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Sample records for abc islands brown

  1. Estimates of brown bear abundance on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.G.; Smith, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    During 1987-94 we used capture-mark-resight (CMR) methodology and rates of observation (bears/hour and bears/100 km2) of unmarked brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) during intensive aerial surveys (IAS) to estimate abundance of brown bears on Kodiak Island and to establish a baseline for monitoring population trends. CMR estimates were obtained on 3 study areas; density ranged from 216-234 bears/1,000 km2 for independent animals and 292-342 bears/1,000 km2 including dependent offspring. Rates of observation during IAS ranged from 1.4-5.4 independent bears/hour and 2.9-18.0 independent bears/100 km2. Density estimates for independent bears on each IAS area were obtained by dividing mean number of bears observed during replicate surveys by estimated sightability (based on CMR-derived sightability in areas with similar habitat. Brown bear abundance on 21 geographic units of Kodiak Island and 3 nearby islands was estimated by extrapolation from CMR and IAS data using comparisons of habitat characteristics and sport harvest information. Population estimates for independent and total bears were 1,800 and 2,600. The CMR and IAS procedures offer alternative means, depending on management objective and available resources, of measuring population trend of brown bears on Kodiak Island.

  2. The ABCs of Eye Color in Tribolium castaneum: Orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W.; Lorenzen, Marcé D.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed whiteivory (wi) and scarletpearl (stp), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings. PMID:25555987

  3. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.

  4. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings. PMID:25555987

  5. A Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity island encoding an ABC transporter involved in iron uptake and virulence.

    PubMed

    Brown, J S; Gilliland, S M; Holden, D W

    2001-05-01

    Restricted iron availability is a major obstacle to growth and survival of pathogenic bacteria during infection. In contrast to Gram-negative pathogens, little is known about how Gram-positive pathogens obtain this essential metal. We have identified two Streptococcus pneumoniae genetic loci, pit1 and pit2, encoding homologues of ABC iron transporters that are required for iron uptake by this organism. S. pneumoniae strains containing disrupted copies of either pit1 or pit2 had decreased sensitivity to the iron-dependent antibiotic streptonigrin, and a strain containing disrupted copies of both pit1 and pit2 was unable to use haemoglobin as an iron source and had a reduced rate of iron uptake. The pit2- strain was moderately and the pit1-/pit2- strain strongly attenuated in virulence in mouse models of pulmonary and systemic infection, showing that the pit loci play a critical role during in vivo growth of S. pneumoniae. The pit2 locus is contained within a 27 kb region of chromosomal DNA that has several features of Gram-negative bacterial pathogenicity islands. This probable pathogenicity island (PPI-1) is the first to be described for S. pneumoniae, and its acquisition is likely to have played a significant role in the evolution of this important human pathogen.

  6. Genomic Evidence for Island Population Conversion Resolves Conflicting Theories of Polar Bear Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, James A.; Green, Richard E.; Fulton, Tara L.; Stiller, Mathias; Jay, Flora; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Salamzade, Rauf; St. John, John; Stirling, Ian; Slatkin, Montgomery; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (U. arctos) remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus), plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed <1% of the autosomal genome of the ABC Islands brown bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize. PMID:23516372

  7. Genomic evidence for island population conversion resolves conflicting theories of polar bear evolution.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James A; Green, Richard E; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Jay, Flora; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Salamzade, Rauf; St John, John; Stirling, Ian; Slatkin, Montgomery; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis, the evolutionary relationship between polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (U. arctos) remains unclear. The two most recent comprehensive reports indicate a recent divergence with little subsequent admixture or a much more ancient divergence followed by extensive admixture. At the center of this controversy are the Alaskan ABC Islands brown bears that show evidence of shared ancestry with polar bears. We present an analysis of genome-wide sequence data for seven polar bears, one ABC Islands brown bear, one mainland Alaskan brown bear, and a black bear (U. americanus), plus recently published datasets from other bears. Surprisingly, we find clear evidence for gene flow from polar bears into ABC Islands brown bears but no evidence of gene flow from brown bears into polar bears. Importantly, while polar bears contributed <1% of the autosomal genome of the ABC Islands brown bear, they contributed 6.5% of the X chromosome. The magnitude of sex-biased polar bear ancestry and the clear direction of gene flow suggest a model wherein the enigmatic ABC Island brown bears are the descendants of a polar bear population that was gradually converted into brown bears via male-dominated brown bear admixture. We present a model that reconciles heretofore conflicting genetic observations. We posit that the enigmatic ABC Islands brown bears derive from a population of polar bears likely stranded by the receding ice at the end of the last glacial period. Since then, male brown bear migration onto the island has gradually converted these bears into an admixed population whose phenotype and genotype are principally brown bear, except at mtDNA and X-linked loci. This process of genome erosion and conversion may be a common outcome when climate change or other forces cause a population to become isolated and then overrun by species with which it can hybridize.

  8. Deepwater marine litter densities and composition from submersible video-transects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Debrot, A O; Vinke, E; van der Wende, G; Hylkema, A; Reed, J K

    2014-11-15

    Baseline data on anthropogenic seafloor debris contamination in the year 2000 is provided for 24 submersible video transects at depths of 80-900 m, off the Dutch ABC-islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. In total, 202 objects were documented from a combined 21,184 m of transect, ranging from sandy lower island-slope to rocky upper island-slope habitat. Debris densities differed significantly with depth. Highest debris accumulation (0.459 items 100 m(-2) or 4590 items per km(2)) occurred at depths of 300-600 m on more shallow-sloping (20-30°) sand and silt bottoms. The overall average debris density was 0.27 objects per 100 m(2) (or 2700 items per km(2)), which is an order of magnitude higher than most other deepwater debris studies. What we describe may be representative for other small, populated, steep volcanic Caribbean islands. Food and beverage-related items were the single largest usage category identified (44% of objects; mostly glass beverage bottles).

  9. Deepwater marine litter densities and composition from submersible video-transects around the ABC-islands, Dutch Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Debrot, A O; Vinke, E; van der Wende, G; Hylkema, A; Reed, J K

    2014-11-15

    Baseline data on anthropogenic seafloor debris contamination in the year 2000 is provided for 24 submersible video transects at depths of 80-900 m, off the Dutch ABC-islands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. In total, 202 objects were documented from a combined 21,184 m of transect, ranging from sandy lower island-slope to rocky upper island-slope habitat. Debris densities differed significantly with depth. Highest debris accumulation (0.459 items 100 m(-2) or 4590 items per km(2)) occurred at depths of 300-600 m on more shallow-sloping (20-30°) sand and silt bottoms. The overall average debris density was 0.27 objects per 100 m(2) (or 2700 items per km(2)), which is an order of magnitude higher than most other deepwater debris studies. What we describe may be representative for other small, populated, steep volcanic Caribbean islands. Food and beverage-related items were the single largest usage category identified (44% of objects; mostly glass beverage bottles). PMID:25176276

  10. Cub adoption by brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    We report three cases where female Brown Bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) with new (1 winter season. The adoptions occurred in a sampling of 104 litters produced by 89 different females on Kodiak Island, Alaska during 1982-1990. A maximum of six cubs were reared from litters that probably would have produced 3-4 subadults if the adoptions had not taken place.

  11. Discovery of a Brown Dwarf Companion to Gliese 570ABC: A 2MASS T Dwarf Significantly Cooler than Gliese 229B.

    PubMed

    Burgasser; Kirkpatrick; Cutri; McCallon; Kopan; Gizis; Liebert; Reid; Brown; Monet; Dahn; Beichman; Skrutskie

    2000-03-01

    We report the discovery of a widely separated (258&farcs;3+/-0&farcs;4) T dwarf companion to the Gl 570ABC system. This new component, Gl 570D, was initially identified from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey. Its near-infrared spectrum shows the 1.6 and 2.2 µm CH4 absorption bands characteristic of T dwarfs, while its common proper motion with the Gl 570ABC system confirms companionship. Gl 570D (MJ=16.47+/-0.07) is nearly a full magnitude dimmer than the only other known T dwarf companion, Gl 229B, and estimates of L=&parl0;2.8+/-0.3&parr0;x10-6 L middle dot in circle and Teff=750+/-50 K make it significantly cooler and less luminous than any other known brown dwarf companion. Using evolutionary models by Burrows et al. and an adopted age of 2-10 Gyr, we derive a mass estimate of 50+/-20 MJup for this object.

  12. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  13. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  14. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction.

  15. Origin of Japanese White-Eyes and Brown-Eared Bulbuls on the Volcano Islands.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Norimasa; Kawakami, Kazuto; Nishiumi, Isao

    2016-04-01

    The Ogasawara Archipelago comprises two groups of oceanic islands: the Bonin Islands, formed in the Paleogene, and the Volcano Islands, formed in the Quaternary. These groups are located within a moderate distance (ca. 160-270 km) of one another; thus, most land bird species are not distinguished as different subspecies. Two land birds, however, show unusual distribution. The Japanese white-eyes Zosterops japonicus originally inhabited only the Volcano Islands, but has been introduced to the Bonin Islands. The brown-eared bulbuls Hypsipetes amaurotis are distributed as a different subspecies. We investigated their genetic differences and divergences in the Ogasawara Archipelago using mitochondria DNA. The Volcano population of white-eyes had four endemic haplotypes that were divergent from one another, except for the Bonin population, which shared three haplotypes with the Volcano, Izu, and Ryukyu Islands and did not have any endemic haplotype. This is the first genetic suggestion that the Bonin population is a hybrid of introduced populations. With respect to bulbuls, the Volcano and Bonin Islands each had a single endemic haplotype. The Volcano haplotype is closest to a haplotype shared with Izu, the Japanese mainland, Daito and Ryukyu, whereas the Bonin haplotype is closest to one endemic to the south Ryukyu Islands. This indicates that the sources of the two bulbul populations can be geologically and temporally distinguished. The populations of the two species in the Ogasawara Archipelago are irreplaceable, owing to their genetic differences and should be regarded as evolutionarily significant units. In order to prevent introgression between the two populations, we must restrict interisland transfers.

  16. Origin of Japanese White-Eyes and Brown-Eared Bulbuls on the Volcano Islands.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Norimasa; Kawakami, Kazuto; Nishiumi, Isao

    2016-04-01

    The Ogasawara Archipelago comprises two groups of oceanic islands: the Bonin Islands, formed in the Paleogene, and the Volcano Islands, formed in the Quaternary. These groups are located within a moderate distance (ca. 160-270 km) of one another; thus, most land bird species are not distinguished as different subspecies. Two land birds, however, show unusual distribution. The Japanese white-eyes Zosterops japonicus originally inhabited only the Volcano Islands, but has been introduced to the Bonin Islands. The brown-eared bulbuls Hypsipetes amaurotis are distributed as a different subspecies. We investigated their genetic differences and divergences in the Ogasawara Archipelago using mitochondria DNA. The Volcano population of white-eyes had four endemic haplotypes that were divergent from one another, except for the Bonin population, which shared three haplotypes with the Volcano, Izu, and Ryukyu Islands and did not have any endemic haplotype. This is the first genetic suggestion that the Bonin population is a hybrid of introduced populations. With respect to bulbuls, the Volcano and Bonin Islands each had a single endemic haplotype. The Volcano haplotype is closest to a haplotype shared with Izu, the Japanese mainland, Daito and Ryukyu, whereas the Bonin haplotype is closest to one endemic to the south Ryukyu Islands. This indicates that the sources of the two bulbul populations can be geologically and temporally distinguished. The populations of the two species in the Ogasawara Archipelago are irreplaceable, owing to their genetic differences and should be regarded as evolutionarily significant units. In order to prevent introgression between the two populations, we must restrict interisland transfers. PMID:27032679

  17. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yangrong; Chen, Mulong; Bi, Xiangyang; He, Yusheng; Ren, Limin; Xiang, Wu; Qiao, Shengying; Yan, Sen; Li, Zhonggen; Ma, Zhendong

    2011-07-01

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As(i) in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. PMID:21549462

  18. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  19. Tidal wetland fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and sediment at Browns Island, California: initial evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Bergamaschi, B.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon and sediment fluxes from tidal wetlands are of increasing concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta), because of drinking water issues and habitat restoration efforts. Certain forms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) react with disinfecting chemicals used to treat drinking water, to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are potential carcinogens. The contribution of DBP precursors by tidal wetlands is unknown. Sediment transport to and from tidal wetlands determines the potential for marsh accretion, thereby affecting habitat formation.Water, carbon, and sediment flux were measured in the main channel of Browns Island, a tidal wetland located at the confluence of Suisun Bay and the Delta. In-situ instrumentation were deployed between May 3 and May 21, 2002. Water flux was measured using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the index-velocity method. DOC concentrations were measured using calibrated ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence instruments. Suspended-sediment concentrations were measured using a calibrated nephelometric turbidity sensor. Tidally averaged water flux through the channel was dependent on water surface elevations in Suisun Bay. Strong westerly winds resulted in higher water surface elevations in the area east of Browns Island, causing seaward flow, while subsiding winds reversed this effect. Peak ebb flow transported 36% more water than peak flood flow, indicating an ebb-dominant system. DOC concentrations were affected strongly by porewater drainage from the banks of the channel. Peak DOC concentrations were observed during slack after ebb, when the most porewater drained into the channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations were controlled by tidal currents that mobilized sediment from the channel bed, and stronger tides mobilized more sediment than the weaker tides. Sediment was transported mainly to the island during the 2-week monitoring period, though short periods of export occurred during the spring

  20. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  2. Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows.

  3. Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows. PMID:26336266

  4. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  5. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach.

  6. The Economic Impact of Brown University on the City of Providence and on the State of Rhode Island. [1979-80].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnany, Gina S.

    The impact of Brown University on the economic base of Providence, Rhode Island and on the state was studied. Data are based on 1978 university and public records and results of a 1976 university survey, adjusted by Consumer Price Indexes. A set of mathematical models was used to measure effects of the university on three major sections of the…

  7. Gene flow between insular, coastal and interior populations of brown bears in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Paetkau, D; Shields, G F; Strobeck, C

    1998-10-01

    The brown bears of coastal Alaska have been recently regarded as comprising from one to three distinct genetic groups. We sampled brown bears from each of the regions for which hypotheses of genetic uniqueness have been made, including the bears of the Kodiak Archipelago and the bears of Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands in southeast Alaska. These samples were analysed with a suite of nuclear microsatellite markers. The 'big brown bears' of coastal Alaska were found to be part of the continuous continental distribution of brown bears, and not genetically isolated from the physically smaller 'grizzly bears' of the interior. By contrast, Kodiak brown bears appear to have experienced little or no genetic exchange with continental populations in recent generations. The bears of the ABC Islands, which have previously been shown to undergo little or no female-mediated gene flow with mainland populations, were found not to be genetically isolated from mainland bears. The data from the four insular populations indicate that female and male dispersal can be reduced or eliminated by water barriers of 2-4 km and 7 km in width, respectively.

  8. The brown tree snake, an introduced pest species in the central Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    The reproduction of endangered Mariana crows (Corvus kubaryi) is intensively monitored, nests are protected, and (when necessary) eggs or young are moved to the safety of lab conditions until they are less vulnerable to the threats in natural habitats. Barriers on tree trunks and judicious pruning of adjacent trees are used in attempts to exclude snakes from nest trees. Two birds unique to Guam--the Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) and Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni)-- are maintained at captive propagation facilities on Guam and in mainland zoos. Studies of these and other species, in captivity and on nearby islands, are underway to bolster our biological understanding of their behavior, reproduction, habitat use, and population biology.

  9. Protective effect of a DNA vaccine containing an open reading frame with homology to an ABC-type transporter present in the genomic island 3 of Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Acuña, Francisca; Riquelme, Pablo; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Oñate, Angel

    2013-08-12

    The immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine containing an open reading frame (ORF) of genomic island 3 (GI-3), specific for Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, has been examined. Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA carrying the open reading frame with homology to an ABC-type transporter (pV278a) into BALB/c mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. Mice injected with pV278a had a dominant immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) response. This DNA vaccine elicited a T-cell-proliferative response and induced significant levels of interferon gamma (INF-γ) upon restimulation with recombinant 278a protein. Upon stimulation with an appropriate recombinant protein or crude Brucella protein, the vaccine did not induce IL-4, suggesting a typical T-helper (TH1) response. Furthermore, the vaccine induced protection in BALB/c mice when challenged with the virulent strain Brucella abortus 2308. Taken together, these data suggest that DNA vaccination offers an improved delivery of the homologous of an ABC-type transporter antigen, and provides the first evidence of a protective effect of this antigen in the construction of vaccines against B. abortus.

  10. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

  11. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1997-08-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific. PMID:9267418

  12. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  13. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Han, Lei; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  14. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-05-02

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

  15. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? Some children with Brown syndrome have poor binocular ... In the congenital form of Brown syndrome, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  16. ABC's of Being Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  17. Aerosol Comparisons Between Observations and Models: AeroCom and ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Kinne, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    I will represent the AeroCom community to the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) workshop. I will summarize the activities and results from AeroCom Phase I activities in the past 8 years and introduce the new results and activities in the current AeroCom Phase II. We hope to coordinate some activities with the ABC community to share model output and data access for model evaluations, comparisons, and assessment.

  18. Structural diversity of ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    ter Beek, Josy; Guskov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large superfamily of ATP-dependent protein complexes that mediate transport of a vast array of substrates across membranes. The 14 currently available structures of ABC transporters have greatly advanced insight into the transport mechanism and revealed a tremendous structural diversity. Whereas the domains that hydrolyze ATP are structurally related in all ABC transporters, the membrane-embedded domains, where the substrates are translocated, adopt four different unrelated folds. Here, we review the structural characteristics of ABC transporters and discuss the implications of this structural diversity for mechanistic diversity. PMID:24638992

  19. Do You Know Your ABC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Within primary schools, the core subjects of literacy and numeracy are highly regarded, and rightly so, as children need to learn to read, write and be numerically literate. This means that all children learn their ABCs at an early age, But, what about the "other ABC"--"Airway, Breathing and Circulation?" Accidents and medical…

  20. ABC Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-14

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: `Provide a weapon`s grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon`s grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.` This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments.

  1. The ABCs of Sex Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Cites statistics on extent of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies among adolescents; describes ideological dispute over how to teach sex education; advocates teaching the ABCs of sex education: Abstinence, Be Monogamous, and Condoms. (PKP)

  2. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms.

  3. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. PMID:24667925

  4. Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) was accidentally introduced to Guam in the late 1940s or early 1950s, probably from the Solomon Islands. A native of Australia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands, the brown treesnake (BTS) continues to threaten the economy and ecology of Guam and is c...

  5. Brown's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Eustis, H S; Parks, M M

    1989-01-01

    Brown's syndrome is a well-recognized clinical disorder of ocular motility manifesting most notably a restriction of active and passive elevation in adduction. The original name, "superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome," is no longer appropriate, since it has been shown that the tissue surrounding the anterior superior oblique tendon is blameless as a restrictive force. "True" and "simulated" as descriptive modifiers should also be discarded, as they relate to the disproven sheath concept. Brown's syndrome occurs as a congenital or acquired, constant or intermittent condition; the common link is restriction of free movement through the trochlea pulley mechanism. The various etiologic theories are reviewed and the spectrum of medical and surgical treatments are described and evaluated. Evidence suggests that subtypes of Brown's syndrome lie on a single continuum and that spontaneous resolution occurs in each group, probably more often than previously recognized. A simplified classification scheme is encouraged and possible future directions in Brown's syndrome research are introduced.

  6. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  7. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh Beltline. This system won…

  8. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R.; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D.; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M.; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-01-01

    ABC transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) technology to map the protein interactome of all non-mitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomy cescerevisiae, and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated interactome. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in a surprisingly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters. PMID:23831759

  9. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. PMID:26524502

  10. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences.

  11. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences. PMID:26026577

  12. Brown recluse spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin- ...

  13. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. PMID:22807026

  14. River islands, refugia and genetic structuring in the endemic brown frog Rana kukunoris (Anura, Ranidae) of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yan, Fang; Fu, Jinzhong; Wu, Shifang; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, Pleistocene climatic cycling has been found to be the diver of genetic structuring in populations, even in areas that did not have continental ice sheets, such as on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Typically, species distributed on the plateau have been hypothesized to re-treat to south-eastern refugia, especially during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We evaluated sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA gene Cytb and the nuclear DNA gene RAG-1 in Rana kukunoris, a species endemic to the QTP. Two major lineages, N and S, were identified, and lineage N was further subdivided into N1 and N2. The geographical distribution and genealogical divergences supported the hypothesis of multiple refugia. However, major lineages and sublineages diverged prior to the LGM. Demographical expansion was detected only in lineage S and sublineage N2. Sublineage N1 might have survived several glacial cycles in situ and did not expand after the LGM because of the absence of suitable habitat; it survived in river islands. Genetic analysis and environment modelling suggested that the north-eastern edge of QTP contained a major refugium for R. kukunoris. From here, lineage S dispersed southwards after the LGM. Two microrefugia in northern Qilian Mountains greatly contributed to current level of intraspecific genetic diversity. These results were found to have important implications for the habitat conservation in Northwest China.

  15. Small-scale spatial and temporal reproductive variability of the brown macroalga Sargassum thunbergii in contrasting habitats: A study on the island of Xiaoheishan, Changdao Archipelago, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Quansheng; Lu, Zhicheng; Tang, Yongzheng; Zhang, Shubao; Chu, Shaohua

    2012-10-01

    A study of the reproductive pattern of Sargassum thunbergii, which is distributed widely around the island of Xiaoheishan (Changdao Archipelago, China), shows that it exhibits a flexibility to adapt to contrasting habitats. Populations of S. thunbergii from two depths at nine field sites exposed to increasing degrees of wave action were studied to determine their spatio-temporal variations in reproductive pattern. The start of the reproductive period was significantly delayed with increasing geographical latitude but independent of depth and wave exposure, and seawater temperature was found to be a significant controlling factor for maturation. In contrast with reproductive onset, two-way ANCOVA showed that there were significant effects of both depth and wave exposure on the peak and end point of the reproductive period. The latter were significantly delayed in the semi-exposed deep-water habitats compared to sheltered shallow-water habitats. The shortest duration of the reproductive period was recorded in the wave-exposed shallow-water habitats, while the longest duration was in the semi-exposed deep-water habitats. In addition, reproductive allocation (RA) in the studied populations showed a similar and significant temporal variation during reproduction, and RA increased as time progressed, followed by a rapid decrease in late summer. Wave exposure as well as depth also influenced significantly the RA whereby thalli from exposed and semi-exposed deep-water habitats allocated significantly more biomass to the production of receptacles than did thalli from sheltered shallow-water habitats.

  16. Mutations in the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster affecting ABC transporters that determine eye colouration.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S M; Brooker, M R; Gill, T R; Cox, G B; Howells, A J; Ewart, G D

    1999-07-15

    The white, brown and scarlet genes of Drosophila melanogaster encode proteins which transport guanine or tryptophan (precursors of the red and brown eye colour pigments) and belong to the ABC transporter superfamily. Current models envisage that the white and brown gene products interact to form a guanine specific transporter, while white and scarlet gene products interact to form a tryptophan transporter. In this study, we report the nucleotide sequence of the coding regions of five white alleles isolated from flies with partially pigmented eyes. In all cases, single amino acid changes were identified, highlighting residues with roles in structure and/or function of the transporters. Mutations in w(cf) (G589E) and w(sat) (F590G) occur at the extracellular end of predicted transmembrane helix 5 and correlate with a major decrease in red pigments in the eyes, while brown pigments are near wild-type levels. Therefore, those residues have a more significant role in the guanine transporter than the tryptophan transporter. Mutations identified in w(crr) (H298N) and w(101) (G243S) affect amino acids which are highly conserved among the ABC transporter superfamily within the nucleotide binding domain. Both cause substantial and similar decreases of red and brown pigments indicating that both tryptophan and guanine transport are impaired. The mutation identified in w(Et87) alters an amino acid within an intracellular loop between transmembrane helices 2 and 3 of the predicted structure. Red and brown pigments are reduced to very low levels by this mutation indicating this loop region is important for the function of both guanine and tryptophan transporters. PMID:10407069

  17. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  18. An ABC for decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  19. An ABC for decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  20. Identification of ABC transporters in Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, K E; Holt, D C; McCarthy, J; Walton, S F

    2006-06-01

    We have identified and partially sequenced 8 ABC transporters from an EST dataset of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, the causative agent of scabies. Analysis confirmed that most of the known ABC subfamilies are represented in the EST dataset including several members of the multidrug resistance protein subfamily (ABC-C). Although P-glycoprotein (ABC-B) sequences were not found in the EST dataset, a partial P-glycoprotein sequence was subsequently obtained using a degenerate PCR strategy and library screening. Thus a total of 9 potential S. scabiei ABC transporters representing the subfamilies A, B, C, E, F and H have been identified. Ivermectin is currently used in the treatment of hyper-infested (crusted) scabies, and has also been identified as a potentially effective acaricide for mass treatment programmes in scabies-endemic communities. The observation of clinical and in vitro ivermectin resistance in 2 crusted scabies patients who received multiple treatments has raised serious concerns regarding the sustainability of such programmes. One possible mechanism for ivermectin resistance is through ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein. This work forms an important foundation for further studies to elucidate the potential role of ABC transporters in ivermectin resistance of S. scabiei.

  1. Applying the ABCs in provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Seema

    2012-11-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting technique designed to guard against potentially serious financial problems that can arise when an organization's accounting costs deviate significantly from its actual costs. In general, an ABC analysis considers two factors: a cost element (a directly measurable unit of cost, such as the cost of an item) and a cost driver (a directly measurable feature of the service, such as how often the item is used). ABC is best applied to specific service areas, orservice packages, for which consumption of resources is largely predictable and atomic units of services can be accurately identified. PMID:23173369

  2. Applying the ABCs in provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Seema

    2012-11-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting technique designed to guard against potentially serious financial problems that can arise when an organization's accounting costs deviate significantly from its actual costs. In general, an ABC analysis considers two factors: a cost element (a directly measurable unit of cost, such as the cost of an item) and a cost driver (a directly measurable feature of the service, such as how often the item is used). ABC is best applied to specific service areas, orservice packages, for which consumption of resources is largely predictable and atomic units of services can be accurately identified.

  3. The ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory in Himalaya for aerosol, ozone and halocarbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Bonasoni, P; Laj, P; Angelini, F; Arduini, J; Bonafè, U; Calzolari, F; Cristofanelli, P; Decesari, S; Facchini, M C; Fuzzi, S; Gobbi, G P; Maione, M; Marinoni, A; Petzold, A; Roccato, F; Roger, J C; Sellegri, K; Sprenger, M; Venzac, H; Verza, G P; Villani, P; Vuillermoz, E

    2008-03-01

    In this work we present the new ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory (Nepal, 27.95 N, 86.82 E) located in the Himalayas, specifically in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. This measurement station has been set-up with the aim of investigating natural and human-induced environmental changes at different scales (local, regional and global). After an accurate instrumental set-up at ISAC-CNR in Bologna (Italy) in autumn 2005, the ABC-Pyramid Observatory for aerosol (physical, chemical and optical properties) and trace gas measurements (ozone and climate altering halocarbons) was installed in the high Khumbu valley in February 2006. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of aerosol particles (optical and physical properties), ozone (O3) and meteorological parameters as well as weekly samplings of particulate matter (for chemical analyses) and grab air samples for the determination of 27 halocarbons, have been carried out. These measurements provide data on the typical atmospheric composition of the Himalayan area between India and China and make investigations of the principal differences and similarities between the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons possible. The study is carried out within the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR "SHARE-Asia" (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment in Asia) and UNEP-"ABC" (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) projects. With the name of "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" the station is now part of the Observatory program of the ABC project.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Dongyoung; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Heung Tae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Woobong

    2014-01-01

    Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5′-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum. PMID:25506302

  5. Molecular phylogeography of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northeastern Asia based on analyses of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Daisuke; Mano, Tsutomu; Abramov, Alexei V; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Vorobiev, Alexandr A; Raichev, Evgeny G; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Yayoi; Murata, Koichi; Fukui, Daisuke; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    To further elucidate the migration history of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of 35 brown bears from Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands (Etorofu and Kunashiri), Sakhalin Island, and the Eurasian Continent (continental Russia, Bulgaria, and Tibet), and those of four polar bears. Based on these sequences, we reconstructed the maternal phylogeny of the brown bear and estimated divergence times to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia. Our gene tree showed the mtDNA haplotypes of all 73 brown and polar bears to be divided into eight divergent lineages. The brown bear on Hokkaido was divided into three lineages (central, eastern, and southern). The Sakhalin brown bear grouped with eastern European and western Alaskan brown bears. Etorofu and Kunashiri brown bears were closely related to eastern Hokkaido brown bears and could have diverged from the eastern Hokkaido lineage after formation of the channel between Hokkaido and the southern Kuril Islands. Tibetan brown bears diverged early in the eastern lineage. Southern Hokkaido brown bears were closely related to North American brown bears.

