 respectively. Correlation was observed between the time from the beginning of treatment and transporter activity: rho = 0.34, p = 0.025 for ABCB1 and rho = 0.35, p = 0.018 for ABCG2. The linear regression model showed that DAS28 and the time from the onset of treatment are predictors of ABCB1 and ABCG2 functional activity, even after adjustment for treatment. After six months we calculated the correlation between change in DAS28 and change in the functional activity in both transporters and found a moderate and significant correlation for ABCG2 (rho = 0.28, p = 0.04) and a non-significant correlation for ABCB1 (rho = 0.22, p = 0.11). Conclusions Patients with active RA have an increased function of ABCB1 and ABCG2, and disease activity is the main determinant of this phenomena. PMID:27442114

  18. Contribution of Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Efflux Systems to Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Formation in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Nait Chabane, Yassine; Goussard, Sylvie; Snesrud, Erik; Courvalin, Patrice; Dé, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance due to its multiple resistance to antibiotics and ability to survive in the hospital environment linked to its capacity to form biofilms. To fully characterize the contribution of AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems to acquired and intrinsic resistance, we constructed, from an entirely sequenced susceptible A. baumannii strain, a set of isogenic mutants overexpressing each system following introduction of a point mutation in their cognate regulator or a deletion for the pump by allelic replacement. Pairwise comparison of every derivative with the parental strain indicated that AdeABC and AdeFGH are tightly regulated and contribute to acquisition of antibiotic resistance when overproduced. AdeABC had a broad substrate range, including β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines-tigecycline, macrolides-lincosamides, and chloramphenicol, and conferred clinical resistance to aminoglycosides. Importantly, when combined with enzymatic resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides, this pump contributed in a synergistic fashion to the level of resistance of the host. In contrast, AdeIJK was expressed constitutively and was responsible for intrinsic resistance to the same major drug classes as AdeABC as well as antifolates and fusidic acid. Surprisingly, overproduction of AdeABC and AdeIJK altered bacterial membrane composition, resulting in decreased biofilm formation but not motility. Natural transformation and plasmid transfer were diminished in recipients overproducing AdeABC. It thus appears that alteration in the expression of efflux systems leads to multiple changes in the relationship between the host and its environment, in addition to antibiotic resistance. PMID:25805730

  19. An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.

    PubMed

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2014-09-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95 ± 0.1 · 10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177 ± 101 Ω·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5 ± 0.2 for digoxin, 4.4 ± 0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4 ± 0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1 ± 0.08, 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar + reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport.

  20. Differential Contributions of Five ABC Transporters to Mutidrug Resistance, Antioxidion and Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an Entomopathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) confers agrochemical compatibility to fungal cells-based mycoinsecticdes but mechanisms involved in MDR remain poorly understood for entomopathogenic fungi, which have been widely applied as biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. Here we characterized the functions of five ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which were classified to the subfamilies ABC-B (Mdr1), ABC-C (Mrp1) and ABC-G (Pdr1, Pdr2 and Pdr5) and selected from 54 full-size ABC proteins of Beauveria bassiana based on their main domain architecture, membrane topology and transcriptional responses to three antifungal inducers. Disruption of each transporter gene resulted in significant reduction in resistance to four to six of eight fungicides or antifungal drugs tested due to their differences in structure and function. Compared with wild-type and complemented (control) strains, disruption mutants of all the five transporter genes became significantly less tolerant to the oxidants menadione and H2O2 based on 22−41% and 10−31% reductions of their effective concentrations required for the suppression of 50% colony growth at 25°C. Under a standardized spray, the killing actions of ΔPdr5 and ΔMrp1 mutants against Spodoptera litura second-instar larvae were delayed by 59% and 33% respectively. However, no significant virulence change was observed in three other delta mutants. Taken together, the examined five ABC transporters contribute differentially to not only the fungal MDR but antioxidant capability, a phenotype rarely associated with ABC efflux pumps in previous reports; at least some of them are required for the full virulence of B. bassiana, thereby affecting the fungal biocontrol potential. Our results indicate that ABC pump-dependent MDR mechanisms exist in entomopathogenic fungi as do in yeasts and human and plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:23596534

  1. THE EFFECTS OF HIV INFECTION ON THE EXPRESSION OF THE DRUG EFFLUX PROTEINS P-GLYCOPROTEIN AND BREAST CANCER RESISTANCE PROTEIN IN A HUMAN INTESTINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Kelstan; Marlin, Jerry; Taylor, Tracey AH; Fitting, Sylvia; Hauser, Kurt F.; Rice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In HIV infection, decreased penetration of antiretroviral drugs is postulated to contribute to HIV persistence within lymphoid rich regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, mechanistic explanations for this phenomenon remain unclear. Specifically, investigations of HIV effects on drug efflux proteins within intestinal models are minimal. Methods Using an in vitro co-culture model of the GI tract, effects of HIV infection on drug efflux proteins, P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) were evaluated. The influence of the HIV-1 protein, Tat, and oxidative stress on P-glycoprotein and BCRP also was evaluated. Key Findings P-glycoprotein expression demonstrated an HIV-induced upregulation in Caco-2 cells over time for cells grown in co-culture with resting lymphocytes. BCRP overall expression increased with HIV exposure in activated primary human lymphocytes co-cultured with Caco-2 cells. Tat treatment resulted in no significant alterations in P-glycoprotein (43% increase), BCRP expression, or oxidative stress. Conclusions HIV exposure within an in vitro intestinal model resulted in increases in, P-glycoprotein and BCRP in a cell specific manner. Additionally, observed changes were not mediated by Tat. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in BCRP and P-glycoprotein may contribute, in part, to decreased antiretroviral concentrations within the gastrointestinal tract in HIV infection. PMID:25557407

  2. Fluorescence-Based Flow Sorting in Parallel with Transposon Insertion Site Sequencing Identifies Multidrug Efflux Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Amy K.; Huang, TaoTao; Liu, Qi; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Boinett, Christine J.; Brzoska, Anthony J.; Li, Liping; Ostrowski, Martin; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Baker, Stephen; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux pumps provide clinically significant levels of drug resistance in a number of Gram-negative hospital-acquired pathogens. These pathogens frequently carry dozens of genes encoding putative multidrug efflux pumps. However, it can be difficult to determine how many of these pumps actually mediate antimicrobial efflux, and it can be even more challenging to identify the regulatory proteins that control expression of these pumps. In this study, we developed an innovative high-throughput screening method, combining transposon insertion sequencing and cell sorting methods (TraDISort), to identify the genes encoding major multidrug efflux pumps, regulators, and other factors that may affect the permeation of antimicrobials, using the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. A dense library of more than 100,000 unique transposon insertion mutants was treated with ethidium bromide, a common substrate of multidrug efflux pumps that is differentially fluorescent inside and outside the bacterial cytoplasm. Populations of cells displaying aberrant accumulations of ethidium were physically enriched using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the genomic locations of transposon insertions within these strains were determined using transposon-directed insertion sequencing. The relative abundance of mutants in the input pool compared to the selected mutant pools indicated that the AdeABC, AdeIJK, and AmvA efflux pumps are the major ethidium efflux systems in A. baumannii. Furthermore, the method identified a new transcriptional regulator that controls expression of amvA. In addition to the identification of efflux pumps and their regulators, TraDISort identified genes that are likely to control cell division, cell morphology, or aggregation in A. baumannii. PMID:27601573

  3. Variation and evolution of the ABC transporter genes ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCG2, ABCG5 and ABCG8: implication for pharmacogenetics and disease.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Latoya; Dean, Michael; Moitra, Karobi

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes are ubiquitous in the genomes of all vertebrates. Some of these transporters play a key role in xenobiotic defense and are endowed with the capacity to efflux harmful toxic substances. A major role in the evolution of the vertebrate ABC genes is played by gene duplication. Multiple gene duplication and deletion events have been identified in ABC genes, resulting in either gene birth or gene death indicating that the process of gene evolution is still ongoing in this group of transporters. Additionally, polymorphisms in these genes are linked to variations in expression, function, drug disposition and drug response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABC genes may be considered as markers of individual risk for adverse drug reactions or susceptibility to complex diseases as they can uniquely influence the quality and quantity of gene product. As the ABC genes continue to evolve, globalization will yield additional migration and racial admixtures that will have far reaching implications for the pharmacogenetics of this unique family of transporters in the context of human health.

  4. Proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems.

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, I T; Brown, M H; Skurray, R A

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family. The MFS consists of symporters, antiporters, and uniporters with either 12 or 14 transmembrane-spanning segments (TMS), and we show that within the MFS, three separate families include various multidrug/proton antiport proteins. The SMR family consists of proteins with four TMS, and the multidrug efflux proteins within this family are the smallest known secondary transporters. The RND family consists of 12-TMS transport proteins and includes a number of multidrug efflux proteins with particularly broad substrate specificity. In gram-negative bacteria, some multidrug efflux systems require two auxiliary constituents, which might enable drug transport to occur across both membranes of the cell envelope. These auxiliary constituents belong to the membrane fusion protein and the outer membrane factor families, respectively. This review examines in detail each of the characterized proton-linked multidrug efflux systems. The molecular basis of the broad substrate specificity of these transporters is discussed. The surprisingly wide distribution of multidrug efflux systems and their multiplicity in single organisms, with Escherichia coli, for instance, possessing at least nine proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems with overlapping specificities, is examined. We also

  5. Drug efflux by Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) is a mechanism of resistance to the benzimidazole insulin-like growth factor receptor/insulin receptor inhibitor, BMS-536924

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaonan; Huang, Fei; Carboni, Joan M.; Flatten, Karen; Asmann, Yan W.; Eyck, Cynthia Ten; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tibodeau, Jennifer D.; Ross, Douglas D.; Gottardis, Marco M.; Erlichman, Charles; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Haluska, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Preclinical investigations have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling as a key mechanism for cancer growth and resistance to clinically useful therapies in multiple tumor types, including breast cancer. Thus, agents targeting and blocking IGF signaling have promise in the treatment of solid tumors. To identify possible mechanisms of resistance to blocking the IGF pathway, we generated a cell line that was resistant to the IGF-1R/InsR benzimidazole inhibitors BMS-554417 and BMS-536924 and compared expression profiles of the parental and resistant cells lines using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 arrays. Compared to MCF-7 cells, BCRP expression was increased 9-fold in MCF-7R4, which was confirmed by immunoblotting and was highly statistically significant (p= 7.13E-09). BCRP was also upregulated in an independently derived resistant cell line, MCF7 924R. MCF-7R4 cells had significantly lower intracellular accumulation of BMS-536924 compared to MCF-7 cells. Expression of BCRP in MCF-7 cells was sufficient to reduce sensitivity to BMS-536924. Furthermore, knockdown of BCRP in MCF-7R4 cells resensitized cells to BMS-536924. Four cell lines selected for resistance to the pyrrolotriazine IGF-1R/InsR inhibitor, BMS-754807 did not have upregulation of BCRP. These data suggest that benzimidazole IGF-1R/InsR inhibitors may select for upregulation and be effluxed by the ABC transporter BCRP, contributing to resistance. However, pyrrolotriazine IGF-1R/InsR inhibitors do not appear to be affected by this resistance mechanism. PMID:21220496

  6. GolS controls the response to gold by the hierarchical induction of Salmonella-specific genes that include a CBA efflux-coding operon.

    PubMed

    Pontel, Lucas B; Audero, María E Pérez; Espariz, Martín; Checa, Susana K; Soncini, Fernando C

    2007-11-01

    Salmonella employs a specific set of proteins that allows it to detect the presence of gold salts in the environment and to mount the appropriate resistance response. This includes a P-type ATPase, GolT, and a small cytoplasmic metal binding protein, GolB. Their expression is controlled by a MerR-like sensor, GolS, which is highly selective for Au ions. Here, we identify a new GolS-controlled operon named gesABC which codes for a CBA efflux system, and establish its role in Au resistance. GesABC can also mediate drug resistance when induced by Au in a GolS-dependent manner, in a strain deleted in the main drug transporter acrAB. The GolS-controlled transcription of gesABC differs from the other GolS-regulated loci. It is activated by gold, but not induced by copper, even in a strain deleted of the main Cu transporter gene copA, which triggers a substantial GolS-dependent induction of golTS and golB. We demonstrate that the Au-dependent induction of gesABC transcription requires higher GolS levels than for the other members of the gol regulon. This correlates with a divergent GolS operator in the gesABC promoter. We propose that the hierarchical induction within the gol regulon allows Salmonella to cope with Au-contaminated environments.

  7. Effect of vildagliptin and pravastatin combination on cholesterol efflux in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Nadia M; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-07-01

    Many reports suggested that some statins are almost ineffective in reducing triglycerides or enhancing HDL-C plasma levels, although statin treatment was still efficacious in reducing LDL-C. In diabetic dyslipidemic patients, it may therefore be necessary to use a combination therapy with other drugs to achieve either LDL-C- and triglyceride-lowering or HDL-C-enhancing goals. Such ineffectiveness of statins can be attributed to their effect on the liver X receptor (LXR) which regulates the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. A decrease in the expression of these transporters eventually leads to decreased cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues leading to low levels of HDL-C. Although manipulating the LXR pathway may complement the effects of statins, LXR synthetic ligands as T091317 have shown significant hypertriglyceridemic action which limits their use. We recently found that the antidiabetic drug vildagliptin stimulates LXR expression leading to increased ABCB1/ABCG1 expression which improves cholesterol efflux from adipocytes. Therefore, a combination of vildagliptin and statin may provide a solution without the hypertriglyceridemic action observed with LXR agonist. We hypothesize that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin will improve cholesterol efflux in adipocytes. Statin-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with vildagliptin, and the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and the cholesterol efflux were then determined. Our data indicate that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin significantly induces the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and improves cholesterol efflux (P > 0.05) in adipocytes. Our data may explain, at least in part, the improvement in HDL-C levels observed in patients receiving both medications. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):535-543, 2016.

  8. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. PMID:22807026

  9. Virtual Screening of DrugBank Reveals Two Drugs as New BCRP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Floriane; Cseke, Anna; Wlcek, Katrin; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2016-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ABC transporter playing a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. The early identification of substrates and inhibitors of this efflux transporter can help to prevent or foresee drug-drug interactions. In this work, we built a ligand-based in silico classification model to predict the inhibitory potential of drugs toward BCRP. The model was applied as a virtual screening technique to identify potential inhibitors among the small-molecules subset of DrugBank. Ten compounds were selected and tested for their capacity to inhibit mitoxantrone efflux in BCRP-expressing PLB985 cells. Results identified cisapride (IC50 = 0.4 µM) and roflumilast (IC50 = 0.9 µM) as two new BCRP inhibitors. The in silico strategy proved useful to prefilter potential drug-drug interaction perpetrators among a database of small molecules and can reduce the amount of compounds to test. PMID:27401583

  10. The BpeAB-OprB Efflux Pump of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026b Does Not Play a Role in Quorum Sensing, Virulence Factor Production, or Extrusion of Aminoglycosides but Is a Broad-Spectrum Drug Efflux System ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2010-01-01

    Most Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are intrinsically aminoglycoside resistant, mainly due to AmrAB-OprA-mediated efflux. Rare naturally occurring or genetically engineered mutants lacking this pump are aminoglycoside susceptible despite the fact that they also encode and express BpeAB-OprB, which was reported to mediate efflux of aminoglycosides in the Singapore strain KHW. To reassess the role of BpeAB-OprB in B. pseudomallei aminoglycoside resistance, we used mutants overexpressing or lacking this pump in either AmrAB-OprA-proficient or -deficient strain 1026b backgrounds. Our data show that BpeAB-OprB does not mediate efflux of aminoglycosides but is a multidrug efflux system which extrudes macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, acriflavine, and, to a lesser extent, chloramphenicol. Phylogenetically, BpeAB-OprB is closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM, which has a similar substrate spectrum. AmrAB-OprA is most closely related to MexXY, the only P. aeruginosa efflux pump known to extrude aminoglycosides. Since BpeAB-OprB in strain KHW was also implicated in playing a major role in export of acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules and in expression of diverse virulence factors, we explored whether this was also true in the strain 1026b background. The results showed that BpeAB-OprB was not required for AHL export, and mutants lacking this efflux system exhibited normal swimming motility and siderophore production, which were severely impaired in KHW bpeAB-oprB mutants. Biofilm formation was impaired in 1026b Δ(amrRAB-oprA) and Δ(amrRAB-oprA) Δ(bpeAB-oprB) mutants. At present, we do not know why our BpeAB-OprB susceptibility and virulence factor expression results with 1026b and its derivatives are different from those previously published for Singapore strain KHW. PMID:20498323

  11. The BpeAB-OprB efflux pump of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026b does not play a role in quorum sensing, virulence factor production, or extrusion of aminoglycosides but is a broad-spectrum drug efflux system.

    PubMed

    Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2010-08-01

    Most Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are intrinsically aminoglycoside resistant, mainly due to AmrAB-OprA-mediated efflux. Rare naturally occurring or genetically engineered mutants lacking this pump are aminoglycoside susceptible despite the fact that they also encode and express BpeAB-OprB, which was reported to mediate efflux of aminoglycosides in the Singapore strain KHW. To reassess the role of BpeAB-OprB in B. pseudomallei aminoglycoside resistance, we used mutants overexpressing or lacking this pump in either AmrAB-OprA-proficient or -deficient strain 1026b backgrounds. Our data show that BpeAB-OprB does not mediate efflux of aminoglycosides but is a multidrug efflux system which extrudes macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, acriflavine, and, to a lesser extent, chloramphenicol. Phylogenetically, BpeAB-OprB is closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM, which has a similar substrate spectrum. AmrAB-OprA is most closely related to MexXY, the only P. aeruginosa efflux pump known to extrude aminoglycosides. Since BpeAB-OprB in strain KHW was also implicated in playing a major role in export of acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules and in expression of diverse virulence factors, we explored whether this was also true in the strain 1026b background. The results showed that BpeAB-OprB was not required for AHL export, and mutants lacking this efflux system exhibited normal swimming motility and siderophore production, which were severely impaired in KHW bpeAB-oprB mutants. Biofilm formation was impaired in 1026b Delta(amrRAB-oprA) and Delta(amrRAB-oprA) Delta(bpeAB-oprB) mutants. At present, we do not know why our BpeAB-OprB susceptibility and virulence factor expression results with 1026b and its derivatives are different from those previously published for Singapore strain KHW.

  12. Efflux Pump Control Alters Synthetic Gene Circuit Function.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junchen; Charlebois, Daniel A; Nevozhay, Dmitry; Bódi, Zoltán; Pál, Csaba; Balázsi, Gábor

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic biology aims to design new biological systems for predefined purposes, such as the controlled secretion of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or other chemicals. Synthetic gene circuits regulating an efflux pump from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family could achieve this. However, ABC efflux pumps can also drive out intracellular inducer molecules that control the gene circuits. This will introduce an implicit feedback that could alter gene circuit function in ways that are poorly understood. Here, we used two synthetic gene circuits inducible by tetracycline family molecules to regulate the expression of a yeast ABC pump (Pdr5p) that pumps out the inducer. Pdr5p altered the dose-responses of the original gene circuits substantially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While one aspect of the change could be attributed to the efflux pumping function of Pdr5p, another aspect remained unexplained. Quantitative modeling indicated that reduced regulator gene expression in addition to efflux pump function could fully explain the altered dose-responses. These predictions were validated experimentally. Overall, we highlight how efflux pumps can alter gene circuit dynamics and demonstrate the utility of mathematical modeling in understanding synthetic gene circuit function in new circumstances.

  13. The calcium channel blockers, 1,4-dihydropyridines, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter, ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Suneet; Robey, Robert W; Bates, Susan E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2006-07-25

    The human ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, confers resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents and also affects the bioavailability of different drugs. [(125)I]Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) and [(3)H]azidopine were used for photoaffinity labeling of ABCG2 in this study. We show here for the first time that both of these photoaffinity analogues are transport substrates for ABCG2 and that [(3)H]azidopine can also be used to photolabel both wild-type R482-ABCG2 and mutant T482-ABCG2. We further used these assays to screen for potential substrates or modulators of ABCG2 and observed that 1,4-dihydropyridines such as nicardipine and nifedipine, which are clinically used as antihypertensive agents, inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125)I]IAAP and [(3)H]azidopine as well as the transport of these photoaffinity analogues by ABCG2. Furthermore, [(3)H]nitrendipine and bodipy-Fl-dihydropyridine accumulation assays showed that these compounds are transported by ABCG2. These dihydropyridines also inhibited the efflux of the known ABCG2 substrates, mitoxantrone and pheophorbide-a, from ABCG2-overexpressing cells, and nicardipine was more potent in inhibiting this transport. Both nicardipine and nifedipine stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2, and the nifedipine-stimulated activity was inhibited by fumitremorgin C, suggesting that these agents might interact at the same site on the transporter. In addition, nontoxic concentrations of dihydropyridines increased the sensitivity of ABCG2-expressing cells to mitoxantrone by 3-5-fold. In aggregate, results from the photoaffinity labeling and efflux assays using [(125)I]IAAP and [(3)H]azidopine demonstrate that 1,4-dihydropyridines are substrates of ABCG2 and that these photolabels can be used to screen new substrates and/or inhibitors of this transporter.

  14. Antibiotic resistance and multidrug-resistant efflux pumps expression in lactic acid bacteria isolated from pozol, a nonalcoholic Mayan maize fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Wacher-Rodarte, Maria Del Carmen; Trejo-Muñúzuri, Tanya Paulina; Montiel-Aguirre, Jesús Fernando; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Raúl L; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita

    2016-05-01

    Pozol is a handcrafted nonalcoholic Mayan beverage produced by the spontaneous fermentation of maize dough by lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are carriers of chromosomal encoded multidrug-resistant efflux pumps genes that can be transferred to pathogens and/or confer resistance to compounds released during the fermentation process causing food spoiling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic sensibility and the transcriptional expression of ABC-type efflux pumps in LAB isolated from pozol that contributes to multidrug resistance. Analysis of LAB and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC 29213 and ATCC 6538 control strains to antibiotic susceptibility, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) to ethidium bromide were based in "standard methods" whereas the ethidium bromide efflux assay was done by fluorometric assay. Transcriptional expression of efflux pumps was analyzed by RT-PCR. LAB showed antibiotic multiresistance profiles, moreover, Lactococcus (L.) lactis and Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum displayed higher ethidium bromide efflux phenotype than S. aureus control strains. Ethidium bromide resistance and ethidium bromide efflux phenotypes were unrelated with the overexpression of lmrD in L. lactics, or the underexpression of lmrA in L. plantarum and norA in S. aureus. These findings suggest that, moreover, the analyzed efflux pumps genes, other unknown redundant mechanisms may underlie the antibiotic resistance and the ethidium bromide efflux phenotype in L. lactis and L. plantarum. Phenotypic and molecular drug multiresistance assessment in LAB may improve a better selection of the fermentation starter cultures used in pozol, and to control the antibiotic resistance widespread and food spoiling for health safety.

  15. Efflux Pump Inhibitor Phenylalanine-Arginine Β-Naphthylamide Effect on the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Imipenem in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated From Hospitalized Patients in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Hashemi, Ali; Hakemi-Vala, Mojdeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Hallajzadeh, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly troublesome pathogen and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among hospitalized burn patients. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of the AdeABC genes and the role of the efflux pump (s) in the imipenem resistance of A. baumannii strains isolated from burn patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 A. baumannii isolates collected from 240 wound samples of burn patients admitted to the Burn Unit of Shahid Motahari Burn hospital, Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and broth microdilution according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines. The activity of the efflux pump was evaluated using the efflux pump inhibitor, the phenylalanine-arginine Β-naphthylamide (PAΒN). The AdeABC genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Results: In this study, 100% of the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, piperacillin, meropenem, co-trimoxazole, and piperacillin/tazobactam; 56 (94%) to gentamicin; 50 (81%) to amikacin; 58 (97%) to imipenem; and 45 (76%) to tetracycline. Additionally,all the isolates were susceptible to colistin. The susceptibility of the strains to imipenem was highly increased in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor such that for 58 (96.6%) of the isolates, the PAΒN reduced the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by 4- to 64-fold. The adeA and adeB genes were detected in 60 (100%) of the isolates, and the adeC gene was present in 51 (85%). Conclusions: The efflux pump may play a role in antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii isolates. The ability of A. baumannii isolates to acquire drug resistance by the efflux pump mechanism is a concern. Thus, new strategies are required in order to eliminate the efflux transport activity from resistant A. baumannii isolates causing

  16. ABC transporters and the proteasome complex are implicated in susceptibility to Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis across multiple drugs.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Paola; Bansal, Mukesh; Lefebvre, Celine; Guarnieri, Paolo; Shen, Yufeng; Pe'er, Itsik; Califano, Andrea; Floratos, Aris

    2015-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) represent rare but serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Both are characterized by distinctive blistering lesions and significant mortality rates. While there is evidence for strong drug-specific genetic predisposition related to HLA alleles, recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) on European and Asian populations have failed to identify genetic susceptibility alleles that are common across multiple drugs. We hypothesize that this is a consequence of the low to moderate effect size of individual genetic risk factors. To test this hypothesis we developed Pointer, a new algorithm that assesses the aggregate effect of multiple low risk variants on a pathway using a gene set enrichment approach. A key advantage of our method is the capability to associate SNPs with genes by exploiting physical proximity as well as by using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) that capture information about both cis- and trans-acting regulatory effects. We control for known bias-inducing aspects of enrichment based analyses, such as: 1) gene length, 2) gene set size, 3) presence of biologically related genes within the same linkage disequilibrium (LD) region, and, 4) genes shared among multiple gene sets. We applied this approach to publicly available SJS/TEN genome-wide genotype data and identified the ABC transporter and Proteasome pathways as potentially implicated in the genetic susceptibility of non-drug-specific SJS/TEN. We demonstrated that the innovative SNP-to-gene mapping phase of the method was essential in detecting the significant enrichment for those pathways. Analysis of an independent gene expression dataset provides supportive functional evidence for the involvement of Proteasome pathways in SJS/TEN cutaneous lesions. These results suggest that Pointer provides a useful framework for the integrative analysis of pharmacogenetic GWAS data, by increasing the power to detect aggregate effects

  17. Novel E-ring camptothecin keto analogues (S38809 and S39625) are stable, potent, and selective topoisomerase I inhibitors without being substrates of drug efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kazutaka; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Redon, Christophe; Sordet, Olivier; Agama, Keli; Lavielle, Gilbert; Pierré, Alain; Bates, Susan E; Pommier, Yves

    2007-12-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) analogues are powerful anticancer agents but are chemically unstable due to their alpha-hydroxylactone six-membered E-ring structure, which is essential for trapping topoisomerase I (Top1)-DNA cleavage complexes. To stabilize the E-ring, CPT keto analogues with a five-membered E-ring lacking the oxygen of the lactone ring (S38809 and S39625) have been synthesized. S39625 has been selected for advanced preclinical development based on its promising activity in tumor models. Here, we show that both keto analogues are active against purified Top1 and selective against Top1 in yeast and human cancer cells. The keto analogues show improved cytotoxicity toward colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells and leukemia cells compared with CPT. The drug-induced Top1-DNA cleavage complexes induced by the keto analogues show remarkable persistence both with purified Top1 and in cells following 1-h drug treatments. Moreover, we find that S39625 is not a substrate for either the ABCB1 (multidrug resistance-1/P-glycoprotein) or ABCG2 (mitoxantrone resistance/breast cancer resistance protein) drug efflux transporters, which sets S39625 apart from the clinically used CPT analogues topotecan or SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan). Finally, we show that nanomolar concentrations of S38809 or S39625 induce intense and persistent histone gamma-H2AX. The chemical stability of the keto analogues and the ability of S39625 to produce high levels of persistent Top1-DNA cleavage complex and its potent antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines make S39625 a promising new anticancer drug candidate. Histone gamma-H2AX could be used as a biomarker for the upcoming clinical trials of S39625.

  18. ABCG2 is not able to catalyze glutathione efflux and does not contribute to GSH-dependent collateral sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Charlotte; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Szakacs, Gergely; Sarkadi, Balazs; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    ABCG2 is a key human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediating cancer cell chemoresistance. In the case of ABCC1, another multidrug transporter, earlier findings documented that certain modulators greatly increase ABCC1-mediated glutathione (GSH) efflux and, upon depletion of intracellular GSH, induce “collateral sensitivity” leading to the apoptosis of multidrug resistant cells. Recently, it has been suggested that ABCG2 may mediate an active GSH transport. In order to explore if ABCG2-overexpressing cells may be similarly targeted, we first looked for the effects of ABCG2 expression on cellular GSH levels, and for an ABCG2-dependent GSH transport in HEK293 and MCF7 cells. We found that, while ABCG2 overexpression altered intracellular GSH levels in these transfected or drug-selected cells, ABCG2 inhibitors or transport modulators did not influence GSH efflux. We then performed direct measurements of drug-stimulated ATPase activity and 3H-GSH transport in inside-out membrane vesicles of human ABC transporter-overexpressing Sf9 insect cells. Our results indicate that ABCG2-ATPase is not modulated by GSH and, in contrast to ABCC1, ABCG2 does not catalyze any significant GSH transport. Our data suggest no direct interaction between the ABCG2 transporter and GSH, although a long-term modulation of cellular GSH by ABCG2 cannot be excluded. PMID:24312054

  19. A New ABC Half-Transporter in Leishmania major Is Involved in Resistance to Antimony

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, J. I.; García-Hernández, R.; Castanys, S.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of ABCI4, a new intracellular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporter in Leishmania major, is described. We show that ABCI4 is involved in heavy metal export, thereby conferring resistance to Pentostam, to Sb(III), and to As(III) and Cd(II). Parasites overexpressing ABCI4 showed a lower mitochondrial toxic effect of antimony by decreasing reactive oxygen species production and maintained higher values of both the mitochondrial electrochemical potential and total ATP levels with respect to controls. The ABCI4 half-transporter forms homodimers as determined by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. A combination of subcellular localization studies under a confocal microscope and a surface biotinylation assay using parasites expressing green fluorescent protein- and FLAG-tagged ABCI4 suggests that the transporter presents a dual localization in both mitochondria and the plasma membrane. Parasites overexpressing ABCI4 present an increased replication in mouse peritoneal macrophages. We have determined that porphyrins are substrates for ABCI4. Consequently, the overexpression of ABCI4 confers resistance to some toxic porphyrins, such as zinc-protoporphyrin, due to the lower accumulation resulting from a significant efflux, as determined using the fluorescent zinc-mesoporphyrin, a validated heme analog. In addition, ABCI4 has a significant ability to efflux thiol after Sb(III) incubation, thus meaning that ABCI4 could be considered to be a potential thiol-X-pump that is able to recognize metal-conjugated thiols. In summary, we have shown that this new ABC transporter is involved in drug sensitivity to antimony and other compounds by efflux as conjugated thiol complexes. PMID:23716044

  20. Possible involvement of cationic-drug sensitive transport systems in the blood-to-brain influx and brain-to-blood efflux of amantadine across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toyofumi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the brain-to-blood efflux transport of amantadine across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The apparent in vivo efflux rate constant for [(3) H]amantadine from the rat brain (keff ) was found to be 1.53 × 10(-2) min(-1) after intracerebral microinjection using the brain efflux index method. The efflux of [(3) H]amantadine was inhibited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) ), a cationic neurotoxin, suggesting that amantadine transport from the brain to the blood across the BBB potentially involves the rat plasma membrane monoamine transporter (rPMAT). On the other hand, other selected substrates for organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic anion transporters (OATs), as well as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), did not affect the efflux transport of [(3) H]amantadine. In addition, in vitro studies using an immortalized rat brain endothelial cell line (GPNT) showed that the uptake and retention of [(3) H]amantadine by the cells was not changed by the addition of cyclosporin, which is an inhibitor of P-gp. However, cyclosporin affected the uptake and retention of rhodamine123. Finally, the initial brain uptake of [(3) H]amantadine was determined using an in situ mouse brain perfusion technique. Notably, the brain uptake clearance for [(3) H]amantadine was significantly decreased with the co-perfusion of quinidine or verapamil, which are cationic P-gp inhibitors, while MPP(+) did not have a significant effect. It is thus concluded that while P-gp is not involved, it is possible that rPMAT and the cationic drug-sensitive transport system participate in the brain-to-blood efflux and the blood-to-brain influx of amantadine across the BBB, respectively.

  1. Involvement of the leucine response transcription factor LeuO in regulation of the genes for sulfa drug efflux.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2009-07-01

    LeuO, a LysR family transcription factor, exists in a wide variety of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is involved in the regulation of as yet unidentified genes affecting the stress response and pathogenesis expression. Using genomic screening by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) in vitro, a total of 106 DNA sequences were isolated from 12 different regions of the Escherichia coli genome. All of the SELEX fragments formed complexes in vitro with purified LeuO. After Northern blot analysis of the putative target genes located downstream of the respective LeuO-binding sequence, a total of nine genes were found to be activated by LeuO, while three genes were repressed by LeuO. The LeuO target gene collection included several multidrug resistance genes. A phenotype microarray assay was conducted to identify the gene(s) responsible for drug resistance and the drug species that are under the control of the LeuO target gene(s). The results described herein indicate that the yjcRQP operon, one of the LeuO targets, is involved in sensitivity control against sulfa drugs. We propose to rename the yjcRQP genes the sdsRQP genes (sulfa drug sensitivity determinant).

  2. Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaobing; Yu, Tao; Liang, Yu; Ji, Shengdong; Guo, Xiaowei; Ma, Jianmin; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-18

    In this study, efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistance, including plasmid-encoded (Qac protein family and BcrABC) and chromosome-borne efflux pumps, was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes from retail food in China. Among the 59 L. monocytogenes strains, 13 (22.0%) strains were resistant to BC. The PCR results showed that bcrABC was harbored by 2 of 13 BC resistant strains. However, none of the qac genes were detected among the 59 strains. The bcrABC was absent in both of the plasmid cured strains, indicating that this BC resistance determinant was plasmid-encoded in the two bcrABC-positive strains. In the presence of reserpine, most of the bcrABC-negative strains had decreases in the MICs of BC, suggesting the existence of other efflux pumps and their role in BC resistance. After exposed to reserpine, the reduction in BC MICs was observed in the two cured strains, indicating that efflux pumps located on chromosome was also involved in BC resistance. Our findings suggest that food products may act as reservoirs for BC resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes and plasmid- and chromosome-encoded efflux pumps could mediate the BC resistance of L. monocytogenes, which is especially relevant to the adaption of this organism in food-related environments with frequent BC use.

  3. Transport of gemifloxacin, a 4th generation quinolone antibiotic, in the Caco-2 and engineered MDCKII cells, and potential involvement of efflux transporters in the intestinal absorption of the drug.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyo-Eon; Song, Boran; Kim, Sang-Bum; Shim, Won-Sik; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chong, Saeho; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2013-04-01

    The oral (po) bioavailability of gemifloxacin mesylate in rats and its possible association with efflux transporters was investigated. The apparent permeabilities (Papp) of gemifloxacin across the Caco-2 cell monolayer were 1.20 ± 0.09 × 10(-5) cm/s for apical to basal (absorptive) transport, and 2.13 ± 0.6 × 10(-5) cm/s for basal to apical (secretory) transport for a 5-500 μM concentration range, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated efflux in the secretory transport. The secretory transport in Caco-2 cells was significantly decreased by MRP2 (MK571) and BCRP (Ko143) inhibitors. The secretory transport was distinct in MDCKII/P-gp, MDCKII/MRP2 and MDCKII/BCRP cells, and the affinity was highest for MRP2, followed by BCRP and P-gp. The efflux was significantly decreased by verapamil and Ko143, but not significantly by MK571. The comparative po bioavailability in rats was increased by the preadministration of Ko143 (four-fold), MK571 (two-fold) and verapamil (two-fold). Efflux transporters appeared to significantly limit the bioavailability of gemifloxacin in rats, suggesting their possible contribution to the low bioavailability of the drug in the human (70%).

  4. Downregulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes is a mechanism of inhibition of efflux pumps mediated by polymeric amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Castillo, Amalia I; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2012-11-01

    The ability of cells to acquire resistance to multiple pharmaceuticals, namely multidrug resistance (MDR), is often mediated by the over-expression of efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily; for example P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP or ABCG2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1. ABCs pump drug molecules out of cells against a concentration gradient, reducing their intracellular concentration. The ability of polymeric amphiphiles to inhibit ABCs as well as the cellular pathways involved in the inhibition has been extensively investigated. This work investigated for the first time the effect of branched poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines) on the levels of mRNA encoding for MDR1, BCRP and MRP1, in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7). Copolymers with a broad range of molecular weights and hydrophilic-lipophilic balances were assayed. Results confirmed the down-regulation of mdr1 and abcg2 genes. Conversely, the mrp1 gene was not affected. These findings further support the versatility of these temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers to overcome drug resistance in cancer and infectious diseases.

  5. The gut microbiota ellagic acid-derived metabolite urolithin A and its sulfate conjugate are substrates for the drug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Miguel, Verónica; Merino, Gracia; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Alvarez, Ana I; Espín, Juan C

    2013-05-08

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a drug efflux transporter that can affect the pharmacological and toxicological properties of many molecules. Urolithins, metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins, have been acknowledged with in vivo anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated whether urolithins (Uro-A, -B, -C, and -D) and their main phase II metabolites Uro-A sulfate, Uro-A glucuronide, and Uro-B glucuronide as well as their precursor EA were substrates for ABCG2/BCRP. Parental and Bcrp1-transduced MDCKII cells were used for active transport assays. Uro-A and, to a lesser extent, Uro-A sulfate showed a significant increase in apically directed translocation in Bcrp1-transduced cells. Bcrp1 did not show affinity for the rest of the tested compounds. Data were confirmed for murine, human, bovine, and ovine BCRP-transduced subclones as well as with the use of the selective BCRP inhibitor Ko143. The transport inhibition by Uro-A was analyzed by flow cytometry compared to Ko143 using the antineoplastic agent mitoxantrone as a model substrate. Results showed that Uro-A was able to inhibit mitoxantrone transport in a dose-dependent manner. This study reports for the first time that Uro-A and its sulfate conjugate are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. The results suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of these gut microbiota-derived metabolites could modulate ABCG2/BCRP-mediated transport processes and mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. Further in vivo investigations are warranted.

  6. Identification of a multidrug efflux pump in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Mallik, Dhriti; Kar, Debasish; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2016-07-01

    Cell wall impermeability and active efflux of drugs are among the primary reasons for drug resistance in mycobacteria. Efflux pumps are tripartite membrane localized transport proteins that expel drug molecules outside the cells. Several of such efflux pumps are annotated in mycobacteria, but few have been characterized, like MSMEG_2991, a putative efflux pump permease of Mycobacterium smegmatis To substantiate this, we overexpressed MSMEG_2991 protein in Escherichia coli 2443. Expression of MSMEG_2991 elevated the resistance towards structurally unrelated groups of antibiotics. An active antibiotic efflux pump nature of MSMEG_2991 was revealed by assessing the acquisition of ciprofloxacin in the absence and presence of the efflux pump inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, indicating the involvement of proton-motive force (pmf) during the efflux activity. MSMEG_2991 expression elevated biofilm formation in E. coli by 4-fold, keeping parity to some of the earlier reported efflux pumps. In silico analysis suggested the presence of 12 transmembrane helices in MSMEG_2991 resembling EmrD efflux pump of E. coli Based on in vivo and in silico analyses, MSMEG_2991 may be designated as a pmf-mediated multidrug efflux pump protein that expels diverse groups of antibiotics and might as well be involved in the biofilm enhancement.

