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Sample records for abc paulista nos

  1. Kids Working on Paulista Avenue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Martha K.; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Six weeks of field research on 14 poor youth who sell services or products on the opulent Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo, Brazil, explored their work, play, aspirations and childhood outcomes. Comparing the 12 younger children to the two older youth workers who supervised them and to the few Brazilian longitudinal accounts of street youth, the…

  2. Kids Working on Paulista Avenue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Martha K.; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Six weeks of field research on 14 poor youth who sell services or products on the opulent Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo, Brazil, explored their work, play, aspirations and childhood outcomes. Comparing the 12 younger children to the two older youth workers who supervised them and to the few Brazilian longitudinal accounts of street youth, the…

  3. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  4. Thermodynamics of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejun C; Han, Lei; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ABC transporters form the largest of all transporter families, and their structural study has made tremendous progress over recent years. However, despite such advances, the precise mechanisms that determine the energy-coupling between ATP hydrolysis and the conformational changes following substrate binding remain to be elucidated. Here, we present our thermodynamic analysis for both ABC importers and exporters, and introduce the two new concepts of differential-binding energy and elastic conformational energy into the discussion. We hope that the structural analysis of ABC transporters will henceforth take thermodynamic aspects of transport mechanisms into account as well.

  5. Mitochondrial ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Lill, R; Kispal, G

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to bacteria, mitochondria contain only a few ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in their inner membrane. The known mitochondrial ABC proteins fall into two major classes that, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are represented by the half-transporter Atm1p and the two closely homologous proteins Mdl1p and Mdl2p. In humans two Atm1p orthologues (ABC7 and MTABC3) and two proteins homologous to Mdll/2p have been localized to mitochondria. The Atm1p-like proteins perform an important function in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and in the maturation of Fe/S proteins in the cytosol. Mutations in ABC7 are causative of hereditary X-linked sideroblastic anemia and cerebellar ataxia (XLSA/A). MTABC3 may be a candidate gene for the lethal neonatal syndrome. The function of the mitochondrial Mdl1/2p-like proteins is not clear at present with the notable exception of murine ABC-me that may transport intermediates of heme biosynthesis from the matrix to the cytosol in erythroid tissues.

  6. Plant ABC Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung; Choi, Hyunju; Burla, Bo; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes and fulfill a multitude of functions. Originally identified as transporters involved in detoxification processes, they have later been shown to be required for organ growth, plant nutrition, plant development, response to abiotic stresses, pathogen resistance and the interaction of the plant with its environment. To fulfill these roles they exhibit different substrate specifies by e.g. depositing surface lipids, accumulating phytate in seeds, and transporting the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the functions of plant ABC transporters and to show their importance for plant development and survival. PMID:22303277

  7. ABC's of Being Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  8. 1968 ABC Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Frances M.; Russell, Valerie E.

    A talent development project at Mount Holyoke College, part of A Better Chance (ABC)-Independent Schools Talent Search program, was offered during the summer of 1968 to 71 disadvantaged high school students from 13 states. Major aims of the program were to help these students with college potential to strengthen their academic skills and…

  9. ABC's of Being Smart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Determining what giftedness is all about means focusing on many aspects of the individual. In this paper, the author focuses on letter D of the ABC's of being smart. She starts with specifics about giftedness (details), and then moves on to some ways of thinking (dispositions).

  10. Peptidome profiling of venom from the social wasp Polybia paulista.

    PubMed

    Dias, Nathalia Batista; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Gomes, Paulo Cesar; Brigatte, Patricia; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2015-12-01

    Most crude venom from Polybia paulista is composed of short, linear peptides; however, only five of these peptides are structurally and functionally characterized. Therefore, the peptides in this venom were profiled using an HPLC-IT-TOF/MS and MS(n) system. The presence of type -d and -w ions that are generated from the fragmentation of the side chains was used to resolve I/L ambiguity. The distinction between K and Q residues was achieved through esterification of the α- and ε-amino groups in the peptide chains, followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Fourteen major peptides were detected in P. paulista venom and sequenced; all the peptides were synthesized on solid-phase and submitted to a series of bioassays. Five of them had been previously characterized, and nine were novel toxins. The novel peptides correspond to two wasp kinins, two chemotactic components, three mastoparans, and two peptides of unknown function. The seven novel peptides with identified functions appear to act synergistically with the previously known ones, constituting three well-known families of peptide toxins (wasp kinins, chemotactic peptides, and mastoparans) in the venom of social wasps. These multifunctional toxins can cause pain, oedema formation, haemolysis, chemotaxis of PMNLs, and mast cell degranulation in victims who are stung by wasps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural diversity of ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    ter Beek, Josy; Guskov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large superfamily of ATP-dependent protein complexes that mediate transport of a vast array of substrates across membranes. The 14 currently available structures of ABC transporters have greatly advanced insight into the transport mechanism and revealed a tremendous structural diversity. Whereas the domains that hydrolyze ATP are structurally related in all ABC transporters, the membrane-embedded domains, where the substrates are translocated, adopt four different unrelated folds. Here, we review the structural characteristics of ABC transporters and discuss the implications of this structural diversity for mechanistic diversity. PMID:24638992

  12. ABC's of Construction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    The ABC's of Construction project was a demonstration project designed to integrate basic skills training with an industry-developed vocational-craft training program. The program was located at the central training facility of the Pelican Chapter of Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC), an organization made up of nearly 300 member companies…

  13. Do You Know Your ABC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Within primary schools, the core subjects of literacy and numeracy are highly regarded, and rightly so, as children need to learn to read, write and be numerically literate. This means that all children learn their ABCs at an early age, But, what about the "other ABC"--"Airway, Breathing and Circulation?" Accidents and medical…

  14. The chemistry of ABC

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    ABC stand for accelerator based conversion of Pu. It is a unique approach to Pu destruction that allows for a well controlled and complete burn of Pu as may be required by treaty or policy. The central idea of the approach is to provide a spallation source of neutrons that allows the operation of a fissioning system without a critical mass and at a K effective less than one. Material to be fissioned is suspended in a molten salt medium for high temperature control and on-line removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This paper discusses the issues associated with the selection and operation of a molten salt chemical system: redox control, product removal, material feed, solubilities, deposition control, and a host of operational procedures.

  15. The ABCs of Sex Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroka, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Cites statistics on extent of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies among adolescents; describes ideological dispute over how to teach sex education; advocates teaching the ABCs of sex education: Abstinence, Be Monogamous, and Condoms. (PKP)

  16. [The ABC transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wawrzycka, Donata

    2011-01-01

    The ABC transporters (ATP Binding Cassette) compose one of the bigest protein family with the great medical, industrial and economical impact. They are found in all organism from bacteria to man. ABC proteins are responsible for resistance of microorganism to antibiotics and fungicides and multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Mutations in ABC transporters genes cause seriuos deseases like cystic fibrosis, adrenoleucodystrophy or ataxia. Transport catalized by ABC proteins is charged with energy from the ATP hydrolysis. The ABC superfamily contains transporters, canals, receptors. Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome allowed to distinguish 30 potential ABC proteins which are classified into 6 subfamilies. The structural and functional similarity of the yeast and human ABC proteins allowes to use the S. cerevisiae as a model organism for ABC transporters characterisation. In this work the present state of knowleadge on yeast S. cerevisiae ABC proteins was summarised.

  17. ABC transporters in adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Seyffer, Fabian; Tampé, Robert

    2015-03-01

    ABC transporters ubiquitously found in all kingdoms of life move a broad range of solutes across membranes. Crystal structures of four distinct types of ABC transport systems have been solved, shedding light on different conformational states within the transport process. Briefly, ATP-dependent flipping between inward- and outward-facing conformations allows directional transport of various solutes. The heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing TAP1/2 (ABCB2/3) is a crucial element of the adaptive immune system. The ABC transport complex shuttles proteasomal degradation products into the endoplasmic reticulum. These antigenic peptides are loaded onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and presented on the cell surface. We detail the functional modules of TAP, its ATPase and transport cycle, and its interaction with and modulation by other cellular components. In particular, we emphasize how viral factors inhibit TAP activity and thereby prevent detection of the infected host cell by cytotoxic T-cells. Merging functional details on TAP with structural insights from related ABC transporters refines the understanding of solute transport. Although human ABC transporters are extremely diverse, they still may employ conceptually related transport mechanisms. Appropriately, we delineate a working model of the transport cycle and how viral factors arrest TAP in distinct conformations. Deciphering the transport cycle of human ABC proteins is the major issue in the field. The defined peptidic substrate, various inhibitory viral factors, and its role in adaptive immunity provide unique tools for the investigation of TAP, making it an ideal model system for ABC transporters in general. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  19. Reactivity of IgE to the allergen hyaluronidase from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) venom.

    PubMed

    Justo Jacomini, Débora Laís; Gomes Moreira, Susana Margarida; Campos Pereira, Franco Dani; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto Braga, Márcia Regina

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no allergenic extracts or components available in Brazil to diagnosis and treatment of patients with venom allergy from social wasp (Vespidae Family; Polistinae Subfamily) despite of the great number of existing species. We evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Hyal recombinant protein (Pp-Hyal-rec) which was expressed in an insoluble form in comparison with the allergenic native protein (Pp-Hyal-nat) for recognition of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum of allergic patients to venom of the endemic social wasp Polybia paulista from São Paulo State, Brazil. Hyal cDNA from the venom of the social wasp P. paulista (Pp-Hyal) (GI: 302201582) was cloned into the expression vector pET-28a in Escherichia coli DE3 (BL21) cells. Solubilization and purification of Pp-Hyal-rec from inclusion bodies were performed using Ni(2+) affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA-Agarose) under denaturing conditions. Both the native (Pp-Hyal-nat) and the recombinant (Pp-Hyal-rec) purified allergens were used for Western blotting to assess the levels of Pp-Hyal-IgE specific in the serum of 10 patients exclusively reactive to the venom of the social wasp P. paulista. The immune sera specifically recognized the band corresponding to the Pp-Hyal-rec protein (40 kDa) at a higher intensity than the native allergen (39 kDa). The sera recognized other proteins in P. paulista crude venom extract to a lesser extent, likely corresponding to other venom allergens such as phospholipase (34 kDa), Antigen 5 (25 kDa), and proteases. The recognition pattern of the immune sera to the Pp-Hyal-rec allergen strongly suggests that this recombinant antigen could be used for developing a diagnostic allergy test as well as for specific immunotherapy (IT).

  20. Heterologous Expression, Purification and Immunoreactivity of the Antigen 5 from Polybia paulista Wasp Venom.

    PubMed

    Bazon, Murilo Luiz; Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Fernandes, Luis Gustavo Romani; Lasa, Alexis Musacchio; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Laís; Palma, Mario Sergio; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2017-08-24

    Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is responsible for a high number of sting accidents and anaphylaxis events in Southeast Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. The specific detection of allergy to the venom of this wasp is often hampered by the lack of recombinant allergens currently available for molecular diagnosis. Antigen 5 (~23 kDa) from P. paulista venom (Poly p 5) is a highly abundant and glycosylated allergenic protein that could be used for development of component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Here, we describe the cloning and heterologous expression of the antigen 5 (rPoly p 5) from P. paulista venom using the eukaryotic system Pichia pastoris. The expression as a secreted protein yielded high levels of soluble rPoly p 5. The recombinant allergen was further purified to homogeneity (99%) using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Simultaneously, the native form of the allergen (nPoly p 5) was purified from the wasp venom by Ion exchange chromatography. The rPoly p 5 and nPoly p 5 were then submitted to a comparative analysis of IgE-mediated immunodetection using sera from patients previously diagnosed with sensitization to wasp venoms. Both rPoly p 5 and nPoly p 5 were recognized by specific IgE (sIgE) in the sera of the allergic individuals. The high levels of identity found between nPoly p 5 and rPoly p 5 by the alignment of its primary sequences as well as by 3-D models support the results obtained in the immunoblot. Overall, we showed that P. pastoris is a suitable system for production of soluble rPoly p 5 and that the recombinant allergen represents a potential candidate for molecular diagnosis of P.paulista venom allergy.

  1. ABC transporters in the CNS - an inventory.

    PubMed

    Hartz, A M S; Bauer, B

    2011-04-01

    In the present review we provide a summary of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our review is focused on transporters of the ABC A, B, C, D, and G families that have been detected in the cells of the neurovascular unit/blood-brain barrier including brain capillary endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons, as well as in other brain cells, such as microglia, oligodendrocytes, and choroid plexus epithelial cells. In this review, we provide an overview, organized by ABC family, of transporter expression, localization, and function. We summarize recent findings on ABC transporter regulation in the CNS and address the role of ABC transporters in CNS diseases including brain cancer, seizures/epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we discuss new therapeutic strategies focused on ABC transporters in CNS disease.

  2. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used membrane yeast two-hybrid technology to map the protein interactome of all of the nonmitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated 'interactome'. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in an unexpectedly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters.

  3. Mapping the functional yeast ABC transporter interactome

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Hanif, Asad; Lee, Mid Eum; Jin, Ke; Yu, Analyn R.; Graham, Chris; Chuk, Matthew; Damjanovic, Dunja; Wierzbicka, Marta; Tang, Priscilla; Balderes, Dina; Wong, Victoria; Jessulat, Matthew; Darowski, Katelyn D.; Luis, Bryan-Joseph San; Shevelev, Igor; Sturley, Stephen L; Boone, Charles; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Paumi, Christian M.; Babu, Mohan; Park, Hay-Oak; Michaelis, Susan; Stagljar, Igor

    2013-01-01

    ABC transporters are a ubiquitous class of integral membrane proteins of immense clinical interest because of their strong association with human disease and pharmacology. To improve our understanding of these proteins, we used Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) technology to map the protein interactome of all non-mitochondrial ABC transporters in the model organism Saccharomy cescerevisiae, and combined this data with previously reported yeast ABC transporter interactions in the BioGRID database to generate a comprehensive, integrated interactome. We show that ABC transporters physically associate with proteins involved in a surprisingly diverse range of functions. We specifically examine the importance of the physical interactions of ABC transporters in both the regulation of one another and in the modulation of proteins involved in zinc homeostasis. The interaction network presented here will be a powerful resource for increasing our fundamental understanding of the cellular role and regulation of ABC transporters. PMID:23831759

  4. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The peroxisomal ABC transporter family.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Visser, Wouter F; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Kemp, Stephan; Waterham, Hans R

    2007-02-01

    This review describes the current state of knowledge about the ABCD family of peroxisomal half adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABCDs are predicted to be present in a variety of eukaryotic organisms, although at present, only ABCDs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and different mammalian species have been identified and characterized to any significant extent. The functional role of none of these ABCDs has been established definitively and awaits successful reconstitution of ABCDs, either as homo- or heterodimers into liposomes, followed by transport studies. Data obtained in S. cerevisiae suggest that the two ABCDs, which have been identified in this organism, form a heterodimer, which actually transports acyl coenzyme A esters across the peroxisomal membrane. In mammals, four ABCDs have been identified, of which one [adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP)] has been implicated in the transport of the coenzyme A esters of very-long-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the gene (ABCD1) encoding ALDP are the cause of a severe X-linked disease, called X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The availability of mutant mice in which Abcd1, Abcd2, or Abcd3 have been disrupted will help to resolve the true role of the peroxisomal half-ABC transporters.

  6. Identification and functional characterization of Penicillium marneffei pleiotropic drug resistance transporters ABC1 and ABC2.

    PubMed

    Panapruksachat, Siribun; Iwatani, Shun; Oura, Takahiro; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Chindamporn, Ariya; Niimi, Kyoko; Niimi, Masakazu; Lamping, Erwin; Cannon, Richard D; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei is an endemic, AIDS-defining illness and, after tuberculosis and cryptococcosis, the third most common opportunistic infection of AIDS patients in tropical Southeast Asia. Untreated, patients have poor prognosis; however, primary amphotericin B treatment followed by prolonged itraconazole prophylaxis is effective. To identify ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that may play a role in potential multidrug resistance of P. marneffei, we identified and classified all 46 P. marneffei ABC transporters from the genome sequence. PmABC1 and PmABC2 were most similar to the archetype Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump gene CDR1. P. marneffei Abc1p (PmAbc1p) was functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although at rather low levels, and correctly localized to the plasma membrane, causing cells to be fourfold to eightfold more resistant to azoles and many other xenobiotics than untransformed cells. P. marneffei Abc2p (PmAbc2p) was expressed at similarly low levels, but it had no efflux activity and did not properly localize to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, PmAbc1p mislocalized and lost its transport activity when cells were shifted to 37 °C. We conclude that expression of PmAbc1p in S. cerevisiae confers resistance to several xenobiotics indicating that PmAbc1p may be a multidrug efflux pump.

  7. Identification of 18 mouse ABC genes and characterization of the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Schriml, L M; Dean, M

    2000-02-15

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode a family of transport proteins known to be involved in a number of human genetic diseases. In this study, we characterized the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus through in silico gene identification and mapping and phylogenetic analysis of mouse and human ABC genes. By querying dbEST with amino acid sequences from the conserved ATP-binding domains, we identified and partially sequenced 18 new mouse ABC genes, bringing the total number of mouse ABC genes to 34. Twelve of the new ABC genes were mapped in the mouse genome to the X chromosome and to 10 of the 19 autosomes. Phylogenetic relationships of mouse and human ABC genes were examined with maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses that demonstrated that mouse and human ABC orthologs are more closely related than are mouse paralogs. The mouse ABC genes could be grouped into the seven previously described human ABC subfamilies. Three mouse ABC genes mapped to regions implicated in cholesterol gallstone susceptibility. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-11-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The ABC transporters in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlin; Cong, Qian; Pei, Jimin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-01-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Ca. L. asiaticus) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the pathogen of Citrus Greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB). As a parasitic bacterium, Ca. L. asiaticus harbors ABC transporters that play important roles in exchanging chemical compounds between Ca. L. asiaticus and its host. Here, we analyzed all the ABC transporter-related proteins in Ca. L. asiaticus. We identified 14 ABC transporter systems and predicted their structures and substrate specificities. In-depth sequence and structure analysis including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree reconstruction, and structure comparison further support their function predictions. Our study shows that this bacterium could use these ABC transporters to import metabolites (amino acids and phosphates) and enzyme cofactors (choline, thiamine, iron, manganese, and zinc), resist to organic solvent, heavy metal, and lipid-like drugs, maintain the composition of the outer membrane (OM), and secrete virulence factors. Although the features of most ABC systems could be deduced from the abundant experimental data on their orthologs, we reported several novel observations within ABC system proteins. Moreover, we identified seven nontransport ABC systems that are likely involved in virulence gene expression regulation, transposon excision regulation, and DNA repair. Our analysis reveals several candidates for further studies to understand and control the disease, including the type I virulence factor secretion system and its substrate that are likely related to Ca. L. asiaticus pathogenicity and the ABC transporter systems responsible for bacterial OM biosynthesis that are good drug targets. PMID:22807026

  10. An ABC for decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  11. An ABC for decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions. PMID:20233411

  14. Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suyoung; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Dongyoung; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Heung Tae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Woobong

    2014-12-01

    Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5'-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.

  15. The ABC`s of nuclear science workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McMahn, P.; Carlock, M.S.; Mattis, H.; Norman, E.; Seaborg, G.

    1997-12-31

    Over the last several years the Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) has developed two wall charts which illustrate contemporary aspects of particle and plasma physics for high school and undergraduate students. We are now working with CPEP on the development of a similar chart for nuclear science. This chart will illustrate the basics of nuclear science coupled with the exciting research which is being done in this field. This workshop will explore the wall chart, along with materials and experiments that have been developed to accompany it. The set of experiments have been developed by high school teachers, chemists, and physicists working together, and include experiments such as, {open_quotes}the ABCs of Nuclear Science,{close_quotes} and experiments exploring the various kinds of radioactive decay, radioactivity in common household products, half-live measurements, radiography, etc. Teachers who join the project as chart field testers will receive a poster size chart and accompanying materials free of charge. The materials also include a video about cosmic rays has also been produced for the classroom.

  16. The ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia R.

    1998-01-01

    Reports the impressions of 20 preservice and inservice teachers as they experienced the "ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication" model, a program to promote cultural sensitivity among teachers. Insights these teachers gained are discussed. (SLD)

  17. The ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia R.

    1998-01-01

    Reports the impressions of 20 preservice and inservice teachers as they experienced the "ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication" model, a program to promote cultural sensitivity among teachers. Insights these teachers gained are discussed. (SLD)

  18. Yeast ABC proteins involved in multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Piecuch, Agata; Obłąk, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotropic drug resistance is a complex phenomenon that involves many proteins that together create a network. One of the common mechanisms of multidrug resistance in eukaryotic cells is the active efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics through ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often used as a model to study such activity because of the functional and structural similarities of its ABC transporters to mammalian ones. Numerous ABC transporters are found in humans and some are associated with the resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutics. Efflux pump modulators that change the activity of ABC proteins are the most promising candidate drugs to overcome such resistance. These modulators can be chemically synthesized or isolated from natural sources (e.g., plant alkaloids) and might also be used in the treatment of fungal infections. There are several generations of synthetic modulators that differ in specificity, toxicity and effectiveness, and are often used for other clinical effects.

  19. Quasi-biennial oscillation signatures in the diurnal tidal winds over Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, Luciana Rodrigues; Lima, Lourivaldo Mota; Jacobi, Christoph; Batista, Paulo Prado

    2017-03-01

    Mesosphere/lower thermosphere winds obtained by meteor radar over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been used to investigate the interannual variability of the diurnal tidal (DT) wind amplitude. The monthly DT displays year to year variations and their amplitudes are strongest during the westerly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) at the 30 hPa level. This can be observed in all seasons in the meridional component, whilst in the zonal component the signal is clearer during austral autumn, when the diurnal tide is strongest in this latitude. The spectrum obtained from the deseasonalized amplitudes shows a peak near 26 months in the meridional component, which can be associated to the stratospheric QBO. The QBO modulation of the DT amplitude shows a quasi-decadal variation, and it is stronger during the maximum of the solar cycle.

  20. Structural insights into ABC transporter mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, Michael L.; Davidson, Amy L.; Chen, Jue

    2010-07-27

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport substances across the membrane. In recent years, crystal structures of several ABC transporters have become available. These structures show that both importers and exporters oscillate between two conformations: an inward-facing conformation with the substrate translocation pathway open to the cytoplasm and an outward-facing conformation with the translocation pathway facing the opposite side of the membrane. In this review, conformational differences found in the structures of homologous ABC transporters are analyzed to understand how alternating-access is achieved. It appears that rigid-body rotations of the transmembrane subunits, coinciding with the opening and closing of the nucleotide-binding subunits, couples ATP hydrolysis to substrate translocation.

  1. Reliable ABC model choice via random forests.

    PubMed

    Pudlo, Pierre; Marin, Jean-Michel; Estoup, Arnaud; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Gautier, Mathieu; Robert, Christian P

    2016-03-15

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods provide an elaborate approach to Bayesian inference on complex models, including model choice. Both theoretical arguments and simulation experiments indicate, however, that model posterior probabilities may be poorly evaluated by standard ABC techniques. We propose a novel approach based on a machine learning tool named random forests (RF) to conduct selection among the highly complex models covered by ABC algorithms. We thus modify the way Bayesian model selection is both understood and operated, in that we rephrase the inferential goal as a classification problem, first predicting the model that best fits the data with RF and postponing the approximation of the posterior probability of the selected model for a second stage also relying on RF. Compared with earlier implementations of ABC model choice, the ABC RF approach offers several potential improvements: (i) it often has a larger discriminative power among the competing models, (ii) it is more robust against the number and choice of statistics summarizing the data, (iii) the computing effort is drastically reduced (with a gain in computation efficiency of at least 50) and (iv) it includes an approximation of the posterior probability of the selected model. The call to RF will undoubtedly extend the range of size of datasets and complexity of models that ABC can handle. We illustrate the power of this novel methodology by analyzing controlled experiments as well as genuine population genetics datasets. The proposed methodology is implemented in the R package abcrf available on the CRAN. jean-michel.marin@umontpellier.fr Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  3. The ABCs of GERD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... issue contents The ABCs of GERD Follow us The ABCs of GERD Photo: AdobeStock HEALTH TIPS - Gastroesophageal ... if you are concerned. For more information, visit the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ...

  4. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2013-01-01

    ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of proteins. They are implicated in wide variety of cellular processes ranging from ribosome biogenesis to multidrug resistance. With the advance of fungal genomics, the number of known fungal ABC proteins increases rapidly but the information on their biological functions remains scarce. In this work we extended the previous analysis of fungal ABC proteins to include recently sequenced species of basidiomycetes. We performed an identification and initial cataloging of ABC proteins from 23 fungal species representing 10 orders within class Agaricomycotina. We identified more than 1000 genes coding for ABC proteins. Comparison of sets of ABC proteins present in basidiomycetes and ascomycetes revealed the existence of two groups of ABC proteins specific for basidiomycetes. Results of survey should contribute to the better understanding of evolution of ABC proteins in fungi and support further experimental work on their characterization.

  5. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size.

  6. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan S; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for β-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) that is used for the biosynthesis of penicillin G. To identify ABC transporters related to β-lactam biosynthesis, we analyzed the expression of all 48 ABC transporters present in the genome of P. chryso-genum when grown in the presence and absence of PAA. ABC40 is significantly upregulated when cells are grown or exposed to high levels of PAA. Although deletion of this transporter did not affect β-lactam biosynthesis, it resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity to PAA and other weak acids. It is concluded that ABC40 is involved in weak acid detoxification in P. chrysogenum including resistance to phenylacetic acid.

  7. The K-ABC and Ability Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; Hritcko, Terese

    1984-01-01

    Nine questions that link performance on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children to classroom teaching and pupil learning were posed. Results revealed the absence of empirical validation for linking K-ABC scores and altered teaching methods to known and desirable outcomes. (Author/CL)

  8. The ABCs of Managing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Brown, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    Describes stress management for teachers and presents strategies that teachers can use to lessen the impact of stress. Outlines the ABCs of stress: Acknowledge, Behavior Modification, and Communication. Notes that stress can motivate teachers to explore new instructional strategies, adopt innovative approaches to increasing student motivation, and…

  9. Calculus ABCs: A Gateway for Freshman Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gateway testing program designed to ensure that students acquire basic skills in freshman calculus. Students must demonstrate they have mastered standards for "Absolutely Basic Competency"--the Calculus ABCs--in order to pass the course with a grade of C or better. We describe the background, standards, and testing program.…

  10. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Marta; Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR). In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is necessary to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps), multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5) and breast cancer resistance associated protein (BCRP). In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of the detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants that can act as chemosensitizers, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in (1) regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; (2) cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and (3) ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clearly suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish to underlay the mechanism to consider their use as

  11. Clinical biochemical determinations in the Mangalarga-Paulista horse: reference values.

    PubMed

    Novelli, E L; Rodrigues, N L; Chiacchio, S B

    1993-01-01

    Biochemical values are widely related with environmental agents, sex and age, and are used in disease diagnosis. Numerous reports have been published on the biochemical parameters of different breeds of horses. However, there is a paucity of information concerning Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), ceruloplasmin, copper and zinc determinations in the serum. Blood samples from a total of 60 horses of the Mangalarga-Paulista breed, representing three age groups (0 to 4 months old, 6 to 18 months old and adult) were examined. Male horses have a higher mean value of SOD, ceruloplasmin and copper than do females. No significant sex-related difference was observed in serum zinc content of weaned and adult horses. SOD activity was significantly higher in adult animals. Since SOD has a protective effect against superoxide free radical toxicity and possesses anti-inflammatory activity, it is reasonable to assume that the increased activity of this enzyme may be due to an adaptation mechanism which protects the adult animal against oxygen toxicity.

  12. Loss of plastoglobule kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 causes conditional degreening, modified prenyl-lipids, and recruitment of the jasmonic acid pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid-protein particles. This study examines the function of PG-localized kinases ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several lines of evidence suggested that ABC1K1 and ABC1K3 form a protein complex. Null mutants for both genes (abc1k1 and abc1k3) and the dou...

  13. Defect trapping in ABC block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Laurent; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Court, Francois; Cloitre, Michel; Hashimoto, Takeji; Leibler, Ludwik

    2004-03-01

    Equilibrium morphologies in molten ABC triblock terpolymers are much more difficult to attain than in AB diblocks. In practice, it is important to know whether and how synthesis conditions influence the morphology and properties of copolymer materials. It is also relevant to understand the mechanisms of defect formation and annihilation. Indeed, a potential use of copolymers in new applications such as lithography highly depends on the ability to produce regular structures with no or few defects. We show that even the simplest lamellar structures exhibit high sensitivity to preparation conditions and that strongly trapped structural defects inherent to ABC triblock architecture cannot be removed by long annealing. Annealing can induce a transition from a lamellar structure in which A and C blocks are mixed to a lamellar structure where A, B and C are segregated. We propose reorganization mechanisms that are at the origin of some characteristic defects.

  14. The ABCs of plasmid replication and segregation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Uelinton M; Pappas, Katherine M; Winans, Stephen C

    2012-11-01

    To ensure faithful transmission of low-copy plasmids to daughter cells, these plasmids must replicate once per cell cycle and distribute the replicated DNA to the nascent daughter cells. RepABC family plasmids are found exclusively in alphaproteobacteria and carry a combined replication and partitioning locus, the repABC cassette, which is also found on secondary chromosomes in this group. RepC and a replication origin are essential for plasmid replication, and RepA, RepB and the partitioning sites distribute the replicons to predivisional cells. Here, we review our current understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Rep proteins and of their functions in plasmid replication and partitioning.

  15. Phase Fluctuations in the ABC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2011-11-01

    We analyze the fluctuations of the steady state profiles in the modulated phase of the ABC model. For a system of L sites, the steady state profiles move on a microscopic time scale of order L 3. The variance of their displacement is computed in terms of the macroscopic steady state profiles by using fluctuating hydrodynamics and large deviations. Our analytical prediction for this variance is confirmed by the results of numerical simulations.

  16. Pharmacological correction of misfolding of ABC proteins☆

    PubMed Central

    Rudashevskaya, Elena L.; Stockner, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Freissmuth, Michael; Chiba, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system distinguishes between correctly and incorrectly folded proteins to prevent processing of aberrantly folded conformations along the secretory pathway. Non-synonymous mutations can lead to misfolding of ABC proteins and associated disease phenotypes. Specific phenotypes may at least partially be corrected by small molecules, so-called pharmacological chaperones. Screening for folding correctors is expected to open an avenue for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and intrahepatic cholestasis. PMID:25027379

  17. Analyzing health care operations using ABC.

    PubMed

    Ross, Thomas K

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of health care created a climate in which cost was subordinate to medical treatment. Current reimbursement constraints have increased the need for providers to be cost conscious, but they have discovered that current accounting practices do not provide the appropriate information to determine the cost of service or make decisions. This article argues that activity-based costing (ABC) can bridge the gap between the medical and financial communities and provide a foundation for performance improvement.

  18. The plant PDR family of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    van den Brûle, Sybille; Smart, Cheryl C

    2002-11-01

    The plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters has been implicated in the transport of antifungal agents. In this paper, we provide an analysis of the entire family of PDR genes present in the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. genome. This analysis both resolves discrepancies in published inventories of plant ABC proteins and provides an expression analysis of all the annotated Arabidopsis PDR genes. The results indicate that the Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding PDR proteins and that these genes show a spectrum of specific expression patterns, both at the organ level and in response to various hormonal, environmental and chemical factors. These data provide a scaffold for the future molecular genetic analysis of this important family of ABC transporters. In addition, we demonstrate the usefulness of such data by using them to identify an Arabidopsis PDR protein that may play a role in the extrusion of the antifungal diterpene sclareol. Electronic Supplementary Material is available if you access this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-002-0889-z. On that page (frame on the left side), a link takes you directly to the supplementary material.

  19. [ABC transporter proteins in multidrug resistance of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Balková, K; Gbelská, Y

    2007-08-01

    The ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporter family includes membrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes. These proteins play an essential role in the protection of cells from toxic compounds/metabolites. Their overexpression which leads to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in pathogens and enables cancer cells to survive chemotherapy is of major concern for human health. Mutations in ABC transporters are implicated in a number of Mendelian disorders such as cystic fibrosis, adrenoleukodystrophy and cholesterol and bile transport defects. In microbial cells, several homologues of human ABC transporters were identified. Their further molecular biological study can contribute to better understanding and treatment of MDR or diseases caused by dysfunction of ABC transporter proteins. A review is presented of the state of the art in ABC transporter proteins in both prokaryotic and eucaryotic cells. The role of microbial ABC transporters in the development of drug resistance is analyzed.