  6. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  7. The cloning of a human ABC gene (ABC3) mapping to chromosome 16p13.3

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, T.D.; Van Raay, T.J.; Petry, L.R.

    1997-01-15

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, or traffic ATPases, constitute a large family of proteins responsible for the transport of a wide variety of substrates across cell membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We describe a human ABC protein with regions of strong homology to the recently described murine ABC1 and ABC2 transporters. The gene for this novel protein, human ABC3, maps near the polycystic kidney disease type 1 (PKD1) gene on chromosome 16p13.3. The ABC3 gene is expressed at highest levels in lung compared to other tissues. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Structural insights into ABC transporter mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, Michael L.; Davidson, Amy L.; Chen, Jue

    2010-07-27

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport substances across the membrane. In recent years, crystal structures of several ABC transporters have become available. These structures show that both importers and exporters oscillate between two conformations: an inward-facing conformation with the substrate translocation pathway open to the cytoplasm and an outward-facing conformation with the translocation pathway facing the opposite side of the membrane. In this review, conformational differences found in the structures of homologous ABC transporters are analyzed to understand how alternating-access is achieved. It appears that rigid-body rotations of the transmembrane subunits, coinciding with the opening and closing of the nucleotide-binding subunits, couples ATP hydrolysis to substrate translocation.

  9. ABC transporters, atherosclerosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Michael L; Mujawar, Zahedi; Tamehiro, Norimasa

    2010-08-01

    Atherosclerosis, driven by inflamed lipid-laden lesions, can occlude the coronary arteries and lead to myocardial infarction. This chronic disease is a major and expensive health burden. However, the body is able to mobilize and excrete cholesterol and other lipids, thus preventing atherosclerosis by a process termed reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Insight into the mechanism of RCT has been gained by the study of two rare syndromes caused by the mutation of ABC transporter loci. In Tangier disease, loss of ABCA1 prevents cells from exporting cholesterol and phospholipid, thus resulting in the build-up of cholesterol in the peripheral tissues and a loss of circulating HDL. Consistent with HDL being an athero-protective particle, Tangier patients are more prone to develop atherosclerosis. Likewise, sitosterolemia is another inherited syndrome associated with premature atherosclerosis. Here mutations in either the ABCG5 or G8 loci, prevents hepatocytes and enterocytes from excreting cholesterol and plant sterols, including sitosterol, into the bile and intestinal lumen. Thus, ABCG5 and G8, which from a heterodimer, constitute a transporter that excretes cholesterol and dietary sterols back into the gut, while ABCA1 functions to export excess cell cholesterol and phospholipid during the biogenesis of HDL. Interestingly, a third protein, ABCG1, that has been shown to have anti-atherosclerotic activity in mice, may also act to transfer cholesterol to mature HDL particles. Here we review the relationship between the lipid transport activities of these proteins and their anti-atherosclerotic effect, particularly how they may reduce inflammatory signaling pathways. Of particular interest are recent reports that indicate both ABCA1 and ABCG1 modulate cell surface cholesterol levels and inhibit its partitioning into lipid rafts. Given lipid rafts may provide platforms for innate immune receptors to respond to inflammatory signals, it follows that loss of ABCA1 and ABCG1

  10. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  11. Communicating a New ABC: Advocacy, Partnerships, and Implementing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cathy

    2001-01-01

    Reiterates some key points and responds to challenges issued by the speakers to the Association for Business Communication (ABC) conference. Notes that Paula Pomerenke spoke about formalizing support of Plain Language across the continents and about ABC's continuing need to strengthen relationships with practitioners. Suggests the ABC build…

  12. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  13. The New ABC of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusa, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new alphabet of the arts that shows how the arts world has been transformed the past five years. Beginning with "A" for assessment and continuing through "Y" for year end, the ABC of the arts illustrates the ways in which the arts world is judged, managed, and evaluated, and shows that the skill of arts management is to…

  14. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

  15. The ABC's of Learning in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Minta M.

    Learning in infancy is based on activity, beginnings, and curiosity, the so-called ABC's. Earliest behavior consists of mass activity, the period from birth to 24 months of sensory-motor development which provides the foundation for all future learning. Adults must provide space, toys, and affectionate care to help infants proceed through…

  16. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  17. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Marta; Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR). In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is necessary to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps), multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5) and breast cancer resistance associated protein (BCRP). In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of the detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants that can act as chemosensitizers, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in (1) regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; (2) cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and (3) ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clearly suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish to underlay the mechanism to consider their use as

  18. 6. VIEW OF MILLING MACHINE NO. 3A HEAVY. Brown and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MILLING MACHINE NO. 3A HEAVY. Brown and Sharpe Mfg. Company (Robert Beck), Providence, Rhode Island. Conrail No. 00020. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  19. Grumbling, Raised Eyebrows, and Worse as Gordon Gee Prepares To Leave Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kit

    2000-01-01

    Reports on controversy Brown University (Rhode Island) as Gordon Gee leaves to become chancellor of Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) after only two years as president of Brown, and notes feelings of betrayal in light of large compensation offered Gee by Vanderbilt. Reports average tenures for college presidents and quotes Gee as saying that he…

  20. Loss of plastoglobule kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 causes conditional degreening, modified prenyl-lipids, and recruitment of the jasmonic acid pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the dou...

  1. Brown as Personal Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The Brown v. Board of Education decision was not specifically focused on postsecondary education; however, it helped facilitate minority admissions into predominantly White colleges and universities from the late 1950s onward. The Brown decision made many colleges and universities question whether diversity is a legitimate educational goal in…

  2. Astrophysics: Illuminating brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, Adam P.

    2016-05-01

    Objects known as brown dwarfs are midway between stars and planets in mass. Observations of a hot brown dwarf irradiated by a nearby star will help to fill a gap in our knowledge of the atmospheres of fluid planetary objects. See Letter p.366

  3. WISE and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; WISE Team

    2009-05-01

    The search for the nearest and coolest brown dwarfs will use WISE's two short-wavelength channels (W1 and W2), which are optimized for brown dwarf detection. W1 samples the methane fundamental absorption band at 3.3 microns, and W2 measures the relatively opacity-free portion of the brown dwarf atmosphere near 4.7 microns. Cool brown dwarfs will thus have very red [W1]-[W2] colors, maximizing our chances of identifying them. Extrapolating preferred mass functions to very low masses and assuming that the star formation rate has been constant over the last 10 Gyr, we can predict the number of brown dwarfs WISE is expected to image. At spectral types later than T7 (Teff > 850K), WISE is expected to find 500 brown dwarfs, which makes WISE uniquely suited among future surveys to measure the low-mass limit of star formation for the first time. This sample will also show whether a new spectral class beyond T, dubbed "Y", is needed at the lowest temperatures. Although the primary six-month WISE mission will cover the entire sky once, WISE should have sufficient cryogen to perform a second, complete pass of the sky. In this case, the identification of nearby brown dwarfs need not rely solely on color selection. Kinematics (proper motion) and geometry (parallax) can also be used to distinguish our closest brown dwarf neighbors, one of which may lie less distant than Proxima Centauri or even fall within our own Oort Cloud.

  4. Nanostructured assemblies from amphiphilic ABC multiblock polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-02-01

    Amphiphilic AB diblock copolymers containing a water compatible segment can self-assemble in aqueous media to give supramolecular structures that include simple spherical micelles and macromolecular vesicles termed polymersomes. Amphiphilic ABA triblocks with hydrophobic end blocks can adopt analogous structures but can also form gels at high polymer concentrations. The structural and chemical diversity demonstrated in block copolymer micelles and gels makes them attractive for applications ranging from drug delivery to personal care products to nanoreactors. The inclusion of a third block in amphiphilic ABC triblock systems can lead to a much wider array of self-assembled structures that depend not only on composition but also on block sequence, architecture and incompatibility considerations. I will present our recent efforts on tuning micelle and gel structure and behavior using controlled architecture ABC triblocks. The combination of diverse polymer segments into a single macromolecule is a powerful method for development of self-assembled structures with both new form and new function.

  5. Three ways to learn the ABCs.

    PubMed

    Ng, M; Yanofsky, M F

    2000-02-01

    The ABC model of flower development represents a milestone in explaining how the fate of emerging floral organ primordia is specified. This model states that organ identity is specified by different combinations of the activities of the A, B and C class homeotic genes. In spite of the remarkable simplicity of this model, the complex regulatory interactions that establish the initial pattern of A, B and C gene activity have yet to be fully explained. It has been shown that the LEAFY gene functions early to promote flower meristem identity, and that it is subsequently required for the normal expression of the ABC genes. Recently, LEAFY has been identified as an immediate upstream regulator of the floral homeotic genes, thus opening up an avenue to examine the transcriptional interactions that underlie floral patterning. PMID:10679448

  6. Pharmacological correction of misfolding of ABC proteins☆

    PubMed Central

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L.; Stockner, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Freissmuth, Michael; Chiba, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system distinguishes between correctly and incorrectly folded proteins to prevent processing of aberrantly folded conformations along the secretory pathway. Non-synonymous mutations can lead to misfolding of ABC proteins and associated disease phenotypes. Specific phenotypes may at least partially be corrected by small molecules, so-called pharmacological chaperones. Screening for folding correctors is expected to open an avenue for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25027379

  7. Adhesion to chondroitinase ABC treated dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Annalisa; Pashley, David H.; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Vita, Francesca; Falconi, Mirella; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Dentin bonding relies on complete resin impregnation throughout the demineralised hydrophilic collagen mesh. Chondroitin sulphate-glycosaminoglycans are claimed to regulate the three-dimensional arrangement of the dentin organic matrix and its hydrophilicity. The aim of this study was to investigate bond strength of two etch-and-rinse adhesives to chondroitinase ABC treated dentin. Human extracted molars were treated with chondroitinase ABC and a double labelling immunohistochemical technique was applied to reveal type I collagen and chondroitin 4/6 sulphate distribution under field emission in-lens scanning electron microscope. The immunohistochemical technique confirmed the effective removal of chondroitin 4/6 sulphate after the enzymatic treatment. Dentin surfaces exposed to chondroitinase ABC and untreated specimens prepared on untreated acid-etched dentin were bonded with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose or Prime & Bond NT. Bonded specimens were submitted to microtensile testing and nanoleakage interfacial analysis under transmission electron microscope. Increased mean values of microtensile bond strength and reduced nanoleakage expression were found for both adhesives after chondroitinase ABC treatment of the dentin surface. Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose increased its bond strength about 28%, while bonding made with Prime & Bond NT almost doubled (92% increase) compared to untreated specimens. This study supports the hypothesis that adhesion can be enhanced by removal of chondroitin 4/6 sulphate and dermatan sulphate, probably due to a reduced amount of water content and enlarged interfibrillar spaces. Further studies should validate this hypothesis investigating the stability of chondroitin 4/6 and dermatan sulphate-depleted dentin bonded interface over time. PMID:18161809

  8. Analyzing health care operations using ABC.

    PubMed

    Ross, Thomas K

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of health care created a climate in which cost was subordinate to medical treatment. Current reimbursement constraints have increased the need for providers to be cost conscious, but they have discovered that current accounting practices do not provide the appropriate information to determine the cost of service or make decisions. This article argues that activity-based costing (ABC) can bridge the gap between the medical and financial communities and provide a foundation for performance improvement. PMID:15151193

  9. Pharmacological correction of misfolding of ABC proteins.

    PubMed

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Stockner, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Freissmuth, Michael; Chiba, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system distinguishes between correctly and incorrectly folded proteins to prevent processing of aberrantly folded conformations along the secretory pathway. Non-synonymous mutations can lead to misfolding of ABC proteins and associated disease phenotypes. Specific phenotypes may at least partially be corrected by small molecules, so-called pharmacological chaperones. Screening for folding correctors is expected to open an avenue for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25027379

  10. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  11. Brown Recluse Spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  12. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  13. The Role of the Atypical Kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in Abscisic Acid Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase) is represented in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement, and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling. PMID:27047531

  14. The Role of the Atypical Kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in Abscisic Acid Responses.

    PubMed

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase) is represented in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement, and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling. PMID:27047531

  15. APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  16. ABC makes the switch to digital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, R. G.

    1984-05-01

    The digital satellite-distribution system being completed for the ABC radio network is briefly characterized. Audio programming on 19 channels at 15 kHz is digitized at the studio and transmitted by microwave to the uplink facility for distribution via Satcom I-R to 1800 affiliates with affiliate-owned receivers. A data channel comprising several 32-kbit/sec subchannels operates through network-owned data cards and printers installed in the affiliate ground stations to provide internal communication (to all affiliates, a selected group, or a single station) using soft addresses, data-distribution services for station customers, or the proposed 900-MHz nationwide paging service.

  17. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  18. The Reign of Confusion: ABC and the "Crisis in Iran."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    A study examined reports broadcast by ABC News between November 8, 1979 and December 7, 1979 in its series entitled "Crisis in Iran: America Held Hostage." Transcripts of approximately 50% of actual broadcasts were subjected to rhetorical critical analysis, from which the finding emerged that confusion was the predominant characteristic in ABC's…

  19. The ABCs of School Choice, 2009-2010 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the 2009-2010 edition of the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "ABCs of School Choice". The "ABCs of School Choice" provides the latest in up-to-date and accurate information about the many school choice success stories taking place throughout the country. Readers will find this guide an essential resource on…

  20. To What Extent Does Attention Affect K-ABC Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed the protocols of 52 clinic-referred children who were administered the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) as well as version of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), a laboratory measure of attention. Results demonstrated significant interrelationships among K-ABC and CPT scores. (Author/ABL)

  1. ABCs of Being Smart: S Is for Supporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Joanne Foster's article "R We There Yet?" was first published in "Parenting for High Potential" ("PHP") in 2006, which became the springboard for the "ABCs of Being Smart" series of columns. At that time, Foster invited "PHP" readers to think about their own versions of the "ABCs of Being…

  2. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  3. Geographic distribution: Boiga irregularis (Brown treesnake)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knox, Adam; Holldorf, Elden; Reed, Robert N.; Igisomar, Sylvan; Gotte, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Rota: Rota Seaport (14.136502°N, 145.135351°E; WGS84). 3 September 2014. Shelwyn Taisacan, Robert Ulloa. Verified by G. Zug. USNM 581745. Snake (42 g, 810 mm SVL, 1020 mm total length) captured in a mouse-baited trap hung on the fence perimeter of the Rota Seaport. Because the Northern Marianas Islands are historically snake-free, these traps are used around ports and airports for early detection of snakes that may stow away in vessels or aircraft from Guam (60 km to the south), possibly evading quarantine detections. Necropsy revealed no prey items in stomach or gas- trointestinal tract. Dissection at USNM confirmed the snake was female. To our knowledge, this is the first incursion of a live Boiga irregularis on Rota. Brown Treesnakes previously observed on the island (N = 3) arrived in cargo already dead. The USGS Brown Treesnake Rapid Response Team mobilized 4 September–20 Oc- tober 2014 to search the focal and surrounding areas for evidence of a possible incipient population; no additional snakes were found during this search effort.

  4. The search for brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of brown dwarfs is summarized and observational findings regarding brown dwarfs are reviewed. The equation of state, the thermal properties, the interior transport properties, the boundary conditions, and the initial conditions are examined. Indirect observations, IR speckle interferometry, IR photometry, and field observations of brown dwarfs are discussed.

  5. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  6. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  7. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  8. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  9. MDR-ABC transporters: biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Márki-Zay, János; Tauberné Jakab, Katalin; Szerémy, Péter; Krajcsi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    MDR-ABC transporters are widely expressed in cell types relevant to pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports demonstrate the interaction of small molecule drugs with MDR-ABC transporters. Cell-based assays for disease relevant cell types can be easily gated and could reveal specific drug targets and may increase significance and utilisation of data in clinical practice. Many commonly used DMARDs (e.g. methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide/teriflunomide, hydroxychloroquine) are ABCG2 substrates. Consequently, the activity of this transporter in patients should be determined to understand the disposition and pharmacokinetics of the therapy. In addition, MDR-ABC transporters transport a variety of endobiotics that play important roles in cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, MDR-ABC transporters are important biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23711386

  10. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  11. ABC and IFC: Modules Detection Method for PPI Network

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiujuan; Tian, Jianfang

    2014-01-01

    Many clustering algorithms are unable to solve the clustering problem of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks effectively. A novel clustering model which combines the optimization mechanism of artificial bee colony (ABC) with the fuzzy membership matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed ABC-IFC clustering model contains two parts: searching for the optimum cluster centers using ABC mechanism and forming clusters using intuitionistic fuzzy clustering (IFC) method. Firstly, the cluster centers are set randomly and the initial clustering results are obtained by using fuzzy membership matrix. Then the cluster centers are updated through different functions of bees in ABC algorithm; then the clustering result is obtained through IFC method based on the new optimized cluster center. To illustrate its performance, the ABC-IFC method is compared with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering and IFC method. The experimental results on MIPS dataset show that the proposed ABC-IFC method not only gets improved in terms of several commonly used evaluation criteria such as precision, recall, and P value, but also obtains a better clustering result. PMID:24991575

  12. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals. PMID:26042641

  13. ABC transporter research: going strong 40 years on

    PubMed Central

    Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, ABC transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins. In humans, their functions are diverse and underpin numerous key physiological processes, as well as being causative factors in a number of clinically relevant pathologies. Advances in our understanding of these diseases have come about through combinations of genetic and protein biochemical investigations of these transporters and the power of in vitro and in vivo investigations is helping to develop genotype–phenotype understanding. However, the importance of ABC transporter research goes far beyond human biology; microbial ABC transporters are of great interest in terms of understanding virulence and drug resistance and industrial biotechnology researchers are exploring the potential of prokaryotic ABC exporters to increase the capacity of synthetic biology systems. Plant ABC transporters play important roles in transport of hormones, xenobiotics, metals and secondary metabolites, pathogen responses and numerous aspects of development, all of which are important in the global food security area. For 3 days in Chester, this Biochemical Society Focused Meeting brought together researchers with diverse experimental approaches and with different fundamental questions, all of which are linked by the commonality of ABC transporters. PMID:26517919

  14. Structural basis for the mechanism of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Beis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are primary transporters that couple the energy stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the movement of molecules across the membrane. ABC transporters can be divided into exporters and importers; importers mediate the uptake of essential nutrients into cells and are found predominantly in prokaryotes whereas exporters transport molecules out of cells or into organelles and are found in all organisms. ABC exporters have been linked with multi-drug resistance in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. ABC transporters are powered by the hydrolysis of ATP and transport their substrate via the alternating access mechanism, whereby the protein alternates between a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is accessible from the outside of the membrane, outward-facing and one in which it is inward-facing. In this mini-review, the structures of different ABC transporter types in different conformations are presented within the context of the alternating access mechanism and how they have shaped our current understanding of the mechanism of ABC transporters.

  15. ABCE1 Is a Highly Conserved RNA Silencing Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Kärblane, Kairi; Gerassimenko, Jelena; Nigul, Lenne; Piirsoo, Alla; Smialowska, Agata; Vinkel, Kadri; Kylsten, Per; Ekwall, Karl; Swoboda, Peter; Truve, Erkki; Sarmiento, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1) is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference. PMID:25659154

  16. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals.

  17. Phase transition in the ABC model.

    PubMed

    Clincy, M; Derrida, B; Evans, M R

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-beta/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero beta(c). The value of beta(c)=2pi square root 3 and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions. PMID:16241312

  18. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  19. Function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ABC proteins in lipid transport.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Antje; Devaux, Philippe F; Herrmann, Andreas

    2005-03-21

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins are implicated in the transport of lipids. In humans, members of the ABC protein families A, B, C, D and G are mutated in a number of lipid transport and metabolism disorders, such as Tangier disease, Stargardt syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, adrenoleukodystrophy or sitosterolemia. Studies employing transfection, overexpression, reconstitution, deletion and inhibition indicate the transbilayer transport of endogenous lipids and their analogs by some of these proteins, modulating lipid transbilayer asymmetry. Other proteins appear to be involved in the exposure of specific lipids on the exoplasmic leaflet, allowing their uptake by acceptors and further transport to specific sites. Additionally, lipid transport by ABC proteins is currently being studied in non-human eukaryotes, e.g. in sea urchin, trypanosomatides, arabidopsis and yeast, as well as in prokaryotes such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis. Here, we review current information about the (putative) role of both pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins in the various phenomena associated with lipid transport. Besides providing a better understanding of phenomena like lipid metabolism, circulation, multidrug resistance, hormonal processes, fertilization, vision and signalling, studies on pro- and eukaryotic ABC proteins might eventually enable us to put a name on some of the proteins mediating transbilayer lipid transport in various membranes of cells and organelles. It must be emphasized, however, that there are still many uncertainties concerning the functions and mechanisms of ABC proteins interacting with lipids. In particular, further purification and reconstitution experiments with an unambiguous role of ATP hydrolysis are needed to demonstrate a clear involvement of ABC proteins in lipid transbilayer asymmetry. PMID:15749056

  20. Cloning of two novel ABC transporters mapping on human chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Luciani, M.F.; Savary, S.; Chimini, G. ); Denizot, F. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1994-05-01

    The family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters or traffic ATPases is composed of several membrane-associated proteins that transport a great variety of solutes across cellular membranes. Two novel mammalian members of the family, ABC1 and ABC2, have been identified by a PCR-based approach. They belong to a group of traffic ATPases encoded as a single multifunctional protein, such as CFTR, STE 6, and P-glycoproteins. Their peculiar structural features and close relationship to ABC transporters involved in nodulation suggest that ABC1 and ABC2 define a novel subgroup of mammalian traffic ATPases. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  1. ABC transporters involved in export of cell surface glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kos, Veronica; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-09-01

    Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell surface oligo- and polysaccharides in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent investigations of the structure and function of ABC transporters involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide O antigens have revealed two fundamentally different strategies for coupling glycan polymerization to export. These mechanisms are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of characteristic nonreducing terminal modifications on the export substrates, which serve as chain termination and/or export signals, and by the presence (or absence) of a discrete substrate-binding domain in the nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide of the ABC transporter. A bioinformatic survey examining ABC exporters from known oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis loci identifies conserved nucleotide-binding domain protein families that correlate well with themes in the structures and assembly of glycans. The familial relationships among the ABC exporters generate hypotheses concerning the biosynthesis of structurally diverse oligo- and polysaccharides, which play important roles in the biology of bacteria with different lifestyles.

  2. The ABC of Ribosome-Related Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    The increase in multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is limiting the utility of our current arsenal of antimicrobial agents. Mechanistically understanding how bacteria obtain antibiotic resistance is a critical first step to the development of improved inhibitors. One common mechanism for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance is by employing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to actively pump the drug from the cell. The ABC-F family includes proteins conferring resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics; however, controversy remains as to whether resistance is conferred via efflux like other ABC transporters or whether another mechanism, such as ribosome protection, is at play. A recent study by Sharkey and coworkers (L. K. Sharkey, T. A. Edwards, and A. J. O'Neill, mBio 7:e01975-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01975-15) provides strong evidence that ABC-F proteins conferring antibiotic resistance utilize ribosome protection mechanisms, namely, by interacting with the ribosome and displacing the drug from its binding site, thus revealing a novel role for ABC-F proteins in antibiotic resistance. PMID:27143393

  3. The ABC of Ribosome-Related Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-05-03

    The increase in multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is limiting the utility of our current arsenal of antimicrobial agents. Mechanistically understanding how bacteria obtain antibiotic resistance is a critical first step to the development of improved inhibitors. One common mechanism for bacteria to obtain antibiotic resistance is by employing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to actively pump the drug from the cell. The ABC-F family includes proteins conferring resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics; however, controversy remains as to whether resistance is conferred via efflux like other ABC transporters or whether another mechanism, such as ribosome protection, is at play. A recent study by Sharkey and coworkers (L. K. Sharkey, T. A. Edwards, and A. J. O'Neill, mBio 7:e01975-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01975-15) provides strong evidence that ABC-F proteins conferring antibiotic resistance utilize ribosome protection mechanisms, namely, by interacting with the ribosome and displacing the drug from its binding site, thus revealing a novel role for ABC-F proteins in antibiotic resistance.

  4. ABC Transporters Involved in Export of Cell Surface Glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kos, Veronica; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell surface oligo- and polysaccharides in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent investigations of the structure and function of ABC transporters involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide O antigens have revealed two fundamentally different strategies for coupling glycan polymerization to export. These mechanisms are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of characteristic nonreducing terminal modifications on the export substrates, which serve as chain termination and/or export signals, and by the presence (or absence) of a discrete substrate-binding domain in the nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide of the ABC transporter. A bioinformatic survey examining ABC exporters from known oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis loci identifies conserved nucleotide-binding domain protein families that correlate well with themes in the structures and assembly of glycans. The familial relationships among the ABC exporters generate hypotheses concerning the biosynthesis of structurally diverse oligo- and polysaccharides, which play important roles in the biology of bacteria with different lifestyles. PMID:20805402

  5. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Sub-cellular localisation of the white/scarlet ABC transporter to pigment granule membranes within the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S M; Howells, A J; Cox, G B; Ewart, G D

    2000-01-01

    The white, scarlet, and brown genes of Drosophila melanogaster encode ABC transporters involved with the uptake and storage of metabolic precursors to the red and brown eye colour pigments. It has generally been assumed that these proteins are localised in the plasma membrane and transport precursor molecules from the heamolymph into the eye pigment cells. However, the immuno-electron microscopy experiments in this study reveal that the White and Scarlet proteins are located in the membranes of pigment granules within pigment cells and retinula cells of the compound eye. No evidence of their presence in the plasma membrane was observed. This result suggests that, rather than tranporting tryptophan into the cell across the plasma membrane, the White/Scarlet complex transports a metabolic intermediate (such as 3-hydroxy kynurenine) from the cytoplasm into the pigment granules. Other functional implications of this new finding are discussed. PMID:11294610

  7. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  8. Inhibition of browning in foodstuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Addition of water-soluble sulfur-containing compounds, thio compounds or potential thio compounds, to a mixture of carbohydrates, and either proteins, peptides, or amino acids can retard or completely eliminate the browning process. Determining factor is dependent upon the concentration of the anti-browning agent in the aqueous media.

  9. Role of an ABC importer in mycobacterial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, P K; Bhatt, K; Banerjee, S K; Misra, P

    1999-08-01

    Phosphate specific transporter (Pst) in bacteria is involved in phosphate transport. Pst is a multisubunit system which belongs to the ABC family of transporters. The import function of this transporter is known to be operative at media phosphate concentrations below the millimolar range. However, we found amplification of this transporter in a laboratory generated ciprofloxacin resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis colony (CIPr) which was grown in a condition when phosphate scavenging function of this operon was inoperative. Our results therefore argue the role of this ABC importer in conferring high level of fluoroquinolone resistance in CIPr.

  10. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC. PMID:10156656

  11. Plant cuticular lipid export requires an ABC transporter.

    PubMed

    Pighin, Jamie A; Zheng, Huanquan; Balakshin, Laura J; Goodman, Ian P; Western, Tamara L; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka; Samuels, A Lacey

    2004-10-22

    A waxy protective cuticle coats all primary aerial plant tissues. Its synthesis requires extensive export of lipids from epidermal cells to the plant surface. Arabidopsis cer5 mutants had reduced stem cuticular wax loads and accumulated sheetlike inclusions in the cytoplasm of wax-secreting cells. These inclusions represented abnormal deposits of cuticular wax and resembled inclusions found in a human disorder caused by a defective peroxisomal adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter. We found that the CER5 gene encodes an ABC transporter localized in the plasma membrane of epidermal cells and conclude that it is required for wax export to the cuticle.