  7. Effects of rhinacanthin-C on function and expression of drug efflux transporters in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wongwanakul, Ratjika; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Siripong, Pongpun; Jianmongkol, Suree

    2013-09-01

    Rhinacanthin-C is a bioactive naphthoquinone ester found in Rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz (Acanthaceae). This compound has potential therapeutic value as an anticancer and antiviral agent. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of this compound on the function and the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), using the in vitro model of Caco-2 cells. The activities of P-gp and MRP2 were determined by following the intracellular accumulation of calcein and 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein in the uptake assays with fluorescence spectroscopy. The expression of P-gp after prolonged exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry with the use of a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-human P-gp antibody. Our results showed that the inhibitory effect of rhinacanthin-C was more potent toward P-gp than MRP2, and was reversible. Short-term exposure of Caco-2 cells with rhinacanthin-C (100 μM) resulted in increase in P-gp expression without any significant change in its function. Extended exposure of Caco-2 cells to the naphthoquinone at the highest non-cytotoxic concentration (0.625 μM) for 7 days had no effect on the expression and the function of P-gp. These findings suggested that rhinacanthin-C might raise the problem of herb-drug interaction when co-administered with other P-gp substrates.

  8. eUnaG: a new ligand-inducible fluorescent reporter to detect drug transporter activity in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Johannes T.-H.; Nam, Kwangho; Yeh, Joshua T.-H.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of metabolites and toxic organic solutes are orchestrated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the organic solute carrier family (SLC) proteins. A large number of ABC and SLC transpoters exist; however, only a small number have been well characterized. To facilitate the analysis of these transporters, which is important for drug safety and physiological studies, we developed a sensitive genetically encoded bilirubin (BR)-inducible fluorescence sensor (eUnaG) to detect transporter-coupled influx/efflux of organic compounds. This sensor can be used in live cells to measure transporter activity, as excretion of BR depends on ABC and SLC transporters. Applying eUnaG in functional RNAi screens, we characterize l(2)03659 as a Drosophila multidrug resistant-associated ABC transporter. PMID:28176814

  9. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits the transport of the novel anti-Parkinson's disease candidate drug FLZ across the physiological and PD pathological in vitro BBB models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Hou, Jinfeng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport.

  10. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  11. The Acinetobacter baumannii Two-Component System AdeRS Regulates Genes Required for Multidrug Efflux, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Strain-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Grace E.; Evans, Laura P.; Anderson, Michele J.; Wand, Matthew E.; Bonney, Laura C.; Ivens, Alasdair; Chua, Kim Lee; Webber, Mark A.; Sutton, J. Mark; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to persist in the environment and is often multidrug resistant (MDR), causing difficulties in the treatment of infections. Here, we show that the two-component system AdeRS, which regulates the production of the AdeABC multidrug resistance efflux pump, is required for the formation of a protective biofilm in an ex vivo porcine mucosal model, which mimics a natural infection of the human epithelium. Interestingly, deletion of adeB impacted only on the ability of strain AYE to form a biofilm on plastic and only on the virulence of strain Singapore 1 for Galleria mellonella. RNA-Seq revealed that loss of AdeRS or AdeB significantly altered the transcriptional landscape, resulting in the changed expression of many genes, notably those associated with antimicrobial resistance and virulence interactions. For example, A. baumannii lacking AdeRS displayed decreased expression of adeABC, pil genes, com genes, and a pgaC-like gene, whereas loss of AdeB resulted in increased expression of pil and com genes and decreased expression of ferric acinetobactin transport system genes. These data define the scope of AdeRS-mediated regulation, show that changes in the production of AdeABC mediate important phenotypes controlled by AdeRS, and suggest that AdeABC is a viable target for antimicrobial drug and antibiofilm discovery. PMID:27094331

  12. [ABC transporter proteins in multidrug resistance of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Balková, K; Gbelská, Y

    2007-08-01

    The ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporter family includes membrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes. These proteins play an essential role in the protection of cells from toxic compounds/metabolites. Their overexpression which leads to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in pathogens and enables cancer cells to survive chemotherapy is of major concern for human health. Mutations in ABC transporters are implicated in a number of Mendelian disorders such as cystic fibrosis, adrenoleukodystrophy and cholesterol and bile transport defects. In microbial cells, several homologues of human ABC transporters were identified. Their further molecular biological study can contribute to better understanding and treatment of MDR or diseases caused by dysfunction of ABC transporter proteins. A review is presented of the state of the art in ABC transporter proteins in both prokaryotic and eucaryotic cells. The role of microbial ABC transporters in the development of drug resistance is analyzed.

  13. Antitubercular Agent Delamanid and Metabolites as Substrates and Inhibitors of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masakazu; Hashizume, Kenta; Hamasako, Yusuke; Ohzone, Yoshihiro; Kashiyama, Eiji; Umehara, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Delamanid (Deltyba, OPC-67683) is the first approved drug in a novel class of nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles developed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis require treatment with multiple drugs, several of which have known drug-drug interactions. Transporters regulate drug absorption, distribution, and excretion; therefore, the inhibition of transport by one agent may alter the pharmacokinetics of another, leading to unexpected adverse events. Therefore, it is important to understand how delamanid affects transport activity. In the present study, the potencies of delamanid and its main metabolites as the substrates and inhibitors of various transporters were evaluated in vitro. Delamanid was not transported by the efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), solute carrier (SLC) transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, or organic cation transporter 1. Similarly, metabolite 1 (M1) was not a substrate for any of these transporters except P-gp. Delamanid showed no inhibitory effect on ABC transporters MDR1, BCRP, and bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11), SLC transporters, or organic anion transporters. M1 and M2 inhibited P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport but did so only at the 50% inhibitory concentrations (M1, 4.65 and 5.71 μmol/liter, respectively; M2, 7.80 and 6.02 μmol/liter, respectively), well above the corresponding maximum concentration in plasma values observed following the administration of multiple doses in clinical trials. M3 and M4 did not affect the activities of any of the transporters tested. These in vitro data suggest that delamanid is unlikely to have clinically relevant interactions with drugs for which absorption and disposition are mediated by this group of transporters. PMID:27021329

  14. Circumvention of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells by Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents. PMID:20653978

  15. Control of Angiogenesis by AIBP-mediated Cholesterol Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Baek, Ji Sun; Liu, Chao; Almazan, Felicidad; Ulrich, Florian; Wiesner, Philipp; Taleb, Adam; Deer, Elena; Pattison, Jennifer; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a structural component of the cell, indispensable for normal cellular function, but its excess often leads to abnormal proliferation, migration, inflammatory responses and/or cell death. To prevent cholesterol overload, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate cholesterol efflux from the cells to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and to the ApoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)1-3. Maintaining efficient cholesterol efflux is essential for normal cellular function4-6. However, the role of cholesterol efflux in angiogenesis and the identity of its local regulators are poorly understood. Here we show that ApoA-I binding protein (AIBP) accelerates cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (EC) to HDL and thereby regulates angiogenesis. AIBP/HDL-mediated cholesterol depletion reduces lipid rafts, interferes with VEGFR2 dimerization and signaling, and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and mouse aortic neovascularization ex vivo. Remarkably, Aibp regulates the membrane lipid order in embryonic zebrafish vasculature and functions as a non-cell autonomous regulator of zebrafish angiogenesis. Aibp knockdown results in dysregulated sprouting/branching angiogenesis, while forced Aibp expression inhibits angiogenesis. Dysregulated angiogenesis is phenocopied in Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos, and cholesterol levels are increased in Aibp-deficient and Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos. Our findings demonstrate that secreted AIBP positively regulates cholesterol efflux from EC and that effective cholesterol efflux is critical for proper angiogenesis. PMID:23719382

  16. Poloxamines display a multiple inhibitory activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2011-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common fatal cancer worldwide with more than 500,000 annual deaths. Approximately 40% of the patients with HCC showed tumoral overexpression of transmembrane proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (ABC) which pump drugs out of cells. The overexpression of these efflux transporters confers on the cells a multiple drug resistance phenotype, which is considered a crucial cause of treatment refractoriness in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of pH- and temperature-responsive X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines, Tetronic, PEO-PPO) showing a wide range of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios on the functional activity of three different ABC proteins, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, in two human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. First, the cytotoxicity of the different copolymers (at different concentrations) on both liver carcinoma cell lines was thoroughly evaluated by means of apoptosis analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Thus, viable cells (AV-/PI-), early apoptotic cells (AV+/PI-) and late apoptotic cells (V-FITC+/PI+) were identified. Results pointed out copolymers of intermediate to high hydrophobicity and intermediate molecular weight (e.g., T904) as the most cytotoxic. Then, DiOC2, rhodamine 123 and vinblastine were used as differential substrates of these pumps. HeLa, an epithelial cell line of human cervical cancer that does not express P-gp, was used exclusively as a control and enabled the discerning between P-gp and MRP1 inhibition. Moderate to highly hydrophobic poloxamines T304, T904 and T1301 showed inhibitory activity against P-gp and BCRP but not against MRP1 in both hepatic cell lines. A remarkable dependence of this effect on the

  17. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps in the medicinally relevant microaerobic and anaerobic pathogens and their implications in the effort to combat drug-resistant infections. PMID:27025630

  18. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps: mechanisms, physiology and pharmacological exploitations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingjing; Deng, Ziqing; Yan, Aixin

    2014-10-17

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the capability of bacterial pathogens to withstand lethal doses of structurally diverse drugs which are capable of eradicating non-resistant strains. MDR has been identified as a major threat to the public health of human being by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among the four general mechanisms that cause antibiotic resistance including target alteration, drug inactivation, decreased permeability and increased efflux, drug extrusion by the multidrug efflux pumps serves as an important mechanism of MDR. Efflux pumps not only can expel a broad range of antibiotics owing to their poly-substrate specificity, but also drive the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms by lowering intracellular antibiotic concentration and promoting mutation accumulation. Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps have been increasingly found to be associated with clinically relevant drug resistance. On the other hand, accumulating evidence has suggested that efflux pumps also have physiological functions in bacteria and their expression is subject tight regulation in response to various of environmental and physiological signals. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of drug extrusion, and regulation and physiological functions of efflux pumps is essential for the development of anti-resistance interventions. In this review, we summarize the development of these research areas in the recent decades and present the pharmacological exploitation of efflux pump inhibitors as a promising anti-drug resistance intervention.

  19. Mitochondrial ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Lill, R; Kispal, G

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to bacteria, mitochondria contain only a few ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in their inner membrane. The known mitochondrial ABC proteins fall into two major classes that, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are represented by the half-transporter Atm1p and the two closely homologous proteins Mdl1p and Mdl2p. In humans two Atm1p orthologues (ABC7 and MTABC3) and two proteins homologous to Mdll/2p have been localized to mitochondria. The Atm1p-like proteins perform an important function in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and in the maturation of Fe/S proteins in the cytosol. Mutations in ABC7 are causative of hereditary X-linked sideroblastic anemia and cerebellar ataxia (XLSA/A). MTABC3 may be a candidate gene for the lethal neonatal syndrome. The function of the mitochondrial Mdl1/2p-like proteins is not clear at present with the notable exception of murine ABC-me that may transport intermediates of heme biosynthesis from the matrix to the cytosol in erythroid tissues.

  20. An overview of bacterial efflux pumps and computational approaches to study efflux pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shirin; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2016-01-01

    Micro-organisms express a wide range of transmembrane pumps known as multidrug efflux pumps that improve the micro-organism's ability to survive in severe environments and contribute to resistance against antibiotic and antimicrobial agents. There is significant interest in developing efflux inhibitors as an adjunct to treatment with current and next generation of antibiotics. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. We summarize some structural and functional data that could provide insights into the inhibition of transport mechanisms of these intricate molecular nanomachines with a focus on the advances in computational approaches.

  1. ACTIVE EFFLUX OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS BY PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA S12 IS INDUCED BY SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of the membrane-associated organic solvent efflux system SrpABC of Pseudomonas putida S12 was examined by cloning a 312-bp DNA fragment, containing the srp promoter, in the broad-host-range reporter vector pKRZ-1. Compounds that are capable of inducing expression of the...

  2. Pathways of Arsenic Uptake and Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Chi; Fu, Hsueh-Liang; Lin, Yung-Feng; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic substance and ranks first on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund List. Arsenic is a carcinogen and a causative agent of numerous human diseases. Paradoxically arsenic is used as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Inorganic arsenic has two biological important oxidation states: As(V) (arsenate) and As(III) (arsenite). Arsenic uptake is adventitious because the arsenate and arsenite are chemically similar to required nutrients. Arsenate resembles phosphate and is a competitive inhibitor of many phosphate-utilizing enzymes. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transport systems. In contrast, at physiological pH, the form of arsenite is As(OH)3, which resembles organic molecules such as glycerol. Consequently, arsenite is taken into cells by aquaglyceroporin channels. Arsenic efflux systems are found in nearly every organism and evolved to rid cells of this toxic metalloid. These efflux systems include members of the multidrug resistance protein family and the bacterial exchangers Acr3 and ArsB. ArsB can also be a subunit of the ArsAB As(III)-translocating ATPase, an ATP-driven efflux pump. The ArsD metallochaperone binds cytosolic As(III) and transfers it to the ArsA subunit of the efflux pump. Knowledge of the pathways and transporters for arsenic uptake and efflux is essential for understanding its toxicity and carcinogenicity and for rational design of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:23046656

  3. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  4. ABC's of Being Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  5. 1968 ABC Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Frances M.; Russell, Valerie E.

    A talent development project at Mount Holyoke College, part of A Better Chance (ABC)-Independent Schools Talent Search program, was offered during the summer of 1968 to 71 disadvantaged high school students from 13 states. Major aims of the program were to help these students with college potential to strengthen their academic skills and…

  6. Plant ABC Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung; Choi, Hyunju; Burla, Bo; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes and fulfill a multitude of functions. Originally identified as transporters involved in detoxification processes, they have later been shown to be required for organ growth, plant nutrition, plant development, response to abiotic stresses, pathogen resistance and the interaction of the plant with its environment. To fulfill these roles they exhibit different substrate specifies by e.g. depositing surface lipids, accumulating phytate in seeds, and transporting the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the functions of plant ABC transporters and to show their importance for plant development and survival. PMID:22303277

  7. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (<0.5 μg/mL) and GO (<20 μg/mL) did not decrease cell viability, generate reactive oxygen species, or disrupt mitochondrial function. However, graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO.

  8. Chlorinated phenols control the expression of the multi-drug resistance efflux pump MexAB-OprM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by activating NalC

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Cremers, Claudia M.; Jakob, Ursula; Love, Nancy G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary NalC is a TetR type regulator that represses the multidrug efflux pump MexAB-OprM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we explain the mechanism of NalC mediated regulation of MexAB-OprM. We show that NalC non-covalently binds chlorinated phenols and chemicals containing chlorophenol sidechains such as triclosan. NalC-chlorinated phenol binding results in its dissociation from promoter DNA and up-regulation of NalC’s downstream targets, including the MexR antirepressor ArmR. ArmR up-regulation and MexR-ArmR complex formation have previously been shown to upregulate MexAB-OprM. In vivo mexB and armR expression analyses were used to corroborate in vitro NalC chlorinated phenol binding. We also show that the interaction between chlorinated phenols and NalC is reversible, such that removal of these chemicals restored NalC promoter DNA binding. Thus, the NalC-chlorinated phenol interaction is likely a pertinent physiological mechanism that P. aeruginosa uses to control expression of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. PMID:21231970

  9. A Combination Fluorescence Assay Demonstrates Increased Efflux Pump Activity as a Resistance Mechanism in Azole-Resistant Vaginal Candida albicans Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic fungus causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Azole drugs, such as fluconazole, are the most common treatment for these infections. Recently, azole-resistant vaginal C. albicans isolates have been detected in patients with recurring and refractory vaginal infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance in vaginal C. albicans isolates have not been studied in detail. In oral and systemic resistant isolates, overexpression of the ABC transporters Cdr1p and Cdr2p and the major facilitator transporter Mdr1p is associated with resistance. Sixteen fluconazole-susceptible and 22 fluconazole-resistant vaginal C. albicans isolates were obtained, including six matched sets containing a susceptible and a resistant isolate, from individual patients. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), 16 of 22 resistant isolates showed overexpression of at least one efflux pump gene, while only 1 of 16 susceptible isolates showed such overexpression. To evaluate the pump activity associated with overexpression, an assay that combined data from two separate fluorescent assays using rhodamine 6G and alanine β-naphthylamide was developed. The qRT-PCR results and activity assay results were in good agreement. This combination of two fluorescent assays can be used to study efflux pumps as resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates. These results demonstrate that efflux pumps are a significant resistance mechanism in vaginal C. albicans isolates. PMID:27431223

  10. Competitive inhibition of the luminal efflux by multidrug and toxin extrusions, but not basolateral uptake by organic cation transporter 2, is the likely mechanism underlying the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions caused by cimetidine in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumito; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Yokochi, Miyu; Toyoshima, Junko; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2012-02-01

    Cimetidine, an H₂ receptor antagonist, has been used to investigate the tubular secretion of organic cations in human kidney. We report a systematic comprehensive analysis of the inhibition potency of cimetidine for the influx and efflux transporters of organic cations [human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1) and hOCT2 and human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (hMATE1) and hMATE2-K, respectively]. Inhibition constants (K(i)) of cimetidine were determined by using five substrates [tetraethylammonium (TEA), metformin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium, and m-iodobenzylguanidine]. They were 95 to 146 μM for hOCT2, providing at most 10% inhibition based on its clinically reported plasma unbound concentrations (3.6-7.8 μM). In contrast, cimetidine is a potent inhibitor of MATE1 and MATE2-K with K(i) values (μM) of 1.1 to 3.8 and 2.1 to 6.9, respectively. The same tendency was observed for mouse Oct1 (mOct1), mOct2, and mouse Mate1. Cimetidine showed a negligible effect on the uptake of metformin by mouse kidney slices at 20 μM. Cimetidine was administered to mice by a constant infusion to achieve a plasma unbound concentration of 21.6 μM to examine its effect on the renal disposition of Mate1 probes (metformin, TEA, and cephalexin) in vivo. The kidney- and liver-to-plasma ratios of metformin both were increased 2.4-fold by cimetidine, whereas the renal clearance was not changed. Cimetidine also increased the kidney-to-plasma ratio of TEA and cephalexin 8.0- and 3.3-fold compared with a control and decreased the renal clearance from 49 to 23 and 11 to 6.6 ml/min/kg, respectively. These results suggest that the inhibition of MATEs, but not OCT2, is a likely mechanism underlying the drug-drug interactions with cimetidine in renal elimination.

  11. Simultaneous Semimechanistic Population Analyses of Levofloxacin in Plasma, Lung, and Prostate To Describe the Influence of Efflux Transporters on Drug Distribution following Intravenous and Intratracheal Administration.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Estevan Sonego; Laureano, João Victor; Dos Santos, Camila Neris; Schmidt, Stephan; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; de Castro, Whocely Victor; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Levofloxacin (LEV) is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used to treat pneumonia, urinary tract infections, chronic bacterial bronchitis, and prostatitis. Efflux transporters, primarily P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are involved in LEV's tissue penetration. In the present work, LEV free lung and prostate interstitial space fluid (ISF) concentrations were evaluated by microdialysis in Wistar rats after intravenous (i.v.) and intratracheal (i.t.) administration (7 mg/kg of body weight) with and without coadministration of the P-gp inhibitor tariquidar (TAR; 15 mg/kg administered i.v.). Plasma and tissue concentration/time profiles were evaluated by noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population pharmacokinetics (popPK) analysis. The NCA showed significant differences in bioavailability (F) for the control group (0.4) and the TAR group (0.86) after i.t. administration. A four-compartment model simultaneously characterized total plasma and free lung (compartment 2) and prostate (compartment 3) ISF concentrations. Statistically significant differences in lung and prostate average ISF concentrations and levels of kidney active secretion in the TAR group from those measured for the control group (LEV alone) were observed. The estimated population means were as follows: volume of the central compartment (V1), 0.321 liters; total plasma clearance (CL), 0.220 liters/h; TAR plasma clearance (CLTAR), 0.180 liters/h. The intercompartmental distribution rate constants (K values) were as follows: K12, 8.826 h(-1); K21, 7.271 h(-1); K13, 0.047 h(-1); K31, 7.738 h(-1); K14, 0.908 h(-1); K41, 0.409 h(-1); K21 lung TAR (K21LTAR), 8.883 h(-1); K31 prostate TAR (K31PTAR), 4.377 h(-1). The presence of P-gp considerably impacted the active renal secretion of LEV but had only a minor impact on the efflux from the lung following intratracheal dosing. Our results strongly support the idea of a role of efflux transporters other than P-gp contributing to LEV's tissue penetration into the prostrate.

  12. Control of gdhR Expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae via Autoregulation and a Master Repressor (MtrR) of a Drug Efflux Pump Operon

    PubMed Central

    Rouquette-Loughlin, Corinne E.; Zalucki, Yaramah M.; Dhulipala, Vijaya L.; Balthazar, Jacqueline T.; Doyle, Raúl G.; Nicholas, Robert A.; Begum, Afrin A.; Raterman, Erica L.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The MtrCDE efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contributes to gonococcal resistance to a number of antibiotics used previously or currently in treatment of gonorrhea, as well as to host-derived antimicrobials that participate in innate defense. Overexpression of the MtrCDE efflux pump increases gonococcal survival and fitness during experimental lower genital tract infection of female mice. Transcription of mtrCDE can be repressed by the DNA-binding protein MtrR, which also acts as a global regulator of genes involved in important metabolic, physiologic, or regulatory processes. Here, we investigated whether a gene downstream of mtrCDE, previously annotated gdhR in Neisseria meningitidis, is a target for regulation by MtrR. In meningococci, GdhR serves as a regulator of genes involved in glucose catabolism, amino acid transport, and biosynthesis, including gdhA, which encodes an l-glutamate dehydrogenase and is located next to gdhR but is transcriptionally divergent. We report here that in N. gonorrhoeae, expression of gdhR is subject to autoregulation by GdhR and direct repression by MtrR. Importantly, loss of GdhR significantly increased gonococcal fitness compared to a complemented mutant strain during experimental murine infection. Interestingly, loss of GdhR did not influence expression of gdhA, as reported for meningococci. This variance is most likely due to differences in promoter localization and utilization between gonococci and meningococci. We propose that transcriptional control of gonococcal genes through the action of MtrR and GdhR contributes to fitness of N. gonorrhoeae during infection.

  13. Mechanisms of drug resistance in colon cancer and its therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Li, Zhen; Gao, Chun-Ying; Cho, Chi Hin

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with colon cancer, leading to a decrease in the therapeutic efficacies of anticancer agents. This review provides an up-to-date summary on over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and evasion of apoptosis, two representatives of transport-based and non-transport-based mechanisms of drug resistance, as well as their therapeutic strategies. Different ABC transporters were found to be up-regulated in colon cancer, which can facilitate the efflux of anticancer drugs out of cancer cells and decrease their therapeutic effects. Inhibition of ABC transporters by suppressing their protein expressions or co-administration of modulators has been proven as an effective approach to sensitize drug-resistant cancer cells to anticancer drugs in vitro. On the other hand, evasion of apoptosis observed in drug-resistant cancers also results in drug resistance to anticancer agents, especially to apoptosis inducers. Restoration of apoptotic signals by BH3 mimetics or epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and inhibition of cancer cell growth by alternative cell death pathways, such as autophagy, are effective means to treat such resistant cancer types. Given that the drug resistance mechanisms are different among colon cancer patients and may change even in a single patient at different stages, personalized and specific combination therapy is proposed to be more effective and safer for the reversal of drug resistance in clinics. PMID:27570424

  14. Alkylrhodamines enhance the toxicity of clotrimazole and benzalkonium chloride by interfering with yeast pleiotropic ABC-transporters.

    PubMed

    Knorre, Dmitry A; Besedina, Elizaveta; Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Markova, Olga V; Severin, Fedor F

    2016-06-01

    ABC-transporters with broad substrate specificity are responsible for pathogenic yeast resistance to antifungal compounds. Here we asked whether highly hydrophobic chemicals with delocalized positive charge can be used to overcome the resistance. Such molecules efficiently penetrate the plasma membrane and accumulate inside the cells. We reasoned that these properties can convert an active efflux of the compounds into a futile cycle thus interfering with the extrusion of the antibiotics. To test this, we studied the effects of several alkylated rhodamines on the drug resistance of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We found that octylrhodamine synergetically increases toxicity of Pdr5p substrate-clotrimazole, while the others were less effective. Next, we compared the contributions of three major pleiotropic ABC-transporters (Pdr5p, Yor1p, Snq2p) on the accumulation of the alkylated rhodamines. While all of the tested compounds were extruded by Pdr5p, Yor1p and Snq2p showed narrower substrate specificity. Interestingly, among the tested alkylated rhodamines, inactivation of Pdr5p had the strongest effect on the accumulation of octylrhodamine inside the cells, which is consistent with the fact that clotrimazole is a substrate of Pdr5p. As alkylated rhodamines were shown to be non-toxic on mice, our study makes them potential components of pharmacological antifungal compositions.

  15. Direct measurement of efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an environment-sensitive fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family pumps AcrB and MexB are the major efflux routes in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes provide a means to study efflux pump function in live bacterial cells in real-time. Recently, we demonstrated the utility of this approach using the dye Nile Red to quantify AcrB-mediated efflux and measured the ability of antibiotics and other efflux pump substrates to compete with efflux of Nile Red, independent of antibacterial activity. Here, we extend this method to P. aeruginosa and describe a novel application that permits the comparison and rank-ordering of bacterial strains by their inherent efflux potential. We show that glucose and l-malate re-energize Nile Red efflux in P. aeruginosa, and we highlight differences in the glucose dependence and kinetics of efflux between P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We quantify the differences in efflux among a set of P. aeruginosa laboratory strains, which include PAO1, the hyper-sensitive strain ATCC 35151 and its parent, ATCC 12055. Efflux of Nile Red in P. aeruginosa is mediated by MexAB-OprM and is slower than in E. coli. In conclusion, we describe an efflux measurement tool for use in antibacterial drug discovery and basic research on P. aeruginosa efflux pumps.

  16. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol-Hee

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein. PMID:16202168

  17. Gene expression profiling of cytochromes P450, ABC transporters and their principal transcription factors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, smokers and drug-free controls by qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Francesca; de Waziers, Isabelle; Dutheil, Mary; Vincent, Marc; Wilce, Peter A; Dodd, Peter R; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Ethanol consumption and smoking alter the expression of certain drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, potentially influencing the tissue-specific effects of xenobiotics. 2. Amygdala (AMG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are brain regions that modulate the effects of alcohol and smoking, yet little is known about the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these tissues. 3. Here, we describe the first study on the expression of 19 P450s, their redox partners, three ABC transporters and four related transcription factors in the AMG and PFC of smokers and alcoholics by quantitative RT-PCR. 4. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP2U1, CYP4X1, CYP46, adrenodoxin and NADPH-P450 reductase, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCA1, and transcription factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and proliferator-activated receptor α were quantified in both areas. CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, adrenodoxin reductase and the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor were detected but below the limit of quantification. CYP1A2 and CYP2W1 were not detected. 5. Adrenodoxin expression was elevated in all case groups over controls, and smokers showed a trend toward higher CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. 6. Our study shows that most xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s and associated redox partners, transporters and transcription factors are expressed in human AMG and PFC.

  18. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Energy-Dependent Efflux of Sb in Laboratory-Selected Resistant Strains of Leishmania (Viannia) Subgenus

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Priscila G.; do Monte-Neto, Rubens L.; Melo, Maria N.; Frézard, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The growing resistance of leishmaniasis to first-line drugs like antimonials in some regions limits the control of this parasitic disease. The precise mechanisms involved in Leishmania antimony resistance are still subject to debate. The reduction of intracellular SbIII accumulation is a common change observed in both laboratory-selected and field isolated resistant Leishmania strains, but the exact transport pathways involved in antimony resistance have not yet been elucidated. In order to functionally characterize the antimony transport routes responsible for resistance, we performed systematic transport studies of SbIII in wild-type and resistant strains of L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. Those include influx and efflux assays and the influence of ABC transporters and metabolism inhibitors: prochlorperazine, probenecid, verapamil, BSO, and sodium azide. The mRNA levels of genes associated with antimony resistance (MRPA, GSH1, ODC, AQP1, ABCI4, and ARM58) were also investigated in addition to intracellular thiol levels. A strong reduction of Sb influx was observed in L. guyanensis resistant mutant (LgSbR), but not in L. braziliensis (LbSbR). Both mutants showed increased energy-dependent efflux of SbIII, when compared to their respective parental strains. In LgSbR, BSO and prochlorperazine inhibited antimony efflux and resistance was associated with increased MRPA and GSH1 mRNA levels, while in LbSbR antimony efflux was inhibited by probenicid and prochlorperazine in absence of resistance-associated gene modulation. Intracellular thiol levels were increased in both Sb-resistant mutants. An energy-dependent SbIII efflux pathway sensitive to prochlorperazine was clearly evidenced in both Sb-resistant mutants. In conclusion, the present study allowed the biophysical and pharmacological characterization of energy-dependent Sb efflux pathway apparently independent of MRPA, ABCI4, and ARM58 upregulation, in Leishmania (Vianna) mutant selected in vitro

  19. Nanostructured assemblies from amphiphilic ABC multiblock polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-02-01

    Amphiphilic AB diblock copolymers containing a water compatible segment can self-assemble in aqueous media to give supramolecular structures that include simple spherical micelles and macromolecular vesicles termed polymersomes. Amphiphilic ABA triblocks with hydrophobic end blocks can adopt analogous structures but can also form gels at high polymer concentrations. The structural and chemical diversity demonstrated in block copolymer micelles and gels makes them attractive for applications ranging from drug delivery to personal care products to nanoreactors. The inclusion of a third block in amphiphilic ABC triblock systems can lead to a much wider array of self-assembled structures that depend not only on composition but also on block sequence, architecture and incompatibility considerations. I will present our recent efforts on tuning micelle and gel structure and behavior using controlled architecture ABC triblocks. The combination of diverse polymer segments into a single macromolecule is a powerful method for development of self-assembled structures with both new form and new function.

  20. Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-08-12

    Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be removed that may improve safety and allow differentiation from field strains. In this study, the efficacy of Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with 10(8) cfu of either vaccine strain, while a third group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 5 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The vaccine strains were not shed or detected in the gut, internal organs or eggs, 2 weeks after the third vaccination. The strains significantly protected against gut and internal organ colonization, and completely prevented egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis under the conditions of this study. This indicates that Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains might be valuable strains for vaccination of layers against Salmonella Enteritidis.

  1. Do You Know Your ABC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Within primary schools, the core subjects of literacy and numeracy are highly regarded, and rightly so, as children need to learn to read, write and be numerically literate. This means that all children learn their ABCs at an early age, But, what about the "other ABC"--"Airway, Breathing and Circulation?" Accidents and medical…

  2. Drug interaction between sunitinib and cimetidine and contribution of the efflux transporter ATP-binding cassette C2 to biliary excretion of sunitinib in rats.

    PubMed

    Arakawa-Todo, Maki; Ueyama, Jun; Nomura, Hiroshi; Abe, Fumie; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the H2 antagonist cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, sunitinib, in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic mutant rats (EHBR) lacking the efflux transporter, ATP-binding cassette C2 protein (ABCC2). Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of cimetidine (10 mg/kg) once a day for three days. On day 4, sunitinib (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 30 min after the final injection of cimetidine or saline to SD rats. Disappearance of sunitinib from plasma was significantly delayed by cimetidine. The pharmacokinetic parameter of sunitinib, systemic clearance (CLSYS), was significantly reduced and the half-life was significantly prolonged, with no change in the volume of distribution at steady-state (VSS). When the effect of cimetidine on the biliary excretion of sunitinib at steady-state condition was investigated in SD rats, cimetidine had no effect on some transporter-mediated biliary excretion of sunitinib. Furthermore, the contribution of ABCC2 to the biliary excretion of sunitinib was also examined in SD rats and EHBR. The biliary clearance of sunitinib was significantly lower in EHBR, but the biliary excretion rate of EHBR was not different from that of SD rats, and the contribution of biliary excretion to systemic elimination was small, suggesting that sunitinib is mainly eliminated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)-mediated metabolism and is not excreted into the bile via ABCC2. These findings indicate that co-administration of cimetidine alters the pharmacokinetics of sunitinib probably due to inhibition of CYP3A4, suggesting the possibility that cimetidine should be used carefully for patients with cancer being treated with sunitinib therapy.

  3. Role of Ectopic Gene Conversion in the Evolution of a Candida krusei Pleiotropic Drug Resistance Transporter Family

    PubMed Central

    Lamping, Erwin; Zhu, Jing-yi; Niimi, Masakazu; Cannon, Richard David

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplications enable the evolution of novel gene function, but strong positive selection is required to preserve advantageous mutations in a population. This is because frequent ectopic gene conversions (EGCs) between highly similar, tandem-duplicated, sequences, can rapidly remove fate-determining mutations by replacing them with the neighboring parent gene sequences. Unfortunately, the high sequence similarities between tandem-duplicated genes severely hamper empirical studies of this important evolutionary process, because deciphering their correct sequences is challenging. In this study, we employed the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae to clone and functionally characterize all 30 alleles of an important pair of tandem-duplicated multidrug efflux pump genes, ABC1 and ABC11, from seven strains of the diploid pathogenic yeast Candida krusei. Discovery and functional characterization of their closest ancestor, C. krusei ABC12, helped elucidate the evolutionary history of the entire gene family. Our data support the proposal that the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters Abc1p and Abc11p have evolved by concerted evolution for ∼134 MY. While >90% of their sequences remained identical, very strong purifying selection protected six short DNA patches encoding just 18 core amino acid (aa) differences in particular trans membrane span (TMS) regions causing two distinct efflux pump functions. A proline-kink change at the bottom of Abc11p TMS3 was possibly fate determining. Our data also enabled the first empirical estimates for key parameters of eukaryotic gene evolution, they provided rare examples of intron loss, and PDR transporter phylogeny confirmed that C. krusei belongs to a novel, yet unnamed, third major Saccharomycotina lineage. PMID:28159755

  4. The ABC-Type Multidrug Resistance Transporter LmrCD Is Responsible for an Extrusion-Based Mechanism of Bile Acid Resistance in Lactococcus lactis▿

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Arsalan Haseeb; Bakkes, Patrick J.; Lubelski, Jacek; Agustiandari, Herfita; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Upon prolonged exposure to cholate and other toxic compounds, Lactococcus lactis develops a multidrug resistance phenotype that has been attributed to an elevated expression of the heterodimeric ABC-type multidrug transporter LmrCD. To investigate the molecular basis of bile acid resistance in L. lactis and to evaluate the contribution of efflux-based mechanisms in this process, the drug-sensitive L. lactis NZ9000 ΔlmrCD strain was challenged with cholate. A resistant strain was obtained that, compared to the parental strain, showed (i) significantly improved resistance toward several bile acids but not to drugs, (ii) morphological changes, and (iii) an altered susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides. Transcriptome and transport analyses suggest that the acquired resistance is unrelated to elevated transport activity but, instead, results from a multitude of stress responses, changes to the cell envelope, and metabolic changes. In contrast, wild-type cells induce the expression of lmrCD upon exposure to cholate, whereupon the cholate is actively extruded from the cells. Together, these data suggest a central role for an efflux-based mechanism in bile acid resistance and implicate LmrCD as the main system responsible in L. lactis. PMID:18790870

  5. ABC transporter research: going strong 40 years on

    PubMed Central

    Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, ABC transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins. In humans, their functions are diverse and underpin numerous key physiological processes, as well as being causative factors in a number of clinically relevant pathologies. Advances in our understanding of these diseases have come about through combinations of genetic and protein biochemical investigations of these transporters and the power of in vitro and in vivo investigations is helping to develop genotype–phenotype understanding. However, the importance of ABC transporter research goes far beyond human biology; microbial ABC transporters are of great interest in terms of understanding virulence and drug resistance and industrial biotechnology researchers are exploring the potential of prokaryotic ABC exporters to increase the capacity of synthetic biology systems. Plant ABC transporters play important roles in transport of hormones, xenobiotics, metals and secondary metabolites, pathogen responses and numerous aspects of development, all of which are important in the global food security area. For 3 days in Chester, this Biochemical Society Focused Meeting brought together researchers with diverse experimental approaches and with different fundamental questions, all of which are linked by the commonality of ABC transporters. PMID:26517919

  6. Interspecies signalling: Pseudomonas putida efflux pump TtgGHI is activated by indole to increase antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Fillet, Sandy; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-05-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug efflux pumps are responsible for the extrusion of chemicals that are deleterious for growth. Some of these efflux pumps are induced by endogenously produced effectors, while abiotic or biotic signals induce the expression of other efflux pumps. In Pseudomonas putida, the TtgABC efflux pump is the main antibiotic extrusion system that respond to exogenous antibiotics through the modulation of the expression of this operon mediated by TtgR. The plasmid-encoded TtgGHI efflux pump in P. putida plays a minor role in antibiotic resistance in the parental strain; however, its role is critical in isogenic backgrounds deficient in TtgABC. Expression of ttgGHI is repressed by the TtgV regulator that recognizes indole as an effector, although P. putida does not produce indole itself. Because indole is not produced by Pseudomonas, the indole-dependent antibiotic resistance seems to be part of an antibiotic resistance programme at the community level. Pseudomonas putida recognizes indole added to the medium or produced by Escherichia coli in mixed microbial communities. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the indole-specific response involves activation of 43 genes and repression of 23 genes. Indole enhances not only the expression of the TtgGHI pump but also a set of genes involved in iron homeostasis, as well as genes for amino acid catabolism. In a ttgABC-deficient P. putida, background ampicillin and other bactericidal compounds lead to cell death. Co-culture of E. coli and P. putida ΔttgABC allowed growth of the P. putida mutant in the presence of ampicillin because of induction of the indole-dependent efflux pump.

  7. PPAR-α, a lipid-sensing transcription factor, regulates blood-brain barrier efflux transporter expression.

    PubMed

    More, Vijay R; Campos, Christopher R; Evans, Rebecca A; Oliver, Keith D; Chan, Gary Ny; Miller, David S; Cannon, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Lipid sensor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR- α) is the master regulator of lipid metabolism. Dietary release of endogenous free fatty acids, fibrates, and certain persistent environmental pollutants, e.g. perfluoroalkyl fire-fighting foam components, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. Here, we define a role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in regulating the expression of three ATP-driven drug efflux transporters at the rat and mouse blood-brain barriers: P-glycoprotein (Abcb1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). Exposing isolated rat brain capillaries to linoleic acid, clofibrate, or PKAs increased the transport activity and protein expression of the three ABC transporters. These effects were blocked by the PPAR- α antagonist, GW6471. Dosing rats with 20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg of clofibrate decreased the brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate, verapamil, by 50% (in situ brain perfusion; effects blocked by GW6471) and increased P-glycoprotein expression and activity in capillaries ex vivo. Fasting C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for 24 h increased both serum lipids and brain capillary P-glycoprotein transport activity. Fasting did not alter P-glycoprotein activity in PPAR- α knockout mice. These results indicate that hyperlipidemia, lipid-lowering fibrates and exposure to certain fire-fighting foam components activate blood-brain barrier peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, increase drug efflux transporter expression and reduce drug delivery to the brain.