  20. Statistical Hypothesis Testing in Intraspecific Phylogeography: NCPA versus ABC

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Nested clade phylogeographic analysis (NCPA) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) have been used to test phylogeographic hypotheses. Multilocus NCPA tests null hypotheses, whereas ABC discriminates among a finite set of alternatives. The interpretive criteria of NCPA are explicit and allow complex models to be built from simple components. The interpretive criteria of ABC are ad hoc and require the specification of a complete phylogeographic model. The conclusions from ABC are often influenced by implicit assumptions arising from the many parameters needed to specify a complex model. These complex models confound many assumptions so that biological interpretations are difficult. Sampling error is accounted for in NCPA, but ABC ignores important sources of sampling error that creates pseudo-statistical power. NCPA generates the full sampling distribution of its statistics, but ABC only yields local probabilities, which in turn make it impossible to distinguish between a good fitting model, a non-informative model, and an over-determined model. Both NCPA and ABC use approximations, but convergences of the approximations used in NCPA are well defined whereas those in ABC are not. NCPA can analyze a large number of locations, but ABC cannot. Finally, the dimensionality of tested hypothesis is known in NCPA, but not for ABC. As a consequence, the “probabilities” generated by ABC are not true probabilities and are statistically non-interpretable. Accordingly, ABC should not be used for hypothesis testing, but simulation approaches are valuable when used in conjunction with NCPA or other methods that do not rely on highly parameterized models. PMID:19192182

  1. astroABC: Approximate Bayesian Computation Sequential Monte Carlo sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Elise

    2017-05-01

    astroABC is a Python implementation of an Approximate Bayesian Computation Sequential Monte Carlo (ABC SMC) sampler for parameter estimation. astroABC allows for massive parallelization using MPI, a framework that handles spawning of processes across multiple nodes. It has the ability to create MPI groups with different communicators, one for the sampler and several others for the forward model simulation, which speeds up sampling time considerably. For smaller jobs the Python multiprocessing option is also available.

  2. CREATING AN IPHONE APPLICATION FOR COLLECTING CONTINUOUS ABC DATA

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data-collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to an e-mail account after observations have concluded. Further suggestions are provided to customize the ABC data- collection system for individual preferences and clinical needs. PMID:23060682

  3. The Role of the Atypical Kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in Abscisic Acid Responses

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Anna; DalCorso, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase) is represented in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement, and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling. PMID:27047531

  4. Chaotic streamlines in the ABC flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombre, T.; Frisch, U.; Henon, M.; Greene, J. M.; Soward, A. M.

    1986-06-01

    Arnold-Beltrami-Childress, or 'ABC' flows, constitute a three-parameter family of spatially periodic flows that furnishes a simple steady-state solution of Euler's equations. The streamlines in question have a complex Lagrangian structure which is presently studied with dynamical systems (analytical and numerical) tools. For certain values of the three parameters, strong resonances occur which disrupt the surfaces; the remaining space is occupied by chaotic particle paths. When one of the parameters vanishes, the flow is integrable. A systematic search for integrable cases is conducted by studying complex-time singularities of fluid particle trajectories.

  5. ABC classification of posterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Moroder, Philipp; Scheibel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Posterior glenohumeral instability (PGHI) is a commonly under- and misdiagnosed pathology owing to its variety of clinical presentations. In order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment, the simple yet comprehensive ABC classification for PGHI is based on the underlying pathomechanical principles and current standard of treatment. Three main groups of PGHI are distinguished based on the type of instability: A (first time), B (dynamic), C (static). Two subtypes further differentiate these groups in terms of their specific pathomechanism and provide a guideline in the choice of appropriate treatment: A (1, subluxation; 2, dislocation), B (1, functional; 2, structural), C (1, constitutional; 2, acquired). While conservative treatment is warranted in most patients with type 1 PGHI (A1, B1, C1), surgical treatment should be considered on an individual basis in patients with type 2 PGHI (A2, B2, C2), while keeping in mind that the different groups and subtypes can overlap, co-exist, or even progress from one to another over time. Of course the necessity for surgical treatment depends on the extent of the structural defects, on the severity of symptoms, on the chronicity, as well as on patient-specific functional demand, age, and health status. Nonetheless, the ABC classification helps to correctly diagnose the type of PGHI and provides a guideline for the generally recommended type of treatment.

  6. The ABCs of School Choice, 2009-2010 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the 2009-2010 edition of the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "ABCs of School Choice". The "ABCs of School Choice" provides the latest in up-to-date and accurate information about the many school choice success stories taking place throughout the country. Readers will find this guide an…

  7. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  8. ABCs of Being Smart: S Is for Supporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Joanne Foster's article "R We There Yet?" was first published in "Parenting for High Potential" ("PHP") in 2006, which became the springboard for the "ABCs of Being Smart" series of columns. At that time, Foster invited "PHP" readers to think about their own versions of the "ABCs of Being…

  9. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  10. ABCs of Being Smart: S Is for Supporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Joanne Foster's article "R We There Yet?" was first published in "Parenting for High Potential" ("PHP") in 2006, which became the springboard for the "ABCs of Being Smart" series of columns. At that time, Foster invited "PHP" readers to think about their own versions of the "ABCs of Being…

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and IgE-immunoreactivity of phospholipase A1, a major allergen from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) venom.

    PubMed

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Campos Pereira, Franco Dani; Musacchio Lasa, Alexis; Romani Fernandes, Luis Gustavo; Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido Dos; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Oliveira de Azevedo, Gabriel; Bazon, Murilo Luiz; Palma, Mario Sergio; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2016-12-15

    Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a clinically relevant social wasp that frequently causes stinging accidents in southeast Brazil. To date, diagnosis and specific immunotherapy (SIT) of allergy are based on the use of crude venom extracts. Production of recombinant forms of major allergens from P. paulista venom will improve diagnosis and SIT of allergic patients by reducing the incidence of cross-reactivity and non-specific sensitization. Here, we describe the molecular cloning, heterologous expression, purification and IgE-mediated immunodetection of phospholipase A1 (Poly p 1), a major allergen from P. paulista venom. The cDNA of Poly p 1 was extracted from venom glands and then cloned, and further expression of the recombinant allergen (rPoly p 1) was achieved in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Purification of rPoly p 1 was performed using immobilized Ni(2+) metal affinity chromatography. Also, a single-step chromatographic method allowed the purification of native Poly p 1 (nPoly p 1) from the wasp's venom glands. We used western blotting to evaluate IgE-reactivity of the sera from 10 P. paulista venom-allergic patients to rPoly p 1 and nPoly p 1. High levels of insoluble rPoly p 1 were obtained during heterologous expression. After solubilization of inclusion bodies and purification of the recombinant protein, a unique band of ∼34 kDa was detected in SDS-PAGE analysis. Allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) from allergic patients' sera recognized rPoly p 1, nPoly p 1 and crude venom extract to a similar extent. Our results showed that rPoly p 1 could be used for development of component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) and molecular-defined SIT of P. paulista venom allergy.

  12. The ABC transporter gene family of Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Armin; Cunningham, Phil; Dean, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background The large gene superfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters encodes membrane proteins involved in trafficking processes across biological membranes and further essential cell biological functions. ABC transporters are evolutionary ancient and involved in the biochemical defence against toxicants. We report here a genome-wide survey of ABC proteins of Daphnia pulex, providing for the first time information on ABC proteins in crustacea, a primarily aquatic arthropod subphylum of high ecological and economical importance. Results We identified 64 ABC proteins in the Daphnia genome, which possesses members of all current ABC subfamilies A to H. To unravel phylogenetic relationships, ABC proteins of Daphnia were compared to those from yeast, worm, fruit fly and human. A high conservation of Daphnia of ABC transporters was observed for proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes, including the mitochondrial half transporters of the ABCB subfamily, which function in iron metabolism and transport of Fe/S protein precursors, and the members of subfamilies ABCD, ABCE and ABCF, which have roles in very long chain fatty acid transport, initiation of gene transcription and protein translation, respectively. A number of Daphnia proteins showed one-to-one orthologous relationships to Drosophila ABC proteins including the sulfonyl urea receptor (SUR), the ecdysone transporter ET23, and the eye pigment precursor transporter scarlet. As the fruit fly, Daphnia lacked homologues to the TAP protein, which plays a role in antigene processing, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which functions as a chloride channel. Daphnia showed two proteins homologous to MDR (multidrug resistance) P-glycoproteins (ABCB subfamily) and six proteins homologous to MRPs (multidrug resistance-associated proteins) (ABCC subfamily). However, lineage specific gene duplications in the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies complicated the inference of function. A

  13. The ABC model of floral development.

    PubMed

    Irish, Vivian

    2017-09-11

    Flowers are organized into concentric whorls of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, with each of these floral organ types having a unique role in reproduction (Figure 1). Sepals enclose and protect the flower bud, while petals can be large and showy so as to attract pollinators (or people!). Stamens produce pollen grains that contain male gametes, while the carpels contain the ovules that when fertilized will produce the seeds. While the size, shape, number and elaboration of each of these organ types can be quite different, the same general organization of four floral organ types arranged in concentric whorls exists across all flowering plant (angiosperm) species. As I shall explain in this Primer, the 'ABC model' is a simple and satisfying explanation for how this conserved floral architecture is genetically specified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quasiparticle renormalization in ABC graphene trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xu; Jaefari, Akbar; Barlas, Yafis; Uchoa, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the effect of electron-electron interactions in ABC stacked graphene trilayers. In the gapless regime, we show that the self-energy corrections lead to the renormalization of the dynamical exponent z = 3 +α1 / N , with α1 ~ 0 . 52 and N is the number of fermionic species. Although the quasiparticle residue is suppressed near the neutrality point, the lifetime has a sublinear scaling with the energy and the quasiparticles are well defined even at zero energy. We calculate the renormalization of a variety of physical observables, which can be directly measured in experiments. X.D., A.J., and B.U. acknowledge University of Oklahoma for support. B.U. acknowledges NSF Career Grant No. DMR-1352604 for partial support.

  15. Triblock Copolymer Theory: Ordered ABC Lamellar Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, G.; Wei, J. A.

    2003-04-01

    The ABC lamellar phase of a triblock copolymer in the strong segregation region is studied on periodic and bounded intervals. In the periodic case we find a family of local minimizers of the free energy functional all with a fine lamellar structure. Among these local minimizers we identify the one most favored by the free energy, and hence determine the thickness of lamellar microdomains. In the bounded interval case we show that perfect lamellar structure does not exist due to the boundary effect. We view the strong segregation limit as a Γ -limit of the free energy by a proper choice of the material sample size. The key step is the spectral analysis of a large matrix resulting from the second derivative of the Γ -limit.

  16. Women: the ABC of food security.

    PubMed

    Arcellana, N P

    1997-12-01

    While the 1996 World Food Summit Plan of Action was being approved, a companion NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum provided opportunities for rural women from 29 countries to relay their perspectives and recommendations. The Rural Women's Workshop was organized by four NGOs: Isis International-Manila, La Via Campesina, the People-Centred Development Forum, and the Women's Food and Agriculture Working Group. Isis International-Manila seeks to create spaces, facilitate processes, and disseminate information for rural women to voice concerns, network, and plan responses. The La Via Campesina network operates in Latin American and the Caribbean where it applies a strong gender perspective to all of its activities. Ultimate progress on the World Food Summit Plan of Action can be evaluated using the ABCs of food security: does the program or policy assure 1) access for women to the total means of production; 2) benefits for women; and 3) community-based resource management and sustainable agriculture.

  17. The NOS Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Buck, Gayle; Akerson, Valarie

    2011-01-01

    "The picture of a scientist is me!" exclaims first grader Kendra during a nature of science (NOS) lesson. She drew a picture of a scientist and explained that she was going to be a scientist when she grew up because she "loved to observe like a scientist." Kendra's experience was a part of a 30-day unit designed specifically for first graders.…

  18. The NOS Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Buck, Gayle; Akerson, Valarie

    2011-01-01

    "The picture of a scientist is me!" exclaims first grader Kendra during a nature of science (NOS) lesson. She drew a picture of a scientist and explained that she was going to be a scientist when she grew up because she "loved to observe like a scientist." Kendra's experience was a part of a 30-day unit designed specifically for first graders.…

  19. Neurology at Escola Paulista de Medicina (1933-1995). From Fausto Guerner to José Geraldo Camargo Lima.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Neves, Afonso Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi's death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980's and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.

  20. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  1. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-12-22

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on (31)P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters.

  2. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  3. Examination of the nature of the ABC effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Skorodko, T.

    2017-02-01

    Recently it has been shown by exclusive and kinematically complete experiments that the appearance of a narrow resonance structure in double-pionic fusion reactions is strictly correlated with the appearance of the so-called ABC effect, which denotes a pronounced low-mass enhancement in the ππ-invariant mass spectrum. Whereas the resonance structure got its explanation by the d* (2380) dibaryonic resonance, a satisfactory explanation for the ABC effect is still pending. In this paper we discuss possible explanations of the ABC effect and their consequences for the internal structure of the d* dibaryon. To this end we examine and review a variety of proposed explanations for the ABC effect, add a new hypothesis and confront all of them with the experimental results for the np → dπ0π0 and np → npπ0π0 reactions, which are the most challenging ones for this topic.

  4. ABC's of Being Smart: I Can "C" Clearly Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on C of the ABC's of being smart. She continues to categorize the points for readers. These categories include the following: (1) being; (2) doing; and (3) stretching.

  5. Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Hundeep; Lakatos-Karoly, Andrea; Vogel, Ramona; Nöll, Anne; Tampé, Robert; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a superfamily of integral membrane proteins, catalyse the translocation of substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. Here we demonstrate by nucleotide turnover and binding studies based on 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy that the ABC exporter and lipid A flippase MsbA can couple ATP hydrolysis to an adenylate kinase activity, where ADP is converted into AMP and ATP. Single-point mutations reveal that both ATPase and adenylate kinase mechanisms are associated with the same conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding domain. Based on these results, we propose a model for the coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase mechanism, involving the canonical and an additional nucleotide-binding site. We extend these findings to other prokaryotic ABC exporters, namely LmrA and TmrAB, suggesting that the coupled activities are a general feature of ABC exporters. PMID:28004795

  6. The ABC daycare disaster of Hermosillo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Chang, Philip; Maguina, Pirko; Combs, Elena; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-01-01

    On June 5, 2009, the ABC Daycare facility in Hermosillo, Mexico, caught on fire with an estimated 142 children and 6 adult caregivers inside. The purpose of this article is to describe the factors contributing to the disaster including care of the survivors, tertiary burn center triage, patient transport, and treatment for this international mass casualty event. Finally, the results of an investigation performed by the Mexican Government are reviewed. A summary of the Mexican Government's investigation of the circumstances of fire and an examination of prevention lapses in other Mexican daycare centers was obtained from their public Web site. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the children transported to the burn center were obtained from the patients' medical records and transport data sheets. The ABC Daycare had many fire safety breaches that contributed to the severity of the tragedy. Twenty-nine children died at the scene and more than 35 children were hospitalized throughout Mexico. A total of 12 children were transported to two Shriners Hospitals, 9 to Sacramento, and 3 to Cincinnati. The mean age of patients sent to the Shriners Hospitals was 2.9 ± 0.16 years (2-4 years), with 5 being male and 7 female. The mean duration between injury and arrival was 9.2 ± 2.1 days, the burn size was 43.0 ± 6.8% TBSA (6.5-80%), and there were 3.75 operations per patient. Four had fourth-degree burns requiring finger amputations (2), flaps to cover bone (1), or a through-knee amputation (1). Ten patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and nine patients (seven with inhalation injury) required mechanical ventilation for a mean of 23.6 ± 10.3 days. All the surviving children were discharged after a mean length of stay of 45.9 ± 8.7 days. In the first year postinjury, seven children were readmitted a total of 11 times for reconstructive surgery, wound care, or rehabilitation. Ultimately, a total of 49 children died. A review of other daycare centers

  7. ABC and IFC: modules detection method for PPI network.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiujuan; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Tian, Jianfang; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Many clustering algorithms are unable to solve the clustering problem of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks effectively. A novel clustering model which combines the optimization mechanism of artificial bee colony (ABC) with the fuzzy membership matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed ABC-IFC clustering model contains two parts: searching for the optimum cluster centers using ABC mechanism and forming clusters using intuitionistic fuzzy clustering (IFC) method. Firstly, the cluster centers are set randomly and the initial clustering results are obtained by using fuzzy membership matrix. Then the cluster centers are updated through different functions of bees in ABC algorithm; then the clustering result is obtained through IFC method based on the new optimized cluster center. To illustrate its performance, the ABC-IFC method is compared with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering and IFC method. The experimental results on MIPS dataset show that the proposed ABC-IFC method not only gets improved in terms of several commonly used evaluation criteria such as precision, recall, and P value, but also obtains a better clustering result.

  8. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals.

  9. ABC transporter research: going strong 40 years on

    PubMed Central

    Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, ABC transporters constitute one of the largest families of membrane proteins. In humans, their functions are diverse and underpin numerous key physiological processes, as well as being causative factors in a number of clinically relevant pathologies. Advances in our understanding of these diseases have come about through combinations of genetic and protein biochemical investigations of these transporters and the power of in vitro and in vivo investigations is helping to develop genotype–phenotype understanding. However, the importance of ABC transporter research goes far beyond human biology; microbial ABC transporters are of great interest in terms of understanding virulence and drug resistance and industrial biotechnology researchers are exploring the potential of prokaryotic ABC exporters to increase the capacity of synthetic biology systems. Plant ABC transporters play important roles in transport of hormones, xenobiotics, metals and secondary metabolites, pathogen responses and numerous aspects of development, all of which are important in the global food security area. For 3 days in Chester, this Biochemical Society Focused Meeting brought together researchers with diverse experimental approaches and with different fundamental questions, all of which are linked by the commonality of ABC transporters. PMID:26517919

  10. ABC and IFC: Modules Detection Method for PPI Network

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiujuan; Tian, Jianfang

    2014-01-01

    Many clustering algorithms are unable to solve the clustering problem of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks effectively. A novel clustering model which combines the optimization mechanism of artificial bee colony (ABC) with the fuzzy membership matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed ABC-IFC clustering model contains two parts: searching for the optimum cluster centers using ABC mechanism and forming clusters using intuitionistic fuzzy clustering (IFC) method. Firstly, the cluster centers are set randomly and the initial clustering results are obtained by using fuzzy membership matrix. Then the cluster centers are updated through different functions of bees in ABC algorithm; then the clustering result is obtained through IFC method based on the new optimized cluster center. To illustrate its performance, the ABC-IFC method is compared with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering and IFC method. The experimental results on MIPS dataset show that the proposed ABC-IFC method not only gets improved in terms of several commonly used evaluation criteria such as precision, recall, and P value, but also obtains a better clustering result. PMID:24991575

  11. Phase transition in the ABC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clincy, M.; Derrida, B.; Evans, M. R.

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-β/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero βc. The value of βc=2π(3) and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  12. Phase transition in the ABC model.

    PubMed

    Clincy, M; Derrida, B; Evans, M R

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that one-dimensional driven systems can exhibit phase separation even if the dynamics is governed by local rules. The ABC model, which comprises three particle species that diffuse asymmetrically around a ring, shows anomalous coarsening into a phase separated steady state. In the limiting case in which the dynamics is symmetric and the parameter q describing the asymmetry tends to one, no phase separation occurs and the steady state of the system is disordered. In the present work, we consider the weak asymmetry regime q=exp(-beta/N), where N is the system size, and study how the disordered state is approached. In the case of equal densities, we find that the system exhibits a second-order phase transition at some nonzero beta(c). The value of beta(c)=2pi square root 3 and the optimal profiles can be obtained by writing the exact large deviation functional. For nonequal densities, we write down mean-field equations and analyze some of their predictions.

  13. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  14. Effluxing ABC Transporters in Human Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Mannermaa, Eliisa; Turner, Helen; Häkli, Marika; Wolosin, J. Mario; Tervo, Timo; Honkakoski, Paavo; Urtti, Arto

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are able to efflux their substrate drugs from the cells. We compared expression of efflux proteins in normal human corneal epithelial tissue, primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC), and corneal epithelial cell culture model (HCE model) based on human immortal cell line. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1–6 (MRP1–6) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was studied using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Only MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP were expressed in the freshly excised human corneal epithelial tissue. Expression of MRP1 and MRP5 was localized predominantly in the basal cells of the central cornea and limbus. Functional efflux activity was shown in the cell models, but they showed over-expression of most efflux transporters compared to that of normal corneal epithelium. In conclusion, MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP are expressed in the corneal epithelium, but MDR1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, and MRP6 are not significantly expressed. HCE cell model and commercially available primary cells deviate from this expression profile. PMID:19623615

  15. A Drosophila ABC Transporter Regulates Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Lu-Bo, Ying; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    MRP4 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 4) is a member of the MRP/ABCC subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are essential for many cellular processes requiring the transport of substrates across cell membranes. Although MRP4 has been implicated as a detoxification protein by transport of structurally diverse endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including antivirus and anticancer drugs, that usually induce oxidative stress in cells, its in vivo biological function remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the biological functions of a Drosophila homolog of human MRP4, dMRP4. We show that dMRP4 expression is elevated in response to oxidative stress (paraquat, hydrogen peroxide and hyperoxia) in Drosophila. Flies lacking dMRP4 have a shortened lifespan under both oxidative and normal conditions. Overexpression of dMRP4, on the other hand, is sufficient to increase oxidative stress resistance and extend lifespan. By genetic manipulations, we demonstrate that dMRP4 is required for JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation during paraquat challenge and for basal transcription of some JNK target genes under normal condition. We show that impaired JNK signaling is an important cause for major defects associated with dMRP4 mutations, suggesting that dMRP4 regulates lifespan by modulating the expression of a set of genes related to both oxidative resistance and aging, at least in part, through JNK signaling. PMID:25474322

  16. Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD).

    PubMed

    Chung, Chan Woo; You, Jinsun; Kim, Kyeongyeon; Moon, Yuseok; Kim, Hoeon; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2009-01-29

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD) in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of P. aeruginosa alkaline protease (AprA), lipase ABC transporter domains (LARDs) were designed for the secretion of fusion proteins. The LARDs included four glycine-rich repeats comprising a beta-roll structure, and were added to the C-terminus of test proteins. Either Pro-Gly linker or Factor Xa site was added between fusion proteins and LARDs. We attached different length of LARDs such as LARD0, LARD1 or whole TliA (the longest LARD) to three types of proteins; green fluorescent protein (GFP), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP). These fusion proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli together with ABC transporter of either P. fluorescens or Erwinia chrysanthemi. Export of fusion proteins with the whole TliA through the ABC transporter was evident on the basis of lipase enzymatic activity. Upon supplementation of E. coli with ABC transporter, GFP-LARDs and EGF-LARDs were excreted into the culture supernatant. The LARDs or whole TliA were attached to C-termini of model proteins and enabled the export of the model proteins such as GFP and EGF in E. coli supplemented with ABC transporter. These results open the possibility for the extracellular production of recombinant proteins in Pseudomonas using LARDs or TliA as a C-terminal signal sequence.

  17. ABC transporters in the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    PubMed

    Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Ershov, Nikita I; Pirozhkova, Darya S; Pakharukov, Yuri V; Pakharukova, Maria Y

    2017-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are essential components of normal cellular physiological machinery in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, including parasites. Some ABC transporters, e.g., P-glycoproteins, are involved in the efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from the cell. At present, nothing is known about ABC transporter genes in epidemiologically important liver flukes from the Opisthorchiidae family, including European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus. Opisthorchiasis caused by O. felineus is a serious public health problem on the territory of Russia and other Eastern European countries. ABC drug transporters are attractive objects of research on molecular markers of resistance and on ways to potentiate sensitivity to anthelmintics through suppression of the transporters themselves with specific inhibitors. Here we aimed at the identification of ABC transporters in the O. felineus transcriptome and identification of P-glycoproteins. In addition, our aim was to assess ABC transcript abundance in the RNA-seq data, to study the mRNA expression of P-glycoprotein genes by Droplet Digital PCR throughout the life cycle of O. felineus, and to test the gene induction in response to xenobiotics or anthelminthic agents. We found 23 nucleotide sequences encoding ABC transporters belonging to different subfamilies, including four sequences of P-glycoproteins. According to the transcript abundance in the RNA-seq data, one of P-glycoproteins (P4) has the highest expression among all ABC genes in the adult worm. P-glycoproteins showed substantially differential mRNA expression throughout the fluke life cycle, with high expression in the adult worms. Putative activity of P-glycoproteins as xenobiotic efflux pumps was found to be linked to the excretory system of O. felineus and to be inhibited by verapamil or tariquidar. Thus, ABC drug transporters in the liver fluke O. felineus are functionally active, indicating that ABC drug transporters are likely

  18. Purification, sequencing and structural characterization of the phospholipase A1 from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Lucilene D; Santos, Keity S; de Souza, Bibiana M; Arcuri, Helen A; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Castro, Fabio Morato; Kalil, Jorge Elias; Palma, Mario S

    2007-12-01

    The biochemical and functional characterization of wasp venom toxins is an important prerequisite for the development of new tools both for the therapy of the toxic reactions due to envenomation caused by multiple stinging accidents and also for the diagnosis and therapy of allergic reactions caused by this type of venom. PLA(1) was purified from the venom of the neotropical social wasp Polybia paulista by using molecular exclusion and cation exchange chromatographies; its amino acid sequence was determined by using automated Edman degradation and compared to the sequences of other vespid venom PLA(1)'s. The enzyme exists as a 33,961.40 Da protein, which was identified as a lipase of the GX class, liprotein lipase superfamily, pancreatic lipases (ab20.3) homologous family and RP2 sub-group of phospholipase. P. paulista PLA(1) is 53-82% identical to the phospholipases from wasp species from Northern Hemisphere. The use restrained-based modeling permitted to describe the 3-D structure of the enzyme, revealing that its molecule presents 23% alpha-helix, 28% beta-sheet and 49% coil. The protein structure has the alpha/beta fold common to many lipases; the core consists of a tightly packed beta-sheet constituted of six-stranded parallel and one anti-parallel beta-strand, surrounded by four alpha-helices. P. paulista PLA(1) exhibits direct hemolytic action against washed red blood cells with activity similar to the Cobra cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra. In addition to this, PLA(1) was immunoreactive to specific IgE from the sera of P. paulista-sensitive patients.

  19. The acceptance rate of young wasps by alien colonies depends on colony developmental stages in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia paulista von ihering (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Kudô, Kazuyuki; Hozumi, Satoshi; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    In social insects, newly emerged individuals learn the colony-specific chemical label from their natal comb shortly after their emergence. These labels help to identify each individual's colony of origin and are used as a recognition template against which individuals can discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates. Our previous studies with Polybia paulista von Ihering support this general pattern, and the acceptance rate of young female and male wasps decreased as a function of their age. Our study also showed in P. paulista that more than 90% of newly emerged female wasps might be accepted by conspecific unrelated colonies. However, it has not been investigated whether the acceptance rate of newly emerged female wasps depends on colony developmental stage of recipient colonies. We introduced newly emerged female wasps of P. paulista into different colony developmental stags of recipient colonies, i.e., worker-producing and male-producing colonies. We found that the acceptance rate of newly emerged female wasps by alien colonies was pretty lower by male-producing colonies than worker-producing colonies. This is the first study to show that the acceptance rate of young female wasps depends on stages of recipient colonies.

  20. Variation in Venoms of Polybia Paulista Von Ihering and Polybia Occidentalis Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), Assessed by the FTIR-PAS Technique.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, A; Paula, M C; Fernandes, W D; Andrade, L H C; Lima, S M; Antonialli-Junior, W F

    2017-02-01

    Wasps are able to synthesize toxic compounds known as venoms, which form a part of a mechanism to overcome prey and also to defend their colonies. Study of the compounds that constitute these substances is essential in order to understand how this defense mechanism evolved, since there is evidence that the venoms can vary both intra- and interspecifically. Some studies have used liquid and gas chromatography as a reliable technique to analyze these compounds. However, the use of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to analyze the variations in venom's chemical profile has been proposed recently. This study evaluated whether the FTIR-PAS technique is effective for assessing the role of environmental factors on intra- and interspecific differences in the venom of the wasps Polybia paulista Von Ihering and Polybia occidentalis Olivier by FTIR-PAS. The colonies were collected in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in different types of environments. The results showed that the venoms of P. paulista and P. occidentalis differed significantly in profile. In addition, the intraspecific differences in the venom's chemical profile of P. paulista are related to the type of environment where they nested, regardless of the geographical distance between the nests. The FTIR-PAS technique proved to be reliable and effective to evaluate the variations in the venom's chemical profile in social wasps.

  1. ABC3 Consensus: Assessment by a German Group of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Thomssen, Christoph; Augustin, Doris; Ettl, Johannes; Haidinger, Renate; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Lüftner, Diana; Marmé, Frederik; Marschner, Norbert; Müller, Lothar; Overkamp, Friedrich; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Thill, Marc; Untch, Michael; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Advanced Breast Cancer Third International Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on November 5-7, 2015. This year's conference (ABC3) was focused on the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV), as it was 4 years ago at the first consensus meeting (ABC1). A matter of particular interest was the patients’ perspective. Thus, patient-relevant issues were addressed by the consensus discussions, such as those on treatment goals, quality of life, care of long-term survivors (‘survivorship issues’), and coping with disease-related symptoms and the side effects of treatment. Further important issues on the agenda were the use of standardized instruments for the assessment of individual treatment success (‘patient-reported outcome measures’) and the evaluation of the benefit of novel drugs (e.g. the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale). Diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer had already been discussed 2 years earlier at the ABC2 Consensus and were not dealt with in the framework of this year's ABC3 Consensus. With regard to country-specific peculiarities, which unavoidably found their way into the ABC Consensus, a working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the voting results of the ABC panelists. As for the past consensus, the group specially considered the German guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (AGO (Gyneco-Oncology Working Group), S3, DGHO (German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology)) in order to adapt the ABC3 consensus for everyday therapy in Germany. PMID:27051399

  2. "ABC's Earthquake" (Experiments and models in seismology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Ana Almeida, Portugal Almeida, Ana Escola Básica e Secundária Dr. Vieira de Carvalho Moreira da Maia, Portugal The purpose of this presentation, in poster format, is to disclose an activity which was planned and made by me, in a school on the north of Portugal, using a kit of materials simple and easy to use - the sismo-box. The activity "ABC's Earthquake" was developed under the discipline of Natural Sciences, with students from 7th grade, geosciences teachers and other areas. The possibility of work with the sismo-box was seen as an exciting and promising opportunity to promote science, seismology more specifically, to do science, when using the existing models in the box and with them implement the scientific method, to work and consolidate content and skills in the area of Natural Sciences, to have a time of sharing these materials with classmates, and also with other teachers from the different areas. Throughout the development of the activity, either with students or teachers, it was possible to see the admiration by the models presented in the earthquake-box, as well as, the interest and the enthusiasm in wanting to move and understand what the results after the proposed procedure in the script. With this activity, we managed to promote: - educational success in this subject; a "school culture" with active participation, with quality, rules, discipline and citizenship values; fully integration of students with special educational needs; strengthen the performance of the school as a cultural, informational and formation institution; provide activities to date and innovative; foment knowledge "to be, being and doing" and contribute to a moment of joy and discovery.Learn by doing!

  3. Independent Activity of the Homologous Small Regulatory RNAs AbcR1 and AbcR2 in the Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Quesada, Omar; Millán, Vicenta; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael; Bardou, Florian; Crespi, Martín; Toro, Nicolás; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I.