  12. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-Huang; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao; Duan, Chun-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro. Methods: ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay. Results: Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs. PMID:27364797

  14. Brown spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    The venom from spiders of the genus Loxosceles, the most famous being Loxosceles recluse (the most brown recluse spider) can cause serious poisoning. These spiders inhabit the south and south central states from Georgia through Texas and north to southern Wisconsin. They are commonly called violin spiders because of the violin-shaped marking on the dorsum of the cephalothorax. Many dermonecrotic lesions are incorrectly diagnosed as Brown recluse bites, as up to 50% of the diagnoses are in geographic regions of the country which do not have Loxosceles spiders. Sphingomyelinase D is the primary venom dermonecrotic factor. The toxin depletes serum hemolytic complement, prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time and depletes clotting factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII. The venom induces rapid coagulation and occlusion of small capillaries, causing subsequent tissue necrosis. A classic "bulls eye" lesion develops, an erythematous area inside of which is a pale ischemic region that develops a dark necrotic center as the lesion matures. Healing is slow, and these ulcers may persist for months leaving a deep scar. Systemic signs occur less commonly but can be life threatening. The most prevalent sign is a hemolytic anemia with significant hemoglobinuria. There is no specific antidote. Dapsone a leukocyte inhibitor has been shown to be effective in treating dermal lesions in animal models. Conservative therapy includes several cleanings daily with Burrow's solution and hydrogen peroxide. Systemic signs of Loxosceles envenomation are potentially fatal and should be aggressively addressed. Hospitalization and intravenous fluid therapy may be needed to maintain adequate hydration and to protect renal function.

  15. Regulation of Expression of abcA and Its Response to Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Villet, Regis A.; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Wang, Yin; Estabrooks, Zoe; Medeiros, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The ATP-dependent transporter gene abcA in Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to hydrophobic β-lactams. In strain ISP794, abcA is regulated by the transcriptional regulators MgrA and NorG and shares a 420-nucleotide intercistronic region with the divergently transcribed pbp4 gene, which encodes the transpeptidase Pbp4. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to iron-limited media, oxidative stress, and acidic pH (5.5) for 0.5 to 2 h had no effect on abcA expression. In contrast, nutrient limitation produced a significant increase in abcA transcripts. We identified three additional regulators (SarA, SarZ, and Rot) that bind to the overlapping promoter region of abcA and pbp4 in strain MW2 and investigated their role in the regulation of abcA expression. Expression of abcA is decreased by 10.0-fold in vivo in a subcutaneous abscess model. In vitro, abcA expression depends on rot and sarZ regulators. Moenomycin A exposure of strain MW2 produced an increase in abcA transcripts. Relative to MW2, the MIC of moenomycin was decreased 8-fold for MW2ΔabcA and increased 10-fold for the MW2 abcA overexpresser, suggesting that moenomycin is a substrate of AbcA. PMID:24509312

  16. The Search For Equity. Women at Brown University, 1891-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Polly Welts, Ed.

    This collection of essays describes women's ongoing search for equity at Brown University, Rhode Island, since their first entrance there in 1891. After a preface by Joan W. Scott and an introduction by Polly Welts Kaufman, the volume contains the following 10 essays: "The Woman's Club Movement Creates and Defines the Women's College" by Karen J.…

  17. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  18. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  19. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  20. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  1. Electronic excitation spectrum of ABC-stacked multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henni, Y.; Nogajewski, K.; Ojeda Collado, H. P.; Usaj, G.; Balseiro, C. A.; Potemski, M.; Faugeras, C.

    The electronic properties of ABC graphene trilayers has attracted lot of attention recently due to their potential applications in engineering carbon-based devices with gate tunable electrical conductivity. Morever,ABC-stacked thin layers of graphite are predicted to host peculiar surface electronic states, with a flat dispersion over most of the Brillouin zone. The associated high density of states is likely to favour the emergence of exotic electronic phases, such as charge density waves or even superconductivity. We present a micro-magneto-Raman scattering study of a thin graphite flake produced by exfoliation of natural graphite, composed of ~15graphene layers, and including a large ABC-stacked domain. Exploring the low temperature Raman scattering spectrum of this domain up to B=29T,we identify inter Landau level electronic excitations within the surface flat bands,together with electronic excitations involving the gapped states in the bulk. This interband electronic excitation at B=0T can be observed,up to room temperature, directly in the Raman scattering spectrum as a broad(~ 180 cm-1) feature. Because the energy gap strongly depends on the number of layers,this electronic excitation can be used to identify and characterize ABC-stacked graphite thin layers.

  2. Selections from the ABC 2009 Annual Convention, Portsmouth, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2010-01-01

    The "My Favorite Assignment" Session at the 2009 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Portsmouth, Virginia, featured over a dozen teachers sharing pedagogical innovations in a fast-paced, 4-minute format designed by Dan Dietrich. The wide variety of ideas and techniques presented makes these sessions popular ABC…

  3. The ABCs for Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Competency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ye; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to combine pre-service teachers' self-reflection with their field experiences to enhance their cultural competency, this study adopted Schmidt's ABC's (Autobiography, Biography, and Cross-cultural Comparison) Model in two courses in a pre-service teacher education program. Through group comparisons, this study measured the impact that…

  4. The Library ABC's Game: Sneaking in Learning through Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Teaching library terminology and definitions can be a real bore. Unfortunately, no matter how one looks at it, students need to learn a set of basic library words and their meanings. The Library ABC's game teaches elementary age students library terms and definitions, and it is effective, efficient, easy, exciting, and fun. Introduce the Library…

  5. The K-ABC in Historical and Contemporary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1984-01-01

    The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children is examined with particular attention to evolution of current psychometric concepts and methods, as well as the historical sources of popular misconceptions. The K-ABC reveals sophisticated applications of current test construction methodology but requires knowledgeable examiners. (Author/CL)

  6. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service…

  7. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  8. Beyond the ABCs: The Pleasures of the Alphabet Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Debra H.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies seven types of alphabet books: letter shapes, word play, art play, topical/thematic, multicultural, narrative, and puzzles. Presents annotations of around 30 titles. Suggests that alphabet books are not intended just for the emergent reader--there is a wide range of ABC books with intriguing stories, captivating illustrations, playful…

  9. ABCs of Being Smart... G Is for Gifted!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Giftedness can generate speculation, misconceptions, expectations, pride, innuendo, apprehension, puzzlement--and the list goes on. What does it mean to be a gifted learner? In this installment of the series "ABCs of Being Smart," the author grapples with the term gifted, giving a glimpse into giftedness, along with some general guidelines for…

  10. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  20. Placental ABC transporters, cellular toxicity and stress in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-25

    The human placenta, in addition to its roles as a nutrient transfer and endocrine organ, functions as a selective barrier to protect the fetus against the harmful effects of exogenous and endogenous toxins. Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins limit the entry of xenobiotics into the fetal circulation via vectorial efflux from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Several members of the ABC family, including proteins from the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC and ABCG subfamilies, have been shown to be functional in the placenta with clinically significant roles in xenobiotic efflux. However, recent findings suggest that these transporters also protect placental tissue by preventing the cellular accumulation of cytotoxic compounds such as lipids, sterols and their derivatives. Such protective functions are likely to be particularly important in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory or oxidative stress, where the generation of toxic metabolites is enhanced. For example, ABC transporters have been shown to protect against the harmful effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress through increased expression and efflux of oxysterols and glutathione conjugated xenobiotics. However, this protective capacity may be diminished in response to the same stressors. Several studies in primary human trophoblast cells and animal models have demonstrated decreased expression and activity of placental ABC transporters with inflammatory, oxidative or metabolic stress. Several clinical studies in pregnancies complicated by inflammatory conditions such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes support these findings, although further studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the relationships between placental ABC transporter expression and activity, and placental function in stressed pregnancies. Such studies are necessary to fully understand the consequences of pregnancy disorders on placental function and viability in order to optimise pregnancy

  1. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  2. Brown dwarfs detections through microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, C.; Cassan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Gravitational microlensing is known to be a powerful method to hunt for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Recently, several brown dwarfs companions to stars have been detected through microlensing, as well as brown dwarfs binaries. We present the discovery of a new ˜ 40 M_{J} brown dwarf orbiting a K-dwarf at ˜ 4 AU, located at ˜ 4 kpc from the Earth. Besides using the standard photometric light curves gathered from different round-the-world observatories, its characterization involved high-resolution adaptative optics measurements from NaCo at VLT which allowed to break the degeneracies between the physical parameters and provide the exact mass and projected separation of the system.

  3. GintABC1 encodes a putative ABC transporter of the MRP subfamily induced by Cu, Cd, and oxidative stress in Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    González-Guerrero, Manuel; Benabdellah, Karim; Valderas, Ascensión; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Ferrol, Nuria

    2010-02-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence putatively encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (GintABC1) was isolated from the extraradical mycelia of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Bioinformatic analysis of the sequence indicated that GintABC1 encodes a 1513 amino acid polypeptide, containing two six-transmembrane clusters (TMD) intercalated with sequences characteristics of the nucleotide binding domains (NBD) and an extra N-terminus extension (TMD0). GintABC1 presents a predicted TMD0-(TMD-NBD)(2) topology, typical of the multidrug resistance-associated protein subfamily of ABC transporters. Gene expression analyses revealed no difference in the expression levels of GintABC1 in the extra- vs the intraradical mycelia. GintABC1 was up-regulated by Cd and Cu, but not by Zn, suggesting that this transporter might be involved in Cu and Cd detoxification. Paraquat, an oxidative agent, also induced the transcription of GintABC1. These data suggest that redox changes may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of GintABC1 by Cd and Cu.

  4. Volatile general anesthetics reveal a neurobiological role for the white and brown genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Nash, H A

    2001-12-01

    Molecular and cellular evidence argues that a heterodimer between two ABC transporters, the White protein and the Brown protein, is responsible for pumping guanine into pigment-synthesizing cells of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies have not detected White or Brown outside pigment-synthesizing cells nor have behavioral effects of null mutants been reported, other than those that are visually dependent. Nevertheless, we show here that exposure to the volatile general anesthetic (VGA) enflurane reveals a difference in neuromuscular performance between wild-type flies and those that carry a null allele in either the white or brown gene. Specifically, in a test of climbing ability, w1118 or bw1 flies are much less affected by enflurane than are congenic controls. Altered anesthetic sensitivity is still observed when visual cues are reduced or eliminated, arguing that white and brown contribute to neural function outside the eye. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of white message in heads of flies that are genetically altered so as to lack pigment-producing cells. The w1118 or bw1 mutations also alter the response to a second VGA, halothane, albeit somewhat differently. Under some conditions, the combination of w1118 with another mutation that affects anesthesia leads to a drastically altered phenotype. We consider several ways by which diminished transport of guanine could influence neural function and anesthetic sensitivity. PMID:11745669

  5. 75 FR 49549 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... operation of this trackage in FD 35356, ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line...

  6. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. Results We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone

  7. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  8. Impacts of the Brown Tree Snake: Patterns of Decline and Species Persistence in Guam's Avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, G.J.; Bart, J.; Beck, R.E.; Aguon, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Predation by brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) devastated the avifauna of Guam in the Mariana Islands during the last half of the twentieth century, causing the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species. Past studies have provided qualitative descriptions of the decline of native forest birds but have not considered all species or presented quantitative analyses. We analyzed two sets of survey data gathered in northern Guam between 1976 and 1998 and reviewed unpublished sources to provide a comprehensive account of the impact of brown tree snakes on the island's birds. Our results indicate that 22 species, including 17 of 18 native species, were severely affected by snakes. Twelve species were likely extirpated as breeding residents on the main island, 8 others experienced declines of ???90% throughout the island or at least in the north, and 2 were kept at reduced population levels during all or much of the study. Declines of ???90% occurred rapidly, averaging just 8.9 years along three roadside survey routes combined and 1.6 years at a 100-ha forested study site. Declines in northern Guam were also relatively synchronous and occurred from about 1976 to 1986 for most species. The most important factor predisposing a species to coexistence with brown tree snakes was its ability to nest and roost at locations where snakes were uncommon. Large clutch size and large body size were also related to longer persistence times, although large body size appeared to delay, but not prevent, extirpation. Our results draw attention to the enormous detrimental impact that brown tree snakes are likely to have upon invading new areas. Increased containment efforts on Guam are needed to prevent further colonizations, but a variety of additional management efforts would also benefit the island's remaining bird populations.

  9. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  10. Demographic history of a recent invasion of house mice on the isolated Island of Gough.

    PubMed

    Gray, Melissa M; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J; White, Michael A; Gabriel, Sofia I; Searle, Jeremy B; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ryan, Peter G; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-04-01

    Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behaviour. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution.

  11. Insights into how nucleotide-binding domains power ABC transport.

    PubMed

    Newstead, Simon; Fowler, Philip W; Bilton, Paul; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Sadler, Peter J; Campopiano, Dominic J; Sansom, Mark S P; Iwata, So

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism by which nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of ABC transporters power the transport of substrates across cell membranes is currently unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of an NBD, FbpC, from the Neisseria gonorrhoeae ferric iron uptake transporter with an unusual and substantial domain swap in the C-terminal regulatory domain. This entanglement suggests that FbpC is unable to open to the same extent as the homologous protein MalK. Using molecular dynamics we demonstrate that this is not the case: both NBDs open rapidly once ATP is removed. We conclude from this result that the closed structures of FbpC and MalK have higher free energies than their respective open states. This result has important implications for our understanding of the mechanism of power generation in ABC transporters, because the unwinding of this free energy ensures that the opening of these two NBDs is also powered. PMID:19748342

  12. The Predicted ABC Transporter AbcEDCBA Is Required for Type IV Secretion System Expression and Lysosomal Evasion by Brucella ovis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Winter, Maria G.; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N.; Pires, Simone F.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Andrade, Hélida M.; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA) was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi), whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells. PMID:25474545

  13. TaAbc1, a member of Abc1-like family involved in hypersensitive response against the stripe rust fungal pathogen in wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaojie; Duan, Yinghui; Yin, Shuining; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Li; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-01-01

    To search for genes involved in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) defense response to the infection of stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), we identified and cloned a new wheat gene similar to the genes in the Abc1-like gene family. The new gene, designated as TaAbc1, encodes a 717-amino acid, 80.35 kD protein. The TaAbc1 protein contains two conserved domains shared by Abc1-like proteins, two trans-membrane domains at the C-terminal, and a 36-amino acid chloroplast targeting presequence at the N-terminal. Characterization of TaAbc1 expression revealed that gene expression was tissue-specific and could be up-regulated by biotic agents (e.g., stripe rust pathogen) and/or by an abiotic stress like wounding. High-fold induction was associated with the hypersensitive response (HR) triggered only by avirulent stripe rust pathotypes, suggesting that TaAbc1 is a rust-pathotype specific HR-mediator. Down-regulating TaAbc1 reduced HR but not the overall resistance level in Suwon11 to CYR23, suggesting TaAbc1 was involved in HR against stripe rust, but overall host resistance is not HR-dependent.

  14. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    PubMed

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  15. Fungal ABC transporters and microbial interactions in natural environments.

    PubMed

    Schoonbeek, Henk-jan; Raaijmakers, Jos M; De Waard, Maarten A

    2002-11-01

    In natural environments, microorganisms are exposed to a wide variety of antibiotic compounds produced by competing organisms. Target organisms have evolved various mechanisms of natural resistance to these metabolites. In this study, the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in interactions between the plant-pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas bacteria was investigated in detail. We discovered that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), broad-spectrum antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas spp., induced expression of several ABC transporter genes in B. cinerea. Phenazines strongly induced expression of BcatrB, and deltaBcatrB mutants were significantly more sensitive to these antibiotics than their parental strain. Treatment of B. cinerea germlings with PCN strongly affected the accumulation of [14C]fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide known to be transported by BcatrB, indicating that phenazines also are transported by BcatrB. Pseudomonas strains producing phenazines displayed a stronger antagonistic activity in vitro toward ABcatrB mutants than to the parental B. cinerea strain. On tomato leaves, phenazine-producing Pseudomonas strains were significantly more effective in reducing gray mold symptoms incited by a ABcatrB mutant than by the parental strain. We conclude that the ABC transporter BcatrB provides protection to B. cinerea in phenazine-mediated interactions with Pseudomonas spp. Collectively, these results indicate that fungal ABC transporters can play an important role in antibiotic-mediated interactions between bacteria and fungi in plant-associated environments. The implications of these findings for the implementation and sustainability of crop protection by antagonistic microorganisms are discussed. PMID:12423022

  16. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    Bdellovibrio -and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence–structure–function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. PMID:25707746

  17. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  18. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Liam K. R.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to an in vitro translation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosome in vitro. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection. PMID:27006457

  19. High-level assessment of LANL ABC Design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-15

    An annual weapon`s grade Pu disposition goal should be stated and related to the amount of Pu that needs to be disposed of. It needs to be determined to what extent it is possible to destroy Pu without building up any new Pu, i.e., how realistic this goal is. The strong positive Doppler coefficient for a Pu core might require the addition of some fertile material to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient. This in turn will affect the net Pu disposition rate. If a fertile material is required throughout the life of the ABC to ensure a negative Doppler coefficient, the difference between the molten salt ABC and other reactors in regard to Pu disposition is not a principled difference anymore but one of degree. A rationale has then to be developed that explains why {open_quotes}x{close_quotes} kg production of fissile material are acceptable but {open_quotes}y{close_quotes} kg are not. It is important to determine how a requirement for electricity production will impact on the ABC design choices. It is conceivable that DOE will not insist on electricity generation. In this case advantage has to be taken in terms of design simplifications and relaxed operating conditions.

  20. The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Atanu; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni

    2015-01-01

    In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms. PMID:26407965

  1. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To better understand the various etiologies of Brown's syndrome, define specific clinical characteristics of Brown's syndrome, describe the natural history of Brown's syndrome, and evaluate the longterm outcome of a novel surgical procedure: the silicone tendon expander. Also, to utilize a computer model to simulate the pattern of strabismus seen clinically with Brown's syndrome and manipulate the model to show potential surgical outcomes of the silicone tendon expander. METHODS: Charts were reviewed on patients with the diagnosis of Brown's syndrome seen at a children's hospital ophthalmology clinic from 1982 to 1997, or seen in the author's private practice. Objective fundus torsion was assessed in up gaze, down gaze, and primary position in 7 Brown's syndrome patients and in 4 patients with primary superior oblique overaction. A fax survey was taken of members of the American Association of Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) listed in the 1997-1998 directory regarding their results using the silicone tendon expander procedure for the treatment of Brown's syndrome. A computer model of Brown's syndrome was created using the Orbit 1.8 program by simulating a shortened superior oblique tendon or by changing stretch sensitivity to create an inelastic muscle. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were studied: 85 with Brown's syndrome (38 with congenital and 47 with acquired disease), 6 with masquerade syndromes, 1 with Brown's syndrome operated on elsewhere, and 4 with primary superior oblique overaction in the torsion study. Three original clinical observations were made: 1. Significant limitation of elevation in abduction occurs in 70% of Brown's syndrome cases surgically verified as caused by a tight superior oblique tendon. Contralateral pseudo-inferior oblique overaction is associated with limited elevation in abduction. 2. Traumatic Brown's syndrome cases have larger hypotropias than nontraumatic cases (P < .001). There was no significant hypotropia in

  2. ABC1K atypical kinases in plants; filling the organellar kinase void

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Peter K.; Davis, Jerrold I.; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly few protein kinases have been demonstrated in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we discuss the “activity of bc1 complex kinase” (ABC1K) protein family which we suggest locate in mitochondria and plastids, thus filling the kinase void. The ABC1Ks are atypical protein kinases and their ancestral function is the regulation of quinone synthesis. ABC1Ks have proliferated from 1–2 members in non-photosynthetic organisms to more than 16 members in algae and higher plants. In this review we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ABC1K family, provide a functional domain analysis for angiosperms and a nomenclature for ABC1Ks in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays). Finally, we hypothesize that targets of ABC1Ks include enzymes of prenyl-lipid metabolism as well as components of the organellar gene expression machineries. PMID:22694836

  3. African-American Heritage profile - Maikeyza Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Maikeyza Brown is a contract management specialist at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. A native of Washington, D.C., Brown overcame obstacles to receive honors in high school a...

  4. Identification of ABC Transporter Genes of Fusarium graminearum with Roles in Azole Tolerance and/or Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Döll, Katharina; Karlovsky, Petr; Deising, Holger B.; Wirsel, Stefan G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen infecting several important cereals, resulting in substantial yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Triazole fungicides are used to control diseases caused by this fungus on a worldwide scale. Our previous microarray study indicated that 15 ABC transporter genes were transcriptionally upregulated in response to tebuconazole treatment. Here, we deleted four ABC transporter genes in two genetic backgrounds of F. graminearum representing the DON (deoxynivalenol) and the NIV (nivalenol) trichothecene chemotypes. Deletion of FgABC3 and FgABC4 belonging to group I of ABC-G and to group V of ABC-C subfamilies of ABC transporters, respectively, considerably increased the sensitivity to the class I sterol biosynthesis inhibitors triazoles and fenarimol. Such effects were specific since they did not occur with any other fungicide class tested. Assessing the contribution of the four ABC transporters to virulence of F. graminearum revealed that, irrespective of their chemotypes, deletion mutants of FgABC1 (ABC-C subfamily group V) and FgABC3 were impeded in virulence on wheat, barley and maize. Phylogenetic context and analyses of mycotoxin production suggests that FgABC3 may encode a transporter protecting the fungus from host-derived antifungal molecules. In contrast, FgABC1 may encode a transporter responsible for the secretion of fungal secondary metabolites alleviating defence of the host. Our results show that ABC transporters play important and diverse roles in both fungicide resistance and pathogenesis of F. graminearum. PMID:24244413

  5. Creating an iPhone application for collecting continuous ABC data.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data-collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to an e-mail account after observations have concluded. Further suggestions are provided to customize the ABC data- collection system for individual preferences and clinical needs.

  6. Improvement of proteolytic and oxidative stability of Chondroitinase ABC I by cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh; Golestani, Abolfazl; Asadikaram, GholamReza

    2016-10-01

    Recently, utilization of the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) has received considerable attention in treatment of spinal cord injury. cABC I removes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans which are inhibitory to axon growth and enhances nerve regeneration. Therefore, determination of cABC I resistance to proteolysis and oxidation provides valuable information for optimizing its clinical application. In this work, proteolytic stability of cABC I to trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as its oxidative resistance to H2O2 was measured. Moreover, the effect of cosolvents glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I proteolytic and oxidative stability was determined. The results indicated that cABC I is highly susceptible to proteolysis and oxidation. Comparison of proteolytic patterns demonstrated a high degree of similarity which confirmed the exposure of specific regions of cABC I to proteolysis. However, proteolytic degradation was significantly reduced in the presence of cosolvents. In addition, cosolvents decreased the rate of both cABC I proteolytic and oxidative inactivation. Notably, the degree of stabilization provided by these cosolvents varied greatly. These findings indicated the high potential of cosolvents in protein stabilization to proteolysis and oxidative inactivation.

  7. MdsABC-Mediated Pathway for Pathogenicity in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Song, Saemee; Lee, Boeun; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Soonhye; Kang, Ilnam; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Ha, Nam-Chul; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok; Kim, Yong-Hak

    2015-11-01

    MdsABC is a Salmonella-specific tripartite efflux pump that has been implicated in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; however, little is known about the virulence factors associated with this pump. We observed MdsABC expression-dependent alterations in the degree of resistance to extracellular oxidative stress and macrophage-mediated killing. Thin-layer chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that overexpression of MdsABC led to increased secretion of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-phosphatidylserine (PSPS), affecting the ability of the bacteria to invade and survive in host cells. Overexpression of MdsABC and external addition of PSPS similarly rendered the mdsABC deletion strain resistant to diamide. Diagonal gel analysis showed that PSPS treatment reduced the diamide-mediated formation of disulfide bonds, particularly in the membrane fraction of the bacteria. Salmonella infection of macrophages induced the upregulation of MdsABC expression and led to an increase of intracellular bacterial number and host cell death, similar to the effects of MdsABC overexpression and PSPS pretreatment on the mdsABC deletion strain. Our study shows that MdsABC mediates a previously uncharacterized pathway that involves PSPS as a key factor for the survival and virulence of S. Typhimurium in phagocytic cells.

  8. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  18. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  19. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  20. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity. (SM)

  1. Microlensing, brown dwarfs and Gaia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telesecopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion (>300 mas yr-1) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of tens. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Einstein radius can be recovered from astrometric data, then the mass of the lens can be found. Microlensing provides the only way of measuring the masses of individual objects irrespective of their luminosity. So, microlensing with GAIA is the best way to carry out an inventory of masses in the solar neighbourhood in the brown dwarf regime.

  2. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed, in many…

  3. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  4. Improved avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) staining.

    PubMed

    Cattoretti, G; Berti, E; Schiró, R; D'Amato, L; Valeggio, C; Rilke, F

    1988-02-01

    A considerable intensification of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining system (ABC) was obtained by sequentially overlaying the sections to be immunostained with an avidin-rich and a biotin-rich complex. Each sequential addition contributed to the deposition of horseradish peroxidase on the immunostained site and allowed the subsequent binding of a complementary complex. With this technique a higher dilution of the antisera could be used and minute amounts of antigen masked by the fixative could be demonstrated on paraffin sections.

  5. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  6. SU-E-T-401: Feasibility Study of Using ABC to Gate Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Shepard, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The current SBRT treatment techniques include free breathing (FB) SBRT and gated FB SBRT. Gated FB SBRT has smaller target and less lung toxicity with longer treatment time. The recent development of direct connectivity between the ABC and linac allowing for automated beam gating. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using ABC system to gate the lung SBRT treatment. Methods: A CIRS lung phantom with a 3cm sphere-insert and a moving chest plate was used in this study. Sinusoidal motion was used for the FB pattern. An ABC signal was imported to simulate breath holds. 4D-CT was taken in FB mode and average-intensity-projection (AIP) was used to create FB and 50% gated FB SBRT planning CT. A manually gated 3D CT scan was acquired for ABC gated SBRT planning.An SBRT plan was created for each treatment option. A surface-mapping system was used for 50% gating and ABC system was used for ABC gating. A manually gated CBCT scan was also performed to verify setup. Results: Among three options, the ABC gated plan has the smallest PTV of 35.94cc, which is 35% smaller comparing to that of the FB plan. Consequently, the V20 of the left lung reduced by 15% and 23% comparing to the 50% gated FB and FB plans, respectively. The FB plan took 4.7 minutes to deliver, while the 50% gated FB plan took 18.5 minutes. The ABC gated plan delivery took only 10.6 minutes. A stationary target with 3cm diameter was also obtained from the manually gated CBCT scan. Conclusion: A strategy for ABC gated lung SBRT was developed. ABC gating can significantly reduce the lung toxicity while maintaining the target coverage. Comparing to the 50% gated FB SBRT, ABC gated treatment can also provide less lung toxicity as well as improved delivery efficiency. This research is funded by Elekta.

  7. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods.

  8. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  9. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  10. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  11. Mutation of a novel ABC transporter gene is responsible for the failure to incorporate uric acid in the epidermis of ok mutants of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Kiuchi, Takashi; Fujii, Tsuguru; Daimon, Takaaki; Li, Muwang; Banno, Yutaka; Kikuta, Shingo; Kikawada, Takahiro; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2013-07-01

    ok mutants of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, exhibit highly translucent larval skin resulting from the inability to incorporate uric acid into the epidermal cells. Here we report the identification of a gene responsible for the ok mutation using positional cloning and RNAi experiments. In two independent ok mutant strains, we found a 49-bp deletion and a 233-bp duplication, respectively, in mRNAs of a novel gene, Bm-ok, which encodes a half-type ABC transporter, each of which results in translation of a truncated protein in each mutant. Although the Bm-ok sequence was homologous to well-known transporter genes, white, scarlet, and brown in Drosophila, the discovery of novel orthologs in the genomes of lepidopteran, hymenopteran, and hemipteran insects identifies it as a member of a new distinct subfamily of transporters. Embryonic RNAi of Bm-ok demonstrated that repression of Bm-ok causes a translucent phenotype in the first-instar silkworm larva. We discuss the possibility that Bm-ok forms a heterodimer with another half-type ABC transporter, Bmwh3, and acts as a uric acid transporter in the silkworm epidermis.