  8. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Liam K. R.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to an in vitro translation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosome in vitro. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection. PMID:27006457

  9. The ABCs of Sex Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Cites statistics on extent of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies among adolescents; describes ideological dispute over how to teach sex education; advocates teaching the ABCs of sex education: Abstinence, Be Monogamous, and Condoms. (PKP)

  10. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria-Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin.

  11. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria–Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. PMID:26059350

  12. Two promoter rearrangements in a drug efflux transporter gene are responsible for the appearance and spread of multidrug resistance phenotype MDR2 in Botrytis cinerea isolates in French and German vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mernke, D; Dahm, S; Walker, A-S; Lalève, A; Fillinger, S; Leroch, M; Hahn, M

    2011-10-01

    In French and German vineyards, Botrytis cinerea isolates with multiple fungicide resistance phenotypes have been observed with increasing frequencies. Multidrug resistance (MDR) results from mutations that lead to constitutive overexpression of genes encoding drug efflux transporters. In MDR2 and MDR3 strains, overexpression of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2 has been found to result from a rearrangement in the mfsM2 promoter (type A), caused by insertion of a retroelement (RE)-derived sequence. Here, we report the discovery of another, similar RE-induced rearrangement of the mfsM2 promoter (type B) in a subpopulation of French MDR2 isolates. MDR2 isolates harboring either type A or type B mutations in mfsM2 show the same resistance phenotypes and similar levels of mfsM2 overexpression. RE sequences similar to those in mfsM2 were found in low copy numbers in other but not all B. cinerea strains analyzed, including non-MDR2 strains. Population genetic analyses support the hypothesis that the two rearrangement mutations have only occurred once, and are responsible for the appearance and subsequent spread of all known MDR2 and MDR3 strains in French and German wine-growing regions.

  13. The ABCs of the FDA: A Primer on the Role of the United States Food and Drug Administration in Medical Device Approvals and IR Research.

    PubMed

    Adamovich, Ashley; Park, Susie; Siskin, Gary P; Englander, Meridith J; Mandato, Kenneth D; Herr, Allen; Keating, Lawrence J

    2015-09-01

    The role of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in medical device regulation is important to device-driven specialties such as interventional radiology. Whether it is through industry-sponsored trials during the approval process for new devices or investigator-initiated research prospectively evaluating the role of existing devices for new or established procedures, interaction with the FDA is an integral part of performing significant research in interventional radiology. This article reviews the potential areas of interface between the FDA and interventional radiology, as understanding these areas is necessary to continue the innovation that is the hallmark of this specialty.

  14. Role of Efflux Pumps and Topoisomerase Mutations in Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beilei; McDermott, Patrick F.; White, David G.; Meng, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    Point mutations in the topoisomerase (DNA gyrase A) gene are known to be associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter. Recent studies have shown that an efflux pump encoded by cmeABC is also involved in decreased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, as well as other antimicrobials. Genome analysis suggests that Campylobacter jejuni contains at least nine other putative efflux pumps. Using insertional inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the potential contributions of these pumps to susceptibilities to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline in C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Insertional inactivation of cmeB resulted in 4- to 256-fold decreases in the MICs of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, with erythromycin being the most significantly affected. In contrast, inactivation of all other putative efflux pumps had no effect on susceptibility to any of the four antimicrobials tested. Mutation of gyrA at codon 86 (Thr-Ile) caused 128- and 64-fold increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, respectively. The replacement of the mutated gyrA with a wild-type gyrA allele resulted in a 32-fold decrease in the ciprofloxacin MIC and no change in the nalidixic acid MIC. Our findings indicate that CmeABC is the only efflux pump among those tested that influences antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and that a point mutation (Thr-86-Ile) in gyrA directly causes fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter. These two mechanisms work synergistically in acquiring and maintaining fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter species. PMID:16048946

  15. ABC3 Consensus: Assessment by a German Group of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Thomssen, Christoph; Augustin, Doris; Ettl, Johannes; Haidinger, Renate; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Lüftner, Diana; Marmé, Frederik; Marschner, Norbert; Müller, Lothar; Overkamp, Friedrich; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Thill, Marc; Untch, Michael; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Advanced Breast Cancer Third International Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on November 5-7, 2015. This year's conference (ABC3) was focused on the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV), as it was 4 years ago at the first consensus meeting (ABC1). A matter of particular interest was the patients’ perspective. Thus, patient-relevant issues were addressed by the consensus discussions, such as those on treatment goals, quality of life, care of long-term survivors (‘survivorship issues’), and coping with disease-related symptoms and the side effects of treatment. Further important issues on the agenda were the use of standardized instruments for the assessment of individual treatment success (‘patient-reported outcome measures’) and the evaluation of the benefit of novel drugs (e.g. the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale). Diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer had already been discussed 2 years earlier at the ABC2 Consensus and were not dealt with in the framework of this year's ABC3 Consensus. With regard to country-specific peculiarities, which unavoidably found their way into the ABC Consensus, a working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the voting results of the ABC panelists. As for the past consensus, the group specially considered the German guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (AGO (Gyneco-Oncology Working Group), S3, DGHO (German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology)) in order to adapt the ABC3 consensus for everyday therapy in Germany. PMID:27051399

  16. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions. PMID:23569469

  17. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions.

  18. pH-Responsive therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles for reducing P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux of multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Huang, Wen-Chia; Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Liu, Te-I; Shen, Ming-Yin; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Sung-Chyr; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel pH-responsive cholesterol-PEG adduct-coated solid lipid nanoparticles (C-PEG-SLNs) carrying doxorubicin (DOX) capable of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer cells is presented. The DOX-loaded SLNs have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of ~100 nm and a low polydispersity index (under 0.20) with a high drug-loading efficiency ranging from 80.8% to 90.6%. The in vitro drug release profiles show that the DOX-loaded SLNs exhibit a pH-controlled drug release behavior with the maximum and minimum unloading percentages of 63.4% at pH 4.7 and 25.2% at pH 7.4, respectively. The DOX-loaded C-PEG-SLNs displayed a superior ability in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7/MDR cells. At a DOX concentration of 80 μM, the cell viabilities treated with C-PEG-SLNs were approximately one-third of the group treated with free DOX. The inhibition activity of C-PEG-SLNs could be attributed to the transport of C-PEG to cell membrane, leading to the change of the composition of the cell membrane and thus the inhibition of permeability glycoprotein activity. This hypothesis is supported by the confocal images showing the accumulation of DOX in the nuclei of cancer cells and the localization of C-PEG on the cell membranes. The results of in vivo study further demonstrated that the DOX delivered by the SLNs accumulates predominantly in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention effect, the enhanced passive tumor accumulation due to the loose intercellular junctions of endothelial cells lining inside blood vessels at tumor site, and the lack of lymphatic drainage. The growth of MCF-7/MDR xenografted tumor on Balb/c nude mice was inhibited to ~400 mm(3) in volume as compared with the free DOX treatment group, 1,140 mm(3), and the group treated with 1,2 distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)] solid lipid nanoparticles, 820 mm(3). Analysis of the body weight of nude mice and the histology of organs and tumor after the

  19. Functional characterization of mouse organic anion transporting peptide 1a4 in the uptake and efflux of drugs across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Ose, Atsushi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chihiro; Tohyama, Kimio; Miyajima, Mari; Kitamura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of a multispecific organic anion transporter, Oatp1a4/Slco1a4, in drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. In vitro transport studies using human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing mouse Oatp1a4 identified the following compounds as Oatp1a4 substrates: pitavastatin (K(m) = 8.3 microM), rosuvastatin (K(m) = 12 microM), pravastatin, taurocholate (K(m) = 40 microM), digoxin, ochratoxin A, and [d-penicillamine(2,5)]-enkephalin. Double immunohistochemical staining of Oatp1a4 with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or glial fibrillary acidic protein demonstrated that Oatp1a4 signals colocalized with P-gp signals partly but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein, suggesting that Oatp1a4 is expressed in both the luminal and the abluminal membranes of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells. The brain-to-blood transport of pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and taurocholate after microinjection into the cerebral cortex was significantly decreased in Oatp1a4(-/-) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. The blood-to-brain transport of pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, taurocholate, and ochratoxin A, determined by in situ brain perfusion, was significantly lower in Oatp1a4(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice, whereas transport of pravastatin and [D-penicillamine(2,5)]-enkephalin was unchanged. The blood-to-brain transport of digoxin was significantly lower in Oatp1a4(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice only when P-gp was inhibited by N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918). Taken together, these results show that Oatp1a4 can mediate the brain-to-blood and blood-to-brain transport of its substrate drugs across the blood-brain barrier. The brain-to-plasma ratio of taurocholate, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin was close to the capillary volume in wild-type mice, and it was not affected by Oatp1a4 dysfunction. Whether Oatp1a4 can deliver drugs from the blood

  20. Thiazole-valine peptidomimetic (TTT-28) antagonizes multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo by selectively inhibiting the efflux activity of ABCB1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Patel, Bhargav A.; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhang, Guan-Nan; Alqahtani, Saeed; Singh, Satyakam; Shukla, Suneet; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Talele, Tanaji T.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) attenuates the chemotherapy efficacy and increases the probability of cancer recurrence. The accelerated drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is one of the major MDR mechanisms. This study investigated if TTT-28, a newly synthesized thiazole-valine peptidomimetic, could reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR in vitro and in vivo. TTT-28 reversed the ABCB1-mediated MDR and increased the accumulation of [3H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells by selectively blocking the efflux function of ABCB1, but not interfering with the expression level and localization of ABCB1. Animal study revealed that TTT-28 enhanced the intratumoral concentration of paclitaxel and promoted apoptosis, thereby potently inhibiting the growth of ABCB1 overexpressing tumors. But TTT-28 did not induce the toxicity (cardiotoxicity/myelosuppression) of paclitaxel in mice. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated a novel selective inhibitor of ABCB1 (TTT-28) with high efficacy and low toxicity. The identification and characterization of this new thiazole-valine peptidomimetic will facilitate design and synthesis of a new generation of ABCB1 inhibitors, leading to further research on multidrug resistance and combination chemotherapy. Furthermore, the strategy that co-administer MDR-ABCB1 inhibitor to overcome the resistance of one FDA approved, widely used chemotherapeutic paclitaxel, may be promising direction for the field of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28181548

  1. Expression of the CDR1 efflux pump in clinical Candida albicans isolates is controlled by a negative regulatory element

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Naseem Akhtar; Manoharlal, Raman; Saini, Preeti; Prasad, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Hoefer, Milan; Morschhaeuser, Joachim; Prasad, Rajendra . E-mail: rp47@hotmail.com

    2005-06-24

    Resistance to azole antifungal drugs in clinical isolates of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is often caused by constitutive overexpression of the CDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the ABC transporter superfamily. To understand the relevance of a recently identified negative regulatory element (NRE) in the CDR1 promoter for the control of CDR1 expression in the clinical scenario, we investigated the effect of mutation or deletion of the NRE on CDR1 expression in two matched pairs of azole-sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Expression of GFP or lacZ reporter genes from the wild type CDR1 promoter was much higher in the azole-resistant C. albicans isolates than in the azole-susceptible isolates, reflecting the known differences in CDR1 expression in these strains. Deletion or mutation of the NRE resulted in enhanced reporter gene expression in azole-sensitive strains, but did not further increase the already high CDR1 promoter activity in the azole-resistant strains. In agreement with these findings, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a reduced binding to the NRE of nuclear extracts from the resistant C. albicans isolates as compared with extracts from the sensitive isolates. These results demonstrate that the NRE is involved in maintaining CDR1 expression at basal levels and that this repression is overcome in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates, resulting in constitutive CDR1 overexpression and concomitant drug resistance.

  2. A primary fish gill cell culture model to assess pharmaceutical uptake and efflux: Evidence for passive and facilitated transport

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Lucy C.; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer; Owen, Stewart F.; Bury, Nic R.

    2015-01-01

    The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L−1), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport. PMID:25544062

  3. MnO2-Based Nanoplatform Serves as Drug Vehicle and MRI Contrast Agent for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Xing, Lei; Ke, Hengte; He, Yu-Jing; Cui, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Yong; Jiang, Ge; Qiao, Jian-Bin; Lu, Na; Chen, Huabing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2017-04-05

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) greatly impedes the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, on the surface of tumor cells is a major mechanism in MDR. In this study, we fabricated manganese dioxide (MnO2)/doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded albumin nanoparticles (BMDN) for magnetic resonance imaging and reversing MDR in resistant tumor. BMDN facilitated the delivery of DOX into MDR tumor cells through their MDR reversal effects including enhanced cellular uptake, reduced drug efflux, and decreased hypoxic tumor microenvironment. BMDN also acted as an effective MRI contrast agent, thereby causing good in vitro and in vivo T1-weighted imaging.

  4. Analysis of the inhibition potential of zosuquidar derivatives on selected bacterial and fungal ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Infed, Nacera; Smits, Sander H J; Dittrich, Torsten; Braun, Manfred; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz

    2013-03-01

    The increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms is a serious public health issue. Among the multitude of mechanisms that lead to multidrug resistance, the active extrusion of toxic compounds, mediated by MDR efflux pumps, plays an important role. In our study we analyzed the inhibitory capability of 26 synthesized zosuquidar derivatives on three ABC-type MDR efflux pumps, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5 as well as Lactococcus lactis LmrA and LmrCD. For Pdr5, five compounds could be identified that inhibited rhodamine 6G transport more efficiently than zosuquidar. One of these is a compound with a new catechol acetal structure that might represent a new lead compound. Furthermore, the determination of IC(50) values for rhodamine 6G transport of Pdr5 with representative compounds reveals values between 0.3 and 0.9 μM. Thus the identified compounds are among the most potent inhibitors known for Pdr5. For the ABC-type efflux pumps LmrA and LmrCD from L. lactis, seven and three compounds, which inhibit the transport activity more than the lead compound zosuquidar, were found. Interestingly, transport inhibition for LmrCD was very specific, with a drastic reduction by one compound while its diastereomers showed hardly an effect. Thus, the present study reveals new potent inhibitors for the ABC-type MDR efflux pumps studied with the inhibitors of Pdr5 and LmrCD being of particular interest as these proteins are well known model systems for their homologs in pathogenic fungi and Gram-positive bacteria.

  5. Regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters and cholesterol efflux by glucose in primary human monocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. This may be partially attributable to suppression of macrophage ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated cholesterol efflux by sustained elevated blood glucose concentrations. Two models were used...

  6. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Participation of Efflux Pumps and Ornithine in the Response of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Cells to Challenge with Propranolol

    PubMed Central

    Sayqal, Ali; Xu, Yun; Trivedi, Drupad K.; AlMasoud, Najla; Ellis, David I.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-01-01

    Efflux pumps are critically important membrane components that play a crucial role in strain tolerance in Pseudomonas putida to antibiotics and aromatic hydrocarbons that result in these toxicants being expelled from the bacteria. Here, the effect of propranolol on P. putida was examined by sudden addition of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg mL-1 of this β-blocker to several strains of P. putida, including the wild type DOT-T1E and the efflux pump knockout mutants DOT-T1E-PS28 and DOT-T1E-18. Bacterial viability measurements reveal that the efflux pump TtgABC plays a more important role than the TtgGHI pump in strain tolerance to propranolol. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was then used as a rapid, high-throughput screening tool to investigate any phenotypic changes resulting from exposure to varying levels of propranolol. Multivariate statistical analysis of these MIR data revealed gradient trends in resultant ordination scores plots, which were related to the concentration of propranolol. MIR illustrated phenotypic changes associated with the presence of this drug within the cell that could be assigned to significant changes that occurred within the bacterial protein components. To complement this phenotypic fingerprinting approach metabolic profiling was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify metabolites of interest during the growth of bacteria following toxic perturbation with the same concentration levels of propranolol. Metabolic profiling revealed that ornithine, which was only produced by P. putida cells in the presence of propranolol, presents itself as a major metabolic feature that has important functions in propranolol stress tolerance mechanisms within this highly significant and environmentally relevant species of bacteria. PMID:27331395

  7. Physiological characterisation of the efflux pump system of antibiotic-susceptible and multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Martins, A; Spengler, G; Martins, M; Rodrigues, L; Viveiros, M; Davin-Regli, A; Chevalier, J; Couto, I; Pagès, J M; Amaral, L

    2010-10-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes predominates amongst Enterobacteriaceae species that are increasingly reported as producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Although this mechanism of resistance to beta-lactams is important, other mechanisms bestowing a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype in this species are now well documented. Amongst these mechanisms is the overexpression of efflux pumps that extrude structurally unrelated antibiotics prior to their reaching their targets. Interestingly, although knowledge of the genetic background behind efflux pumps is rapidly advancing, few studies assess the physiological nature of the overall efflux pump system of this, or for that matter any other, bacterium. The study reported here evaluates physiologically the efflux pump system of an E. aerogenes ATCC reference as well as two strains whose MDR phenotypes are mediated by overexpressed efflux pumps. The activities of the efflux pumps in these strains are modulated by pH and glucose, although the effects of the latter are essentially restricted to pH 8, suggesting the presence of two general efflux pump systems, i.e. proton-motive force-dependent and ABC transporter types, respectively.

  8. Co-solvent mediated thermal stabilization of chondroitinase ABC I form Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh; Khajeh, Khosro; Aminian, Mahdi; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2012-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) from Proteus vulgaris cleaves glycosaminoglycan chains which are responsible for most of the inhibition of axon regrowth in spinal cord injury. The clinical utilization of this enzyme is mainly limited by its thermal instability. This study has been undertaken to determine the effects of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I activity and thermal stability. The results indicated that the enzyme catalytic activity and intrinsic fluorescence intensity increased in the presence of these cosolvents whereas no considerable conformational changes observed in far-UV CD spectra. Thermal CD experiment revealed an increase in T(m) of cABC I in the presence of cosolvents which was significant for trehalose. Our results support the idea that cABC I has stabilized in the presence of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose. Therefore, the use of these cosolvents seems to be promising for improvement in shelf-life and clinical applications of this drug enzyme.

  9. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods.

  10. Non-equivalent roles of two periplasmic subunits in the function and assembly of triclosan pump TriABC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jon W; Nickels, Logan M; Ntreh, Abigail T; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2015-10-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug efflux transporters function in complexes with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) that enable antibiotic efflux across the outer membrane. In this study, we analyzed the function, composition and assembly of the triclosan efflux transporter TriABC-OpmH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report that this transporter possesses a surprising substrate specificity that encompasses not only triclosan but the detergent SDS, which are often used together in antibacterial soaps. These two compounds interact antagonistically in a TriABC-dependent manner and negate antibacterial properties of each other. Unlike other efflux pumps that rely on a single MFP for their activities, two different MFPs, TriA and TriB, are required for triclosan/SDS resistance mediated by TriABC-OpmH. We found that analogous mutations in the α-helical hairpin and membrane proximal domains of TriA and TriB differentially affect triclosan efflux and assembly of the complex. Furthermore, our results show that TriA and TriB function as a dimer, in which TriA is primarily responsible for stabilizing interactions with the outer membrane channel, whereas TriB is important for the stimulation of the transporter. We conclude that MFPs are engaged into complexes as asymmetric dimers, in which each protomer plays a specific role.

  11. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  12. Modulation of Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Varela, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections pose a serious public health concern, especially when an infectious disease has a multidrug resistant causative agent. Such multidrug resistant bacteria can compromise the clinical utility of major chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents. Drug and multidrug resistant bacteria harbor several distinct molecular mechanisms for resistance. Bacterial antimicrobial agent efflux pumps represent a major mechanism of clinical resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest groups of solute transporters to date and includes a significant number of bacterial drug and multidrug efflux pumps. We review recent work on the modulation of multidrug efflux pumps, paying special attention to those transporters belonging primarily to the MFS. PMID:25750934

  13. Contribution of efflux activity to isoniazid resistance in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Liliana; Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Amaral, Leonard; Viveiros, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Resistance to isoniazid (INH), one of the main drugs used in tuberculosis (TB) therapy, is mostly due to chromosomal mutations in target genes. However, approximately 20-30% of INH resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates do not have mutations in any of the genes associated with INH resistance. This suggests that other mechanism(s) may be involved, namely efflux pump systems capable of extruding the drug to the exterior of the cell. In a previous work, we have induced clinical INH susceptible M. tuberculosis isolates and the H37Rv reference strain to high-level resistance to INH, by gradual exposure to increasing concentrations of this drug. In the present study, we have characterized these strains and Mycobacterium bovis BCG induced to INH resistance with respect to their efflux activity and its contribution to INH resistance using the following approach: determination of the susceptibility to INH in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors (EIs) chlorpromazine, thioridazine and verapamil; evaluation of efflux activity by a semi-automated fluorometric method; and quantification of the expression level of genes coding for efflux pumps by real-time RT-qPCR. The EIs decreased INH resistance in the INH induced strains, in particular verapamil promoted a reversal of resistance in some of the strains tested. The induced strains presented an increased efflux activity that was inhibited by the EIs and showed overexpression of the efflux pump genes efpA, mmpL7, mmr, p55 and the Tap-like gene Rv1258c. Altogether, these results correlate efflux activity with INH resistance and demonstrate that efflux pumps play an important role in acquired INH resistance in M. tuberculosis complex. The development of EIs that can restore the antimicrobial activity of the antibiotic subject to efflux is an approach that can be useful in order to prevent the emergence of this resistance and guide the development of new effective anti-TB therapeutical approaches.

  14. Binding and inhibition of drug transport proteins by heparin: a potential drug transporter modulator capable of reducing multidrug resistance in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunliang; Scully, Michael; Petralia, Gloria; Kakkar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    A major problem in cancer treatment is the development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, multidrug resistance (MDR), associated with increased activity of transmembrane drug transporter proteins which impair cytotoxic treatment by rapidly removing the drugs from the targeted cells. Previously, it has been shown that heparin treatment of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy increases survival. In order to determine whether heparin is capable reducing MDR and increasing the potency of chemotherapeutic drugs, the cytoxicity of a number of agents toward four cancer cell lines (a human enriched breast cancer stem cell line, two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and a human lung cancer cell line A549) was tested in the presence or absence of heparin. Results demonstrated that heparin increased the cytotoxicity of a range of chemotherapeutic agents. This effect was associated with the ability of heparin to bind to several of the drug transport proteins of the ABC and non ABC transporter systems. Among the ABC system, heparin treatment caused significant inhibition of the ATPase activity of ABCG2 and ABCC1, and of the efflux function observed as enhanced intracellular accumulation of specific substrates. Doxorubicin cytoxicity, which was enhanced by heparin treatment of MCF-7 cells, was found to be under the control of one of the major non-ABC transporter proteins, lung resistance protein (LRP). LRP was also shown to be a heparin-binding protein. These findings indicate that heparin has a potential role in the clinic as a drug transporter modulator to reduce multidrug resistance in cancer patients.

  15. Nanodiamond–Mitoxantrone Complexes Enhance Drug Retention in Chemoresistant Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is a prevalent issue that accounts for the vast majority of treatment failure outcomes in metastatic cancer. Among the mechanisms of resistance that markedly decrease treatment efficacy, the efflux of drug compounds by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins can impair adequate drug retention by cancer cells required for therapeutic cytotoxic activity. Of note, ABC transporters are capable of effluxing several classes of drugs that are clinical standards, including the anthracyclines such as doxorubicin, as well as anthracenediones such as mitoxantrone. To address this challenge, a spectrum of nanomaterials has been evaluated for improved drug retention and enhanced efficacy. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as a promising nanomaterial platform because they integrate several important properties into a single agent. These include a uniquely faceted truncated octahedral architecture that enables potent drug binding and dispersibility in water, scalably processed ND particles with uniform diameters of approximately 5 nm, and a demonstrated ability to improve drug tolerance while delaying tumor growth in multiple preclinical models, among others. This work describes a ND–mitoxantrone complex that can be rapidly synthesized and mediates marked improvements in drug efficacy. Comprehensive complex characterization reveals a complex with favorable drug delivery properties that is capable of improving drug retention and efficacy in an MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN (MDA-MB-231) triple negative breast cancer cell line that was lentivirally transduced for resistance against mitoxantrone. Findings from this study support the further evaluation of ND–MTX in preclinical dose escalation and safety studies toward potentially clinical validation. PMID:24867631

  16. Tripartite assembly of RND multidrug efflux pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daury, Laetitia; Orange, François; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Verchère, Alice; Monlezun, Laura; Gounou, Céline; Marreddy, Ravi K. R.; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle; Pos, Klaas M.; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA-MexB-TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components.

  17. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; van Opstal, Edward J.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size 45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size 50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  18. Broad Specificity Efflux pumps and Their Role in Multidrug Resistance of Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance mechanisms reported in Gram-negative bacteria are producing a worldwide health problem. The continuous dissemination of «multi-drug resistant» (MDR) bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of our antibiotic “arsenal” and consequently increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. In MDR bacteria, the over-expression of efflux pumps that expel structurally-unrelated drugs contributes to the reduced susceptibility by decreasing the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. During the last decade, several clinical data indicate an increasing involvement of efflux pumps in the emergence and dissemination of resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is necessary to clearly define the molecular, functional and genetic bases of the efflux pump in order to understand the translocation of antibiotic molecules through the efflux transporter. The recent investigation on the efflux pump AcrB at its structural and physiological level, including the identification of drug affinity sites and kinetic parameters for various antibiotics, may open the way to rationally develop an improved new generation of antibacterial agents as well as efflux inhibitors in order to efficiently combat efflux-based resistance mechanisms. PMID:21707670

  19. Enhancement of antibiotic activity by efflux inhibitors against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Tatiane; Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Maschmann, Raquel; Ramos, Daniela; von Groll, Andrea; Rossetti, Maria L; Silva, Pedro A; Viveiros, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistant tuberculosis continues to increase and new approaches for its treatment are necessary. The identification of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates presenting efflux as part of their resistant phenotype has a major impact in tuberculosis treatment. In this work, we used a checkerboard procedure combined with the tetrazolium microplate-based assay (TEMA) to study single combinations between antituberculosis drugs and efflux inhibitors (EIs) against multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates using the fully susceptible strain H37Rv as reference. Efflux activity was studied on a real-time basis by a fluorometric method that uses ethidium bromide as efflux substrate. Quantification of efflux pump genes mRNA transcriptional levels were performed by RT-qPCR. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) indicated synergistic activity for the interactions between isoniazid, rifampicin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and ethidium bromide plus the EIs verapamil, thioridazine and chlorpromazine. The FICs ranged from 0.25, indicating a four-fold reduction on the MICs, to 0.015, 64-fold reduction. The detection of active efflux by real-time fluorometry showed that all strains presented intrinsic efflux activity that contributes to the overall resistance which can be inhibited in the presence of the EIs. The quantification of the mRNA levels of the most important efflux pump genes on these strains shows that they are intrinsically predisposed to expel toxic compounds as the exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were not necessary to increase the pump mRNA levels when compared with the non-exposed counterpart. The results obtained in this study confirm that the intrinsic efflux activity contributes to the overall resistance in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and that the inhibition of efflux pumps by the EIs can enhance the clinical effect of antibiotics that are their substrates.

  20. Contribution of Efflux to the Emergence of Isoniazid and Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Perdigão, João; Rodrigues, Liliana; Portugal, Isabel; Baptista, Pedro; Veigas, Bruno; Amaral, Leonard; Viveiros, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective drugs used in tuberculosis therapy. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which resistance towards isoniazid develops and how overexpression of efflux pumps favors accumulation of mutations in isoniazid targets, thus establishing a MDR phenotype. The study was based on the in vitro induction of an isoniazid resistant phenotype by prolonged serial exposure of M. tuberculosis strains to the critical concentration of isoniazid employed for determination of drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates. Results show that susceptible and rifampicin monoresistant strains exposed to this concentration become resistant to isoniazid after three weeks; and that resistance observed for the majority of these strains could be reduced by means of efflux pumps inhibitors. RT-qPCR assessment of efflux pump genes expression showed overexpression of all tested genes. Enhanced real-time efflux of ethidium bromide, a common efflux pump substrate, was also observed, showing a clear relation between overexpression of the genes and increased efflux pump function. Further exposure to isoniazid resulted in the selection and stabilization of spontaneous mutations and deletions in the katG gene along with sustained increased efflux activity. Together, results demonstrate the relevance of efflux pumps as one of the factors of isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis. These results support the hypothesis that activity of efflux pumps allows the maintenance of an isoniazid resistant population in a sub-optimally treated patient from which isoniazid genetically resistant mutants emerge. Therefore, the use of inhibitors of efflux should be considered in the development of new therapeutic strategies for preventing the emergence of MDR-TB during treatment. PMID:22493700

  1. Contribution of efflux to the emergence of isoniazid and multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Perdigão, João; Rodrigues, Liliana; Portugal, Isabel; Baptista, Pedro; Veigas, Bruno; Amaral, Leonard; Viveiros, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective drugs used in tuberculosis therapy. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which resistance towards isoniazid develops and how overexpression of efflux pumps favors accumulation of mutations in isoniazid targets, thus establishing a MDR phenotype. The study was based on the in vitro induction of an isoniazid resistant phenotype by prolonged serial exposure of M. tuberculosis strains to the critical concentration of isoniazid employed for determination of drug susceptibility testing in clinical isolates. Results show that susceptible and rifampicin monoresistant strains exposed to this concentration become resistant to isoniazid after three weeks; and that resistance observed for the majority of these strains could be reduced by means of efflux pumps inhibitors. RT-qPCR assessment of efflux pump genes expression showed overexpression of all tested genes. Enhanced real-time efflux of ethidium bromide, a common efflux pump substrate, was also observed, showing a clear relation between overexpression of the genes and increased efflux pump function. Further exposure to isoniazid resulted in the selection and stabilization of spontaneous mutations and deletions in the katG gene along with sustained increased efflux activity. Together, results demonstrate the relevance of efflux pumps as one of the factors of isoniazid resistance in M. tuberculosis. These results support the hypothesis that activity of efflux pumps allows the maintenance of an isoniazid resistant population in a sub-optimally treated patient from which isoniazid genetically resistant mutants emerge. Therefore, the use of inhibitors of efflux should be considered in the development of new therapeutic strategies for preventing the emergence of MDR-TB during treatment.

  2. Inhibitory Potential of Antifungal Drugs on ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters P-Glycoprotein, MRP1 to MRP5, BCRP, and BSEP.

    PubMed

    Lempers, Vincent J C; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Russel, Frans G M; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Burger, David M; Brüggemann, Roger J; Koenderink, Jan B

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of ABC transporters is a common mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions (DDIs). We determined the inhibitory potential of antifungal drugs currently used for invasive fungal infections on ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MRP1 to MRP5, BCRP, and BSEP in vitro Membrane vesicles isolated from transporter-overexpressing HEK 293 cells were used to investigate the inhibitory potential of antifungal drugs (250 μM) on transport of model substrates. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined if transport inhibition was >60%. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for P-gp and BCRP were both 2 μM for itraconazole, 5 and 12 μM for hydroxyitraconazole, 3 and 6 μM for posaconazole, and 3 and 11 μM for isavuconazole, respectively. BSEP was strongly inhibited by itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole (3 and 17 μM, respectively). Fluconazole and voriconazole did not inhibit any transport for >60%. Micafungin uniquely inhibited all transporters, with strong inhibition of MRP4 (4 μM). Anidulafungin and caspofungin showed strong inhibition of BCRP (7 and 6 μM, respectively). Amphotericin B only weakly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport (127 μM). Despite their wide range of DDIs, azole antifungals exhibit selective inhibition on efflux transporters. Although echinocandins display low potential for clinically relevant DDIs, they demonstrate potent in vitro inhibitory activity. This suggests that inhibition of ABC transporters plays a crucial role in the inexplicable (non-cytochrome P450-mediated) DDIs with antifungal drugs.

  3. Contribution of efflux pumps, porins, and β-lactamases to multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Rumbo, C; Gato, E; López, M; Ruiz de Alegría, C; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Martínez-Martínez, L; Vila, J; Pachón, J; Cisneros, J M; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, glycylcyclines, tetracyclines, and quinolones in 90 multiresistant clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from two genetically unrelated A. baumannii clones: clone PFGE-ROC-1 (53 strains producing the OXA-58 β-lactamase enzyme and 18 strains with the OXA-24 β-lactamase) and clone PFGE-HUI-1 (19 strains susceptible to carbapenems). We used real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to correlate antimicrobial resistance (MICs) with expression of genes encoding chromosomal β-lactamases (AmpC and OXA-51), porins (OmpA, CarO, Omp33, Dcap-like, OprB, Omp25, OprC, OprD, and OmpW), and proteins integral to six efflux systems (AdeABC, AdeIJK, AdeFGH, CraA, AbeM, and AmvA). Overexpression of the AdeABC system (level of expression relative to that by A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 30- to 45-fold) was significantly associated with resistance to tigecycline, minocycline, and gentamicin and other biological functions. However, hyperexpression of the AdeIJK efflux pump (level of expression relative to that by A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 8- to 10-fold) was significantly associated only with resistance to tigecycline and minocycline (to which the TetB efflux system also contributed). TetB and TetA(39) efflux pumps were detected in clinical strains and were associated with resistance to tetracyclines and doxycycline. The absence of the AdeABC system and the lack of expression of other mechanisms suggest that tigecycline-resistant strains of the PFGE-HUI-1 clone may be associated with a novel resistance-nodulation-cell efflux pump (decreased MICs in the presence of the inhibitor Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride) and the TetA(39) system.

  4. Contribution of Efflux Pumps, Porins, and β-Lactamases to Multidrug Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Rumbo, C.; Gato, E.; López, M.; Ruiz de Alegría, C.; Fernández-Cuenca, F.; Martínez-Martínez, L.; Vila, J.; Pachón, J.; Cisneros, J. M.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Pascual, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, glycylcyclines, tetracyclines, and quinolones in 90 multiresistant clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from two genetically unrelated A. baumannii clones: clone PFGE-ROC-1 (53 strains producing the OXA-58 β-lactamase enzyme and 18 strains with the OXA-24 β-lactamase) and clone PFGE-HUI-1 (19 strains susceptible to carbapenems). We used real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to correlate antimicrobial resistance (MICs) with expression of genes encoding chromosomal β-lactamases (AmpC and OXA-51), porins (OmpA, CarO, Omp33, Dcap-like, OprB, Omp25, OprC, OprD, and OmpW), and proteins integral to six efflux systems (AdeABC, AdeIJK, AdeFGH, CraA, AbeM, and AmvA). Overexpression of the AdeABC system (level of expression relative to that by A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 30- to 45-fold) was significantly associated with resistance to tigecycline, minocycline, and gentamicin and other biological functions. However, hyperexpression of the AdeIJK efflux pump (level of expression relative to that by A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 8- to 10-fold) was significantly associated only with resistance to tigecycline and minocycline (to which the TetB efflux system also contributed). TetB and TetA(39) efflux pumps were detected in clinical strains and were associated with resistance to tetracyclines and doxycycline. The absence of the AdeABC system and the lack of expression of other mechanisms suggest that tigecycline-resistant strains of the PFGE-HUI-1 clone may be associated with a novel resistance-nodulation-cell efflux pump (decreased MICs in the presence of the inhibitor Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride) and the TetA(39) system. PMID:23939894

  5. The macrophage and its related cholesterol efflux as a HDL function index in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Narita, Ichiei; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    The macrophage and its related cholesterol efflux are considered to be a key player in atherosclerotic formation in relation to the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The HDL function can be evaluated by the reaction between lipid-loaded macrophages and lipid-acceptors in the HDL fraction from the plasma, apolipoprotein B-depleted serum, and/or whole serum/plasma. Recent studies have reported that an impaired cholesterol efflux of HDL is observed in patients with cardiometabolic diseases, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. A population-based cohort study has reported an inverse association between the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL and the incidence of atherosclerotic disease, regardless of the serum HDL-cholesterol level. Moreover, in this paper, when we summarized several clinical interventional studies of statin treatment that examined cholesterol efflux, a potential increase in the efflux in patients treated with statins was implied. However, the effect was not fully defined in the current situation because of the small sample sizes, lack of a unified protocol for measuring the efflux, and short-term intervention periods without cardiovascular outcomes in available studies. Further investigation is necessary to determine the effect of drugs on cholesterol efflux. With additional advanced studies, cholesterol efflux is a promising laboratory index to understand the HDL function.

  6. ABC- and SLC-Transporters in Murine and Bovine Mammary Epithelium - Effects of Prochloraz

    PubMed Central

    Yagdiran, Yagmur; Oskarsson, Agneta; Knight, Christopher H.; Tallkvist, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Some chemicals are ligands to efflux transporters which may result in high concentrations in milk. Limited knowledge is available on the influence of maternal exposure to chemicals on the expression and function of transporters in the lactating mammary gland. We determined gene expression of ABC and SLC transporters in murine mammary tissue of different gestation and lactation stages, in murine mammary cells (HC11) featuring resting and secreting phenotypes and in bovine mammary tissue and cells (BME-UV). Effects on transporter expression and function of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz, previously reported to influence BCRP in mammary cells, was investigated on transporter expression and function in the two cell lines. Transporters studied were BCRP, MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5/OATP1A2, OCTN1 and OCT1. Gene expressions of BCRP and OCT1 in murine mammary glands were increased during gestation and lactation, whereas MDR1, MRP1, OATP1A5 and OCTN1 were decreased, compared to expressions in virgins. All transporters measured in mammary glands of mice were detected in bovine mammary tissue and in HC11 cells, while only MDR1 and MRP1 were detected in BME-UV cells. Prochloraz treatment induced MDR1 gene and protein expression in both differentiated HC11 and BME-UV cells and increased protein function in HC11 cells, resulting in decreased accumulation of the MDR1 substrate digoxin. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that murine (HC11) and bovine (BME-UV) mammary epithelial cells can be applied to characterize expression and function of transporters as well as effects of contaminants on the mammary transporters. An altered expression, induced by a drug or toxic chemical, on any of the transporters expressed in the mammary epithelial cells during lactation may modulate the well-balanced composition of nutrients and/or secretion of contaminants in milk with potential adverse effects on breast-fed infants and dairy consumers. PMID:27028005

  7. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  8. Broad-specificity efflux pumps and their role in multidrug resistance of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2012-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance mechanisms reported in Gram-negative bacteria are causing a worldwide health problem. The continuous dissemination of 'multidrug-resistant' (MDR) bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of our antibiotic 'arsenal' and consequently increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. In MDR bacteria, the overexpression of efflux pumps that expel structurally unrelated drugs contributes to the reduced susceptibility by decreasing the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. During the last decade, several clinical data have indicated an increasing involvement of efflux pumps in the emergence and dissemination of resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is necessary to clearly define the molecular, functional and genetic bases of the efflux pump in order to understand the translocation of antibiotic molecules through the efflux transporter. The recent investigation on the efflux pump AcrB at its structural and physiological levels, including the identification of drug affinity sites and kinetic parameters for various antibiotics, may pave the way towards the rational development of an improved new generation of antibacterial agents as well as efflux inhibitors in order to efficiently combat efflux-based resistance mechanisms.