    2013-01-01

    The legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti expresses a plethora of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) whose function is mostly unknown. Here, we have functionally characterized two tandemly encoded S. meliloti Rm1021 sRNAs that are similar in sequence and structure. Homologous sRNAs (designated AbcR1 and AbcR2) have been shown to regulate several ABC transporters in the related α-proteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella abortus. In Rm1021, AbcR1 and AbcR2 exhibit divergent unlinked regulation and are stabilized by the RNA chaperone Hfq. AbcR1 is transcribed in actively dividing bacteria, either in culture, rhizosphere or within the invasion zone of mature alfalfa nodules. Conversely, AbcR2 expression is induced upon entry into stationary phase and under abiotic stress. Only deletion of AbcR1 resulted into a discrete growth delay in rich medium, but both are dispensable for symbiosis. Periplasmic proteome profiling revealed down-regulation of the branched-chain amino acid binding protein LivK by AbcR1, but not by AbcR2. A double-plasmid reporter assay confirmed the predicted specific targeting of the 5′-untranslated region of the livK mRNA by AbcR1 in vivo. Our findings provide evidences of independent regulatory functions of these sRNAs, probably to fine-tune nutrient uptake in free-living and undifferentiated symbiotic rhizobia. PMID:23869210

  4. ABC transporters as differentiation markers in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rama, Ana R; Alvarez, Pablo J; Madeddu, Roberto; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumour, characterized by a high aggressivity, a huge heterogeneity attending a hierarchical model and resistance to therapy. Drug resistance has been correlated with the presence of the ABC efflux transporters which are able to exclude drugs for the cellular cytoplasm. In the nucleus of the GBM, initiating cells (ICs) can self-renew and give rise to cancer stem cells, which differ to the side population cells and the different cellular subtypes that form the mass around them. The ICs do not express or express ATP binding cassette (ABC) at very low levels, but this expression may increase with the differentiation process. We suggest that the differentiation process may be responsible of chemoresistance of the GBM cells. We compared three ABC transporters expression: ABCA1, MRP4 and MRP5, in the ICs obtained from 9 patients with GBM and their respective differentiated GBM cells. We show an overexpression of the three ABC transporters in the differentiated GBM cells in comparison to ICs. The blockade of these ABC transporters could help to improve the drug effectivity and thus reduce the tumour growth and prevent the tumour recurrence.

  5. ABC multidrug transporters in schistosomes and other parasitic flatworms.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions, is caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Treatment and control of schistosomiasis relies almost exclusively on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), a dangerous situation for a disease of this magnitude. Though PZQ is highly effective overall, it has drawbacks, and reports of worms showing PZQ resistance, either induced in the laboratory or isolated from the field, are disconcerting. Multidrug transporters underlie multidrug resistance (MDR), a phenomenon in which resistance to a single drug is accompanied by unexpected cross-resistance to several structurally unrelated compounds. Some of the best studied multidrug transporters are members of the ancient and very large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of efflux transporters. ABC multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) are also associated with drug resistance in parasites, including helminths such as schistosomes. In addition to their association with drug resistance, however, ABC transporters also function in a wide variety of physiological processes in metazoans. In this review, we examine recent studies that help define the role of schistosome ABC transporters in regulating drug susceptibility, and in normal schistosome physiology, including reproduction and excretory activity. We postulate that schistosome ABC transporters could be useful targets for compounds that enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutics as well as for agents that act as antischistosomals on their own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ABC multidrug transporters in schistosomes and other parasitic flatworms

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions, is caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Treatment and control of schistosomiasis relies almost exclusively on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), a dangerous situation for a disease of this magnitude. Though PZQ is highly effective overall, it has drawbacks, and reports of worms showing PZQ resistance, either induced in the laboratory or isolated from the field, are disconcerting. Multidrug transporters underlie multidrug resistance (MDR), a phenomenon in which resistance to a single drug is accompanied by unexpected cross-resistance to several structurally unrelated compounds. Some of the best studied multidrug transporters are members of the ancient and very large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of efflux transporters. ABC multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) are also associated with drug resistance in parasites, including helminths such as schistosomes. In addition to their association with drug resistance, however, ABC transporters also function in a wide variety of physiological processes in metazoans. In this review, we examine recent studies that help define the role of schistosome ABC transporters in regulating drug susceptibility, and in normal schistosome physiology, including reproduction and excretory activity. We postulate that schistosome ABC transporters could be useful targets for compounds that enhance the effectiveness of current therapeutics as well as for agents that act as antischistosomals on their own. PMID:23474413

  7. Endothelial NOS (NOS3) impairs myocardial function in developing sepsis.

    PubMed

    van de Sandt, Annette M; Windler, Rainer; Gödecke, Axel; Ohlig, Jan; Zander, Simone; Reinartz, Michael; Graf, Jürgen; van Faassen, Ernst E; Rassaf, Tienush; Schrader, Jürgen; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W

    2013-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS)3-derived nitric oxide (NO) modulates inotropic response and diastolic interval for optimal cardiac performance under non-inflammatory conditions. In sepsis, excessive NO production plays a key role in severe hypotension and myocardial dysfunction. We aimed to determine the role of NOS3 on myocardial performance, NO production, and time course of sepsis development. NOS3(-/-) and C57BL/6 wildtype mice were rendered septic by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). Cardiac function was analyzed by serial echocardiography, in vivo pressure and isolated heart measurements. Cardiac output (CO) increased to 160 % of baseline at 10 h after sepsis induction followed by a decline to 63 % of baseline after 18 h in wildtype mice. CO was unaltered in septic NOS3(-/-) mice. Despite the hyperdynamic state, cardiac function and mean arterial pressure were impaired in septic wildtype as early as 6 h post CLP. At 12 h, cardiac function in septic wildtype was refractory to catecholamines in vivo and respective isolated hearts showed impaired pressure development and limited coronary flow reserve. Hemodynamics remained stable in NOS3(-/-) mice leading to significant survival benefit. Unselective NOS inhibition in septic NOS3(-/-) mice diminished this survival benefit. Plasma NO( x )- and local myocardial NO( x )- and NO levels (via NO spin trapping) demonstrated enhanced NO( x )- and bioactive NO levels in septic wildtype as compared to NOS3(-/-) mice. Significant contribution by inducible NOS (NOS2) during this early phase of sepsis was excluded. Our data suggest that NOS3 relevantly contributes to bioactive NO pool in developing sepsis resulting in impaired cardiac contractility.

  8. Using a proteometabolomic approach to investigate the role of Dufour's gland in pheromone biosynthesis in the social wasp Polybia paulista.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Franciele Grego; Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido Dos; Saidemberg, Daniel Menezes; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2017-01-16

    Dufour's gland is associated with the venom apparatuses of social wasps and bees. This location and its evolutionary adaptations indicate that it could be involved in the production of alarm pheromones in the social wasp Polybia paulista. To investigate this hypothesis, the volatile composition of this gland was analyzed and compared to that in the venom. Eighteen compounds were identified as secreted by Dufour's gland, and 16 of these compounds were also identified in the venom, suggesting that the compounds produced by the gland are secreted and mixed with venom in the venom reservoir of this wasp. These compounds were subjected to a field bioassay to investigate their potential action as alarm pheromones. Alcohols and aldehydes elicited the alert behavior in workers, luring them outside the nest, whereas acids attracted the workers in the direction of the source; fatty acid methyl esters elicited aggression. These results suggest that Dufour's gland produces alarm pheromones. To corroborate this hypothesis the proteomic complement of this gland was assigned using a shot-gun strategy; 59 proteins were identified, and the results indicate specialization of Dufour's gland for the metabolism of fatty acids (elongation, esterification unsaturation, reduction, and decarboxylation) in the biosynthesis of alarm pheromones.

  9. [Cardiac transplantation and neoplasms: experiences at Escola Paulista de Medicina of the Federal University of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Mello Junior, Walter Teixeira de; Branco, João Nelson R; Catani, Roberto; Aguiar, Luciano de Figueiredo; Paez, Rodrigo Pereira; Buffolo, Enio

    2006-02-01

    To study the occurrence and types of neoplasms developed by patients who underwent an orthotopic cardiac transplantation under the Program of Cardiac Transplantation of Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo. This is an observational study of 106 patients who underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation from November 1986 to September 2002 and survived at least thirty days following the procedure. The triple immunosuppressive regimen given included cyclosporin A, azathioprine and a corticosteroid agent. Only two patients received OKT3 in addition to the regimen established. Mean follow-up was 61.4 months (ranging from two months to 192 months). Twenty-three patients (21.3%) developed neoplasms--56.5% of these were skin neoplasm, 30.1%, solid tumors, and 13.4% of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Mean interval between transplantation and diagnosis of neoplasm was: 54.9 months for skin neoplasm; 24.8 months for solid tumors and 70.3 months for PTLD. Malignant neoplasms are relatively common in the population studied. Skin cancer was the most common type compared to the other types of neoplasms. Solid tumors were more frequently diagnosed than the lymphoproliferative diseases in the population examined.

  10. Membrane-active action mode of polybia-CP, a novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from the venom of Polybia paulista.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Yan, Jiexi; Chen, Ru; Dang, Wen; Zhang, Bangzhi; Zhang, Wei; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Rui

    2012-06-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in medicine, the food industry, and agriculture has resulted in the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which creates an urgent need for new antibiotics. It is now widely recognized that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a promising role in fighting multidrug-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP was purified from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. In this study, we synthesized polybia-CP and studied its action mode of antibacterial activity. Our results revealed that polybia-CP has potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results from both the real bacterial membrane and the in vitro model membrane showed that polybia-CP is membrane active and that its action target is the membrane of bacteria. It is difficult for bacteria to develop resistance to polybia-CP, which may thus offer a new strategy for defending against resistant bacteria in medicine and the food and farming industries.

  11. The ABC model and the diversification of floral organ identity.

    PubMed

    Litt, Amy; Kramer, Elena M

    2010-02-01

    Broad studies of the ABC program across angiosperms have found that interactions between gene duplication, biochemical evolution, shifts in gene expression and modification of existing identity programs have been critical to the evolution of floral morphology. Several themes can be recognized in this context. First, the original concept of "A" function applies only very narrowly to Arabidopsis and its close relatives. Second, while many types of petaloid organs are associated with the expression of AP3/PI homologs, there is growing evidence that there are other genetic mechanisms for producing petaloidy, especially in first whorl organs. Third, pre-existing organ identity programs can be modified to yield novel organ types, often in association with gene duplications. Lastly, there are many aspects of ABC gene function outside the major model systems that remain a mystery, perhaps none more so than the C-terminal amino acid motifs that distinguish specific ABC gene lineages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, L.; Kieninger, C.; Froelich, A.; Lauermann, M.; Frenzel, T.; Köhnle, K.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Wegener, M.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al2O3, B = TiO2, and C = HfO2. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  13. Observation of the ABC effect and final-state isospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, E. A.; Bashkanov, M. A.; Clement, H.; Perez del Rio, E.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T. Yu.; Wagner, G. J.

    2014-07-01

    Despite the number of inclusive measurements of the pionic fusion reactions, the nature of the ABC effect discovered in 1960 was not completely established. Exclusive measurements of the doublepion-production reactions leading to either fused d, 3He and 4He nuclear final states or pp pairs are analyzed. A significant ABC effect—enhancement in the region of low ππ mass—is found only in the isoscalar ππ channel while in the isovector channels it is small or absent. For the reaction with isovector pp final state an ABC effect was not observed even at the special kinematic conditions to reproduce a quasi-bound two-proton state. The total cross sections for the d and 4He fusion reactions show similar resonance-like energy dependence.

  14. Les abcès orbitaires: à propos de 7 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ouaissi, Laila; El Khiati, Rhizlane; Serghini, Salma; Abada, Redallah; Rouadi, Sami; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Essaadi, Mustapha; Kadiri, Fatmi

    2014-01-01

    L'abcès orbitaire correspond à une infection collectée bien limitée située dans l'orbite, généralement due à une cellulite orbitaire. Nous rapportons notre expérience à propos de 7 cas d'abcès orbitaires opérés dans le service d'ORL est de chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital 20 aout de Casablanca entre juin 2007 et juin 2008. L’âge moyen est de 11 ans avec des extrêmes de 5 et 22 ans. On note une prédominance masculine avec un sex-ratio de 3. On retrouve une exophtalmie inflammatoire, avec tuméfaction palpébrale et une porte d'entrée sinusienne chez tous nos patients. L'ophtalmoplégie est notée dans 5 cas, la baisse de l'acuité visuelle dans 4 cas, et la cécité dans 2 cas. La tomodensitométrie a été réalisée chez tous nos patients. Elle a permit de confirmer l'abcès et sa localisation: interne (4 cas), supéro-interne (2 cas), et inférieure (1 cas). L'imagerie par résonnance magnétique a été faite dans 3 cas, et a permis de préciser les limites de l'infection. Le traitement médical a été instauré d'emblée, associant une triple antibiothérapie par voie parentérale. Le traitement chirurgical a été réalisé chez 5 patients devant la non amélioration clinique. Un drainage externe a été pratiqué et la cure de la sinusite était différée. On note une évolution défavorable dans 3 cas: cécité par névrite optique (2 cas) et ophtalmoplégie (1 cas). Elle a été favorable dans les autres cas. En conclusion, l'abcès orbitaire est une affection rare et grave du sujet jeune, engageant le pronostic visuel voire même le pronostic vital, et constitue de ce fait une urgence ophtalmologique et ORL. Le traitement se base sur une poly-antibiothérapie avec des drainages de la collection le plus rapidement possible. La prévention passe par un diagnostic et un traitement appropriés des sinusites. PMID:25722783

  15. Diverse relations between ABC transporters and lipids: An overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jennifer; Rose-Sperling, Dania; Hellmich, Ute A

    2017-04-01

    It was first discovered in 1992 that P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, can transport phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine and -serine as well as glucosylceramide and glycosphingolipids. Subsequently, many other ABC transporters were identified to act as lipid transporters. For substrate transport by ABC transporters, typically a classic, alternating access model with an ATP-dependent conformational switch between a high and a low affinity substrate binding site is evoked. Transport of small hydrophilic substrates can easily be imagined this way, as the molecule can in principle enter and exit the transporter in the same orientation. Lipids on the other hand need to undergo a 180° degree turn as they translocate from one membrane leaflet to the other. Lipids and lipidated molecules are highly diverse, so there may be various ways how to achieve their flipping and flopping. Nonetheless, an increase in biophysical, biochemical and structural data is beginning to shed some light on specific aspects of lipid transport by ABC transporters. In addition, there is now abundant evidence that lipids affect ABC transporter conformation, dynamics as well as transport and ATPase activity in general. In this review, we will discuss different ways in which lipids and ABC transporters interact and how lipid translocation may be achieved with a focus on the techniques used to investigate these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical characterization of the chondroitinase ABC I active site

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I) from Proteus vulgaris is a GalAG (galactosaminoglycan) depolymerizing lyase that cleaves its substrates at the glycosidic bond via β-elimination. cABC I cleaves a particularly broad range of GalAG substrates, including CS (chondroitin sulphate), DS (dermatan sulphate) and hyaluronic acid. We recently cloned and recombinantly expressed cABC I in Escherichia coli, and completed a preliminary biochemical characterization of the enzyme. In the present study, we have coupled site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant cABC I with a structural model of the enzyme–substrate complex in order to investigate in detail the roles of active site amino acids in the catalytic action of the enzyme. The putative catalytic residues His-501, Tyr-508, Arg-560 and Glu-653 were probed systematically via mutagenesis. Assessment of these mutants in kinetic and end-point assays provided direct evidence on the catalytic roles of these active-site residues. The crystal structure of the native enzyme provided a framework for molecular docking of representative CS and DS substrates. This enabled us to construct recombinant enzyme–substrate structural complexes. These studies together provided structural insights into the effects of the mutations on the catalytic mechanism of cABC I and the differences in its processing of CS and DS substrates. All His-501 mutants were essentially inactive and thereby implicating this amino acid to play the critical role of proton abstraction during catalysis. The kinetic data for Glu-653 mutants indicated that it is involved in a hydrogen bonding network in the active site. The proximity of Tyr-508 to the glycosidic oxygen of the substrate at the site of cleavage suggested its potential role in protonating the leaving group. Arg-560 was proximal to the uronic acid C-5 proton, suggesting its possible role in the stabilization of the carbanion intermediate formed during catalysis. PMID:16108757

  17. Biochemical characterization of the chondroitinase ABC I active site.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Vikas; Raman, Rahul; Capila, Ishan; Bosques, Carlos J; Pojasek, Kevin; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2005-09-01

    cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I) from Proteus vulgaris is a GalAG (galactosaminoglycan) depolymerizing lyase that cleaves its substrates at the glycosidic bond via beta-elimination. cABC I cleaves a particularly broad range of GalAG substrates, including CS (chondroitin sulphate), DS (dermatan sulphate) and hyaluronic acid. We recently cloned and recombinantly expressed cABC I in Escherichia coli, and completed a preliminary biochemical characterization of the enzyme. In the present study, we have coupled site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant cABC I with a structural model of the enzyme-substrate complex in order to investigate in detail the roles of active site amino acids in the catalytic action of the enzyme. The putative catalytic residues His-501, Tyr-508, Arg-560 and Glu-653 were probed systematically via mutagenesis. Assessment of these mutants in kinetic and end-point assays provided direct evidence on the catalytic roles of these active-site residues. The crystal structure of the native enzyme provided a framework for molecular docking of representative CS and DS substrates. This enabled us to construct recombinant enzyme-substrate structural complexes. These studies together provided structural insights into the effects of the mutations on the catalytic mechanism of cABC I and the differences in its processing of CS and DS substrates. All His-501 mutants were essentially inactive and thereby implicating this amino acid to play the critical role of proton abstraction during catalysis. The kinetic data for Glu-653 mutants indicated that it is involved in a hydrogen bonding network in the active site. The proximity of Tyr-508 to the glycosidic oxygen of the substrate at the site of cleavage suggested its potential role in protonating the leaving group. Arg-560 was proximal to the uronic acid C-5 proton, suggesting its possible role in the stabilization of the carbanion intermediate formed during catalysis.

  18. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC.

  19. ABC-SysBio--approximate Bayesian computation in Python with GPU support.

    PubMed

    Liepe, Juliane; Barnes, Chris; Cule, Erika; Erguler, Kamil; Kirk, Paul; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2010-07-15

    The growing field of systems biology has driven demand for flexible tools to model and simulate biological systems. Two established problems in the modeling of biological processes are model selection and the estimation of associated parameters. A number of statistical approaches, both frequentist and Bayesian, have been proposed to answer these questions. Here we present a Python package, ABC-SysBio, that implements parameter inference and model selection for dynamical systems in an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework. ABC-SysBio combines three algorithms: ABC rejection sampler, ABC SMC for parameter inference and ABC SMC for model selection. It is designed to work with models written in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). Deterministic and stochastic models can be analyzed in ABC-SysBio. http://abc-sysbio.sourceforge.net

  20. ABC-SysBio—approximate Bayesian computation in Python with GPU support

    PubMed Central

    Liepe, Juliane; Barnes, Chris; Cule, Erika; Erguler, Kamil; Kirk, Paul; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: The growing field of systems biology has driven demand for flexible tools to model and simulate biological systems. Two established problems in the modeling of biological processes are model selection and the estimation of associated parameters. A number of statistical approaches, both frequentist and Bayesian, have been proposed to answer these questions. Results: Here we present a Python package, ABC-SysBio, that implements parameter inference and model selection for dynamical systems in an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework. ABC-SysBio combines three algorithms: ABC rejection sampler, ABC SMC for parameter inference and ABC SMC for model selection. It is designed to work with models written in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). Deterministic and stochastic models can be analyzed in ABC-SysBio. Availability: http://abc-sysbio.sourceforge.net Contact: christopher.barnes@imperial.ac.uk; ttoni@imperial.ac.uk PMID:20591907

  1. Comparing the morphology and phase diagram of H-shaped ABC block copolymers and linear ABC block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xianggui; Yu, Xifei; Sun, Zhaoyan; An, Lijia

    2006-06-22

    By using a combinatorial screening method based on the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for polymers, we have investigated the morphology of H-shaped ABC block copolymers (A2BC2) and compared them with those of the linear ABC block copolymers. By changing the ratios of the volume fractions of two A arms and two C arms, one can obtain block copolymers with different architectures ranging from linear block copolymer to H-shaped block copolymer. By systematically varying the volume fractions of block A, B, and C, the triangle phase diagrams of the H-shaped ABC block copolymer with equal interactions among the three species are constructed. In this study, we find four different morphologies (lamellar phase (LAM), hexagonal lattice phase (HEX), core-shell hexagonal lattice phase (CSH), and two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice (TET2)). Furthermore, the order-order transitions driven by architectural change are discussed.

  2. Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-Huang; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao; Duan, Chun-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro. Methods: ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay. Results: Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs. PMID:27364797

  3. Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Huang; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao; Duan, Chun-Yue

    2016-07-05

    Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro. ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay. Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs.

  4. Tonoplast-localized Abc2 transporter mediates phytochelatin accumulation in vacuoles and confers cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Zhai, Zhiyang; Jobe, Timothy O; Akmakjian, Garo Z; Song, Won-Yong; Limbo, Oliver; Russell, Matthew R; Kozlovskyy, Volodymyr I; Martinoia, Enrico; Vatamaniuk, Olena K; Russell, Paul; Schroeder, Julian I

    2010-12-24

    Phytochelatins mediate tolerance to heavy metals in plants and some fungi by sequestering phytochelatin-metal complexes into vacuoles. To date, only Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hmt1 has been described as a phytochelatin transporter and attempts to identify orthologous phytochelatin transporters in plants and other organisms have failed. Furthermore, recent data indicate that the hmt1 mutant accumulates significant phytochelatin levels in vacuoles, suggesting that unidentified phytochelatin transporters exist in fungi. Here, we show that deletion of all vacuolar ABC transporters abolishes phytochelatin accumulation in S. pombe vacuoles and abrogates (35)S-PC(2) uptake into S. pombe microsomal vesicles. Systematic analysis of the entire S. pombe ABC transporter family identified Abc2 as a full-size ABC transporter (ABCC-type) that mediates phytochelatin transport into vacuoles. The S. pombe abc1 abc2 abc3 abc4 hmt1 quintuple and abc2 hmt1 double mutant show no detectable phytochelatins in vacuoles. Abc2 expression restores phytochelatin accumulation into vacuoles and suppresses the cadmium sensitivity of the abc quintuple mutant. A novel, unexpected, function of Hmt1 in GS-conjugate transport is also shown. In contrast to Hmt1, Abc2 orthologs are widely distributed among kingdoms and are proposed as the long-sought vacuolar phytochelatin transporters in plants and other organisms.

  5. Tonoplast-localized Abc2 Transporter Mediates Phytochelatin Accumulation in Vacuoles and Confers Cadmium Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Zhai, Zhiyang; Jobe, Timothy O.; Akmakjian, Garo Z.; Song, Won-Yong; Limbo, Oliver; Russell, Matthew R.; Kozlovskyy, Volodymyr I.; Martinoia, Enrico; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.; Russell, Paul; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Phytochelatins mediate tolerance to heavy metals in plants and some fungi by sequestering phytochelatin-metal complexes into vacuoles. To date, only Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hmt1 has been described as a phytochelatin transporter and attempts to identify orthologous phytochelatin transporters in plants and other organisms have failed. Furthermore, recent data indicate that the hmt1 mutant accumulates significant phytochelatin levels in vacuoles, suggesting that unidentified phytochelatin transporters exist in fungi. Here, we show that deletion of all vacuolar ABC transporters abolishes phytochelatin accumulation in S. pombe vacuoles and abrogates 35S-PC2 uptake into S. pombe microsomal vesicles. Systematic analysis of the entire S. pombe ABC transporter family identified Abc2 as a full-size ABC transporter (ABCC-type) that mediates phytochelatin transport into vacuoles. The S. pombe abc1 abc2 abc3 abc4 hmt1 quintuple and abc2 hmt1 double mutant show no detectable phytochelatins in vacuoles. Abc2 expression restores phytochelatin accumulation into vacuoles and suppresses the cadmium sensitivity of the abc quintuple mutant. A novel, unexpected, function of Hmt1 in GS-conjugate transport is also shown. In contrast to Hmt1, Abc2 orthologs are widely distributed among kingdoms and are proposed as the long-sought vacuolar phytochelatin transporters in plants and other organisms. PMID:20937798

  6. The Reign of Confusion: ABC and the "Crisis in Iran."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    A study examined reports broadcast by ABC News between November 8, 1979 and December 7, 1979 in its series entitled "Crisis in Iran: America Held Hostage." Transcripts of approximately 50% of actual broadcasts were subjected to rhetorical critical analysis, from which the finding emerged that confusion was the predominant characteristic…

  7. Peroxisomal ABC transporters: structure, function and role in disease.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masashi; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2012-09-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest families of membrane proteins, and are present in almost all living organisms from eubacteria to mammals. They exist on plasma membranes and intracellular compartments such as the mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes, and mediate the active transport of a wide variety of substrates in a variety of different cellular processes. These include the transport of amino acids, polysaccharides, peptides, lipids and xenobiotics, including drugs and toxins. Three ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified in mammalian peroxisomes. The ABC transporters are half-size and assemble mostly as a homodimer after posttranslational transport to peroxisomal membranes. ABCD1/ALDP and ABCD2/ALDRP are suggested to be involved in the transport of very long chain acyl-CoA with differences in substrate specificity, and ABCD3/PMP70 is involved in the transport of long and branched chain acyl-CoA. ABCD1 is known to be responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an inborn error of peroxisomal β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Here, we summarize recent advances and important points in our advancing understanding of how these ABC transporters target and assemble to peroxisomal membranes and perform their functions in physiological and pathological processes, including the neurodegenerative disease, X-ALD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [ABC transporters' impact on effect and metabolism of drugs].

    PubMed

    Slåtsve, Arne Martin; Ravna, Aina Westrheim; Lyså, Roy Andre; Sager, Georg

    2011-06-03

    Drugs must be transported to reach the site of action and to be removed from the body. Several proteins within the large family of ABC transporters (ATP-binding domain), are important for pharmacokinetics. In this review article we present, from a clinical point of view, ABC transporters that are known to be important for basic and clinical pharmacology. This overview is based on literature identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed and on results from our own work. Members of the subfamilies ABCB and ABCC, are most known for contributing to multidrug resistance towards cytostatic and antibiotic drugs. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) is shown to form a functional intestinal barrier and the blood-brain barrier by pumping out potentially toxic substances. More recent research indicates that ABC transporters play an important role in absorption, distribution and elimination of many drugs and that their function is dependent on the individual genotype. Individualized therapy may become feasible when more knowledge about ABC transporters is available.

  9. The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, André S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

  10. What Is the "g" That the K-ABC Measures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Novak, Christine G.

    The K-ABC purports to be a fresh alternative to standardized measures of intellectual functioning, by virtue of separating measurement of acquired factual knowledge from measurement of the ability to solve novel problems. Some researchers have questioned this claim to the capability of distinguishing aptitude and achievement. By analyzing the…

  11. Cooperative Education: International Cooperative Work Experience: The ABC Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laslett, R. L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the nature, implementation, evaluation, and future plans of an international cooperative work experience program (called the ABC model) in which undergraduate students combine travel with employment in industrial research-oriented projects. The program involves universities in Australia, Great Britain, and Canada (the letters ABC…

  12. The ABC's Model: Teachers Connect Home and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patricia Ruggiano

    1998-01-01

    Examines how seven European-American teachers implemented a model called the ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication (a literacy process to help develop cultural understanding and communication). Describes how teachers and students investigated cultural and ethnic differences through literacy activities that promoted classroom community…

  13. ABCs of Being Smart... G Is for Gifted!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Giftedness can generate speculation, misconceptions, expectations, pride, innuendo, apprehension, puzzlement--and the list goes on. What does it mean to be a gifted learner? In this installment of the series "ABCs of Being Smart," the author grapples with the term gifted, giving a glimpse into giftedness, along with some general guidelines for…

  14. Selections from the ABC 2009 Annual Convention, Portsmouth, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2010-01-01

    The "My Favorite Assignment" Session at the 2009 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Portsmouth, Virginia, featured over a dozen teachers sharing pedagogical innovations in a fast-paced, 4-minute format designed by Dan Dietrich. The wide variety of ideas and techniques presented makes these sessions popular…

  15. The Library ABC's Game: Sneaking in Learning through Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Teaching library terminology and definitions can be a real bore. Unfortunately, no matter how one looks at it, students need to learn a set of basic library words and their meanings. The Library ABC's game teaches elementary age students library terms and definitions, and it is effective, efficient, easy, exciting, and fun. Introduce the Library…

  16. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service projects,…

  17. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  18. ABC transporters and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Begley, David J

    2004-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) form a very effective barrier to the free diffusion of many polar solutes into the brain. Many metabolites that are polar have their brain entry facilitated by specific inwardly-directed transport mechanisms. In general the more lipid soluble a molecule or drug is, the more readily it will tend to partition into brain tissue. However, a very significant number of lipid soluble molecules, among them many useful therapeutic drugs have lower brain permeability than would be predicted from a determination of their lipid solubility. These molecules are substrates for the ABC efflux transporters which are present in the BBB and BCSB and the activity of these transporters very efficiently removes the drug from the CNS, thus limiting brain uptake. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was the first of these ABC transporters to be described, followed by the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) and more recently breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). All are expressed in the BBB and BCSFB and combine to reduce the brain penetration of many drugs. This phenomenon of "multidrug resistance" is a major hurdle when it comes to the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, not to mention the problem of cancer chemotherapy in general. Therefore, the development of strategies for bypassing the influence of these ABC transporters and for the design of effective drugs that are not substrates and the development of inhibitors for the ABC transporters becomes a high imperative for the pharmaceutical industry.

  19. A practical synthesis of the ABC ring model of ecteinascidins.

    PubMed

    Saito, N; Tachi, M; Seki, R; Kamayachi, H; Kubo, A

    2000-10-01

    A practical synthesis of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-1,5-imino-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-3,8,11-trimethyl-3- benzazocin-4-one (3) as an ABC ring model compound of ecteinascidin 743 and safracins from 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde (7) is described. The overall yield in 15 steps is 27%.

  20. Beyond the ABCs: The Pleasures of the Alphabet Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Debra H.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies seven types of alphabet books: letter shapes, word play, art play, topical/thematic, multicultural, narrative, and puzzles. Presents annotations of around 30 titles. Suggests that alphabet books are not intended just for the emergent reader--there is a wide range of ABC books with intriguing stories, captivating illustrations, playful…

  1. ABCs of Content Area Lesson Planning: Attention, Basics, and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Uses the "ABCs" of lesson planning so teachers can put the theory of active learning into practice and make learning more meaningful for their students. Concludes that teachers can make reading and learning more meaningful for their students by tying together the three themes of building student interest through attention grabbers, teaching the…

  2. Know a Baby Who Needs Help? Call ABC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromer, Megan E.

    The booklet describes Project ABC (Any Baby Can), a model networking effort to promote coordinated services for disabled and high-risk infants in San Antonio, Texas. The model features a volunteer, grass-roots emphasis in an aggressive community awareness campaign with a long-term goal of improving the effectiveness of social services and health…

  3. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  4. ABCs of Being Smart... G Is for Gifted!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Giftedness can generate speculation, misconceptions, expectations, pride, innuendo, apprehension, puzzlement--and the list goes on. What does it mean to be a gifted learner? In this installment of the series "ABCs of Being Smart," the author grapples with the term gifted, giving a glimpse into giftedness, along with some general guidelines for…

  5. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  6. Selections from the ABC 2012 Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2013-01-01

    The 13 Favorite Assignments featured here were presented at the 2012 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, Honolulu, Hawaii. A variety of learning objectives are featured, including the following: enhancing resume's visual impact, interpersonal skills, social media, team building, web design, community service projects,…

  7. Electronic excitation spectrum of ABC-stacked multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henni, Y.; Nogajewski, K.; Ojeda Collado, H. P.; Usaj, G.; Balseiro, C. A.; Potemski, M.; Faugeras, C.

    The electronic properties of ABC graphene trilayers has attracted lot of attention recently due to their potential applications in engineering carbon-based devices with gate tunable electrical conductivity. Morever,ABC-stacked thin layers of graphite are predicted to host peculiar surface electronic states, with a flat dispersion over most of the Brillouin zone. The associated high density of states is likely to favour the emergence of exotic electronic phases, such as charge density waves or even superconductivity. We present a micro-magneto-Raman scattering study of a thin graphite flake produced by exfoliation of natural graphite, composed of ~15graphene layers, and including a large ABC-stacked domain. Exploring the low temperature Raman scattering spectrum of this domain up to B=29T,we identify inter Landau level electronic excitations within the surface flat bands,together with electronic excitations involving the gapped states in the bulk. This interband electronic excitation at B=0T can be observed,up to room temperature, directly in the Raman scattering spectrum as a broad(~ 180 cm-1) feature. Because the energy gap strongly depends on the number of layers,this electronic excitation can be used to identify and characterize ABC-stacked graphite thin layers.