  12. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  13. ABCs of Public Education in North Carolina: A Journey toward Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    In 1995, the North Carolina General Assembly directed the North Carolina State Board of Education to develop a plan to bolster student growth and performance in grades 4-8 throughout the state. In response, the board developed the ABCs of Public Education. (ABC stands for Accountability; teaching the Basics of reading, writing, and mathematics;…

  14. Manipulating the glial scar: chondroitinase ABC as a therapy for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Carter, Lucy M

    2011-03-10

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are potent inhibitors of growth in the adult CNS. Use of the enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) as a strategy to reduce CSPG inhibition in experimental models of spinal cord injury has led to observations of a remarkable capacity for repair. Here we review the evidence that treatment with ChABC, either as an individual therapy or in combination with other strategies, can have multiple beneficial effects on promoting repair following spinal cord injury. These include promoting regeneration of injured axons, plasticity of uninjured pathways and neuroprotection of injured projection neurons. More importantly, ChABC therapy has been demonstrated to promote significant recovery of function to spinal injured animals. Thus, there is robust pre-clinical evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of ChABC treatment following spinal cord injury. Furthermore, these effects have been replicated in a number of different injury models, with independent confirmation by different laboratories, providing an important validation of ChABC as a promising therapeutic strategy. We discuss putative mechanisms underlying ChABC-mediated repair as well as potential issues and considerations in translating ChABC treatment into a clinical therapy for spinal cord injury.

  15. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  16. Multidrug-Resistance Transporter AbcA Secretes Staphylococcus aureus Cytolytic Toxins.

    PubMed

    Yoshikai, Hirono; Kizaki, Hayato; Saito, Yuki; Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-15

    Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are Staphylococcus aureus cytolytic toxins that lyse erythrocytes and neutrophils and have important functions in the S. aureus infectious process. The molecular mechanisms of PSM secretion, however, are not well understood. Here we report that knockout of the multidrug-resistance ABC transporter AbcA, which contributes to S. aureus resistance against antibiotics and chemicals, diminished the secreted amount of PSM, leading to the accumulation of PSM in the intracellular fraction. The amount of PSM in the culture supernatants of the abcA knockout mutants was restored by introduction of the wild-type abcA gene, whereas it was not completely restored by introduction of mutant abcA genes encoding AbcA mutant proteins carrying amino acid substitutions in the adenosine triphosphate binding motifs. The abcA knockout mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. These findings suggest that the multidrug resistance transporter AbcA secretes PSMs and contributes to S. aureus virulence.

  17. Creating an iPhone Application for Collecting Continuous ABC Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data- collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to…

  18. Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC): Establishing Construct Validity for Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…

  19. Multidrug resistance-associated ABC transporters - too much of one thing, good for nothing.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Jirina; Lanova, Martina; Pachernik, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    Abstract Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cells results in multidrug resistance (MDR) which leads to unsuccessful chemotherapy. The most important MDR-associated members of ABC superfamily are ABC B1/P-glycoprotein/MDR1, ABC C1/multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1), and ABC G2/BCRP. This study is not only focused on function, substrates, and localization of these popular proteins but also on other ABC C family members such as ABC C2-6/MRP2-6 and ABC C7/CFTR. Current research is mainly oriented on the cancer-promoting role of these proteins, but important lessons could also be learned from the physiological roles of these proteins or from polymorphisms affecting their function. Thorough knowledge of structure and detailed mechanism of efflux can aid in the discovery of new chemotherapy targets in the future. Although the best way on how to deal with MDR would be to prevent its development, we describe some new promising strategies on how to conquer both inherited and induced MDRs.

  20. Parents' Perspectives on Braille Literacy: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents who were the primary caretakers of children in the Alphabetic and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study) revealed their perspectives about braille literacy. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was constructed by the ABC Braille research team, and researchers conducted telephone interviews with 31 parents who were the…

  1. Multidrug-Resistance Transporter AbcA Secretes Staphylococcus aureus Cytolytic Toxins.

    PubMed

    Yoshikai, Hirono; Kizaki, Hayato; Saito, Yuki; Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-15

    Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are Staphylococcus aureus cytolytic toxins that lyse erythrocytes and neutrophils and have important functions in the S. aureus infectious process. The molecular mechanisms of PSM secretion, however, are not well understood. Here we report that knockout of the multidrug-resistance ABC transporter AbcA, which contributes to S. aureus resistance against antibiotics and chemicals, diminished the secreted amount of PSM, leading to the accumulation of PSM in the intracellular fraction. The amount of PSM in the culture supernatants of the abcA knockout mutants was restored by introduction of the wild-type abcA gene, whereas it was not completely restored by introduction of mutant abcA genes encoding AbcA mutant proteins carrying amino acid substitutions in the adenosine triphosphate binding motifs. The abcA knockout mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. These findings suggest that the multidrug resistance transporter AbcA secretes PSMs and contributes to S. aureus virulence. PMID:26160745

  2. Characterization of Two ABC Transporters from Biocontrol and Phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABC transporter genes from four strains of Fusarium oxysporum [two biocontrol and two phytopathogenic (f. sp. lycopersici Race 1) isolates] indicated that this gene is well conserved. However, sequences of promoter regions of FoABC1 differed between 8 phytopathogenic and 11 biocontrol strains of F....

  3. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  4. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  5. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  6. A Comparison of the K-ABC and WISC-R: A Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; And Others

    The concurrent validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) was examined by comparing K-ABC scores and Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R) scores for 58 school children in primary and intermediate grades. Thirty-seven of these children had either educable mental retardation, learning disabilities, or…

  7. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  8. Class C ABC transporters and Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Terry L; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion is carried out by core machinery that is conserved throughout eukaryotes. This is comprised of Rab GTPases and their effectors, and SNARE proteins, which together are sufficient to drive the fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes. However, an outer layer of factors that are specific to individual trafficking pathways in vivo regulates the spatial and temporal occurrence of fusion. The homotypic fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar lysosomes utilizes a growing set of factors to regulate the fusion machinery that include members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Yeast vacuoles have five class C ABC transporters that are known to transport a variety of toxins into the vacuole lumen as part of detoxifying the cell. We have found that ABCC transporters can also regulate vacuole fusion through novel mechanisms. For instance Ybt1 serves as negative regulator of fusion through its effects on vacuolar Ca2+ homeostasis. Additional studies showed that Ycf1 acts as a positive regulator by affecting the efficient recruitment of the SNARE Vam7. Finally, we discuss the potential interface between the translocation of lipids across the membrane bilayer, also known as lipid flipping, and the efficiency of fusion. PMID:25610719

  9. Major decline in marine and terrestrial animal consumption by brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Junko O; Tayasu, Ichiro; Mano, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Miyuki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have had the strongest impacts on natural ecosystems since the last glacial period, including the alteration of interspecific relationships such as food webs. In this paper, we present a historical record of major alterations of trophic structure by revealing millennium-scale dietary shifts of brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Hokkaido islands, Japan, using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope analysis. Dietary analysis of brown bears revealed that salmon consumption by bears in the eastern region of Hokkaido significantly decreased from 19% to 8%. In addition, consumption of terrestrial animals decreased from 56% to 5% in western region, and 64% to 8% in eastern region. These dietary shifts are likely to have occurred in the last approximately 100-200 years, which coincides with the beginning of modernisation in this region. Our results suggest that human activities have caused an alteration in the trophic structure of brown bears in the Hokkaido islands. This alteration includes a major decline in the marine-terrestrial linkage in eastern region, and a loss of indirect-interactions between bears and wolves, because the interactions potentially enhanced deer predation by brown bears.

  10. Major decline in marine and terrestrial animal consumption by brown bears (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Junko O.; Tayasu, Ichiro; Mano, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Miyuki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have had the strongest impacts on natural ecosystems since the last glacial period, including the alteration of interspecific relationships such as food webs. In this paper, we present a historical record of major alterations of trophic structure by revealing millennium-scale dietary shifts of brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Hokkaido islands, Japan, using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope analysis. Dietary analysis of brown bears revealed that salmon consumption by bears in the eastern region of Hokkaido significantly decreased from 19% to 8%. In addition, consumption of terrestrial animals decreased from 56% to 5% in western region, and 64% to 8% in eastern region. These dietary shifts are likely to have occurred in the last approximately 100–200 years, which coincides with the beginning of modernisation in this region. Our results suggest that human activities have caused an alteration in the trophic structure of brown bears in the Hokkaido islands. This alteration includes a major decline in the marine-terrestrial linkage in eastern region, and a loss of indirect-interactions between bears and wolves, because the interactions potentially enhanced deer predation by brown bears. PMID:25776994

  11. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  12. Modulation of Expression and Activity of ABC Transporters by the Phytoestrogen Genistein. Impact on Drug Disposition.

    PubMed

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ciriaci, Nadia; Mottino, Aldo Domingo; Catania, Viviana Alicia; Ruiz, María Laura

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. They also mediate multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Isoflavones, such as genistein (GNT), belong to a class of naturally-occurring compounds found at high concentrations in commonly consumed soya based-foods and dietary supplements. GNT and its metabolites interact with ABC transporters as substrates, inhibitors and/or modulators of their expression. This review compiles information about regulation of ABC transporters by GNT with special emphasis on the three major groups of ABC transporters involved in excretion of endo- and xenobiotics as follows: Pglycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1), a group of multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs, ABCC subfamily) and ABCG2 (BCRP), an ABC half-transporter. The impact of these regulations on potential GNT-drug interactions is further considered. PMID:27048380

  13. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  14. Response of brown treesnakes to reduction of their rodent prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gragg, J.E.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.; White, Gary C.; Dean-Bradley, K.; Ellingson, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Trapping brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis; BTS) with live-mouse (Mus domesticus) lures is the principal control technique for this invasive species on Guam. Lure-based trapping is also used on other islands as a precaution against undetected arrivals and in response to verified BTS sightings. However, the effectiveness of lure-based trapping on other islands is questionable, as it has yielded no BTS despite other evidence of their presence. Some evidence suggests that high rodent numbers may interfere with BTS control. To test the relationship between rodent abundance and snake trappability, we conducted a controlled, replicated field experiment incorporating a rodenticide treatment during a BTS mark-recapture study. Using open population modeling in Program MARK, we estimated BTS apparent survival and recapture probabilities. Rodent reduction increased BTS recapture probabilities by 52-65% in 2002 and 22-36% in 2003, and it decreased apparent survival by <1% both years. This appears to be the first published instance of manipulating wild prey to influence snake behavior. Rodent reduction may enhance detection and control of BTS with traps on Guam and other islands. It may also amplify the effectiveness of oral toxicants against BTS.

  15. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries. PMID:11326572

  16. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.

  17. 75 FR 11991 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of...

  18. The Brown Tree Snake on Guam: How the Arrival of One Invasive Species Damaged the Ecology, Commerce, Electrical Systems and Human Health on Guam: A Comprehensive Information Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Leasman-Tanner, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Synopsis -- Shortly after World War II, and before 1952, the brown tree snake was accidentally transported from its native range in the South Pacific to Guam, probably as a stowaway in ship cargo. As a result of abnormally abundant prey resources on Guam and the absence of natural predators and other population controls, brown tree snake populations reached unprecedented numbers. Snakes caused the extirpation of most of the native forest vertebrate species; thousands of power outages affecting private, commercial, and military activities; widespread loss of domestic birds and pets; and considerable emotional trauma to residents and visitors alike when snakes invaded human habitats with the potential for severe envenomation of small children. Since Guam is a major transportation hub in the Pacific, numerous opportunities exist for the brown tree snakes on Guam to be introduced accidentally to other Pacific islands as passive stowaways in ship and air traffic from Guam. Numerous sightings of this species have been reported on other islands, and an incipient population is probably established on Saipan. It is important that people who may come in contact with the brown tree snake, particularly on neighboring islands and other high-risk sites, understand the scope of this problem and how to identify the snake so proper action can be taken. This resource has been developed to provide source materials on the history of the invasion, continuing threats, research results, and containment and management of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) in Guam and its relevance to other islands and mild continental environments.

  19. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  20. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  1. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  2. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 α-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The oriV of this plasmid resides

  3. Responses of California Brown Pelicans to disturbances at a large Oregon roost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Anthony, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Numbers of California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) along the coast of Oregon and Washington have increased sharply in recent years. We identified East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary as the site of the largest pelican roost within this region. Numbers of pelicans roosting on East Sand Island have increased from less than 100 during 1979-1986 to a high count of 10,852 in 2002. The East Sand Island roost is currently the site of a major non-breeding aggregation of this endangered subspecies. Total numbers of pelicans roosting on East Sand Island increased seasonally from April to September or October, and then declined sharply with the onset of winter storms. Pelicans appeared to forage more during low tides, and return to the roost during high tides; therefore, pelican numbers on the island were positively associated with tide height. Land-based human disturbance was negatively associated with total pelican numbers, whereas water-based human disturbance had no significant effect on total pelican numbers on the island. Natural disturbances, although more frequent than human disturbances, apparently did not influence the total number of pelicans on the island.

  4. Explosibility of Victorian brown coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboenko, F.

    1987-04-01

    The explosibility of Victorian brown coal dusts has been investigated in a wide range of equipment, including the 1.2 dm/sup 3/ Hartmann bomb and the 20 litre spherical bomb. The Hartmann bomb seriously underestimates the severity of brown coal dust explosions and empirical relations between Hartmann bomb and Spherical bomb results cited in the literature are not valid for brown coal. Explosibility increases with decreasing moisture content and particle size and increases with increasing volatile matter content.

  5. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  6. Stratigraphy and morphology of the barrier platform of Breton Island, Louisiana: deltaic, marine and human influences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Locker, Stanley D.

    2015-01-01

    Breton Island, located at the southern end of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, is part of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Breton NWR is recognized as an important bird habitat and is host to one of Louisiana's largest historical brown pelican nesting colonies. Loss of island area through relative sea-level rise, storm impact, and impeded and diminishing sediment supply is reducing the available habitat, and restoration is necessary if the island is to remain emergent. Physical investigation of the Breton Island platform has provided new insight into the geologic framework. The data reveal a complex system that is undergoing both long-term and short-term change. Results of the study help to resolve uncertainties in island evolution and will assist in effective restoration of the island.

  7. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  8. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  9. The Arabidopsis nectary is an ABC-independent floral structure.

    PubMed

    Baum, S F; Eshed, Y; Bowman, J L

    2001-11-01

    In contrast to the conservation of floral organ order in angiosperm flowers, nectary glands can be found in various floral and extrafloral positions. Since in Arabidopsis, the nectary develops only at the base of stamens, its specification was assayed with regard to the floral homeotic ABC selector genes. We show that the nectary can form independently of any floral organ identity gene but is restricted to the 'third whorl' domain in the flower. This domain is, in part, specified redundantly by LEAFY and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS. Even though nectary glands arise from cells previously expressing the B class genes, their proper development requires the down-regulation of B class gene activity. While CRABS CLAW is essential for nectary gland formation, its ectopic expression is not sufficient to induce ectopic nectary formation. We show that in Arabidopsis multiple factors act to restrict the nectary to the flower, and surprisingly, some of these factors are LEAFY and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS. PMID:11714690

  10. Multifunctional nanoarchitectures from DNA-based ABC monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong B.; Roh, Young H.; Um, Soong Ho; Funabashi, Hisakage; Cheng, Wenlong; Cha, Judy J.; Kiatwuthinon, Pichamon; Muller, David A.; Luo, Dan

    2009-07-01

    The ability to attach different functional moieties to a molecular building block could lead to applications in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, intelligent sensing and drug delivery. The building unit needs to be both multivalent and anisotropic, and although many anisotropic building blocks have been created, these have not been universally applicable. Recently, DNA has been used to generate various nanostructures or hybrid systems, and as a generic building block for various applications. Here, we report the creation of anisotropic, branched and crosslinkable building blocks (ABC monomers) from which multifunctional nanoarchitectures have been assembled. In particular, we demonstrate a target-driven polymerization process in which polymers are generated only in the presence of a specific DNA molecule, leading to highly sensitive pathogen detection. Using this monomer system, we have also designed a biocompatible nanovector that delivers both drugs and tracers simultaneously. Our approach provides a general yet versatile route towards the creation of a range of multifunctional nanoarchitectures.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films.

    PubMed

    Yerzhakov, H V; Plumer, M L; Whitehead, J P

    2016-05-18

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerzhakov, H. V.; Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  13. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  14. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  15. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis. PMID:26781688

  16. 50 Years after Brown v. the Board of Education: An Interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriuolo, Nancy E.

    2004-01-01

    This spring marks the 50th anniversary (May 17, 1954-2004) of the Supreme Courts' decision to outlaw segregation by ruling unanimously in favor of the plaintiffs in Brown v. the Board of Education. Of course, segregation never really ended, as will be explained in this interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson, daughter of Oliver Brown, the 10th of…

  17. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  18. Research Progress on the Role of ABC Transporters in the Drug Resistance Mechanism of Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Mao, Ding-an; Liu, Li-qun

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy is not fully clear. In recent years, both animal and clinical trials have shown that the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is increased in patients with intractable epilepsy; additionally, epileptic seizures can lead to an increase in the number of sites that express ABC transporters. These findings suggest that ABC transporters play an important role in the drug resistance mechanism of epilepsy. ABC transporters can perform the funcions of a drug efflux pump, which can reduce the effective drug concentration at epilepsy lesions by reducing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to antiepileptic drugs, thus causing resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Given the important role of ABC transporters in refractory epilepsy drug resistance, antiepileptic drugs that are not substrates of ABC transporters were used to obtain ABC transporter inhibitors with strong specificity, high safety, and few side effects, making them suitable for long-term use; therefore, these drugs can be used for future clinical treatment of intractable epilepsy. PMID:26491660

  19. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

  20. PET and SPECT Radiotracers to Assess Function and Expression of ABC Transporters in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) are expressed in high concentrations at various physiological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, blood-tumor barrier), where they impede the tissue accumulation of various drugs by active efflux transport. Changes in ABC transporter expression and function are thought to be implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The availability of a non-invasive imaging method which allows for measuring ABC transporter function or expression in vivo would be of great clinical use in that it could facilitate the identification of those patients that would benefit from treatment with ABC transporter modulating drugs. To date three different kinds of imaging probes have been described to measure ABC transporters in vivo: i) radiolabelled transporter substrates ii) radiolabelled transporter inhibitors and iii) radiolabelled prodrugs which are enzymatically converted into transporter substrates in the organ of interest (e.g. brain). The design of new imaging probes to visualize efflux transporters is inter alia complicated by the overlapping substrate recognition pattern of different ABC transporter types. The present article will describe currently available ABC transporter radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and critically discuss strengths and limitations of individual probes and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21434859

  1. Transcription factors that mediate epithelial–mesenchymal transition lead to multidrug resistance by upregulating ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, M; Stephens, M A; Pathak, H; Rangarajan, A

    2011-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major deterrent in the effective treatment of metastatic cancers by chemotherapy. Even though MDR and cancer invasiveness have been correlated, the molecular basis of this link remains obscure. We show here that treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs increases the expression of several ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) associated with MDR, as well as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, selectively in invasive breast cancer cells, but not in immortalized or non-invasive cells. Interestingly, the mere induction of an EMT in immortalized and non-invasive cell lines increased their expression of ABC transporters, migration, invasion, and drug resistance. Conversely, reversal of EMT in invasive cells by downregulating EMT-inducing transcription factors reduced their expression of ABC transporters, invasion, and rendered them more chemosensitive. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the promoters of ABC transporters carry several binding sites for EMT-inducing transcription factors, and overexpression of Twist, Snail, and FOXC2 increases the promoter activity of ABC transporters. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Twist binds directly to the E-box elements of ABC transporters. Thus, our study identifies EMT inducers as novel regulators of ABC transporters, thereby providing molecular insights into the long-standing association between invasiveness and MDR. Targeting EMT transcription factors could hence serve as novel strategies to curb both metastasis and the associated drug resistance. PMID:21734725

  2. Genetic identification of three ABC transporters as essential elements for nitrate respiration in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, C; Soppa, J

    1999-01-01

    More than 40 nitrate respiration-deficient mutants of Haloferax volcanii belonging to three different phenotypic classes were isolated. All 15 mutants of the null phenotype were complemented with a genomic library of the wild type. Wild-type copies of mutated genes were recovered from complemented mutants using two different approaches. The DNA sequences of 13 isolated fragments were determined. Five fragments were found to overlap; therefore nine different genomic regions containing genes essential for nitrate respiration could be identified. Three genomic regions containing genes coding for subunits of ABC transporters were further characterized. In two cases, genes coding for an ATP-binding subunit and a permease subunit were clustered and overlapped by four nucleotides. The third gene for a permease subunit had no additional ABC transporter gene in proximity. One ABC transporter was found to be glucose specific. The mutant reveals that the ABC transporter solely mediates anaerobic glucose transport. Based on sequence similarity, the second ABC transporter is proposed to be molybdate specific, explaining its essential role in nitrate respiration. The third ABC transporter is proposed to be anion specific. Genome sequencing has shown that ABC transporters are widespread in Archaea. Nevertheless, this study represents only the second example of a functional characterization. PMID:10430572

  3. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  4. Affinity-based release of chondroitinase ABC from a modified methylcellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Vulic, Katarina; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-10-10

    Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is a promising therapeutic for spinal cord injury as it can degrade the glial scar that is detrimental to regrowth and repair. However, the sustained delivery of bioactive ChABC is a challenge requiring highly invasive methods such as intra-spinal injections, insertion of intrathecal catheters, or implantation of delivery vehicles directly into the tissue. ChABC is thermally unstable, further complicating its delivery. Moreover, there are no commercial antibodies available for its detection. To achieve controlled release, we designed an affinity-based system that sustained the release of bioactive ChABC for at least 7days. ChABC was recombinantly expressed as a fusion protein with Src homology domain 3 (SH3) with an N-terminal histidine (HIS) tag and a C-terminal FLAG tag (ChABC-SH3). Protein purification was achieved using a nickel affinity column and, for the first time, direct quantification of ChABC down to 0.1nM was attained using an in-house HIS/FLAG double tag ELISA. The release of active ChABC-SH3 was sustained from a methylcellulose hydrogel covalently modified with an SH3 binding peptide. The rate of release was tunable by varying either the binding strength of the SH3-protein/SH3-peptide pair or the SH3-peptide to SH3-protein ratio. This innovative system has the potential to be used as a platform technology for the release and detection of other proteins that can be expressed using a similar construct.

  5. Affinity-based release of chondroitinase ABC from a modified methylcellulose hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Vulic, Katarina; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-10-10

    Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is a promising therapeutic for spinal cord injury as it can degrade the glial scar that is detrimental to regrowth and repair. However, the sustained delivery of bioactive ChABC is a challenge requiring highly invasive methods such as intra-spinal injections, insertion of intrathecal catheters, or implantation of delivery vehicles directly into the tissue. ChABC is thermally unstable, further complicating its delivery. Moreover, there are no commercial antibodies available for its detection. To achieve controlled release, we designed an affinity-based system that sustained the release of bioactive ChABC for at least 7days. ChABC was recombinantly expressed as a fusion protein with Src homology domain 3 (SH3) with an N-terminal histidine (HIS) tag and a C-terminal FLAG tag (ChABC-SH3). Protein purification was achieved using a nickel affinity column and, for the first time, direct quantification of ChABC down to 0.1nM was attained using an in-house HIS/FLAG double tag ELISA. The release of active ChABC-SH3 was sustained from a methylcellulose hydrogel covalently modified with an SH3 binding peptide. The rate of release was tunable by varying either the binding strength of the SH3-protein/SH3-peptide pair or the SH3-peptide to SH3-protein ratio. This innovative system has the potential to be used as a platform technology for the release and detection of other proteins that can be expressed using a similar construct. PMID:23831055

  6. An ABC pleiotropic drug resistance transporter of Fusarium graminearum with a role in crown and root diseases of wheat.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Donald M; Stephens, Amber E; Munn, Alan L; Manners, John M

    2013-11-01

    FgABC1 (FGSG_04580) is predicted to encode a pleiotropic drug resistance class ABC transporter in Fusarium graminearum, a globally important pathogen of wheat. Deletion mutants of FgABC1 showed reduced virulence towards wheat in crown and root infection assays but were unaltered in infectivity on barley. Expression of FgABC1 during head blight and crown rot disease increases during the necrotrophic phases of infection suggestive of a role for FgABC1 in late infection stages in different tissue types. Deletion of FgABC1 also led to increased sensitivity of the fungus to the antifungal compound benalaxyl in culture, but the response to known cereal defence compounds, gramine, 2-benzoxazalinone and tryptamine was unaltered. FgABC1 appears to have a role in protecting the fungus from antifungal compounds and is likely to help combat as yet unidentified wheat defence compounds during disease development.

  7. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsby, David C.; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-03-01

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR channels has led to a unifying mechanism explaining those ATP-driven conformational changes.

  8. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol-Hee

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein. PMID:16202168

  9. Screening of Streptococcus pneumoniae ABC transporter mutants demonstrates that LivJHMGF, a branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter, is necessary for disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Basavanna, Shilpa; Khandavilli, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Cohen, Jonathan M; Hosie, Arthur H F; Webb, Alexander J; Thomas, Gavin H; Brown, Jeremy S

    2009-08-01

    Bacterial ABC transporters are an important class of transmembrane transporters that have a wide variety of substrates and are important for the virulence of several bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, many S. pneumoniae ABC transporters have yet to be investigated for their role in virulence. Using insertional duplication mutagenesis mutants, we investigated the effects on virulence and in vitro growth of disruption of 9 S. pneumoniae ABC transporters. Several were partially attenuated in virulence compared to the wild-type parental strain in mouse models of infection. For one ABC transporter, required for full virulence and termed LivJHMGF due to its similarity to branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) transporters, a deletion mutant (DeltalivHMGF) was constructed to investigate its phenotype in more detail. When tested by competitive infection, the DeltalivHMGF strain had reduced virulence in models of both pneumonia and septicemia but was fully virulent when tested using noncompetitive experiments. The DeltalivHMGF strain had no detectable growth defect in defined or complete laboratory media. Recombinant LivJ, the substrate binding component of the LivJHMGF, was shown by both radioactive binding experiments and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy to specifically bind to leucine, isoleucine, and valine, confirming that the LivJHMGF substrates are BCAAs. These data demonstrate a previously unsuspected role for BCAA transport during infection for S. pneumoniae and provide more evidence that functioning ABC transporters are required for the full virulence of bacterial pathogens. PMID:19470745

  10. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  11. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  12. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural southern Black…

  13. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  14. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  15. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  16. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  17. Brassboard Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) Development for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeganathan, Muthu; Kuan, Gary; Rud, Mike; Lin, Sean; Sutherland, Kristen; Moore, James; An, Xin

    2008-01-01

    The Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) is a critical element of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) that performs three key functions: coherently combine starlight from two siderostats; individually detect starlight for angle tracking; and disperse and detect the interferometric fringes. In addition, the ABC contains: a stimulus, cornercubes and shutters for in-orbit calibration; several tip/tilt mirror mechanisms for in-orbit alignment; and internal metrology beam launcher for pathlength monitoring. The detailed design of the brassboard ABC (which has the form, fit and function of the flight unit) is complete, procurement of long-lead items is underway, and assembly and testing is expected to be completed in Spring 2009. In this paper, we present the key requirements for the ABC, details of the completed optical and mechanical design as well as plans for assembly and alignment.

  18. New enhanced artificial bee colony (JA-ABC5) algorithm with application for reactive power optimization.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement.

  19. Selection of optimal artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies for structural damage identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Lei; Lu, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the sensitivities of artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies to the damages are investigated, and the optimal sensors are selected to provide the reliable structural damage identification. The sensitivity expressions for one-pin and two-pin ABC frequencies, which are the natural frequencies from structures with one and two additional constraints to its original boundary condition, respectively, are proposed. Based on the expressions, the contributions of the underlying mode shapes in the ABC frequencies can be calculated and used to select more sensitive ABC frequencies. Selection criteria are then defined for different conditions, and their performance in structural damage identification is examined with numerical studies. From the findings, conclusions are given.

  20. Crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of an ABC transporter from Geobacillus kaustophilus.

    PubMed

    Manjula, M; Pampa, K J; Kumar, S M; Mukherjee, S; Kunishima, N; Rangappa, K S; Lokanath, N K

    2015-03-27

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, represent one of the largest superfamilies of primary transporters, which are very essential for various biological functions. The crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of an ABC transporter from Geobacillus kaustophilus has been determined at 1.77 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed that the protomer has two thick arms, (arm I and II), which resemble 'L' shape. The ATP-binding pocket is located close to the end of arm I. ATP molecule is docked into the active site of the protein. The dimeric crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of ABC transporter from G. kaustophilus has been compared with the previously reported crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of ABC transporter from Salmonella typhimurium.