  9. Effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors and inducers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Minna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-07-01

    The CmeABC efflux pump plays an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors, phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PAbetaN) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP), as well as the effect of putative efflux pump inducers, sodium salicylate and sodium deoxycholate, on the MIC levels of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline and rifampicin for C. jejuni and C. coli. Our results indicated that susceptibility to erythromycin and rifampicin increased, respectively, 8- to 32- and 8- to 64-fold in the presence of PAbetaN and to a lesser extent in the presence of NMP. Salicylate produced a 2- to 4-fold increase in ciprofloxacin MIC values, whereas little effect was observed in the presence of deoxycholate.

  10. ABC transporters in the CNS - an inventory.

    PubMed

    Hartz, A M S; Bauer, B

    2011-04-01

    In the present review we provide a summary of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our review is focused on transporters of the ABC A, B, C, D, and G families that have been detected in the cells of the neurovascular unit/blood-brain barrier including brain capillary endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons, as well as in other brain cells, such as microglia, oligodendrocytes, and choroid plexus epithelial cells. In this review, we provide an overview, organized by ABC family, of transporter expression, localization, and function. We summarize recent findings on ABC transporter regulation in the CNS and address the role of ABC transporters in CNS diseases including brain cancer, seizures/epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we discuss new therapeutic strategies focused on ABC transporters in CNS disease.

  11. Overexpression and functional characterization of an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter encoded by the genes drrA and drrB of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhuri, Baisakhee Saha; Bhakta, Sanjib; Barik, Rajib; Basu, Joyoti; Kundu, Manikuntala; Chakrabarti, Parul

    2002-01-01

    The genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters occupy 2.5% of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, none of these putative ABC transporters has been characterized so far. We describe the development of expression systems for simultaneous expression of the ATP-binding protein DrrA and the membrane integral protein DrrB which together behave as a functional doxorubicin efflux pump. Doxorubicin uptake in Escherichia coli or Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing DrrAB was inhibited by reserpine, an inhibitor of ABC transporters. The localization of DrrA to the membrane depended on the simultaneous expression of DrrB. ATP binding was positively regulated by doxorubicin and daunorubicin. At the same time, DrrB appeared to be sensitive to proteolysis when expressed alone in the absence of DrrA. Simultaneous expression of the two polypeptides was essential to obtain a functional doxorubicin efflux pump. Expression of DrrAB in E. coli conferred 8-fold increased resistance to ethidium bromide, a cationic compound. 2',7'-bis-(2-Carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), a neutral compound, also behaved as a substrate of the reconstituted efflux pump. When expressed in M. smegmatis, DrrAB conferred resistance to a number of clinically relevant, structurally unrelated antibiotics. The resistant phenotype could be reversed by verapamil and reserpine, two potent inhibitors of ABC transporters. PMID:12057006

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a multidrug efflux pump, SmfY, from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Minato, Yusuke; Chen, Jing; Mizushima, Tohru; Ogawa, Wakano; Kuroda, Teruo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa

    2007-04-01

    We cloned a gene smfY for multidrug efflux pump from chromosomal DNA of Serratia marcescens using drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM32 as the host, and characterized the pump. E. coli KAM32/pESM42 carrying the smfY showed significantly increased MICs of various drugs including DAPI, norfloxacin, benzalkonium chloride, acriflavine and ethidium bromide, compared with the control. We also detected energy-dependent ethidium and acriflavine efflux due to the SmfY. Sequence analysis revealed that the SmfY was a multidrug efflux pump of the MF (Major Facilitator) superfamily transporters. This is the first report of a multidrug efflux pump belonging to the MF superfamily in S. marcescens.

  13. Dual Action Antifungal Small Molecule Modulates Multidrug Efflux and TOR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar-Guturja, Tanvi; Gunaherath, G. M. Kamal B.; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Averette, Anna F.; Lee, Soo Chan; Kim, Taeyup; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Tripodi, Farida; Ammar, Ron; Döhl, Katja; Niewola-Staszkowska, Karolina; Schmitt, Lutz; Loewith, Robbie J.; Roth, Frederick P.; Sanglard, Dominique; Andes, David; Nislow, Corey; Coccetti, Paola; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Heitman, Joseph; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new strategies to treat invasive fungal infections, which are a leading cause of human mortality. We establish two activities of the natural product beauvericin, which potentiates the activity of the most widely deployed class of antifungal against the leading human fungal pathogens, blocks the emergence of drug resistance, and renders resistant pathogens responsive to treatment in mammalian infection models. Harnessing genome sequencing of beauvericin-resistant mutants, affinity purification of a biotinylated beauvericin analog, and biochemical and genetic assays reveals that beauvericin blocks multidrug efflux and inhibits the global regulator TORC1 kinase, thereby activating protein kinase CK2 and inhibiting the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Substitutions in the multidrug transporter Pdr5 that enable beauvericin efflux impair antifungal efflux, thereby impeding resistance to the drug combination. Thus, dual targeting of multidrug efflux and TOR signaling provides a powerful, broadly effective therapeutic strategy for fungal infectious disease that evades resistance. PMID:27571477

  14. Recent advances toward a molecular mechanism of efflux pump inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Opperman, Timothy J.; Nguyen, Son T.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative pathogens, such as the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, poses a significant threat to our ability to effectively treat infections caused by these organisms. A major component in the development of the MDR phenotype in Gram-negative bacteria is overexpression of Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND)-type efflux pumps, which actively pump antibacterial agents and biocides from the periplasm to the outside of the cell. Consequently, bacterial efflux pumps are an important target for developing novel antibacterial treatments. Potent efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) could be used as adjunctive therapies that would increase the potency of existing antibiotics and decrease the emergence of MDR bacteria. Several potent inhibitors of RND-type efflux pump have been reported in the literature, and at least three of these EPI series were optimized in a pre-clinical development program. However, none of these compounds have been tested in the clinic. One of the major hurdles to the development of EPIs has been the lack of biochemical, computational, and structural methods that could be used to guide rational drug design. Here, we review recent reports that have advanced our understanding of the mechanism of action of several potent EPIs against RND-type pumps. PMID:25999939

  15. Neuroinflammation activates efflux transport by NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhui; Argyropoulos, George; Zhang, Yan; Kastin, Abba J.; Hsuchou, Hung; Pan, Weihong

    2009-01-01

    Background/aims Although it is known that drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be hampered by efflux transport activity of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene product P-glycoprotein, it is not clear how inflammation regulates efflux transporters. In rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells of BBB origin, the proinflammatory cytokine TNF mainly induces transcriptional upregulation of mdr1b, and to a lesser extent mdr1a, resulting in greater efflux of the substrates (Yu C et al., Cell Physiol Biochem, 2007). This study further determined the mechanisms by which TNF activates mdr1b promoter activity. Methods/Results Luciferase reporter assays and DNA binding studies show that (a) maximal basal promoter activity was conferred by a 476 bp sequence upstream to the mdr1b transcriptional initiation site; (2) TNF induced upregulation of promoter activity by NFkB nuclear translocation; and (3) the NFκB binding site of the mdr1b promoter was solely responsible for basal and TNF-activated gene transcription, whereas the p53 binding site was not involved. Binding of the p65 subunit of NFκB to nuclear DNA from RBE4 cells was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Conclusion Thus, NFκB mediated TNF-induced upregulation of mdr1b promoter activity, illustrating how inflammation activates BBB efflux transport. PMID:19088456

  16. Evidence of nickel (Ni) efflux in Ni-tolerant ectomycorhizal Pisolithus albus isolated from ultramafic soil.

    PubMed

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Nickel (Ni)-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus was isolated from extreme ultramafic soils that are naturally rich in heavy metals. This study aimed to identify the specific molecular mechanisms associated with the response of P. albus to nickel. In presence of high concentration of nickel, P. albus Ni-tolerant isolate showed a low basal accumulation of nickel in its fungal tissues and was able to perform a metal efflux mechanism. Three genes putatively involved in metal efflux were identified from the P. albus transcriptome, and their overexpression was confirmed in the mycelium that was cultivated in vitro in the presence of nickel and in fungal tissues that were sampled in situ. Cloning these genes in yeast provided significant advantages in terms of nickel tolerance (+ 31% Ni EC50) and growth (+ 83% μ) compared with controls. Furthermore, nickel efflux was also detected in the transformed yeast cells. Protein sequence analysis indicated that the genes encoded a P-type-ATPase, an ABC transporter and a major facilitator superfamily permease (MFS). This study sheds light on a global mechanism of metal efflux by P. albus cells that supports nickel tolerance. These specific responses to nickel might contribute to the fungal adaptation in ultramafic soil.

  17. Calcium Efflux from Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J. M.; Blaustein, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Calcium-45 was injected into single giant barnacle muscle fibers, and the rate of efflux was measured under a variety of conditions. The rate constant (k) for 45Ca efflux into standard seawater averaged 17 x 10–4 min–1 which corresponds to an efflux of about 1–2 pmol/cm2·s. Removal of external Ca (Cao) reduced the efflux by 50%. In most fibers about 40% of the 45Ca efflux into Ca-free seawater was dependent on external Na (Nao); treatment with 3.5 mM caffeine increased the magnitude of the Nao-dependent efflux. In a few fibers removal of Nao, in the absence of Cao, either had no effect or increased k; caffeine (2–3.5 mM) unmasked an Nao-dependent efflux in these fibers. The Nao-dependent Ca efflux had a Q10 of about 3.7. The data are consistent with the idea that a large fraction of the Ca efflux may be carrier-mediated, and may involve both Ca-Ca and Na-Ca counterflow. The relation between the Nao-dependent Ca efflux and the external Na concentration is sigmoid, and suggests that two, or more likely three, external Na+ ions may activate the efflux of one Ca+2. With a three-for-one Na-Ca exchange, the Na electrochemical gradient may be able to supply sufficient energy to maintain the Ca gradient in these fibers. Other, more complex models are not excluded, however, and may be required to explain some puzzling features of the Ca efflux such as the variable Nao-dependence. PMID:4812633

  18. The Deviant ATP-binding Site of the Multidrug Efflux Pump Pdr5 Plays an Active Role in the Transport Cycle*

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Christopher; Mehla, Jitender; Ananthaswamy, Neeti; Arya, Nidhi; Kulesh, Bridget; Kovach, Ildiko; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Golin, John

    2013-01-01

    Pdr5 is the founding member of a large subfamily of evolutionarily distinct, clinically important fungal ABC transporters containing a characteristic, deviant ATP-binding site with altered Walker A, Walker B, Signature (C-loop), and Q-loop residues. In contrast to these motifs, the D-loops of the two ATP-binding sites have similar sequences, including a completely conserved aspartate residue. Alanine substitution mutants in the deviant Walker A and Signature motifs retain significant, albeit reduced, ATPase activity and drug resistance. The D-loop residue mutants D340A and D1042A showed a striking reduction in plasma membrane transporter levels. The D1042N mutation localized properly had nearly WT ATPase activity but was defective in transport and was profoundly hypersensitive to Pdr5 substrates. Therefore, there was a strong uncoupling of ATPase activity and drug efflux. Taken together, the properties of the mutants suggest an additional, critical intradomain signaling role for deviant ATP-binding sites. PMID:24019526

  19. Characterization of the RND family of multidrug efflux pumps: in silico to in vivo confirmation of four functionally distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricia; Molina-Henares, Antonio J; de la Torre, Jesús; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a generalized profile that identifies members of the root-nodulation-cell-division (RND) family of efflux pumps and classifies them into four functional subfamilies. According to Z-score values, efflux pumps can be grouped by their metabolic function, thus making it possible to distinguish pumps involved in antibiotic resistance (group 1) from those involved in metal resistance (group 3). In silico data regarding efflux pumps in group 1 were validated after identification of RND efflux pumps in a number of environmental microbes that were isolated as resistant to ethidium bromide. Analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 genome identified efflux pumps in all groups. A collection of mutants in efflux pumps and a screening platform consisting of 50 drugs were created to assign a function to the efflux pumps. We validated in silico data regarding efflux pumps in groups 1 and 3 using 9 different mutants. Four mutants belonging to group 2 were found to be more sensitive than the wild-type to oxidative stress-inducing agents such as bipyridyl and methyl viologen. The two remaining mutants belonging to group 4 were found to be more sensitive than the parental to tetracycline and one of them was particularly sensitive to rubidium and chromate. By effectively combining in vivo data with generalized profiles and gene annotation data, this approach allowed the assignment, according to metabolic function, of both known and uncharacterized RND efflux pumps into subgroups, thereby providing important new insight into the functions of proteins within this family.

  20. Role of EfrAB efflux pump in biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from traditional fermented foods and the effect of EDTA as EfrAB inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Valenzuela, Antonio Sánchez; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-12-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from various traditional fermented foods of both animal and vegetable origins have shown multidrug resistance to several antibiotics and tolerance to biocides. Reduced susceptibility was intra and inter-species dependent and was due to specific and unspecific mechanisms such as efflux pumps. EfrAB, a heterodimeric ABC transporter efflux pump, was detected in 100% of multidrug resistant (MDR) E. faecalis strains and only in 12% of MDR E. faecium strains. EfrAB expression was induced by half of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. However, expression of efrA and efrB genes was highly dependent on the strain tested and on the antimicrobial used. Our results indicated that 3 mM EDTA highly reduced the MICs of almost all drugs tested. Nevertheless, the higher reductions (>8 folds) were obtained with gentamicin, streptomycin, chlorhexidine and triclosan. Reductions of MICs were correlated with down-regulation of EfrAB expression (10-140 folds) in all three MDR enterococci strains. This is the first report describing the role of EfrAB in the efflux of antibiotics and biocides which reflect also the importance of EfrAB in multidrug resistance in enterococci. EDTA used at low concentration as food preservative could be one of the best choices to prevent spread of multidrug resistant enterococci throughout food chain by decreasing EfrAB expression. EfrAB could be an attractive target not only in enterococci present in food matrix but also those causing infections as well by using EDTA as therapeutic agent in combination with low doses of antibiotics.

  1. Optimized Purification of a Heterodimeric ABC Transporter in a Highly Stable Form Amenable to 2-D Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Galián, Carmen; Manon, Florence; Dezi, Manuela; Torres, Cristina; Ebel, Christine; Lévy, Daniel; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Optimized protocols for achieving high-yield expression, purification and reconstitution of membrane proteins are required to study their structure and function. We previously reported high-level expression in Escherichia coli of active BmrC and BmrD proteins from Bacillus subtilis, previously named YheI and YheH. These proteins are half-transporters which belong to the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) superfamily and associate in vivo to form a functional transporter able to efflux drugs. In this report, high-yield purification and functional reconstitution were achieved for the heterodimer BmrC/BmrD. In contrast to other detergents more efficient for solubilizing the transporter, dodecyl-ß-D-maltoside (DDM) maintained it in a drug-sensitive and vanadate-sensitive ATPase-competent state after purification by affinity chromatography. High amounts of pure proteins were obtained which were shown either by analytical ultracentrifugation or gel filtration to form a monodisperse heterodimer in solution, which was notably stable for more than one month at 4°C. Functional reconstitution using different lipid compositions induced an 8-fold increase of the ATPase activity (kcat∼5 s−1). We further validated that the quality of the purified BmrC/BmrD heterodimer is suitable for structural analyses, as its reconstitution at high protein densities led to the formation of 2-D crystals. Electron microscopy of negatively stained crystals allowed the calculation of a projection map at 20 Å resolution revealing that BmrC/BmrD might assemble into oligomers in a lipidic environment. PMID:21602923

  2. Multidrug efflux pumps as main players in intrinsic and acquired resistance to antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Hernando-Amado, Sara; Blanco, Paula; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Corona, Fernando; Reales-Calderón, Jose A; Sánchez, María B; Martínez, José L

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps constitute a group of transporters that are ubiquitously found in any organism. In addition to other functions with relevance for the cell physiology, efflux pumps contribute to the resistance to compounds used for treating different diseases, including resistance to anticancer drugs, antibiotics or antifungal compounds. In the case of antimicrobials, efflux pumps are major players in both intrinsic and acquired resistance to drugs currently in use for the treatment of infectious diseases. One important aspect not fully explored of efflux pumps consists on the identification of effectors able to induce their expression. Indeed, whereas the analysis of clinical isolates have shown that mutants overexpressing these resistance elements are frequently found, less is known on the conditions that may trigger expression of efflux pumps, hence leading to transient induction of resistance in vivo, a situation that is barely detectable using classical susceptibility tests. In the current article we review the structure and mechanisms of regulation of the expression of bacterial and fungal efflux pumps, with a particular focus in those for which a role in clinically relevant resistance has been reported.

  3. Recent Advances on the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Drug Resistance of Cancer Cells and Novel Targeting Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mimeault, M; Hauke, R; Batra, SK

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent knowledge obtained on the molecular mechanisms involved in the intrinsic and acquired resistance of cancer cells to current cancer therapies. We describe the cascades that are often altered in cancer cells during cancer progression that may contribute in a crucial manner to drug resistance and disease relapse. The emphasis is on the implication of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug efflux transporters in drug disposition and antiapoptotic factors, including epidermal growth factor receptor cascades and deregulated enzymes in ceramide metabolic pathways. The altered expression and activity of these signaling elements may have a critical role in the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic effects induced by diverse chemotherapeutic drugs and cancer recurrence. Of therapeutic interest, new strategies for reversing the multidrug resistance and developing more effective clinical treatments against the highly aggressive, metastatic, and recurrent cancers, based on the molecular targeting of the cancer progenitor cells and their further differentiated progeny, are also described. PMID:17786164

  4. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  5. An ABC for decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  6. An ABC for decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  7. Lamellarin O, a Pyrrole Alkaloid from an Australian Marine Sponge, Ianthella sp., Reverses BCRP Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Cong; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Talele, Tanaji T.; Salim, Angela A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, BCRP and MRP1, can increase efflux of clinical chemotherapeutic agents and lead to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. While the discovery and development of clinically useful inhibitors has proved elusive to date, this molecular target nevertheless remains a promising strategy for addressing and potentially overcoming MDR. In a search for new classes of inhibitor, we used fluorescent accumulation and efflux assays supported by cell flow cytometry and MDR reversal assays, against a panel of sensitive and MDR human cancer cell lines, to evaluate the marine sponge co-metabolites 1–12 as inhibitors of P-gp, BCRP or MRP1 initiated MDR. These studies identified and characterized lamellarin O (11) as a selective inhibitor of BCRP mediated drug efflux. A structure–activity relationship analysis inclusive of the natural products 1–12 and the synthetic analogues 13–19, supported by in silico docking studies, revealed key structural requirements for the lamellarin O (11) BCRP inhibitory pharmacophore. PMID:24979269

  8. Downregulation of Critical Oncogenes by the Selective SK2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Hinders Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schrecengost, Randy S.; Keller, Staci N.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Smith, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) drives several hallmark processes of cancer, making the enzymes that synthesize S1P, i.e. sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), important molecular targets for cancer drug development. ABC294640 is a first-in-class SK2 small-molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Given that AR and Myc are two of the most widely implicated oncogenes in prostate cancer (PCa), and that sphingolipids impact signaling by both proteins, the therapeutic potential for using ABC294640 in the treatment of PCa was evaluated. This study demonstrates that ABC294640 abrogates signaling pathways requisite for PCa growth and proliferation. Key findings validate that ABC294640 treatment of early stage and advanced PCa models downregulate Myc and AR expression and activity. This corresponds with significant inhibition of growth, proliferation, and cell cycle progression. Finally, oral administration of ABC294640 was found to dramatically impede xenograft tumor growth. Together, these pre-clinical findings support the hypotheses that SK2 activity is required for PCa function and that ABC294640 represents a new pharmacological agent for treatment of early stage and aggressive PCa. PMID:26271487

  9. A Drosophila ABC Transporter Regulates Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Lu-Bo, Ying; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    MRP4 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 4) is a member of the MRP/ABCC subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are essential for many cellular processes requiring the transport of substrates across cell membranes. Although MRP4 has been implicated as a detoxification protein by transport of structurally diverse endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including antivirus and anticancer drugs, that usually induce oxidative stress in cells, its in vivo biological function remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the biological functions of a Drosophila homolog of human MRP4, dMRP4. We show that dMRP4 expression is elevated in response to oxidative stress (paraquat, hydrogen peroxide and hyperoxia) in Drosophila. Flies lacking dMRP4 have a shortened lifespan under both oxidative and normal conditions. Overexpression of dMRP4, on the other hand, is sufficient to increase oxidative stress resistance and extend lifespan. By genetic manipulations, we demonstrate that dMRP4 is required for JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation during paraquat challenge and for basal transcription of some JNK target genes under normal condition. We show that impaired JNK signaling is an important cause for major defects associated with dMRP4 mutations, suggesting that dMRP4 regulates lifespan by modulating the expression of a set of genes related to both oxidative resistance and aging, at least in part, through JNK signaling. PMID:25474322

  10. Ectopic serotonin accumulation and efflux in rat mesencephalic slices after prior tissue 'radiolabelling'.

    PubMed

    Blatchford, Karen L; McLaughlin, Daniel P; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2003-06-30

    Radiolabelling of brain tissue has long been used to facilitate detection of transmitter efflux, on the assumption that egress of tritiated monoamines reflects that of the endogenous transmitter. The present study tested the hypothesis that the application of exogenous serotonin (5-HT) to mesencephalic slices, in the manner used during a typical radiolabelling protocol, leads to efflux of 5-HT from physiologically inappropriate loci such as other non-serotonergic neurones. We used fast cyclic voltammetry (FCV) to determine the effect of tissue pre-incubation with 5-HT on electrically-stimulated 5-HT efflux and reuptake in rat mesencephalic slices. Seven subregions were studied, including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), dorsomedial periaqueductal grey (PAGdm) and the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). In control slices (pre-incubated without 5-HT), stimulated 5-HT efflux was only detectable in DRN, PAGdm and occasionally in PnO. In slices incubated in 5-HT (100nM) for 30min, stimulated 5-HT efflux was detected in all seven subregions studied. In such slices, citalopram (75nM) increased efflux and reuptake t(1/2) in DRN to 201+/-21 and 487+/-117% of pre-drug values (P<0.05) but had no significant effect on either measure in PnO. The 5-HT1 autoreceptor agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 100nM) decreased efflux in DRN by 54+/-6% (P<0.05), but was without effect (10+/-14%) in PnO. The present results show that pre-incubation in 5-HT allows stimulated 5-HT efflux from regions of the mesencephalon other than DRN and PAGdm. This stimulated 5-HT efflux is apparently not influenced by 5-HT transporters or 5-HT1 autoreceptors, suggesting that efflux is ectopic, an artefact of the pre-incubation process. In summary, incubation of rat mesencephalic tissue in 5-HT, in the manner of a typical radiolabelling protocol, results in stimulated 5-HT efflux from non-physiological sites. The results of such transmitter efflux studies should thus be interpreted with

  11. Drug resistance is conferred on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of full-length melanoma-associated human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB5.

    PubMed

    Keniya, Mikhail V; Holmes, Ann R; Niimi, Masakazu; Lamping, Erwin; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Gottesman, Michael M; Cannon, Richard D

    2014-10-06

    ABCB5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is highly expressed in melanoma cells, and may contribute to the extreme resistance of melanomas to chemotherapy by efflux of anti-cancer drugs. Our goal was to determine whether we could functionally express human ABCB5 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to demonstrate an efflux function for ABCB5 in the absence of background pump activity from other human transporters. Heterologous expression would also facilitate drug discovery for this important target. DNAs encoding ABCB5 sequences were cloned into the chromosomal PDR5 locus of a S. cerevisiae strain in which seven endogenous ABC transporters have been deleted. Protein expression in the yeast cells was monitored by immunodetection using both a specific anti-ABCB5 antibody and a cross-reactive anti-ABCB1 antibody. ABCB5 function in recombinant yeast cells was measured by determining whether the cells possessed increased resistance to known pump substrates, compared to the host yeast strain, in assays of yeast growth. Three ABCB5 constructs were made in yeast. One was derived from the ABCB5-β mRNA, which is highly expressed in human tissues but is a truncation of a canonical full-size ABC transporter. Two constructs contained full-length ABCB5 sequences: either a native sequence from cDNA or a synthetic sequence codon-harmonized for S. cerevisiae. Expression of all three constructs in yeast was confirmed by immunodetection. Expression of the codon-harmonized full-length ABCB5 DNA conferred increased resistance, relative to the host yeast strain, to the putative substrates rhodamine 123, daunorubicin, tetramethylrhodamine, FK506, or clorgyline. We conclude that full-length ABCB5 can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae and confers drug resistance.

  12. Pyrazinoic acid efflux rate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a better proxy of pyrazinamide resistance.

    PubMed

    Zimic, Mirko; Fuentes, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Kirwan, Daniela; Sheen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Pyrazinamide is one of the most important drugs in the treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The emergence of strains resistant to pyrazinamide represents an important public health problem, as both first- and second-line treatment regimens include pyrazinamide. The accepted mechanism of action states that after the conversion of pyrazinamide into pyrazinoic acid by the bacterial pyrazinamidase enzyme, the drug is expelled from the bacteria by an efflux pump. The pyrazinoic acid is protonated in the extracellular environment and then re-enters the mycobacterium, releasing the proton and causing a lethal disruption of the membrane. Although it has been shown that mutations causing significant loss of pyrazinamidase activity significantly contribute to pyrazinamide resistance, the mechanism of resistance is not completely understood. The pyrazinoic acid efflux rate may depend on multiple factors, including pyrazinamidase activity, intracellular pyrazinamidase concentration, and the efficiency of the efflux pump. Whilst the importance of the pyrazinoic acid efflux rate to the susceptibility to pyrazinamide is recognized, its quantitative effect remains unknown. Thirty-four M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain (naturally resistant to PZA) were selected based on their susceptibility to pyrazinamide, as measured by Bactec 460TB and the Wayne method. For each isolate, the initial velocity at which pyrazinoic acid is released from the bacteria and the initial velocity at which pyrazinamide enters the bacteria were estimated. The data indicated that pyrazinoic acid efflux rates for pyrazinamide-susceptible M. tuberculosis strains fell within a specific range, and M. tuberculosis strains with a pyrazinoic acid efflux rate below this range appeared to be resistant. This finding contrasts with the high pyrazinoic acid efflux rate for M. smegmatis, which is innately resistant to pyrazinamide: its pyrazinoic acid efflux

  13. Complexity in efflux pump control: cross-regulation by the paralogues TtgV and TtgT.

    PubMed

    Terán, Wilson; Felipe, Antonia; Fillet, Sandy; Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Krell, Tino; Ruiz, Raquel; Ramos, Juan L; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2007-12-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E, known for its high tolerance to solvents, possesses three Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-type (RND) efflux pumps, namely TtgABC, TtgDEF and TtgGHI, which are involved in the active extrusion of solvents. Expression of the ttgABC and ttgGHI operons was previously shown to be regulated by the adjacently encoded repressors, TtgR and TtgV, respectively. Upstream of the third RND operon, ttgDEF, is located a putative regulator gene, ttgT. In this study, TtgT is shown to bind to the promoter region of the ttgDEF operon, and to be released from DNA in the presence of organic solvents. In vitro studies revealed that TtgV and TtgT bind the same operator sites in both the ttgDEF and the ttgGHI promoters. However, the affinity of TtgV for the ttgDEF operator was higher than that of TtgT, which, together with the fact that the ttgV promoter seems to be almost twice stronger than the ttgT promoter, explains why TtgV takes over in the regulation of the two efflux pump operons. The functional replacement of the cognate, chromosomally encoded TtgT by the plasmid-encoded paralogue TtgV illustrates a new mode of efflux pump regulation of which the physiological relevance is discussed.

  14. The ABC`s of nuclear science workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McMahn, P.; Carlock, M.S.; Mattis, H.; Norman, E.; Seaborg, G.

    1997-12-31

    Over the last several years the Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) has developed two wall charts which illustrate contemporary aspects of particle and plasma physics for high school and undergraduate students. We are now working with CPEP on the development of a similar chart for nuclear science. This chart will illustrate the basics of nuclear science coupled with the exciting research which is being done in this field. This workshop will explore the wall chart, along with materials and experiments that have been developed to accompany it. The set of experiments have been developed by high school teachers, chemists, and physicists working together, and include experiments such as, {open_quotes}the ABCs of Nuclear Science,{close_quotes} and experiments exploring the various kinds of radioactive decay, radioactivity in common household products, half-live measurements, radiography, etc. Teachers who join the project as chart field testers will receive a poster size chart and accompanying materials free of charge. The materials also include a video about cosmic rays has also been produced for the classroom.

  15. The enriched fraction of Elephantopus scaber Triggers apoptosis and inhibits multi-drug resistance transporters in human epithelial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Beeran, Asmy Appadath; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. Elephantopus scaber (Asteraceae) (ES) is widely used in Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments including cancer. Objective: To investigate anticancer effects of ES in human epithelial cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of ES (ES-ET) and its fractions, such as ES Petroleum ether fraction (ES-PET), ES Dichloromethane fraction (ES DCM), n Butyl alcohol fraction (ES-BT), and ES-Rest (ES-R) were assessed in human epithelial cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay and Hoechst 33342 assays were used to gauge induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis and micronuclei assay were used to assess cell cycle specific pharmacological effects and drug induced genotoxicty. Further, the ability of ES to inhibit multi drug resistant (MDR) transporters (ABC-B1 and ABC-G2) was determined by Rhodamine (Rho) and Mitoxantrone (MXR) efflux assays. Results: The enriched fraction of ES (ES DCM) possessed dose-dependent potent cytotoxicity in human epithelial cancer cells. Further, treatment of cancer cells (HeLa, A549, MCF-7, and Caco-2) with ES DCM showed hall mark properties of apoptosis (membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation etc.). Similarly, ES DCM caused enhanced sub G0 content and micronuclei formation indicating the induction of apoptosis and drug induced genotoxicity in cancer cells, respectively. Interestingly, ES DCM inhibited MDR transporters (ABC B1 and ABC G2) in cancer cells. Conclusion: The enriched fraction of ES imparted cytotoxic effects, triggered apoptosis, induced genotoxicity, and inhibited MDR transporters in human epithelial cancer cells. Thus, ES appears to be potential anticancer agent. PMID:25829763

  16. The ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia R.

    1998-01-01

    Reports the impressions of 20 preservice and inservice teachers as they experienced the "ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication" model, a program to promote cultural sensitivity among teachers. Insights these teachers gained are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Transporter-mediated Efflux Influences CNS Side Effects: ABCB1, from Antitarget to Target

    PubMed Central

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Carosati, Emanuele; Cruciani, Gabriele; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between sedation and orthostatic hypotension, two central side effects and ABCB1 transporter-mediated efflux for a set of 64 launched drugs that are documented as histamine H1 receptor antagonists. This relationship was placed in the context of passive diffusion (estimated using LogP, the octanol/water partition coefficient), receptor affinity, and the adjusted therapeutic daily dose, in order to account for side effect variability. Within this set, CNS permeability was not dependent on passive diffusion, as no significant differences were found for LogP and its pH-corrected equivalent, LogD74. Sedation and orthostatic hypotension can be explained within the framework of ABCB1-mediated efflux and adjusted dose, while target potency has less influence. ABCB1, an antitarget for anti-cancer agents, acts in fact as a drug target for non-sedating antihistamines. An empirical set of rules, based on the incidence of these two side-effects, target affinity and dose was used to predict efflux effects for a number of drugs. Among them, azelastine and mizolastine are predicted to be effluxed via ABCB1-mediated transport, whereas aripiprazole, clozapine, cyproheptadine, iloperidone, olanzapine, and ziprasidone are likely to be non-effluxed. PMID:22347894

  18. A Simple Method for Assessment of MDR Bacteria for Over-Expressed Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Marta; McCusker, Matthew P; Viveiros, Miguel; Couto, Isabel; Fanning, Séamus; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    It is known that bacteria showing a multi-drug resistance phenotype use several mechanisms to overcome the action of antibiotics. As a result, this phenotype can be a result of several mechanisms or a combination of thereof. The main mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are: mutations in target genes (such as DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV); over-expression of efflux pumps; changes in the cell envelope; down regulation of membrane porins, and modified lipopolysaccharide component of the outer cell membrane (in the case of Gram-negative bacteria). In addition, adaptation to the environment, such as quorum sensing and biofilm formation can also contribute to bacterial persistence. Due to the rapid emergence and spread of bacterial isolates showing resistance to several classes of antibiotics, methods that can rapidly and efficiently identify isolates whose resistance is due to active efflux have been developed. However, there is still a need for faster and more accurate methodologies. Conventional methods that evaluate bacterial efflux pump activity in liquid systems are available. However, these methods usually use common efflux pump substrates, such as ethidium bromide or radioactive antibiotics and therefore, require specialized instrumentation, which is not available in all laboratories. In this review, we will report the results obtained with the Ethidium Bromide-agar Cartwheel method. This is an easy, instrument-free, agar based method that has been modified to afford the simultaneous evaluation of as many as twelve bacterial strains. Due to its simplicity it can be applied to large collections of bacteria to rapidly screen for multi-drug resistant isolates that show an over-expression of their efflux systems. The principle of the method is simple and relies on the ability of the bacteria to expel a fluorescent molecule that is substrate for most efflux pumps, ethidium bromide. In this approach, the higher the concentration of ethidium bromide required to

  19. The TetR-Type MfsR Protein of the Integrative and Conjugative Element (ICE) ICEclc Controls both a Putative Efflux System and Initiation of ICE Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Pradervand, Nicolas; Delavat, François; Sulser, Sandra; Miyazaki, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Integrative and conjugating elements (ICE) are self-transferable DNAs widely present in bacterial genomes, which often carry a variety of auxiliary genes of potential adaptive benefit. One of the model ICE is ICEclc, an element originally found in Pseudomonas knackmussii B13 and known for its propensity to provide its host with the capacity to metabolize chlorocatechols and 2-aminophenol. In this work, we studied the mechanism and target of regulation of MfsR, a TetR-type repressor previously found to exert global control on ICEclc horizontal transfer. By using a combination of ICEclc mutant and transcriptome analysis, gene reporter fusions, and DNA binding assays, we found that MfsR is a repressor of both its own expression and that of a gene cluster putatively coding for a major facilitator superfamily efflux system on ICEclc (named mfsABC). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that mfsR was originally located immediately adjacent to the efflux pump genes but became displaced from its original cis target DNA by a gene insertion. This resulted in divergence of the original bidirectional promoters into two separated individual regulatory units. Deletion of mfsABC did not result in a strong phenotype, and despite screening a large number of compounds and conditions, we were unable to define the precise current function or target of the putative efflux pump. Our data reconstruct how the separation of an ancestor mfsR-mfsABC system led to global control of ICEclc transfer by MfsR. PMID:25182498

  20. Efflux Pump Gene Expression in Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Zhao, Li-li; Zhao, Xiuqin; Lu, Jianxin; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) are the two most effective drugs in tuberculosis therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance to these two drugs is essential to quickly diagnose multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nine clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to only INH and RIF and 10 clinical pan-sensitive isolates were included to evaluate the expression of 20 putative drug efflux pump genes and sequence mutations in rpoB (RIF), katG (INH), the inhA promoter (INH), and oxyR-ahpC (INH). Nine and three MDR isolates were induced to overexpress efflux pump genes by INH and RIF, respectively. Eight and two efflux pump genes were induced to overexpress by INH and RIF in MDR isolates, respectively. drrA, drrB, efpA, jefA (Rv2459), mmr, Rv0849, Rv1634, and Rv1250 were overexpressed under INH or RIF stress. Most efflux pump genes were overexpressed under INH stress in a MDR isolates that carried the wild-type katG, inhA, and oxyR-ahpC associated with INH resistance than in those that carried mutations. The expression levels of 11 genes (efpA, Rv0849, Rv1250, P55 (Rv1410c), Rv1634, Rv2994, stp, Rv2459, pstB, drrA, and drrB) without drug inducement were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in nine MDR isolates than in 10 pan-sensitive isolates. In conclusion, efflux pumps may play an important role in INH acquired resistance in MDR M. tuberculosis, especially in those strains having no mutations in genes associated with INH resistance; basal expression levels of some efflux pump genes are higher in MDR isolates than in pan-sensitive isolates and the basal expressional differences may be helpful to diagnose and treat resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25695504

  1. Efflux pump gene expression in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilian; Zhang, Jingrui; Guo, Qian; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Zhao, Li-li; Zhao, Xiuqin; Lu, Jianxin; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) are the two most effective drugs in tuberculosis therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance to these two drugs is essential to quickly diagnose multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nine clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to only INH and RIF and 10 clinical pan-sensitive isolates were included to evaluate the expression of 20 putative drug efflux pump genes and sequence mutations in rpoB (RIF), katG (INH), the inhA promoter (INH), and oxyR-ahpC (INH). Nine and three MDR isolates were induced to overexpress efflux pump genes by INH and RIF, respectively. Eight and two efflux pump genes were induced to overexpress by INH and RIF in MDR isolates, respectively. drrA, drrB, efpA, jefA (Rv2459), mmr, Rv0849, Rv1634, and Rv1250 were overexpressed under INH or RIF stress. Most efflux pump genes were overexpressed under INH stress in a MDR isolates that carried the wild-type katG, inhA, and oxyR-ahpC associated with INH resistance than in those that carried mutations. The expression levels of 11 genes (efpA, Rv0849, Rv1250, P55 (Rv1410c), Rv1634, Rv2994, stp, Rv2459, pstB, drrA, and drrB) without drug inducement were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in nine MDR isolates than in 10 pan-sensitive isolates. In conclusion, efflux pumps may play an important role in INH acquired resistance in MDR M. tuberculosis, especially in those strains having no mutations in genes associated with INH resistance; basal expression levels of some efflux pump genes are higher in MDR isolates than in pan-sensitive isolates and the basal expressional differences may be helpful to diagnose and treat resistant tuberculosis.

  2. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2010-01-27

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients.

  3. Bacillus subtilis MntR coordinates the transcriptional regulation of manganese uptake and efflux systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Shin, Jung-Ho; Pinochet-Barros, Azul; Su, Tina T; Helmann, John D

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis MntR metalloregulatory protein senses manganese, an essential element required for central metabolism, oxidative stress resistance and replication. An mntR null mutant is highly sensitive to Mn(II) intoxication, which is attributed in part to the constitutive expression of two importers: the proton-dependent NRAMP family transporter MntH and the ABC transporter MntABCD. Here, we show that an mntR null mutant is still sensitive to Mn(II) intoxication even if both of the import systems are absent. This Mn(II) sensitivity results from the requirement for MntR to activate the transcription of two genes encoding cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family efflux pumps. Physiological studies indicate that MneP (formerly YdfM) serves as the primary Mn(II) efflux pump with MneS (formerly YeaB) playing a secondary role. Mutant strains lacking mneP are Mn(II) sensitive and accumulate elevated levels of Mn(II), and these effects are exacerbated in a mneP mneS double mutant. DNA-binding and in vitro transcription studies demonstrate that MntR binds to both the mneP and mneS regulatory regions and directly activates transcription in response to levels of Mn(II) several-fold higher than required for repression of import genes. These results highlight the delicate balance of Mn(II) uptake and efflux systems controlled by MntR.