  8. The ABC model and its applicability to basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Douglas E; Chanderbali, André S; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S

    2007-08-01

    Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer 'fading borders' as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms.

  9. The ABCs for Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Competency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ye; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to combine pre-service teachers' self-reflection with their field experiences to enhance their cultural competency, this study adopted Schmidt's ABC's (Autobiography, Biography, and Cross-cultural Comparison) Model in two courses in a pre-service teacher education program. Through group comparisons, this study measured the impact that…

  10. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout

    SciTech Connect

    Barthold, W.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the conceptual design document for the follow-on to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, known as the ABC type reactor. It addresses blanket design options, containment options, off-gas systems, drainage systems, and components/layouts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary systems, and it contains a number of diagrams for the configuration of the major systems.

  11. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  12. Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB Recovery Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungor, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2008-01-01

    In a human predictive learning experiment, the strengths of ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects after discrimination reversal learning were compared. Initially, a discrimination between two stimuli (X+, Y-) was trained in Context A. During Phase 2, participants received discrimination reversal training (X-, Y+) either in Context A (Group AAB) or in…

  13. Chaotic behavior of finite inertia particles in ABC flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskin, Richard L.; Tanz, Jonathan M.

    1991-05-01

    Lagrangian trajectories in ABC flow have been studied by Dombre et al.1 for the purpose of analyzing chaos in three-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. In this paper we report on the study of finite particles (i.e., particles with inertia and dissipation) embedded in an ABC flow. Both linear and nonlinear drag models were examined. Because the dynamics must be represented in a six-dimensional phase space (rather than three dimensions for the pure Lagrangian ABC flow), and such high dimension spaces are difficult to visualize, we use a three-dimensional projection to study individual particle trajectories. Specially developed interactive graphics tools were used to facilitate the search for strange attractor regions, and computations were done on a 128 processor hypercube computer. The system is dissipative, and the expected folding appears; trajectories fold in about the unstable stagnation points in the flow. These regions of folding are outside the principal vortices, and the folding regions appear to be bounded by the KAM surfaces that would be associated with the Hamiltonian ABC flow. Strange attractors are, observed in the steady-state trajectories. As the drag becomes very small, both the linear and nonlinear models approach the limiting case of ABC flow. While this seems reasonable, the ``zero drag'' limit is singular, in the sense that the six-dimensional phase space problem would have to become a three-dimensional problem in the limit of point particles. When released in a periodic or quasiperiodic region, a particle with a linear drag force retains trajectory regularity, even if it crosses a chaotic region. This was not true for the nonlinear drag model. The introduction of particles can be thought of as a perturbation of ABC flow, and as drag increases this perturbed flow exhibits increasing breakdown of KAM-like surfaces, leading to larger chaotic regions. Future work will concentrate on the particle perturbations to the base ABC flow, and more examination

  14. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  15. Inventory and analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems in Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Ardelli, B F; Stitt, L E; Tompkins, J B

    2010-07-01

    ABC systems are one of the largest described protein superfamilies. These systems have a domain organization that may contain 1 or more transmembrane domains (ABC_TM1F) and 1 or 2 ATP-binding domains (ABC_2). The functions (e.g., import, export and DNA repair) of these proteins distinguish the 3 classes of ABC systems. Mining and PCR-based cloning were used to identify 33 putative ABC systems from the Brugia malayi genome. There were 31 class 2 genes, commonly called ABC transporters, and 2 class 3 genes. The ABC transporters were divided into subfamilies. Three belonged to subfamily A, 16 to subfamily B, 5 to subfamily C, 1 to subfamily E and 3 to subfamilies F and G, respectively. None were placed in subfamilies D and H. Similar to other ABC systems, the ABC_2 domain of B. malayi genes was conserved and contained the Walker A and B motifs, the signature sequence/linker region and the switch region with the conserved histidine. The ABC_TM1F domain was less conserved. The relative abundance of ABC systems was quantified using real-time reverse transcription PCR and was significantly higher in female adults of B. malayi than in males and microfilaria, particularly those in subfamilies B and C, which are associated with drug resistance.

  16. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC promotes sensorimotor recovery and plasticity after stroke in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Soleman, Sara; Yip, Ping K; Duricki, Denise A; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2012-04-01

    Stroke is the dominant cause of sensorimotor disability that primarily affects the elderly. We now show that neuroplasticity and functional recovery after stroke is constrained by inhibitory chondroitin sulphates. In two blinded, randomized preclinical trials, degradation of chondroitin sulphate using chondroitinase ABC reactivated neuroplasticity and promoted sensorimotor recovery after stroke in elderly rats. Three days after stroke, chondroitinase ABC was microinjected into the cervical spinal cord to induce localized plasticity of forelimb sensorimotor spinal circuitry. Chondroitinase ABC effectively removed chondroitin sulphate from the extracellular matrix and perineuronal nets. Three different tests of sensorimotor function showed that chondroitinase ABC promoted recovery of forelimb function. Anterograde and retrograde tracing showed that chondroitinase ABC also induced sprouting of the contralesional corticospinal tract in the aged treated hemicord. Chondroitinase ABC did not neuroprotect the peri-infarct region. We show for the first time delayed chondroitinase ABC treatment promotes neuroanatomical and functional recovery after focal ischaemic stroke in an elderly nervous system.

  17. 75 FR 49549 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption... operation of this trackage in FD 35356, ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of...

  18. Study the effect of His-tag on chondroitinase ABC I based on characterization of enzyme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenya; Li, Ye; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChSase ABC I) which could degrade chondroitin sulfate (CS) to low molecular weight CS was expressed with His-tag in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3). The effect of His-tag on ChSase ABC I was investigated compared with ChSase ABC I which cut His-tag for the first time. After three steps purification, the specific activity of His-ChSase ABC I was 201.9±5.4 IU/mg which was two times lower than ChSase ABC I. Results of multi angle light scattering (MALS) and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) showed that the polymeric state of His-ChSase ABC I was not effected by His-tag and it was monomer, and ChSase ABC I was the same. The optimal temperature and pH of His-ChSase ABC I were 37 °C and 7.5, and were almost same with ChSase ABC I. Vmax and kcat/Km of His-ChSase ABC I were 2.4±0.1 μmol/Ls, and 22.2±0.4 L/(μmols) and catalytic efficiency was lower than ChSase ABC I. Generally, His-tag had no effect on polymeric state, optimal temperature and pH, had little negative impact on specific activity, kcat/Km and secondary-structure of ChSase ABC I. This study might guide the application of ChSase ABC I in industrial production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-05-10

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E

  20. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. Results We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone

  1. Peptide diversity in the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera): a comparison of the intra- and inter-colony compositions.

    PubMed

    Dias, Nathalia Baptista; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Gomes, Paulo Cesar; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The venoms of the social wasps evolved to be used as defensive tools to protect the colonies of these insects against the attacks of predators. Previous studies estimated the presence of a dozen peptide components in the venoms of each species of these insects, which altogether comprise up to 70% of the weight of freeze-dried venoms. In the present study, an optimized experimental protocol is reported that utilizes liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the detection of peptides in the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista; peptide profiles for both intra- and inter-colonial comparisons were obtained using this protocol. The results of our study revealed a surprisingly high level of intra- and inter-colonial variability for the same wasp species. We detected 78-108 different peptides in the venom of different colonies of P. paulista in the molar mass range from 400 to 3000Da; among those, only 36 and 44 common peptides were observed in the inter- and intra-colony comparisons, respectively.

  2. Arnold Diffusion of Charged Particles in ABC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, Alejandro; Peralta-Salas, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    We prove the existence of diffusing solutions in the motion of a charged particle in the presence of ABC magnetic fields. The equations of motion are modeled by a 3DOF Hamiltonian system depending on two parameters. For small values of these parameters, we obtain a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold and we apply the so-called geometric methods for a priori unstable systems developed by A. Delshams, R. de la Llave and T.M. Seara. We characterize explicitly sufficient conditions for the existence of a transition chain of invariant tori having heteroclinic connections, thus obtaining global instability (Arnold diffusion). We also check the obtained conditions in a computer-assisted proof. ABC magnetic fields are the simplest force-free-type solutions of the magnetohydrodynamics equations with periodic boundary conditions, and can be considered as an elementary model for the motion of plasma-charged particles in a tokamak.

  3. ABC transporters: how small machines do a big job.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Amy L; Maloney, Peter C

    2007-10-01

    Transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily operate in all organisms, from bacteria to humans, to pump substances across biological membranes. Recent high-resolution views of ABC transporters in different conformational states provide clues as to how ATP might be used to drive the structural reorganizations that accompany membrane transport. Importantly, it now appears that a putative translocation pathway running through the center of the transporter might be gated alternately, either at the inside or the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane, coupling substrate translocation to a cycle of ATP-dependent conformational changes. ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis have distinct roles in this cycle: binding favors the outward-facing orientation, whereas hydrolysis returns the transporter to an inward-facing conformation.

  4. [Peroxisomal ABC transporters and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Geillon, Flore; Trompier, Doriane; Gondcaille, Catherine; Lizard, Gérard; Savary, Stéphane

    2012-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes for a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Thanks to the efforts of the ELA foundation and to the recent successes of gene therapy published in Science in 2009, X-ALD is better known but still remains poorly understood. The exact role of ABCD1 and its homologs, as well as the exact link between the biochemical and metabolic peroxisomal defects and the clinical symptoms of the disease remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes the knowledge concerning the subfamily D of the ABC transporter family and concerning X-ALD, the most frequent peroxisomal disorder. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  5. Ensemble inequivalence: Landau theory and the ABC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, O.; Mukamel, D.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that systems with long-range interactions may exhibit different phase diagrams when studied within two different ensembles. In many of the previously studied examples of ensemble inequivalence, the phase diagrams differ only when the transition in one of the ensembles is first order. By contrast, in a recent study of a generalized ABC model, the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles of the model were shown to differ even when they both exhibit a continuous transition. Here we show that the order of the transition where ensemble inequivalence may occur is related to the symmetry properties of the order parameter associated with the transition. This is done by analyzing the Landau expansion of a generic model with long-range interactions. The conclusions drawn from the generic analysis are demonstrated for the ABC model by explicit calculation of its Landau expansion.

  6. Implementation of a comprehensive schoolwide behavioral intervention: The ABC program.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Massetti, Greta M; Wilson, Tracey; Kipp, Heidi; Myers, David; Standley, Beth B Newman; Billheimer, Sheila; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2005-08-01

    The Academic and Behavioral Competencies (ABC) Program, a schoolwide program to reduce classroom disruption and encourage rule following, academic task completion, and homework completion, is described. The program was initially developed and implemented in an elementary school with a high-risk population. Data from teachers, parents, and children indicate high levels of satisfaction with the program. In addition, unobtrusive measures of program impact, reported as reductions in referrals to the principal's office, suspensions, and increases in homework completion rates relative to the year prior to implementation of the program, suggest a preliminary positive impact of the program. A replication is reported for another school district, with teacher evaluations of satisfaction and effectiveness reported, supporting the flexibility and adaptability of the program. Although the present article does not constitute a systematic evaluation of the ABC Program, it presents preliminary data on the process of implementation and stakeholder satisfaction.

  7. Magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Ho, Yen-Hung; Do, Thi-Nga; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-06-28

    The generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the magneto-optical absorption spectra of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. The absorption peaks can be classified into nine categories of inter-Landau-level optical excitations, including three intra-group and six inter-group ones. Most of them belong to the twin-peak structures because of the asymmetric Landau level spectrum. The threshold absorption peak alone comes from a certain excitation channel, and its frequency is associated with a specific interlayer atomic interaction. The Landau-level anticrossings cause extra absorption peaks. Moreover, a simple relationship between the absorption frequency and the field strength is absent. The magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene are totally different from those of AAA- and ABA-stacked ones, such as the number, intensity and frequency of absorption peaks.

  8. Les abcès froids pariétaux thoraciques chez les sujets immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, Hanane; Morad, Sanaa; Zaghba, Nahid; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba; Bahlaoui, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Les abcès froids de la paroi thoracique représentent une forme rare et inhabituelle de tuberculose extrapulmonaire. Sa fréquence est estimée à moins de 5% des tuberculoses ostéoarticulaires, évaluées elles-mêmes à 15% des tuberculoses extrapulmonaires. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de cette localisation dans notre structure. Etude rétrospective portant sur 18 cas colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du centre hospitalier universitaire Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, sur une période de 13 ans. La moyenne d’âge était de 34 ans (21-57). Un antécédent de tuberculose traitée était relevé dans un cas. Le tableau clinique était révélé par l'apparition insidieuse d'une masse pariétale de taille, de consistance et de siège variables. A l'imagerie thoracique, l'abcès pariétal était associé à une lyse osseuse dans sept cas, une atteinte parenchymateuse et pleurale dans quatre cas chacune et des adénopathies médiastinales dans deux cas. La confirmation diagnostique était bactériologique et/ou histologique dans tous les cas. La sérologie du virus de l'immunodéficience humaineétait négative chez tous nos malades. L’évolution sous traitement antibacillaire couplé ou non à une résection chirurgicale était favorable chez tous nos malades. Malgré la fréquence de la tuberculose dans notre contexte, la localisation pariétale thoracique reste rare, survenant chez une population non immunodéprimée et non toxicomane, contrairement à ce qui est souvent rapporté dans la littérature. Les abcès froids tuberculeux représentent une forme rare de tuberculose extrapulmonaire dont l’évolution reste favorable sous traitement précoce et bien conduit. PMID:26113904

  9. Association analysis of nitric oxide synthases: NOS1, NOS2A and NOS3 genes, with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    AlFadhli, Suad; Mohammed, Eiman M A; Al Shubaili, Asmahan

    2013-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. To explore the genetic basis of three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes: NOS1, NOS2A and NOS3, with susceptibility to MS. A total of 122 MS patients and 118 healthy controls screened for NOS1 (rs2682826, rs41279104), NOS2A (CCTTT)n/(TAAA)n and NOS3 (rs1800783, rs1800779, rs2070744, 27bpVNTR) markers, using TaqMan®SNP Genotyping Assays and fragment analysis were enrolled in this study. QRT-PCR and ELISA were used to analyse the expression of NOS3 mRNA and Nitric Oxide (NO) levels. Two NOS3 markers were associated with susceptibility to MS and early disease development. The NOS3 rs1800779 G-allele (p = 0.04) and GG-genotype (p = 0.02) showed association with susceptibility to MS. Short NOS2 (CCTTT)n (p = 0.03) and short/long repeat (p = 0.04) genotypes also showed associations with MS. These associations were intensified by sub-division of patients into Kuwaiti Arabs and Persians (p < 0.05). The NOS3-27 bp-VNTR a-allele was associated with early MS disease onset ≤26 years (p = 0.04). The NOS3-27 bp-VNTR a/b-genotype resulted in 23% lower NO production and the NOS3-rs1800779 AA-genotype resulted in lower NOS3 expression. Haplotypes obtained from NOS2A and NOS3 showed increased susceptibility to MS. NOS1 showed no significant association with MS. This study provides evidence for the association between selected NOS2 and NOS3 markers and MS susceptibility.

  10. The Predicted ABC Transporter AbcEDCBA Is Required for Type IV Secretion System Expression and Lysosomal Evasion by Brucella ovis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Winter, Maria G.; Atluri, Vidya; Xavier, Mariana N.; Pires, Simone F.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Andrade, Hélida M.; Santos, Renato L.; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA) was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi), whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells. PMID:25474545

  11. ABC transporter-driven pharmacoresistance in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Michael; Miller, David S; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2015-05-14

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons of the nervous system. Despite the identification of many potential therapeutics targeting pathogenic mechanisms in in vitro models, there has been limited progress in translating them into a successful pharmacotherapy in the animal model of ALS. Further, efforts to translate any promising results from preclinical trials to effective pharmacotherapies for patients have been unsuccessful, with the exception of riluzole, the only FDA-approved medication, which only modestly extends survival both in the animal model and in patients. Thus, it is essential to reconsider the strategies for developing ALS pharmacotherapies. Growing evidence suggests that problems identifying highly effective ALS treatments may result from an underestimated issue of drug bioavailability and disease-driven pharmacoresistance, mediated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters. ABC transporters are predominately localized to the lumen of endothelial cells of the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB, BSCB) where they limit the entry into the central nervous system (CNS) of a wide range of neurotoxicants and xenobiotics, but also therapeutics. In ALS, expression and function of ABC transporters is increased at the BBB/BSCB and their expression has been detected on neurons and glia in the CNS parenchyma, which may further reduce therapeutic action in target cells. Understanding and accounting for the contribution of these transporters to ALS pharmacoresistance could both improve the modest effects of riluzole and set in motion a re-evaluation of previous ALS drug disappointments. In addition, identifying pathogenic mechanisms regulating ABC transporter expression and function in ALS may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. It is likely that novel pharmacological approaches require counteracting pharmacoresistance to improve therapeutic

  12. Apical ABC transporters and cancer chemotherapeutic drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Selvi; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane efflux transporters that mediate cellular extrusion of a broad range of substrates ranging from amino acids, lipids, and ions to xenobiotics including many anticancer drugs. ABCB1 (P-GP) and ABCG2 (BCRP) are the most extensively studied apical ABC drug efflux transporters. They are highly expressed in apical membranes of many pharmacokinetically relevant tissues such as epithelial cells of the small intestine and endothelial cells of the blood capillaries in brain and testis, and in the placental maternal-fetal barrier. In these tissues, they have a protective function as they efflux their substrates back to the intestinal lumen or blood and thus restrict the intestinal uptake and tissue disposition of many compounds. This presents a major challenge for the use of many (anticancer) drugs, as most currently used anticancer drugs are substrates of these transporters. Herein, we review the latest findings on the role of apical ABC transporters in the disposition of anticancer drugs. We discuss that many new, rationally designed anticancer drugs are substrates of these transporters and that their oral availability and/or brain disposition are affected by this interaction. We also summarize studies that investigate the improvement of oral availability and brain disposition of many cytotoxic (e.g., taxanes) and rationally designed (e.g., tyrosine kinase inhibitor) anticancer drugs, using chemical inhibitors of these transporters. These findings provide a better understanding of the importance of apical ABC transporters in chemotherapy and may therefore advance translation of promising preclinical insights and approaches to clinical studies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    PubMed

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  14. Regulation of ABC Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.

    2015-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters at the blood-brain barrier function as ATP-driven xenobiotic efflux pumps and limit delivery of small molecule drugs to the brain. Here I review recent progress in understanding the regulation of the expression and transport activity of these transporters and comment on how this new information might aid in improving drug delivery to the brain. PMID:25670036

  15. Conservation and distribution of the benzalkonium chloride resistance cassette bcrABC in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Vikrant; Elhanafi, Driss; Kathariou, Sophia

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of a panel of 116 Listeria monocytogenes strains of diverse serotypes and sources (clinical, environment of food processing plants, and food) revealed that all but one of the 71 benzalkonium chloride-resistant (BC(r)) isolates harbored bcrABC, previously identified on a large plasmid (pLM80) of the 1998-1999 hot dog outbreak strain H7858. In contrast, bcrABC was not detected among BC-susceptible (BC(s)) isolates. The bcrABC sequences were highly conserved among strains of different serotypes, but variability was noted in sequences flanking bcrABC. The majority of the BC(r) isolates had either the pLM80-type of organization of the bcrABC region or appeared to harbor bcrABC on the chromosome, adjacent to novel sequences. Transcription of bcrABC was induced by BC (10 μg/ml) in strains of different serotypes and diverse bcrABC region organization. These findings reveal widespread dissemination of bcrABC across BC(r) L. monocytogenes strains regardless of serotype and source, while also suggesting possible mechanisms of bcrABC dissemination across L. monocytogenes genomes.

  16. Conservation and Distribution of the Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance Cassette bcrABC in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Vikrant; Elhanafi, Driss

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a panel of 116 Listeria monocytogenes strains of diverse serotypes and sources (clinical, environment of food processing plants, and food) revealed that all but one of the 71 benzalkonium chloride-resistant (BCr) isolates harbored bcrABC, previously identified on a large plasmid (pLM80) of the 1998-1999 hot dog outbreak strain H7858. In contrast, bcrABC was not detected among BC-susceptible (BCs) isolates. The bcrABC sequences were highly conserved among strains of different serotypes, but variability was noted in sequences flanking bcrABC. The majority of the BCr isolates had either the pLM80-type of organization of the bcrABC region or appeared to harbor bcrABC on the chromosome, adjacent to novel sequences. Transcription of bcrABC was induced by BC (10 μg/ml) in strains of different serotypes and diverse bcrABC region organization. These findings reveal widespread dissemination of bcrABC across BCr L. monocytogenes strains regardless of serotype and source, while also suggesting possible mechanisms of bcrABC dissemination across L. monocytogenes genomes. PMID:23892748

  17. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N

    2015-05-10

    Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence-structure-function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide comparative analysis of ABC systems in the Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    Bdellovibrio -and-like organisms (BALOs) are gram-negative, predatory bacteria with wide variations in genome sizes and GC content and ecological habitats. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems have been identified in several prokaryotes, fungi and plants and have a role in transport of materials in and out of cells and in cellular processes. However, knowledge of the ABC systems of BALOs remains obscure. A total of 269 putative ABC proteins were identified in BALOs. The genes encoding these ABC systems occupy nearly 1.3% of the gene content in freshwater Bdellovibrio strains and about 0.7% in their saltwater counterparts. The proteins found belong to 25 ABC system families based on their structural characteristics and functions. Among these, 16 families function as importers, 6 as exporters and 3 are involved in various cellular processes. Eight of these 25 ABC system families were deduced to be the core set of ABC systems conserved in all BALOs. All Bacteriovorax strains have 28 or less ABC systems. On the contrary, the freshwater Bdellovibrio strains have more ABC systems, typically around 51. In the genome of Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS (CP003537.1), 53 putative ABC systems were detected, representing the highest number among all the BALO genomes examined in this study. Unexpected high numbers of ABC systems involved in cellular processes were found in all BALOs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the majority of ABC proteins can be assigned into many separate families with high bootstrap supports (>50%). In this study, a general framework of sequence–structure–function connections for the ABC systems in BALOs was revealed providing novel insights for future investigations. PMID:25707746

  19. Extinction treatment in multiple contexts attenuates ABC renewal in humans.

    PubMed

    Balooch, Siavash Bandarian; Neumann, David L; Boschen, Mark J

    2012-10-01

    Renewal has been implicated as one of the underlying mechanisms in return of fear following exposure therapy. ABC renewal is clinically more relevant than ABA renewal and yet it is a weaker form of renewal, suggesting that conducting extinction treatment in multiple contexts may be sufficient to attenuate ABC renewal. Using self-reported expectancy of shock and startle blink responses the current study examined the effects of conducting extinction treatment in multiple contexts on ABC fear renewal. Participants (N = 68) received conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) pairings in one context (A) followed by extinction treatment (CS presentations alone) in either one other context (B) or three other contexts (BCD). Non-reinforced test trials in a novel context (E) resulted in renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour for those who received extinction in only one context. However, renewal was attenuated for those who received extinction treatment in three contexts. No renewal was found for the control group that received the test trial in the same context as during extinction. Suggestions are provided for clinicians seeking to prevent or attenuate return of fear following exposure therapy.

  20. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  1. Exploring conformational equilibria of a heterodimeric ABC transporter

    PubMed Central

    Timachi, M Hadi; Hutter, Cedric AJ; Hohl, Michael; Assafa, Tufa; Böhm, Simon; Mittal, Anshumali; Seeger, Markus A; Bordignon, Enrica

    2017-01-01

    ABC exporters pump substrates across the membrane by coupling ATP-driven movements of nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) to the transmembrane domains (TMDs), which switch between inward- and outward-facing (IF, OF) orientations. DEER measurements on the heterodimeric ABC exporter TM287/288 from Thermotoga maritima, which contains a non-canonical ATP binding site, revealed that in the presence of nucleotides the transporter exists in an IF/OF equilibrium. While ATP binding was sufficient to partially populate the OF state, nucleotide trapping in the pre- or post-hydrolytic state was required for a pronounced conformational shift. At physiologically high temperatures and in the absence of nucleotides, the NBDs disengage asymmetrically while the conformation of the TMDs remains unchanged. Nucleotide binding at the degenerate ATP site prevents complete NBD separation, a molecular feature differentiating heterodimeric from homodimeric ABC exporters. Our data suggest hydrolysis-independent closure of the NBD dimer, which is further stabilized as the consensus site nucleotide is committed to hydrolysis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20236.001 PMID:28051765

  2. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Liam K. R.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to an in vitro translation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosome in vitro. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection. PMID:27006457

  3. ABC and VED Analysis in Medical Stores Inventory Control.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Gupta, K K; Jain, B R; Garg, R K

    2007-10-01

    The basic principle of inventory control is ABC based on cost criteria and VED on criticality. Based on ABC-VED matrix, economic analysis of drug expenditure of priced vocabulary of medical stores (PVMS) section 01 for the year 2003 of a 190 bedded service hospital was under taken. Out of 493 drugs in PVMS section 01, only 325 drugs were being used in the reference hospital. The total cost of drugs used was Rupees 55,23,503. Of these 325 drugs, 47(14.4%) drugs were Category A, consuming 70% of total expenditure, 73 (22.46 %) drugs Category B consuming 20% and rest 205 drugs (63.7 %) Category C drugs cost only 10% of expenditure. VED categorization done by consensus opinion of medical officers, found 24 (7.3%) drugs vital, 160 (49.3%) essential and rest 141 (43.3 %) desirable. On coupling the two techniques ABC-VED matrix was made and drugs were classified in to Category I (AV+BV+CV+AE+AD) comprising 68 drugs, Category II (BE + CE +BD) 159 and Category III (CD) 98 drugs. The management of Category I drugs was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital Category II by middle and Category III at lower mangerial level.

  4. A reciprocating twin-channel model for ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter M; George, Anthony M

    2014-08-01

    ABC transporters comprise a large, diverse, and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane active transporters. Their core architecture is a dimer of dimers, comprising two transmembrane (TM) domains that bind substrate, and two ATP-binding cassettes, which use the cell's energy currency to couple substrate translocation to ATP hydrolysis. Despite the availability of over a dozen resolved structures and a wealth of biochemical and biophysical data, this field is bedeviled by controversy and long-standing mechanistic questions remain unresolved. The prevailing paradigm for the ABC transport mechanism is the Switch Model, in which the ATP-binding cassettes dimerize upon binding two ATP molecules, and thence dissociate upon sequential ATP hydrolysis. This cycle of nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) dimerization and dissociation is coupled to a switch between inward- or outward facing conformations of a single TM channel; this alternating access enables substrate binding on one face of the membrane and its release at the other. Notwithstanding widespread acceptance of the Switch Model, there is substantial evidence that the NBDs do not separate very much, if at all, and thus physical separation of the ATP cassettes observed in crystallographic structures may be an artefact. An alternative Constant Contact Model has been proposed, in which ATP hydrolysis occurs alternately at the two ATP-binding sites, with one of the sites remaining closed and containing occluded nucleotide at all times. In this model, the cassettes remain in contact and the active sites swing open in an alternately seesawing motion. Whilst the concept of NBD association/dissociation in the Switch Model is naturally compatible with a single alternating-access channel, the asymmetric functioning proposed by the Constant Contact model suggests an alternating or reciprocating function in the TMDs. Here, a new model for the function of ABC transporters is proposed in which the sequence of ATP binding, hydrolysis, and

  5. Mouse ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters Conferring Multi-Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaizhang; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Xuejiao; Xing, Shilai; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Cao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter is one of the largest and most ancient protein families with members functioning from protozoa to human. The resistance of cancer and tumor cells to anticancer drugs is due to the over-expression of some ABC transporters, which may finally lead to chemotherapy failure. The mouse ABC transporters are classified into seven subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. The mouse ABC transporter gene, alias, chromosomal location and function have been determined. Within the ABC super-family, the MDR transporters (Abcb1, Abcc1, Abcg2) in mouse models have been proved to be valuable to investigate the biochemistry and physiological functions. This review concentrates on the multidrug resistance of mouse ABC transporters in cancer and tumor cells.

  6. Mouse ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters Conferring Multi-Drug Resistance

    PubMed

    Shuaizhang, L I; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Xuejiao; Xing, Shilai; Xie, Qunhui; Cao, Zhengyu; Zhao, Bin

    2015-04-28

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter is one of the largest and most ancient protein families with members functioning from protozoa to human. The resistance of cancer and tumor cells to anticancer drugs is due to the over-expression of some ABC transporters, which may finally lead to chemotherapy failure. The mouse ABC transporters are classified into seven subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. The mouse ABC transporter gene, alias, chromosomal location and function have been determined. Within the ABC super-family, the MDR transporters (Abcb1, Abcc1, Abcg2) in mouse models have been proved to be valuable to investigate the biochemistry and physiological functions. This review concentrates on the multidrug resistance of mouse ABC transporters in cancer and tumor cells.

  7. Object Detection Based on Template Matching through Use of Best-So-Far ABC

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Best-so-far ABC is a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm used for optimization tasks. This algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms proposed in recent literature, in which the results demonstrated that the best-so-far ABC can produce higher quality solutions with faster convergence than either the ordinary ABC or the current state-of-the-art ABC-based algorithm. In this work, we aim to apply the best-so-far ABC-based approach for object detection based on template matching by using the difference between the RGB level histograms corresponding to the target object and the template object as the objective function. Results confirm that the proposed method was successful in both detecting objects and optimizing the time used to reach the solution. PMID:24812556

  8. Creating an iPhone application for collecting continuous ABC data.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Seth W; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data-collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to an e-mail account after observations have concluded. Further suggestions are provided to customize the ABC data- collection system for individual preferences and clinical needs.

  9. Improvement of proteolytic and oxidative stability of Chondroitinase ABC I by cosolvents.

    PubMed

    Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh; Golestani, Abolfazl; Asadikaram, GholamReza

    2016-10-01

    Recently, utilization of the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) has received considerable attention in treatment of spinal cord injury. cABC I removes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans which are inhibitory to axon growth and enhances nerve regeneration. Therefore, determination of cABC I resistance to proteolysis and oxidation provides valuable information for optimizing its clinical application. In this work, proteolytic stability of cABC I to trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as its oxidative resistance to H2O2 was measured. Moreover, the effect of cosolvents glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I proteolytic and oxidative stability was determined. The results indicated that cABC I is highly susceptible to proteolysis and oxidation. Comparison of proteolytic patterns demonstrated a high degree of similarity which confirmed the exposure of specific regions of cABC I to proteolysis. However, proteolytic degradation was significantly reduced in the presence of cosolvents. In addition, cosolvents decreased the rate of both cABC I proteolytic and oxidative inactivation. Notably, the degree of stabilization provided by these cosolvents varied greatly. These findings indicated the high potential of cosolvents in protein stabilization to proteolysis and oxidative inactivation.

  10. ABC transporters, bile acids, and inflammatory stress in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renxue; Sheps, Jonathan A; Ling, Victor

    2011-04-01

    The biliary secretion of bile acids is critical for multiple liver functions including digesting fatty nutrients and driving bile flow. When this process is impaired, the accumulating bile acids cause inflammatory liver injury. Multiple ABC transporters in the liver are key players to safeguard the hepatocyte and avoid toxicity due to bile acid over-accumulation. BSEP provides for efficient secretion of bile acids across the canalicular membrane against a steep concentration gradient. MDR3/Mdr2 and ABCG5/G8 secrete phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, respectively, in coordination with BSEP-mediated bile acid secretion to mask the detergent/toxic effects of bile acids in the bile ductular space. Several lines of evidence indicate that when these critical steps are compromised, bile acid toxicity in vivo leads to inflammatory liver injury and liver cancer. In bsep-/- mice, liver cancer is rare. These mice display greatly increased expression of alternative bile acid transporters, such as Mdr1a/1b, Mrp3 and Mrp4. We believe these alternative transport systems provide an additional safeguard to avoid bile acid overload in liver. Such backup systems appear to be under-utilized in humans, as defects in BSEP and MDR3 lead to severe, often fatal childhood diseases. It is possible, therefore, that targeting ABC transporters and modulating the toxicity of the bile acid pool could be vital interventions to alleviate chronic inflammation and reduce the incidence of liver cancer in high-risk populations. The combination of an alternative ABC transporter with a novel substrate may prove an effective chemo-preventive or therapeutic strategy.