  1. Plant ABC Transporters Enable Many Unique Aspects of a Terrestrial Plant's Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Ung; Song, Won-Yong; Hong, Daewoong; Ko, Donghwi; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Jang, Sunghoon; Yim, Sojeong; Lee, Eunjung; Khare, Deepa; Kim, Kyungyoon; Palmgren, Michael; Yoon, Hwan Su; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial plants have two to four times more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes than other organisms, including their ancestral microalgae. Recent studies found that plants harboring mutations in these transporters exhibit dramatic phenotypes, many of which are related to developmental processes and functions necessary for life on dry land. These results suggest that ABC transporters multiplied during evolution and assumed novel functions that allowed plants to adapt to terrestrial environmental conditions. Examining the literature on plant ABC transporters from this viewpoint led us to propose that diverse ABC transporters enabled many unique and essential aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle, by transporting various compounds across specific membranes of the plant. PMID:26902186

  2. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  3. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  4. Southern Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Wide Binary and Multiple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, José Antonio

    2007-09-01

    The results of the Königstuhl survey in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. I have searched for common proper motion companions to 173 field very low mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >M5.0 V and magnitudes J<~14.5 mag. I have measured for the first time the common proper motion of two new wide systems containing very low mass components, Königstuhl 2 AB and 3 A-BC. Together with Königstuhl 1 AB and 2M 0126-50 AB, they are among the widest systems in their respective classes (r=450-11,900 AU). I have determined the minimum frequency of field wide multiples (r>100 AU) with late-type components at 5.0%+/-1.8% and the frequency of field wide late-type binaries with mass ratios q>0.5 at 1.2%+/-0.9%. These values represent a key diagnostic of evolution history and low-mass star and brown dwarf formation scenarios. In addition, the proper motions of 62 field very low mass dwarfs are measured here for the first time.

  5. Transcriptome-Based Identification of ABC Transporters in the Western Tarnished Plant Bug Lygus hesperus

    PubMed Central

    Hull, J. Joe; Chaney, Kendrick; Geib, Scott M.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Brent, Colin S.; Walsh, Douglas; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic clearance. While ABC transporters have been extensively studied in vertebrates, less is known concerning this superfamily in insects, particularly hemipteran pests. We used RNA-Seq transcriptome sequencing to identify 65 putative ABC transporter sequences (including 36 full-length sequences) from the eight ABC subfamilies in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus), a polyphagous agricultural pest. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clear orthologous relationships with ABC transporters linked to insecticide/xenobiotic clearance and indicated lineage specific expansion of the L. hesperus ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. The transcriptional profile of 13 LhABCs representative of the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies was examined across L. hesperus development and within sex-specific adult tissues. All of the transcripts were amplified from both reproductively immature and mature adults and all but LhABCA8 were expressed to some degree in eggs. Expression of LhABCA8 was spatially localized to the testis and temporally timed with male reproductive development, suggesting a potential role in sexual maturation and/or spermatozoa protection. Elevated expression of LhABCC5 in Malpighian tubules suggests a possible role in xenobiotic clearance. Our results provide the first transcriptome-wide analysis of ABC transporters in an agriculturally important hemipteran pest and, because ABC transporters are known to be important mediators of insecticidal resistance, will provide the basis for future biochemical and toxicological studies on the role of this protein family in insecticide resistance in Lygus species. PMID:25401762

  6. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph.; Bourlos, Dimitrios N.; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S.; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. Purpose: To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. Results: The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. Conclusion: The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI). PMID:27453894

  7. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  8. Neuroprotective effect of chondroitinase ABC on primary and secondary brain injury after stroke in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-ran; Liao, Song-jie; Ye, Lan-xiang; Gong, Qiong; Ding, Qiao; Zeng, Jin-sheng; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-16

    Focal cerebral infarction causes secondary damage in the ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of putative inhibitory components, and its degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) promotes post-injury neurogenesis. This study investigated the role of ChABC in the primary and secondary injury post stroke in hypertension. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and were subjected to continuous intra-infarct infusion of ChABC (0.12 U/d for 7 days) 24 h later. Neurological function was evaluated by a modified neurologic severity score. Neurons were counted in the peri-infarct region and the ipsilateral VPN 8 and 14 days after MCAO by Nissl staining and NeuN labeling. The expressions of CSPGs, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin (SYN) were detected with immunofluorescence or Western blotting. The intra-infarct infusion of ChABC, by degrading accumulated CSPGs, rescued neuronal loss and increased the levels of GAP-43 and SYN in both the ipsilateral cortex and VPN, indicating enhancd neuron survival as well as augmented axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, eventually improving overall neurological function. The study demonstrated that intra-infarct ChABC infusion could salvage the brain from both primary and secondary injury by the intervention on the neuroinhibitory environment post focal cerebral infarction.

  9. Optimization of Straight Cylindrical Turning Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanth, Rajanampalli Seshasai Srinivasa; Hans Raj, Kandikonda

    2016-06-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, that mimics the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the field of process optimization, as it is capable of handling nonlinearity, complexity and uncertainty. Straight cylindrical turning is a complex and nonlinear machining process which involves the selection of appropriate cutting parameters that affect the quality of the workpiece. This paper presents the estimation of optimal cutting parameters of the straight cylindrical turning process using the ABC algorithm. The ABC algorithm is first tested on four benchmark problems of numerical optimization and its performance is compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. Results indicate that, the rate of convergence of ABC algorithm is better than GA and ACO. Then, the ABC algorithm is used to predict optimal cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius to achieve good surface finish. Results indicate that, the ABC algorithm estimated a comparable surface finish when compared with real coded genetic algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  10. The role of ABC transporters in drug resistance, metabolism and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Glavinas, Hristos; Krajcsi, Péter; Cserepes, Judit; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2004-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters form a special family of membrane proteins, characterized by homologous ATP-binding, and large, multispanning transmembrane domains. Several members of this family are primary active transporters, which significantly modulate the absorption, metabolism, cellular effectivity and toxicity of pharmacological agents. This review provides a general overview of the human ABC transporters, their expression, localization and basic mechanism of action. Then we shortly deal with the human ABC transporters as targets of therapeutic interventions in medicine, including cancer drug resistance, lipid and other metabolic disorders, and even gene therapy applications. We place a special emphasis on the three major groups of ABC transporters involved in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR). These are the classical P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1), the multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs, in the ABCC subfamily), and the ABCG2 protein, an ABC half-transporter. All these proteins catalyze an ATP-dependent active transport of chemically unrelated compounds, including anticancer drugs. MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 preferentially extrude large hydrophobic, positively charged molecules, while the members of the MRP family can extrude both hydrophobic uncharged molecules and water-soluble anionic compounds. Based on the physiological expression and role of these transporters, we provide examples for their role in Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion (ADME) and toxicology, and describe several basic assays which can be applied for screening drug interactions with ABC transporters in the course of drug research and development.

  11. Multidrug resistance in parasites: ABC transporters, P-glycoproteins and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Jones, P M; George, A M

    2005-04-30

    Parasitic diseases, caused by protozoa, helminths and arthropods, rank among the most important problems in human and veterinary medicine, and in agriculture, leading to debilitating sicknesses and loss of life. In the absence of vaccines and with the general failure of vector eradication programs, drugs are the main line of defence, but the newest drugs are being tracked by the emergence of resistance in parasites, sharing ominous parallels with multidrug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Any of a number of mechanisms will elicit a drug resistance phenotype in parasites, including: active efflux, reduced uptake, target modification, drug modification, drug sequestration, by-pass shunting, or substrate competition. The role of ABC transporters in parasitic multidrug resistance mechanisms is being subjected to more scrutiny, due in part to the established roles of certain ABC transporters in human diseases, and also to an increasing portfolio of ABC transporters from parasite genome sequencing projects. For example, over 100 ABC transporters have been identified in the Escherichia coli genome, but to date only about 65 in all parasitic genomes. Long established laboratory investigations are now being assisted by molecular biology, bioinformatics, and computational modelling, and it is in these areas that the role of ABC transporters in parasitic multidrug resistance mechanisms may be defined and put in perspective with that of other proteins. We discuss ABC transporters in parasites, and conclude with an example of molecular modelling that identifies a new interaction between the structural domains of a parasite P-glycoprotein. PMID:15826647

  12. Deletion of the P5abc Peripheral Element Accelerates Early and Late Folding Steps of the Tetrahymena Group I Ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Russell,R.; Tijerina, P.; Chadee, A.; Bhaskaran, H.

    2007-01-01

    The P5abc peripheral element stabilizes the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme and enhances its catalytic activity. Despite its beneficial effects on the native structure, prior studies have shown that early formation of P5abc structure during folding can slow later folding steps. Here we use a P5abc deletion variant (E{sup {Delta}P5abc}) to systematically probe the role of P5abc throughout tertiary folding. Time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that E{sup {Delta}P5abc} forms its earliest stable tertiary structure on the millisecond time scale, {approx}5-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme, and stable structure spreads throughout E{sup {Delta}P5abc} in seconds. Nevertheless, activity measurements show that the earliest detectable formation of native E{sup {Delta}P5abc} ribozyme is much slower ({approx}0.6 min{sup -1}), in a manner similar to that of the wild type. Also similar, only a small fraction of E{sup {Delta}P5abc} attains the native state on this time scale under standard conditions at 25 {sup o}C, whereas the remainder misfolds; footprinting experiments show that the misfolded conformer shares structural features with the long-lived misfolded conformer of the wild-type ribozyme. Thus, P5abc does not have a large overall effect on the rate-limiting step(s) along this pathway. However, once misfolded, E{sup {Delta}P5abc} refolds to the native state 80-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme and is less accelerated by urea, indicating that P5abc stabilizes the misfolded structure relative to the less-ordered transition state for refolding. Together, the results suggest that, under these conditions, even the earliest tertiary folding intermediates of the wild-type ribozyme represent misfolded species and that P5abc is principally a liability during the tertiary folding process.

  13. 3D brown adipogenesis to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands".

    PubMed

    Unser, Andrea M; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" are functional. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  14. 3D brown adipogenesis to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands".

    PubMed

    Unser, Andrea M; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" are functional. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:26496384

  15. Study on ADI CD bias correlating ABC function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guogui; Hao, Jingan; Xing, Bin; Jiang, Yuntao; Li, Gaorong; Zhang, Qiang; Yue, Liwan; Zu, Yanlei; Hu, Huayong; Liu, Chang; Shen, Manhua; Zhang, Shijian; He, Weiming; Zhang, Nannan; Lin, Yi-Shih; Wu, Qiang; Shi, Xuelong

    2015-03-01

    As the technology node of semiconductor industry is being driven into more advanced 28 nm and beyond, the critical dimension (CD) error budget at after-development inspection (ADI) stage and its control are more and more important and difficult (1-4). 1 nm or even 0.5 nm CD difference is critical for process control. 0.5~1 nm drift of poly linewidth will result in a detectable off-target drift of device performance. The 0.5~1 nm CD drift of hole or metal linewidth on the backend interconnecting layers can potentially contribute to the bridging of metal patterns to vias, and thereby impact yield. In this paper, we studied one function in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement, i.e. the adjustment of brightness and contrast (ABC). We revealed how the step of addressing focus and even the choice of addressing pattern may bring in a systematic error into the CD measurement. This provides a unique insight in the CD measurement and the measurement consistency of through-pitch (TP) patterns and functional patterns.

  16. ABC copolymer silicone surfactant templating for biomimetic silicification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Guo, Caiyun; Yao, Yuan; Che, Shunai

    2012-07-15

    Using the ABC copolymer silicone surfactant polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-graft-(polyethylene oxide (PEO)-block-propylene oxide (PPO)) (PSEP, Scheme 1a) as a template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a silica source, silica particles with various structures and morphologies (i.e., disordered spherical micellar aggregation, two-dimensional p6mm mesostructure, asymmetric multi-layer non-equilibrium vesicles and symmetric monolayer vesicles) were synthesized by changing the synthesis temperature from 30 to 80 °C. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the surfactant by increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the surfactant packing parameter g, which led to the mesophase transformation from micellar to cylinder and later to a lamellar structure. The good compatibility between the PDMS and the TEOS, the different natures of the hydrophobic PDMS and PPO segments, and the hydrolysis and condensation rates of TEOS enabled the variation of silicification structures. This novel silicone surfactant templating route and a new type of materials with highly ordered mesostructures and asymmetric morphologies provide a new insight into the molecular factors governing inorganic-organic mesophase and biosilicification for fabricating functionalized materials.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  18. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  19. Why Families Are Engaged in Early Learning in Central Falls, Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Joanna; Betancur, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two and half years of evaluating "We Are A Village," a highly competitive federal Investing in Innovation (i3) grant focused on family engagement in early childhood in Central Falls, Rhode Island, the research team at the Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University (AISR) has gained much insight into the…

  20. [Partial cross-cultural adaptation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scale for analysis of patients with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Losapio, Mirella Fiuza; Silva, Lis Gomes; Pondé, Milena Pereira; Novaes, Camila Marinho; Santos, Darci Neves dos; Argollo, Nayara; Oliveira, Ivete Maria Santos; Brasil, Heloisa Helena Alves

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the ABC (Aberrant Behavior Checklist) is to evaluate the treatment response for aberrant behavior in patients with mental retardation. The aim of this study was to describe the partial cross-cultural adaptation of the ABC scale to Brazilian Portuguese. The process included conceptual and item equivalence, two translations (T1, T2) and their back-translations (R1, R2), evaluation of referential and general equivalence, expert evaluations, a pre-test, and elaboration of the final version. Conceptual and item equivalences of the ABC were considered pertinent to Brazilian culture. Semantic equivalence showed good correspondence between R1 items and ABC. Reasonable correspondence was obtained between ABC items and R2. All of the professors understood 94.8% of the items in the scale, while relatives understood 87.9%. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ABC scale thus is available for use, with the appropriate conceptual, item, and semantic equivalence.

  1. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  2. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    PubMed

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  3. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  4. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  5. Prevalence and composition of marine debris in Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) nests at Ashmore Reef.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Hodgson, Jarrod C; Clarke, Rohan H

    2013-12-15

    Anthropogenic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment and has been reported to negatively impact hundreds of species globally. Seabirds are particularly at risk from entanglement in debris due to their habit of collecting food and, in many cases, nesting material off the ocean's surface. We compared the prevalence and composition of debris in nests and along the beach at two Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) colonies on Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea, a remote area known to contain high densities of debris transported by ocean currents. The proportion of nests with debris varied across islands (range 3-31%), likely in response to the availability of natural nesting materials. Boobies exhibited a preference for debris colour (white and black), but not type. The ephemeral nature of Brown Booby nests on Ashmore Reef may limit their utility as indicators of marine pollution, however monitoring is recommended in light of increasing demand for plastic products. PMID:24269009

  6. Prevalence and composition of marine debris in Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) nests at Ashmore Reef.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Hodgson, Jarrod C; Clarke, Rohan H

    2013-12-15

    Anthropogenic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment and has been reported to negatively impact hundreds of species globally. Seabirds are particularly at risk from entanglement in debris due to their habit of collecting food and, in many cases, nesting material off the ocean's surface. We compared the prevalence and composition of debris in nests and along the beach at two Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) colonies on Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea, a remote area known to contain high densities of debris transported by ocean currents. The proportion of nests with debris varied across islands (range 3-31%), likely in response to the availability of natural nesting materials. Boobies exhibited a preference for debris colour (white and black), but not type. The ephemeral nature of Brown Booby nests on Ashmore Reef may limit their utility as indicators of marine pollution, however monitoring is recommended in light of increasing demand for plastic products.

  7. A PhoPQ-Regulated ABC Transporter System Exports Tetracycline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Duan, Kangmin

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen whose infections are difficult to treat due to its high intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Here, we show that the disruption of PA4456, encoding the ATP binding component of a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, increased the bacterium's susceptible to tetracycline and other antibiotics or toxic chemicals. Fluorescence spectroscopy and antibiotic accumulation tests showed that the interruption of the ABC transporter caused increased intracellular accumulation of tetracycline, demonstrating a role of the ABC transporter in tetracycline expulsion. Site-directed mutagenesis proved that the conserved residues of E170 in the Walker B motif and H203 in the H-loop, which are important for ATP hydrolysis, were essential for the function of PA4456. Through a genome-wide search, the PhoPQ two-component system was identified as a regulator of the computationally predicted PA4456-4452 operon that encodes the ABC transporter system. A >5-fold increase of the expression of this operon was observed in the phoQ mutant. The results obtained also show that the expression of the phzA1B1C1D1E1 operon and the production of pyocyanin were significantly higher in the ABC transporter mutant, signifying a connection between the ABC transporter and pyocyanin production. These results indicated that the PhoPQ-regulated ABC transporter is associated with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and other adverse compounds in P. aeruginosa, probably by extruding them out of the cell. PMID:26953208

  8. Astrocytic and vascular remodeling in the injured adult rat spinal cord after chondroitinase ABC treatment.

    PubMed

    Milbreta, Ulla; von Boxberg, Ysander; Mailly, Philippe; Nothias, Fatiha; Soares, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    Upregulation of extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) is a primary cause for the failure of axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury (SCI), and the beneficial effect of their degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is widely documented. Little is known, however, about the effect of ChABC treatment on astrogliosis and revascularization, two important factors influencing axon regrowth. This was investigated in the present study. Immediately after a spinal cord hemisection at thoracic level 8-9, we injected ChABC intrathecally at the sacral level, repeated three times until 10 days post-injury. Our results show an effective cleavage of CSPG glycosaminoglycan chains and stimulation of axonal remodeling within the injury site, accompanied by an extended period of astrocyte remodeling (up to 4 weeks). Interestingly, ChABC treatment favored an orientation of astrocytic processes directed toward the injury, in close association with axons at the lesion entry zone, suggesting a correlation between axon and astrocyte remodeling. Further, during the first weeks post-injury, ChABC treatment affected the morphology of laminin-positive blood vessel basement membranes and vessel-independent laminin deposits: hypertrophied blood vessels with detached or duplicated basement membrane were more numerous than in lesioned untreated animals. In contrast, at later time points, laminin expression increased and became more directly associated with newly formed blood vessels, the size of which tended to be closer to that found in intact tissue. Our data reinforce the idea that ChABC injection in combination with other synergistic treatments is a promising therapeutic strategy for SCI repair.

  9. Acquired Brown's syndrome: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Booth-Mason, S; Kyle, G M; Rossor, M; Bradbury, P

    1985-10-01

    A 62-year-old man with acquired Brown's syndrome is presented. This was due to an orbital metastatic deposit, a cause not previously reported. Other causes of this disorder and its treatment are discussed.

  10. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  11. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  12. How Long? Cosby, Brown and Racial Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Bill Cosby ruffled feathers, raised eyebrows and said a mouthful when, at a Howard University black-tie celebration of the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, he launched into a rift about "the lower economic people" not holding up their end of the bargain in the wake of Brown. "We can't blame White people," Cosby said, for an array…

  13. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter. 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions).

  14. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  15. Genome organisation and expression profiling of ABC protein-encoding genes in Heterobasidion annosum s.l. complex.

    PubMed

    Baral, Bikash; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-03-01

    Members of Heterobasidion annosum species complex are widely regarded as the most destructive fungal pathogens of conifer trees in the boreal and temperate zones of Northern hemisphere. To invade and colonise their host trees, Heterobasidion fungi must overcome components of host chemical defence, including terpenoid oleoresin and phenolic compounds. ABC transporters may play an important role in this process participating in the export of toxic host metabolites and maintaining their intracellular concentration below the critical level. We have identified and phylogenetically classified Heterobasidion genes encoding ABC transporters and closely related ABC proteins. The number of ABC proteins in the Heterobasidion genome is one of the lowest among analysed species of Agaricomycotina. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have analysed transcriptional response of Heterobasidion ABC transporter-encoding genes to monoterpenes as well as their expression profile during growth on pine wood in comparison to the growth on defined media. Several ABC transporters were up-regulated during growth on pine wood. The ABC-transporter encoding gene ABCG1.1 was induced both during growth of H. annosum on pine wood and upon exposure to monoterpenes. Our experimental data demonstrate the differential responses of Heterobasidion ABC genes to growth conditions and chemical stressors. The presented results suggest a potential role of Heterobasidion ABC-G transporters in the resistance to the components of conifer chemical defence. PMID:26895866

  16. Band structure of ABC-trilayer graphene superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Salah Chan, K. S.

    2014-11-28

    We investigate the effect of one-dimensional periodic potentials on the low energy band structure of ABC trilayer graphene first by assuming that all the three layers have the same potential. Extra Dirac points having the same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point are generated by superlattice potentials with equal well and barrier widths. When the potential height is increased, the numbers of extra Dirac points are increased. The dispersions around the Dirac points are not isotropic. It is noted that the dispersion along the k{sub y} direction for k{sub x} = 0 oscillates between a non-linear dispersion and a linear dispersion when the potential height is increased. When the well and barrier widths are not identical, the symmetry of the conduction and valence bands is broken. The extra Dirac points are shifted either upward or downward depending on the barrier and well widths from the zero energy, while the position of the central Dirac point oscillates with the superlattice potential height. By considering different potentials for different layers, extra Dirac points are generated not from the original Dirac points but from the valleys formed in the energy spectrum. Two extra Dirac points appear from each pair of touched valleys, so four Dirac points appeared in the spectrum at particular barrier height. By increasing the barrier height of superlattice potential two Dirac points merge into the original Dirac point. This emerging and merging of extra Dirac points is different from the equal potential case.

  17. Conformational plasticity of the type I maltose ABC importer.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Simon; Licht, Anke; Wuttge, Steven; Schneider, Erwin; Bordignon, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters couple the translocation of solutes across membranes to ATP hydrolysis. Crystal structures of the Escherichia coli maltose importer (MalFGK2) in complex with its substrate binding protein (MalE) provided unprecedented insights in the mechanism of substrate translocation, leaving the MalE-transporter interactions still poorly understood. Using pulsed EPR and cross-linking methods we investigated the effects of maltose and MalE on complex formation and correlated motions of the MalK2 nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We found that both substrate-free (open) and liganded (closed) MalE interact with the transporter with similar affinity in all nucleotide states. In the apo-state, binding of open MalE occurs via the N-lobe, leaving the C-lobe disordered, but upon maltose binding, closed MalE associates tighter to the transporter. In both cases the NBDs remain open. In the presence of ATP, the transporter binds both substrate-free and liganded MalE, both inducing the outward-facing conformation trapped in the crystal with open MalE at the periplasmic side and NBDs tightly closed. In contrast to ATP, ADP-Mg(2+) alone is sufficient to induce a semiopen conformation in the NBDs. In this nucleotide-driven state, the transporter binds both open and closed MalE with slightly different periplasmic configurations. We also found that dissociation of MalE is not a required step for substrate translocation since a supercomplex with MalE cross-linked to MalG retains the ability to hydrolyze ATP and to transport maltose. These features of MalE-MalFGK2 interactions highlight the conformational plasticity of the maltose importer, providing insights into the ATPase stimulation by unliganded MalE.

  18. Tiling patterns from ABC star molecules: 3-colored foams?

    PubMed

    Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Pedersen, Martin C; Hyde, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    We present coarse-grained simulations of the self-assembly of 3-armed ABC star polyphiles. In systems of star polyphiles with two arms of equal length the simulations corroborate and expand previous findings from related miktoarm star terpolymer systems on the formation of patterns containing columnar domains whose sections are 2D planar tilings. However, the systematic variation of face topologies as the length of the third (unequal) arm is varied differs from earlier findings regarding the compositional dependence. We explore 2D 3-colored foams to establish the optimal patterns based on interfacial energy alone. A generic construction algorithm is described that accounts for all observed 2D tiling patterns and suggests other patterns likely to be found beyond the range of the simulations reported here. Patterns resulting from this algorithm are relaxed using Surface Evolver calculations to form 2D foams with minimal interfacial length as a function of composition. This allows us to estimate the interfacial enthalpic contributions to the free energy of related star molecular assemblies assuming strong segregation. We compare the resulting phase sequence with a number of theoretical results from particle-based simulations and field theory, allowing us to tease out relative enthalpic and entropic contributions as a function of the chain lengths making up the star molecules. Our results indicate that a richer polymorphism is to be expected in systems not dominated by chain entropy. Further, analysis of corresponding planar tiling patterns suggests that related two-periodic columnar structures are unlikely hypothetical phases in 4-arm star polyphile melts in the absence of sufficient arm configurational freedom for minor domains to form lens-shaped di-gons, which require higher molecular weight polymeric arms. Finally, we discuss the possibility of forming a complex tiling pattern that is a quasi-crystalline approximant for 3-arm star polyphiles with unequal arm

  19. Control of Plasma Membrane Permeability by ABC Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Khakhina, Svetlana; Johnson, Soraya S.; Manoharlal, Raman; Russo, Sarah B.; Blugeon, Corinne; Lemoine, Sophie; Sunshine, Anna B.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Cowart, L. Ashley; Devaux, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters Pdr5 and Yor1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae control the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane as well as serving as ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps. Mutant strains lacking these transporter proteins were found to exhibit very different resistance phenotypes to two inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis that act either late (aureobasidin A [AbA]) or early (myriocin [Myr]) in the pathway leading to production of these important plasma membrane lipids. These pdr5Δ yor1 strains were highly AbA resistant but extremely sensitive to Myr. We provide evidence that these phenotypic changes are likely due to modulation of the plasma membrane flippase complexes, Dnf1/Lem3 and Dnf2/Lem3. Flippases act to move phospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Genetic analyses indicate that lem3Δ mutant strains are highly AbA sensitive and Myr resistant. These phenotypes are fully epistatic to those seen in pdr5Δ yor1 strains. Direct analysis of AbA-induced signaling demonstrated that loss of Pdr5 and Yor1 inhibited the AbA-triggered phosphorylation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 and its substrate Orm1. Microarray experiments found that a pdr5Δ yor1 strain induced a Pdr1-dependent induction of the entire Pdr regulon. Our data support the view that Pdr5/Yor1 negatively regulate flippase function and activity of the nuclear Pdr1 transcription factor. Together, these data argue that the interaction of the ABC transporters Pdr5 and Yor1 with the Lem3-dependent flippases regulates permeability of AbA via control of plasma membrane protein function as seen for the high-affinity tryptophan permease Tat2. PMID:25724885

  20. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  1. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  2. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  3. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  5. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  6. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Electron transfer between the QmoABC membrane complex and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Américo G; Santos, André A; Pereira, Inês A C

    2016-04-01

    The dissimilatory adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (AprAB) is a key enzyme in the sulfate reduction pathway that catalyzes the reversible two electron reduction of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) to sulfite and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The physiological electron donor for AprAB is proposed to be the QmoABC membrane complex, coupling the quinone-pool to sulfate reduction. However, direct electron transfer between these two proteins has never been observed. In this work we demonstrate for the first time direct electron transfer between the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 QmoABC complex and AprAB. Cyclic voltammetry conducted with the modified Qmo electrode and AprAB in the electrolyte solution presented the Qmo electrochemical signature with two additional well-defined one electron redox processes, attributed to the AprAB FAD redox behavior. Moreover, experiments performed under catalytic conditions using the QmoABC modified electrode, with AprAB and APS in solution, show a catalytic current peak develop in the cathodic wave, attributed to substrate reduction, and which is not observed in the absence of QmoABC. Substrate dependence conducted with different electrode preparations (with and without immobilized Qmo) demonstrated that the QmoABC complex is essential for efficient electron delivery to AprAB, in order to sustain catalysis. These results confirm the role of Qmo in electron transfer to AprAB. PMID:26768116

  8. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  9. Marine medaka ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and new insight into teleost Abch nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Hye-Min; Choi, Ik-Young; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The ABC gene family is recognized as one of the largest gene families in all kingdoms of life. Although many genes involved in the ABC superfamily have been annotated from several fish species, information on large sets of the ABC superfamily and their evolutionary characterization are still unclear. In the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, 50 ABC transporters were identified with bioinformatics-aided in silico analyses, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into the eight subfamilies (A–H) that include all members of all ABC subfamilies. Interestingly, several teleosts’ Abcg members were closely clustered with Abch members in a distinctive clade. The abch gene was also observed in the coelacanth and the spotted gar, suggesting that this gene was retained from a bilaterian ancestor and that a gene loss event recently occurred in the tetrapod lineage. In teleosts, the nomenclature of previously annotated abcg genes should be considered carefully, as they form a distinctive clade with the marine medaka abch subfamily and other teleost abch genes, but not with the members of the Abcg subfamily. PMID:26472499