  4. ABCB1 and ABCC4 efflux transporters are involved in methyl parathion detoxification in ZFL cells.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, Bruna Félix; Batista, Carolina Reyes; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Trindade, Gilma Santos; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-02-01

    The multi-xenobiotics resistance (MXR) mechanisms are the first line of defense against toxic substances in aquatic organisms and present great importance in the adaptation related to contaminated environments. Methyl parathion (MP) is a widely used organophosphate pesticide, which has been associated to various toxic effects in organisms. In the present work, we studied the main genes related to efflux transporters in zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells exposed to MP with and without an inhibitor of ABC transporters (verapamil). The results concerning transporters activity showed that the MXR mechanism is activated to detoxify from methyl parathion. The toxic effects of MP on ZFL cells were increased in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitor, once cell viability was significantly decreased in co-exposure experiments. The combined exposure to MP and the inhibitor caused an increase in gene expression of P-gp1 (Abcb1) and MRP4 (Abcc4), suggesting that these transporters isoforms are associated with MP efflux. In general, the expression of genes related to the antioxidant defense system (ADS) was significantly increased in ZFL cells co-exposed to MP and verapamil. These data provide useful insights for better understanding of MP detoxification mechanism in fish hepatocytes.

  5. Characterization of a transferable bcrABC and cadAC genes-harboring plasmid in Listeria monocytogenes strain isolated from food products of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyang; Nie, Qing; Wang, Wenyan; Shi, Lei; Yan, He

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we characterized a bcrABC cassette and its genetic environment harbored by a plasmid in Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) 11GZL18, a strain isolated from raw meat in 2011. The bcrABC cassette and its genetic environment were characterized, with a total of 33,727 nt nucleotide sequence obtained. The nucleotide sequences of the bcrABC cassette in strain 11GZL18 exhibited 100% identity to that on plasmid pLM80, which is harbored by L. monocytogenes strain H7550 and H7858, and the neighboring 21,678 nt nucleotide sequence of bcrABC cassette showed 99% identity with plasmid pLM80. The plasmid curing experiment demonstrated the role of the plasmid in conferring benzalkonium chloride (BC) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance in this strain. The bcrABC cassette and cadAC genes from the L. monocytogenes 11GZL18 were harbored by plasmid, functional and transmissible, and led to the acquired tolerance in Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α by chemical and natural transformation. Besides, the efflux pump activity that is conferring tolerance to BC and Cd was observed in strain 11GZL18, while not in a plasmid-cured strain 11GZL18-C, confirming that efflux pumps play a role in plasmid-mediated tolerance to BC and Cd in L. monocytogenes 11GZL18. In this study we characterized the genetic organization of a novel BC and Cd tolerance determinants-harboring plasmid in a L. monocytogenes strain isolated from raw meat of animal origin, and demonstrated the potential horizontal transferability of this bcrABC cassette-harboring plasmid to E. coli. The findings will further improve our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to elucidating possible dissemination of BC tolerance in foodborne L. monocytogenes.

  6. Contribution of the Ade Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-Type Efflux Pumps to Fitness and Pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Balloy, Viviane; Fiette, Laurence; Chignard, Michel; Courvalin, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Overexpression of chromosomal resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems with broad substrate specificity contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii. We have shown that modulation of expression of the structural genes for the efflux systems AdeABC and AdeIJK confers MDR and results in numerous alterations of membrane-associated cellular functions, in particular biofilm formation. However, the contribution of these RND pumps to cell fitness and virulence has not yet been studied. The biological cost of an antibiotic resistance mechanism is a key parameter in determining its stability and dissemination. From an entirely sequenced susceptible clinical isolate, we have generated a set of isogenic derivatives having single point mutations resulting in overexpression of each efflux system or with every pump deleted by allelic replacement. We found that overproduction of the pumps results in a significant decrease in fitness of the bacterial host when measured by competition experiments in vitro. Fitness and virulence were also evaluated in vivo both in systemic and pulmonary infection models in immunocompetent mice. A diminished competitiveness of the AdeABC-overexpressing mutant was observed only after intraperitoneal inoculation, but not after intranasal inoculation, the latter mimicking the most frequent type of human A. baumannii infection. However, in mice infected intranasally, this mutant was more virulent and stimulated an enhanced neutrophil activation in the lungs. Altogether, these data account for the observation that adeABC overexpression is common in MDR A. baumannii frequently found in ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:27247231

  7. Comparison of Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Membrane ABC Transporters Induced by MWCNTs with Different Length and Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Su; Wu, Bing; Shen, Zhuoyan; Cherr, Gary N; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Li, Mei

    2016-04-05

    Experimental studies indicate that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have the potential to induce cytotoxicity. However, the reports are often inconsistent and even contradictory. Additionally, adverse effects of MWCNTs at low concentration are not well understood. In this study, we systemically compared adverse effects of six MWCNTs including pristine MWCNTs, hydroxyl-MWCNTs and carboxyl-MWCNTs of two different lengths (0.5-2 μm and 10-30 μm) on human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Results showed that MWCNTs induced cytotoxicity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and damaging cell function. Pristine short MWCNTs induced higher cytotoxicity than pristine long MWCNTs. Functionalization increased cytotoxicity of long MWCNTs, but reduced cytotoxicity of short MWCNTs. Further, our results indicated that the six MWCNTs, at nontoxic concentration, might not be environmentally safe as they inhibited ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at very low concentrations, which were 40-1000 times lower than their effective concentrations on cytotoxicity. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased cytotoxicity of arsenic, a known substrate of ABC transporters, indicating a chemosensitizing effect of MWCNTs. Plasma membrane damage was likely the mechanism by which the six MWCNTs inhibited ABC transporter activity. This study provides insight into risk assessments of low levels of MWCNTs in the environment.

  8. Inhibition of the multidrug efflux pump LmrS from Staphylococcus aureus by cumin spice Cuminum cyminum.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared; Mukherjee, MunMun; Devireddy, Amith R; Inupakutika, Madhuri A; Ranweera, Indrika; Kc, Ranjana; 'Shrestha, Ugina; Cheeti, Upender Rao; Willmon, Thomas Mark; Adams, Jaclyn; Bruns, Merissa; Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious causative agent of infectious disease. Multidrug-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant S. aureus compromise treatment efficacy, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Active efflux represents a major antimicrobial resistance mechanism. The proton-driven multidrug efflux pump, LmrS, actively exports structurally distinct antimicrobials. To circumvent resistance and restore clinical efficacy of antibiotics, efflux pump inhibitors are necessary, and natural edible spices like cumin are potential candidates. The mode of cumin antibacterial action and underlying mechanisms behind drug resistance inhibition, however, are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that cumin inhibits LmrS drug transport. We found that cumin inhibited bacterial growth and LmrS ethidium transport in a dosage-dependent manner. We demonstrate that cumin is antibacterial toward a multidrug-resistant host and that resistance modulation involves multidrug efflux inhibition.

  9. Evading P-glycoprotein mediated-efflux chemoresistance using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Marco C; Pereira, Carolina; Kreutzer, Bruna; Gouveia, Luis F; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Brito, Alexandra M; Videira, Mafalda

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), whereby cancer cells become resistant to the cytotoxic effects of various structurally and mechanistically unrelated chemotherapeutic agents, is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cancer. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane protein responsible for drug efflux, which decreases drug intracellular bioavailability, consequently decreasing their efficacy against cancer. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) have not only the ability to protect the entrapped drug against proteolytic degradation, but also allow a selective intracellular targeting. Hypothetically, the entrapped drug enter the target cells by different uptake mechanisms, "nanocitose", as compared to the free drug and may evade efflux-transporters, like P-gp. The functional role of P-gp in limiting the permeability of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (Ptx) was assessed in MDA-MB-436 cells. The observed increase in the pharmacologic efficacy of drug entrapped in SLN relatively to the free drug indicates that this system is shielding the drug. Therefore, "blinding" the nanoparticle from the efflux transporters. The effect was confirmed by the decrease expression of P-gp with loaded-SLNs and through the impact on cellular MDR1 expression. Besides the ability to prevent MDR events, functionalization of SLN with a specific antibody against membrane receptors (anti-CD44v6) improves the nanoparticle capability to target selectively malignant cells. This results allow to anticipate that poor clinical outcomes related to tumour P-gp overexpression might be overcome in a near future.

  10. Functional and Genetic Characterization of the Tap Efflux Pump in Mycobacterium bovis BCG

    PubMed Central

    Mick, Virginie; Dainese, Elisa; Martín, Carlos; Thompson, Charles J.; De Rossi, Edda; Manganelli, Riccardo; Aínsa, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Efflux pumps extrude a wide variety of chemically unrelated compounds conferring multidrug resistance and participating in numerous physiological processes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses many efflux pumps, and their roles in drug resistance and physiology are actively investigated. In this work we found that tap mutant cells showed changes in morphology and a progressive loss of viability upon subcultivation in liquid medium. Transcriptome analysis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG revealed that disruption of the Rv1258c gene, encoding the Tap efflux pump, led to an extensive change in gene expression patterns during stationary phase, with no changes during exponential growth. In stationary phase, Tap inactivation triggered a general stress response and led to a general repression of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, in particular the formation of the peptidoglycan; this suggested the accumulation of an unknown Tap substrate that reaches toxic concentrations during stationary phase. We also found that both disruption and overexpression of tap altered susceptibility to many clinically approved antibiotics in M. bovis BCG. Acriflavine and tetracycline accumulation assays and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) potentiation experiments demonstrated that this phenotype was due to an active efflux mechanism. These findings emphasize the important role of the Tap efflux pump in bacterial physiology and intrinsic drug resistance. PMID:22232275

  11. Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 Negatively Regulates ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression and cholesterol efflux in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shridas, Preetha; Bailey, William M; Gizard, Florence; Oslund, Rob C; Gelb, Michael H; Bruemmer, Dennis; Webb, Nancy R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Group X secretory phospholipase A2 (GX sPLA2) potently hydrolyzes plasma membranes to generate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids and has been implicated in inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. Here we identify a novel role for GX sPLA2 in modulating ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression and hence macrophage cholesterol efflux. Methods and Results Overexpression or exogenous addition of GX sPLA2 significantly reduced ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression in J774 macrophage-like cells, whereas GX sPLA2 deficiency in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) was associated with enhanced expression. Altered ABC transporter expression led to reduced cholesterol efflux in GX sPLA2 overexpressing J774 cells, and increased efflux in GX sPLA2-deficient MPMs. Gene regulation was dependent on GX sPLA2 catalytic activity, mimicked by arachidonic acid, abrogated when LXRα/β expression was suppressed, and partially reversed by the LXR agonist T0901317. Reporter assays indicated that GX sPLA2 suppresses the ability of LXR to trans-activate its promoters through a mechanism involving the C-terminal portion of LXR spanning the ligand binding domain. Conclusions GX sPLA2 modulates gene expression in macrophages by generating lipolytic products that suppress LXR activation. GX sPLA2 may play a previously unrecognized role in atherosclerotic lipid accumulation by negatively regulating genes critical for cellular cholesterol efflux. PMID:20844270

  12. On the physics of multidrug efflux through a biomolecular complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, Hirokazu; Oshima, Hiraku; Yasuda, Satoshi; Amano, Ken-ichi; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    Insertion and release of a solute into and from a vessel comprising biopolymers is a fundamental function in a biological system. A typical example is found in a multidrug efflux transporter. "Multidrug efflux" signifies that solutes such as drug molecules with diverse properties can be handled. In our view, the mechanism of the multidrug efflux is not chemically specific but rather has to be based on a physical factor. In earlier works, we showed that the spatial distribution of the solute-vessel potential of mean force (PMF) induced by the solvent plays imperative roles in the insertion/release process. The PMF can be decomposed into the energetic and entropic components. The entropic component, which originates from the translational displacement of solvent molecules, is rather insensitive to the solute-solvent and vessel inner surface-solvent affinities. This feature is not shared with the energetic component. When the vessel inner surface is neither solvophobic nor solvophilic, the solvents within the vessel cavity and in the bulk offer almost the same environment to any solute with solvophobicity or solvophilicity, and the energetic component becomes much smaller than the entropic component (i.e., the latter predominates over the former). Our idea is that the multidrug efflux can be realized if the insertion/release process is accomplished by the entropic component exhibiting the insensitivity to the solute properties. However, we have recently argued that the entropic release of the solute is not feasible as long as the vessel geometry is fixed. Here we consider a model of TolC, a cylindrical vessel possessing an entrance at one end and an exit at the other end for the solute. The spatial distribution of the PMF is calculated by employing the three-dimensional integral equation theory with rigid-body models in which the constituents interact only through hard-body potentials. Since the behavior of these models is purely entropic in origin, our analysis is

  13. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter.

  14. Predicting Efflux Ratios and Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration from Chemical Structure: Combining Passive Permeability with Active Efflux by P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach their pharmacologic targets, successful central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates have to cross a complex protective barrier separating brain from the blood. Being able to predict a priori which molecules can successfully penetrate this barrier could be of significant value in CNS drug discovery. Herein we report a new computational approach that combines two mechanism-based models, for passive permeation and for active efflux by P-glycoprotein, to provide insight into the multiparameter optimization problem of designing small molecules able to access the CNS. Our results indicate that this approach is capable of distinguishing compounds with high/low efflux ratios as well as CNS+/CNS– compounds and provides advantage over estimating P-glycoprotein efflux or passive permeability alone when trying to predict these emergent properties. We also demonstrate that this method could be useful for rank-ordering chemically similar compounds and that it can provide detailed mechanistic insight into the relationship between chemical structure and efflux ratios and/or CNS penetration, offering guidance as to how compounds could be modified to improve their access into the brain. PMID:23421687

  15. Overexpression of MexAB-OprM efflux pump in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ya-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Fang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Ji-Lu

    2016-08-01

    Efflux pump systems are one of the most important mechanisms conferring multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MexAB-OprM efflux pump is one of the largest multi-drug resistant efflux pumps with high-level expression, which is controlled by regulatory genes mexR, nalC, and nalD. This study investigated the role of efflux pump MexAB-OprM in 75 strains of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and evaluated the influence of point mutation of the regulatory genes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem and meropenem, with or without MC207110, an efflux pump inhibitor, were determined by agar dilution method to select the positive strains for an overexpressed active efflux pump. Carba NP test and EDTA-disk synergy test were used for the detection of carbapenemase and metallo-β-lactamases, respectively. The gene mexA, responsible for the fusion protein structure, and the reference gene rpoD of the MexAB-OprM pump were amplified by real-time PCR. The quantity of relative mRNA expression was determined simultaneously. By PCR method, the efflux regulatory genes mexR, nalC, and nalD and outer membrane protein OprD2 were amplified for the strains showing overexpression of MexAB-OprM and subsequently analyzed by BLAST. Among the 75 P. aeruginosa strains, the prevalence of efflux pump-positive phenotype was 17.3 % (13/75). Carba NP test and EDTA-disk synergy test were all negative in the 13 strains. PCR assay results showed that ten strains overexpressed the MexAB-OprM efflux pump and were all positive for the regulatory genes mexR, nalC, and nalD. Sequence analysis indicated that of the ten isolates, nine had a mutation (Gly → Glu) at 71st amino acid position in NalC, and eight also had a mutation (Ser → Arg) at 209th position in NalC. Only one strain had a mutation (Thr → Ile) at the 158th amino acid position in NalD, whereas eight isolates had mutations in MexR. In conclusion, overexpression of efflux pump MexAB-OprM plays an important role in

  16. Effects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) on multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) related efflux transporter activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V; Burkhardt-Medicke, K; Wellner, P; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Luckenbach, T; Ferreira, M

    2017-02-01

    Certain ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, such as zebrafish Abcb4, are efflux pumps acting as a cellular defence against a wide range of different, potentially toxic chemical compounds thus mediating so called multixenobiotic resistance (MXR). Certain chemicals target MXR proteins and, as so called chemosensitisers, inhibit the activity of these proteins thus increasing the toxicity of other chemicals that would normally be effluxed. In this study 14 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that are being increasingly detected in aquatic systems, were assessed for interference with the MXR system of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Concentration dependent effects of test compounds were recorded with the dye accumulation assay using zebrafish embryos and in ATPase assays with recombinant zebrafish Abcb4. In the dye accumulation assay embryos at 24h post fertilisation (hpf) were exposed to 8µm rhodamine 123 along with test compounds for 2h. The rhodamine 123 tissue levels upon the exposure served as a measure for MXR transporter efflux activity of the embryo (low rhodamine levels - high activity; high levels - low activity). The known ABC protein inhibitors MK571, vinblastine and verapamil served as positive controls. All tested PPCPs affected rhodamine 123 accumulation in embryos. For seven compounds rhodamine tissue levels were either both decreased and increased depending on the compound concentration indicating both stimulation and inhibition of rhodamine 123 efflux by those compounds, only increased (inhibition, six compounds) or only decreased (stimulation, one compound). Recombinant zebrafish Abcb4 was obtained with the baculovirus expression system and PPCPs were tested for stimulation/inhibition of basal transporter ATPase activity and for inhibition of the transporter ATPase activity stimulated with verapamil. Eight of the tested PPCPs showed effects on Abcb4 ATPase activity indicating that their effects in the dye accumulation assay may

  17. The Role of Efflux Pumps in Schistosoma mansoni Praziquantel Resistant Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Armada, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Carrilho, Emanuel; Viveiros, Miguel; Afonso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease caused by a trematode of the genus Schistosoma that is second only to malaria in public health significance in Africa, South America, and Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice to treat this disease due to its high cure rates and no significant side effects. However, in the last years increasingly cases of tolerance to PZQ have been reported, which has caused growing concerns regarding the emergency of resistance to this drug. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the selection of a parasitic strain that has a stable resistance phenotype to PZQ. It has been reported that drug resistance in helminths might involve efflux pumps such as members of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins, including P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein families. Here we evaluate the role of efflux pumps in Schistosoma mansoni resistance to PZQ, by comparing the efflux pumps activity in susceptible and resistant strains. The evaluation of the efflux activity was performed by an ethidium bromide accumulation assay in presence and absence of Verapamil. The role of efflux pumps in resistance to PZQ was further investigated comparing the response of susceptible and resistant parasites in the absence and presence of different doses of Verapamil, in an ex vivo assay, and these results were further reinforced through the comparison of the expression levels of SmMDR2 RNA by RT-PCR. Conclusions/Significance This work strongly suggests the involvement of Pgp-like transporters SMDR2 in Praziquantel drug resistance in S. mansoni. Low doses of Verapamil successfully reverted drug resistance. Our results might give an indication that a combination therapy with PZQ and natural or synthetic Pgp modulators can be an effective strategy for the treatment of confirmed cases of resistance to PZQ in S. mansoni. PMID:26445012

  18. Genome-wide identification of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their roles in response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hui-Su; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is one of the largest gene families and is highly conserved in all domains. The ABC proteins play roles in several biological processes, including multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR), by functioning as transporters in the cellular membrane. They also mediate the cellular efflux of a wide range of substrates against concentration gradients. In this study, 37 ABC genes belonging to eight distinct subfamilies were identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana and annotated based on a phylogenetic analysis. Also, the functions of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), conferring MXR, were verified using fluorescent substrates and specific inhibitors. The activities of MXR-mediated ABC proteins and their transcriptional level were examined in response to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), main components of the water-accommodated fraction. This study increases the understanding of the protective role of MXR in response to PAHs over the comparative evolution of ABC gene families.

  19. Osimertinib (AZD9291), a Mutant-Selective EGFR Inhibitor, Reverses ABCB1-Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Gupta, Pranav; Zeng, Leli; Xu, Megan; Wang, Xiu-Qi; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-09-15

    In recent years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown capable of inhibiting the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we determine whether osimertinib, a novel selective, irreversible EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) TKI, could reverse ABC transporter-mediated MDR. The results showed that, at non-toxic concentrations, osimertinib significantly sensitized both ABCB1-transfected and drug-selected cell lines to substrate anticancer drugs colchicine, paclitaxel, and vincristine. Osimertinib significantly increased the accumulation of [³H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells by blocking the efflux function of ABCB1 transporter. In contrast, no significant alteration in the expression levels and localization pattern of ABCB1 was observed when ABCB1 overexpressing cells were exposed to 0.3 µM osimertinib for 72 h. In addition, ATPase assay showed osimertinib stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity. Molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations showed osimertinib has strong and stable interactions at the transmembrane domain of human homology ABCB1. Taken together, our findings suggest that osimertinib, a clinically-approved third-generation EGFR TKI, can reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR, which supports the combination therapy with osimertinib and ABCB1 substrates may potentially be a novel therapeutic stategy in ABCB1-positive drug resistant cancers.

  20. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-11-04

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications.

  1. Role of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in Cancer Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Karthika; Xie, Yi; Baer, Maria R.; Ross, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Since cloning of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and its characterization as a multidrug resistance efflux transporter in 1998, BCRP has been the subject of more than two thousand scholarly articles. In normal tissues, BCRP functions as a defense mechanism against toxins and xenobiotics, with expression in the gut, bile canaliculi, placenta, blood-testis and blood-brain barriers facilitating excretion and limiting absorption of potentially toxic substrate molecules, including many cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. BCRP also plays a key role in heme and folate homeostasis, which may help normal cells survive under conditions of hypoxia. BCRP expression appears to be a characteristic of certain normal tissue stem cells termed “side population cells,” which are identified on flow cytometric analysis by their ability to exclude Hoechst 33342, a BCRP substrate fluorescent dye. Hence, BCRP expression may contribute to the natural resistance and longevity of these normal stem cells. Malignant tissues can exploit the properties of BCRP to survive hypoxia and to evade exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. Evidence is mounting that many cancers display subpopulations of stem cells that are responsible for tumor self-renewal. Such stem cells frequently manifest the “side population” phenotype characterized by expression of BCRP and other ABC transporters. Along with other factors, these transporters may contribute to the inherent resistance of these neoplasms and their failure to be cured. PMID:22248732

  2. Compartmental models for apical efflux by P-glycoprotein. Part 1. Evaluation of model complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Swati; Tucker, Jalia; Weiskircher, Erica A.; Bhoopathy, Siddhartha; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Korzekwa, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Purpose With the goal of quantifying P-gp transport kinetics, Part 1 of these manuscripts evaluates different compartmental models and Part 2 applies these models to kinetic data. Methods Models were developed to simulate the effect of apical efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations of six drugs. The effect of experimental variability on model predictions was evaluated. Several models were evaluated, and characteristics including membrane configuration, lipid content, and apical surface area (asa) were varied. Results Passive permeabilities from MDCK-MDR1 cells in the presence of cyclosporine gave lower model errors than from MDCK control cells. Consistent with the results in Part 2, model configuration had little impact on calculated model errors. The 5-compartment model was the simplest model that reproduced experimental lag times. Lipid content and asa had minimal effect on model errors, predicted lag times, and intracellular concentrations. Including endogenous basolateral uptake activity can decrease model errors. Models with and without explicit membrane barriers differed markedly in their predicted intracellular concentrations for basolateral drug exposure. Single point data resulted in clearances similar to time course data. Conclusions Compartmental models are useful to evaluate the impact of efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations. Whereas a 3-compartment model may be sufficient to predict the impact of transporters that efflux drugs from the cell, a 5-compartment model with explicit membranes may be required to predict intracellular concentrations when efflux occurs from the membrane. More complex models including additional compartments may be unnecessary. PMID:24019023

  3. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size.

  4. Membrane Proteomics Analysis of the Candida glabrata Response to 5-Flucytosine: Unveiling the Role and Regulation of the Drug Efflux Transporters CgFlr1 and CgFlr2

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Pedro; Pires, Carla; Costa, Catarina; Okamoto, Michiyo; Chibana, Hiroji; Teixeira, Miguel C.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to 5-flucytosine (5-FC), used as an antifungal drug in combination therapy, compromises its therapeutic action. In this work, the response of the human pathogen Candida glabrata to 5-FC was evaluated at the membrane proteome level, using an iTRAQ-based approach. A total of 32 proteins were found to display significant expression changes in the membrane fraction of cells upon exposure to 5-FC, 50% of which under the control of CgPdr1, the major regulator of azole drug resistance. These proteins cluster into functional groups associated to cell wall assembly, lipid metabolism, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism, ribosome components and translation machinery, mitochondrial function, glucose metabolism, and multidrug resistance transport. Given the obtained indications, the function of the drug:H+ antiporters CgFlr1 (ORF CAGL0H06017g) and CgFlr2 (ORF CAGL0H06039g) was evaluated. The expression of both proteins, localized to the plasma membrane, was found to confer flucytosine resistance. CgFlr2 further confers azole drug resistance. The deletion of CgFLR1 or CgFLR2 was seen to increase the intracellular accumulation of 5-FC, or 5-FC and clotrimazole, suggesting that these transporters play direct roles in drug extrusion. The expression of CgFLR1 and CgFLR2 was found to be controlled by the transcription factors CgPdr1 and CgYap1, major regulator of oxidative stress resistance. PMID:28066366

  5. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan S; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for β-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) that is used for the biosynthesis of penicillin G. To identify ABC transporters related to β-lactam biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of all 48 ABC transporters present in the genome of P. chryso-genum when grown in the presence and absence of PAA. ABC40 is significantly upregulated when cells are grown or exposed to high levels of PAA. Although deletion of this transporter did not affect β-lactam biosynthesis, it resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to PAA and other weak acids. It is concluded that ABC40 is involved in weak acid detoxification in P. chrysogenum including resistance to phenylacetic acid.

  6. The fbpABC Operon Is Required for Ton-Independent Utilization of Xenosiderophores by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain FA19▿

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Heather R.; Zola, Tracey A.; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces no known siderophores but can employ host-derived, iron-binding proteins, including transferrin and lactoferrin, as iron sources. Given the propensity of this pathogen to hijack rather than synthesize iron-sequestering molecules, we hypothesized that the ability to use siderophores produced by other bacteria, or xenosiderophores, may also play a role in the survival of the gonococcus. Among a panel of diverse siderophores, only the catecholate xenosiderophores enterobactin and salmochelin promoted growth of gonococcal strain FA19. Surprisingly, the internalization pathway was independent of TonB or any of the TonB-dependent transporters. Xenosiderophore-mediated growth was similarly independent of the pilin-extruding secretin formed by PilQ and of the hydrophobic-agent efflux system composed of MtrCDE. The fbpABC operon encodes a periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent ABC transport system that enables the gonococcus to transport iron into the cell subsequent to outer membrane translocation. We hypothesized that the FbpABC proteins, required for ferric iron transport from transferrin and lactoferrin, might also contribute to the utilization of xenosiderophores as iron sources. We created mutants that conditionally expressed FbpABC from an IPTG-inducible promoter. We determined that expression of FbpABC was required for growth of gonococcal strain FA19 in the presence of enterobactin and salmochelin. The monomeric component of enterobactin, dihydroxybenzoylserine (DHBS), and the S2 form of salmochelin specifically promoted FbpABC-dependent growth of FA19. This study demonstrated that the gonococcal FbpABC transport system is required for utilization of some xenosiderophores as iron sources and that growth promotion by these ferric siderophores can occur in the absence of TonB or individual TonB-dependent transporters. PMID:21041493

  7. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  8. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

  9. Role of ABC and Solute Carrier Transporters in the Placental Transport of Lamivudine

    PubMed Central

    Ceckova, Martina; Reznicek, Josef; Ptackova, Zuzana; Cerveny, Lukas; Müller, Fabian; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fromm, Martin F.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Lamivudine is one of the antiretroviral drugs of choice for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in HIV-positive women. In this study, we investigated the relevance of drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (MDR1 [ABCB1]), BCRP (ABCG2), MRP2 (ABCC2), and MATE1 (SLC47A1) for the transmembrane transport and transplacental transfer of lamivudine. We employed in vitro accumulation and transport experiments on MDCK cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters, in situ-perfused rat term placenta, and vesicular uptake in microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles isolated from human term placenta. MATE1 significantly accelerated lamivudine transport in MATE1-expressing MDCK cells, whereas no transporter-driven efflux of lamivudine was observed in MDCK-MDR1, MDCK-MRP2, and MDCK-BCRP monolayers. MATE1-mediated efflux of lamivudine appeared to be a low-affinity process (apparent Km of 4.21 mM and Vmax of 5.18 nmol/mg protein/min in MDCK-MATE1 cells). Consistent with in vitro transport studies, the transplacental clearance of lamivudine was not affected by P-gp, BCRP, or MRP2. However, lamivudine transfer across dually perfused rat placenta and the uptake of lamivudine into human placental MVM vesicles revealed pH dependency, indicating possible involvement of MATE1 in the fetal-to-maternal efflux of the drug. To conclude, placental transport of lamivudine does not seem to be affected by P-gp, MRP2, or BCRP, but a pH-dependent mechanism mediates transport of lamivudine in the fetal-to-maternal direction. We suggest that MATE1 might be, at least partly, responsible for this transport. PMID:27401571

  10. AdeIJK, a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division Pump Effluxing Multiple Antibiotics in Acinetobacter baumannii▿

    PubMed Central

    Damier-Piolle, Laurence; Magnet, Sophie; Brémont, Sylvie; Lambert, Thierry; Courvalin, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    We have identified a second resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux pump, AdeIJK, in clinical isolate Acinetobacter baumannii BM4454. The adeI, adeJ, and adeK genes encode, respectively, the membrane fusion, RND, and outer membrane components of the pump. AdeJ belongs to the AcrB protein family (57% identity with AcrB from Escherichia coli). mRNA analysis by Northern blotting and reverse transcription-PCR indicated that the genes were cotranscribed. Overexpression of the cloned adeIJK operon was toxic in both E. coli and Acinetobacter. The adeIJK genes were detected in all of the 60 strains of A. baumannii tested. The two latter observations suggest that the AdeIJK complex might contribute to intrinsic but not to acquired antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter. To characterize the substrate specificity of the pump, we have constructed derivatives of BM4454 in which adeIJK (strain BM4579), adeABC (strain BM4561), or both groups of genes (strain BM4652) were inactivated by deletion-insertion. Determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of these strains and of BM4652 and BM4579, in which the adeIJK operon was provided in trans, indicated that the AdeIJK pump contributes to resistance to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, fusidic acid, novobiocin, rifampin, trimethoprim, acridine, safranin, pyronine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical structure of these molecules suggests that amphiphilic compounds are the preferred substrates. The AdeABC and AdeIJK efflux systems contributed in a more than additive fashion to tigecycline resistance. PMID:18086852

  11. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Marta; Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR). In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is necessary to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps), multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5) and breast cancer resistance associated protein (BCRP). In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of the detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants that can act as chemosensitizers, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in (1) regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; (2) cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and (3) ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clearly suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish to underlay the mechanism to consider their use as

  12. Inhibitory Potential of Antifungal Drugs on ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters P-Glycoprotein, MRP1 to MRP5, BCRP, and BSEP

    PubMed Central

    Lempers, Vincent J. C.; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J. M. W.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Burger, David M.; Koenderink, Jan B.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of ABC transporters is a common mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions (DDIs). We determined the inhibitory potential of antifungal drugs currently used for invasive fungal infections on ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MRP1 to MRP5, BCRP, and BSEP in vitro. Membrane vesicles isolated from transporter-overexpressing HEK 293 cells were used to investigate the inhibitory potential of antifungal drugs (250 μM) on transport of model substrates. Concentration-inhibition curves were determined if transport inhibition was >60%. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for P-gp and BCRP were both 2 μM for itraconazole, 5 and 12 μM for hydroxyitraconazole, 3 and 6 μM for posaconazole, and 3 and 11 μM for isavuconazole, respectively. BSEP was strongly inhibited by itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole (3 and 17 μM, respectively). Fluconazole and voriconazole did not inhibit any transport for >60%. Micafungin uniquely inhibited all transporters, with strong inhibition of MRP4 (4 μM). Anidulafungin and caspofungin showed strong inhibition of BCRP (7 and 6 μM, respectively). Amphotericin B only weakly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport (127 μM). Despite their wide range of DDIs, azole antifungals exhibit selective inhibition on efflux transporters. Although echinocandins display low potential for clinically relevant DDIs, they demonstrate potent in vitro inhibitory activity. This suggests that inhibition of ABC transporters plays a crucial role in the inexplicable (non-cytochrome P450-mediated) DDIs with antifungal drugs. PMID:27001813

  13. Sulfadiazine resistance in Toxoplasma gondii: no involvement of overexpression or polymorphisms in genes of therapeutic targets and ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Doliwa, Christelle; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Aubert, Dominique; Sauvage, Virginie; Velard, Frédéric; Schmid, Aline; Villena, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-RSDZ and ME-49-RSDZ, by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied. PMID:23707894

  14. Sulfadiazine resistance in Toxoplasma gondii: no involvement of overexpression or polymorphisms in genes of therapeutic targets and ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Doliwa, Christelle; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Aubert, Dominique; Sauvage, Virginie; Velard, Frédéric; Schmid, Aline; Villena, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-R(SDZ) and ME-49-R(SDZ), by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied.

  15. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ruess, Roger W.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    Background CO2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured CO2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO2 efflux. CO2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10 600 tonnes km−2 year−1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km2 year−1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m−2 s−1), but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. Conclusions/Significance Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks. PMID:21738628

  16. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    DOEpatents

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  17. Effects of fluconazole on Candida glabrata biofilms and its relationship with ABC transporter gene expression.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elza; Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia Fortuna; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata has emerged as the second most prevalent fungal pathogen and its ability to form biofilms has been considered one of the most important virulence factors, since biofilms present a high tolerance to antifungal agents used in fungal infection treatment. The mechanisms of biofilm tolerance to antifungal agents remain poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluconazole (FLU) on the formation and control of C. glabrata biofilms and its relation with the expression of genes encoding for ABC transporters, CDR1, SNQ2, and PDR1. For that, minimal inhibitory concentration values for seven C. glabrata strains were determined and the effect of FLU against C. glabrata biofilms was evaluated by total biomass quantification and viable cell enumeration. Matrices from biofilms were analyzed in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA content. ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed for quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to the high amounts of proteins and carbohydrates detected in the extracellular matrices in the presence of FLU, this work showed that the overexpression of efflux pumps is a possible mechanism of biofilm tolerance to FLU and this phenomenon alters the structure of C. glabrata biofilms by creating cell clusters.

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic detection of efflux pump in Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Pötter, Luciana; da Silveira, Bibiana Petri; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2014-01-01

    The req_39680 gene, associated to a putative efflux system, was detected in 60% (54/90) of R. equi isolates by PCR. The phenotypic expression of efflux mechanism was verified in 20% of the isolates using ethidium bromide. For the first time, the expression of efflux mechanism was demonstrated in R. equi. PMID:25242956

  19. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Andrew Tan, Ai May

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of only 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup −6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ► Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ► Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially

  20. The yeast vacuolar ABC transporter Ybt1p regulates membrane fusion through Ca2+ transport modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Terry L.; Padolina, Mark; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2013-01-01

    Ybt1p is a class C ABC transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter) that is localized to the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although Ybt1p was originally identified as a bile acid transporter, it has also been found to function in other capacities, including the translocation of phosphatidylcholine to the vacuole lumen, and the regulation of Ca2+ homoeostasis. In the present study we found that deletion of YBT1 enhanced in vitro homotypic vacuole fusion by up to 50 % relative to wild-type vacuoles. The increased vacuole fusion was not due to aberrant protein sorting of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors) or recruitment of factors from the cytosol such as Ypt7p and the HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting) tethering complex. In addition, ybt1Δ vacuoles displayed no observable differences in the formation of SNARE complexes, interactions between SNAREs and HOPS, or formation of vertex microdomains. However, the absence of Ybt1p caused significant changes in Ca2+ transport during fusion. One difference was the prolonged Ca2+ influx exhibited by ybt1Δ vacuoles at the start of the fusion reaction. We also observed a striking delay in SNARE-dependent Ca2+ efflux. As vacuole fusion can be inhibited by high Ca2+ concentrations, we suggest that the delayed efflux in ybt1Δ vacuoles leads to the enhanced SNARE function. PMID:22970809

  1. Role of human placental apical membrane transporters in the efflux of glyburide, rosiglitazone, and metformin

    PubMed Central

    HEMAUER, Sarah J.; PATRIKEEVA, Svetlana L.; NANOVSKAYA, Tatiana N.; HANKINS, Gary D.V.; AHMED, Mahmoud S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Substrates of placental efflux transporters could compete for a single transporter, which could result in an increase in the transfer of each substrate to the fetal circulation. Our aim was to determine the role of placental transporters in the biodisposition of oral hypoglycemic drugs that could be used as monotherapy or in combination therapy for gestational diabetes. Study design Inside-out brush border membrane vesicles from term placentas were used to determine the efflux of glyburide, rosiglitazone, and metformin by P-gp, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), and Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP1). Results Glyburide was transported by MRP1 (43 ± 4%); BCRP (25 ± 5%); and P-gp (9 ± 5%). Rosiglitazone was transported predominantly by P-gp (71 ± 26%). Metformin was transported by P-gp (58 ± 20%) and BCRP (25 ± 14%). Conclusion Multiple placental transporters contribute to efflux of glyburide, rosiglitazone, and metformin. Administration of drug combinations could lead to their competition for efflux transporters. PMID:20350646

  2. Impact of ABC single nucleotide polymorphisms upon the efficacy and toxicity of induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Megías-Vericat, Juan Eduardo; Montesinos, Pau; Herrero, María José; Moscardó, Federico; Bosó, Virginia; Rojas, Luis; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Hervás, David; Boluda, Blanca; García-Robles, Ana; Rodríguez-Veiga, Rebeca; Martín-Cerezuela, María; Cervera, José; Sendra, Luis; Sanz, Jaime; Miguel, Antonio; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Poveda, José Luis; Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Aliño, Salvador F

    2017-05-01

    Anthracycline uptake could be affected by efflux pumps of the ABC family. The influence of 7 SNPs of ABC genes was evaluated in 225 adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. After multivariate logistic regression there were no significant differences in complete remission, though induction death was associated to ABCB1 triple variant haplotype (p = .020). The ABCB1 triple variant haplotype was related to higher nephrotoxicity (p = .016), as well as this haplotype and the variant allele of ABCB1 rs1128503, rs2032582 to hepatotoxicity (p = .001; p = .049; p < .001). Furthermore, the variant allele of ABCC1 rs4148350 was related to severe hepatotoxicity (p = .044), and the variant allele of ABCG2 rs2231142 was associated to greater cardiac (p = .004) and lung toxicities (p = .038). Delayed time to neutropenia recovery was observed with ABCB1 rs2032582 variant (p = .047). This study shows the impact of ABC polymorphisms in AML chemotherapy safety. Further prospective studies with larger population are needed to validate these associations.