  11. Schistosome ABC multidrug transporters: From pharmacology to physiology.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is essentially the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions worldwide. Though highly effective overall, PZQ has limitations, most notably its significant lack of activity against immature schistosomes. Furthermore, the availability of only a single drug for a disease of this magnitude makes reports of PZQ-resistant isolates particularly troubling. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1) are efflux transporters that underlie multidrug resistance (MDR); changes in their expression or structure are also associated with drug resistance in parasites, including helminths. This review will discuss the role these transporters might play in modulating schistosome susceptibility to PZQ, and the implications for developing new or repurposed treatments that enhance the efficacy of PZQ. However, in addition to influencing drug susceptibility, ABC transporters play important roles in several critical physiological functions such as excretion and maintenance of permeability barriers. They also transport signaling molecules with high affinity, and several lines of evidence implicate mammalian transporters in a diverse array of physiological functions, including regulation of immune responses. Like their mammalian counterparts, schistosome ABC transporters appear to be involved in functions critical to the parasite, including excretory activity and reproduction, and we hypothesize that they underlie at least some aspects of parasite-host interactions. Thus, in addition to their potential as targets for enhancers of PZQ susceptibility, these transporters might also serve as candidate targets for agents that disrupt the parasite life cycle and act as antischistosomals on their own.

  12. Drift of Phase Fluctuations in the ABC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Lorenzo; Buttà, Paolo

    2013-07-01

    In a recent work, Bodineau and Derrida analyzed the phase fluctuations in the ABC model. In particular, they computed the asymptotic variance and, on the basis of numerical simulations, they conjectured the presence of a drift, which they guessed to be an antisymmetric function of the three densities. By assuming the validity of the fluctuating hydrodynamic approximation, we prove the presence of such a drift, providing an analytical expression for it. This expression is then shown to be an antisymmetric function of the three densities. The antisymmetry of the drift can also be inferred from a symmetry property of the underlying microscopic dynamics.

  13. [ABC supplies classification: a managment tool of costs in nursing].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Karina Gomes; Castilho, Valéria

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of costs management systems has been extremely helpful to healthcare area owing to their efficacy in cutting expenditures as well as improving service quality. The ABC classification is an applied strategy to stocktaking and control. The research, which consists of an exploratory/descriptive quantitative analysis, has been carried out in order to identify, in a year time period, the demand for supplies at Universidade de Sao Paulo's Hospital. Of 1938 classified materials, 67 itens had been classified that they correspond to the materials with bigger costs for the hospital. 31.3% of these A-Class supplies catalogued items are the nursing materials, more used for the nursing team.

  14. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  15. Deciphering the Routes of invasion of Drosophila suzukii by Means of ABC Random Forest.

    PubMed

    Fraimout, Antoine; Debat, Vincent; Fellous, Simon; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Foucaud, Julien; Pudlo, Pierre; Marin, Jean-Michel; Price, Donald K; Cattel, Julien; Chen, Xiao; Deprá, Marindia; François Duyck, Pierre; Guedot, Christelle; Kenis, Marc; Kimura, Masahito T; Loeb, Gregory; Loiseau, Anne; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Pascual, Marta; Polihronakis Richmond, Maxi; Shearer, Peter; Singh, Nadia; Tamura, Koichiro; Xuéreb, Anne; Zhang, Jinping; Estoup, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Deciphering invasion routes from molecular data is crucial to understanding biological invasions, including identifying bottlenecks in population size and admixture among distinct populations. Here, we unravel the invasion routes of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii using a multi-locus microsatellite dataset (25 loci on 23 worldwide sampling locations). To do this, we use approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which has improved the reconstruction of invasion routes, but can be computationally expensive. We use our study to illustrate the use of a new, more efficient, ABC method, ABC random forest (ABC-RF) and compare it to a standard ABC method (ABC-LDA). We find that Japan emerges as the most probable source of the earliest recorded invasion into Hawaii. Southeast China and Hawaii together are the most probable sources of populations in western North America, which then in turn served as sources for those in eastern North America. European populations are genetically more homogeneous than North American populations, and their most probable source is northeast China, with evidence of limited gene flow from the eastern US as well. All introduced populations passed through bottlenecks, and analyses reveal five distinct admixture events. These findings can inform hypotheses concerning how this species evolved between different and independent source and invasive populations. Methodological comparisons indicate that ABC-RF and ABC-LDA show concordant results if ABC-LDA is based on a large number of simulated datasets but that ABC-RF out-performs ABC-LDA when using a comparable and more manageable number of simulated datasets, especially when analyzing complex introduction scenarios.

  16. SU-E-T-401: Feasibility Study of Using ABC to Gate Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Shepard, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The current SBRT treatment techniques include free breathing (FB) SBRT and gated FB SBRT. Gated FB SBRT has smaller target and less lung toxicity with longer treatment time. The recent development of direct connectivity between the ABC and linac allowing for automated beam gating. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using ABC system to gate the lung SBRT treatment. Methods: A CIRS lung phantom with a 3cm sphere-insert and a moving chest plate was used in this study. Sinusoidal motion was used for the FB pattern. An ABC signal was imported to simulate breath holds. 4D-CT was taken in FB mode and average-intensity-projection (AIP) was used to create FB and 50% gated FB SBRT planning CT. A manually gated 3D CT scan was acquired for ABC gated SBRT planning.An SBRT plan was created for each treatment option. A surface-mapping system was used for 50% gating and ABC system was used for ABC gating. A manually gated CBCT scan was also performed to verify setup. Results: Among three options, the ABC gated plan has the smallest PTV of 35.94cc, which is 35% smaller comparing to that of the FB plan. Consequently, the V20 of the left lung reduced by 15% and 23% comparing to the 50% gated FB and FB plans, respectively. The FB plan took 4.7 minutes to deliver, while the 50% gated FB plan took 18.5 minutes. The ABC gated plan delivery took only 10.6 minutes. A stationary target with 3cm diameter was also obtained from the manually gated CBCT scan. Conclusion: A strategy for ABC gated lung SBRT was developed. ABC gating can significantly reduce the lung toxicity while maintaining the target coverage. Comparing to the 50% gated FB SBRT, ABC gated treatment can also provide less lung toxicity as well as improved delivery efficiency. This research is funded by Elekta.

  17. Deciphering the Routes of invasion of Drosophila suzukii by Means of ABC Random Forest

    PubMed Central

    Fraimout, Antoine; Debat, Vincent; Fellous, Simon; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Foucaud, Julien; Pudlo, Pierre; Marin, Jean-Michel; Price, Donald K.; Cattel, Julien; Chen, Xiao; Deprá, Marindia; François Duyck, Pierre; Guedot, Christelle; Kenis, Marc; Kimura, Masahito T.; Loeb, Gregory; Loiseau, Anne; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Pascual, Marta; Polihronakis Richmond, Maxi; Shearer, Peter; Singh, Nadia; Tamura, Koichiro; Xuéreb, Anne; Zhang, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Deciphering invasion routes from molecular data is crucial to understanding biological invasions, including identifying bottlenecks in population size and admixture among distinct populations. Here, we unravel the invasion routes of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii using a multi-locus microsatellite dataset (25 loci on 23 worldwide sampling locations). To do this, we use approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which has improved the reconstruction of invasion routes, but can be computationally expensive. We use our study to illustrate the use of a new, more efficient, ABC method, ABC random forest (ABC-RF) and compare it to a standard ABC method (ABC-LDA). We find that Japan emerges as the most probable source of the earliest recorded invasion into Hawaii. Southeast China and Hawaii together are the most probable sources of populations in western North America, which then in turn served as sources for those in eastern North America. European populations are genetically more homogeneous than North American populations, and their most probable source is northeast China, with evidence of limited gene flow from the eastern US as well. All introduced populations passed through bottlenecks, and analyses reveal five distinct admixture events. These findings can inform hypotheses concerning how this species evolved between different and independent source and invasive populations. Methodological comparisons indicate that ABC-RF and ABC-LDA show concordant results if ABC-LDA is based on a large number of simulated datasets but that ABC-RF out-performs ABC-LDA when using a comparable and more manageable number of simulated datasets, especially when analyzing complex introduction scenarios. PMID:28122970

  18. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-12-28

    Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has been demonstrated recently. Some of the fungal ABC transporter-encoding genes are also induced during the mycorrhiza formation. However, no experimental evidences of the direct involvement of fungal ABC transporters in this process are available so far. To facilitate the identification of fungal ABC proteins with a potential role in the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, we have performed an inventory of the ABC protein-encoding genes in the genomes of 25 species of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. We have identified, manually annotated and curated more than 1300 gene models of putative ABC protein-encoding genes. Out of those, more than 1000 models are predicted to encode functional proteins, whereas about 300 models represent gene fragments or putative pseudogenes. We have also performed the phylogenetic analysis of the identified sequences. The sets of ABC proteins in the mycorrhiza-forming species were compared to the related saprotrophic or plant-pathogenic fungal species. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of ABC genes in the genomes of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. Via comparison of transcriptomics data from different species, we have identified candidate groups of ABC transporters that might have a role in the process of the mycorrhiza formation. Results of our inventory will facilitate the identification of fungal transporters with a role in the mycorrhiza formation. We also provide the first data on ABC protein-coding genes for the phylum Glomeromycota and for orders Pezizales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Sebacinales, contributing to

  19. The ABC gene family in arthropods: comparative genomics and role in insecticide transport and resistance.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority of ABC proteins function as primary-active transporters that bind and hydrolyze ATP while transporting a large diversity of substrates across lipid membranes. Although extremely well studied in vertebrates for their role in drug resistance, less is known about the role of this family in the transport of endogenous and exogenous substances in arthropods. The ABC families of five insect species, a crustacean and a chelicerate have been annotated in some detail. We conducted a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the seven arthropod and human ABC protein subfamilies, to infer orthologous relationships that might suggest conserved function. Most orthologous relationships were found in the ABCB half transporter, ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies, but specific expansions within species and lineages are frequently observed and discussed. We next surveyed the role of ABC transporters in the transport of xenobiotics/plant allelochemicals and their involvement in insecticide resistance. The involvement of ABC transporters in xenobiotic resistance in arthropods is historically not well documented, but an increasing number of studies using unbiased differential gene expression analysis now points to their importance. We give an overview of methods that can be used to link ABC transporters to resistance. ABC proteins have also recently been implicated in the mode of action and resistance to Bt toxins in Lepidoptera. Given the enormous interest in Bt toxicology in transgenic crops, such findings will provide an impetus to further reveal the role of ABC transporters in arthropods.

  20. NOS1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    NOS1, or nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal), along with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), catalyze the generation of nitric oxide and L-citrulline from L-arginine and molecular oxygen. Nitric oxide is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, nitric oxide displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. NOS1 also displays antimicrobial and antitumoral activities.

  1. Characterization of Pit, a Streptococcus pneumoniae Iron Uptake ABC Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremy S.; Gilliland, Sarah M.; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Holden, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria frequently have multiple mechanisms for acquiring iron, an essential micronutrient, from the environment. We have identified a four-gene Streptococcus pneumoniae operon, named pit, encoding proteins with similarity to components of a putative Brachyspira hyodysenteriae iron uptake ABC transporter, Bit. An S. pneumoniae strain containing a defined mutation in pit has impaired growth in medium containing the iron chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, reduced sensitivity to the iron-dependent antibiotic streptonigrin, and impaired virulence in a mouse model of S. pneumoniae systemic infection. Furthermore, addition of a mutation in pit to a strain containing mutations in the two previously described S. pneumoniae iron uptake ABC transporters, piu and pia, resulted in a strain with impaired growth in two types of iron-deficient medium, a high degree of resistance to streptonigrin, and a reduced rate of iron uptake. Comparison of the susceptibilities to streptonigrin of the individual pit, piu, and pia mutant strains and comparison of the growth in iron-deficient medium and virulence of single and double mutant strains suggest that pia is the dominant iron transporter during in vitro and in vivo growth. PMID:12117949

  2. Structure of a Type-1 Secretion System ABC Transporter.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Acheson, Justin F; Zimmer, Jochen

    2017-03-07

    Type-1 secretion systems (T1SSs) represent a widespread mode of protein secretion across the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. The T1SS is composed of an inner-membrane ABC transporter, a periplasmic membrane-fusion protein, and an outer-membrane porin. These three components assemble into a complex spanning both membranes and providing a conduit for the translocation of unfolded polypeptides. We show that ATP hydrolysis and assembly of the entire T1SS complex is necessary for protein secretion. Furthermore, we present a 3.15-Å crystal structure of AaPrtD, the ABC transporter found in the Aquifex aeolicus T1SS. The structure suggests a substrate entry window just above the transporter's nucleotide binding domains. In addition, highly kinked transmembrane helices, which frame a narrow channel not observed in canonical peptide transporters, are likely involved in substrate translocation. Overall, the AaPrtD structure supports a polypeptide transport mechanism distinct from alternating access.

  3. Segmented helical structures formed by ABC star copolymers in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meijiao; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Self-assembly of ABC star triblock copolymers confined in cylindrical nanopores is studied using self-consistent mean-field theory. With an ABC terpolymer forming hexagonally-arranged cylinders, segmented into alternative B and C domains, in the bulk, we observe the formation in the nanopore of a segmented single circular and non-circular cylinder, a segmented single-helix, and a segmented double-helix as stable phases, and a metastable stacked-disk phase with fourfold symmetry. The phase sequence from single-cylinder, to single-helix, and then to double-helix, is similar as that in the cylindrically-confined diblock copolymers except for the absence of an equilibrium stacked-disk phase. It is revealed that the arrangement of the three-arm junctions plays a critical role for the structure formation. One of the most interesting features in the helical structures is that there are two periods: the period of the B/C domains in the helix and the helical period. We demonstrate that the period numbers of the B/C domains contained in each helical period can be tuned by varying the pore diameter. In addition, it is predicted that the period number of B/C domains can be any rational in real helical structures whose helical period can be tuned freely.

  4. Hydroxyproline-free single composition ABC collagen heterotrimer.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Abhishek A; Demeler, Borries; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2013-04-24

    Hydroxyproline plays a major role in stabilizing collagenous domains in eukaryotic organisms. Lack of this modification is associated with significant lowering in the thermal stability of the collagen triple helix and may also affect fibrillogenesis and folding of the peptide chains. In contrast, even though bacterial collagens lack hydroxyproline, their thermal stability is comparable to that of fibrillar collagen. This has been attributed to the high frequency of charged amino acids found in bacterial collagen. Here we report a thermally stable hydroxyproline-free ABC heterotrimeric collagen mimetic system composed of decapositive and decanegative peptides and a zwitterionic peptide. None of the peptides contain hydroxyproline, and furthermore the zwitterionic peptide does not even contain proline. The heterotrimer is electrostatically stabilized via multiple interpeptide lysine-aspartate and lysine-glutamate salt bridges and maintains good thermal stability with a melting temperature of 37 °C. The ternary peptide mixture also populates a single composition ABC heterotrimer as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This system illustrates the power of axial salt bridges to direct and stabilize the self-assembly of a triple helix and may be useful in analogous designs in expression systems where the incorporation of hydroxyproline is challenging.

  5. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  6. 50 CFR 648.20 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council ABC control rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptable probability of overfishing from the MAFMC's risk policy found in § 648.21(a) through (d) to the... ABC derived by applying acceptable probability of overfishing from the MAFMC's risk policy found in... methods: (i) The SSC will derive the ABC by applying the acceptable probability of overfishing from...

  7. 50 CFR 648.20 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council ABC control rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptable probability of overfishing from the MAFMC's risk policy found in § 648.21(a) through (d) to the... ABC derived by applying acceptable probability of overfishing from the MAFMC's risk policy found in... methods: (i) The SSC will derive the ABC by applying the acceptable probability of overfishing from...

  8. 50 CFR 648.20 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council ABC control rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acceptable probability of overfishing from the MAFMC's risk policy found in § 648.21(a) through (d) to the... ABC derived by applying acceptable probability of overfishing from the MAFMC's risk policy found in... methods: (i) The SSC will derive the ABC by applying the acceptable probability of overfishing from...

  9. Applying the Post-Modern Double ABC-X Model to Family Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Samantha; Anderson, Melinda; Swafford, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the argument that using the Double ABC-X model in family and consumer sciences (FCS) curricula is a way to educate nutrition and dietetics students regarding a family's perceptions of food insecurity. The Double ABC-X model incorporates ecological theory as a basis to explain family stress and the resulting adjustment and…

  10. I Can--Achievement Based Curriculum (ABC): Purpose, Development and Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.

    The I CAN--Achievement-Based Curriculum (ABC) project is designed to train regular and special education teachers and regular physical educators to implement individualized, assessment-based instruction of the physical and motor needs of handicapped students in their classes. The ABC is a process model for training teachers how to plan, assess,…

  11. Effect of chondroitinase ABC on inflammatory and oxidative response following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mahboobe; Khaksari, Mohammad; Rezaeezadeh-Roukerd, Maryam; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh; Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh

    2017-07-01

    Chondroitinase ABC (cABC) treatment improves functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) through degrading inhibitory molecules to axon growth. However, cABC involvement in other pathological processes contributing to SCI remains to be investigated. Here, we studied the effect of cABC I on oxidative stress and inflammation developed in a rat model of SCI. Male rats (220-250 g) were divided into three groups (n=28) including rats that underwent SCI (SCI group), rats subjected to SCI and received an intrathecal injection of phosphate buffer saline (SCI+PBS group), and rats that underwent SCI and received cABC intrathecally (SCI+E group). Then, the level of TNF-α, Il-1β, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and myeloperoxidase in injured tissues, as well as hindlimb motor function, were measured at 4 hr, 1, 3 and 7 days post-SCI. Our data showed that cABC treatment reduced the development of inflammation and oxidative stress associated with SCI at all-time points. In addition, functional recovery was improved in rats that received cABC at 7 days post-SCI. The present findings indicate that cABC treatment can exert its neuroprotective effect through modulation of post-traumatic inflammatory and oxidative response.

  12. The ABCs of highly effective presentations: a customer-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Clark, V B

    1999-01-01

    In the world of adult education where the learners have complex expectations, the educator must make an extra effort to meet the customers' (learners') needs. This article describes how an educator can make every presentation customer-centered by knowing the ABCs of highly effective presentations. The ABCs, when applied, can jump-start presentations and help the presenter meet or exceed learners' expectations.

  13. Characterization of Two ABC Transporters from Biocontrol and Phytopathogenic Fusarium oxysporus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABC transporter genes from four strains of Fusarium oxysporum [two biocontrol and two phytopathogenic (f. sp. lycopersici Race 1) isolates] indicated that this gene is well conserved. However, sequences of promoter regions of FoABC1 differed between 8 phytopathogenic and 11 biocontrol strains of F....

  14. The ABC of handover: impact on shift handover in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Maisse; Brown, Ruth; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria

    2012-12-01

    A study was undertaken to test the impact of a new tool for shift handover, 'The ABC of Handover', in the emergency department (ED). The impact on shift handover following implementation of this structured tool, the effect on clinical and organisational aspects of the subsequent shift and the opinions of users of this new tool are reported. A prospective observational before and after study was performed to explore the effect of implementing 'The ABC of Handover' on clinical and organisational practice using a questionnaire. 41 handovers were observed before implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' and 42 were observed after. The new tool was successfully implemented and resulted in a change of practice which led to a significant increase in the operational issues mentioned at handover from a mean of 34% to a mean of 86% of essential items with the ABC method. Over the study period, middle-grade staff demonstrated improved situational awareness as they adopted proactive management of operational issues such as staffing or equipment shortages. All participants reported that 'The ABC of Handover' improved handover regardless of the seniority of the doctor giving it, and found the ABC method easy to learn. Successful implementation of 'The ABC of Handover' led to a change of practice in the ED. Improving handover resulted in better organisation of the shift and heightened awareness of potential patient safety issues. The ABC method provides a framework for organising the shift and preparing for events in the subsequent shift.

  15. Creating an iPhone Application for Collecting Continuous ABC Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data- collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to…

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

  17. Abce1 orchestrates M-phase entry and cytoskeleton architecture in mouse oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Chun-Jie; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Long, Yu-Ting; Chen, Fan; Li, Xiang; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette E1 (ABCE1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporters and essential for diverse biological events regulating abroad range of biological functions including viral infection, cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, translation initiation and ribosome biogenesis. Here, we discovered that Abce1 also plays indispensable roles in mouse oocyte meiotic progression. In the present study, we examined the expression, localization, and function of Abce1 during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy identified that Abce1 localized as small dots in nucleus in germinal vesicle stage. After germinal vesicle breakdown, it dispersedly localized around the whole spindle apparatus. During the anaphase and telophase stages, Abce1 was just like a cap to localize around the two pole region of spindle but not the midbody and chromosome. Knockdown of Abce1 by specific siRNA injection delayed the resumption of meiosis (GVBD) and affected the extrusion of first polar body. Moreover, the process of spindle assembly and chromosome alignment were severely impaired. Abce1-RNAi led to the dissociation of γ-tubulin and p-MAPK from spindle poles, thus caused mounts of spindle morphology abnormities and chromosome alignment defects, leading to high incidence of aneuploidy. Our findings refresh the knowledge of Abce1 function by exploring its role in oocyte meiotic resumption, spindle assembly and chromosome alignment. PMID:28380459

  18. Validity of the K-ABC for a Black Preschool Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Emily J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with a sample of black low socioeconomic status preschool children enrolled in a Head Start program. Used the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale as a criterion. Demonstrated convergent and construct validity, but suggests that the K-ABC is no more culture fair for…

  19. The ABCs of Attitudes toward Reading: Inquiring about the Reader's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizokawa, Donald T.; Hansen-Krening, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how psychologists use affect, behavior, and cognition (ABCs) to understand people. Argues that teachers can use these same three domains to learn more about readers, and to assess the ABCs of attitude toward the reading experience. Recommends the use of literature circles and dialog journals as simple, effective instructional techniques…

  20. Parents' Perspectives on Braille Literacy: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents who were the primary caretakers of children in the Alphabetic and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study) revealed their perspectives about braille literacy. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was constructed by the ABC Braille research team, and researchers conducted telephone interviews with 31 parents who were the…

  1. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  2. K-ABC and McCarthy Scale Performance among "At Risk" and Normal Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stephen; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1988-01-01

    Assessed the degree of comparability between the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (McCarthy) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) for "at-risk" (low birthweight, Head Start, and developmentally delayed) and "normal" preschool children. Describes the K-ABC Mental Processing Composite (MPC) and McCarthy…

  3. Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC): Establishing Construct Validity for Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…

  4. ABCs of Public Education in North Carolina: A Journey toward Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    In 1995, the North Carolina General Assembly directed the North Carolina State Board of Education to develop a plan to bolster student growth and performance in grades 4-8 throughout the state. In response, the board developed the ABCs of Public Education. (ABC stands for Accountability; teaching the Basics of reading, writing, and mathematics;…

  5. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  6. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  7. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  8. Creating an iPhone Application for Collecting Continuous ABC Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and task analysis for creating a continuous ABC data- collection application using Xcode on a Mac computer. Behavior analysts can program an ABC data collection system, complete with a customized list of target clients, antecedents, behaviors, and consequences to be recorded, and have the data automatically sent to…

  9. Parents' Perspectives on Braille Literacy: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents who were the primary caretakers of children in the Alphabetic and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study) revealed their perspectives about braille literacy. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was constructed by the ABC Braille research team, and researchers conducted telephone interviews with 31 parents who were the…

  10. Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC): Establishing Construct Validity for Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Rosenblum, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) is one of the most accepted tools, both in clinical practice and in research, for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCDs) in children. The present study aimed to: (1) establish the construct validity of M-ABC in Israel by comparing the motor performance of typically…

  11. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  12. Abrasive wear behavior of heat-treated ABC-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao Feng; Lee, Gun Y.; Chen, Da; Ritchie, Robert O.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2002-06-17

    Hot-pressed silicon carbide, containing aluminum, boron, and carbon additives (ABC-SiC), was subjected to three-body and two-body wear testing using diamond abrasives over a range of sizes. In general, the wear resistance of ABC-SiC, with suitable heat treatment, was superior to that of commercial SiC.

  13. Co-solvent mediated thermal stabilization of chondroitinase ABC I form Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nazari-Robati, Mahdieh; Khajeh, Khosro; Aminian, Mahdi; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2012-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) from Proteus vulgaris cleaves glycosaminoglycan chains which are responsible for most of the inhibition of axon regrowth in spinal cord injury. The clinical utilization of this enzyme is mainly limited by its thermal instability. This study has been undertaken to determine the effects of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I activity and thermal stability. The results indicated that the enzyme catalytic activity and intrinsic fluorescence intensity increased in the presence of these cosolvents whereas no considerable conformational changes observed in far-UV CD spectra. Thermal CD experiment revealed an increase in T(m) of cABC I in the presence of cosolvents which was significant for trehalose. Our results support the idea that cABC I has stabilized in the presence of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose. Therefore, the use of these cosolvents seems to be promising for improvement in shelf-life and clinical applications of this drug enzyme.

  14. Development and validation of the ADHD Benefits of Coaching Scale (ABCS).

    PubMed

    Deal, Linda S; Sleeper-Triplett, Jodi; DiBenedetti, Dana B; Nelson, Lauren; McLeod, Lori; Haydysch, Emily E; Brown, T Michelle

    2015-03-01

    Develop and validate the ADHD Benefits of Coaching Scale (ABCS), a self-report instrument designed to measure benefits of ADHD coaching in college students. Concepts were elicited from interviews with ADHD coaches and college students receiving ADHD coaching. Draft items were tested in cognitive interviews among ADHD students. Item and scale reliability and validity of ABCS were evaluated using web-survey data from students reporting ADHD. Mean ABCS scores for coached and noncoached groups were compared. Five coaches and 14 students participated in concept elicitation interviews; 10 students participated in the cognitive interviews; 209 students completed the web-survey. The 10-item ABCS showed satisfactory internal consistency reliability and validity and differentiated between coached (n = 17) and noncoached groups (n = 192; p < .01). To assess benefits of ADHD coaching in college students, the ABCS was developed and psychometrically validated in accordance with Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) patient-reported outcome guidance. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  15. Accuracy of the ABC/2 score for intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, CLEAR III

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Alastair JS; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized Reading Center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard CT-based planimetry (CTP). Methods In MISTIE-II, CLEAR-IVH and CLEAR-III trials, ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5ml and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. Results In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r2=0.93) than site-ABC (r2=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC=15.2cm3, CTP=12.7cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorised into mild, moderate and severe ICH (kappa 0.75, p<0.001). This was consistent with overestimation of ICH volume in 6/8 previous studies. Agreement with CTP was greater for RC-ABC (84% within 5ml; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5ml; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥ 5ml change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic haemorrhage and homogeneous clots. Conclusions ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorise ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR III and MISTIE III studies, and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular or lobar clots. Clinical Trial Registration MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134; www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:26243227

  16. The essential vertebrate ABCE1 protein interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang-Qun; Dong, Jinsheng; Ishimura, Akihiko; Daar, Ira; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Dean, Michael

    2006-03-17

    The ABCE1 gene is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multigene family and is composed of two nucleotide binding domains and an N-terminal Fe-S binding domain. The ABCE1 gene encodes a protein originally identified for its inhibition of ribonuclease L, a nuclease induced by interferon in mammalian cells. The protein is also required for the assembly of the HIV and SIV gag polypeptides. However, ABCE1 is one of the most highly conserved proteins and is found in one or two copies in all characterized eukaryotes and archaea. Yeast ABCE1/RLI1 is essential to cell division and interacts with translation initiation factors in the assembly of the pre-initiation complex. We show here that the human ABCE1 protein is essential for in vitro and in vivo translation of mRNA and that it binds to eIF2alpha and eIF5. Inhibition of the Xenopus ABCE1 arrests growth at the gastrula stage of development, consistent with a block in translation. The human ABCE1 gene contains 16 introns, and the extremely high degree of amino acid identity allows the evolution of its introns to be examined throughout eukaryotes. The demonstration that ABCE1 plays a role in vertebrate translation initiation extends the known functions of this highly conserved protein. Translation is a highly regulated process important to development and pathologies such as cancer, making ABCE1 a potential target for therapeutics. The evolutionary analysis supports a model in which an ancestral eukaryote had large number of introns and that many of these introns were lost in non-vertebrate lineages.

  17. ABC/2 Method Does not Accurately Predict Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Volume.

    PubMed

    Roark, Christopher; Vadlamudi, Venu; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Seinfeld, Joshua; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2017-06-10

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to prevent intracranial hemorrhage. The decision to proceed with SRS is usually based on calculated nidal volume. Physicians commonly use the ABC/2 formula, based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), when counseling patients for SRS. To determine whether AVM volume calculated using the ABC/2 method on DSA is accurate when compared to the exact volume calculated from thin-cut axial sections used for SRS planning. Retrospective search of neurovascular database to identify AVMs treated with SRS from 1995 to 2015. Maximum nidal diameters in orthogonal planes on DSA images were recorded to determine volume using ABC/2 formula. Nidal target volume was extracted from operative reports of SRS. Volumes were then compared using descriptive statistics and paired t -tests. Ninety intracranial AVMs were identified. Median volume was 4.96 cm 3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.79-8.85] with SRS planning methods and 6.07 cm 3 (IQR 1.3-13.6) with ABC/2 methodology. Moderate correlation was seen between SRS and ABC/2 ( r = 0.662; P < .001). Paired sample t -tests revealed significant differences between SRS volume and ABC/2 ( t = -3.2; P = .002). When AVMs were dichotomized based on ABC/2 volume, significant differences remained ( t = 3.1, P = .003 for ABC/2 volume < 7 cm 3 ; t = -4.4, P < .001 for ABC/2 volume > 7 cm 3 ). The ABC/2 method overestimates cerebral AVM volume when compared to volumetric analysis from SRS planning software. For AVMs > 7 cm 3 , the overestimation is even greater. SRS planning techniques were also significantly different than values derived from equations for cones and cylinders.

  18. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries.

  19. 75 FR 11991 - ABC & D Recycling, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board ABC & D Recycling, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--a Line of Railroad in Ware, MA ABC & D Recycling, Inc. (ABC & D), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption...

  20. Abilities Assessed by the K-ABC Mental Processing Subtests: The Perceptions of Practitioners with Varying Degrees of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Fagan, Thomas K.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty practitioners with varying levels of experience in the administration of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)) completed a K-ABC Abilities Matrix to indicate their perceptions of the specific abilities assessed by each of the 10 K-ABC Mental Processing subtests. In only one-half of the judgments did the majority of…

  1. Electrochemical Characterization Shewanella oneidensis () Mr-1 MtrABC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuester, J.; Ross, D. E.; Hartshorne, R. S.; Brantley, S. L.; Butt, J. N.; Richardson, D.; Tien, M.

    2007-12-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria have the ability to use a wide range of terminal electron acceptors including solid state iron (oxihydr)oxides. It is generally accepted that electrons are transferred by electron transfer proteins to a series of multiheme c-type cytochromes which enable the electron transport from the periplasm to the extracellular side of the outer cell membrane and across the bacteria-mineral interface to the terminal electron acceptor. In the last decade, the facultative anaerobe organism Shewanella oneidensis Mr-1 has been used as a model organism to identify, purify, and sequence single proteins involved in Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, but these studies have provided little biochemical information on the actual electron transfer process within the bacterial cell. In order to extend the knowledge on electron transfer, Ross et al.(in press) have recently purified a complex from Shewanella oneidensis Mr-1 which includes the membrane proteins MtrA, MtrB, and MtrC and spans the space from the periplasm to the extracellular side of the outer membrane. In our study we applied the relatively new technique of protein film electrochemistry to the MtrABC complex to gain more biochemical information on electron transport in the membrane of Shewanella oneidensis Mr-1. A wealth of information on the reaction of redox-active sites in proteins like MtrABC can be acquired by voltammetric studies in which the protein sample is immobilized as a layer onto an electrode surface. By carrying out cyclic voltammetry over a wide range of scan rates, the data can be analyzed in terms of peak potentials versus scan rate. A simple reversible electron transfer process gives rise to a trumpet-shaped plot because the oxidation and the reduction peaks increasingly separate at high scan rate. In this contribution we show a detailed electrochemical picture of the MtrABC complex, which gives insight into the electron transfer from the periplasm to the extracellular side of

  2. The ABC model of flower development: then and now.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John L; Smyth, David R; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2012-11-01

    In 1991, we published a paper in Development that proposed the ABC model of flower development, an early contribution to the genetic analysis of development in plants. In this, we used a series of homeotic mutants, and double and triple mutants, to establish a predictive model of organ specification in developing flowers. This model has served as the basis for much subsequent work, especially towards understanding seed plant evolution. Here, we discuss several aspects of this story, that could be a much longer one. One surprising conclusion is that materials and methods that might have led to similar work, and to the same model, were available 100 years before our experiments, belying the belief that progress in biology necessarily comes from improvements in methods, rather than in concepts.