  10. Subnanometer resolution cryo-EM structure of a nucleotide free heterodimeric ABC exporter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JungMin; Wu, Shenping; Tomasiak, Thomas; Mergel, Claudia; Winter, Michael B.; Stiller, Sebastian B.; Robles-Colmanares, Yaneth; Stroud, Robert M.; Tampé, Robert; Craik, Charles S.; Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters translocate substrates across cell membranes, using energy harnessed from ATP binding and hydrolysis at their nucleotide binding domains (NBDs)1,2. ABC exporters are present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with examples implicated in multidrug resistance of pathogens and cancer cells, as well as in many human diseases3,4. TmrAB is a heterodimeric ABC exporter from the thermophilic Gram-negative eubacterium Thermus thermophilus homologous to various multidrug transporters and containing one degenerate site with a non-catalytic residue next to the Walker B motif5. Here we report a subnanometer resolution structure of detergent-solubilized TmrAB in a nucleotide-free, inward-facing conformation by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). The reconstructions clearly resolved characteristic features of ABC transporters, including helices in the transmembrane domain (TMD) and NBDs. A cavity in the TMD is accessible laterally from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane as well as from the cytoplasm, indicating that the transporter lies in an inward-facing open conformation. The two NBDs remain in contact via their C-terminal helices. Furthermore, comparison between our structure and the crystal structures of other ABC transporters suggests a possible trajectory of conformational changes that involves a sliding and rotating motion between the two NBDs during the transition from the inward facing to outward facing conformations. PMID:25363761

  11. Effects of multiple chondroitinase ABC applications on tissue engineered articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Roman M.; Responte, Donald J.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Increasing tensile properties and collagen content is a recognized need in articular cartilage tissue engineering. This study tested the hypothesis that multiple applications of chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degrading enzyme, could increase construct tensile properties in a scaffold-less approach for articular cartilage tissue engineering. Developing constructs were treated with C-ABC at 2 wks, 4 wks, or both 2 and 4 wks. At 4 and 6 wks, construct sulfated GAG composition, collagen composition, and compressive and tensile biomechanical properties were assessed, along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for collagens type I, II, and VI, and the proteoglycan decorin. At 6 wks, the tensile modulus and ultimate tensile strength of the group treated at both 2 and 4 wks were significantly increased over controls by 78% and 64%, reaching values of 3.4 and 1.4 MPa, respectively. Collagen concentration also increased 43%. Further, groups treated at either 2 wks or 4 wks alone also had increased tensile stiffness compared to controls. Surprisingly, though GAG was depleted in the treated groups, by 6 wks there were no significant differences in compressive stiffness. IHC showed abundant collagen type II and VI in all groups, with no collagen type I. Further, decorin staining was reduced following C-ABC treatment, but returned during subsequent culture. The results support the use of C-ABC in cartilage tissue engineering for increasing tensile properties. PMID:19123232

  12. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. PMID:27449595

  13. Phylodynamic Inference with Kernel ABC and Its Application to HIV Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Art F.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The shapes of phylogenetic trees relating virus populations are determined by the adaptation of viruses within each host, and by the transmission of viruses among hosts. Phylodynamic inference attempts to reverse this flow of information, estimating parameters of these processes from the shape of a virus phylogeny reconstructed from a sample of genetic sequences from the epidemic. A key challenge to phylodynamic inference is quantifying the similarity between two trees in an efficient and comprehensive way. In this study, I demonstrate that a new distance measure, based on a subset tree kernel function from computational linguistics, confers a significant improvement over previous measures of tree shape for classifying trees generated under different epidemiological scenarios. Next, I incorporate this kernel-based distance measure into an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework for phylodynamic inference. ABC bypasses the need for an analytical solution of model likelihood, as it only requires the ability to simulate data from the model. I validate this “kernel-ABC” method for phylodynamic inference by estimating parameters from data simulated under a simple epidemiological model. Results indicate that kernel-ABC attained greater accuracy for parameters associated with virus transmission than leading software on the same data sets. Finally, I apply the kernel-ABC framework to study a recent outbreak of a recombinant HIV subtype in China. Kernel-ABC provides a versatile framework for phylodynamic inference because it can fit a broader range of models than methods that rely on the computation of exact likelihoods. PMID:26006189

  14. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR.

  15. Future health disparity initiatives at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Leah; Coleman, Natasha; Dumenco, Luba; Tobin-Tyler, Elizabeth; Dollase, Richard H; George, Paul

    2014-09-02

    As the United States embarks on health care reform through the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to practice medicine will change. Education centered on health disparities and social determinants of health will become increasingly more important as 32 million Americans receive coverage through the ACA. In this paper, we describe future initiatives at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in training medical students on health disparities and social determinants of health through mechanisms such as the Primary Care-Population Medicine Program, the Rhode Island Area Health Education Center, the Scholarly Concentration program and other mechanisms.

  16. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of copper stress acclimation in Ectocarpus siliculosus highlights signaling and tolerance mechanisms in brown algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brown algae are sessile macro-organisms of great ecological relevance in coastal ecosystems. They evolved independently from land plants and other multicellular lineages, and therefore hold several original ontogenic and metabolic features. Most brown algae grow along the coastal zone where they face frequent environmental changes, including exposure to toxic levels of heavy metals such as copper (Cu). Results We carried out large-scale transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to decipher the short-term acclimation of the brown algal model E. siliculosus to Cu stress, and compared these data to results known for other abiotic stressors. This comparison demonstrates that Cu induces oxidative stress in E. siliculosus as illustrated by the transcriptomic overlap between Cu and H2O2 treatments. The common response to Cu and H2O2 consisted in the activation of the oxylipin and the repression of inositol signaling pathways, together with the regulation of genes coding for several transcription-associated proteins. Concomitantly, Cu stress specifically activated a set of genes coding for orthologs of ABC transporters, a P1B-type ATPase, ROS detoxification systems such as a vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase, and induced an increase of free fatty acid contents. Finally we observed, as a common abiotic stress mechanism, the activation of autophagic processes on one hand and the repression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation on the other hand. Conclusions Comparisons with data from green plants indicate that some processes involved in Cu and oxidative stress response are conserved across these two distant lineages. At the same time the high number of yet uncharacterized brown alga-specific genes induced in response to copper stress underlines the potential to discover new components and molecular interactions unique to these organisms. Of particular interest for future research is the potential cross-talk between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-, myo

  17. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  18. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands. PMID:26513585

  19. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J.; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands. PMID:26513585

  20. Tissue-Specific Transcript Profiling for ABC Transporters in the Sequestering Larvae of the Phytophagous Leaf Beetle Chrysomela populi

    PubMed Central

    Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. Results In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant

  1. Deformational History and Rotation of the Leeward Antilles Island Arc: Results of the BOLIVAR Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, A. G.; Avé Lallemant, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The Leeward Antilles island arc is located offshore northern Venezuela and includes Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire (ABCs). The ABCs trend WNW-ESE parallel to the obliquely convergent Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone. Field work on the ABCs has provided new structural data supporting a minimum of 90° clockwise rotation of the islands within the diffuse plate boundary zone. Analysis of faulting, bedding, and cleavages suggest three phases of deformation (D1-D3). The oldest phase of deformation, D1, is characterized by northeast trending normal faults, northwest trending fold axes and cleavages, and northeast striking dextral strike-slip faults. East striking sinstral strike-slip faults are rare. The second phase of deformation, D2, is represented by west-northwest trending thrust faults, north-northeast striking normal faults, northwest trending dextral strike-slip faults, and northeast striking sinstral strike-slip faults. Finally, the youngest phase of deformation, D3, is characterized by northeast striking thrust faults, northwest striking normal faults, east-west dextral strike-slip faults, and north-northwest sinstral strike-slip faults. Quartz and calcite veins were also studied on the ABCs. Cross-cutting relationships in outcrop suggest three phases of veining (V1-V3). The oldest veins, V1, trend northeastward; V2 veins trend northward; and the youngest veins, V3, trend northwestward. Additionally, joints were measured on the ABCs. On Bonaire and Curaçao, joints trend approximately northeast while joints on Aruba are almost random with a slight preference for west-northwest. Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz and calcite veins provides additional information about the pressure and temperature conditions of the deformation phases. Preliminary results from the earliest veins (V1) show a single deformational event on Aruba and Bonaire. On Bonaire, they exhibit both hydrostatic and lithostatic pressure conditions. This new data supports three stages of

  2. The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

  3. Ellesmere Island (Canada) and Northern Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In late July, our planet.s northernmost land masses appear to finally be responding to the warmth of Northern Hemisphere summer. Ellesmere Island, Canada, (top left) and northern Greenland (right) have decided kick off their snowy winter garments in this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 3, 200. Bare brown soils are exposed along the coasts of the still frozen (but thawing!) Arctic waters. Several large, permanent ice caps and glaciers will remain on Ellesmere Island year-round, and Greenland does little more than remove her mittens, but thinning, blue ice is showing up in the many fjords and inlets in the rocky coastlines, showing that temperatures are on the rise. The Nares Strait, which separates the two land masses, still has a way to go before a passage opens up between Baffin Bay to the south and the Artic Ocean to the north. Although Ellesmere Island appears to be 'higher' or farther north than Greenland, that is simply a result of the way the high-latitude scene was projected into an image. To better picture the terrain, imagine that you took a printed copy of the rectangular image and rolled it into a cylinder along its northeast-southwest axis. If you held that cylinder straight up in front of you, you would find that Peary Land, Greenland (right of center), is actually the more northern terrain. In fact Peary Land is the northernmost point on land on the Earth.

  4. Anger and the ABC model underlying Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Smith, Phillip N

    2004-06-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should display greater trait anger than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this prediction regarding the ABC model. 186 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Second Edition to measure irrational thinking and trait anger, respectively. Students who scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance scored significantly higher on Trait Anger than did those who scored lower on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs which is central to the model.

  5. A test of the ABC model underlying rational emotive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Leslie, Yvonne M

    2003-02-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should respond to daily stressors or hassles differently than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this aspect of the ABC model. 192 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Hassles Scale to measure irrational thinking and daily hassles, respectively. Students who scored higher on overall irrational thinking reported a significantly higher frequency of hassles than did those who scored lower on overall irrational thinking, while students who scored higher on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance reported a significantly greater intensity of hassles than did those who scored lower on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs central to this model.

  6. Exploiting Synthetic Lethality for the Therapy of ABC Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Emre, N.C. Tolga; Ceribelli, Michele; Zhang, Meili; Wright, George; Xiao, Wenming; Powell, John; Platig, John; Kohlhammer, Holger; Young, Ryan M.; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yandan; Xu, Weihong; Buggy, Joseph J.; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Mathews, Lesley A.; Shinn, Paul; Guha, Rajarshi; Ferrer, Marc; Thomas, Craig; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Knowledge of oncogenic mutations can inspire therapeutic strategies that are synthetically lethal, affecting cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Lenalidomide is an active agent in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but its mechanism of action is unknown. Lenalidomide kills ABC DLBCL cells by augmenting interferon β (IFNβ) production, owing to the oncogenic MYD88 mutations in these lymphomas. In a cereblon-dependent fashion, lenalidomide downregulates IRF4 and SPIB, transcription factors that together prevent IFNβ production by repressing IRF7 and also amplify pro-survival NF-κB signaling by transactivating CARD11. Blockade of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib also downregulates IRF4 and consequently synergizes with lenalidomide in killing ABC DLBCLs, suggesting attractive therapeutic strategies. PMID:22698399

  7. Application of edge-based finite elements and vector ABCs in 3D scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element absorbing boundary condition (FE-ABC) solution of the scattering by arbitrary 3-D structures is considered. The computational domain is discretized using edge-based tetrahedral elements. In contrast to the node-based elements, edge elements can treat geometries with sharp edges, are divergence-less, and easily satisfy the field continuity condition across dielectric interfaces. They do, however, lead to a higher unknown count but this is balanced by the greater sparsity of the resulting finite element matrix. Thus, the computation time required to solve such a system iteratively with a given degree of accuracy is less than the traditional node-based approach. The purpose is to examine the derivation and performance of the ABC's when applied to 2-D and 3-D problems and to discuss the specifics of our FE-ABC implementation.

  8. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David . E-mail: dsarrut@univ-lyon2.fr; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sebastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm{sup 3} and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.

  9. Canine olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa can be engineered to produce active chondroitinase ABC.

    PubMed

    Carwardine, Darren; Wong, Liang-Fong; Fawcett, James W; Muir, Elizabeth M; Granger, Nicolas

    2016-08-15

    A multitude of factors must be overcome following spinal cord injury (SCI) in order to achieve clinical improvement in patients. It is thought that by combining promising therapies these diverse factors could be combatted with the aim of producing an overall improvement in function. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms following SCI present a significant block to axon regeneration. Digestion of CSPGs by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) leads to axon regeneration, neuronal plasticity and functional improvement in preclinical models of SCI. However, the enzyme activity decays at body temperature within 24-72h, limiting the translational potential of ChABC as a therapy. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have shown huge promise as a cell transplant therapy in SCI. Their beneficial effects have been demonstrated in multiple small animal SCI models as well as in naturally occurring SCI in canine patients. In the present study, we have genetically modified canine OECs from the mucosa to constitutively produce enzymatically active ChABC. We have developed a lentiviral vector that can deliver a mammalian modified version of the ChABC gene to mammalian cells, including OECs. Enzyme production was quantified using the Morgan-Elson assay that detects the breakdown products of CSPG digestion in cell supernatants. We confirmed our findings by immunolabelling cell supernatant samples using Western blotting. OECs normal cell function was unaffected by genetic modification as demonstrated by normal microscopic morphology and the presence of the low affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NGF)) following viral transduction. We have developed the means to allow production of active ChABC in combination with a promising cell transplant therapy for SCI repair. PMID:27423610

  10. Putative ABC transporter responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid.

  11. Effect of body temperature on chondroitinase ABC's ability to cleave chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Plaas, Anna H; Howland, Dena R

    2007-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC (Ch'ase ABC) is a bacterial lyase that degrades chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This enzyme has received significant attention as a potential therapy for promoting central nervous system and peripheral nervous system repair based on its degradation of CS GAGs. Determination of the stability of Ch'ase ABC activity at temperatures equivalent to normal (37 degrees C) and elevated (39 degrees C) body temperatures is important for optimizing its clinical usage. We report here data obtained from examining enzymatic activity at these temperatures across nine lots of commercially available protease-free Ch'ase ABC. CS GAG degrading activity was assayed by using 1) immunohistochemical detection of unsaturated disaccharide stubs generated by digestion of proteoglycans in tissue sections and 2) fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and quantify unsaturated disaccharide digestion products. Our results indicate that there is a significant effect of lot and time on enzymatic thermostability. Average enzymatic activity is significantly decreased at 1 and 3 days at 39 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, the average activity seen after 1 day was significantly different between the two temperatures. Addition of bovine serum albumin as a stabilizer significantly preserved enzymatic activity at 1 day, but not 3 days, at 39 degrees C. These results show that the CS GAG degrading activity of Ch'ase ABC is significantly decreased with incubation at body temperature over time and that all lots do not show equal thermostability. These findings are important for the design and interpretation of experimental and potential clinical studies involving Ch'ase ABC.

  12. Inhibition or knockdown of ABC transporters enhances susceptibility of adult and juvenile schistosomes to Praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Kasinathan, Ravi S; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Cunningham, Charles; Webb, Thomas R; Greenberg, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions. Treatment of schistosomiasis depends almost entirely on the drug praziquantel (PZQ). Though essential to treating and controlling schistosomiasis, a major limitation of PZQ is that it is not active against immature mammalian-stage schistosomes. Furthermore, there are reports of field isolates with heritable reductions in PZQ susceptibility, and researchers have selected for PZQ-resistant schistosomes in the laboratory. P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) and other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters remove a wide variety of toxins and xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). Changes in ABC transporter structure or expression levels are also associated with reduced drug susceptibility in parasitic helminths, including schistosomes. Here, we show that the activity of PZQ against schistosome adults and juveniles ex vivo is potentiated by co-administration of either the highly potent Pgp inhibitor tariquidar or combinations of inhibitors targeting multiple ABC multidrug transporters. Adult worms exposed to sublethal PZQ concentrations remain active, but co-administration of ABC transporter inhibitors results in complete loss of motility and disruption of the tegument. Notably, juvenile schistosomes (3-4 weeks post infection), normally refractory to 2 µM PZQ, become paralyzed when transporter inhibitors are added in combination with the PZQ. Experiments using the fluorescent PZQ derivative (R)-PZQ-BODIPY are consistent with the transporter inhibitors increasing effective intraworm concentrations of PZQ. Adult worms in which expression of ABC transporters has been suppressed by RNA interference show increased responsiveness to PZQ and increased retention of (R)-PZQ-BODIPY consistent with an important role for these proteins in setting levels of PZQ susceptibility. These results indicate that parasite ABC

  13. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  14. Discovery of a cool brown dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Golimowski, D. A.; Matthews, K.; Durrance, S. T.

    1995-11-01

    BROWN dwarfs are starlike objects with masses less than 0.08 times that of the Sun, which are unable to sustain hydrogen fusion in their interiors1-4. They are very hard to detect, as most of the energy of gravitational contraction is radiated away within ~108 yr, leaving only a very low residual luminosity. Accordingly, almost all searches for brown dwarfs have been directed towards clusters of young stars-a strategy that has recently proved successful5,6. But there are only modest observable differences between young brown dwarfs and very lowmass stars, making it difficult to identify the former without appealing to sophisticated models7. Older brown dwarfs should have a more distinctive appearance, and if they are companions to nearby stars, their luminosity can be determined unambiguously. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion to the nearby star G1229, with no more than onetenth the luminosity of the least luminous hydro-gen-burning star. We conclude that the companion, G1229B, is a brown dwarf with a temperature of less than 1,200 K, and a mass ~20-50 times that of Jupiter.

  15. MICROLENSING BINARIES WITH CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Sumi, T.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing events discovered during the 2004-2011 observation seasons. Based on the low mass ratio criterion of q < 0.2, we found seven candidate events: OGLE-2004-BLG-035, OGLE-2004-BLG-039, OGLE-2007-BLG-006, OGLE-2007-BLG-399/MOA-2007-BLG-334, MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172, MOA-2011-BLG-149, and MOA-201-BLG-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} and 0.019 {+-} 0.002 M {sub Sun} for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches.

  16. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  17. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  18. mRMR-ABC: A Hybrid Gene Selection Algorithm for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Alshamlan, Hala; Badr, Ghada; Alohali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bee colony (ABC) is a relatively recent swarm intelligence optimization approach. In this paper, we propose the first attempt at applying ABC algorithm in analyzing a microarray gene expression profile. In addition, we propose an innovative feature selection algorithm, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), and combine it with an ABC algorithm, mRMR-ABC, to select informative genes from microarray profile. The new approach is based on a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to measure the classification accuracy for selected genes. We evaluate the performance of the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm by conducting extensive experiments on six binary and multiclass gene expression microarray datasets. Furthermore, we compare our proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm with previously known techniques. We reimplemented two of these techniques for the sake of a fair comparison using the same parameters. These two techniques are mRMR when combined with a genetic algorithm (mRMR-GA) and mRMR when combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm (mRMR-PSO). The experimental results prove that the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm achieves accurate classification performance using small number of predictive genes when tested using both datasets and compared to previously suggested methods. This shows that mRMR-ABC is a promising approach for solving gene selection and cancer classification problems. PMID:25961028

  19. Cry1ab/c in different stages of growth in transgenic rice Bt-shanyou63.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Shen, Wenjing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the mRNA level and the corresponding protein level of the cry1Ab/c gene is not well characterized in transgenic rice (Bt-ShanYou63). In this study, we compared cry1Ab/c mRNA and its protein expression in leaves at different growth stages in Bt-ShanYou63 rice. The results demonstrated that both cry1Ab/c mRNA and its protein levels changed at all of the growth stages. The cry1Ab/c transcript levels in the leaves were highest during the grain filling stage (3.29, cry/actin) and lowest during the seeding stage (1.06, cry/actin), and the protein levels of Cry1Ab/c was also highest at the grain filling stage (5.71 microgram x g-1 fresh weight, fw) and lowest during the seeding stage (2.08 microgram x g(-1) fw). There was a significant correlation between cry1Ab/c mRNA levels and the protein concentrations (r=0.742, p < 0.01). However, a linear relationship was not observed between cry1Ab/c mRNA levels and the protein levels, and the trend for mRNA expression levels was not consistent with the Cry1Ab/c protein levels in the same growth period in Bt-ShanYou63 rice. PMID:26709785

  20. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. Starting with ABC and Finishing with XYZ: What Financial Reporting Model Best Fits a Faculty and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Prudence Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the range of financial reporting models available for use in the Australian higher education sector, the possible application of activity-based costing (ABC) in faculties and the eventual rejection of ABC in favour of a more qualitative model designed specifically for use in one institution, in a particular Faculty. The…

  2. The ABCs of School Choice: The Comprehensive Guide to Every Private School Choice Program in America. 2013 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The ABCs of School Choice" is the most comprehensive guide to every private school choice program in America, showcasing the voucher, tax-credit scholarship, education savings accounts, and individual tax credit/deduction programs currently operating in 21 states and Washington, D.C. "The ABCs of School Choice" provides policymakers, advocates,…

  3. The K-ABC: A Construct Validity Study with the WISC-R and Stanford-Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klanderman, John; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Elementary school children (N=41) were administered Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), and Stanford-Binet. Analyses appeared to support the viability of the K-ABC as measure of the properties of mental functioning that are similar to those measured by WISC-R and…

  4. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps.

  5. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps. PMID:25504146

  6. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  7. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  8. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  9. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  10. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  11. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  12. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  13. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  14. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  15. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  16. Preservice Teachers Integrate Understandings of Diversity Into Literacy Instruction: An Adaptation of the ABC's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    2000-01-01

    Investigated preservice teachers' understandings of their own and their students' cultural backgrounds, examining how they integrated those understandings into literacy instruction. The ABC model (autobiographies, biographies of students, cross-cultural analysis, analysis of cultural differences, and classroom practices) helped stimulate students…

  17. Single liposome analysis of peptide translocation by the ABC transporter TAPL

    PubMed Central

    Zollmann, Tina; Moiset, Gemma; Tumulka, Franz; Tampé, Robert; Poolman, Bert; Abele, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to drive solute transport across biological membranes. Members of this superfamily have crucial roles in cell physiology, and some of the transporters are linked to severe diseases. However, understanding of the transport mechanism, especially of human ABC exporters, is scarce. We reconstituted the human lysosomal polypeptide ABC transporter TAPL, expressed in Pichia pastoris, into lipid vesicles (liposomes) and performed explicit transport measurements. We analyzed solute transport at the single liposome level by monitoring the coincident fluorescence of solutes and proteoliposomes in the focal volume of a confocal microscope. We determined a turnover number of eight peptides per minute, which is two orders of magnitude higher than previously estimated from macroscopic measurements. Moreover, we show that TAPL translocates peptides against a large concentration gradient. Maximal filling is not limited by an electrochemical gradient but by trans-inhibition. Countertransport and reversibility studies demonstrate that peptide translocation is a strictly unidirectional process. Altogether, these data are included in a refined model of solute transport by ABC exporters. PMID:25646430

  18. Generating Symmetry in the Asymmetric ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Pdr5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakeshkumar P.; Kueppers, Petra; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Pdr5 is a plasma membrane-bound ABC transporter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is involved in the phenomenon of resistance against xenobiotics, which are clinically relevant in bacteria, fungi, and humans. Many fungal ABC transporters such as Pdr5 display an inherent asymmetry in their nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) unlike most of their human counterparts. This degeneracy of the NBSs is very intriguing and needs explanation in terms of structural and functional relevance. In this study, we mutated nonconsensus amino acid residues in the NBSs to its consensus counterpart and studied its effect on the function of the protein and effect on yeast cells. The completely “regenerated” Pdr5 protein was severely impaired in its function of ATP hydrolysis and of rhodamine 6G transport. Moreover, we observe alternative compensatory mechanisms to counteract drug toxicity in some of the mutants. In essence, we describe here the first attempts to restore complete symmetry in an asymmetric ABC transporter and to study its effects, which might be relevant to the entire class of asymmetric ABC transporters. PMID:24733388

  19. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  20. ABC Analysis for Inventory Management: Bridging the Gap between Research and Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravinder, Handanhal; Misra, Ram B.

    2014-01-01

    ABC analysis is a well-established categorization technique based on the Pareto Principle for determining which items should get priority in the management of a company's inventory. In discussing this topic, today's operations management and supply chain textbooks focus on dollar volume as the sole criterion for performing the categorization. The…

  1. Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: ... Findings About Our Resident Microbes This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  2. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  3. What Does the K-ABC Tell Us about Students with Learning Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.

    Three studies were designed to explore the pattern of scores on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) by 18 students in elementary level learning disability (LD) resource programs (Study 1), 133 elementary level students referred for learning problems (Study 2), and 67 elementary students referred for severe learning disabilities…

  4. ABCs of Being Smart: T Is for Tips for Working with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    As part of her series, "ABCs of Being Smart," Joanne Foster presents time-tested tips for parents of toddlers to teens. Categories include: traits to tap when meeting with teachers to strengthen home and school connections or resolve any issues; strategies for parents to add to their "toolbox"; and tactical measures to consider…

  5. A wheat ABC transporter contributes to both grain formation and mycotoxin tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi which acts as a disease virulence factor, aiding fungal pathogenesis of cereals spikelets and spread of the economically important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Previously, a fragment of a wheat ABC transporter gene was shown to be...

  6. My Favorite Assignment: Selections from the ABC 2008 Annual Convention, Lake Tahoe, Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    At the 2008 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, many attendees stood at the back of a crowded room to hear over a dozen teachers describe "My Favorite Assignment." As is customary in these lively sessions, the chair, Dan Dieterich, orchestrated a fast, efficient presentation pace; each participant…

  7. Advocacy Feature: School Cut Back on Foreign Language Classes--Emphasis Shifts to ABC Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Todd

    2004-01-01

    In a state (North Carolina, 2006) that once pushed foreign language lessons as early as kindergarten, there has been a steady curtailing of instruction in second languages to devote more time and effort to basic reading and math instruction in English, two subjects heavily tested under the state's ABCs and federal No Child Left Behind…

  8. The Impact of ABC Canada's LEARN Campaign. Results of a National Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ellen

    An impact study was conducted of ABC CANADA's LEARN campaign, a national media effort aimed at linking potential literacy learners with literacy groups. Two questionnaires were administered to 94 literacy groups, with 3,557 respondents. Findings included the following: (1) 70 percent of calls to literacy groups were from adult learners aged 16-44;…

  9. The ABC's of Financing Church and Synagogue Libraries. Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, Cash Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaford, Claudia

    The ABCs of financing church and synagogue libraries are presented in this guide as Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, and Cash Accounting. Acquiring funds and the basic means needed to start a library are described, including resources such as books, shelves, office supplies, and financial resources; ideas and methods are presented for soliciting both…

  10. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels. Diabetes HealthSense Find tools and programs that can help ...

  11. An ABC transporter in the mitochondrial inner membrane is required for normal growth of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, J; Schatz, G

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to identify a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify 10 DNA fragments homologous to members of the ABC family from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We disrupted five of the corresponding genes and found that one of the resulting null mutants barely grew on rich medium and failed to grow on minimal medium. This gene, termed ATM1, encodes a putative 'half-transporter' of 694 amino acids. Atm1p is synthesized with an N-terminal mitochondrial matrix-targeting signal and is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, with its C-terminal ATPase domain exposed to the matrix. Cells lacking a functional ATM1 gene have an unstable mitochondrial genome and have white mitochondria that completely lack cytochromes. Atm1p is the first mitochondrial member of the ABC family to be identified and the only eukaryotic ABC transporter that has been shown to be necessary for normal cellular growth. Images PMID:7828591

  12. Sustainable urban stormwater management in the tropics: An evaluation of Singapore's ABC Waters Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; Lu, X. X.