  3. Quantitative investigation of the brain-to-cerebrospinal fluid unbound drug concentration ratio under steady-state conditions in rats using a pharmacokinetic model and scaling factors for active efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Hiroshi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Eiichi; Ushiki, Junko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2014-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic model was constructed to explain the difference in brain- and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma and brain-to-CSF unbound drug concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain, Kp,uu,CSF, and Kp,uu,CSF/brain, respectively) of drugs under steady-state conditions in rats. The passive permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), PS1, was predicted by two methods using log(D/molecular weight(0.5)) for PS1(1) or the partition coefficient in octanol/water at pH 7.4 (LogD), topologic van der Waals polar surface area, and van der Waals surface area of the basic atoms for PS1(2). The coefficients of each parameter were determined using previously reported in situ rat BBB permeability. Active transport of drugs by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) measured in P-gp- and Bcrp-overexpressing cells was extrapolated to in vivo by introducing scaling factors. Brain- and CSF-to-plasma unbound concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF, respectively) of 19 compounds, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates (daidzein, dantrolene, flavopiridol, genistein, loperamide, quinidine, and verapamil), were simultaneously fitted to the equations in a three-compartment model comprising blood, brain, and CSF compartments. The calculated Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF of 17 compounds were within a factor of three of experimental values. Kp,uu,CSF values of genistein and loperamide were outliers of the prediction, and Kp,uu,brain of dantrolene also became an outlier when PS1(2) was used. Kp,uu,CSF/brain of the 19 compounds was within a factor of three of experimental values. In conclusion, the Kp,uu,CSF/brain of drugs, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates, could be successfully explained by a kinetic model using scaling factors combined with in vitro evaluation of P-gp and Bcrp activities.

  4. Association between cholesterol efflux capacity and coronary restenosis after successful stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Takata, Kohei; Takamiya, Yosuke; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-08-01

    The measurement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality could be useful for identifying patients who have an increased risk of coronary restenosis after stent implantation. In the present study, we elucidates whether HDL functionality can predict restenosis. The participants included 48 consecutive patients who had stable angina and were successfully implanted with a drug-eluting stent (DES) or bare-metal stent. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed after 6-8 months of stenting. Cholesterol efflux and the anti-inflammatory capacity of HDL were measured before stenting (at baseline) and at follow-up. The mean age was 64 ± 11 years and the body mass index was 24 ± 3 kg/m(2). While HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from baseline to follow-up, there was no significant association between HDL-C level at baseline and in-stent late loss. Cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly increased from baseline to follow-up. The efflux capacity at baseline was negatively correlated with in-stent late loss, whereas the anti-oxidative activity of HDL at baseline was not associated with in-stent late loss. We analyzed the predictors of in-stent late loss using independent variables (efflux capacity and anti-oxidative capacity at baseline in addition to age, gender, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, lesion length and DES implantation, history of myocardial infarction and prior percutaneous coronary intervention) by a multiple regression analysis. The efflux capacity at baseline was only independently associated with in-stent late loss. In conclusion, cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline could predict coronary restenosis in patients with successful stent implantation.

  5. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors contribute to lurasidone-induced dopamine efflux.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Felix, Anna R; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2012-05-09

    Lurasidone is a novel, atypical antipsychotic drug with serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]2A, 5-HT7, dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist properties. The ability of lurasidone to reverse the effects of subchronic administration phencyclidine, to impair novel object recognition in rats, an animal model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, is dependent, in part, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist properties. We tested whether 5-HT1A partial agonism or 5-HT7 antagonism, or both, contributed to the ability of lurasidone to enhance cortical and hippocampal DA efflux, which may be related to its ability to improve cognition. Here, we report that lurasidone, 0.25 and 0.5, but not 0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneously, significantly increased DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. Lurasidone, 0.5 mg/kg, also produced a smaller increase in DA efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously), partially blocked the lurasidone-induced cortical and hippocampal DA efflux. Further, subeffective doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, tandospirone (0.2 mg/kg), or the 5-HT7 antagonist, SB269970 (0.3 mg/kg), potentiated the ability of a subeffective dose of lurasidone (0.1 mg/kg) to increase DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the effects of lurasidone on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, DA efflux are dependent, at least partially, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 antagonist properties and may contribute to its efficacy to reverse the effects of subchronic phencyclidine treatment and improve schizophrenia.

  6. Salicylate functions as an efflux pump inducer and promotes the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni mutants.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhangqi; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qijing

    2011-10-01

    Salicylate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound, has been shown to increase the resistance of Campylobacter to antimicrobials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying salicylate-induced resistance has not yet been established. In this study, we determined how salicylate increases antibiotic resistance and evaluated its impact on the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter mutants. Transcriptional fusion assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and immunoblotting assays consistently demonstrated the induction of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump by salicylate. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays further showed that salicylate inhibits the binding of CmeR (a transcriptional repressor of the TetR family) to the promoter DNA of cmeABC, suggesting that salicylate inhibits the function of CmeR. The presence of salicylate in the culture medium not only decreased the susceptibility of Campylobacter to ciprofloxacin but also resulted in an approximately 70-fold increase in the observed frequency of emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants under selection with ciprofloxacin. Together, these results indicate that in Campylobacter, salicylate inhibits the binding of CmeR to the promoter DNA and induces expression of cmeABC, resulting in decreased susceptibility to antibiotics and in increased emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants under selection pressure.

  7. The ABCs of plasmid replication and segregation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Uelinton M; Pappas, Katherine M; Winans, Stephen C

    2012-11-01

    To ensure faithful transmission of low-copy plasmids to daughter cells, these plasmids must replicate once per cell cycle and distribute the replicated DNA to the nascent daughter cells. RepABC family plasmids are found exclusively in alphaproteobacteria and carry a combined replication and partitioning locus, the repABC cassette, which is also found on secondary chromosomes in this group. RepC and a replication origin are essential for plasmid replication, and RepA, RepB and the partitioning sites distribute the replicons to predivisional cells. Here, we review our current understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Rep proteins and of their functions in plasmid replication and partitioning.

  8. Defect trapping in ABC block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Laurent; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Court, Francois; Cloitre, Michel; Hashimoto, Takeji; Leibler, Ludwik

    2004-03-01

    Equilibrium morphologies in molten ABC triblock terpolymers are much more difficult to attain than in AB diblocks. In practice, it is important to know whether and how synthesis conditions influence the morphology and properties of copolymer materials. It is also relevant to understand the mechanisms of defect formation and annihilation. Indeed, a potential use of copolymers in new applications such as lithography highly depends on the ability to produce regular structures with no or few defects. We show that even the simplest lamellar structures exhibit high sensitivity to preparation conditions and that strongly trapped structural defects inherent to ABC triblock architecture cannot be removed by long annealing. Annealing can induce a transition from a lamellar structure in which A and C blocks are mixed to a lamellar structure where A, B and C are segregated. We propose reorganization mechanisms that are at the origin of some characteristic defects.

  9. Loss of plastoglobule kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 causes conditional degreening, modified prenyl-lipids, and recruitment of the jasmonic acid pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the dou...

  10. Pharmacological evidence for common mechanisms underlying the effects of neurotensin and neuroleptics on in vivo dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Blaha, C D; Phillips, A G

    1992-08-01

    The effects of the neuropeptide neurotensin and the typical neuroleptic haloperidol on dopamine efflux were compared in the posteromedial nucleus accumbens of the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat using in vivo chronoamperometry. Both neurotensin and haloperidol administration elicited an immediate increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone, an agent known to block impulse flow in dopamine neurons, either prevented when given before neurotensin or reversed neurotensin-induced increases in accumbens dopamine efflux. Haloperidol-induced increases in accumbens dopamine efflux were similarly affected by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone. The dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine reversed neurotensin- and haloperidol-induced increases in dopamine efflux. Amphetamine, administered during the peak dopamine stimulatory effects induced by neurotensin or haloperidol, resulted in increases above baseline which were significantly greater than the effects of amphetamine alone. These combined drug treatment effects on baseline dopamine efflux were additive, indicating that the effects of amphetamine were not potentiated by neurotensin or haloperidol pretreatments. These in vivo results suggest that neurotensin and haloperidol may augment dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens via common mechanisms of action which may involve activation of mesotelencephalic dopamine neuronal firing. The inability of neurotensin to block amphetamine-induced efflux in the nucleus accumbens further suggests that neurotensin blockade of amphetamine-elicited locomotor activity is mediated by an action of neurotensin postsynaptic to dopamine nerve terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

  11. Pharmacological correction of misfolding of ABC proteins☆

    PubMed Central

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L.; Stockner, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Freissmuth, Michael; Chiba, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system distinguishes between correctly and incorrectly folded proteins to prevent processing of aberrantly folded conformations along the secretory pathway. Non-synonymous mutations can lead to misfolding of ABC proteins and associated disease phenotypes. Specific phenotypes may at least partially be corrected by small molecules, so-called pharmacological chaperones. Screening for folding correctors is expected to open an avenue for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25027379

  12. Phase Fluctuations in the ABC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2011-11-01

    We analyze the fluctuations of the steady state profiles in the modulated phase of the ABC model. For a system of L sites, the steady state profiles move on a microscopic time scale of order L 3. The variance of their displacement is computed in terms of the macroscopic steady state profiles by using fluctuating hydrodynamics and large deviations. Our analytical prediction for this variance is confirmed by the results of numerical simulations.

  13. Evaluation of the tannic acid inhibitory effect against the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tintino, Saulo R; Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera D M; Campina, Fábia F; Silva, Raimundo L P; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2016-08-01

    During the early periods of antibiotic usage, bacterial infections were considered tamed. However, widespread antibiotic use has promoted the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including multidrug resistant strains. Active efflux is a mechanism for bacterial resistance to inhibitory substances, known simply as drug efflux pumps. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of infections. The NorA efflux pump has been shown to be responsible for moderate fluoroquinolone resistance of S. aureus. The inhibition of the efflux pump was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of standard efflux pump inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), where its capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due to the possible inhibitory effect of these substances was observed. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly reduced in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this agent against the efflux pumps of both strains causing a three-fold reduction of the MIC when compared with the control. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR).

  14. Fluoroquinolone Efflux in Streptococcus suis Is Mediated by SatAB and Not by SmrA ▿

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Jose Antonio; San Millan, Alvaro; Gutierrez, Belen; Hidalgo, Laura; La Ragione, Roberto M.; AbuOun, Manal; Galimand, Marc; Ferrándiz, María José; Domínguez, Lucas; de la Campa, Adela G.; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. With the lack of an effective vaccine, antibiotics remain the main tool to fight infections caused by this pathogen. We have previously observed a reserpine-sensitive fluoroquinolone (FQ) efflux phenotype in this species. Here, SatAB and SmrA, two pumps belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) and the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), respectively, have been analyzed in the fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolate BB1013. Genes encoding these pumps were overexpressed either constitutively or in the presence of ciprofloxacin in this strain. These genes could not be cloned in plasmids in Escherichia coli despite strong expression repression. Finally, site-directed insertion of smrA and satAB in the amy locus of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome using ligated PCR amplicons allowed for the functional expression and study of both pumps. Results showed that SatAB is a narrow-spectrum fluoroquinolone exporter (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin), susceptible to reserpine, whereas SmrA was not involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. Chromosomal integration in Bacillus is a novel method for studying efflux pumps from Gram-positive bacteria, which enabled us to demonstrate the possible role of SatAB, and not SmrA, in fluoroquinolone efflux in S. suis. PMID:21930876

  15. How to Measure Export via Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps are an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance and are required for many pathogens to cause infection. They are also being harnessed to improve microbial biotechnological processes, including biofuel production. Therefore, scientists of many specialties must be able to accurately measure efflux activity. However, myriad methodologies have been described and the most appropriate method is not always clear. Within the scientific literature, many methods are misused or data arising are misinterpreted. The methods for measuring efflux activity can be split into two groups, (i) those that directly measure efflux and (ii) those that measure the intracellular accumulation of a substrate, which is then used to infer efflux activity. Here, we review the methods for measuring efflux and explore the most recent advances in this field, including single-cell or cell-free technologies and mass spectrometry, that are being used to provide more detailed information about efflux pump activity. PMID:27381291

  16. Interaction of ABC transport proteins with toxic metals at the level of gene and transport activity in the PLHC-1 fish cell line.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko; Focardi, Silvano; Corsi, Ilaria

    2012-06-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of four toxic metals with ABC transport proteins in piscine cell line PLHC-1. Cells were exposed for 24 h to 0.01-1 μM of CdCl(2), HgCl(2), As(2)O(3), or K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and the expression of a series of ABC genes (abcb1, abcc1-4) was determined using qRT-PCR. Using the fluorescent model substrates calcein-AM and monochlorbimane we measured interaction of metals with the transport activity of ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity was measured in PLHC-1/dox (P-gp overexpressing cells) while activity and interactions of metals with MRPs was measured in PLHC-1/wt cells. After 24 h exposure, abcc2-4 genes were dose-dependently up-regulated by all metals, while abcb1 and abcc1 were less affected. Up-regulation of abcc2 was more pronounced, with up to 8-fold increase in expression. Abcc3 and abcc4 were moderately inducible by HgCl(2) with 3.3-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. All metals caused a significant inhibition of both P-gp (2.9- to 4-fold vs. controls) and MRP (1.3- to 1.8-fold) transport activities. Modulation of ABC genes and transport activities was further investigated in PLHC-1/wt cells exposed to 1 μM HgCl(2) for 72 h and in Hg resistant cells selected by long term cultivation of PLHC-1/wt cells in increasing concentrations of HgCl(2). Exposure to HgCl(2) for 72 h induced MRP genes expression and efflux activity. The long term cultivation of PLHC-1/wt cells in HgCl(2), did not cause prolonged up-regulation of the tested abc genes but resulted in higher MRP transport activities as determined by the increased sensitivity of these cells to MK571 (MRP specific inhibitor). Results of the present study indicated specific interaction of metals with selected ABC transport proteins. Modulation of ABC transporters takes place at both transcriptional and functional level. An active involvement of efflux pumps in Hg clearance in fish is suggested.

  17. Pharmacophore modeling of nilotinib as an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship approach.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Suneet; Kouanda, Abdul; Silverton, Latoya; Talele, Tanaji T; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2014-07-07

    Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. It is also a transport substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and ABCG2 (BCRP), which may have an effect on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this drug. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacophoric features of nilotinib in order to potentially develop specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase with minimal interactions with ABC drug transporters. Three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were carried out on a series of nilotinib analogues to identify chemical features that contribute to inhibitory activity of nilotinib against BCR-ABL kinase activity, P-gp, and ABCG2. Twenty-five derivatives of nilotinib were synthesized and were then tested to measure their activity to inhibit BCR-ABL kinase and to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters. A set of in vitro experiments including kinase activity and cell-based transport assays and photolabeling of P-gp and ABCG2 with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-iodoarylazido-prazosin (IAAP), were carried out in isolated membranes to evaluate the potency of the derivatives to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase. Sixteen, fourteen, and ten compounds were selected as QSAR data sets, respectively, to generate PHASE v3.1 pharmacophore models for BCR-ABL kinase, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. The IC50 values of these derivatives against P-gp, ABCG2, or BCR-ABL kinase were used to generate pharmacophore features required for optimal interactions with these targets. A seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity, a six-point pharmacophore (ADHRRR) for ABCG2 inhibitory activity, and a seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for P-gp inhibitory activity were generated. The derived models clearly demonstrate high predictive power

  18. Pharmacophore Modeling of Nilotinib as an Inhibitor of ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transporters and BCR-ABL Kinase Using a Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. It is also a transport substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and ABCG2 (BCRP), which may have an effect on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this drug. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacophoric features of nilotinib in order to potentially develop specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase with minimal interactions with ABC drug transporters. Three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) studies were carried out on a series of nilotinib analogues to identify chemical features that contribute to inhibitory activity of nilotinib against BCR-ABL kinase activity, P-gp, and ABCG2. Twenty-five derivatives of nilotinib were synthesized and were then tested to measure their activity to inhibit BCR-ABL kinase and to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters. A set of in vitro experiments including kinase activity and cell-based transport assays and photolabeling of P-gp and ABCG2 with a transport substrate, [125I]-iodoarylazido-prazosin (IAAP), were carried out in isolated membranes to evaluate the potency of the derivatives to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase. Sixteen, fourteen, and ten compounds were selected as QSAR data sets, respectively, to generate PHASE v3.1 pharmacophore models for BCR-ABL kinase, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. The IC50 values of these derivatives against P-gp, ABCG2, or BCR-ABL kinase were used to generate pharmacophore features required for optimal interactions with these targets. A seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity, a six-point pharmacophore (ADHRRR) for ABCG2 inhibitory activity, and a seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for P-gp inhibitory activity were generated. The derived models clearly demonstrate high predictive power

  19. Efflux Pump Blockers in Gram-Negative Bacteria: The New Generation of Hydantoin Based-Modulators to Improve Antibiotic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Otręebska-Machaj, Ewa; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Szymańska, Ewa; Schabikowski, Jakub; Boyer, Gérard; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Alibert, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility toward the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump. Several compounds increased the bacterial susceptibility toward nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sparfloxacin and were further pharmacomodulated to obtain a better activity against the AcrAB producing bacteria. PMID:27199950

  20. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  1. MiR-106b~25 cluster regulates multidrug resistance in an ABC transporter-independent manner via downregulation of EP300.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunhui; Li, Kaiyong; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Cuella, Raquel; Shi, Hui; Raguz, Selina; Coombes, Raoul Charles; Zhou, Yuan; Yagüe, Ernesto

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-106b~25 cluster regulates bypass of doxorubicin and γ-radiation induced senescence by downregulation of the E-cadherin transcriptional activator EP300. We asked whether upregulation of miR-106~25 cluster generates cells with a truly multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype and whether this is due to upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein. We used minimally transformed mammary epithelial breast cancer cells (MTMECs) in which the miR-106b~25 cluster was experimentally upregulated by lentiviral transfection or in which hairpins targeting either EP300 or E-cadherin mRNAs have been expressed with lentiviruses. We find that overexpression of miR-106b~25 cluster led to the generation of MDR MTMECs (resistant to etoposide, colchicine and paclitaxel). Paclitaxel resistance was also studied after experimental downregulation of EP300 or E-cadherin. However none of these cells overexpressed P-glycoprotein or where able to efflux a fluorescent derivative of paclitaxel, making this phenotype drug-transporter independent. Paclitaxel treatment in MTMECs led to an increase in early apoptotic cells (Annexin V-positive), activation of caspase-9 and increase in the proportion of cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. However, MTMEC overexpressing miR-106b~25 cluster, or with EP300 or E-cadherin downregulated, showed less activation of apoptosis, caspase-9 and caspase-3/-7 activities. Thus, miR-106b~25 cluster controls transporter-independent MDR by apoptosis evasion via downregulation of EP300.

  2. Role of the cell envelope stress regulators BaeR and CpxR in control of RND-type multidrug efflux pumps and transcriptional cross talk with exopolysaccharide synthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Stahl, Antje; Oja, Anna Elisabeth; Weingart, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the role of the cell envelope stress-sensing systems BaeSR and CpxARP in regulation of multidrug efflux and exopolysaccharide synthesis in Erwinia amylovora. We have previously reported that BaeR activates transcription of the RND-type efflux pumps AcrD and MdtABC. In this study, we found that a cpxR-deficient mutant was highly susceptible to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and lincomycin, whereas a baeR mutant showed no change in antimicrobial sensitivity. However, overexpression of BaeR in a mutant lacking the major RND pump AcrB increased resistance of E. amylovora to several compounds that are not substrates of AcrD or MdtABC. Furthermore, we observed that overexpression of BaeR significantly increased amylovoran production. Moreover, the expression of RND-type efflux pumps was changed in regulatory mutants of exopolysaccharide production. Our data suggest that BaeSR and CpxARP regulate additional mechanisms, beside efflux, which are responsible for antimicrobial resistance of E. amylovora.

  3. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  4. The multidrug efflux pump MdtEF protects against nitrosative damage during the anaerobic respiration in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiliang; Xiao, Minfeng; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Zhang, Yinfeng; Li, Xuechen; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yan, Aixin

    2011-07-29

    Drug efflux represents an important protection mechanism in bacteria to withstand antibiotics and environmental toxic substances. Efflux genes constitute 6-18% of all transporters in bacterial genomes, yet the expression and functions of only a handful of them have been studied. Among the 20 efflux genes encoded in the Escherichia coli K-12 genome, only the AcrAB-TolC system is constitutively expressed. The expression, activities, and physiological functions of the remaining efflux genes are poorly understood. In this study we identified a dramatic up-regulation of an additional efflux pump, MdtEF, under the anaerobic growth condition of E. coli, which is independent of antibiotic exposure. We found that expression of MdtEF is up-regulated more than 20-fold under anaerobic conditions by the global transcription factor ArcA, resulting in increased efflux activity and enhanced drug tolerance in anaerobically grown E. coli. Cells lacking mdtEF display a significantly decreased survival rate under the condition of anaerobic respiration of nitrate. Deletion of the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of indole, tnaAB, or replacing nitrate with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor during the anaerobic respiration restores the decreased survival of ΔmdtEF cells. Moreover, ΔmdtEF cells are susceptible to indole nitrosative derivatives, a class of toxic byproducts formed and accumulated within E. coli when the bacterium respires nitrate under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, we conclude that the multidrug efflux pump MdtEF is up-regulated during the anaerobic physiology of E. coli to protect the bacterium from nitrosative damage through expelling the nitrosyl indole derivatives out of the cells.

  5. Statistical Hypothesis Testing in Intraspecific Phylogeography: NCPA versus ABC

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Nested clade phylogeographic analysis (NCPA) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) have been used to test phylogeographic hypotheses. Multilocus NCPA tests null hypotheses, whereas ABC discriminates among a finite set of alternatives. The interpretive criteria of NCPA are explicit and allow complex models to be built from simple components. The interpretive criteria of ABC are ad hoc and require the specification of a complete phylogeographic model. The conclusions from ABC are often influenced by implicit assumptions arising from the many parameters needed to specify a complex model. These complex models confound many assumptions so that biological interpretations are difficult. Sampling error is accounted for in NCPA, but ABC ignores important sources of sampling error that creates pseudo-statistical power. NCPA generates the full sampling distribution of its statistics, but ABC only yields local probabilities, which in turn make it impossible to distinguish between a good fitting model, a non-informative model, and an over-determined model. Both NCPA and ABC use approximations, but convergences of the approximations used in NCPA are well defined whereas those in ABC are not. NCPA can analyze a large number of locations, but ABC cannot. Finally, the dimensionality of tested hypothesis is known in NCPA, but not for ABC. As a consequence, the “probabilities” generated by ABC are not true probabilities and are statistically non-interpretable. Accordingly, ABC should not be used for hypothesis testing, but simulation approaches are valuable when used in conjunction with NCPA or other methods that do not rely on highly parameterized models. PMID:19192182

  6. Intestinal permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux transport of ticagrelor in Caco-2 monolayer cells.

    PubMed

    Marsousi, Niloufar; Doffey-Lazeyras, Fabienne; Rudaz, Serge; Desmeules, Jules A; Daali, Youssef

    2016-12-01

    Ticagrelor is the unique reversible oral antiplatelet drug commercialized today. During this study, the intestinal permeability of ticagrelor and its potential P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated active transport were assessed. To this end, bidirectional transport of ticagrelor was performed across Caco-2 (human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) monolayer model in the presence and absence of potent P-gp inhibitor valspodar. Ticagrelor presented an apical-basolateral apparent permeability coefficient (Papp ) of 6.0 × 10(-6) cm/s. On the other hand, mean efflux ratio (ER) of 2.71 was observed for ticagrelor describing a higher efflux permeability compared to the influx component. Valspodar showed a significant inhibitory effect on the efflux of ticagrelor suggesting involvement of P-gp in its oral disposition. Co-incubation of the P-gp inhibitor decreased the efflux Papp of ticagrelor from 1.60 × 10(-5) to 1.13 × 10(-5) cm/s and decreased its ER by 70%. Results suggest a modest active transport of ticagrelor by P-gp across the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The co-administration of ticagrelor with a P-gp inhibitor seems altogether unlikely to have an extended impact on pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor and cause bleeding events in patients.

  7. The challenge of efflux-mediated antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Zhi; Plésiat, Patrick; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps.

  8. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment.

  9. The Challenge of Efflux-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Plésiat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps. PMID:25788514

  10. Differences in trans-stimulated chloroquine efflux kinetics are linked to PfCRT in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Cecilia P.; Rohrbach, Petra; McLean, Jeremy E.; Fidock, David A.; Stein, Wilfred D.; Lanzer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Summary The mechanism underpinning chloroquine drug resistance in the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum has remained controversial. Currently discussed models include a carrier or a channel for chloroquine, the former actively expelling the drug, the latter facilitating its passive diffusion, out of the parasite’s food vacuole, where chloroquine accumulates and inhibits haem detoxification. Here we have challenged both models using an established trans-stimulation efflux protocol. While carriers may demonstrate trans-stimulation, channels do not. Our data reveal that extracellular chloroquine stimulates chloroquine efflux in the presence and absence of metabolic energy in both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites, resulting in a hyperbolic increase in the apparent initial efflux rates as the concentration of external chloroquine increases. In the absence of metabolic energy, the apparent initial efflux rates were comparable in both parasites. Significant differences were only observed in the presence of metabolic energy, where consistently higher apparent initial efflux rates were found in chloroquine-resistant parasites. As trans-stimulation is characteristic of a carrier, and not a channel, we interpret our data in favour of a carrier for chloroquine being present in both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites, however, with different transport modalities. PMID:17493125

  11. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L.; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  12. [Investigation of mutations in transcription factors of efflux pump genes in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains overexpressing the efflux pumps].

    PubMed

    Kalkandelen, Kemal Turan; Doluca Dereli, Mine

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, a significant rise in the number of immunocompromised patients have been observed due to cancer chemotherapy, organ transplantation and HIV infection. As a result of this, the frequency of Candida albicans infections in the clinics have been increased. Fluconazole, as being a well tolerated, easy to use drug with minor side effects, is often the first choice antifungal agent for this patient group, both for therapy and prophylaxis. Especially the long-term use of this drug, causes the selection of resistant strains and leads to the development of fluconazole resistance. The most frequently observed resistance mechanism against fluconazole in C.albicans strains is the transportation of the drug out of the cell via efflux pumps. The efflux pumps mainly involved are Cdr1, Cdr2 ve Mdr1 encoded by CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 genes. It has been shown that, the overexpression of these efflux pump genes was caused by functional mutations in TAC1 and MRR1 genes which encode the transcription factors Tac1p and Mrr1p. This study was aimed to analyze TAC1 and MRR1 genes of 15 C.albicans strains which consist of six fluconazole-susceptible, four susceptible with trailing effect and five fluconazole-resistant isolates plus one resistant strain (DSY292), known to overexpress Mdr1 efflux pump due to P683H mutation in MRR1 gene and one fluconazole-sensitive ATCC 14053 C.albicans strain in terms of mutations with polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Two of the fluconazole-resistant isolates which had overexpression of Cdr1 and Cdr2 pumps known to have overexpression of TAC1 gene, revealed R673Q and A736V mutations. A P683H point mutation, that overexpressed the Mdr1 pump was detected in a fluconazole-resistant strain, which was known to cause MRR1 overexpression. In conclusion, mutations in the transcription factors of the efflux pump genes may play an important role in the resistance against fluconazole among our selected C.albicans strains.

  13. The Role of the Atypical Kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in Abscisic Acid Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase) is represented in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement, and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling. PMID:27047531

  14. ABC transporters in CSCs membranes as a novel target for treating tumor relapse

    PubMed Central

    Zinzi, Laura; Contino, Marialessandra; Cantore, Mariangela; Capparelli, Elena; Leopoldo, Marcello; Colabufo, Nicola A.

    2014-01-01

    CSCs are responsible for the high rate of recurrence and chemoresistance of different types of cancer. The current antineoplastic agents able to inhibit bulk replicating cancer cells and radiation treatment are not efficacious toward CSCs since this subpopulation has several intrinsic mechanisms of resistance. Among these mechanisms, the expression of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters family and the activation of different signaling pathways (such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Hedgehog, Notch, Akt/PKB) are reported. Therefore, considering ABC transporters expression on CSCs membranes, compounds able to modulate MDR could induce cytotoxicity in these cells disclosing an exciting and alternative strategy for targeting CSCs in tumor therapy. The next challenge in the cure of cancer relapse may be a multimodal strategy, an approach where specific CSCs targeting drugs exert simultaneously the ability to circumvent tumor drug resistance (ABC transporters modulation) and cytotoxic activity toward CSCs and the corresponding differentiated tumor cells. The efficacy of suggested multimodal strategy could be probed by using several scaffolds active toward MDR pumps on CSCs isolated by tumor specimens. PMID:25071581

  15. RND efflux pump and its interrelationship with quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Zhibin, Liang; Yumei, Chen; Yufan, Chen; Yingying, Cheng; Lianhui, Zhang

    2016-10-20

    Antibiotic resistance has become a serious concern in treatment of bacterial infections. Overexpression of efflux pump is one of the important mechanisms in antibiotic resistance. In Gram negative bacteria, RND (Resistance-nodulation-cell division) superfamily efflux pump plays a vital important role in antibiotics resistance. Recent research progress unveils an intriguing interrelationship between RND efflux pump and the bacterial quorum sensing system, whose regulation is dependent on small signal molecules. This article reviews the latest findings on the structure and transport mechanism of RND efflux pump, as well as the general features and regulatory mechanisms of quorum sensing, with a special focus on the role and mechanism of quorum sensing system in regulation of RND efflux pump, and the influence of efflux pump on quorum sensing signal transportation. Further investigation of the interrelationship between RND efflux pumps and the bacterial quorum sensing systems is critical for elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that govern the expression of the RND efflux pumps genes, and may also provide useful clues to overcome the efflux pump mediated antibiotic resistance.

  16. Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is rapidly spreading among bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in humans. For the last two decades, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps have drawn attention due to their potential association with clinical multidrug resistance. Numerous researchers have demonstrated efflux-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo and found novel multidrug transporters using advanced genomic information about bacteria. This article aims to provide a concise summary of multidrug efflux pumps and their important clinical implications, focusing on recent findings concerning S. aureus efflux pumps.

  17. Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, ABCCs): importance for pathophysiology and drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    The nine multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) represent the major part of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR subfamily belonging to the 48 human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Cloning, functional characterization, and cellular localization of most MRP subfamily members have identified them as ATP-dependent efflux pumps with a broad substrate specificity for the transport of endogenous and xenobiotic anionic substances localized in cellular plasma membranes. Prototypic substrates include glutathione conjugates such as leukotriene C(4) for MRP1, MRP2, and MRP4, bilirubin glucuronosides for MRP2 and MRP3, and cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP for MRP4, MRP5, and MRP8. Reduced glutathione (GSH), present in living cells at millimolar concentrations, modifies the substrate specificities of several MRPs, as exemplified by the cotransport of vincristine with GSH by MRP1, or by the cotransport of GSH with bile acids or of GSH with leukotriene B(4) by MRP4.The role of MRP subfamily members in pathophysiology may be illustrated by the MRP-mediated release of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as leukotrienes and prostanoids. Pathophysiological consequences of many genetic variants leading to a lack of functional MRP protein in the plasma membrane are observed in the hereditary MRP2 deficiency associated with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in Dubin-Johnson syndrome, in pseudoxanthoma elasticum due to mutations in the MRP6 (ABCC6) gene, or in the type of human earwax and osmidrosis determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MRP8 (ABCC8) gene. The hepatobiliary and renal elimination of many drugs and their metabolites is mediated by MRP2 in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and by MRP4 as well as MRP2 in the luminal membrane of kidney proximal tubules. Therefore, inhibition of these efflux pumps affects pharmacokinetics, unless compensated by other ATP-dependent efflux pumps with overlapping substrate specificities.

  18. Effect of ABCG2/BCRP Expression on Efflux and Uptake of Gefitinib in NSCLC Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Galetti, Maricla; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Fumarola, Claudia; Cretella, Daniele; La Monica, Silvia; Bonelli, Mara; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Saccani, Francesca; Caffarra, Cristina; Andreoli, Roberta; Mutti, Antonio; Tiseo, Marcello; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Alfieri, Roberta R.

    2015-01-01

    Background BCRP/ABCG2 emerged as an important multidrug resistance protein, because it confers resistance to several classes of cancer chemotherapeutic agents and to a number of novel molecularly-targeted therapeutics such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gefitinib is an orally active, selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying activating EGFR mutations. Membrane transporters may affect the distribution and accumulation of gefitinib in tumour cells; in particular a reduced intracellular level of the drug may result from poor uptake, enhanced efflux or increased metabolism. Aim The present study, performed in a panel of NSCLC cell lines expressing different ABCG2 plasma membrane levels, was designed to investigate the effect of the efflux transporter ABCG2 on intracellular gefitinib accumulation, by dissecting the contribution of uptake and efflux processes. Methods and Results Our findings indicate that gefitinib, in lung cancer cells, inhibits ABCG2 activity, as previously reported. In addition, we suggest that ABCG2 silencing or overexpression affects intracellular gefitinib content by modulating the uptake rather than the efflux. Similarly, overexpression of ABCG2 affected the expression of a number of drug transporters, altering the functional activities of nutrient and drug transport systems, in particular inhibiting MPP, glucose and glutamine uptake. Conclusions Therefore, we conclude that gefitinib is an inhibitor but not a substrate for ABCG2 and that ABCG2 overexpression may modulate the expression and activity of other transporters involved in the uptake of different substrates into the cells. PMID:26536031

  19. Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Fabian; Fromm, Martin F

    2011-07-01

    Drug-drug interactions are a serious clinical issue. An important mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions is induction or inhibition of drug transporters that mediate the cellular uptake and efflux of xenobiotics. Especially drug transporters of the small intestine, liver and kidney are major determinants of the pharmacokinetic profile of drugs. Transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in these three organs can considerably influence the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of drugs. In this article, we focus on probe drugs lacking significant metabolism to highlight mechanisms of interactions of selected intestinal, hepatic and renal drug transporters (e.g., organic anion transporting polypeptide [OATP] 1A2, OATP2B1, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, P-gp, organic anion transporter [OAT] 1, OAT3, breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP], organic cation transporter [OCT] 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein [MATE] 1). Genotype-dependent drug-drug interactions are also discussed.

  20. Regulation of Human Hepatic Drug Transporter Activity and Expression by Diesel Exhaust Particle Extract

    PubMed Central

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Lecureur, Valérie; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe) may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC) uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP), whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute to their

  1. Impact of anatase and rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles on uptake carriers and efflux pumps in Caco-2 gut epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorier, M.; Brun, E.; Veronesi, G.; Barreau, F.; Pernet-Gallay, K.; Desvergne, C.; Rabilloud, T.; Carapito, C.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Carrière, M.

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 microparticles are widely used in food products, where they are added as a white food colouring agent. This food additive contains a significant amount of nanoscale particles; still the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on gut cells is poorly documented. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of rutile and anatase TiO2-NPs on the main functions of enterocytes, i.e. nutrient absorption driven by solute-liquid carriers (SLC transporters) and protection against other xenobiotics driven by efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We show that acute exposure of Caco-2 cells to both anatase (12 nm) and rutile (20 nm) TiO2-NPs induce early upregulation of a battery of efflux pumps and nutrient transporters. In addition they cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species and misbalance redox repair systems, without inducing cell mortality or DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that TiO2-NPs may increase the functionality of gut epithelial cells, particularly their property to form a protective barrier against exogenous toxicants and to absorb nutrients.TiO2 microparticles are widely used in food products, where they are added as a white food colouring agent. This food additive contains a significant amount of nanoscale particles; still the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on gut cells is poorly documented. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of rutile and anatase TiO2-NPs on the main functions of enterocytes, i.e. nutrient absorption driven by solute-liquid carriers (SLC transporters) and protection against other xenobiotics driven by efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family. We show that acute exposure of Caco-2 cells to both anatase (12 nm) and rutile (20 nm) TiO2-NPs induce early upregulation of a battery of efflux pumps and nutrient transporters. In addition they cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species and misbalance redox repair systems, without inducing cell mortality or DNA damage. Taken

  2. Role of MRP transporters in regulating antimicrobial drug inefficacy and oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis during HIV-1 and TB infections.

    PubMed

    Roy, Upal; Barber, Paul; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Batrakova, Elena V; Mondal, Debasis; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Drug Resistance Proteins (MRPs) are members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug-efflux transporter superfamily. MRPs are known to regulate the efficacy of a broad range of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and antibacterial agents used in Tuberculus Bacilli (TB) therapy. Due to their role in efflux of glutathione (GSH) conjugated drugs, MRPs can also regulate cellular oxidative stress, which may contribute to both HIV and/or TB pathogenesis. This review focuses on the characteristics, functional expression, and modulation of known members of the MRP family in HIV infected cells exposed to ARV drugs and discusses their known role in drug-inefficacy in HIV/TB-induced dysfunctions. Currently, nine members of the MRP family (MRP1-MRP9) have been identified, with MRP1 and MRP2 being the most extensively studied. Details of the other members of this family have not been known until recently, but differential expression has been documented in inflammatory tissues. Researchers have found that the distribution, function, and reactivity of members of MRP family vary in different types of lymphocytes and macrophages, and are differentially expressed at the basal and apical surfaces of both endothelial and epithelial cells. Therefore, the prime objective of this review is to delineate the role of MRP transporters in HAART and TB therapy and their potential in precipitating cellular dysfunctions manifested in these chronic infectious diseases. We also provide an overview of different available options and novel experimental strategies that are being utilized to overcome the drug resistance and disease pathogenesis mediated by these membrane transporters.

  3. Role of MRP transporters in regulating antimicrobial drug inefficacy and oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis during HIV-1 and TB infections

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Upal; Barber, Paul; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Batrakova, Elena V.; Mondal, Debasis; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Drug Resistance Proteins (MRPs) are members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug-efflux transporter superfamily. MRPs are known to regulate the efficacy of a broad range of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and antibacterial agents used in Tuberculus Bacilli (TB) therapy. Due to their role in efflux of glutathione (GSH) conjugated drugs, MRPs can also regulate cellular oxidative stress, which may contribute to both HIV and/or TB pathogenesis. This review focuses on the characteristics, functional expression, and modulation of known members of the MRP family in HIV infected cells exposed to ARV drugs and discusses their known role in drug-inefficacy in HIV/TB-induced dysfunctions. Currently, nine members of the MRP family (MRP1-MRP9) have been identified, with MRP1 and MRP2 being the most extensively studied. Details of the other members of this family have not been known until recently, but differential expression has been documented in inflammatory tissues. Researchers have found that the distribution, function, and reactivity of members of MRP family vary in different types of lymphocytes and macrophages, and are differentially expressed at the basal and apical surfaces of both endothelial and epithelial cells. Therefore, the prime objective of this review is to delineate the role of MRP transporters in HAART and TB therapy and their potential in precipitating cellular dysfunctions manifested in these chronic infectious diseases. We also provide an overview of different available options and novel experimental strategies that are being utilized to overcome the drug resistance and disease pathogenesis mediated by these membrane transporters. PMID:26441882

  4. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism contributes to blonanserin-induced cortical dopamine and acetylcholine efflux and cognitive improvement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-11-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), which, unlike most atypical APDs, has a slightly higher affinity for dopamine (DA) D2 than serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors, and is an antagonist at both, as well as at D3 receptors. The effects of atypical APDs to enhance rodent cortical, hippocampal, limbic, and dorsal striatal (dSTR) DA and acetylcholine (ACh) release, contribute to their ability to improve novel object recognition (NOR) in rodents treated with sub-chronic (sc) phencyclidine (PCP) and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Here we determined the ability of blonanserin, the D3 antagonist NGB 2904, and the typical APD, haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, to enhance neurotransmitter efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dSTR of mice, and to ameliorate the scPCP-induced deficit in NOR in rats. Blonanserin, 10mg/kg, i.p., increased DA, norepinephrine (NE), and ACh efflux in mPFC and dSTR. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, increased DA and ACh, but not NE, efflux in mPFC, and DA, but not ACh, efflux in dSTR. Haloperidol increased DA and NE efflux in dSTR only. The selective D3 agonist PD 128907 partially blocked the blonanserin-induced cortical ACh, DA, NE and striatal DA efflux. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, like blonanserin, 1mg/kg, and the combination of sub-effective doses of NGB 2904 and blonanserin (both 0.3mg/kg), ameliorated the scPCP-induced NOR deficit in rats. These results suggest that D3 receptor blockade may contribute to the ability of blonanserin to increase cortical DA and ACh efflux, as well as to restore NOR and improve CIAS.