  3. Multifunctional nanoarchitectures from DNA-based ABC monomers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong B; Roh, Young H; Um, Soong Ho; Funabashi, Hisakage; Cheng, Wenlong; Cha, Judy J; Kiatwuthinon, Pichamon; Muller, David A; Luo, Dan

    2009-07-01

    The ability to attach different functional moieties to a molecular building block could lead to applications in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, intelligent sensing and drug delivery. The building unit needs to be both multivalent and anisotropic, and although many anisotropic building blocks have been created, these have not been universally applicable. Recently, DNA has been used to generate various nanostructures or hybrid systems, and as a generic building block for various applications. Here, we report the creation of anisotropic, branched and crosslinkable building blocks (ABC monomers) from which multifunctional nanoarchitectures have been assembled. In particular, we demonstrate a target-driven polymerization process in which polymers are generated only in the presence of a specific DNA molecule, leading to highly sensitive pathogen detection. Using this monomer system, we have also designed a biocompatible nanovector that delivers both drugs and tracers simultaneously. Our approach provides a general yet versatile route towards the creation of a range of multifunctional nanoarchitectures.

  4. Progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Shahyad; Smith, Jonathan C

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the psychological effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and yoga stretching (hatha) exercises. Forty participants were randomly divided into two groups and taught PMR or yoga stretching exercises. Both groups practiced once a week for five weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each session. As hypothesized, practitioners of PMR displayed higher levels of relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement at Week 4 and higher levels of Mental Quiet and Joy as a posttraining aftereffect at Week 5. Contrary to what was hypothesized, groups did not display different levels of R-States Energized or Aware. Results suggest the value of supplementing traditional somatic conceptualizations of relaxation with the psychological approach embodied in ABC relaxation theory. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerzhakov, H. V.; Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of ABC stacked kagome lattice films.

    PubMed

    Yerzhakov, H V; Plumer, M L; Whitehead, J P

    2016-05-18

    Properties of films of geometrically frustrated ABC stacked antiferromagnetic kagome layers are examined using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The impact of having an easy-axis anisotropy on the surface layers and cubic anisotropy in the interior layers is explored. The spin structure at the surface is shown to be different from that of the bulk 3D fcc system, where surface axial anisotropy tends to align spins along the surface [1 1 1] normal axis. This alignment then propagates only weakly to the interior layers through exchange coupling. Results are shown for the specific heat, magnetization and sub-lattice order parameters for both surface and interior spins in three and six layer films as a function of increasing axial surface anisotropy. Relevance to the exchange bias phenomenon in IrMn3 films is discussed.

  7. ABC transporter for corrinoids in Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Jesse D; Reynolds, April A; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2005-09-01

    We report evidence for the existence of a putative ABC transporter for corrinoid utilization in the extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1. Results from genetic and nutritional analyses of Halobacterium showed that mutants with lesions in open reading frames (ORFs) Vng1370G, Vng1371Gm, and Vng1369G required a 10(5)-fold higher concentration of cobalamin for growth than the wild-type or parent strain. The data support the conclusion that these ORFs encode orthologs of the bacterial cobalamin ABC transporter permease (btuC; Vng1370G), ATPase (btuD; Vng1371Gm), and substrate-binding protein (btuF; Vng1369G) components. Mutations in the Vng1370G, Vng1371Gm, and Vng1369G genes were epistatic, consistent with the hypothesis that their products work together to accomplish the same function. Extracts of btuF mutant strains grown in the presence of cobalamin did not contain any cobalamin molecules detectable by a sensitive bioassay, whereas btuCD mutant strain extracts did. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the BtuF protein is exported to the extracellular side of the cell membrane, where it can bind cobalamin in the absence of BtuC and BtuD. Our data also provide evidence for the regulation of corrinoid transport and biosynthesis. Halobacterium synthesized cobalamin in a chemically defined medium lacking corrinoid precursors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genetic analysis of an archaeal corrinoid transport system.

  8. A Multidrug ABC Transporter with a Taste for Salt

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Daniel A. P.; Venter, Henrietta; Barrera, Nelson P.; Seeger, Markus A.; Woebking, Barbara; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Balakrishnan, Lekshmy; Yao, Yao; U, Edmond C. Y.; Shilling, Richard A.; Robinson, Carol V.; Thorn, Peter; van Veen, Hendrik W.

    2009-01-01

    Background LmrA is a multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter from Lactococcus lactis with no known physiological substrate, which can transport a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents and toxins from the cell. The protein can functionally replace the human homologue ABCB1 (also termed multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein MDR1) in lung fibroblast cells. Even though LmrA mediates ATP-dependent transport, it can use the proton-motive force to transport substrates, such as ethidium bromide, across the membrane by a reversible, H+-dependent, secondary-active transport reaction. The mechanism and physiological context of this reaction are not known. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined ion transport by LmrA in electrophysiological experiments and in transport studies using radioactive ions and fluorescent ion-selective probes. Here we show that LmrA itself can transport NaCl by a similar secondary-active mechanism as observed for ethidium bromide, by mediating apparent H+-Na+-Cl− symport. Remarkably, LmrA activity significantly enhances survival of high-salt adapted lactococcal cells during ionic downshift. Conclusions/Significance The observations on H+-Na+-Cl− co-transport substantiate earlier suggestions of H+-coupled transport by LmrA, and indicate a novel link between the activity of LmrA and salt stress. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of investigations into the bioenergetics of substrate translocation by ABC transporters for our understanding of fundamental mechanisms in this superfamily. This study represents the first use of electrophysiological techniques to analyze substrate transport by a purified multidrug transporter. PMID:19593434

  9. Expression profiles of NOS isoforms in gingiva of nNOS knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, M; Ishizuka, Y; Shintani, S; Yanagisawa, T; Inoue, T; Sasaki, J; Watanabe, H

    2014-04-01

    Nitric oxide is a gaseous molecule associated with many distinct physiological functions, and is derived from L-arginine catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide synthase has 3 isoforms: nNOS, iNOS and eNOS. Although these NOS isoforms are believed to play an important role in gingival tissue, little information is available on their morphological dynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the profiles of NOS isoforms in deficiency of nNOS in gingiva of mice. Twelve male (6 normal (C57BL/6) and 6 nNOS knockout) mice were used. All mice were 5-week-old, weighing approximately 20-25 g each. After sacrifice, the jaws of the mice were removed by mechanical means and specimens analyzed by histology, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical observation revealed positive staining for iNOS and eNOS, especially in lamina propria. Similar results in the mRNA expression levels were shown by in situ hybridization analysis. It may suggest that iNOS and eNOS compensated nNOS deficiency in the gingiva of nNOS knockout mice.

  10. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  11. Implication of RuvABC and RecG in homologous recombination in Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Grégory; Bertrand, Claire; Piotrowski, Emilie; Thibessard, Annabelle; Leblond, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Most bacterial organisms rely on homologous recombination to repair DNA double-strand breaks and for the post-replicative repair of DNA single-strand gaps. Homologous recombination can be divided into three steps: (i) a pre-synaptic step in which the DNA 3'-OH ends are processed, (ii) a recA-dependent synaptic step allowing the invasion of an intact copy and the formation of Holliday junctions, and (iii) a post-synaptic step consisting of migration and resolution of these junctions. Currently, little is known about factors involved in homologous recombination, especially for the post-synaptic step. In Escherichia coli, branch migration and resolution are performed by the RuvABC complex, but could also rely on the RecG helicase in a redundant manner. In this study, we show that recG and ruvABC are well-conserved among Streptomyces. ΔruvABC, ΔrecG and ΔruvABC ΔrecG mutant strains were constructed. ΔruvABC ΔrecG is only slightly affected by exposure to DNA damage (UV). We also show that conjugational recombination decreases in the absence of RuvABC and RecG, but that intra-chromosomal recombination is not affected. These data suggest that RuvABC and RecG are indeed involved in homologous recombination in Streptomyces ambofaciens and that alternative factors are able to take over Holliday junction in Streptomyces.

  12. Research Progress on the Role of ABC Transporters in the Drug Resistance Mechanism of Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Mao, Ding-an; Liu, Li-qun

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy is not fully clear. In recent years, both animal and clinical trials have shown that the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is increased in patients with intractable epilepsy; additionally, epileptic seizures can lead to an increase in the number of sites that express ABC transporters. These findings suggest that ABC transporters play an important role in the drug resistance mechanism of epilepsy. ABC transporters can perform the funcions of a drug efflux pump, which can reduce the effective drug concentration at epilepsy lesions by reducing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to antiepileptic drugs, thus causing resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Given the important role of ABC transporters in refractory epilepsy drug resistance, antiepileptic drugs that are not substrates of ABC transporters were used to obtain ABC transporter inhibitors with strong specificity, high safety, and few side effects, making them suitable for long-term use; therefore, these drugs can be used for future clinical treatment of intractable epilepsy. PMID:26491660

  13. PET and SPECT Radiotracers to Assess Function and Expression of ABC Transporters in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Erker, Thomas; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) are expressed in high concentrations at various physiological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, blood-tumor barrier), where they impede the tissue accumulation of various drugs by active efflux transport. Changes in ABC transporter expression and function are thought to be implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The availability of a non-invasive imaging method which allows for measuring ABC transporter function or expression in vivo would be of great clinical use in that it could facilitate the identification of those patients that would benefit from treatment with ABC transporter modulating drugs. To date three different kinds of imaging probes have been described to measure ABC transporters in vivo: i) radiolabelled transporter substrates ii) radiolabelled transporter inhibitors and iii) radiolabelled prodrugs which are enzymatically converted into transporter substrates in the organ of interest (e.g. brain). The design of new imaging probes to visualize efflux transporters is inter alia complicated by the overlapping substrate recognition pattern of different ABC transporter types. The present article will describe currently available ABC transporter radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and critically discuss strengths and limitations of individual probes and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21434859

  14. Functional analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Broehan, Gunnar; Kroeger, Tobias; Lorenzen, Marcé; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2013-01-16

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control.

  15. Functional analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family of Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. Results We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. Conclusions The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control. PMID:23324493

  16. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

  17. Genetic identification of three ABC transporters as essential elements for nitrate respiration in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, C; Soppa, J

    1999-01-01

    More than 40 nitrate respiration-deficient mutants of Haloferax volcanii belonging to three different phenotypic classes were isolated. All 15 mutants of the null phenotype were complemented with a genomic library of the wild type. Wild-type copies of mutated genes were recovered from complemented mutants using two different approaches. The DNA sequences of 13 isolated fragments were determined. Five fragments were found to overlap; therefore nine different genomic regions containing genes essential for nitrate respiration could be identified. Three genomic regions containing genes coding for subunits of ABC transporters were further characterized. In two cases, genes coding for an ATP-binding subunit and a permease subunit were clustered and overlapped by four nucleotides. The third gene for a permease subunit had no additional ABC transporter gene in proximity. One ABC transporter was found to be glucose specific. The mutant reveals that the ABC transporter solely mediates anaerobic glucose transport. Based on sequence similarity, the second ABC transporter is proposed to be molybdate specific, explaining its essential role in nitrate respiration. The third ABC transporter is proposed to be anion specific. Genome sequencing has shown that ABC transporters are widespread in Archaea. Nevertheless, this study represents only the second example of a functional characterization. PMID:10430572

  18. Expression of HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, J C; Darnton, S J; Crocker, J; Matthews, H R; Morris, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To examine the expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in normal, inflamed, metaplastic, and neoplastic oesophageal tissue and in freshly disaggregated tumours. METHODS--Sequential sections of frozen tissue and cytospins of freshly disaggregated tumour were stained using the ABC peroxidase system and monoclonal antibodies specific for HLA-ABC, HLA-DR and ICAM-1. RESULTS--Normal oesophageal tissue showed positive staining for HLA-ABC in the basal layers of the oesophageal squamous epithelium and on the epithelial cells of the submucosal oesophageal glands. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were not detected in either of these cell types. In 20 of 37 (54%) carcinomas HLA-ABC was expressed weakly, with heterogeneous expression in nine (24%). Two tumours showed strong expression of HLA-ABC, but 15 of 37 (41%) were negative. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 were expressed weakly in six of 37 (16%) carcinomas without correlation with each other or with the expression of HLA-ABC. CONCLUSIONS--HLA-ABC is absent from a high proportion of oesophageal carcinomas (41%) and is otherwise variably and weakly expressed with strong expression in only a small fraction (3%). In other carcinomas there is a higher level of HLA-ABC expression. This discrepancy may partly explain the aggressive nature of oesophageal carcinomas. HLA-DR and ICAM-1 are not normally expressed on those cells from which oesophageal carcinomas are thought to arise. The limited expression found here could suggest a partial or inhibited immune response against oesophageal carcinoma. In vivo repressive factors may be involved. Images PMID:7665697

  19. ABC versus CAB for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized simulator-based trial.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Stephan; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Zobrist, Roger; Hunziker, Patrick R; Hunziker, Sabina

    2013-09-06

    After years of advocating ABC (Airway-Breathing-Circulation), current guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend CAB (Circulation-Airway-Breathing). This trial compared ABC with CAB as initial approach to CPR from the arrival of rescuers until the completion of the first resuscitation cycle. 108 teams, consisting of two physicians each, were randomized to receive a graphical display of either the ABC algorithm or the CAB algorithm. Subsequently teams had to treat a simulated cardiac arrest. Data analysis was performed using video recordings obtained during simulations. The primary endpoint was the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations. The time to execution of the first resuscitation measure was 32 ± 12 seconds in ABC teams and 25 ± 10 seconds in CAB teams (P = 0.002). 18/53 ABC teams (34%) and none of the 55 CAB teams (P = 0.006) applied more than the recommended two initial rescue breaths which caused a longer duration of the first cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations in ABC teams (31 ± 13 vs.23 ± 6 sec; P = 0.001). Overall, the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle was longer in ABC teams (63 ± 17 vs. 48 ± 10 sec; P <0.0001). This randomized controlled trial found CAB superior to ABC with an earlier start of CPR and a shorter time to completion of the first 30:2 resuscitation cycle. These findings endorse the change from ABC to CAB in international resuscitation guidelines.

  20. ABC Transporters B1, C1 and G2 Differentially Regulate Neuroregeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Toni; Krohn, Markus; Hofrichter, Jacqueline; Lange, Cathleen; Stenzel, Jan; Steffen, Johannes; Dunkelmann, Tina; Paarmann, Kristin; Fröhlich, Christina; Uecker, Annekathrin; Plath, Anne-Sophie; Sommer, Alexandra; Brüning, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Pahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are essential regulators of organismic homeostasis, and are particularly important in protecting the body from potentially harmful exogenous substances. Recently, an increasing number of in vitro observations have indicated a functional role of ABC transporters in the differentiation and maintenance of stem cells. Therefore, we sought to determine brain-related phenotypic changes in animals lacking the expression of distinct ABC transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2 or ABCC1). Methodology and Principal Findings Analyzing adult neurogenesis in ABC transporter-deficient animals in vivo and neuronal stem/progenitor cells in vitro resulted in complex findings. In vivo, the differentiation of neuronal progenitors was hindered in ABC transporter-deficient mice (ABCB10/0) as evidenced by lowered numbers of doublecortin+ (−36%) and calretinin+ (−37%) cells. In vitro, we confirmed that this finding is not connected to the functional loss of single neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Furthermore, assessment of activity, exploratory behavior, and anxiety levels revealed behavioral alterations in ABCB10/0 and ABCC10/0 mice, whereas ABCG20/0 mice were mostly unaffected. Conclusion and Significance Our data show that single ABC transporter-deficiency does not necessarily impair neuronal progenitor homeostasis on the single NSPC level, as suggested by previous studies. However, loss of distinct ABC transporters impacts global brain homeostasis with far ranging consequences, leading to impaired neurogenic functions in vivo and even to distinct behavioral phenotypes. In addition to the known role of ABC transporters in proteopathies such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, our data highlight the importance of understanding the general function of ABC transporters for the brain's homeostasis and the regeneration potential. PMID:22545122

  1. Genome-scale analysis of ABC transporter genes and characterization of the ABCC type transporter genes in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongnam; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Choi, Woobong

    2013-06-01

    Rapid adaptation to various environmental stresses is a prerequisite for successful infection in fungal pathogens. ABC transporters are responsible for regulating intracellular levels of cytotoxic or xenobiotic compounds, suggesting a crucial role in pathogenesis. Here, we report genome-scale identification of putative ABC transporter genes in Magnaporthe oryzae. A total of 50 ABC transporter genes were predicted and phylogenetic analysis divided them into 11 subfamily groups: ABCA, ABCB, ABCC-1, ABCC-2, ABCD, ABCE, ABCF, ABCG-1, ABCG-2, ABCI, and YDR061W-like. In the 11 ABCC subfamily genes, the transcript levels were elevated during infection stages and after exposure to various abiotic stresses. Based on expression pattern, three representative genes, MoABC5, MoABC6 and MoABC7, were selected. Functional analysis of MoABC5, MoABC6 and MoABC7 revealed that the genes may be responsible for virulence, abiotic stress tolerance, and conidiation, respectively. Our data will be providing valuable information to examine the role of ABC transporter genes in M. oryzae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of Action of ABC Importers: Conservation, Divergence, and Physiological Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Lewinson, Oded; Livnat-Levanon, Nurit

    2017-03-10

    The past decade has seen a remarkable surge in structural characterization of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which have spurred a more focused functional analysis of these elaborate molecular machines. As a result, it has become increasingly apparent that there is a substantial degree of mechanistic variation between ABC transporters that function as importers, which correlates with their physiological roles. Here, we summarize recent advances in ABC importers' structure-function studies and provide an explanation as to the origin of the different mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. ABC transporters as multidrug resistance mechanisms and the development of chemosensitizers for their reversal

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol-Hee

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems related with anticancer chemotherapy is resistance against anticancer drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transporter proteins that are responsible for drug resistance and a low bioavailability of drugs by pumping a variety of drugs out cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. One strategy for reversal of the resistance of tumor cells expressing ABC transporters is combined use of anticancer drugs with chemosensitizers. In this review, the physiological functions and structures of ABC transporters, and the development of chemosensitizers are described focusing on well-known proteins including P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein. PMID:16202168

  4. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsby, David C.; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-03-01

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR channels has led to a unifying mechanism explaining those ATP-driven conformational changes.

  5. The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, David C; Vergani, Paola; Csanády, László

    2006-03-23

    CFTR chloride channels are encoded by the gene mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. These channels belong to the superfamily of ABC transporter ATPases. ATP-driven conformational changes, which in other ABC proteins fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes, in CFTR open and close a gate to allow transmembrane flow of anions down their electrochemical gradient. New structural and biochemical information from prokaryotic ABC proteins and functional information from CFTR channels has led to a unifying mechanism explaining those ATP-driven conformational changes.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus: comparison with Arabidopsis ABC protein family.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2006-10-31

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins constitute a large family in plants with more than 120 members each in Arabidopsis and rice, and have various functions including the transport of auxin and alkaloid, as well as the regulation of stomata movement. In this report, we carried out genome-wide analysis of ABC protein genes in a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus. For analysis of the Lotus genome sequence, we devised a new method 'domain-based clustering analysis', where domain structures like the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), instead of full-length amino acid sequences, are used to compare phylogenetically each other. This method enabled us to characterize fragments of ABC proteins, which frequently appear in a draft sequence of the Lotus genome. We identified 91 putative ABC proteins in L. japonicus, i.e. 43 'full-size', 40 'half-size' and 18 'soluble' putative ABC proteins. The characteristic feature of the composition is that Lotus has extraordinarily many paralogs similar to AtMRP14 and AtPDR12, which are at least six and five members, respectively. Expression analysis of the latter genes performed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed their putative involvement in the nodulation process.

  7. Identification of regulatory sequence elements within the transcription promoter region of NpABC1, a gene encoding a plant ABC transporter induced by diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Grec, Sébastien; Vanham, Delphine; de Ribaucourt, Jeoffrey Christyn; Purnelle, Bénédicte; Boutry, Marc

    2003-07-01

    Expression of NpABC1, a gene encoding a plasma membrane ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, is induced by sclareol, an antifungal diterpene produced at the leaf surface, as well as by sclareolide, a close analog. A genomic fragment including the 1282-bp region upstream of the NpABC1 transcription start was fused to the reporter beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene and introduced into N. tabacum BY2 cells for stable transformation. A 25-fold increase in gus expression was observed when cells were treated with sclareolide and some other terpenes. The combined use of 5'-deletion promoter analysis, gel mobility shift assays, DNase I footprinting, and site-directed mutagenesis allowed us to identify three cis-elements (sclareol box 1 (SB1), SB2, and SB3) located, respectively, within nucleotides -827 to -802, -278 to -243, and -216 to -190 upstream of the NpABC1 transcription start. In vivo evaluation of these elements on sclareolide-induced expression showed that mutation of SB1 reduced expression by twofold, while that of SB2 had no effect. On the other hand, SB3 had a marked effect as it completely abolished sclareolide-mediated expression. NpABC1-gus expression was not induced by the stress signals, salicylic acid and ethylene, but was mediated, to some extent, by methyl jasmonate, which is known to promote diterpene synthesis.

  8. A Report Card for the ABCs of Public Education: Growth and Performance of North Carolina Schools, 1997-98. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    The School-Based Management and Accountability Program, also known as the "ABCs of Public Education," or just "the ABCs," is the statewide school-based accountability program for public schools in North Carolina. This document reports the results of the 1997-98 ABCs, in the second year of the implementation of the ABCs in…

  9. On the variability of the diurnal tide and coupling with planetary waves in the MLT over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    Using meteor radar observations of four years in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) over a subtropical Brazilian station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W), the temporal variability characteristics of the diurnal tide have been studied. In addition to the semiannual, annual and interannual variations, the diurnal tide amplitude exhibits clear intermittent modulation at periods of planetary waves. The tidal amplitude exhibits clear seasonal pattern with largest amplitude in fall equinox. The dominant periods of modulation of the diurnal tide are found to be greater than 10 days in the MLT. The diurnal tide, as detected in the power spectra of the horizontal winds, shows a spread in period around the central period (24 h) which is an indication of nonlinear interactions between the diurnal tide and planetary waves. A bispectral analysis reveals prominent triplets (two primary waves and a secondary wave) confirming the interaction of the diurnal tide with planetary waves persistent over a broad spectral range. Also there is an indication of coupling of the diurnal tide with the intraseasonal oscillations at various times of the year.

  10. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  11. MALT1 small molecule inhibitors specifically suppress ABC-DLBCL in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fontan, Lorena; Yang, Chenghua; Kabaleeswaran, Venkataraman; Volpon, Laurent; Osborne, Michael J; Beltran, Elena; Garcia, Monica; Cerchietti, Leandro; Shaknovich, Rita; Yang, Shao Ning; Fang, Fang; Gascoyne, Randy D; Martinez-Climent, Jose Angel; Glickman, J Fraser; Borden, Katherine; Wu, Hao; Melnick, Ari

    2012-12-11

    MALT1 cleavage activity is linked to the pathogenesis of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), a chemoresistant form of DLBCL. We developed a MALT1 activity assay and identified chemically diverse MALT1 inhibitors. A selected lead compound, MI-2, featured direct binding to MALT1 and suppression of its protease function. MI-2 concentrated within human ABC-DLBCL cells and irreversibly inhibited cleavage of MALT1 substrates. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression, c-REL nuclear localization inhibition, and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Most notably, MI-2 was nontoxic to mice, and displayed selective activity against ABC-DLBCL cell lines in vitro and xenotransplanted ABC-DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound was also effective against primary human non-germinal center B cell-like DLBCLs ex vivo.

  12. Going beyond "ABC" to include "GEM": critical reflections on progress in the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Ehrhardt, Anke A

    2007-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have sought to identify what factors accounted for substantial reductions in HIV seroprevalence after several countries deployed "ABC" (abstinence, be faithful, condom use) strategies. After much public discourse and research on ABC success stories, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 2004 epidemic report indicated that nearly 50% of infected people worldwide were women, up from 35% in 1985. In light of the feminization of HIV/AIDS, we critically assess the limitations of ABC strategies. We provide 3 additional prevention strategies that focus on gender relations, economics, and migration (GEM) and can speak to the new face of the epidemic. Pressing beyond ABC, GEM strategies provide the basis for a stronger central platform from which national efforts against HIV/AIDS can proceed to reduce transmission risks.

  13. Brassboard Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) development for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Muthu; Kuan, Gary; Rud, Mike; Lin, Sean; Sutherland, Kristen; Moore, James; An, Xin

    2008-07-01

    The Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) is a critical element of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) that performs three key functions: coherently combine starlight from two siderostats; individually detect starlight for angle tracking; and disperse and detect the interferometric fringes. In addition, the ABC contains: a stimulus, cornercubes and shutters for in-orbit calibration; several tip/tilt mirror mechanisms for in-orbit alignment; and internal metrology beam launcher for pathlength monitoring. The detailed design of the brassboard ABC (which has the form, fit and function of the flight unit) is complete, procurement of long-lead items is underway, and assembly and testing is expected to be completed in Spring 2009. In this paper, we present the key requirements for the ABC, details of the completed optical and mechanical design as well as plans for assembly and alignment.

  14. Crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of an ABC transporter from Geobacillus kaustophilus.

    PubMed

    Manjula, M; Pampa, K J; Kumar, S M; Mukherjee, S; Kunishima, N; Rangappa, K S; Lokanath, N K

    2015-03-27

    The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, represent one of the largest superfamilies of primary transporters, which are very essential for various biological functions. The crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of an ABC transporter from Geobacillus kaustophilus has been determined at 1.77 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed that the protomer has two thick arms, (arm I and II), which resemble 'L' shape. The ATP-binding pocket is located close to the end of arm I. ATP molecule is docked into the active site of the protein. The dimeric crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of ABC transporter from G. kaustophilus has been compared with the previously reported crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of ABC transporter from Salmonella typhimurium.

  15. Selection of optimal artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies for structural damage identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Lei; Lu, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the sensitivities of artificial boundary condition (ABC) frequencies to the damages are investigated, and the optimal sensors are selected to provide the reliable structural damage identification. The sensitivity expressions for one-pin and two-pin ABC frequencies, which are the natural frequencies from structures with one and two additional constraints to its original boundary condition, respectively, are proposed. Based on the expressions, the contributions of the underlying mode shapes in the ABC frequencies can be calculated and used to select more sensitive ABC frequencies. Selection criteria are then defined for different conditions, and their performance in structural damage identification is examined with numerical studies. From the findings, conclusions are given.

  16. Plant ABC Transporters Enable Many Unique Aspects of a Terrestrial Plant's Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Ung; Song, Won-Yong; Hong, Daewoong; Ko, Donghwi; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Jang, Sunghoon; Yim, Sojeong; Lee, Eunjung; Khare, Deepa; Kim, Kyungyoon; Palmgren, Michael; Yoon, Hwan Su; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-03-07

    Terrestrial plants have two to four times more ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes than other organisms, including their ancestral microalgae. Recent studies found that plants harboring mutations in these transporters exhibit dramatic phenotypes, many of which are related to developmental processes and functions necessary for life on dry land. These results suggest that ABC transporters multiplied during evolution and assumed novel functions that allowed plants to adapt to terrestrial environmental conditions. Examining the literature on plant ABC transporters from this viewpoint led us to propose that diverse ABC transporters enabled many unique and essential aspects of a terrestrial plant's lifestyle, by transporting various compounds across specific membranes of the plant. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary lifetime predictions for 304 stainless steel as the LANL ABC blanket material

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.J.; Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1997-11-01

    The prediction of materials lifetime in the preconceptual Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Accelerator-Based Conversion of Plutonium (ABC) is of utmost interest. Because Hastelloy N showed good corrosion resistance to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten Salt Reactor Experiment fuel salt that is similar to the LANL ABC fuel salt, Hastelloy N was originally proposed for the LANL ABC blanket material. In this paper, the possibility of using 304 stainless steel as a replacement for the Hastelloy N is investigated in terms of corrosion issues and fluence-limit considerations. An attempt is made, based on the previous Fast Flux Test Facility design data, to predict the preliminary lifetime estimate of the 304 stainless steel used in the blanket region of the LANL ABC.

  18. Armpits, Belly Buttons and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Chronic Wounds: The ABCs of Our Body Bacteria By Alisa Machalek and Allison MacLachlan Posted April ... treating skin and other conditions. Chronic Wounds and Bacteria Bacteria from human skin grown on agar in ...

  19. Vascular and Perivascular NO Release and Transport: Biochemical Pathways of NOS1 and NOS3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kejing; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an important paracrine effector that maintains vascular tone. The release of NO mediated by NOS isozymes under various O2 conditions critically determines the NO bioavailability in tissues. Because of experimental difficulties, there has been no direct information on how enzymatic NO production and distribution change around arterioles under various oxygen conditions. In this study, we used computational models based on the analysis of biochemical pathways of enzymatic NO synthesis and the availability of NOS isozymes to quantify the NO production by neuronal NOS (NOS1) and endothelial NOS (NOS3). We compared the catalytic activities of NOS1 and NOS3 and their sensitivities to the concentration of substrate O2. Based on the NO release rates predicted from kinetic models, the geometric distribution of NO sources and mass balance analysis, we predicted the NO concentration profiles around an arteriole under various O2 conditions. The results indicated that NOS1-catalyzed NO production was significantly more sensitive to ambient O2 concentration than that catalyzed by NOS3. Also, the high sensitivity of NOS1 catalytic activity to O2 was associated with significantly reduced NO production and therefore NO concentrations, upon hypoxia. Moreover, the major source determining the distribution of NO was NOS1, which was abundantly expressed in the nerve fibers and mast cells close to arterioles, rather than NOS3, which was expressed in the endothelium. Finally, the perivascular NO concentration predicted by the models under conditions of normoxia was paradoxically at least an order of magnitude lower than a number of experimental measurements, suggesting a higher abundance of NOS1 or NOS3 and/or the existence of other enzymatic or non-enzymatic sources of NO in the microvasculature. PMID:17320763

  20. Patella malalignment, pain and patellofemoral progression: The Health ABC Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, DJ; Zhang, YQ; Niu, JB; Felson, DT; Kwoh, K; Newman, A; Kritchevsky, S; Harris, T; Carbone, L; Nevitt, M

    2007-01-01

    Objective Patellofemoral (PF) joint OA is strongly correlated with lower extremity disability and knee pain. Risk factors for pain and structural progression in patellofemoral OA are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine the association between patella malalignment and its relation to pain severity, and PF OA disease progression. Methods We conducted an analysis of data from the Health ABC knee OA study. Health ABC is a community based, multi-center cohort study of 3,075 Caucasian and Black men and women aged 70–79 at enrollment. Weight bearing skyline knee x-rays were obtained in a subset (595) of subjects, with and without knee pain, at year 2 and year 5 (mean follow-up 36 months). Films were read paired, and patellofemoral osteophytes (OST) and narrowing (JSN) were scored on a 0–3 scale using the OARSI atlas. We defined progression of PF OA as any increase in JSN score. 3 measures of patella malalignment were made: sulcus angle; patella tilt angle; and patella subluxation medially or laterally (bisect offset). Knee symptoms were assessed using a knee specific WOMAC knee pain subscale. We assessed the relationship between baseline patella malalignment and pain severity (linear regression for WOMAC) and compartment specific PF OA progression (logistic regression for dichotomous outcomes). We classified continuous measures of patella alignment into quartile groups. We performed multivariable adjusted logistic regression models, including age, gender and BMI to assess the relation of baseline patella alignment to the occurrence of PF JSN progression using generalized estimating equations. Results The subjects had a mean age 73.6 (SD 2.9), BMI 28.8 (SD 4.9), 40.3% male, and 46% were Black. Medial displacement of the patella predisposed to medial JSN progression; odds for each quartile 1, 1.2, 1.2, 2.2 (p for trend=0.03), whilst protecting from lateral JSN progression; odds for each quartile 1, 0.7, 0.6, 0.4 (p for trend=0.0004). Increasing patella

  1. Aerosol Comparisons Between Observations and Models: AeroCom and ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Kinne, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    I will represent the AeroCom community to the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) workshop. I will summarize the activities and results from AeroCom Phase I activities in the past 8 years and introduce the new results and activities in the current AeroCom Phase II. We hope to coordinate some activities with the ABC community to share model output and data access for model evaluations, comparisons, and assessment.