    2016-07-01

    The Active Beautiful Clean (ABC) Waters Program was implemented in 2006 as part of Singapore's stormwater management strategy and reflects the country's move towards Water Sensitive Urbanism through the adoption of Low-Impact Development (LID) ideology and practices. It is the first holistic and comprehensive LID program in the tropics and holds promise for extension to other tropical cities. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the goals, LID practices (ABC design features) and design considerations as well as results of several monitored sites, including a constructed wetland, two rain gardens, green roofs and three canal restoration projects. We evaluate the ABC Waters Program based on these initial results and consider the challenges, issues and the research needs for it to meet its hydrological and water quality remediation goals. So far, the ABC design features evaluated perform well in removing particulates. Performance in nutrient removal is poor. With over 60 projects completed within 10 years, post-project monitoring and evaluation is necessary and complements on-going laboratory and modelling research projects conducted by local academic institutions.

  13. Structural basis for substrate specificity of an amino acid ABC transporter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Ge, Jingpeng; Heuveling, Johanna; Schneider, Erwin; Yang, Maojun

    2015-04-21

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates, ranging from ions to macromolecules, either out of or into the cytosol (hence defined as importers or exporters, respectively). It has been demonstrated that ABC exporters and importers function through a common mechanism involving conformational switches between inward-facing and outward-facing states; however, the mechanism underlying their functions, particularly substrate recognition, remains elusive. Here we report the structures of an amino acid ABC importer Art(QN)2 from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis composed of homodimers each of the transmembrane domain ArtQ and the nucleotide-binding domain ArtN, either in its apo form or in complex with substrates (Arg, His) and/or ATPs. The structures reveal that the straddling of the TMDs around the twofold axis forms a substrate translocation pathway across the membrane. Interestingly, each TMD has a negatively charged pocket that together create a negatively charged internal tunnel allowing amino acids carrying positively charged groups to pass through. Our structural and functional studies provide a better understanding of how ABC transporters select and translocate their substrates.

  14. Watching conformational dynamics of ABC transporters with single-molecule tools.

    PubMed

    Husada, Florence; Gouridis, Giorgos; Vietrov, Ruslan; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Ploetz, Evelyn; de Boer, Marijn; Poolman, Bert; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play crucial roles in cellular processes, such as nutrient uptake, drug resistance, cell-volume regulation and others. Despite their importance, all proposed molecular models for transport are based on indirect evidence, i.e. functional interpretation of static crystal structures and ensemble measurements of function and structure. Thus, classical biophysical and biochemical techniques do not readily visualize dynamic structural changes. We recently started to use single-molecule fluorescence techniques to study conformational states and changes of ABC transporters in vitro, in order to observe directly how the different steps during transport are coordinated. This review summarizes our scientific strategy and some of the key experimental advances that allowed the substrate-binding mechanism of prokaryotic ABC importers and the transport cycle to be explored. The conformational states and transitions of ABC-associated substrate-binding domains (SBDs) were visualized with single-molecule FRET, permitting a direct correlation of structural and kinetic information of SBDs. We also delineated the different steps of the transport cycle. Since information in such assays are restricted by proper labelling of proteins with fluorescent dyes, we present a simple approach to increase the amount of protein with FRET information based on non-specific interactions between a dye and the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) column material used for final purification.

  15. My Favorite Assignment: From the ABC 2010 Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2011-01-01

    The seven Favorite Assignments featured in this article were originally presented at the 2010 ABC Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois. The reader can consider a variety of learning objectives from team building to persuasion, application of electronic media to face-to-face communication, and much more. Some Favorite Assignments take a full…

  16. Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC transporters and their role in phospholipid transport.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jonathan A; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S

    2013-03-01

    Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle trafficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis, etc. P(4)-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membrane proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P(4)-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P(4)-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism.

  17. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-04-15

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury.

  18. Learning from each other: ABC transporter regulation by protein phosphorylation in plant and mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Bibek; Laurent, Christophe; Geisler, Markus

    2015-10-01

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter family in higher plants is highly expanded compared with those of mammalians. Moreover, some members of the plant ABC subfamily B (ABCB) display very high substrate specificity compared with their mammalian counterparts that are often associated with multi-drug resistance phenomena. In this review, we highlight prominent functions of plant and mammalian ABC transporters and summarize our knowledge on their post-transcriptional regulation with a focus on protein phosphorylation. A deeper comparison of regulatory events of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and ABCB1 from the model plant Arabidopsis reveals a surprisingly high degree of similarity. Both physically interact with orthologues of the FK506-binding proteins that chaperon both transporters to the plasma membrane in an action that seems to involve heat shock protein (Hsp)90. Further, both transporters are phosphorylated at regulatory domains that connect both nt-binding folds. Taken together, it appears that ABC transporters exhibit an evolutionary conserved but complex regulation by protein phosphorylation, which apparently is, at least in some cases, tightly connected with protein-protein interactions (PPI). PMID:26517911

  19. Vocational Education and Training. Briefing Notes for Further Education. Administrative, Business & Commercial (ABC) Briefing Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    The introduction and the three booklets contained in this packet are intended to provide guidance to further education staff who are implementing, or planning to implement, National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) based on the standards devised by the Administrative, Business, and Commercial (ABC) Training Group in Great Britain. The boklet on…

  20. K-ABC/McCarthy Performance for Repeating and Nonrepeating Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas K.; Lyon, Mark A.

    This study compares the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) profiles of successful and unsuccessful preschoolers with learning disabilities. Subjects, 40 preschool students, were tested at the beginning and at the end of the preschool year and were placed into repeating or…

  1. Transcriptome-based identification of ABC transporters in the western tarnished plant bug lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic cle...

  2. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  3. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  4. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  5. Brown's Legacy: The Promises and Pitfalls of Judicial Relief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Deborah Jones

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) is one of the greatest achievements of the American judicial system. It decisively declared racial segregation in the schools unconstitutional, inaugurating the modern civil rights era. In addition to advancing equality, "Brown" initiated a new type of judicial decision making. After "Brown," courts…

  6. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  8. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  9. Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonali; Jamshad, Mohammed; Knowles, Timothy J; Morrison, Kerrie A; Downing, Rebecca; Cant, Natasha; Collins, Richard; Koenderink, Jan B; Ford, Robert C; Overduin, Michael; Kerr, Ian D; Dafforn, Timothy R; Rothnie, Alice J

    2014-07-15

    ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters carry out many vital functions and are involved in numerous diseases, but study of the structure and function of these proteins is often hampered by their large size and membrane location. Membrane protein purification usually utilizes detergents to solubilize the protein from the membrane, effectively removing it from its native lipid environment. Subsequently, lipids have to be added back and detergent removed to reconstitute the protein into a lipid bilayer. In the present study, we present the application of a new methodology for the extraction and purification of ABC transporters without the use of detergent, instead, using a copolymer, SMA (polystyrene-co-maleic acid). SMA inserts into a bilayer and assembles into discrete particles, essentially solubilizing the membrane into small discs of bilayer encircled by a polymer, termed SMALPs (SMA lipid particles). We show that this polymer can extract several eukaryotic ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1; ABCC1), MRP4 (ABCC4), ABCG2 and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ABCC7), from a range of different expression systems. The SMALP-encapsulated ABC transporters can be purified by affinity chromatography, and are able to bind ligands comparably with those in native membranes or detergent micelles. A greater degree of purity and enhanced stability is seen compared with detergent solubilization. The present study demonstrates that eukaryotic ABC transporters can be extracted and purified without ever being removed from their lipid bilayer environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for the future study of their structure and function.

  10. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  11. "Brown v. Board": With All Deliberate Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This chapter argues that a detailed, grounded understanding of classroom literacy practices as well as of learners' writing is crucial to begin to change the ongoing and patently unequal educational outcomes that schools often produce. It is impossible to intervene realistically and effectively in an evidential vacuum. The 1955 "Brown v. Board of…

  12. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  13. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  14. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  15. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  16. Reading Second. Brown Letters on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover

    2009-01-01

    Former President George W. Bush finished his tenure without having won congressional renewal of his No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policy. With President Barack Obama now at the helm, NCLB is up for debate. Brown Center Director Grover "Russ" Whitehurst examines Reading First, a key component of NCLB, that aims to ensure that all children learn to…

  17. Do You Mean Us, Mr Brown?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This summer Chris Wardley, Chair of Access to Community Education (ACE), a small charity run by and for disabled people in Torbay, wrote to Gordon Brown. She asked him whether his mission to "fulfil the potential and realise the talents of all people" was based solely on economic goals or whether everyone, including disabled people, would be…

  18. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

  19. "Brown" and the Failure of Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennimore, Beatrice S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I use perspective gained from 18 years of experience as an urban public school parent between 1978 and 1996 to provide insights into "Brown" at 50. Through description of two public conflicts over special choice programs in the school districts where my family and I lived during those years, I analyze the emergent issues of…

  20. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  1. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  2. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( < 20% RH) at 293 K. Optical properties and the AMS spectra were measured for toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  3. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions. With the successful launch of the SIRTF mission in August of 2003, we now await the execution of these observations, which should begin in early 2004. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT, the 1.5 meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and Magellan Observatory for several hundred candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348, Taurus, and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. All of these data have been published in three papers in The Astrophysical Journal. We also recently used the MMT to obtain deep near-IR images of IC348 to accompany the SIRTF images and have time in the next month at the IRTF and Keck for spectroscopy of candidate brown dwarfs in IC348 and Taurus. We have submitted proposals for deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus for spring 2004 with Magellan and the AAT. Results from this research have been presented in invited talks at UU Symposium 221 (July 2003) and at the SIRTF Galactic Science Workshop (August 2003). For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approx. 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We expect to submit the paper describing these observations to The Astrophysical Journal by the end of the year

  4. Chondroitinase ABC Treatment Results in Greater Tensile Properties of Self-Assembled Tissue-Engineered Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Roman M.; Revell, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen content and tensile properties of engineered articular cartilage have remained inferior to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and compressive properties. Based on a cartilage explant study showing greater tensile properties after chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC) treatment, C-ABC as a strategy for cartilage tissue engineering was investigated. A scaffold-less approach was employed, wherein chondrocytes were seeded into non-adherent agarose molds. C-ABC was used to deplete GAG from constructs 2 weeks after initiating culture, followed by 2 weeks culture post-treatment. Staining for GAG and type I, II, and VI collagen and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Additionally, quantitative total collagen, type I and II collagen, and sulfated GAG content were measured, and compressive and tensile mechanical properties were evaluated. At 4 wks, C-ABC treated construct ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus increased 121% and 80% compared to untreated controls, reaching 0.5 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. These increases were accompanied by increased type II collagen concentration, without type I collagen. As GAG returned, compressive stiffness of C-ABC treated constructs recovered to be greater than 2 wk controls. C-ABC represents a novel method for engineering functional articular cartilage by departing from conventional anabolic approaches. These results may be applicable to other GAG-producing tissues functioning in a tensile capacity, such as the musculoskeletal fibrocartilages. PMID:19344291

  5. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  6. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  7. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  8. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  9. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  13. Clinico-Pathologic Function of Cerebral ABC Transporters – Implications for the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pahnke, Jens; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krohn, Markus; Walker, Lary C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years it has become evident that ABC transporters fulfill important barrier functions in normal organs and during disease processes. Most importantly, resistance to drugs in cancer cells led to intense oncological and pharmacological investigations in which researchers were able to highlight important pharmacological interactions of chemotherapeuticals with ABC transporter function. Recently, the development of neurodegenerative diseases and the maintenance of neuronal stem cells have been linked to the activity of ABC transporters. Here, we summarize findings from cell culture experiments, animal models and studies of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, we discuss pharmacological interactions and computational methods for risk assessment. PMID:18690837

  14. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  15. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  16. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: (1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; (2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions and now await the launch of the mission in April 2003. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT and the 1.5-meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory for candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348 and Taurus star-forming regions. Two papers that include these data in new measurements of the mass functions in these regions are near completion and will be submitted for publication to the Astrophysical Journal in January. We have also proposed deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in the IC348, Chamaeleon, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with the MMT, Magellan, and Gemini North telescopes in early 2003. For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approximately 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC 348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We are in the process of writing a paper that describes these candidate companions and presents the companion detection limits that were achieved with HST. We will attempt followup spectroscopy of the most promising candidate companions to confirm their nature as cool companions rather than background field stars during the commissioning of the facility adaptive optics system for the Gemini North telescope early in 2003. In addition, in SIRTF guaranteed time observations we plan to

  17. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  18. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  19. Sediment profile characterisation at contaminated and reference locations in the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Palmer, A S; Snape, I; Townsend, A T; Stark, J S; Samson, C; Riddle, M J

    2010-09-01

    Sediment profiles for pH, Eh, 28 elements, water and organic content are presented here for human impacted and reference locations in the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Variations in element concentrations are observed with increasing depth, especially at Brown Bay where the impact of past human activities is most pronounced in the top 10 cm. Spatial differences were observed between sediment profiles at reference and impacted locations and were largely explained by Pb variability in the top 5 cm. Median element concentrations from surface, middle and bottom regions of the sediment profile were compared to composite sample medians (no depth stratigraphy) for 11 elements at O'Brien Bay (reference) and Brown Bay (impacted). Pronounced differences were observed for Brown Bay, particularly surface and middle sections, implying that composite samples dilute the near surface anthropogenic signal by mixing with deeper uncontaminated sediment.

  20. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  1. STAT3 inhibition is a therapeutic strategy for ABC-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Scuto, Anna; Kujawski, Maciej; Kowolik, Claudia; Krymskaya, Ludmila; Wang, Lin; Weiss, Lawrence M; Digiusto, David; Yu, Hua; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Persistent STAT3 signaling contributes to malignant progression in many diverse types of human cancer. STAT3 is constitutively active in activated B-cell (ABC)-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), a class of nongerminal center derived DLBCL cells for which existing therapy is weakly effective. In this report, we provide a preclinical proof of concept that STAT3 is an effective molecular target for ABC-like DLBCL therapy. Direct inhibition of STAT3 with short hairpin RNA suppressed the growth of human ABC-like DLBCL in mouse models in a manner associated with apoptosis, repression of STAT3 target genes, and inhibition of a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Together, these results suggest that STAT3 is essential to maintain the pathophysiology of ABC-like DLBCL and therefore that STAT3 inhibition may offer a promising approach in its therapy.

  2. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  3. Evolution and infrared spectra of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hubbard, William B.; Marley, Mark S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-consistent models are constructed for the structure, evolution, and observable properties of degenerately cooling objects, or 'brown dwarfs'. Model atmospheres composed of a range of likely gaseous and particulate opacity sources are calculated in order to provide a boundary condition for interior temperature-pressure profiles and to determine the emergent spectra for such objects. The radius derived from the interior models is combined with the emergent fluxes calculated from the atmosphere model to fit the data of McCarthy, Probst, and Low (1985) and to derive the luminosity and mass of VB 8B. The latter is found to be most probably an 0.05 solar mass object with effective temperature in the 1200-1500 K range and an atmosphere which very likely contains particulate absorbers. Key changes in chemical oxidation state and condensation of major constituents during the evolution of brown dwarfs are presented.

  4. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  5. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research. PMID:27531474

  6. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible. PMID:26076904

  7. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  8. Nature, source and composition of volcanic ash in surficial sediments around the Zhongsha Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Quanshu; Shi, Xuefa; Wang, Xinyu

    2008-05-01

    Volcanic detrital sediments are a unique indicator for reconstructing the petrogenetic evolution of submarine volcanic terrains. Volcanic ash in surficial sediments around the Zhongsha Islands includes three kinds of volcanogenic detritus, i.e., brown volcanic glass, colorless volcanic glass and volcanic scoria. The major element characteristics show that bimodal volcanic activity may have taken place in the northern margin of the South China Sea, with brown volcanic glass and colorless volcanic glass representing the mafic end-member and felsic end-member, respectively. Fractional crystallization is the main process for magma evolution. The nature of the volcanic activity implies that the origin of volcanic activity was related to extensional tectonic settings, which is corresponding to an extensional geodynamic setting in the Xisha Trench, and supports the notion, which is based on geophysical data and petrology, that there may exist a mantle plume around the Hainan Island.

  9. Component composition of deresined brown coal wax

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova

    2008-10-15

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

  10. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bunton, T E

    2000-06-01

    Alternative models using fish species have been tested in liver toxicity and carcinogenesis bioassays. Similar models have not been developed for skin. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) has shown potential as a model for skin carcinogenesis studies due to its sensitivity to environmental chemical pollutants. The present study is an initial morphologic and biochemical characterization of the normal and neoplastic brown bullhead skin to assess its suitability as a model of skin carcinogenesis. Brown bullhead were removed from Back River in the Chesapeake Bay region, an area historically polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Histology, histochemistry, and electron microscopy were used to stage the morphologic development and progression of neoplasia in skin. The distribution of keratin, a family of structural proteins with altered expression in mammalian tumorigenesis, was analyzed with one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose blots of extracts from normal skin. Keratin expression in skin and other organs was also assessed with immunohistochemistry using AE1, AE3, and PCK 26 antibodies, and the proliferation index in skin and neoplasms with PCNA antibody. Skin lesions appeared to progress from hyperplasia through carcinoma, and the proliferation index was increased in papilloma. Also in papilloma, intercellular interdigitations appeared increased and desmosomes decreased which may in future studies correlate with changes in expression of other molecular markers of neoplastic progression. Both Type I and Type II keratin subfamilies were detected in skin using gel electrophoresis with the complimentary keratin blot-binding assay. For further development of the brown bullhead model, future studies can compare and relate these baseline data to alterations in expression of keratin and other markers in fish neoplasms and to molecular events which occur in man. PMID:10930121

  11. Penetrating keratoplasty in a California Brown Pelican.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gwendolyn L; Scagliotti, Randall H; Hoffman, Allison; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2007-01-01

    Fresh homologous penetrating keratoplasty (PK) was performed on the left cornea of a young adult female California Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) for the treatment of vision-threatening corneal scarring and granulation tissue. The procedure appeared to be highly successful based on short-term clinical follow-up and histopathology results. However, the patient died from unrelated causes before long-term follow-up could be obtained. PMID:17565558

  12. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores. PMID:25233355

  13. A pioneer survey and DNA barcoding of some commonly found gastropod molluscs on Robben Island.

    PubMed

    van der Bank, Herman; Greenfield, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen species of abundant gastropods were collected at Robben Island, including introduced dune snails and European brown garden snails. They were identified using morphology and DNA barcoding. It was expected that the species recorded would be similar to those from the Cape peninsula, South Africa, but we were surprised to find some exceptions: the very abundant invasive mussel species in South Africa, the South American bisexual mussel (Semimytilusalgosus), and the beaded topshells (Oxysteleimpervia) were not found on Robben Island. Possible explanations are presented for these differences.

  14. A pioneer survey and DNA barcoding of some commonly found gastropod molluscs on Robben Island

    PubMed Central

    van der Bank, Herman; Greenfield, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of abundant gastropods were collected at Robben Island, including introduced dune snails and European brown garden snails. They were identified using morphology and DNA barcoding. It was expected that the species recorded would be similar to those from the Cape peninsula, South Africa, but we were surprised to find some exceptions: the very abundant invasive mussel species in South Africa, the South American bisexual mussel (Semimytilus algosus), and the beaded topshells (Oxystele impervia) were not found on Robben Island. Possible explanations are presented for these differences. PMID:25685029

  15. Differential contributions of five ABC transporters to mutidrug resistance, antioxidion and virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) confers agrochemical compatibility to fungal cells-based mycoinsecticdes but mechanisms involved in MDR remain poorly understood for entomopathogenic fungi, which have been widely applied as biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. Here we characterized the functions of five ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which were classified to the subfamilies ABC-B (Mdr1), ABC-C (Mrp1) and ABC-G (Pdr1, Pdr2 and Pdr5) and selected from 54 full-size ABC proteins of Beauveria bassiana based on their main domain architecture, membrane topology and transcriptional responses to three antifungal inducers. Disruption of each transporter gene resulted in significant reduction in resistance to four to six of eight fungicides or antifungal drugs tested due to their differences in structure and function. Compared with wild-type and complemented (control) strains, disruption mutants of all the five transporter genes became significantly less tolerant to the oxidants menadione and H₂O₂ based on 22-41% and 10-31% reductions of their effective concentrations required for the suppression of 50% colony growth at 25°C. Under a standardized spray, the killing actions of ΔPdr5 and ΔMrp1 mutants against Spodoptera litura second-instar larvae were delayed by 59% and 33% respectively. However, no significant virulence change was observed in three other delta mutants. Taken together, the examined five ABC transporters contribute differentially to not only the fungal MDR but antioxidant capability, a phenotype rarely associated with ABC efflux pumps in previous reports; at least some of them are required for the full virulence of B. bassiana, thereby affecting the fungal biocontrol potential. Our results indicate that ABC pump-dependent MDR mechanisms exist in entomopathogenic fungi as do in yeasts and human and plant pathogenic fungi.

  16. Application of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm in search of optimal release of Aswan High Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md S.; El-shafie, A.

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a study on developing an optimum reservoir release policy by using ABC algorithm. The decision maker of a reservoir system always needs a guideline to operate the reservoir in an optimal way. Release curves have developed for high, medium and low inflow category that can answer how much water need to be release for a month by observing the reservoir level (storage condition). The Aswan high dam of Egypt has considered as the case study. 18 years of historical inflow data has used for simulation purpose and the general system performance measuring indices has measured. The application procedure and problem formulation of ABC is very simple and can be used in optimizing reservoir system. After using the actual historical inflow, the release policy succeeded in meeting demand for about 98% of total time period.

  17. Proteoglycans in the central nervous system: plasticity, regeneration and their stimulation with chondroitinase ABC.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Jessica C F; Afshari, Fardad; García-Alías, Guillermo; Fawcett, James W

    2008-01-01

    After injury to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons are not able to regenerate their axons and recovery is limited by restricted plasticity. Axon regeneration is inhibited by the presence of the various inhibitory molecules, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which are upregulated around the injury site. Plasticity after the end of critical periods is restricted by extracellular matrix changes, particularly the formation of CSPG-containing perineuronal nets. Enzymatic removal of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains with chondroitinase ABC promotes axon regeneration and reactivates plasticity. This review details the structures and properties of the different CSPGs in the normal and damaged CNS, the use of the enzyme chondroitinase ABC to promote neural regeneration and plasticity, and discusses mechanisms of action and possible therapeutic uses of this enzyme.

  18. An ABC status report. [Advancing Blade Concept for XH-59A rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Ruddell, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) uses two rigid counterrotating rotors in a coaxial arrangement to provide advancing blades on both sides of the aircraft. This makes use of the high dynamic pressure on the advancing side of the rotors at high forward speed, virtually ignoring the low dynamic pressure on the retreating side, while still keeping the rotor system in roll trim. Theoretically such a rotor system will maintain its lift potential as speed increases. The XH-59A was designed to investigate this theory. A description is provided of the flight test program from May, 1980 to January, 1981. A summary is presented of the knowledge gained throughout the entire program, and current pitfalls are reviewed. It is concluded that the ABC has been verified, with the XH-59A envelope of blade lift coefficient as a function of advance ratio greatly exceeding that of conventional helicopter rotor systems.

  19. Regulation of P-glycoprotein and other ABC drug transporters at the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are important, selective elements of the blood-brain barrier. They line the luminal plasma membrane of the brain capillary endothelium, facing the vascular space, both protecting the CNS from entry of neurotoxicants and limiting access of therapeutic drugs to the brain parenchyma. Recent studies highlight the multiple signaling pathways through which the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and other ABC transporters are modulated in response to xenobiotics, stress and disease. They show that increased transporter expression occurs in response to signals that activate specific transcription factors including, PXR, CAR, NF-κB and AP-1, and reduced transporter activity occurs rapidly and reversibly in response to signaling through Src kinase, protein kinase C and estrogen receptors. A detailed understanding of such regulation can provide the basis for improved neuroprotection and enhanced therapeutic drug delivery to the brain. PMID:20417575

  20. Estimation of Candida albicans ABC Transporter Behavior in Real-Time via Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Joanna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Krasowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present a fluorometric method for determining ABC transporter activity in the pathogenic fungus C. albicans during different growth phases and in response to glucose. The carbocyanine dye diS-C3(3) was previously used to monitor plasma membrane potentials and test the influence of surface-active compounds in membrane polarization. We used diS-C3(3) to show changes in fluorescence kinetics that reflect changes in the activity of ABC transporters in C. albicans growth. Cdr1-GFP fluorescence, revealed that Cdr1p relocates to the inside of the cell after the early-log growth phase. Addition of glucose to the cell suspension resulted in Cdr1p transporter expression in the CDR2-knockout strain. We confirmed the diS-C3(3) results by standard RT-PCR and Western blotting.

  1. Mechanistic determinants of the directionality and energetics of active export by a heterodimeric ABC transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Nina; Vakkasoglu, Ahmet S.; Hulpke, Sabine; Abele, Rupert; Gaudet, Rachelle; Tampé, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) participates in immune surveillance by moving proteasomal products into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen for major histocompatibility complex class I loading and cell surface presentation to cytotoxic T cells. Here we delineate the mechanistic basis for antigen translocation. Notably, TAP works as a molecular diode, translocating peptide substrates against the gradient in a strict unidirectional way. We reveal the importance of the D-loop at the dimer interface of the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) in coupling substrate translocation with ATP hydrolysis and defining transport vectoriality. Substitution of the conserved aspartate, which coordinates the ATP-binding site, decreases NBD dimerization affinity and turns the unidirectional primary active pump into a passive bidirectional nucleotide-gated facilitator. Thus, ATP hydrolysis is not required for translocation per se, but is essential for both active and unidirectional transport. Our data provide detailed mechanistic insight into how heterodimeric ABC exporters operate.

  2. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ.

    PubMed

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by single-molecule spectroscopy that the two SBDs intrinsically transit from open to closed ligand-free conformation, and the proteins capture their amino acid ligands via an induced-fit mechanism. High-affinity ligands elicit transitions without changing the closed-state lifetime, whereas low-affinity ligands dramatically shorten it. We show that SBDs in the closed state compete for docking onto the translocator, but remarkably the effect is strongest without ligand. We find that the rate-determining steps depend on the SBD and the amino acid transported. We conclude that the lifetime of the closed conformation controls both SBD docking to the translocator and substrate release.

  3. Chondroitinase ABC treatment opens a window of opportunity for task-specific rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Barkhuysen, Stanley; Buckle, Miranda; Fawcett, James W

    2009-09-01

    Chondroitinase ABC treatment promotes spinal cord plasticity. We investigated whether chondroitinase-induced plasticity combined with physical rehabilitation promotes recovery of manual dexterity in rats with cervical spinal cord injuries. Rats received a C4 dorsal funiculus cut followed by chondroitinase ABC or penicillinase as a control. They were assigned to two alternative rehabilitation procedures, the first reinforcing skilled reaching and the second reinforcing general locomotion. Chondroitinase treatment enhanced sprouting of corticospinal axons independently of the rehabilitation regime. Only the rats receiving the combination of chondroitinase and specific rehabilitation showed improved manual dexterity. Rats that received general locomotor rehabilitation were better at ladder walking, but had worse skilled-reaching abilities than rats that received no treatment. Our results indicate that chondroitinase treatment opens a window during which rehabilitation can promote recovery. However, only the trained skills are improved and other functions may be negatively affected. PMID:19668200

  4. New brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbeiss, T.; Moualla, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Raetz, St.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Marka, C.; Rammo, W.; Reithe, A.; Roell, T.; Vaňko, M.

    2009-05-01

    We have performed deep, wide-field imaging on a ˜ 0.4 deg2 field in the Pleiades (Melotte 22). The selected field was not yet target of a deep search for low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Our limiting magnitudes are R˜22 mag and I˜20 mag, sufficient to detect brown dwarf candidates down to 40 MJ. We found 197 objects, whose location in the (I, R-I) color magnitude diagram is consistent with the age and the distance of the Pleiades. Using CTK R and I as well as JHK photometry from our data and the 2MASS survey we were able to identify 7 new brown dwarf candidates. We present our data reduction technique, which enables us to resample, calibrate, and co-add many images by just two steps. We estimate the interstellar extinction and the spectral type from our optical and the NIR data using a two-dimensional χ2 fitting. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich- Schiller-University. Table A3 is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AN/330/439

  5. beta. -Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Geloeen, A.; Collet, A.J.; Guay, G.; Bukowiecki, L.J. Laboratoire de Thermoregulation et Metabolisme Energetique, Lyon )

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms of brown adipose tissue (BAT) growth were studied by quantitative photonic radioautography using tritiated thymidine to follow mitotic activity. To identify the nature of the adrenergic pathways mediating brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, the effects of cold exposure (4 days at 4{degree}C) on BAT growth were compared with those induced by treating rats at 25{degree}C with norepinephrine (a mixed agonist), isoproterenol (a {beta}-agonist), and phenylephrine (an {alpha}-agonist). Norepinephrine mimicked the effects of cold exposure, not only on the mitotic activity, but also on the distribution of the labeling among the various cellular types. Isoproterenol entirely reproduced the effects of norepinephrine both on the labeling index and on the cellular type labeling frequency. These results demonstrate that norepinephrine triggers a coordinated proliferation of brown adipocytes and endothelial cells in warm-exposed rats that is similar to that observed after cold exposure. They also suggest that cold exposure stimulates BAT growth by increasing the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves and that the neurohormone activates mitoses in BAT precursor cells via {beta}-adrenergic pathways.