  5. In situ kinetic modelling of intestinal efflux in rats: functional characterization of segmental differences and correlation with in vitro results.

    PubMed

    González-Alvarez, Isabel; Fernández-Teruel, Carlos; Casabó-Alós, Vicente G; Garrigues, Teresa M; Polli, James E; Ruiz-García, Ana; Bermejo, Marival

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to devise and apply a novel modelling approach to combine segmental in situ rat perfusion data and in vitro cell culture data, in order to elucidate the contribution of efflux in drug absorption kinetics. The fluoroquinolone CNV97100 was used as a model P-gp substrate. In situ intestinal perfusion was performed in rat duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon to measure the influence of P-gp expression on efflux. Inhibition studies of CNV97100 were performed in the presence of verapamil, quinidine, cyclosporin A and p-aminohippuric acid. Absorption/efflux parameters were modelled simultaneously, using data from both in situ studies as well as in vitro studies. The maximal efflux velocity was modelled as a baseline value, corrected for each segment based on the expression level. CNV97100 passive diffusional permeability (P(diff)) and its affinity for the efflux carrier (K(m)) were assumed to be the same in all segments. The results indicate the new approach to combine in situ data and in vitro data succeed in yielding a unified, quantitative model for absorption/efflux. The model incorporated a quantitative relationship between P-gp expression level and the efflux functionality, both across in situ and in vitro systems, as well across different intestinal segments in the in situ studies. Permeability values decreased from duodenum to ileum in accordance with the increasing P-gp expression levels in rat intestine. The developed model reflects a strong correlation between in vitro and in situ results, including intrinsic differences in surface area. The successful application of a model approach to combine absorption data from two different experimental systems holds promise for future efforts to predict absorption results from one system to a second system.

  6. ABCs of Being Smart: S Is for Supporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Joanne Foster's article "R We There Yet?" was first published in "Parenting for High Potential" ("PHP") in 2006, which became the springboard for the "ABCs of Being Smart" series of columns. At that time, Foster invited "PHP" readers to think about their own versions of the "ABCs of Being…

  7. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  8. The ABCs of School Choice, 2009-2010 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the 2009-2010 edition of the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "ABCs of School Choice". The "ABCs of School Choice" provides the latest in up-to-date and accurate information about the many school choice success stories taking place throughout the country. Readers will find this guide an…

  9. Active and passive transport of drugs in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Stanisław; Pałasz, Artur; Kamiński, Marcin

    2009-10-01

    The human placenta, characterized by the processes of passive transport and facilitated diffusion, contains numerous active transport proteins, usually located in the microvilli of the syncytiotrophoblast or in the endothelium of the capillaries of the villi. These proteins use either the energy from ATP hydrolysis or other mechanisms resulting, among others, from the formation of the maternofetal ion gradient, which facilitates the transfer of various endogenous substances or xenobiotics across the body membranes. The proteins either trigger the efflux of these substances from the fetal tissues via the placenta into the maternal bloodstream, or conversely they accumulate them in the fetal tissues. Both the placenta and the fetus are equipped with independent systems of enzymes of 1st and 2nd phase of substrate metabolism, such as CYP450, glucuronyltransferase or sulphatase. An active therapy with a wide range of drugs, often at high toxicity levels, either shortly before or during pregnancy, has naturally posed a question concerning the degree of impermeability of the placental barrier and how effectively it can be crossed, including any possible negative embryotoxic or teratogenic consequences. Such hazards seem to be quite real, as many drugs are substrates for ABC transporters. Also the placenta itself, including its structure, is subject to vast transformations during pregnancy which may be observed as the thinning of the barrier separating the maternal blood from the fetal one, from 20-30 microm in the first trimester of gestation down to 2-4 microm in the third trimester of gestation.

  10. Importance of influx and efflux systems and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in intratumoral disposition of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Rochat, B

    2009-08-01

    In this review, intratumoral drug disposition will be integrated into the wide range of resistance mechanisms to anticancer agents with particular emphasis on targeted protein kinase inhibitors. Six rules will be established: 1. There is a high variability of extracellular/intracellular drug level ratios; 2. There are three main systems involved in intratumoral drug disposition that are composed of SLC, ABC and XME enzymes; 3. There is a synergistic interplay between these three systems; 4. In cancer subclones, there is a strong genomic instability that leads to a highly variable expression of SLC, ABC or XME enzymes; 5. Tumor-expressed metabolizing enzymes play a role in tumor-specific ADME and cell survival and 6. These three systems are involved in the appearance of resistance (transient event) or in the resistance itself. In addition, this article will investigate whether the overexpression of some ABC and XME systems in cancer cells is just a random consequence of DNA/chromosomal instability, hypo- or hypermethylation and microRNA deregulation, or a more organized modification induced by transposable elements. Experiments will also have to establish if these tumor-expressed enzymes participate in cell metabolism or in tumor-specific ADME or if they are only markers of clonal evolution and genomic deregulation. Eventually, the review will underline that the fate of anticancer agents in cancer cells should be more thoroughly investigated from drug discovery to clinical studies. Indeed, inhibition of tumor expressed metabolizing enzymes could strongly increase drug disposition, specifically in the target cells resulting in more efficient therapies.

  11. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.

  12. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    DOE PAGES

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; ...

    2015-08-06

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystalmore » structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.« less

  13. Structural basis for the blockade of MATE multidrug efflux pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, Martha; Symersky, Jindrich; Nie, Rongxin; Lu, Min

    2015-08-06

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters underpin multidrug resistance by using the H+ or Na+ electrochemical gradient to extrude different drugs across cell membranes. MATE transporters can be further parsed into the DinF, NorM and eukaryotic subfamilies based on their amino-acid sequence similarity. Here we report the 3.0 Å resolution X-ray structures of a protonation-mimetic mutant of an H+-coupled DinF transporter, as well as of an H+-coupled DinF and a Na+-coupled NorM transporters in complexes with verapamil, a small-molecule pharmaceutical that inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug extrusion. Combining structure-inspired mutational and functional studies, we confirm the biological relevance of our crystal structures, reveal the mechanistic differences among MATE transporters, and suggest how verapamil inhibits MATE-mediated multidrug efflux. Our findings offer insights into how MATE transporters extrude chemically and structurally dissimilar drugs and could inform the design of new strategies for tackling multidrug resistance.

  14. ArsP: a methylarsenite efflux permease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Madegowda, Mahendra; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Trivalent organoarsenic compounds are far more toxic than either pentavalent organoarsenicals or inorganic arsenite. Many microbes methylate inorganic arsenite (As(III)) to more toxic and carcinogenic methylarsenite (MAs(III)). Additionally, monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA or MAs(V)) has been used widely as an herbicide and is reduced by microbial communities to MAs(III). Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzenearsonic acid) is a pentavalent aromatic arsenical that is used as antimicrobial growth promoter for poultry and swine, and its active form is the trivalent species Rox(III). A bacterial permease, ArsP, from Campylobacter jejuni, was recently shown to confer resistance to roxarsone. In this study C. jejuni arsP was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to confer resistance to MAs(III) and Rox(III) but not to inorganic As(III) or pentavalent organoarsenicals. Cells of E. coli expressing arsP did not accumulate trivalent organoarsenicals. Everted membrane vesicles from those cells accumulated MAs(III)>Rox(III) with energy supplied by NADH oxidation, reflecting efflux from cells. The vesicles did not transport As(III), MAs(V) or pentavalent roxarsone. Mutation or modification of the two conserved cysteine residues resulted in loss of transport activity, suggesting that they play a role in ArsP function. Thus ArsP is the first identified efflux system specific for trivalent organoarsenicals. PMID:26234817

  15. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  16. Multidrug efflux pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jody L; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; K C, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F

    2015-01-28

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.

  17. Interactions of Pluronic Block Copolymers on P-gp Efflux Activity: Experience With HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    SHAIK, NAVEED; PAN, GUOYU; ELMQUIST, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of Pluronic block-copolymers on the interaction between the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein and HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). The ATPase assay determined the effect of various Pluronics on PI-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. Cellular accumulation studies were conducted using MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with human MDR1 to assess Pluronic modulation of PI efflux. Pluronic P85 inhibited both basal and nelfinavir-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity, while Pluronic F127 had no effect. In cell accumulation studies, Pluronic P85 restored the accumulation of nelfinavir in MDCKII-MDR1 cells while Pluronic F127 and F88 had no effect. Pluronic P85 increased saquinavir accumulation in wild-type and MDR1-transfected cells in both the MDCKII and LLC-PK1 cell models, suggesting inhibition of multiple transporters, including MRPs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that a block-copolymer, Pluronic P85, effectively inhibits the interaction of P-gp with nelfinavir and saquinavir. These data indicate that effective inhibition of HIV-1 PI efflux by Pluronic P85 may influence the distribution of antiretroviral agents to sites protected by efflux mechanisms, such as the blood–brain barrier, and possibly increase the brain exposure of these drugs resulting in suppression of viral replication and reduction in the incidence of drug resistant mutants. PMID:18393290

  18. [Role of the ABC transporters A1 and G1, key reverse cholesterol transport proteins, in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Demina, E P; Miroshnikova, V V; Schwarzman, A L

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Epidemiology studies firmly established an inverse relationship between atherogenesis and distorted lipid metabolism, in particular, higher levels of total cholesterol, an accumulation of CH-laden macrophages (foam cells), and lower plasma levels of antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL). It is believed that the reverse cholesterol transport, a process that removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues/cells including macrophages to circulating HDL, is one of the main mechanisms responsible for anti-atherogenic properties of HDL. The key proteins of reverse cholesterol transport-ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1)-mediate the cholesterol efflux from macrophages and prevent their transformation into foam cells. This review focuses on the role of ABC transporters A1 and G1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  19. Glaucarubinone sensitizes KB cells to paclitaxel by inhibiting ABC transporters via ROS-dependent and p53-mediated activation of apoptotic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Subburayan; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Nazeer, Yasin; Hegde, Harsha Vasudev

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is considered to be the major contributor to failure of chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study was aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of glaucarubinone (GLU), one of the major quassinoids from Simarouba glauca DC, in potentiating cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (PTX), an anticancer drug in KB cells. Our data showed that the administration of GLU pre-treatment significantly enhanced PTX anti-proliferative effect in ABCB1 over-expressing KB cells. The Rh 123 drug efflux studies revealed that there was a significant transport function inhibition by GLU-PTX treatment. Interestingly, it was also found that this enhanced anticancer efficacy of GLU was associated with PTX-induced cell arrest in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Further, the combined treatment of GLU-PTX had significant decrease in the expression levels of P-gp, MRPs, and BCRP in resistant KB cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the combination treatments showed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, chromatin condensation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in resistant KB cells. The results from DNA fragmentation analysis also demonstrated the GLU induced apoptosis in KB cells and its synergy with PTX. Importantly, GLU and/or PTX triggered apoptosis through the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins such as p53, Bax, and caspase-9. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that GLU causes cell death in human oral cancer cells via the ROS-dependent suppression of MDR transporters and p53-mediated activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Additionally, the present study also focussed on investigation of the protective effect of GLU and combination drugs in human normal blood lymphocytes. Normal blood lymphocytes assay indicated that GLU is able to induce selective toxicity in cancer cells and in silico molecular docking studies support the choice of GLU as ABC inhibitor to enhance PTX efficacy

  20. Altered glycaemia differentially modulates efflux transporter expression and activity in hCMEC/D3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Ravi K; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-06-26

    The unique phenotype of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium is partly maintained by abundant expression of ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters that strictly restrict the CNS access to toxic substances including xenobiotics in circulation. Previously, we have shown that diabetes-related altered glycemic conditions differentially affect and compromise BBB integrity. However, the impact of diabetes on BBB efflux transporters is less understood. In this study, we examined the effects of single or repeated episodes of hypo-and hyperglycemia on major BBB efflux transporters expression/function in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3). Cells were exposed to normal (5.5 mM), hypo (2.2 mM) or hyper (25 or 35 mM)-glycemic media containing D-glucose for 12h (acute) or two 3h episodes/day of hypo- or hyperglycemia with an intercalated 2h normalglycemic exposure for 3 days ("glycemic variability", see Methods). Acute hypoglycemic exposure (12h) up-regulated BBB endothelial mRNA and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, BCRP and other multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1 and 4) paralleled by an increase in transporter-specific efflux activity (∼ 2-fold vs. control). Although, 12h hyperglycemia did not affect the efflux transporter expression (except for MRP4), a significant increase in BCRP activity was observed. By contrast, DNA microarray data revealed that repeated hyperglycemic episodes (but not hypoglycemia) significantly up-regulate P-glycoprotein expression and activity. Thus, this study suggests a differential impact of altered glycemic conditions on major BBB drug efflux transporters expression/function, sensitive to the length of exposure (acute vs. repeated), with an implication for altered CNS drug disposition in diabetic population.

  1. Cerebral ABC transporter-common mechanisms may modulate neurodegenerative diseases and depression in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Jens; Fröhlich, Christina; Paarmann, Kristin; Krohn, Markus; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Årsland, Dag; Winblad, Bengt

    2014-11-01

    In elderly subjects, depression and dementia often coincide but the actual reason is currently unknown. Does a causal link exist or is it just a reactive effect of the knowledge to suffer from dementia? The ABC transporter superfamily may represent a causal link between these mental disorders. Since the transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 have been discovered as major β-amyloid-exporting molecules at the blood-brain barrier and ABCC1 was found to be directly activated by St. John's wort (SJW), depression and dementia certainly share an important pathophysiologic link. It was recognized that herbal anti-depressant formulations made from SJW are at least as effective for the treatment of unipolar depression in old age as classical pharmacotherapy, while having fewer side effects (Cochrane reports, 2008). SJW is known to activate various metabolizing and transport systems in the body, with cytochrome P450 enzymes and ABC transporters being most important. Does the treatment of depression in elderly subjects using pharmacological compounds or phytomedical extracts target a mechanism that also accounts for peptide storage in Alzheimer's disease and perhaps other proteopathies of the brain? In this review we summarize recent data that point to a common mechanism and present the first promising causal treatment results of demented elderly subjects with distinct SJW extracts. Insufficient trans-barrier clearance may indeed present a common problem in all the proteopathies of the brain where toxic peptides are deposited in a location-specific manner. Thus, activation of efflux molecules holds promise for future treatment of this large group of devastating disorders.

  2. A phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide sensitive multidrug efflux pump involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance of Campylobacter to macrolides.

    PubMed

    Mamelli, Laurent; Amoros, Jean-Pierre; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Bolla, Jean-Michel

    2003-09-01

    The macrolide erythromycin is the antibiotic of choice in the management of Campylobacter infections. Although mutation has been reported to account for resistance to the antibiotic, resistance may also be due to an efflux pump that extrudes the drug prior to reaching its target. Moreover, the efflux pump may be one that accommodates resistance to other related or unrelated drugs (multidrug resistance). We examined the possibility that resistance to erythromycin may involve an efflux pump whose presence may be identified by the use of the unique commercial inhibitor of the previously described efflux pumps phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphtylamide (PAbetaN). We showed that PAbetaN is able to significantly increase the susceptibility of the reference strain NCTC 11168 to erythromycin, suggesting that an efflux pump functions at a basal level in the reference wild type strain. Erythromycin-resistant isolates were tested for their response to PAbetaN treatment. Among the strains tested, resistance of three isolates to erythromycin was reduced to a level comparable to that of the susceptible strain when the strains were grown in the presence of this inhibitor. To conclude, besides mutations, erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter may also be due to an efflux mechanism sensitive to PAbetaN.

  3. Sodium efflux in plant roots: what do we really know?

    PubMed

    Britto, D T; Kronzucker, H J

    2015-08-15

    The efflux of sodium (Na(+)) ions across the plasma membrane of plant root cells into the external medium is surprisingly poorly understood. Nevertheless, Na(+) efflux is widely regarded as a major mechanism by which plants restrain the rise of Na(+) concentrations in the cytosolic compartments of root cells and, thus, achieve a degree of tolerance to saline environments. In this review, several key ideas and bodies of evidence concerning root Na(+) efflux are summarized with a critical eye. Findings from decades past are brought to bear on current thinking, and pivotal studies are discussed, both "purely physiological", and also with regard to the SOS1 protein, the only major Na(+) efflux transporter that has, to date, been genetically characterized. We find that the current model of rapid transmembrane sodium cycling (RTSC), across the plasma membrane of root cells, is not adequately supported by evidence from the majority of efflux studies. An alternative hypothesis cannot be ruled out, that most Na(+) tracer efflux from the root in the salinity range does not proceed across the plasma membrane, but through the apoplast. Support for this idea comes from studies showing that Na(+) efflux, when measured with tracers, is rarely affected by the presence of inhibitors or the ionic composition in saline rooting media. We conclude that the actual efflux of Na(+) across the plasma membrane of root cells may be much more modest than what is often reported in studies using tracers, and may predominantly occur in the root tips, where SOS1 expression has been localized.

  4. The Crystal Structure of the YknZ Extracellular Domain of ABC Transporter YknWXYZ from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lulu; Jiang, Rui; Jin, Xiaoling; Liu, Jing; Fan, Shengdi; Quan, Chun-Shan; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus possesses the peptide toxin Sporulation-Delaying Protein (SDP), which can kill cells within a biofilm to support continued growth, thereby delaying the onset of biofilm sporulation. The four-component transporter YknWXYZ acts as a major SDP efflux pump to protect cells against the endogenous SDP toxin, for which YknYZ is a non-canonical ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transporter. YknYZ consists of the following two components: (1) an individual protein (YknY) and (2) a respective permease (YknZ). To date, the crystal structure, molecular function, and mechanism of action of the integral membrane protein YknZ remain to be elucidated. In this study, to characterize the structural and biochemical roles of YknZ in the functional assembly of YknWXYZ, we predicted and overexpressed the YknZ extracellular domain. We determined the crystal structure of B. amyloliquefaciens YknZ at a resolution of 2.0 Å. The structure revealed that the YknZ extracellular region exhibits significant structural similarity with the MacB periplasmic domain, which is a non-canonical ABC-type transporter in the tripartite macrolide-specific efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. We also found that the YknZ extracellular domain can directly bind to an extracellular component of YknX. This structural and biochemical study provides insights into the assembly of YknWXYZ, which may be relevant to understanding cannibalistic peptide toxin resistance in Bacillus and controlling bacterial growth. PMID:27243566

  5. The ABC transporter gene family of Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Armin; Cunningham, Phil; Dean, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background The large gene superfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters encodes membrane proteins involved in trafficking processes across biological membranes and further essential cell biological functions. ABC transporters are evolutionary ancient and involved in the biochemical defence against toxicants. We report here a genome-wide survey of ABC proteins of Daphnia pulex, providing for the first time information on ABC proteins in crustacea, a primarily aquatic arthropod subphylum of high ecological and economical importance. Results We identified 64 ABC proteins in the Daphnia genome, which possesses members of all current ABC subfamilies A to H. To unravel phylogenetic relationships, ABC proteins of Daphnia were compared to those from yeast, worm, fruit fly and human. A high conservation of Daphnia of ABC transporters was observed for proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes, including the mitochondrial half transporters of the ABCB subfamily, which function in iron metabolism and transport of Fe/S protein precursors, and the members of subfamilies ABCD, ABCE and ABCF, which have roles in very long chain fatty acid transport, initiation of gene transcription and protein translation, respectively. A number of Daphnia proteins showed one-to-one orthologous relationships to Drosophila ABC proteins including the sulfonyl urea receptor (SUR), the ecdysone transporter ET23, and the eye pigment precursor transporter scarlet. As the fruit fly, Daphnia lacked homologues to the TAP protein, which plays a role in antigene processing, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which functions as a chloride channel. Daphnia showed two proteins homologous to MDR (multidrug resistance) P-glycoproteins (ABCB subfamily) and six proteins homologous to MRPs (multidrug resistance-associated proteins) (ABCC subfamily). However, lineage specific gene duplications in the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies complicated the inference of function. A

  6. Women: the ABC of food security.

    PubMed

    Arcellana, N P

    1997-12-01

    While the 1996 World Food Summit Plan of Action was being approved, a companion NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum provided opportunities for rural women from 29 countries to relay their perspectives and recommendations. The Rural Women's Workshop was organized by four NGOs: Isis International-Manila, La Via Campesina, the People-Centred Development Forum, and the Women's Food and Agriculture Working Group. Isis International-Manila seeks to create spaces, facilitate processes, and disseminate information for rural women to voice concerns, network, and plan responses. The La Via Campesina network operates in Latin American and the Caribbean where it applies a strong gender perspective to all of its activities. Ultimate progress on the World Food Summit Plan of Action can be evaluated using the ABCs of food security: does the program or policy assure 1) access for women to the total means of production; 2) benefits for women; and 3) community-based resource management and sustainable agriculture.

  7. Macrophage apolipoprotein A-I expression protects against atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice and up-regulates ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan Ru; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Major, Amy S; Dove, Dwayne E; Zhang, Wenwu; Hasty, Alyssa H; Babaev, Vladimir R; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2003-10-01

    The antiatherogenic effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its major protein component apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been largely attributed to their key roles in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and cellular cholesterol efflux. Substantial evidence shows that overexpression of human apoA-I reduces atherosclerosis in animal models. However, it is uncertain whether this protection is due to an increase in plasma HDL level or to a local effect in the artery wall. To test the hypothesis that expression of human apoA-I in macrophages can promote RCT in the artery wall, we used a retroviral construct expressing human apoA-I cDNA (MFG-HAI) to transduce ApoE(-/-) bone marrow cells and then transplanted these cells into ApoE(-/-) mice with preexisting atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) mice reconstituted with MFG-HAI marrow had a significant reduction (30%) in atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta compared to control mice that received marrow expressing MFG parental virus. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from MFG-HAI mice showed a four- to fivefold increase in mRNA expression levels of both ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 compared to controls. Our data demonstrate that gene transfer-mediated expression of human apoA-I in macrophages can compensate in part for apoE deficiency and delay the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by stimulating ABC-dependent cholesterol efflux and RCT.

  8. Levofloxacin Efflux and smeD in Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Chong, So Young; Lee, Kyungwon; Chung, Hae-Sun; Hong, Seong Geun; Suh, Younghee; Chong, Yunsop

    2017-03-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the first-line antimicrobial combination for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. However, allergy or intolerance and increasing resistance limit the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Quinolones can be used as an alternative therapeutic option, but resistance can emerge rapidly during therapy. We analyzed the contribution of SmeABC and SmeDEF efflux pumps to levofloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of S. maltophilia. Nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected in 2010 from 11 university hospitals (n = 102). Fifty-five levofloxacin nonsusceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥4 μg/ml) and 47 susceptible (MIC ≤2 μg/ml) isolates were tested for efflux pump overexpression. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was performed for amplification and quantification of smeB, smeC, smeD, and smeF mRNA. To determine which antimicrobials were affected by smeD overexpression, the growth rates of a levofloxacin-susceptible S. maltophilia isolate were compared by measuring absorbance of antimicrobial-supplemented Luria-Bertani broth (LB) cultures with or without triclosan. Significant relationships between sme gene overexpression and resistance were observed for smeD against levofloxacin, smeC and smeF against ceftazidime, and smeC against ticarcillin-clavulanate. The mean MICs of moxifloxacin and tigecycline did not significantly differ for isolates with or without overexpression of smeB, smeC, and smeF, but were significantly higher for isolates with smeD overexpression. The mean MICs of amikacin were significantly higher for smeC or smeF overexpressing isolates. Increased growth of a levofloxacin-susceptible isolate was observed in LB with 1/2 MIC levofloxacin in the presence of triclosan. These data suggest that the expression of smeD plays a role in levofloxacin resistance in S. maltophilia.

  9. LXR agonist treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm restores cholesterol efflux and triggers apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ceroi, Adam; Masson, David; Roggy, Anne; Roumier, Christophe; Chagué, Cécile; Gauthier, Thierry; Philippe, Laure; Lamarthée, Baptiste; Angelot-Delettre, Fanny; Bonnefoy, Francis; Perruche, Sylvain; Biichle, Sabeha; Preudhomme, Claude; Macintyre, Elisabeth; Lagrost, Laurent; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a poor prognosis that derives from PDCs. No consensus for optimal treatment modalities is available today and the full characterization of this leukemia is still emerging. We identified here a BPDCN-specific transcriptomic profile when compared with those of acute myeloid leukemia and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as well as the transcriptomic signature of primary PDCs. This BPDCN gene signature identified a dysregulation of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, some of them being liver X receptor (LXR) target genes. LXR agonist treatment of primary BPDCN cells and BPDCN cell lines restored LXR target gene expression and increased cholesterol efflux via the upregulation of adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1. LXR agonist treatment was responsible for limiting BPDCN cell proliferation and inducing intrinsic apoptotic cell death. LXR activation in BPDCN cells was shown to interfere with 3 signaling pathways associated with leukemic cell survival, namely: NF-κB activation, as well as Akt and STAT5 phosphorylation in response to the BPDCN growth/survival factor interleukin-3. These effects were increased by the stimulation of cholesterol efflux through a lipid acceptor, the apolipoprotein A1. In vivo experiments using a mouse model of BPDCN cell xenograft revealed a decrease of leukemic cell infiltration and BPDCN-induced cytopenia associated with increased survival after LXR agonist treatment. This demonstrates that cholesterol homeostasis is modified in BPDCN and can be normalized by treatment with LXR agonists which can be proposed as a new therapeutic approach. PMID:27702801

  10. Efflux systems in bacteria and their metabolic engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Hernández Lozada, Néstor J; Pfleger, Brian F

    2015-11-01

    The production of valuable chemicals from metabolically engineered microbes can be limited by excretion from the cell. Efflux is often overlooked as a bottleneck in metabolic pathways, despite its impact on alleviating feedback inhibition and product toxicity. In the past, it has been assumed that endogenous efflux pumps and membrane porins can accommodate product efflux rates; however, there are an increasing number of examples wherein overexpressing efflux systems is required to improve metabolite production. In this review, we highlight specific examples from the literature where metabolite export has been studied to identify unknown transporters, increase tolerance to metabolites, and improve the production capabilities of engineered bacteria. The review focuses on the export of a broad spectrum of valuable chemicals including amino acids, sugars, flavins, biofuels, and solvents. The combined set of examples supports the hypothesis that efflux systems can be identified and engineered to confer export capabilities on industrially relevant microbes.

  11. Incubation temperature, osmolarity, and salicylate affect the expression of resistance-nodulation-division efflux pumps and outer membrane porins in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606T.

    PubMed

    Bazyleu, Andrei; Kumar, Ayush

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of various environmental conditions on the expression of resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps and outer membrane (OM) porins, two key determinants of Acinetobacter baumannii's intrinsic resistance, an organism known to cause various multidrug resistant infections in immunocompromised individuals. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of adeB, adeG, and adeJ (genes encoding RND pumps) and 33 kDa, carO, and oprD (genes encoding OM porins) of A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) under different incubation temperatures (30, 37, and 42 °C) and in the presence of high osmolarity and salicylate. Downregulation of all three RND pumps was observed at 30 °C, while downregulation of all three porins tested was observed at increased osmolarity. Downregulation of RND efflux pumps, particularly AdeABC, was consistent with increased susceptibility to antibiotics that are substrates of this pump. Expression of the adeR response regulator gene of the AdeRS system, the activator of the AdeABC pump, was also analyzed. Our work shows that various environmental stress conditions can influence the expression of RND pumps and porins in A. baumannii ATCC19606(T) and thus may play a role in the modulation of its antibiotic resistance.

  12. Hepatocyte SLAMF3 reduced specifically the multidrugs resistance protein MRP-1 and increases HCC cells sensitization to anti-cancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Eugenio, Mélanie Simoes; Demey, Baptiste; Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Ossart, Christèle; Bagami, Mohammed Al; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Naassila, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance MDR proteins (MRPs) are members of the C family of a group of proteins named ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRPs can transport drugs including anticancer drugs, nucleoside analogs, antimetabolites and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drugs used in HCC therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, are substrates of uptake and/or efflux transporters. Variable expression of MRPs at the plasma membrane of tumor cells may contribute to drug resistance and subsequent clinical response. Recently, we reported that the hepatocyte SLAMF3 expression (Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family member 3) was reduced in tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to its high expression in adjacent tissues. In the present study, we make a strong correlation between induced SLAMF3 overexpression and the specific loss of MRP-1 expression and its functionalities as a drugs resistance transporter. No changes were observed on expression of ABCG2 and MDR. More importantly, we highlight a strong inverse correlation between MRP-1 and SLAMF3 expression in patients with HCC. We propose that the SLAMF3 overexpression in cancerous cells could represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve the drugs sensibility of resistant cells and thus control the therapeutic failure in HCC patients. PMID:27081035

  13. Hepatocyte SLAMF3 reduced specifically the multidrugs resistance protein MRP-1 and increases HCC cells sensitization to anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Grégory; Debuysscher, Véronique; Ouled-Haddou, Hakim; Eugenio, Mélanie Simoes; Demey, Baptiste; Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Ossart, Christèle; Al Bagami, Mohammed; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Naassila, Mickael; Marcq, Ingrid; Bouhlal, Hicham

    2016-05-31

    Multidrug resistance MDR proteins (MRPs) are members of the C family of a group of proteins named ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRPs can transport drugs including anticancer drugs, nucleoside analogs, antimetabolites and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drugs used in HCC therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, are substrates of uptake and/or efflux transporters. Variable expression of MRPs at the plasma membrane of tumor cells may contribute to drug resistance and subsequent clinical response. Recently, we reported that the hepatocyte SLAMF3 expression (Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family member 3) was reduced in tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to its high expression in adjacent tissues. In the present study, we make a strong correlation between induced SLAMF3 overexpression and the specific loss of MRP-1 expression and its functionalities as a drugs resistance transporter. No changes were observed on expression of ABCG2 and MDR. More importantly, we highlight a strong inverse correlation between MRP-1 and SLAMF3 expression in patients with HCC. We propose that the SLAMF3 overexpression in cancerous cells could represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve the drugs sensibility of resistant cells and thus control the therapeutic failure in HCC patients.

  14. HDL Cholesterol Efflux Predicts Graft Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Annema, Wijtske; Dikkers, Arne; Freark de Boer, Jan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are involved in the protection against cardiovascular disease by promoting cholesterol efflux, in which accumulated cholesterol is removed from macrophage foam cells. We investigated whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and graft failure in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (n=495, median follow-up 7.0 years). Cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline was quantified using incubation of human macrophage foam cells with apolipoprotein B–depleted plasma. Baseline efflux capacity was not different in deceased patients and survivors (P=0.60 or P=0.50 for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, respectively), whereas recipients developing graft failure had lower efflux capacity than those with functioning grafts (P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a lower risk for graft failure (P=0.004) but not cardiovascular (P=0.30) or all-cause mortality (P=0.31) with increasing gender-stratified tertiles of efflux capacity. Cox regression analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that efflux capacity was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.67 to 1.19; P=0.43). Furthermore, the association between efflux capacity and all-cause mortality (HR, .79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98; P=0.031) disappeared after further adjustment for potential confounders. However, efflux capacity at baseline significantly predicted graft failure (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64; P<0.001) independent of apolipoprotein A-I, HDL cholesterol, or creatinine clearance. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophage foam cells is not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality but is a strong predictor of graft failure independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels in renal transplant recipients. PMID:26319244

  15. Cellular and regional specific changes in multidrug efflux transporter expression during recovery of vasogenic edema in the rat hippocampus and piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Hui-Chul; Song, Hong-Ki; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of drug efflux transporter expressions following status epilepticus (SE). In the hippocampus and piriform cortex (PC), vasogenic edema peaked 3-4 days after SE. The expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4), and p-glycoprotein (p-GP) were decreased 4 days after SE when vasogenic edema was peaked, but subsequently increased 4 weeks after SE. Multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) expression gradually decreased in endothelial cells until 4 weeks after SE. These findings indicate that SE-induced vasogenic edema formation transiently reduced drug efflux pump expressions in endothelial cells. Subsequently, during recovery of vasogenic edema drug efflux pump expressions were differentially upregulated in astrocytes, neuropils, and endothelial cells. Therefore, we suggest that vasogenic edema formation may be a risk factor in pharmacoresistent epilepsy.

  16. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  17. The ABC transporter BcatrB from Botrytis cinerea exports camalexin and is a virulence factor on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Stefanato, Francesca L; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Buchala, Antony; Kretschmer, Matthias; Mosbach, Andreas; Hahn, Matthias; Bochet, Christian G; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2009-05-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is known to produce the phytoalexin camalexin in response to abiotic and biotic stress. Here we studied the mechanisms of tolerance to camalexin in the fungus Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogen of A. thaliana. Exposure of B. cinerea to camalexin induces expression of BcatrB, an ABC transporter that functions in the efflux of fungitoxic compounds. B. cinerea inoculated on wild-type A. thaliana plants yields smaller lesions than on camalexin-deficient A. thaliana mutants. A B. cinerea strain lacking functional BcatrB is more sensitive to camalexin in vitro and less virulent on wild-type plants, but is still fully virulent on camalexin-deficient mutants. Pre-treatment of A. thaliana with UV-C leads to increased camalexin accumulation and substantial resistance to B. cinerea. UV-C-induced resistance was not seen in the camalexin-deficient mutants cyp79B2/B3, cyp71A13, pad3 or pad2, and was strongly reduced in ups1. Here we demonstrate that an ABC transporter is a virulence factor that increases tolerance of the pathogen towards a phytoalexin, and the complete restoration of virulence on host plants lacking this phytoalexin.

  18. Intestinal Ciprofloxacin Efflux: The Role of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. A.; O'Reilly, D. A.; Sherlock, D. J.; Coleman, T.; Simmons, N. L.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal secretory movement of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, may limit its oral bioavailability. Active ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been implicated in ciprofloxacin transport. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that BCRP alone mediates intestinal ciprofloxacin secretion. The involvement of ABC transport proteins in ciprofloxacin secretory flux was investigated with the combined use of transfected cell lines [bcrp1/BCRP-Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) and multidrug resistance-related protein 4 (MRP4)-human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293] and human intestinal Caco-2 cells, combined with pharmacological inhibition using 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6, 7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), cyclosporine, 3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), and verapamil as ABC-selective inhibitors. In addition, the regional variation in secretory capacity was investigated using male Han Wistar rat intestine mounted in Ussing chambers, and the first indicative measurements of ciprofloxacin transport by ex vivo human jejunum were made. Active, Ko143-sensitive ciprofloxacin secretion was observed in bcrp1-MDCKII cell layers, but in low-passage (BCRP-expressing) Caco-2 cell layers only a 54% fraction was Ko143-sensitive. Ciprofloxacin accumulation was lower in MRP4-HEK293 cells than in the parent line, indicating that ciprofloxacin is also a substrate for this transporter. Ciprofloxacin secretion by Caco-2 cell layers was not inhibited by MK571. Secretory flux showed marked regional variability in the rat intestine, increasing from the duodenum to peak in the ileum. Ciprofloxacin secretion was present in human jejunum and was reduced by Ko143 but showed marked interindividual variability. Ciprofloxacin is a substrate for human

  19. ABC transporters, CYP1A and GSTα gene transcription patterns in developing stages of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Castro, L Filipe C; Ferreira, Marta

    2012-09-15

    In fish, some ABC transporters are implicated in a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism to deal with the presence of xenobiotics, by effluxing them, or their metabolites, from inside the cells. These efflux transporters have been considered an integral part of cellular detoxification pathways, acting in coordination with phase I and II detoxification enzymes. However, the full characterization of this detoxification system is still incomplete, especially during the developmental stages of aquatic organisms, which are particularly sensitive periods to the presence of anthropogenic contamination. The goal of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression dynamics of putatively important MXR proteins (ABCB1b, ABCB11, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2a) and phase I (CYP1A) and II (GSTα) biotransformation enzymes, during the embryonic and larval developments of the specie Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). Our results showed that ABCB1b, ABCC1, CYP1A and GSTα transcripts are maternally transmitted. Transcripts for ABCB11, ABCC2 and ABCG2a were only detected after the pharyngula period, which precedes a highly sensitive stage in the embryonic development, the hatching. This study has shown, for the first time, very distinct expression patterns of genes encoding for proteins involved in protection mechanisms against pollutants during the development of Nile tilapia. Moreover, the temporal pattern of gene expression suggests that increased intrinsic protection levels are required at specific developmental stages.

  20. Indole-Induced Activities of β-Lactamase and Efflux Pump Confer Ampicillin Resistance in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jisun; Shin, Bora; Park, Chulwoo; Park, Woojun

    2017-01-01

    Indole, which is widespread in microbial communities, has received attention because of its effects on bacterial physiology. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can acquire ampicillin (Amp) resistance during growth on indole-Amp agar. Transcriptome, mutant, and inhibitor studies have suggested that Amp resistance induced by indole can be attributed to increased gene expression of ttgAB encoding two genes of RND-type multidrug efflux operons and an ampC encoding β-lactamase. Expression, enzyme activities, and mutational analyses indicated that AmpC β-lactamase is important for acquiring Amp resistance of P. putida in the presence of indole. Here, we show, for the first time, that volatile indole increased Amp-resistant cells. Consistent with results of the volatile indole assay, a low concentration of indole in liquid culture promoted growth initially, but led to mutagenesis after indole was depleted, which could not be observed at high indole concentrations. Interestingly, ttgAB and ampC gene expression levels correlate with the concentration of indole, which might explain the low number of Amp-mutated cells in high indole concentrations. The expression levels of genes involved in mutagenesis, namely rpoS, recA, and mutS, were also modulated by indole. Our data indicates that indole reduces Amp-induced heterogeneity by promoting expression of TtgABC or MexAB-OprM efflux pumps and the indole-induced β-lactamase in P. putida and P. aeruginosa. PMID:28352264

  1. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics. PMID:27681908

  2. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-02-16

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics.