  2. Advanced EV/HEV battery pack testing using the ABC-150 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.

    1997-12-01

    The ABC-150 battery test system is the first system designed for the demanding requirements of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery testing. With high accuracy, fast response and flexible test automation capabilities, the ABC-150 provides the most advanced set of capabilities for EV/HEV battery pack testing. These features are described and several examples of actual use are given.

  3. Chondroitinase ABC Improves Basic and Skilled Locomotion in Spinal Cord Injured Cats

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Nicole J.; Howland, Dena R.

    2010-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the central nervous system following injury. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS GAG) side chains substituted on this family of molecules contribute to the limited functional recovery following injury by restricting axonal growth and synaptic plasticity. In the current study, the effects of degrading CS GAGs with Chondroitinase ABC (Ch’ase ABC) in the injured spinal cords of adult cats were assessed. Three groups were evaluated for 5 months following T10 hemisections: lesion–only, lesion + control, and lesion + Ch’ase ABC. Intraspinal control and Ch’ase ABC treatments to the lesion site began immediately after injury and continued every other day, for a total of 15 treatments, using an injectable port system. Delivery and in vivo cleavage were verified anatomically in a subset of cats across the treatment period. Recovery of skilled locomotion (ladder, peg, and beam) was significantly accelerated, on average, by >3wks in Ch’ase ABC-treated cats compared to controls. Ch’ase ABC-treated cats also showed greater recovery of specific skilled locomotor features including intralimb movement patterns and significantly greater paw placement onto pegs. Although recovery of basic locomotion (bipedal treadmill and overground) was not accelerated, intralimb movement patterns were more normal in the Ch’ase ABC-treated cats. Qualitative assessment of serotonergic-immunoreactivity also suggested that Ch’ase ABC treatment enhanced plasticity. Finally, analyses using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) indicate CS GAG content is similar in cat and human. These findings show, for the first time, that intraspinal cleavage of CS GAGs can enhance recovery of function following spinal cord injury in large animals with sophisticated motor behaviors and axonal growth requirements similar to those encountered in humans. PMID:17936753

  4. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph.; Bourlos, Dimitrios N.; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S.; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. Purpose: To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. Results: The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. Conclusion: The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI). PMID:27453894

  5. LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, Dimitrios Ph; Bourlos, Dimitrios N; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Babis, George C

    2016-06-01

    Graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is of critical importance. Various grafts have been used so far, with autografts long considered the optimal solution for the treatment of ACL-deficient knees. Limited data are available on the long-term survivorship of synthetic grafts. To compare the functional outcome and survivorship of ACL reconstructions performed using the LARS (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system) ligament and the ABC (active biosynthetic composite) purely polyester ligament. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The results of 72 patients who underwent primary arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the LARS ligament and 31 cases with an ABC purely polyester ligament were reviewed. The mean follow-up periods for the LARS and ABC groups were 9.5 and 5.1 years, respectively. A survivorship analysis of the 2 synthetic grafts was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test (Mantel-Cox, 95% CI). Lysholm, Tegner activity, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores as well as laxity measurements obtained using a KT-1000 arthrometer were recorded for all intact grafts, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison reasons. The rupture rates for LARS and ABC grafts were 31% (95% CI, 20%-42%) and 42% (95% CI, 25%-59%), respectively. For intact grafts, the mean Lysholm score was good for both groups (90 for the LARS group and 89 for the ABC group), with the majority of patients returning to their preinjury level of activities, and the mean IKDC score was 90 for the LARS group and 86 for the ABC group. The rupture rates of both LARS and ABC grafts were both high. However, the LARS ligament provided significantly better survivorship compared with the ABC ligament at short- to midterm follow-up (95% CI).

  6. Transcriptome-based identification of ABC transporters in the western tarnished plant bug Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Hull, J Joe; Chaney, Kendrick; Geib, Scott M; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Brent, Colin S; Walsh, Douglas; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic clearance. While ABC transporters have been extensively studied in vertebrates, less is known concerning this superfamily in insects, particularly hemipteran pests. We used RNA-Seq transcriptome sequencing to identify 65 putative ABC transporter sequences (including 36 full-length sequences) from the eight ABC subfamilies in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus), a polyphagous agricultural pest. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clear orthologous relationships with ABC transporters linked to insecticide/xenobiotic clearance and indicated lineage specific expansion of the L. hesperus ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. The transcriptional profile of 13 LhABCs representative of the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies was examined across L. hesperus development and within sex-specific adult tissues. All of the transcripts were amplified from both reproductively immature and mature adults and all but LhABCA8 were expressed to some degree in eggs. Expression of LhABCA8 was spatially localized to the testis and temporally timed with male reproductive development, suggesting a potential role in sexual maturation and/or spermatozoa protection. Elevated expression of LhABCC5 in Malpighian tubules suggests a possible role in xenobiotic clearance. Our results provide the first transcriptome-wide analysis of ABC transporters in an agriculturally important hemipteran pest and, because ABC transporters are known to be important mediators of insecticidal resistance, will provide the basis for future biochemical and toxicological studies on the role of this protein family in insecticide resistance in Lygus species.

  7. Time and dose-dependent effects of chondroitinase ABC on growth of engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, G D; Nims, R J; Green, J; Cigan, A D; Ateshian, G A; Hung, C T

    2014-04-23

    Tissue engineering techniques have been effective in developing cartilage-like tissues in vitro. However, many scaffold-based approaches to cultivating engineered cartilage have been limited by low collagen production, an impediment for attaining native functional load-bearing tensile mechanical properties. Enzymatic digestion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) temporarily suppresses the construct's GAG content and compressive modulus and increases collagen content. Based on the promising results of these early studies, the aim of this study was to further promote collagen deposition through more frequent chABC treatments. Weekly dosing of chABC at a concentration of 0.15 U/mL resulted in a significant cell death, which impacted the ability of the engineered cartilage to fully recover GAG and compressive mechanical properties. In light of these findings, the influence of lower chABC dosage on engineered tissue (0.004 and 0.015 U/mL) over a longer duration (one week) was investigated. Treatment with 0.004 U/mL reduced cell death, decreased the recovery time needed to achieve native compressive mechanical properties and GAG content, and resulted in a collagen content that was 65 % greater than the control. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that longer chABC treatment (one week) at low concentrations can be used to improve collagen content in developing engineered cartilage more expediently than standard chABC treatments of higher chABC doses administered over brief durations.

  8. Chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris: cloning, recombinant expression and active site identification

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    GalAGs (galactosaminoglycans) are one subset of the GAG (glycosaminoglycan) family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that are involved in a wide range of biological processes. These complex biomacromolecules are believed to be responsible for the inhibition of nerve regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. The enzymic degradation of GAG chains in damaged nervous tissue by cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I), a broad-specificity lyase that degrades GalAGs, promotes neural recovery. In the present paper, we report the subcloning of cABC I from Proteus vulgaris, and discuss a simple methodology for the recombinant expression and purification of this enzyme. The originally expressed cABC I clone resulted in an enzyme with negligible activity against a variety of GalAG substrates. Sequencing of the cABC I clone revealed four point mutations at issue with the electron-density data of the cABC I crystal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis produced a clone with restored GalAG-degrading function. We have characterized this enzyme biochemically, including an analysis of its substrate specificity. By coupling structural inspections of cABC I and an evaluation of sequence homology against other GAG-degrading lyases, a set of amino acids was chosen for further study. Mutagenesis studies of these residues resulted in the first experimental evidence of cABC I's active site. This work will facilitate the structure–function characterization of biomedically relevant GalAGs and further the development of therapeutics for nerve regeneration. PMID:15691229

  9. Chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris: cloning, recombinant expression and active site identification.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Vikas; Capila, Ishan; Bosques, Carlos J; Pojasek, Kevin; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2005-02-15

    GalAGs (galactosaminoglycans) are one subset of the GAG (glycosaminoglycan) family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that are involved in a wide range of biological processes. These complex biomacromolecules are believed to be responsible for the inhibition of nerve regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. The enzymic degradation of GAG chains in damaged nervous tissue by cABC I (chondroitinase ABC I), a broad-specificity lyase that degrades GalAGs, promotes neural recovery. In the present paper, we report the subcloning of cABC I from Proteus vulgaris, and discuss a simple methodology for the recombinant expression and purification of this enzyme. The originally expressed cABC I clone resulted in an enzyme with negligible activity against a variety of GalAG substrates. Sequencing of the cABC I clone revealed four point mutations at issue with the electron-density data of the cABC I crystal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis produced a clone with restored GalAG-degrading function. We have characterized this enzyme biochemically, including an analysis of its substrate specificity. By coupling structural inspections of cABC I and an evaluation of sequence homology against other GAG-degrading lyases, a set of amino acids was chosen for further study. Mutagenesis studies of these residues resulted in the first experimental evidence of cABC I's active site. This work will facilitate the structure-function characterization of biomedically relevant GalAGs and further the development of therapeutics for nerve regeneration.

  10. Transcriptome-Based Identification of ABC Transporters in the Western Tarnished Plant Bug Lygus hesperus

    PubMed Central

    Hull, J. Joe; Chaney, Kendrick; Geib, Scott M.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Brent, Colin S.; Walsh, Douglas; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic clearance. While ABC transporters have been extensively studied in vertebrates, less is known concerning this superfamily in insects, particularly hemipteran pests. We used RNA-Seq transcriptome sequencing to identify 65 putative ABC transporter sequences (including 36 full-length sequences) from the eight ABC subfamilies in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus), a polyphagous agricultural pest. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clear orthologous relationships with ABC transporters linked to insecticide/xenobiotic clearance and indicated lineage specific expansion of the L. hesperus ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. The transcriptional profile of 13 LhABCs representative of the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies was examined across L. hesperus development and within sex-specific adult tissues. All of the transcripts were amplified from both reproductively immature and mature adults and all but LhABCA8 were expressed to some degree in eggs. Expression of LhABCA8 was spatially localized to the testis and temporally timed with male reproductive development, suggesting a potential role in sexual maturation and/or spermatozoa protection. Elevated expression of LhABCC5 in Malpighian tubules suggests a possible role in xenobiotic clearance. Our results provide the first transcriptome-wide analysis of ABC transporters in an agriculturally important hemipteran pest and, because ABC transporters are known to be important mediators of insecticidal resistance, will provide the basis for future biochemical and toxicological studies on the role of this protein family in insecticide resistance in Lygus species. PMID:25401762

  11. Genome-wide identification of whole ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2014-08-05

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily is one of the largest transporter gene families and is observed in all animal taxa. Although a large set of transcriptomic data was recently assembled for several species of crustaceans, identification and annotation of the large ABC transporter gene family have been very challenging. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, 46 putative ABC transporters were identified using in silico analysis, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 46 T. japonicus ABC transporters are classified into eight subfamilies (A-H) that include all the members of all ABC subfamilies, consisting of five ABCA, five ABCB, 17 ABCC, three ABCD, one ABCE, three ABCF, seven ABCG, and five ABCH subfamilies. Of them, unique isotypic expansion of two clades of ABCC1 proteins was observed. Real-time RT-PCR-based heatmap analysis revealed that most T. japonicus ABC genes showed temporal transcriptional expression during copepod development. The overall transcriptional profile demonstrated that half of all T. japonicus ABC genes were strongly associated with at least one developmental stage. Of them, transcripts TJ-ABCH_88708 and TJ-ABCE1 were highly expressed during all developmental stages. The whole set of T. japonicus ABC genes and their phylogenetic relationships will provide a better understanding of the comparative evolution of essential gene family resources in arthropods, including the crustacean copepods.

  12. The mitochondrial transporter ABC-me (ABCB10), a downstream target of GATA-1, is essential for erythropoiesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, B B; Liesa, M; Elorza, A A; Qiu, W; Haigh, S E; Richey, L; Mikkola, H K; Schlaeger, T M; Shirihai, O S

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial transporter ATP binding cassette mitochondrial erythroid (ABC-me/ABCB10) is highly induced during erythroid differentiation by GATA-1 and its overexpression increases hemoglobin production rates in vitro. However, the role of ABC-me in erythropoiesis in vivo is unknown. Here we report for the first time that erythrocyte development in mice requires ABC-me. ABC-me−/− mice die at day 12.5 of gestation, showing nearly complete eradication of primitive erythropoiesis and lack of hemoglobinized cells at day 10.5. ABC-me−/− erythroid cells fail to differentiate because they exhibit a marked increase in apoptosis, both in vivo and ex vivo. Erythroid precursors are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress and ABC-me in the heart and its yeast ortholog multidrug resistance-like 1 have been shown to protect against oxidative stress. Thus, we hypothesized that increased apoptosis in ABC-me−/− erythroid precursors was caused by oxidative stress. Within this context, ABC-me deletion causes an increase in mitochondrial superoxide production and protein carbonylation in erythroid precursors. Furthermore, treatment of ABC-me−/− erythroid progenitors with the mitochondrial antioxidant MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase 2 mimetic) supports survival, ex vivo differentiation and increased hemoglobin production. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that ABC-me is essential for erythropoiesis in vivo. PMID:22240895

  13. Neuroprotective effect of chondroitinase ABC on primary and secondary brain injury after stroke in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-ran; Liao, Song-jie; Ye, Lan-xiang; Gong, Qiong; Ding, Qiao; Zeng, Jin-sheng; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-16

    Focal cerebral infarction causes secondary damage in the ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a family of putative inhibitory components, and its degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) promotes post-injury neurogenesis. This study investigated the role of ChABC in the primary and secondary injury post stroke in hypertension. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and were subjected to continuous intra-infarct infusion of ChABC (0.12 U/d for 7 days) 24 h later. Neurological function was evaluated by a modified neurologic severity score. Neurons were counted in the peri-infarct region and the ipsilateral VPN 8 and 14 days after MCAO by Nissl staining and NeuN labeling. The expressions of CSPGs, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin (SYN) were detected with immunofluorescence or Western blotting. The intra-infarct infusion of ChABC, by degrading accumulated CSPGs, rescued neuronal loss and increased the levels of GAP-43 and SYN in both the ipsilateral cortex and VPN, indicating enhancd neuron survival as well as augmented axonal growth and synaptic plasticity, eventually improving overall neurological function. The study demonstrated that intra-infarct ChABC infusion could salvage the brain from both primary and secondary injury by the intervention on the neuroinhibitory environment post focal cerebral infarction. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Optimization of Straight Cylindrical Turning Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanth, Rajanampalli Seshasai Srinivasa; Hans Raj, Kandikonda

    2017-04-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, that mimics the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the field of process optimization, as it is capable of handling nonlinearity, complexity and uncertainty. Straight cylindrical turning is a complex and nonlinear machining process which involves the selection of appropriate cutting parameters that affect the quality of the workpiece. This paper presents the estimation of optimal cutting parameters of the straight cylindrical turning process using the ABC algorithm. The ABC algorithm is first tested on four benchmark problems of numerical optimization and its performance is compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. Results indicate that, the rate of convergence of ABC algorithm is better than GA and ACO. Then, the ABC algorithm is used to predict optimal cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius to achieve good surface finish. Results indicate that, the ABC algorithm estimated a comparable surface finish when compared with real coded genetic algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  15. Optimization of Straight Cylindrical Turning Using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanth, Rajanampalli Seshasai Srinivasa; Hans Raj, Kandikonda

    2016-06-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, that mimics the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the field of process optimization, as it is capable of handling nonlinearity, complexity and uncertainty. Straight cylindrical turning is a complex and nonlinear machining process which involves the selection of appropriate cutting parameters that affect the quality of the workpiece. This paper presents the estimation of optimal cutting parameters of the straight cylindrical turning process using the ABC algorithm. The ABC algorithm is first tested on four benchmark problems of numerical optimization and its performance is compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. Results indicate that, the rate of convergence of ABC algorithm is better than GA and ACO. Then, the ABC algorithm is used to predict optimal cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius to achieve good surface finish. Results indicate that, the ABC algorithm estimated a comparable surface finish when compared with real coded genetic algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  16. The role of ABC transporters in drug resistance, metabolism and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Glavinas, Hristos; Krajcsi, Péter; Cserepes, Judit; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2004-01-01

    ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters form a special family of membrane proteins, characterized by homologous ATP-binding, and large, multispanning transmembrane domains. Several members of this family are primary active transporters, which significantly modulate the absorption, metabolism, cellular effectivity and toxicity of pharmacological agents. This review provides a general overview of the human ABC transporters, their expression, localization and basic mechanism of action. Then we shortly deal with the human ABC transporters as targets of therapeutic interventions in medicine, including cancer drug resistance, lipid and other metabolic disorders, and even gene therapy applications. We place a special emphasis on the three major groups of ABC transporters involved in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR). These are the classical P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1), the multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs, in the ABCC subfamily), and the ABCG2 protein, an ABC half-transporter. All these proteins catalyze an ATP-dependent active transport of chemically unrelated compounds, including anticancer drugs. MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 preferentially extrude large hydrophobic, positively charged molecules, while the members of the MRP family can extrude both hydrophobic uncharged molecules and water-soluble anionic compounds. Based on the physiological expression and role of these transporters, we provide examples for their role in Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion (ADME) and toxicology, and describe several basic assays which can be applied for screening drug interactions with ABC transporters in the course of drug research and development.

  17. Interaction of ABC multidrug transporters with anticancer protein kinase inhibitors: substrates and/or inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Csilla; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Szakács, Gergely; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2009-05-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors (PKI) are becoming key agents in modern cancer chemotherapy, and combination of PKIs with classical chemotherapeutic drugs may help to overcome currently untreatable metastatic cancers. Since chemotherapy resistance is a recurrent problem, mechanisms of resistance should be clarified in order to help further drug development. Here we suggest that in addition to PKI resistance based on altered target structures, the active removal of these therapeutic agents by the MDR-ABC transporters should also be considered as a major cause of clinical resistance. We discuss the occurring systemic and cellular mechanisms, which may hamper PKI efficiency, and document the role of selected MDR-ABC transporters in these phenomena through their interactions with these anticancer agents. Moreover, we suggest that PKI interactions with ABC transporters may modulate overall drug metabolism, including the fate of diverse, chemically or target-wise unrelated drugs. These effects are based on multiple forms of MDR-ABC transporter interaction with PKIs, as these compounds may be both substrates and/or inhibitors of an ABC transporter. We propose that these interactions should be carefully considered in clinical application, and a combined MDR-ABC transporter and PKI effect may bring a major advantage in future drug development.

  18. Crystal structure of Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulfate ABC lyase I at 1.9A resolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijun; Lunin, Vladimir V; Li, Yunge; Suzuki, Sakaru; Sugiura, Nobuo; Miyazono, Hirofumi; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2003-05-02

    Chondroitin Sulfate ABC lyase I from Proteus vulgaris is an endolytic, broad-specificity glycosaminoglycan lyase, which degrades chondroitin, chondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronan by beta-elimination of 1,4-hexosaminidic bond to unsaturated disaccharides and tetrasaccharides. Its structure revealed three domains. The N-terminal domain has a fold similar to that of carbohydrate-binding domains of xylanases and some lectins, the middle and C-terminal domains are similar to the structures of the two-domain chondroitin lyase AC and bacterial hyaluronidases. Although the middle domain shows a very low level of sequence identity with the catalytic domains of chondroitinase AC and hyaluronidase, the residues implicated in catalysis of the latter enzymes are present in chondroitinase ABC I. The substrate-binding site in chondroitinase ABC I is in a wide-open cleft, consistent with the endolytic action pattern of this enzyme. The tryptophan residues crucial for substrate binding in chondroitinase AC and hyaluronidases are lacking in chondroitinase ABC I. The structure of chondroitinase ABC I provides a framework for probing specific functions of active-site residues for understanding the remarkably broad specificity of this enzyme and perhaps engineering a desired specificity. The electron density map showed clearly that the deposited DNA sequence for residues 495-530 of chondroitin ABC lyase I, the segment containing two putative active-site residues, contains a frame-shift error resulting in an incorrectly translated amino acid sequence.

  19. Approximate Bayesian Computation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation: DREAM(ABC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh, Mojtaba; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2014-08-01

    The quest for a more powerful method for model evaluation has inspired Vrugt and Sadegh (2013) to introduce "likelihood-free" inference as vehicle for diagnostic model evaluation. This class of methods is also referred to as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and relaxes the need for a residual-based likelihood function in favor of one or multiple different summary statistics that exhibit superior diagnostic power. Here we propose several methodological improvements over commonly used ABC sampling methods to permit inference of complex system models. Our methodology entitled DREAM(ABC) uses the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis algorithm as its main building block and takes advantage of a continuous fitness function to efficiently explore the behavioral model space. Three case studies demonstrate that DREAM(ABC) is at least an order of magnitude more efficient than commonly used ABC sampling methods for more complex models. DREAM(ABC) is also more amenable to distributed, multi-processor, implementation, a prerequisite to diagnostic inference of CPU-intensive system models.

  20. Calculating the tumor volume of acoustic neuromas: comparison of ABC/2 formula with planimetry method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Lin; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    The ABC/2 equation is commonly applied to measure the volume of intracranial hematoma. However, the precision of ABC/2 equation in estimating the tumor volume of acoustic neuromas is less addressed. The study is to evaluate the accuracy of the ABC/2 formula by comparing with planimetry method for estimating the tumor volumes. Thirty-two patients diagnosed with acoustic neuroma received contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of brain were recruited. The volume was calculated by the ABC/2 equation and planimetry method (defined as exact volume) at the same time. The 32 patients were divided into three groups by tumor volume to avoid volume-dependent overestimation (<3 ml, 3-6 ml and >6 ml). The tumor volume by ABC/2 method was highly correlated to that calculated by planimetry method using linear regression analysis (R2=0.985). Pearson correlation coefficient (r=0.993, p<0.001) demonstrates nearly perfect association between two methods. The ABC/2 formula is an easy method in estimating the tumor volume of acoustic neuromas that is not inferior to planimetry method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptomic insights on the ABC transporter gene family in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Sturm, Armin; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-09

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance. llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis. From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information. The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.

  2. Purification and characterization of chondroitinase ABC from Acinetobacter sp. C26.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Jingliang; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Yanhui; Shen, Zhaopeng; Guan, Huashi; Jiang, Xiaolu

    2017-02-01

    An extracellular chondroitinase ABC (ChSase ABC, EC 4.2.2.4) produced by cultivating Acinetobacter sp. C26, was purified to homogeneity from the supernatant by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Q-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The 76kDa enzyme was purified 48.09-fold to homogeneity with specific activity of 348.64U/mg, Using the chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) as substrate, the maximal reaction rate (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of ChSase ABC were found to be 10.471μmol/min/ml and 0.105mg/ml, respectively. The enzyme showed the highest activity at the optimal conditions of pH 6.0 and 42 ∘C, respectively. This enzyme was stable at pH 5-10, 5-9 and 5-7 at 4°C, 37°C and 42°C, respectively. Investigation about thermal stability of ChSase ABC displayed that it was stable at 37°C. ChSase ABC activity was increased in presence of Na(+), K(+), Mn(2+), 1,10-phenanthrolin and strongly inhibited by Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Al(3+)and SDS. These properties suggested that ChSase ABC from Acinetobacter sp. C26 bring promising prospects in medical and industry applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Downregulation of Critical Oncogenes by the Selective SK2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Hinders Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schrecengost, Randy S.; Keller, Staci N.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Smith, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) drives several hallmark processes of cancer, making the enzymes that synthesize S1P, i.e. sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), important molecular targets for cancer drug development. ABC294640 is a first-in-class SK2 small-molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Given that AR and Myc are two of the most widely implicated oncogenes in prostate cancer (PCa), and that sphingolipids impact signaling by both proteins, the therapeutic potential for using ABC294640 in the treatment of PCa was evaluated. This study demonstrates that ABC294640 abrogates signaling pathways requisite for PCa growth and proliferation. Key findings validate that ABC294640 treatment of early stage and advanced PCa models downregulate Myc and AR expression and activity. This corresponds with significant inhibition of growth, proliferation, and cell cycle progression. Finally, oral administration of ABC294640 was found to dramatically impede xenograft tumor growth. Together, these pre-clinical findings support the hypotheses that SK2 activity is required for PCa function and that ABC294640 represents a new pharmacological agent for treatment of early stage and aggressive PCa. PMID:26271487

  4. Abc Amino Acids: Design, Synthesis, and Properties of New Photoelastic Amino Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Standaert, Robert F; Park, Dr Seung Bum

    2006-01-01

    Photoisomerizable amino acids provide a direct avenue to the experimental manipulation of bioactive polypeptides, potentially allowing real-time, remote control of biological systems and enabling useful applications in nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report a new class of photoisomerizable amino acids intended to cause pronounced expansion and contraction in the polypeptide backbone, i.e., to be photoelastic. These compounds, termed Abc amino acids, employ a photoisomerizable azobiphenyl chromophore to control the relative disposition of aminomethyl and carboxyl substituents. Molecular modeling of nine Abc isomers led to the identification of one with particularly attractive properties, including the ability to induce contractions up to 13A in the backbone upon transa?cis photoisomerization. This isomer, designated mpAbc, has substituents at meta and para positions on the inner (azo-linked) and outer rings, respectively. An efficient synthesis of Fmoc-protected mpAbc was executed in which the biaryl components were formed via Suzuki couplings and the azo linkage was formed via amine/nitroso condensation; protected forms of three other Abc isomers were prepared similarly. A decapeptide incorporating mpAbc was synthesized by conventional solid-phase methods and displayed characteristic azobenzene photochemical behavior with optimal conversion to the cis isomer at 360 nm and a thermal cisa?trans half life of 100 min. at 80 AoC.

  5. Knowing the ABCs: a comparative effectiveness study of two methods of diabetes education.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aanand D; Teal, Cayla R; Rodriguez, Elisa; Haidet, Paul

    2011-12-01

    To test an active-learning, empowerment approach to teaching patients about the "diabetes ABCs" (hemoglobin A(1)C, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol). 84 (97%) diabetic patients who participated in a randomized effectiveness trial of two clinic-based group educational methods and completed a post-intervention assessment. The empowerment arm participated in a group session that incorporated two educational innovations (a conceptual metaphor to foster understanding, and team-based learning methods to foster active learning). The traditional diabetes education arm received a didactic group session focused on self-management and educational materials about the diabetes ABCs. Participants in both arms received individual review of their current ABC values. A questionnaire evaluated knowledge, understanding, and recall of the diabetes ABCs was administered three months after enrollment in the study. At three months, participants in the empowerment group demonstrated greater understanding of the diabetes ABCs (P<0.0001), greater knowledge of their own values (P<0.0001), and greater knowledge of guideline-derived target goals for the ABCs compared with participants in the traditional arm (P<0.0001). An active-learning, empowerment-based approach applied to diabetes education can lead to greater understanding and knowledge retention. An empowerment approach to education can facilitate informed, activated patients and increase performance of self-management behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Deletion of the P5abc Peripheral Element Accelerates Early and Late Folding Steps of the Tetrahymena Group I Ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Russell,R.; Tijerina, P.; Chadee, A.; Bhaskaran, H.

    2007-01-01

    The P5abc peripheral element stabilizes the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme and enhances its catalytic activity. Despite its beneficial effects on the native structure, prior studies have shown that early formation of P5abc structure during folding can slow later folding steps. Here we use a P5abc deletion variant (E{sup {Delta}P5abc}) to systematically probe the role of P5abc throughout tertiary folding. Time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that E{sup {Delta}P5abc} forms its earliest stable tertiary structure on the millisecond time scale, {approx}5-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme, and stable structure spreads throughout E{sup {Delta}P5abc} in seconds. Nevertheless, activity measurements show that the earliest detectable formation of native E{sup {Delta}P5abc} ribozyme is much slower ({approx}0.6 min{sup -1}), in a manner similar to that of the wild type. Also similar, only a small fraction of E{sup {Delta}P5abc} attains the native state on this time scale under standard conditions at 25 {sup o}C, whereas the remainder misfolds; footprinting experiments show that the misfolded conformer shares structural features with the long-lived misfolded conformer of the wild-type ribozyme. Thus, P5abc does not have a large overall effect on the rate-limiting step(s) along this pathway. However, once misfolded, E{sup {Delta}P5abc} refolds to the native state 80-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme and is less accelerated by urea, indicating that P5abc stabilizes the misfolded structure relative to the less-ordered transition state for refolding. Together, the results suggest that, under these conditions, even the earliest tertiary folding intermediates of the wild-type ribozyme represent misfolded species and that P5abc is principally a liability during the tertiary folding process.

  7. Deletion of the P5abc Peripheral Element Accelerates Early and Late Folding Steps of the Tetrahymena Group I Ribozyme†

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Rick; Tijerina, Pilar; Chadee, Amanda B.; Bhaskaran, Hari

    2008-01-01

    The P5abc peripheral element stabilizes the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme and enhances its catalytic activity. Despite its beneficial effects on the native structure, prior studies have shown that early formation of P5abc structure during folding can slow later folding steps. Here we use a P5abc-deletion variant (EΔP5abc) to systematically probe the role of P5abc throughout tertiary folding. Time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting shows that EΔP5abc forms its earliest stable tertiary structure on the millisecond time scale, ∼5-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme, and stable structure spreads throughout EΔP5abc in seconds. Nevertheless, activity measurements show that the earliest detectable formation of native EΔP5abc ribozyme is much slower (∼0.6 min−1), similar to the wild type. Also similar, only a small fraction of EΔP5abc attains the native state on this timescale under standard conditions at 25 °C, whereas the remainder misfolds; footprinting experiments show that the misfolded conformer shares structural features with the long-lived misfolded conformer of the wild-type ribozyme. Thus, P5abc does not have a large overall effect on the rate-limiting step(s) along this pathway. However, once misfolded, EΔP5abc refolds to the native state 80-fold faster than the wild-type ribozyme and is less accelerated by urea, indicating that P5abc stabilizes the misfolded structure relative to the less-ordered transition state for refolding. Together the results suggest that, under these conditions, even the earliest tertiary folding intermediates of the wild-type ribozyme represent misfolded species and that P5abc is principally a liability during the tertiary folding process. PMID:17419589

  8. Phase Diagram of the ABC Model on an Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyer, A.; Carlen, E. A.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Mohanty, P. K.; Mukamel, D.; Speer, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    The three species asymmetric ABC model was initially defined on a ring by Evans, Kafri, Koduvely, and Mukamel, and the weakly asymmetric version was later studied by Clincy, Derrida, and Evans. Here the latter model is studied on a one-dimensional lattice of N sites with closed (zero flux) boundaries. In this geometry the local particle conserving dynamics satisfies detailed balance with respect to a canonical Gibbs measure with long range asymmetric pair interactions. This generalizes results for the ring case, where detailed balance holds, and in fact the steady state measure is known, only for the case of equal densities of the different species: in the latter case the stationary states of the system on a ring and on an interval are the same. We prove that in the limit N→∞ the scaled density profiles are given by (pieces of) the periodic trajectory of a particle moving in a quartic confining potential. We further prove uniqueness of the profiles, i.e., the existence of a single phase, in all regions of the parameter space (of average densities and temperature) except at low temperature with all densities equal; in this case a continuum of phases, differing by translation, coexist. The results for the equal density case apply also to the system on the ring, and there extend results of Clincy et al.

  9. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents. PMID:28000757

  10. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents.