  6. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2003-01-01

    The grant supported my research and that of my student (Ben Lane) and post-doctoral fellow (Zapatero Osorio). We were productive as can be seen from the list of publications below. In particular, we note three firsts. Using the exquisite angular resolution provided by the AO system at Keck we were able to directly determine the masses of two objects and show that one was a brown dwarf -- the first direct determination of the mass of a brown dwarf. Next, Mr. Lane reported the first direct demonstration of pulsations of a Cepheid star (this report received attention in the popular press). Finally, Dr. Zapatero Osorio continued her work on the search for young brown dwarfs and planets in young clusters with considerable success -- namely the detection of objects with mass below 10 M_J (these can be plausibly argued to be freely floating planets). Mr. Lane graduated and is now a Pappalardo Fellow at MIT and Dr. Zapatero Osorio obtained a position back in her home country.

  7. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  8. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  9. A Putative Bacterial ABC Transporter Circumvents the Essentiality of Signal Peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Smith, Peter A.; Date, Shailesh V.; Kajihara, Kimberly K.; Truong, Chau Linda; Modrusan, Zora; Yan, Donghong; Kang, Jing; Xu, Min; Shah, Ishita M.; Mintzer, Robert; Kofoed, Eric M.; Cheung, Tommy K.; Arnott, David; Koehler, Michael F. T.; Heise, Christopher E.; Brown, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type I signal peptidase of Staphylococcus aureus, SpsB, is an attractive antibacterial target because it is essential for viability and extracellularly accessible. We synthesized compound 103, a novel arylomycin-derived inhibitor of SpsB with significant potency against various clinical S. aureus strains (MIC of ~1 µg/ml). The predominant clinical strain USA300 developed spontaneous resistance to compound 103 with high frequency, resulting from single point mutations inside or immediately upstream of cro/cI, a homolog of the lambda phage transcriptional repressor cro. These cro/cI mutations led to marked (>50-fold) overexpression of three genes encoding a putative ABC transporter. Overexpression of this ABC transporter was both necessary and sufficient for resistance and, notably, circumvented the essentiality of SpsB during in vitro culture. Mutation of its predicted ATPase gene abolished resistance, suggesting a possible role for active transport; in these bacteria, resistance to compound 103 occurred with low frequency and through mutations in spsB. Bacteria overexpressing the ABC transporter and lacking SpsB were capable of secreting a subset of proteins that are normally cleaved by SpsB and instead were cleaved at a site distinct from the canonical signal peptide. These bacteria secreted reduced levels of virulence-associated proteins and were unable to establish infection in mice. This study reveals the mechanism of resistance to a novel arylomycin derivative and demonstrates that the nominal essentiality of the S. aureus signal peptidase can be circumvented by the upregulation of a putative ABC transporter in vitro but not in vivo. PMID:27601569

  10. An ABC Transporter Mutation Is Correlated with Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, Linda J.; Pauchet, Yannick; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are commercially successful in reducing pest damage, yet knowledge of resistance mechanisms that threaten their sustainability is incomplete. Insect resistance to the pore-forming Cry1Ac toxin is correlated with the loss of high-affinity, irreversible binding to the mid-gut membrane, but the genetic factors responsible for this change have been elusive. Mutations in a 12-cadherin-domain protein confer some Cry1Ac resistance but do not block this toxin binding in in vitro assays. We sought to identify mutations in other genes that might be responsible for the loss of binding. We employed a map-based cloning approach using a series of backcrosses with 1,060 progeny to identify a resistance gene in the cotton pest Heliothis virescens that segregated independently from the cadherin mutation. We found an inactivating mutation of the ABC transporter ABCC2 that is genetically linked to Cry1Ac resistance and is correlated with loss of Cry1Ac binding to membrane vesicles. ABC proteins are integral membrane proteins with many functions, including export of toxic molecules from the cell, but have not been implicated in the mode of action of Bt toxins before. The reduction in toxin binding due to the inactivating mutation suggests that ABCC2 is involved in membrane integration of the toxin pore. Our findings suggest that ABC proteins may play a key role in the mode of action of Bt toxins and that ABC protein mutations can confer high levels of resistance that could threaten the continued utilization of Bt–expressing crops. However, such mutations may impose a physiological cost on resistant insects, by reducing export of other toxins such as plant secondary compounds from the cell. This weakness could be exploited to manage this mechanism of Bt resistance in the field. PMID:21187898

  11. Convergent Validity between Two Motor Tests: Movement-ABC and PDMS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Peersman, Wim; Lenoir, Matthieu; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Thirty-one 4- and 5-year-old children (mean age 4 years 11 months, SD 6 months), all recruited from a clinical setting, took part in the study. Children were tested on the…

  12. Evolution of the ABC model among the segregated configurations in the zero-temperature limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misturini, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    We consider the ABC model on a ring in a strongly asymmetric regime. The main result asserts that the particles almost always form three pure domains (one of each species) and that this segregated shape evolves, in a proper time scale, as a Brownian motion on the circle, which may have a drift. This is, to our knowledge, the first proof of a zero-temperature limit for a non-reversible dynamics whose invariant measure is not explicitly known.

  13. Computed ABC Analysis for Rational Selection of Most Informative Variables in Multivariate Data

    PubMed Central

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multivariate data sets often differ in several factors or derived statistical parameters, which have to be selected for a valid interpretation. Basing this selection on traditional statistical limits leads occasionally to the perception of losing information from a data set. This paper proposes a novel method for calculating precise limits for the selection of parameter sets. Methods The algorithm is based on an ABC analysis and calculates these limits on the basis of the mathematical properties of the distribution of the analyzed items. The limits im-plement the aim of any ABC analysis, i.e., comparing the increase in yield to the required additional effort. In particular, the limit for set A, the “important few”, is optimized in a way that both, the effort and the yield for the other sets (B and C), are minimized and the additional gain is optimized. Results As a typical example from biomedical research, the feasibility of the ABC analysis as an objective replacement for classical subjective limits to select highly relevant variance components of pain thresholds is presented. The proposed method improved the biological inter-pretation of the results and increased the fraction of valid information that was obtained from the experimental data. Conclusions The method is applicable to many further biomedical problems in-cluding the creation of diagnostic complex biomarkers or short screening tests from comprehensive test batteries. Thus, the ABC analysis can be proposed as a mathematically valid replacement for traditional limits to maximize the information obtained from multivariate research data. PMID:26061064

  14. Construction of the Tricyclic A-B-C Core of the Veratrum Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Berry, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Organocatalyzed enantioselective allylation of 2-iodocyclohexenone followed by methylation and oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered enantiomerically-enriched 2-methyl 3-allyl cyclohexanone, that engaged in acid-catalyzed Robinson annulation to give the bicyclic enone. Subsequent elaboration of the pendant allyl group into an α-diazo β-keto ester set the stage for Rh-mediated cyclization to deliver the tricyclic A-B-C core of the Veratrum alkaloids. PMID:23859604

  15. How much do we know about drug handling by SLC and ABC drug transporters in children?

    PubMed

    Nigam, S K; Bhatnagar, V

    2013-07-01

    Although solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are critical to the absorption, distribution, and elimination of many small-molecule drugs in children, how these transporters regulate pediatric drug handling remains unclear. For proper dosing and to diminish toxicity, we need a better understanding of how organ development and functional maturation, as well as developmental changes in systemic physiology, impact transporter-mediated drug handling at pediatric developmental stages from the preterm infant through adolescence.

  16. Substrate binding by a bacterial ABC transporter involved in polysaccharide export

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kimber, Matthew S.; Whitfield, Chris

    2008-04-02

    ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell-surface glycoconjugates in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These include the O-antigenic polysaccharide (O-PS) portion of lipopolysaccharide, a crucial virulence determinant in Gram-negative pathogens. O-PSs are synthesized by one of two fundamentally different pathways. Escherichia coli O serotypes O8 and O9a provide the prototype systems for studying O-PS export via ABC transporters. The transporter is composed of the transmembrane component Wzm and the nucleotide-binding component Wzt. Although the N-terminal domain of Wzt is a conventional ABC protein, the C-terminal domain of Wzt (C-Wzt) is a unique structural element that determines the specificity of the transporter for either the O8 or O9a O-PS. We show here that the two domains of Wzt can function when expressed as separate polypeptides; both are essential for export. In vitro, C-Wzt binds its cognate O-PS by recognizing a residue located at the nonreducing end of the polymer. The crystal structure of C-WztO9a is reported here and reveals a {beta} sandwich with an immunoglobulin-like topology that contains the O-PS-binding pocket. Substrate interactions with nucleotide-binding domains have been demonstrated in an ABC exporter previously. However, to our knowledge substrate binding by a discrete, cytoplasmic accessory domain in an extended nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide has not previously been demonstrated. Elucidation of the substrate-recognition system involved in O-PS export provides insight into the mechanism that coordinates polymer biosynthesis, termination, and export.

  17. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Catherine A.; Park, Hee Jun; Mazur, Courtney M.; Aaron, Roy K.

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods. PMID:27391810

  18. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  19. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  20. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  1. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  2. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India.

    PubMed

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R

    2010-04-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy. PMID:21264126

  3. Solution-Based Fabrication of Narrow-Disperse ABC Three-Segment and Θ-Shaped Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Changming; Dong, Haiyan; Chen, Daoyong

    2016-05-17

    Nanoparticles sized tens of nm with not only a highly complex but also a highly regular nanostructure, although ubiquitous in nature, are very difficult to prepare artificially. Herein, we report efficient solution-based preparation of narrow-disperse ABC three-segment hierarchical nanoparticles (HNPs) with a size of tens of nm through a three-level hierarchical self-assembly of A-b-B-b-C triblock copolymers in solution. An ABC HNP is composed of three nanoparticles, A, B, and C that are linearly connected; in the ABC HNP, the B nanoparticle is sandwiched between the A and C nanoparticles. The method for the preparation is highly efficient, because all of the A-b-B-b-C chains in the solution are converted into the ABC HNPs. Furthermore, the ABC HNPs self-assembled into Θ-shaped HNPs tens nm in size. Both the ABC and Θ-shaped HNPs, are highly complex but highly regular, and are novel HNPs, and they should be very promising for addressing various theoretical and practical problems. PMID:27071692

  4. IMG-ABC: A Knowledge Base To Fuel Discovery of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and Novel Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hadjithomas, Michalis; Chen, I-Min Amy; Chu, Ken; Ratner, Anna; Palaniappan, Krishna; Szeto, Ernest; Huang, Jinghua; Reddy, T. B. K.; Cimermančič, Peter; Fischbach, Michael A.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Markowitz, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the discovery of secondary metabolites, analysis of sequence data is a promising exploration path that remains largely underutilized due to the lack of computational platforms that enable such a systematic approach on a large scale. In this work, we present IMG-ABC (https://img.jgi.doe.gov/abc), an atlas of biosynthetic gene clusters within the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, which is aimed at harnessing the power of “big” genomic data for discovering small molecules. IMG-ABC relies on IMG’s comprehensive integrated structural and functional genomic data for the analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs) and associated secondary metabolites (SMs). SMs and BCs serve as the two main classes of objects in IMG-ABC, each with a rich collection of attributes. A unique feature of IMG-ABC is the incorporation of both experimentally validated and computationally predicted BCs in genomes as well as metagenomes, thus identifying BCs in uncultured populations and rare taxa. We demonstrate the strength of IMG-ABC’s focused integrated analysis tools in enabling the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism on a global scale, through the discovery of phenazine-producing clusters for the first time in Alphaproteobacteria. IMG-ABC strives to fill the long-existent void of resources for computational exploration of the secondary metabolism universe; its underlying scalable framework enables traversal of uncovered phylogenetic and chemical structure space, serving as a doorway to a new era in the discovery of novel molecules. PMID:26173699

  5. Mechanisms underlying the synergistic enhancement of self-assembled neocartilage treated with chondroitinase-ABC and TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Responte, Donald J.; Arzi, Boaz; Natoli, Roman M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a platform for in vitro cartilage formation would enhance the study of cartilage development, pathogenesis, and regeneration. To improve neocartilage formation, our group developed a novel self-assembly process for articular chondrocytes, which has been improved in this study using a novel combination of catabolic and anabolic agents. TGF-β1 was applied in conjunction with the enzyme chondroitinase-ABC (C-ABC) to additively increase tensile properties and synergistically enhance collagen content. Additionally, microarray analysis indicated that TGF-β1 up-regulated MAPK signaling in contrast to C-ABC, which did not enrich genetic pathways. The lack of genetic signaling spurred investigation of the biophysical role of C-ABC, which showed that C-ABC treatment increased collagen fibril diameter and density. After four weeks of culture in nude mice, neocartilage exhibited stability and maturation. This study illustrated an innovative strategy for improving in vitro and in vivo articular cartilage formation and elucidated mechanisms underlying TGF-β1 and C-ABC treatment. PMID:22284584

  6. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  7. Magnetic oscillation of optical phonon in ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Chunxiao; Jung, Jeil; Cao, Bingchen; Qiu, Caiyu; Shen, Xiaonan; Ferreira, Aires; Adam, Shaffique; Yu, Ting

    2015-06-01

    We present a comparative measurement of the G -peak oscillations of phonon frequency, Raman intensity, and linewidth in the magneto-Raman scattering of optical E2 g phonons in mechanically exfoliated ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG). Whereas in ABA-stacked TLG, we observe magnetophonon oscillations consistent with single-bilayer chiral band doublets, the features are flat for ABC-stacked TLG up to magnetic fields of 9 T. This suppression can be attributed to the enhancement of band chirality that compactifies the spectrum of Landau levels and modifies the magnetophonon resonance properties. The drastically different coupling behavior between the electronic excitations and the E2 g phonons in ABA- and ABC-stacked TLG reflects their different electronic band structures and the electronic Landau level transitions and thus can be another way to determine the stacking orders and to probe the stacking-order-dependent electronic structures. In addition, the sensitivity of the magneto-Raman scattering to the particular stacking order in few-layer graphene highlights the important role of interlayer coupling in modifying the optical response properties in van der Waals layered materials.

  8. Suppression of B function strongly supports the modified ABCE model in Tricyrtis sp. (Liliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Masahiro; Sharifi, Ahmad; Kubota, Shosei; Oizumi, Kanako; Uetake, Fumi; Hirai, Masayo; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Kanno, Akira; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    B class MADS-box genes play important roles in petal and stamen development. Some monocotyledonous species, including liliaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2. A modified ABCE model has been proposed to explain the molecular mechanism of development of two-layered petaloid tepals. However, direct evidence for this modified ABCE model has not been reported to date. To clarify the molecular mechanism determining the organ identity of two-layered petaloid tepals, we used chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) to examine the suppression of B function in the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. Transgenic plants with suppressed B class genes produced sepaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 instead of the petaloid tepals as expected. In addition, the stamens of transgenic plants converted into pistil-like organs with ovule- and stigma-like structures. This report is the first to describe the successful suppression of B function in monocotyledonous species with two-layered petaloid tepals, and the results strongly support the modified ABCE model. PMID:27079267

  9. ABCs of SLEEPING: A review of the evidence behind pediatric sleep practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stephanie L; Howlett, Melissa D; Coulombe, J Aimée; Corkum, Penny V

    2016-10-01

    The ABCs of SLEEPING mnemonic was developed to serve as an organizing framework for common pediatric sleep recommendations. The mnemonic stands for 1) age appropriate bedtimes and wake-times with consistency, 2) schedules and routines, 3) location, 4) exercise and diet, 5) no electronics in the bedroom or before bed, 6) positivity 7) independence when falling asleep and 8) needs of child met during the day, 9) equal great sleep. This review examines the empirical evidence behind the practices and recommendations captured by the ABCs of SLEEPING mnemonic for children aged 1 to 12. A search was conducted of key electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, & EMBASE) to identify English articles that included the concepts of sleep, insomnia, and/or bedtime. 77 articles were eligible for inclusion and were coded to extract key details and findings regarding the relations between sleep practices identified in the ABCs of SLEEPING mnemonic and sleep outcomes. Findings provided preliminary support for many of the recommendations that are commonly made to families regarding healthy sleep practices. However, more robust investigations are needed to better understand the causal contributions of healthy sleep practices to the onset and maintenance of children's sleep problems.

  10. ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric lipid bilayer with phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). β-Barreled outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins are embedded in the outer membrane. All of these constituents are essential to the function of the outer membrane. The transport systems for lipoproteins have been characterized in detail. An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, LolCDE, initiates sorting by mediating the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane to form a water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex in the periplasm. Lipoproteins are then transferred to LolB at the outer membrane and are incorporated into the lipid bilayer. A model analogous to the Lol system has been suggested for the transport of LPS, where an ABC transporter, LptBFG, mediates the detachment of LPS from the inner membrane. Recent developments in the functional characterization of ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria are discussed. PMID:21670534

  11. Response of an aggressive periosteal aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the radius to denosumab therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), once considered a reactive lesion, has been proven to be a neoplasia characterized by rearrangements of the USP6-gene. Aggressive local growth and recurrences are common and therapeutic options may be limited due to the vicinity of crucial structures. We describe a case of a locally aggressive, multinucleated giant cell-containing lesion of the forearm of a 21-year old woman, treated with denosumab for recurrent, surgically uncontrollable disease. Under the influence of this RANKL inhibitor, the tumor showed a marked reduction of the content of the osteoclastic giant cells and an extensive metaplastic osteoid production leading to the bony containment, mostly located intracortically in the proximal radius. The diagnosis of a periosteal ABC was confirmed by FISH demonstrating USP6 gene rearrangement on the initial biopsy. Function conserving surgery could be performed, enabling reconstruction of the affected bone. Inhibition of RANKL with denosumab may offer therapeutic option for patients not only with giant cell tumors but also with ABCs. PMID:24438319

  12. Role of the Zinc Uptake ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Aimee L.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have identified and characterized a zinc uptake ABC transporter that is present in all strains of M. catarrhalis tested. A mutant in which the znu gene cluster is knocked out shows markedly impaired growth compared to the wild type in medium that contains trace zinc; growth is restored to wild-type levels by supplementing medium with zinc but not with other divalent cations. Thermal-shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein ZnuA binds zinc but does not bind other divalent cations. Invasion assays with human respiratory epithelial cells demonstrated that the zinc ABC transporter of M. catarrhalis is critical for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells, an observation that is especially relevant because an intracellular reservoir of M. catarrhalis is present in the human respiratory tract and this reservoir is important for persistence. The znu knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the zinc uptake ABC transporter mediates uptake of zinc in environments with very low zinc concentrations and is critical for full virulence of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract in facilitating intracellular invasion of epithelial cells and persistence in the respiratory tract. PMID:23817618

  13. A role for topoisomerase III in a recombination pathway alternative to RuvABC.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christopher R; Yang, Shirley; Deibler, Richard W; Ray, Starlight A; Pennington, Jeanine M; Digate, Russell J; Hastings, P J; Rosenberg, Susan M; Zechiedrich, E Lynn

    2005-10-01

    The physiological role of topoisomerase III is unclear for any organism. We show here that the removal of topoisomerase III in temperature sensitive topoisomerase IV mutants in Escherichia coli results in inviability at the permissive temperature. The removal of topoisomerase III has no effect on the accumulation of catenated intermediates of DNA replication, even when topoisomerase IV activity is removed. Either recQ or recA null mutations, but not helD null or lexA3, partially rescued the synthetic lethality of the double topoisomerase III/IV mutant, indicating a role for topoisomerase III in recombination. We find a bias against deleting the gene encoding topoisomerase III in ruvC53 or DeltaruvABC backgrounds compared with the isogenic wild-type strains. The topoisomerase III RuvC double mutants that can be constructed are five- to 10-fold more sensitive to UV irradiation and mitomycin C treatment and are twofold less efficient in transduction efficiency than ruvC53 mutants. The overexpression of ruvABC allows the construction of the topoisomerase III/IV double mutant. These data are consistent with a role for topoisomerase III in disentangling recombination intermediates as an alternative to RuvABC to maintain the stability of the genome.

  14. Teaching the ABCs of bioinformatics: a brief introduction to the Applied Bioinformatics Course

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the growth of online resources, bioinformatics training for wet-lab biologists became necessary as a part of their education. This article describes a one-semester course ‘Applied Bioinformatics Course’ (ABC, http://abc.cbi.pku.edu.cn/) that the author has been teaching to biological graduate students at the Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for the past 13 years. ABC is a hands-on practical course to teach students to use online bioinformatics resources to solve biological problems related to their ongoing research projects in molecular biology. With a brief introduction to the background of the course, detailed information about the teaching strategies of the course are outlined in the ‘How to teach’ section. The contents of the course are briefly described in the ‘What to teach’ section with some real examples. The author wishes to share his teaching experiences and the online teaching materials with colleagues working in bioinformatics education both in local and international universities. PMID:24008274

  15. Correction: Learning from each other: ABC transporter regulation by protein phosphorylation in plant and mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Bibek; Laurent, Christophe; Geisler, Markus

    2016-04-15

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter family in higher plants is highly expanded compared with those of mammalians. Moreover, some members of the plant ABCB subfamily display very high substrate specificity compared with their mammalian counterparts that are often associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomena. In this review we highlight prominent functions of plant and mammalian ABC transporters and summarize our knowledge on their post-transcriptional regulation with a focus on protein phosphorylation. A deeper comparison of regulatory events of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and ABCB1 from the model plantArabidopsisreveals a surprisingly high degree of similarity. Both physically interact with orthologues of the FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) that chaperon both transporters to the plasma membrane in an action that seems to involve Hsp90. Further both transporters are phosphorylated at regulatory domains that connect both nucleotide-binding folds. Taken together it appears that ABC transporters exhibit an evolutionary conserved but complex regulation by protein phosphorylation, which apparently is, at least in some cases, tightly connected with protein-protein interactions (PPI). PMID:27068986

  16. Structural analysis of bacterial ABC transporter inhibition by an antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Shivani; Rougé, Lionel; Swem, Danielle L; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Wu, Ping; Russell, Stephen J; Alexander, Mary Kate; Tam, Christine; Nishiyama, Mireille; Starovasnik, Melissa A; Koth, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers play critical roles in nutrient acquisition and are potential antibacterial targets. However, structural bases for their inhibition are poorly defined. These pathways typically rely on substrate binding proteins (SBPs), which are essential for substrate recognition, delivery, and transporter function. We report the crystal structure of a Staphylococcus aureus SBP for Mn(II), termed MntC, in complex with FabC1, a potent antibody inhibitor of the MntABC pathway. This pathway is essential and highly expressed during S. aureus infection and facilitates the import of Mn(II), a critical cofactor for enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). Structure-based functional studies indicate that FabC1 sterically blocks a structurally conserved surface of MntC, preventing its interaction with the MntB membrane importer and increasing wild-type S. aureus sensitivity to oxidative stress by more than 10-fold. The results define an SBP blocking mechanism as the basis for ABC importer inhibition by an engineered antibody fragment.

  17. ABC3 Consensus Commented from the Perspective of the German Guidelines*

    PubMed Central

    Untch, M.; Augustin, D.; Ettl, J.; Haidinger, R.; Harbeck, N.; Lück, H.-J.; Lüftner, D.; Marmé, F.; Müller, L.; Overkamp, F.; Ruckhäberle, E.; Thill, M.; Thomssen, C.; Wuerstlein, R.; Marschner, N.

    2016-01-01

    The Third International Consensus Conference for Advanced Breast Cancer ABC3 on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer was held in Lisbon from 5 to 7 November 2015. This year the focus was the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) – including the patient perspectives. Important topics were questions relating to quality of life, the care for long-term survivors as well as the management of disease-related symptoms and treatment-based side effects. The use of standardised tools to assess individual treatment success and the benefits of new substances were important points for discussion. The diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer were discussed two years ago during the ABC2 consensus 1. A working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the results of the ABC panellists, paying particular attention to the German guidelines (AGO, S3, DGHO) on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer 2, 3, 4, 5 in Germany. PMID:26941448

  18. The High-Affinity E. Coli Methionine ABC Transporter: Structure And Allosteric Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kadaba, N.S.; Kaiser, J.T.; Johnson, E.; Lee, A.; Rees, D.C.

    2009-05-18

    The crystal structure of the high-affinity Escherichia coli MetNI methionine uptake transporter, a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) family, has been solved to 3.7 angstrom resolution. The overall architecture of MetNI reveals two copies of the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) MetN in complex with two copies of the transmembrane domain MetI, with the transporter adopting an inward-facing conformation exhibiting widely separated nucleotide binding domains. Each MetI subunit is organized around a core of five transmembrane helices that correspond to a subset of the helices observed in the larger membrane-spanning subunits of the molybdate (ModBC) and maltose (MalFGK) ABC transporters. In addition to the conserved nucleotide binding domain of the ABC family, MetN contains a carboxyl-terminal extension with a ferredoxin-like fold previously assigned to a conserved family of regulatory ligand-binding domains. These domains separate the nucleotide binding domains and would interfere with their association required for ATP binding and hydrolysis. Methionine binds to the dimerized carboxyl-terminal domain and is shown to inhibit ATPase activity. These observations are consistent with an allosteric regulatory mechanism operating at the level of transport activity, where increased intracellular levels of the transported ligand stabilize an inward-facing, ATPase-inactive state of MetNI to inhibit further ligand translocation into the cell.

  19. Alzheimer’s and ABC transporters - new opportunities for diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pahnke, Jens; Langer, Oliver; Krohn, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Much has been said about the increasing number of demented patients and the main risk factor ‘age’. Frustratingly, we do not know the precise pattern and all modulating factors that provoke the pathologic changes in the brains of affected elderly. We have to diagnose early to be able to stop the progression of diseases that irreversibly destroy brain substance. Familiar AD cases have mislead some researchers for almost 20 years, which has unfortunately narrowed the scientific understanding and has, thus, lead to insufficient funding of independent approaches. Therefore, basic researchers hardly have been able to develop causative treatments and clinicians still do not have access to prognostic and early diagnostic tools. During the recent years it became clear that insufficient Aβ export, physiologically facilitated by the ABC transporter superfamily at the brain’s barriers, plays a fundamental role in disease initiation and progression. Furthermore, export mechanisms that are deficient in affected elderly are new targets for activation and, thus, treatment, but ideally also for prevention. In sporadic AD disturbed clearance of β-amyloid from the brain is so far the most important factor for its accumulation in the parenchyma and vessel walls. Here, we review findings about the contribution of ABC transporters and of the perivascular drainage/glymphatic system on β-amyloid clearance. We highlight their potential value for innovative early diagnostics using PET and describe recently described, effective ABC transporter-targeting agents as potential causative treatment for neurodegenerative proteopathies/dementias. PMID:24746857

  20. Suppression of B function strongly supports the modified ABCE model in Tricyrtis sp. (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Otani, Masahiro; Sharifi, Ahmad; Kubota, Shosei; Oizumi, Kanako; Uetake, Fumi; Hirai, Masayo; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Kanno, Akira; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    B class MADS-box genes play important roles in petal and stamen development. Some monocotyledonous species, including liliaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2. A modified ABCE model has been proposed to explain the molecular mechanism of development of two-layered petaloid tepals. However, direct evidence for this modified ABCE model has not been reported to date. To clarify the molecular mechanism determining the organ identity of two-layered petaloid tepals, we used chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) to examine the suppression of B function in the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. Transgenic plants with suppressed B class genes produced sepaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 instead of the petaloid tepals as expected. In addition, the stamens of transgenic plants converted into pistil-like organs with ovule- and stigma-like structures. This report is the first to describe the successful suppression of B function in monocotyledonous species with two-layered petaloid tepals, and the results strongly support the modified ABCE model. PMID:27079267