  3. The Asp20-to-Asn Substitution in the Response Regulator AdeR Leads to Enhanced Efflux Activity of AdeB in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jennifer; Schneiders, Thamarai; Seifert, Harald; Higgins, Paul G

    2016-02-01

    Overexpression of the resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump AdeABC is often associated with multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and has been linked to mutations in the genes encoding the AdeRS two-component system. In a previous study, we reported that the Asp20→Asn amino acid substitution in the response regulator AdeR is associated with adeB overexpression and reduced susceptibility to the antimicrobials levofloxacin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. To further characterize the effect of the Asp20→Asn substitution on antimicrobial susceptibility, the expression of the efflux genes adeB, adeJ, and adeG, and substrate accumulation, four plasmid constructs [containing adeR(Asp20)S, adeR(Asn20)S, adeR(Asp20)SABC, and adeR(Asn20)SABC] were introduced into the adeRSABC-deficient A. baumannii isolate NIPH 60. Neither adeRS construct induced changes in antimicrobial susceptibility or substrate accumulation from that for the vector-only control. The adeR(Asp20)SABC transformant showed reduced susceptibility to 6 antimicrobials and accumulated 12% less ethidium than the control, whereas the Asn20 variant showed reduced susceptibility to 6 of 8 antimicrobial classes tested, and its ethidium accumulation was only 72% of that observed for the vector-only construct. adeB expression was 7-fold higher in the adeR(Asn20)SABC transformant than in its Asp20 variant. No changes in adeG or adeJ expression or in acriflavine or rhodamine 6G accumulation were detected. The antimicrobial susceptibility data suggest that AdeRS does not regulate any resistance determinants other than AdeABC. Furthermore, the characterization of the Asp20→Asn20 substitution proves that the reduced antimicrobial susceptibility previously associated with this substitution was indeed caused by enhanced efflux activity of AdeB.

  4. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  5. Enhanced brain accumulation of pazopanib by modulating P-gp and Bcrp1 mediated efflux with canertinib or erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Qin, Bin; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary objective of this investigation was to delineate the differential impact of efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) on brain disposition and plasma pharmacokinetics of pazopanib. In addition, this research investigated whether inhibition of these efflux transporters with clinically relevant efflux modulators canertinib or erlotinib could be a viable strategy for improving pazopanib brain delivery. In vitro assays with MDCKII cell monolayers suggested that pazopanib is a high affinity substrate for Bcrp1 and a moderate substrate for P-gp. Co-incubation with specific transport inhibitors restored cell accumulation and completely abolished the directionality of pazopanib flux. Brain and plasma pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in FVB wild type mice in the absence and presence of specific transport inhibitors. Drug levels in plasma and brain were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method using vandetanib as an internal standard. In vivo studies indicated that specific inhibition of either P-gp (by zosuquidar or LY335979) or Bcrp1 (by Ko143) alone did not significantly alter pazopanib brain accumulation. However, dual P-gp/Bcrp1 inhibition by elacridar (GF120918), significantly enhanced pazopanib brain penetration by ~5-fold without altering its plasma concentrations. Thus, even though Bcrp1 showed higher affinity towards pazopanib in vitro, in vivo at the mouse BBB both P-gp and Bcrp1 act in concert to limit brain accumulation of pazopanib. Furthermore, erlotinib and canertinib as clinically relevant efflux modulators efficiently abrogated directionality in pazopanib efflux in vitro and their co-administration resulted in 2–2.5-fold increase in pazopanib brain accumulation in vivo. Further pre-clinical and clinical investigations are warranted as erlotinib or canertinib may have a synergistic pharmacological effect in addition to their primary role of pazopanib

  6. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  7. Examination of the nature of the ABC effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Skorodko, T.

    2017-02-01

    Recently it has been shown by exclusive and kinematically complete experiments that the appearance of a narrow resonance structure in double-pionic fusion reactions is strictly correlated with the appearance of the so-called ABC effect, which denotes a pronounced low-mass enhancement in the ππ-invariant mass spectrum. Whereas the resonance structure got its explanation by the d* (2380) dibaryonic resonance, a satisfactory explanation for the ABC effect is still pending. In this paper we discuss possible explanations of the ABC effect and their consequences for the internal structure of the d* dibaryon. To this end we examine and review a variety of proposed explanations for the ABC effect, add a new hypothesis and confront all of them with the experimental results for the np → dπ0π0 and np → npπ0π0 reactions, which are the most challenging ones for this topic.

  8. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  9. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  10. Interactions of retinoids with the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tarapcsák, Szabolcs; Szalóki, Gábor; Telbisz, Ágnes; Gyöngy, Zsuzsanna; Matúz, Krisztina; Csősz, Éva; Nagy, Péter; Holb, Imre J.; Rühl, Ralph; Nagy, László; Szabó, Gábor; Goda, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Retinoids – derivatives of vitamin A – are important cell permeant signaling molecules that regulate gene expression through activation of nuclear receptors. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and ABCG2 are plasma membrane efflux transporters affecting the tissue distribution of numerous structurally unrelated lipophilic compounds. In the present work we aimed to study the interaction of the above ABC transporters with retinoid derivatives. We have found that 13-cis-retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl-acetate inhibited the Pgp and ABCG2 mediated substrate transport as well as the substrate stimulated ATPase activity of these transporters. Interestingly, 9-cis-retinoic acid and ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid), both are stereoisomers of 13-cis-retinoic acid, did not have any effect on the transporters’ activity. Our fluorescence anisotropy measurements revealed that 13-cis-retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl-acetate selectively increase the viscosity and packing density of the membrane. Thus, the mixed-type inhibition of both transporters by retinol and ABCG2 by 13-cis-retinoic acid may be the collective result of direct interactions of these retinoids with the substrate binding site(s) and of indirect interactions mediated by their membrane rigidifying effects. PMID:28145501

  11. Gemcitabine Conjugated Chitosan and Double Antibodies (Abc-GC-Gemcitabine Nanoparticles) Enhanced Cytoplasmic Uptake of Gemcitabine and Inhibit Proliferation and Metastasis In Human SW1990 Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is considered a chemoresistant neoplasm with extremely dismal prognosis and gemcitabine treatment is associated with many side effects and poor overall survival. The study aimed at developing a new nanobioconjugate, which specifically delivered gemcitabine and anti-EGFR antibody into pancreatic cancer cells. Material/Methods The novel nanodrug is based on chitosan platform, which is non-toxic, biocompatibility and biodegradable. We measured the effects of proliferation and metastasis on SW1990 by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and Transwell assay. The expression of related proteins were evaluated by Western blot. Results We synthesized Abc-GC-gemcitabine nanoparticles successfully with the encapsulation rate of nanobioconjugates was 91.63% and the drug loadings was 9.97%. Both GC-gemcitabine microspheres solution (GC group) and Abc-GC-gemcitabine microspheres solution (Abc group) inhibited cells proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in SW1990 cells dramatically. Moreover, Abc-GC-gemcitabine microspheres expressed more significant inhibited action than GC-gemcitabine microspheres efficiently Conclusions Our data suggested that Abc-GC-gemcitabine nanoparticles could have promising potential in treating metastasized and chemoresistant pancreatic cancer by enhancing the drug efficacy and minimizing off target effects. PMID:28366930

  12. Gemcitabine Conjugated Chitosan and Double Antibodies (Abc-GC-Gemcitabine Nanoparticles) Enhanced Cytoplasmic Uptake of Gemcitabine and Inhibit Proliferation and Metastasis In Human SW1990 Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Yu, Haibo

    2017-04-03

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic cancer is considered a chemoresistant neoplasm with extremely dismal prognosis and gemcitabine treatment is associated with many side effects and poor overall survival. The study aimed at developing a new nanobioconjugate, which specifically delivered gemcitabine and anti-EGFR antibody into pancreatic cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The novel nanodrug is based on chitosan platform, which is non-toxic, biocompatibility and biodegradable. We measured the effects of proliferation and metastasis on SW1990 by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and Transwell assay. The expression of related proteins were evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS We synthesized Abc-GC-gemcitabine nanoparticles successfully with the encapsulation rate of nanobioconjugates was 91.63% and the drug loadings was 9.97%. Both GC-gemcitabine microspheres solution (GC group) and Abc-GC-gemcitabine microspheres solution (Abc group) inhibited cells proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in SW1990 cells dramatically. Moreover, Abc-GC-gemcitabine microspheres expressed more significant inhibited action than GC-gemcitabine microspheres efficiently CONCLUSIONS Our data suggested that Abc-GC-gemcitabine nanoparticles could have promising potential in treating metastasized and chemoresistant pancreatic cancer by enhancing the drug efficacy and minimizing off target effects.

  13. Enhanced Corneal Absorption of Erythromycin by Modulating P-Glycoprotein and MRP Mediated Efflux with Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Sudharshan; Gunda, Sriram; Mishra, Gyan P.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives were (i) to test in vivo functional activity of MRP2 on rabbit corneal epithelium and (ii) to evaluate modulation of P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of erythromycin when co-administered with corticosteroids. Methods Cultured rabbit primary corneal epithelial cells (rPCECs) was employed as an in vitro model for rabbit cornea. Cellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies were conducted across Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing MDR1 and MRP2 proteins to delineate transporter specific interaction of steroids. Ocular pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rabbits following a single-dose infusion of erythromycin in the presence of specific inhibitors and steroids. Results Bi-directional transport of erythromycin across MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP2 cells showed significant difference between BL-AP and AP-BL permeability, suggesting that erythromycin is a substrate for P-gp and MRP2. Cellular accumulation of erythromycin in rPCEC was inhibited by steroids in a dose dependent manner. MK571, a specific MRP inhibitor, modulated the aqueous humor concentration of erythromycin in vivo. Even, steroids inhibited P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux with maximum increase in ka, AUC0−∞, Cmax and Clast values of erythromycin, observed with 6α-methyl prednisolone. Conclusion MRP2 is functionally active along with P-gp in effluxing drug molecules out of corneal epithelium. Steroids were able to significantly inhibit both P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of erythromycin. PMID:18958406

  14. ABC and IFC: Modules Detection Method for PPI Network

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiujuan; Tian, Jianfang

    2014-01-01

    Many clustering algorithms are unable to solve the clustering problem of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks effectively. A novel clustering model which combines the optimization mechanism of artificial bee colony (ABC) with the fuzzy membership matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed ABC-IFC clustering model contains two parts: searching for the optimum cluster centers using ABC mechanism and forming clusters using intuitionistic fuzzy clustering (IFC) method. Firstly, the cluster centers are set randomly and the initial clustering results are obtained by using fuzzy membership matrix. Then the cluster centers are updated through different functions of bees in ABC algorithm; then the clustering result is obtained through IFC method based on the new optimized cluster center. To illustrate its performance, the ABC-IFC method is compared with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering and IFC method. The experimental results on MIPS dataset show that the proposed ABC-IFC method not only gets improved in terms of several commonly used evaluation criteria such as precision, recall, and P value, but also obtains a better clustering result. PMID:24991575

  15. Phase transition in the ABC model.

    PubMed

    Clincy, M; Derrida, B; Evans, M R

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-beta/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero beta(c). The value of beta(c)=2pi square root 3 and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  16. Phase transition in the ABC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clincy, M.; Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-β/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero βc. The value of βc=2π(3) and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  17. Interaction of Ocular Hypotensive Agents (PGF2α Analogs—Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, and Travoprost) With MDR Efflux Pumps on the Rabbit Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ashim K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this work were (i) to screen ocular hypotensive prostaglandin (PGF2α) analogs—bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost as well as their free acid forms—for interaction with efflux pumps on the cornea and (ii) to assess the modulation of efflux upon co-administration of these prostaglandin analogs. Methods: Cultured rabbit primary corneal epithelial cells (rPCEC) were employed as an in vitro model for rabbit cornea. Transporter-specific interaction studies were carried out using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP5, and BCRP. Freshly excised rabbit cornea was used as an ex vivo model to determine transcorneal permeability. Results: Cellular accumulation studies clearly showed that all prostaglandin analogs and their free acid forms are substrates of MRP1, MRP2, and MRP5. Bimatoprost was the only prostaglandin analog in this study to interact with P-gp. In addition, none of these molecules showed any affinity for BCRP. Ki values of these prostaglandin analogs obtained from dose-dependent inhibition of erythromycin efflux in rPCEC showed bimatoprost (82.54 μM) and travoprost (94.77 μM) to have similar but higher affinity to efflux pumps than latanoprost (163.20 μM). Ex vivo studies showed that the permeation of these molecules across cornea was significantly elevated in the presence of specific efflux modulators. Finally, both in vitro and ex vivo experiments demonstrated that the efflux of these prostaglandin analogs could be modulated by co-administering them together. Conclusion: Bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, and their free acid forms are substrates of multiple drug efflux pumps on the cornea. Co-administration of these molecules together is a viable strategy to overcome efflux, which could simultaneously elicit a synergistic pharmacological effect, since these molecules have been shown to activate different receptor population for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). PMID

  18. Expression Patterns of ABC Transporter Genes in Fluconazole-Resistant Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Gohar, Atefeh Abdollahi; Badali, Hamid; Shokohi, Tahereh; Nabili, Mojtaba; Amirrajab, Nasrin; Moazeni, Maryam

    2017-04-01

    Clinical management of fungal diseases is compromised by the emergence of antifungal drug resistance in fungi, which leads to elimination of available drug classes as treatment options. An understanding of antifungal resistance at molecular level is, therefore, essential for the development of strategies to combat the resistance. This study presents the assessment of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida glabrata isolates originated from Iran. Taking seven distinct fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, real-time PCRs were performed to evaluate the alternations in the regulation of the genes involved in drug efflux including CgCDR1, CgCDR2, CgSNQ2, and CgERG11. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in CgPDR1 alleles were determined by DNA sequencing. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole was observed in 2.5 % of the isolates. In the present study, six amino acid substitutions were identified in CgPdr1, among which W297R, T588A, and F575L were previously reported, whereas D243N, H576Y, and P915R are novel. CgCDR1 overexpression was observed in 57.1 % of resistant isolates. However, CgCDR2 was not co-expressed with CgCDR1. CgSNQ2 was upregulated in 71.4 % of the cases. CgERG11 overexpression does not seem to be associated with azole resistance, except for isolates that exhibited azole cross-resistance. The pattern of efflux pump gene upregulation was associated with GOF mutations observed in CgPDR1. These results showed that drug efflux mediated by adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters, especially CgSNQ2 and CgCDR1, is the predominant mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Iranian isolates of C. glabrata. Since some novel GOF mutations were found here, this study also calls for research aimed at investigating other new GOF mutations to reveal the comprehensive understanding about efflux-mediated resistance to azole antifungal agents.

  19. The combination of db-cAMP and ChABC with poly(propylene carbonate) microfibers promote axonal regenerative sprouting and functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection injury.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tongliang; Huang, Bin; Ni, Shilei; Gao, Lei; Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Jian; Chen, Anjing; Zhu, Shaowei; Wang, Benlin; Li, Gang; Zhu, Shugan; Li, Xingang

    2017-02-01

    This study describes the use of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) electrospun microfibres impregnated with a combination of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in the treatment of right-side hemisected spinal cord injury (SCI). Release of db-cAMP and/or ChABC from the microfibres was assessed in vitro using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Drug-impregnated microfibres were implanted into the hemisected thoracic spinal cord of rats, and treatment was evaluated using functional recovery examinations and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that the microfibres containing db-cAMP and/or ChABC displayed a stable and prolonged release of each agent. Sustained delivery of db-cAMP and/or ChABC was found to promote axonal regenerative sprouting, functional recovery, and reduced glial scar formation when compared to untreated control animals. The combination of both db-cAMP and ChABC was determined to be more effective than using either drug alone in the treatment of SCI. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using PPC electrospun microfibres for multi-drug combination therapy in SCI.

  20. Multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria and their role in antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jessica M A; Richmond, Grace E; Piddock, Laura J V

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria express a plethora of efflux pumps that are capable of transporting structurally varied molecules, including antibiotics, out of the bacterial cell. This efflux lowers the intracellular antibiotic concentration, allowing bacteria to survive at higher antibiotic concentrations. Overexpression of some efflux pumps can cause clinically relevant levels of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. This review discusses the role of efflux in resistance of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, the regulatory mechanisms that control efflux pump expression, the recent advances in our understanding of efflux pump structure and how inhibition of efflux is a promising future strategy for tackling multidrug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens.

  1. Experimental investigation of charged liquid jet efflux from a capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhakin, A. I.; Belov, P. A.; Kuz'ko, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    The shapes and electrical characteristics of charged liquid (water, ethanol, glycerol, castor oil) jets emitted from a metal capillary have been experimentally studied depending on the applied high voltage. A map of efflux regimes in the flow velocity-applied voltage coordinates is constructed for water. The effects of medium viscosity, surface tension, and charge relaxation time on the laws of jet efflux are analyzed.

  2. 3D structure of AcrB: the archetypal multidrug efflux transporter of Escherichia coli likely captures substrates from periplasm.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Christopher A; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    Recent advances in structural biology have extended our understanding of the multiple drug efflux complex, AcrAB-TolC, of Escherichia coli. This tripartite complex and its homologs are the major mechanisms that give most Gram-negative bacteria their characteristic intrinsic resistance to a variety of lipophilic drugs, dyes, and detergents. Most recently, the structure of the transporter AcrB was elucidated at high resolution [Nature 419(2002)587]. It is a particularly significant achievement since integral membrane proteins are notoriously elusive structures for crystallography. The striking features of this trimeric pump, such as the presence of potential substrate-binding sites in the periplasmic domain and the possibility of direct interaction with the end of TolC tunnel, refine our understanding of the mode of action of this tripartite efflux transport complex.

  3. The decrease of paclitaxel efflux by pretreatment of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α after intracerebral microinjection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Young; Kang, Young-Sook

    2013-03-07

    Paclitaxel is highly efficacious in the treatment of patients suffering from a broad spectrum of neoplastic diseases. However, its efficacy against malignant glioma is very moderate. Paclitaxel is known to be a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), so this transporter may be due to insufficient access of paclitaxel to the brain. First, we investigated the brain-to-blood transport of paclitaxel across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using the brain efflux index method. [(3)H]Paclitaxel was eliminated from rat brain with an efflux transport rate of 1.87×10(-2)±0.16×10(-2)min(-1). The elimination of [(3)H]paclitaxel was inhibited by unlabeled paclitaxel and verapamil, suggesting a carrier-mediated transport process via P-gp. Furthermore, TNF-α and IFN-γ induced significant decrease of paclitaxel efflux 1 and 24h pre-treatment. These results suggest that P-gp efflux function at the BBB is reduced by TNF-α and IFN-γ. Therefore, the distribution of P-gp dependant drugs including paclitaxel in the central nervous system can be modulated by neurological diseases.

  4. MexEF-OprN efflux pump exports the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) precursor HHQ (4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline).

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Martin G; Déziel, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cells have evolved the capacity to communicate between each other via small diffusible chemical signals termed autoinducers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved, among others, in cystic fibrosis complications. Virulence of P. aeruginosa relies on its ability to produce a number of autoinducers, including 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQ). In a cell density-dependent manner, accumulated signals induce the expression of multiple targets, especially virulence factors. This phenomenon, called quorum sensing, promotes bacterial capacity to cause disease. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa possesses many multidrug efflux pumps conferring adaptive resistance to antibiotics. Activity of some of these efflux pumps also influences quorum sensing. The present study demonstrates that the MexEF-OprN efflux pump modulates quorum sensing through secretion of a signalling molecule belonging to the HAQ family. Moreover, activation of MexEF-OprN reduces virulence factor expression and swarming motility. Since MexEF-OprN can be activated in infected hosts even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure, it could promote establishment of chronic infections in the lungs of people suffering from cystic fibrosis, thus diminishing the immune response to virulence factors. Therapeutic drugs that affect multidrug efflux pumps and HAQ-mediated quorum sensing would be valuable tools to shut down bacterial virulence.

  5. Inhibition of ABC Transporters Abolishes Antimony Resistance in Leishmania Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Mookerjee Basu, Jayati; Mookerjee, Ananda; Banerjee, Rajdeep; Saha, Manik; Singh, Subhankar; Naskar, Ksudiram; Tripathy, Gayetri; Sinha, Prabhat K.; Pandey, Krishna; Sundar, Shyam; Bimal, Sanjeev; Das, Pradip K.; Choudhuri, Soumitra K.; Roy, Syamal

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of antimony (Sb) resistance has jeopardized the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in various countries. Previous studies have considered the part played by leishmanial parasites in antimony resistance, but the involvement of host factors in the clinical scenario remained to be investigated. Here we show that unlike infection with Sb-sensitive (Sbs) Leishmania donovani, infection with Sb-resistant (Sbr) L. donovani induces the upregulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) in host cells, resulting in a nonaccumulation of intracellular Sb following treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) favoring parasite replication. The inhibition of MRP1 and P-gp with resistance-modifying agents such as lovastatin allows Sb accumulation and parasite killing within macrophages and offers protection in an animal model in which infection with Sbr L. donovani is otherwise lethal. The occurrence of a similar scenario in clinical cases is supported by the findings that unlike monocytes from SAG-sensitive kala-azar (KA) patients, monocytes from SAG-unresponsive KA patients overexpress P-gp and MRP1 and fail to accumulate Sb following in vitro SAG treatment unless pretreated with inhibitors of ABC transporters. Thus, the expression status of MRP1 and P-gp in blood monocytes may be used as a diagnostic marker for Sb resistance and the treatment strategy can be designed accordingly. Our results also indicate that lovastatin, which can inhibit both P-gp and MRP1, might be beneficial for reverting Sb resistance in leishmaniasis as well as drug resistance in other clinical situations, including cancer. PMID:18056276

  6. Improved Potency of Indole-Based NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitors: From Serendipity toward Rational Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Federica; Lepri, Susan; Goracci, Laura; Schindler, Bryan D; Seo, Susan M; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2017-01-12

    The NorA efflux pump is a potential drug target for reversal of resistance to selected antibacterial agents, and recently we described indole-based inhibitor candidates. Herein we report a second class of inhibitors derived from them but with significant differences in shape and size. In particular, compounds 13 and 14 are very potent inhibitors in that they demonstrated the lowest IC50 values (2 μM) ever observed among all indole-based compounds we have evaluated.

  7. Significance of the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Kenji; Kuwano, Takashi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Tomohiko; Shiga, Yuhei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Miyase, Yuiko; Adachi, Sen; Nakamura, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux capacity is more useful than the lipid profile as a marker of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated the associations between the presence and the severity of CAD and both the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity and the lipid profile including the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The subjects consisted of 204 patients who were clinically suspected to have CAD and underwent CTA. We isolated HDL from plasma by ultracentrifugation and measured the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophage cells and calculated total cholesterol efflux capacity as follows: the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity/100× HDL-C levels. While the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity was not associated with the presence or the severity of CAD, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. In addition, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C, but not the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity, significantly decreased as the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis increased. Total cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity showed only weak association. In a logistic regression analysis, the presence of CAD was independently associated with total cholesterol efflux capacity, in addition to age and gender. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the areas under the curves for total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C were similar. In conclusion, the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using the fixed amount of isolated HDL was not associated with CAD. On the other hand, the calculated total

  8. Suppression of c-Myc and RRM2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells by the sphingosine kinase-2 inhibitor ABC294640

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Clayton S.; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina; Smith, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains extremely difficult to treat, with the average lifespan following diagnosis being only 3-6 months, resulting in a death to incidence ratio of 0.94. A major reason for this high mortality rate is resistance to the main chemotherapeutic agent used to treat this disease, gemcitabine. Alterations in nucleoside and gemcitabine metabolism, specifically over-expression of ribonucleotide reductase, have been implicated as a major mechanism of resistance to this drug. Here, we show that inhibition of sphingosine kinase-2 by the specific inhibitor ABC294640 is synergistically cytotoxic with gemcitabine toward three human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Treatment with ABC294640 results in decreased expression of both RRM2 and MYC in all three cell lines. Additionally, expression of c-Myc protein and phosphorylation of Rb at S780 both decrease in a dose-dependent manner in response to ABC294640, while acetylation of H3-K9 and p21 levels increase. Pretreatment with the protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor okadaic acid or the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 fails to prevent the effects of ABC294640 on Rb phosphorylation. These data indicate a role for sphingosine kinase-2 in E2F and c-Myc mediated transcription through alteration of histone acetylation and p21 expression. These effects of ABC294640 suggest that it may be an effective agent for pancreatic cancer, particularly in combination with gemcitabine. PMID:27517489

  9. Multixenobiotic resistance efflux activity in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2015-04-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance is a phenomenon in which ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family proteins transfer harmful compounds out of cells. Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus are model species in aquatic ecotoxicology, but the presence and activity of ABC proteins have not been well described in these species. The aim of this work was to study the presence, activity, and inhibition of ABC transport proteins in D. magna and L. variegatus. The presence of abcb1 and abcc transcripts in 8-9-day-old D. magna was investigated by qRT-PCR. The activity of MXR in D. magna and L. variegatus was explored by influx of the fluorescent ABC protein substrates rhodamine B and calcein-AM, with and without the model inhibitors verapamil (unspecific ABC inhibitor), reversin 205 (ABCB1 inhibitor) and MK571 (ABCC inhibitor). Juvenile D. magna possessed all examined abcb and abcc transcripts, but only reversin 205 inhibited MXR activity. The MXR activity in L. variegatus was inhibited by MK571, and to a lesser extent by verapamil, whereas reversin 205 seemed to stimulate the transport activity. Whereas calcein-AM worked better as an MXR substrate in D. magna, rhodamine B was a better substrate for L. variegatus MXR activity measurements. This is the first report on MXR activity in the order Lumbriculida, subclass Oligochaeta, and class Clitellata.

  10. Characterization of multidrug transporter-mediated efflux of avermectins in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Abigail M; Mistry, Pratibha; Wright, Jayne; Williams, Faith M; Brown, Colin D A

    2015-06-15

    ABC transporters play an important role in the disposition of avermectins in several animal species. In this study the interactions of three key avermectins, abamectin, emamectin and ivermectin, with human and mouse homologues of MDR1 (ABCB1/Abcb1a) and MRP (ABCC/Abcc), transporters endogenously expressed by human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. In both cell lines, retention of the fluorescent dye H33342 was found to be significantly increased in the presence of avermectins and cyclosporin A. These effects were shown to be unresponsive to the BCRP inhibitor Ko-143 and therefore MDR1/Mdr1-dependent. Avermectins inhibited MDR1/Mdr1a-mediated H33342 dye efflux, with apparent Ki values of 0.24±0.08 and 0.18±0.02μM (ivermectin); 0.60±0.07 and 0.56±0.02μM (emamectin) and 0.95±0.08 and 0.77±0.25μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were some apparent affinity differences for MDR1 and Mdr1a within each cell line (affinity for ivermectin>emamectin≥abamectin, P<0.05 by One-Way ANOVA), but importantly, the Ki values for individual avermectins for human MDR1 or mouse Mdr1a were not significantly different. MK571-sensitive retention of GSMF confirmed the expression of MRP/Mrp efflux transporters in both cell lines. Avermectins inhibited MRP/Mrp-mediated dye efflux with IC50 values of 1.58±0.51 and 1.94±0.72μM (ivermectin); 1.87±0.57 and 2.74±1.01μM (emamectin) and 2.25±0.01 and 1.68±0.63μM (abamectin) in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, respectively. There were no significant differences in IC50 values between individual avermectins or between human MRP and mouse Mrp. Kinetic data for endogenous human MDR1/MRP isoforms in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse Mdr1a/b/Mrp isoforms in N2a cells are comparable for the selected avermectins. All are effluxed at concentrations well above 0.05-0.1μM ivermectin detected in plasma (Ottesen and Campbell, 1994; Ottesen and Campbell, 1994) This is an important finding in the light of

  11. First evidence for the presence of efflux pump in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Stepić, Sandra; Hackenberger, Davorka K

    2012-01-01

    Efflux pumps are transport proteins involved in the extrusion of toxic substrates from cells to the external environment. Activities of efflux pumps have been found in many organisms, however such activity has not been evidenced in earthworms. Adult Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed to efflux modulators - verapamil (a known inhibitor of efflux pump protein) and dexamethasone (a known inducer of efflux activity) - and the amount of absorbed fluorescent dye rhodamine B was measured. The results showed that verapamil inhibited efflux activity and decreased removal of rhodamine B, whereas dexamethasone induced efflux activity and increased removal of rhodamine B. This is the first evidence of the presence of efflux pump in earthworm Eisenia andrei. Since earthworms are often used as test organisms due to their sensitive reactions towards environmental influences, the discovery of efflux pump activity can contribute to the better understanding of toxicity of certain pollutants.

  12. CpABC, a Cryptosporidium parvum ATP-binding cassette protein at the host–parasite boundary in intracellular stages

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Margaret E.; Riojas, Ynolde A.; Wu, Teresa W.; Le Blancq, Sylvie M.

    1999-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium parvum develops inside a vacuole at the apex of its epithelial host cell. The developing parasite is separated from the host cell cytoplasm by a zone of attachment that consists of an extensively folded membranous structure known as the feeder organelle. It has been proposed that the feeder organelle is the site of regulation of transport of nutrients and drugs into the parasite. In this report, we localize an ≈200-kDa integral membrane protein, CpABC, from Cryptosporidium parvum to the host–parasite boundary, possibly the feeder organelle. The predicted amino acid sequence of CpABC has significant structural similarity with the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator and the multidrug resistance protein subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins. This is an example of a parasite-encoded transport protein localized at the parasite–host interface of an intracellular protozoan. PMID:10318953

  13. Homology modeling, molecular dynamics, and virtual screening of NorA efflux pump inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Baki Vijaya; Babu, Tirumalasetty Muni Chandra; Reddy, Netala Vasudeva; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2016-01-01

    Emerging drug resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus might be implicated to the overexpression of NorA efflux pump which is capable of extruding numerous structurally diverse compounds. However, NorA efflux pump is considered as a potential drug target for the development of efflux pump inhibitors. In the present study, NorA model was constructed based on the crystal structure of glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (PDBID: 1PW4). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed using NAMD2.7 for NorA which is embedded in the hydrated lipid bilayer. Structural design of NorA unveils amino (N)- and carboxyl (C)-terminal domains which are connected by long cytoplasmic loop. N and C domains are composed of six transmembrane α-helices (TM) which exhibits pseudo-twofold symmetry and possess voluminous substrate binding cavity between TM helices. Molecular docking of reserpine, totarol, ferruginol, salvin, thioxanthene, phenothiazine, omeprazole, verapamil, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and acridine to NorA found that all the molecules were bound at the large hydrophobic cleft and indicated significant interactions with the key residues. In addition, structure-based virtual screening was employed which indicates that 14 potent novel lead molecules such as CID58685302, CID58685367, CID5799283, CID5578487, CID60028372, ZINC12196383, ZINC72140751, ZINC72137843, ZINC39227983, ZINC43742707, ZINC12196375, ZINC66166948, ZINC39228014, and ZINC14616160 have highest binding affinity for NorA. These lead molecules displayed considerable pharmacological properties as evidenced by Lipinski rule of five and prophecy of toxicity risk assessment. Thus, the present study will be helpful in designing and synthesis of a novel class of NorA efflux pump inhibitors that restore the susceptibilities of drug compounds. PMID:27757014

  14. A Silent ABC Transporter Isolated from Streptomyces rochei F20 Induces Multidrug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Carbó, Lázaro; Cuesta, Trinidad; Vallín, Carlos; Malpartida, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    In the search for heterologous activators for actinorhodin production in Streptomyces lividans, 3.4 kb of DNA from Streptomyces rochei F20 (a streptothricin producer) were characterized. Subcloning experiments showed that the minimal DNA fragment required for activation was 0.4 kb in size. The activation is mediated by increasing the levels of transcription of the actII-ORF4 gene. Sequencing of the minimal activating fragment did not reveal any clues about its mechanism; nevertheless, it was shown to overlap the 3′ end of two convergent genes, one of whose translated products (ORF2) strongly resembles that of other genes belonging to the ABC transporter superfamily. Computer-assisted analysis of the 3.4-kb DNA sequence showed the 3′ terminus of an open reading frame (ORF), i.e., ORFA, and three complete ORFs (ORF1, ORF2, and ORFB). Searches in the databases with their respective gene products revealed similarities for ORF1 and ORF2 with ATP-binding proteins and transmembrane proteins, respectively, which are found in members of the ABC transporter superfamily. No similarities for ORFA and ORFB were found in the databases. Insertional inactivation of ORF1 and ORF2, their transcription analysis, and their cloning in heterologous hosts suggested that these genes were not expressed under our experimental conditions; however, cloning of ORF1 and ORF2 together (but not separately) under the control of an expressing promoter induced resistance to several chemically different drugs: oleandomycin, erythromycin, spiramycin, doxorubicin, and tetracycline. Thus, this genetic system, named msr, is a new bacterial multidrug ABC transporter. PMID:9696745

  15. A silent ABC transporter isolated from Streptomyces rochei F20 induces multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, M A; Carbó, L; Cuesta, T; Vallín, C; Malpartida, F

    1998-08-01

    In the search for heterologous activators for actinorhodin production in Streptomyces lividans, 3.4 kb of DNA from Streptomyces rochei F20 (a streptothricin producer) were characterized. Subcloning experiments showed that the minimal DNA fragment required for activation was 0.4 kb in size. The activation is mediated by increasing the levels of transcription of the actII-ORF4 gene. Sequencing of the minimal activating fragment did not reveal any clues about its mechanism; nevertheless, it was shown to overlap the 3' end of two convergent genes, one of whose translated products (ORF2) strongly resembles that of other genes belonging to the ABC transporter superfamily. Computer-assisted analysis of the 3.4-kb DNA sequence showed the 3' terminus of an open reading frame (ORF), i.e., ORFA, and three complete ORFs (ORF1, ORF2, and ORFB). Searches in the databases with their respective gene products revealed similarities for ORF1 and ORF2 with ATP-binding proteins and transmembrane proteins, respectively, which are found in members of the ABC transporter superfamily. No similarities for ORFA and ORFB were found in the databases. Insertional inactivation of ORF1 and ORF2, their transcription analysis, and their cloning in heterologous hosts suggested that these genes were not expressed under our experimental conditions; however, cloning of ORF1 and ORF2 together (but not separately) under the control of an expressing promoter induced resistance to several chemically different drugs: oleandomycin, erythromycin, spiramycin, doxorubicin, and tetracycline. Thus, this genetic system, named msr, is a new bacterial multidrug ABC transporter.

  16. Co-administration of glycyrrhizic acid with the antileishmanial drug sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) cures SAG-resistant visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar; Roy, Syamal; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Since there are very few affordable antileishmanial drugs available, antimonial resistance has crippled antileishmanial therapy, thereby emphasising the need for development of novel therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the antileishmanial role of combined therapy with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and the triterpenoid glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania (GE1F8R). Combination therapy with GA and SAG successfully limited infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania in a synergistic manner (fractional inhibitory concentration index <1.0). At the same time, mice infected with SAG-resistant Leishmania and co-treated with GA and SAG exhibited a significant reduction in hepatic and splenic parasite burden. In probing the mechanism, it was observed that GA treatment suppressed the expression and efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), two host ABC transporters responsible for antimony efflux from host cells infected with SAG-resistant parasites. This suppression correlated with greater intracellular antimony retention during SAG therapy both in vitro and in vivo, which was reflected in the reduced parasite load. Furthermore, co-administration of GA and SAG induced a shift in the cytokine balance towards a Th1 phenotype by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) and inducing nitric oxide generation in GE1F8R-infected macrophages as well as GE1F8R-infected mice. This study aims to provide an affordable leishmanicidal alternative to expensive antileishmanial drugs such as miltefosine and amphotericin B. Furthermore, this report explores the role of GA as a resistance modulator in MRP1- and P-gp-overexpressing conditions.

  17. Calcium induces tobramycin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by regulating RND efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Sharmily; Guragain, Manita; Lenaburg, Dirk L; Kubat, Ryan; Patrauchan, Marianna A

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic multidrug resistant pathogen causing severe chronic infections. Our previous studies showed that elevated calcium (Ca(2+)) enhances production of several virulence factors and plant infectivity of the pathogen. Here we show that Ca(2+) increases resistance of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to tobramycin, antibiotic commonly used to treat Pseudomonas infections. LC-MS/MS-based comparative analysis of the membrane proteomes of P aeruginosa grown at elevated versus not added Ca(2+), determined that the abundances of two RND (resistance-nodulation-cell division) efflux pumps, MexAB-OprM and MexVW-OprM, were increased in the presence of elevated Ca(2+). Analysis of twelve transposon mutants with disrupted RND efflux pumps showed that six of them (mexB, muxC, mexY, mexJ, czcB, and mexE) contribute to Ca(2+)-induced tobramycin resistance. Transcriptional analyses by promoter activity and RT-qPCR showed that the expression of mexAB, muxABC, mexXY, mexJK, czcCBA, and mexVW is increased by elevated Ca(2+). Disruption of mexJ, mexC, mexI, and triA significantly decreased Ca(2+)-induced plant infectivity of the pathogen. Earlier, our group showed that PAO1 maintains intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)in) homeostasis, which mediates Ca(2+) regulation of P. aeruginosa virulence, and identified four putative Ca(2+) transporters involved in this process (Guragain et al., 2013). Here we show that three of these transporters (PA2435, PA2092, PA4614) play role in Ca(2+)-induced tobramycin resistance and one of them (PA2435) contributes to Ca(2+) regulation of mexAB-oprM promoter activity. Furthermore, mexJ, czcB, and mexE contribute to the maintenance of Ca(2+)in homeostasis. This provides the first evidence that Ca(2+)in homeostasis mediates Ca(2+) regulation of RND transport systems, which contribute to Ca(2+)-enhanced tobramycin resistance and plant infectivity in P. aeruginosa.

  18. Rapid efflux of Ca2+ from heart mitochondria in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Vercesi, A; Lehninger, A L

    1984-01-13

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the intracellular concentration range causes rapid efflux of Ca2+ from rat heart mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate + malate in a low Na+ medium. Half-maximal rates of Ca2+ efflux were given by 20 microM PPi. During and after PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux the mitochondria retain their structural integrity and complete respiratory control. Carboxyatractyloside inhibits PPi-stimulated Ca2+ efflux, indicating PPi must enter the matrix in order to promote Ca2+ efflux. Heart mitochondria have a much higher affinity for PPi uptake and PPi-induced Ca2+ efflux than liver mitochondria.

  19. RND multidrug efflux pumps: what are they good for?

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Olivares, Jorge; Martínez, José L

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps are chromosomally encoded genetic elements capable of mediating resistance to toxic compounds in several life forms. In bacteria, these elements are involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics. Unlike other well-known horizontally acquired antibiotic resistance determinants, genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps belong to the core of bacterial genomes and thus have evolved over millions of years. The selective pressure stemming from the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections is relatively recent in evolutionary terms. Therefore, it is unlikely that these elements have evolved in response to antibiotics. In the last years, several studies have identified numerous functions for efflux pumps that go beyond antibiotic extrusion. In this review we present some examples of these functions that range from bacterial interactions with plant or animal hosts, to the detoxification of metabolic intermediates or the maintenance of cellular homeostasis.

  20. RND multidrug efflux pumps: what are they good for?

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Olivares, Jorge; Martínez, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps are chromosomally encoded genetic elements capable of mediating resistance to toxic compounds in several life forms. In bacteria, these elements are involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics. Unlike other well-known horizontally acquired antibiotic resistance determinants, genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps belong to the core of bacterial genomes and thus have evolved over millions of years. The selective pressure stemming f