  11. Toward an asymptotic behaviour of the ABC dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouya, Ismaël; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The ABC flow was originally introduced by Arnol'd to investigate Lagrangian chaos. It soon became the prototype example to illustrate magnetic-field amplification via fast dynamo action, i.e. dynamo action exhibiting magnetic-field amplification on a typical timescale independent of the electrical resistivity of the medium. Even though this flow is the most classical example for this important class of dynamos (with application to large-scale astrophysical objects), it was recently pointed out (Bouya Ismaël and Dormy Emmanuel, Phys. Fluids, 25 (2013) 037103) that the fast dynamo nature of this flow was unclear, as the growth rate still depended on the magnetic Reynolds number at the largest values available so far (\\text{Rm} = 25000) . Using state-of-the-art high-performance computing, we present high-resolution simulations (up to 40963) and extend the value of \\text{Rm} up to 5\\cdot105 . Interestingly, even at these huge values, the growth rate of the leading eigenmode still depends on the controlling parameter and an asymptotic regime is not reached yet. We show that the maximum growth rate is a decreasing function of \\text{Rm} for the largest values of \\text{Rm} we could achieve (as anticipated in the above-mentioned paper). Slowly damped oscillations might indicate either a new mode crossing or that the system is approaching the limit of an essential spectrum.

  12. Band structure of ABC-trilayer graphene superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Salah; Chan, K. S.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the effect of one-dimensional periodic potentials on the low energy band structure of ABC trilayer graphene first by assuming that all the three layers have the same potential. Extra Dirac points having the same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point are generated by superlattice potentials with equal well and barrier widths. When the potential height is increased, the numbers of extra Dirac points are increased. The dispersions around the Dirac points are not isotropic. It is noted that the dispersion along the ky direction for kx = 0 oscillates between a non-linear dispersion and a linear dispersion when the potential height is increased. When the well and barrier widths are not identical, the symmetry of the conduction and valence bands is broken. The extra Dirac points are shifted either upward or downward depending on the barrier and well widths from the zero energy, while the position of the central Dirac point oscillates with the superlattice potential height. By considering different potentials for different layers, extra Dirac points are generated not from the original Dirac points but from the valleys formed in the energy spectrum. Two extra Dirac points appear from each pair of touched valleys, so four Dirac points appeared in the spectrum at particular barrier height. By increasing the barrier height of superlattice potential two Dirac points merge into the original Dirac point. This emerging and merging of extra Dirac points is different from the equal potential case.

  13. ABC copolymer silicone surfactant templating for biomimetic silicification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Guo, Caiyun; Yao, Yuan; Che, Shunai

    2012-07-15

    Using the ABC copolymer silicone surfactant polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-graft-(polyethylene oxide (PEO)-block-propylene oxide (PPO)) (PSEP, Scheme 1a) as a template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a silica source, silica particles with various structures and morphologies (i.e., disordered spherical micellar aggregation, two-dimensional p6mm mesostructure, asymmetric multi-layer non-equilibrium vesicles and symmetric monolayer vesicles) were synthesized by changing the synthesis temperature from 30 to 80 °C. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the surfactant by increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the surfactant packing parameter g, which led to the mesophase transformation from micellar to cylinder and later to a lamellar structure. The good compatibility between the PDMS and the TEOS, the different natures of the hydrophobic PDMS and PPO segments, and the hydrolysis and condensation rates of TEOS enabled the variation of silicification structures. This novel silicone surfactant templating route and a new type of materials with highly ordered mesostructures and asymmetric morphologies provide a new insight into the molecular factors governing inorganic-organic mesophase and biosilicification for fabricating functionalized materials.

  14. Study on ADI CD bias correlating ABC function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guogui; Hao, Jingan; Xing, Bin; Jiang, Yuntao; Li, Gaorong; Zhang, Qiang; Yue, Liwan; Zu, Yanlei; Hu, Huayong; Liu, Chang; Shen, Manhua; Zhang, Shijian; He, Weiming; Zhang, Nannan; Lin, Yi-Shih; Wu, Qiang; Shi, Xuelong

    2015-03-01

    As the technology node of semiconductor industry is being driven into more advanced 28 nm and beyond, the critical dimension (CD) error budget at after-development inspection (ADI) stage and its control are more and more important and difficult (1-4). 1 nm or even 0.5 nm CD difference is critical for process control. 0.5~1 nm drift of poly linewidth will result in a detectable off-target drift of device performance. The 0.5~1 nm CD drift of hole or metal linewidth on the backend interconnecting layers can potentially contribute to the bridging of metal patterns to vias, and thereby impact yield. In this paper, we studied one function in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement, i.e. the adjustment of brightness and contrast (ABC). We revealed how the step of addressing focus and even the choice of addressing pattern may bring in a systematic error into the CD measurement. This provides a unique insight in the CD measurement and the measurement consistency of through-pitch (TP) patterns and functional patterns.

  15. Diversity of ABC transporter genes across the plant kingdom and their potential utility in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lane, Thomas S; Rempe, Caroline S; Davitt, Jack; Staton, Margaret E; Peng, Yanhui; Soltis, Douglas Edward; Melkonian, Michael; Deyholos, Michael; Leebens-Mack, James H; Chase, Mark; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis; Graham, Sean W; Yu, Jun; Liu, Tao; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yinlong; Zhu, Ying; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-05-31

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is ubiquitous among extant organisms and prominently represented in plants. ABC transporters act to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are involved in a diverse range of biological processes. Thus, the applicability to biotechnology is vast, including cancer resistance in humans, drug resistance among vertebrates, and herbicide and other xenobiotic resistance in plants. In addition, plants appear to harbor the highest diversity of ABC transporter genes compared with any other group of organisms. This study applied transcriptome analysis to survey the kingdom-wide ABC transporter diversity in plants and suggest biotechnology applications of this diversity. We utilized sequence similarity-based informatics techniques to infer the identity of ABC transporter gene candidates from 1295 phylogenetically-diverse plant transcriptomes. A total of 97,149 putative (approximately 25 % were full-length) ABC transporter gene members were identified; each RNA-Seq library (plant sample) had 88 ± 30 gene members. As expected, simpler organisms, such as algae, had fewer unique members than vascular land plants. Differences were also noted in the richness of certain ABC transporter subfamilies. Land plants had more unique ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter gene members on average (p < 0.005), and green algae, red algae, and bryophytes had significantly more ABCF transporter gene members (p < 0.005). Ferns had significantly fewer ABCA transporter gene members than all other plant groups (p < 0.005). We present a transcriptomic overview of ABC transporter gene members across all major plant groups. An increase in the number of gene family members present in the ABCB, ABCC, and ABCD transporter subfamilies may indicate an expansion of the ABC transporter superfamily among green land plants, which include all crop species. The striking difference between the number of ABCA subfamily transporter

  16. [Partial cross-cultural adaptation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) scale for analysis of patients with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Losapio, Mirella Fiuza; Silva, Lis Gomes; Pondé, Milena Pereira; Novaes, Camila Marinho; Santos, Darci Neves dos; Argollo, Nayara; Oliveira, Ivete Maria Santos; Brasil, Heloisa Helena Alves

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the ABC (Aberrant Behavior Checklist) is to evaluate the treatment response for aberrant behavior in patients with mental retardation. The aim of this study was to describe the partial cross-cultural adaptation of the ABC scale to Brazilian Portuguese. The process included conceptual and item equivalence, two translations (T1, T2) and their back-translations (R1, R2), evaluation of referential and general equivalence, expert evaluations, a pre-test, and elaboration of the final version. Conceptual and item equivalences of the ABC were considered pertinent to Brazilian culture. Semantic equivalence showed good correspondence between R1 items and ABC. Reasonable correspondence was obtained between ABC items and R2. All of the professors understood 94.8% of the items in the scale, while relatives understood 87.9%. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ABC scale thus is available for use, with the appropriate conceptual, item, and semantic equivalence.

  17. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  18. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  19. Antitumor activity of sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitor ABC294640 and sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Beljanski, Vladimir; Lewis, Clayton S

    2011-01-01

    The balance between the pro-apoptotic lipids ceramide and sphingosine and the pro-survival lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is termed the “sphingosine rheostat”. Two isozymes, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), are responsible for phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic sphingosine to form pro-survival S1P. We have previously reported the antitumor properties of an SK2 selective inhibitor, ABC294640, alone or in combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in mouse models of kidney carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here, we evaluated the combined antitumor effects of the aforementioned drug combination in two mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although combining the SK2 inhibitor, ABC294640 and sorafenib in vitro only afforded additive drug-drug effects, their combined antitumor properties in the mouse model bearing HepG2 cells mirrored effects previously observed in animals bearing kidney carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Combining ABC294640 and sorafenib led to a decrease in the levels of phosphorylated ERK in SK-HEP -1 cells, indicating that the antitumor effect of this drug combination is likely mediated through a suppression of the MAPK pathway in hepatocellular models. We also measured levels of S1P in the plasma of mice treated with two different doses of ABC294640 and sorafenib. We found decreases in the levels of S1P in plasma of mice treated daily with 100 mg/kg of ABC294640 for 5 weeks, and this decrease was not affected by coadministration of sorafenib. Taken together, these data support combining ABC294640 and sorafenib in clinical trials in HCC patients. Furthermore, monitoring levels of S1P may provide a pharmacodynamic marker of ABC294640 activity. PMID:21258214

  20. astroABC : An Approximate Bayesian Computation Sequential Monte Carlo sampler for cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, E.; Madigan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Given the complexity of modern cosmological parameter inference where we are faced with non-Gaussian data and noise, correlated systematics and multi-probe correlated datasets,the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) method is a promising alternative to traditional Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches in the case where the Likelihood is intractable or unknown. The ABC method is called ;Likelihood free; as it avoids explicit evaluation of the Likelihood by using a forward model simulation of the data which can include systematics. We introduce astroABC, an open source ABC Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler for parameter estimation. A key challenge in astrophysics is the efficient use of large multi-probe datasets to constrain high dimensional, possibly correlated parameter spaces. With this in mind astroABC allows for massive parallelization using MPI, a framework that handles spawning of processes across multiple nodes. A key new feature of astroABC is the ability to create MPI groups with different communicators, one for the sampler and several others for the forward model simulation, which speeds up sampling time considerably. For smaller jobs the Python multiprocessing option is also available. Other key features of this new sampler include: a Sequential Monte Carlo sampler; a method for iteratively adapting tolerance levels; local covariance estimate using scikit-learn's KDTree; modules for specifying optimal covariance matrix for a component-wise or multivariate normal perturbation kernel and a weighted covariance metric; restart files output frequently so an interrupted sampling run can be resumed at any iteration; output and restart files are backed up at every iteration; user defined distance metric and simulation methods; a module for specifying heterogeneous parameter priors including non-standard prior PDFs; a module for specifying a constant, linear, log or exponential tolerance level; well-documented examples and sample scripts. This code is hosted

  1. A PhoPQ-Regulated ABC Transporter System Exports Tetracycline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Duan, Kangmin

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen whose infections are difficult to treat due to its high intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Here, we show that the disruption of PA4456, encoding the ATP binding component of a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, increased the bacterium's susceptible to tetracycline and other antibiotics or toxic chemicals. Fluorescence spectroscopy and antibiotic accumulation tests showed that the interruption of the ABC transporter caused increased intracellular accumulation of tetracycline, demonstrating a role of the ABC transporter in tetracycline expulsion. Site-directed mutagenesis proved that the conserved residues of E170 in the Walker B motif and H203 in the H-loop, which are important for ATP hydrolysis, were essential for the function of PA4456. Through a genome-wide search, the PhoPQ two-component system was identified as a regulator of the computationally predicted PA4456-4452 operon that encodes the ABC transporter system. A >5-fold increase of the expression of this operon was observed in the phoQ mutant. The results obtained also show that the expression of the phzA1B1C1D1E1 operon and the production of pyocyanin were significantly higher in the ABC transporter mutant, signifying a connection between the ABC transporter and pyocyanin production. These results indicated that the PhoPQ-regulated ABC transporter is associated with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and other adverse compounds in P. aeruginosa, probably by extruding them out of the cell.

  2. Frequent down-regulation of ABC transporter genes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Demidenko, Rita; Razanauskas, Deividas; Daniunaite, Kristina; Lazutka, Juozas Rimantas; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Jarmalaite, Sonata

    2015-10-12

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins responsible for the efflux of a wide variety of substrates, including steroid metabolites, through the cellular membranes. For better characterization of the role of ABC transporters in prostate cancer (PCa) development, the profile of ABC transporter gene expression was analyzed in PCa and noncancerous prostate tissues (NPT). TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) human ABC transporter plates were used for the gene expression profiling in 10 PCa and 6 NPT specimens. ABCB1 transcript level was evaluated in a larger set of PCa cases (N = 78) and NPT (N = 15) by real-time PCR, the same PCa cases were assessed for the gene promoter hypermethylation by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of eight ABC transporter genes (ABCA8, ABCB1, ABCC6, ABCC9, ABCC10, ABCD2, ABCG2, and ABCG4) was significantly down-regulated in PCa as compared to NPT, and only two genes (ABCC4 and ABCG1) were up-regulated. Down-regulation of ABC transporter genes was prevalent in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative cases. A detailed analysis of ABCB1 expression confirmed TLDA results: a reduced level of the transcript was identified in PCa in comparison to NPT (p = 0.048). Moreover, the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative PCa cases showed significantly lower expression of ABCB1 in comparison to NPT (p = 0.003) or the fusion-positive tumors (p = 0.002). Promoter methylation of ABCB1 predominantly occurred in PCa and was rarely detected in NPT (p < 0.001). The study suggests frequent down-regulation of the ABC transporter genes in PCa, especially in the TMPRSS2-ERG-negative tumors.

  3. Band structure of ABC-trilayer graphene superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Salah Chan, K. S.

    2014-11-28

    We investigate the effect of one-dimensional periodic potentials on the low energy band structure of ABC trilayer graphene first by assuming that all the three layers have the same potential. Extra Dirac points having the same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point are generated by superlattice potentials with equal well and barrier widths. When the potential height is increased, the numbers of extra Dirac points are increased. The dispersions around the Dirac points are not isotropic. It is noted that the dispersion along the k{sub y} direction for k{sub x} = 0 oscillates between a non-linear dispersion and a linear dispersion when the potential height is increased. When the well and barrier widths are not identical, the symmetry of the conduction and valence bands is broken. The extra Dirac points are shifted either upward or downward depending on the barrier and well widths from the zero energy, while the position of the central Dirac point oscillates with the superlattice potential height. By considering different potentials for different layers, extra Dirac points are generated not from the original Dirac points but from the valleys formed in the energy spectrum. Two extra Dirac points appear from each pair of touched valleys, so four Dirac points appeared in the spectrum at particular barrier height. By increasing the barrier height of superlattice potential two Dirac points merge into the original Dirac point. This emerging and merging of extra Dirac points is different from the equal potential case.

  4. [Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: activity based costing (ABC analysis)].

    PubMed

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Kastratović, Dragana A; Vučović, Dragan S; Milaković, Branko D; Miličić, Biljana R

    2011-01-01

    Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC) analysis. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment.) of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, "each cost object (service or unit)" of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  5. Cellodextrin and Laminaribiose ABC Transporters in Clostridium thermocellum▿

    PubMed Central

    Nataf, Yakir; Yaron, Sima; Stahl, Frank; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.; Scheper, Thomas-Helmut; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Shoham, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that grows efficiently on cellulosic biomass. This bacterium produces and secretes a highly active multienzyme complex, the cellulosome, that mediates the cell attachment to and hydrolysis of the crystalline cellulosic substrate. C. thermocellum can efficiently utilize only β-1,3 and β-1,4 glucans and prefers long cellodextrins. Since the bacterium can also produce ethanol, it is considered an attractive candidate for a consolidated fermentation process in which cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation occur in a single process. In this study, we have identified and characterized five sugar ABC transporter systems in C. thermocellum. The putative transporters were identified by sequence homology of the putative solute-binding lipoprotein to known sugar-binding proteins. Each of these systems is transcribed from a gene cluster, which includes an extracellular solute-binding protein, one or two integral membrane proteins, and, in most cases, an ATP-binding protein. The genes of the five solute-binding proteins were cloned, fused to His tags, overexpressed, and purified, and their abilities to interact with different sugars was examined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Three of the sugar-binding lipoproteins (CbpB to -D) interacted with different lengths of cellodextrins (G2 to G5), with disassociation constants in the micromolar range. One protein, CbpA, binds only cellotriose (G3), while another protein, Lbp (laminaribiose-binding protein) interacts with laminaribiose. The sugar specificity of the different binding lipoproteins is consistent with the observed substrate preference of C. thermocellum, in which cellodextrins (G3 to G5) are assimilated faster than cellobiose. PMID:18952792

  6. Phenotypic profiling of ABC transporter coding genes in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinyuan; Bradley, Michael D.; Friedman, Jannice; Welch, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    Information about a gene sometimes can be deduced by examining the impact of its mutation on phenotype. However, the genome-scale utility of the method is limited because, for nearly all model organisms, the majority of mutations result in little or no observable phenotypic impact. The cause of this is often attributed to robustness or redundancy within the genome, but that is only one plausible hypothesis. We examined a standard set of phenotypic traits, and applied statistical methods commonly used in the study of natural variants to an engineered mutant strain collection representing disruptions in 180 of the 192 ABC transporters within the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. These strains display continuous variation in their phenotypic distributions, with a small number of “outlier” strains at both phenotypic extremes, and the majority within a confidence interval about the mean that always includes wild type. Correlation analysis reveals substantial pleiotropy, indicating that the traits do not represent independent variables. The traits measured in this study co-cluster with expression profiles, thereby demonstrating that these changes in phenotype correspond to changes at the molecular level, and therefore can be indirectly connected to changes in the genome. However, the continuous distributions, the pleiotropy, and the placement of wild type always within the confidence interval all indicate that this standard set of M. xanthus phenotypic assays is measuring a narrow range of partially overlapping traits that do not directly reflect fitness. This is likely a significant cause of the observed small phenotypic impact from mutation, and is unrelated to robustness and redundancy. PMID:25101061

  7. Tiling patterns from ABC star molecules: 3-colored foams?

    PubMed

    Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Pedersen, Martin C; Hyde, Stephen T

    2014-10-07

    We present coarse-grained simulations of the self-assembly of 3-armed ABC star polyphiles. In systems of star polyphiles with two arms of equal length the simulations corroborate and expand previous findings from related miktoarm star terpolymer systems on the formation of patterns containing columnar domains whose sections are 2D planar tilings. However, the systematic variation of face topologies as the length of the third (unequal) arm is varied differs from earlier findings regarding the compositional dependence. We explore 2D 3-colored foams to establish the optimal patterns based on interfacial energy alone. A generic construction algorithm is described that accounts for all observed 2D tiling patterns and suggests other patterns likely to be found beyond the range of the simulations reported here. Patterns resulting from this algorithm are relaxed using Surface Evolver calculations to form 2D foams with minimal interfacial length as a function of composition. This allows us to estimate the interfacial enthalpic contributions to the free energy of related star molecular assemblies assuming strong segregation. We compare the resulting phase sequence with a number of theoretical results from particle-based simulations and field theory, allowing us to tease out relative enthalpic and entropic contributions as a function of the chain lengths making up the star molecules. Our results indicate that a richer polymorphism is to be expected in systems not dominated by chain entropy. Further, analysis of corresponding planar tiling patterns suggests that related two-periodic columnar structures are unlikely hypothetical phases in 4-arm star polyphile melts in the absence of sufficient arm configurational freedom for minor domains to form lens-shaped di-gons, which require higher molecular weight polymeric arms. Finally, we discuss the possibility of forming a complex tiling pattern that is a quasi-crystalline approximant for 3-arm star polyphiles with unequal arm

  8. Inhibition of ABC Transporters Abolishes Antimony Resistance in Leishmania Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Mookerjee Basu, Jayati; Mookerjee, Ananda; Banerjee, Rajdeep; Saha, Manik; Singh, Subhankar; Naskar, Ksudiram; Tripathy, Gayetri; Sinha, Prabhat K.; Pandey, Krishna; Sundar, Shyam; Bimal, Sanjeev; Das, Pradip K.; Choudhuri, Soumitra K.; Roy, Syamal

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of antimony (Sb) resistance has jeopardized the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in various countries. Previous studies have considered the part played by leishmanial parasites in antimony resistance, but the involvement of host factors in the clinical scenario remained to be investigated. Here we show that unlike infection with Sb-sensitive (Sbs) Leishmania donovani, infection with Sb-resistant (Sbr) L. donovani induces the upregulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) in host cells, resulting in a nonaccumulation of intracellular Sb following treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) favoring parasite replication. The inhibition of MRP1 and P-gp with resistance-modifying agents such as lovastatin allows Sb accumulation and parasite killing within macrophages and offers protection in an animal model in which infection with Sbr L. donovani is otherwise lethal. The occurrence of a similar scenario in clinical cases is supported by the findings that unlike monocytes from SAG-sensitive kala-azar (KA) patients, monocytes from SAG-unresponsive KA patients overexpress P-gp and MRP1 and fail to accumulate Sb following in vitro SAG treatment unless pretreated with inhibitors of ABC transporters. Thus, the expression status of MRP1 and P-gp in blood monocytes may be used as a diagnostic marker for Sb resistance and the treatment strategy can be designed accordingly. Our results also indicate that lovastatin, which can inhibit both P-gp and MRP1, might be beneficial for reverting Sb resistance in leishmaniasis as well as drug resistance in other clinical situations, including cancer. PMID:18056276

  9. ABC efflux transporters in brain vasculature of Alzheimer's subjects.

    PubMed

    Wijesuriya, Hasini C; Bullock, Jocelyn Y; Faull, Richard L M; Hladky, Stephen B; Barrand, Margery A

    2010-10-28

    Multidrug efflux transporters of the ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) family, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug-resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), located on endothelial cells lining brain vasculature play important roles in limiting movement of substances into and enhancing their efflux from the brain. Signals from the surrounding brain normally maintain such barrier function but these may become altered in CNS pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have reported decreases in the glucose transporter, Glut-1, in brain vasculature of AD patients. The present study investigates the status of the multidrug efflux transporters. Sections of frozen brain from hippocampal region obtained from male AD and age-matched non-demented cases were examined for amyloid plaques and Dkk-1 expression and subjected to dual fluorescence immunochemical staining using antibodies against Pgp, BCRP or MRP4 and von Willebrand factor. Protein expression of each transporter was assessed using confocal microscopy, quantifying peak fluorescence values of cross sectional profiles across brain microvessels. Results in brain microvessels revealed expression of Pgp protein to be significantly lower in hippocampal vessels of patients with AD compared to normal individuals whereas that of MRP4 or BCRP protein was not. By contrast, analysis of the sections at protein level via Western blotting or at transcript level by qRT-PCR did not reveal significantly lower expression for either Pgp or BCRP. Such analysis did however reveal higher than normal expression in the AD brains of MRP4, probably due to gliosis, MRP4 being present also in glial cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conformational plasticity of the type I maltose ABC importer.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Simon; Licht, Anke; Wuttge, Steven; Schneider, Erwin; Bordignon, Enrica

    2013-04-02

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters couple the translocation of solutes across membranes to ATP hydrolysis. Crystal structures of the Escherichia coli maltose importer (MalFGK2) in complex with its substrate binding protein (MalE) provided unprecedented insights in the mechanism of substrate translocation, leaving the MalE-transporter interactions still poorly understood. Using pulsed EPR and cross-linking methods we investigated the effects of maltose and MalE on complex formation and correlated motions of the MalK2 nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We found that both substrate-free (open) and liganded (closed) MalE interact with the transporter with similar affinity in all nucleotide states. In the apo-state, binding of open MalE occurs via the N-lobe, leaving the C-lobe disordered, but upon maltose binding, closed MalE associates tighter to the transporter. In both cases the NBDs remain open. In the presence of ATP, the transporter binds both substrate-free and liganded MalE, both inducing the outward-facing conformation trapped in the crystal with open MalE at the periplasmic side and NBDs tightly closed. In contrast to ATP, ADP-Mg(2+) alone is sufficient to induce a semiopen conformation in the NBDs. In this nucleotide-driven state, the transporter binds both open and closed MalE with slightly different periplasmic configurations. We also found that dissociation of MalE is not a required step for substrate translocation since a supercomplex with MalE cross-linked to MalG retains the ability to hydrolyze ATP and to transport maltose. These features of MalE-MalFGK2 interactions highlight the conformational plasticity of the maltose importer, providing insights into the ATPase stimulation by unliganded MalE.

  11. Expression, purification and characterization of GAPDH-ChSase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Chen, Zhenya; Zhou, Zhao; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-12-01

    Chondroitinases (ChSases) are a family of polysaccharide lyases that can depolymerize high molecular weight chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). In this study, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which is stably expressed in different cells like normal cells and cancer cells and the expression is relatively insensitive to experimental conditions, was expressed as a fusion protein with ChSase ABC I. Results showed that the expression level and enzyme activity of GAPDH-ChSase ABC I were about 2.2 and 3.0 times higher than those of ChSase ABC I. By optimization of fermentation conditions, higher productivity of ChSase ABC I was achieved as 880 ± 61 IU/g wet cell weight compared with the reported ones. The optimal temperature and pH of GAPDH-ChSase ABC I were 40 °C and 7.5, respectively. GAPDH-ChSase ABC I had a kcat/Km of 131 ± 4.1 L/μmol s and the catalytic efficiency was decreased as compared to ChSase ABC I. The relative activity of GAPDH-ChSase ABC I remained 89% after being incubated at 30 °C for 180 min and the thermostability of ChSase ABC I was enhanced by GAPDH when it was incubated at 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C.

  12. A Chloroplast ABC1-like Kinase Regulates Vitamin E Metabolism in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Martinis, Jacopo; Glauser, Gaétan; Valimareanu, Sergiu; Kessler, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria and mitochondria, ABC1 (for Activity of bc1 complex)-like kinases regulate ubiquinone synthesis, mutations causing severe respiration defects, including neurological disorders in humans. Little is known about plant ABC1-like kinases; in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), five are predicted in mitochondria but, surprisingly, six are located at lipid droplets in chloroplasts. These are a known site of prenylquinone (including tocopherol [vitamin E], phylloquinone [vitamin K] and plastoquinone) metabolism and contain a large proportion of the tocopherol cyclase (VTE1) required for vitamin E synthesis and recycling. Therefore, ABC1-like kinases may be involved in the regulation of chloroplast prenylquinone metabolism. Using a nontargeted lipidomics approach, we demonstrate that plants lacking the plastoglobule ABC1-like kinase ABC1K3 are defective both for the production of plastochromanol-8 (a plastoquinone-derived lipid antioxidant) and the redox recycling of α-tocopherol, whereas tocopherol production is not affected. All of these pathways require VTE1 activity. However, in the abc1k3 mutant, VTE1 levels are strongly reduced posttranscriptionally. We provide evidence that the ABC1-like kinase ABC1K3 phosphorylates VTE1, possibly stabilizing it at plastoglobules. However, ABC1K3 may also have other targets and be involved in a wider chloroplast regulatory network. PMID:23632854

  13. Genome organisation and expression profiling of ABC protein-encoding genes in Heterobasidion annosum s.l. complex.

    PubMed

    Baral, Bikash; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-03-01

    Members of Heterobasidion annosum species complex are widely regarded as the most destructive fungal pathogens of conifer trees in the boreal and temperate zones of Northern hemisphere. To invade and colonise their host trees, Heterobasidion fungi must overcome components of host chemical defence, including terpenoid oleoresin and phenolic compounds. ABC transporters may play an important role in this process participating in the export of toxic host metabolites and maintaining their intracellular concentration below the critical level. We have identified and phylogenetically classified Heterobasidion genes encoding ABC transporters and closely related ABC proteins. The number of ABC proteins in the Heterobasidion genome is one of the lowest among analysed species of Agaricomycotina. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have analysed transcriptional response of Heterobasidion ABC transporter-encoding genes to monoterpenes as well as their expression profile during growth on pine wood in comparison to the growth on defined media. Several ABC transporters were up-regulated during growth on pine wood. The ABC-transporter encoding gene ABCG1.1 was induced both during growth of H. annosum on pine wood and upon exposure to monoterpenes. Our experimental data demonstrate the differential responses of Heterobasidion ABC genes to growth conditions and chemical stressors. The presented results suggest a potential role of Heterobasidion ABC-G transporters in the resistance to the components of conifer chemical defence.

  14. Functional Expression and Characterization of Plant ABC Transporters in Xenopus laevis Oocytes for Transport Engineering Purposes.

    PubMed

    Xu, D; Veres, D; Belew, Z M; Olsen, C E; Nour-Eldin, H H; Halkier, B A

    2016-01-01

    Transport engineering in bioengineering is aimed at efficient export of the final product to reduce toxicity and feedback inhibition and to increase yield. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with their highly diverse substrate specificity and role in cellular efflux are potentially suitable in transport engineering approaches, although their size and high number of introns make them notoriously difficult to clone. Here, we report a novel in planta "exon engineering" strategy for cloning of full-length coding sequence of ABC transporters followed by methods for biochemical characterization of ABC exporters in Xenopus oocytes. Although the Xenopus oocyte expression system is particularly suitable for expression of membrane proteins and powerful in screening for novel transporter activity, only few examples of successful expression of ABC transporter has been reported. This raises the question whether the oocytes system is suitable to express and characterize ABC transporters. Thus we have selected AtABCG25, previously characterized in insect cells as the exporter of commercially valuable abscisic acid-as case study for optimizing of characterization in Xenopus oocytes. The tools provided will hopefully contribute to more successful transport engineering in synthetic biology. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters: from endogenous substrates to pathology and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Stephan; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Wanders, Ronald JA

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles in higher eukaryotes. They are essential for a number of important metabolic pathways, including fatty acid α- and β-oxidation, and biosynthesis of etherphospholipids and bile acids. However, the peroxisomal membrane forms an impermeable barrier to these metabolites. Therefore, peroxisomes need specific transporter proteins to transfer these metabolites across their membranes. The mammalian peroxisomal membrane harbours three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In recent years, significant progress has been made in unravelling the functions of these ABC transporters. There is ample evidence that they are involved in the transport of very long-chain fatty acids, pristanic acid, di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids and tetracosahexaenoic acid (C24:6ω3). Surprisingly, only one disease is associated with a deficiency of a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein are the cause for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, an inherited metabolic storage disorder. This review describes the current state of knowledge on the mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters with a particular focus on their function in metabolite transport. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21488864

  16. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression, purification and thermostability of MBP-chondroitinase ABC I from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenya; Li, Ye; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitinase ABC I (ChSase ABC I) which can degrade chondroitin sulfate (CS) and other glycosaminoglycan to oligosaccharide or unsaturated disaccharide, was fusionally expressed with maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) (E. coli BL21(DE3)) and purified for the first time in this study. The result showed that the productivity of recombinant MBP-ChSase ABC I was 3180 IU/(L fermentation liquor) with CS A as substrate, and the productivity might be the highest level when compared to the reported ones. The specific activity of recombinant MBP-ChSase ABC I was 76 IU/(mg protein) after purification. The Vmax, Km and kcat were 18.7 ± 0.3 μmol/Ls, 73.1 ± 4.1 μmol/L and 586.7 ± 10.8 s(-1), respectively. Enzyme activity of the purified enzyme remained about 78% after 210 min when the enzyme incubated at 30 °C. This study introduces a rapid method for highly expressing ChSase ABC I, and the method could be adopted in the process of industrial production. Furthermore the investigation of thermostability might lead to an important guide in clinical treatment.

  18. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholesterol fill-in model: mechanism for substrate recognition by ABC proteins.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasuhisa; Kodan, Atsushi; Matsuo, Michinori; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2007-12-01

    Many of the 48 or 49 human ABC proteins are involved in lipid homeostasis and in defence against hydrophobic substances in food and the environment. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, suggesting that they play very important roles in human health; however, the mechanism of how they handle enormous numbers of hydrophobic compounds with various structures and molecular weights, or phospholipids and cholesterol, major components of cellular membranes, is not known. We compared the functions of drug-transporting and lipid-transporting ABC proteins, and found that (1) ABC proteins, either lipid or drug transporters, have a similar substrate binding site which recognizes PL and cholesterol, or drugs and cholesterol; (2) Cholesterol in membranes binds to various ABC proteins together with PL or drugs, and plays an important role in substrate recognition, especially by ABCB1/MDR1, where cholesterol fills the empty space in the substrate binding site when small drugs bind to it. ABC proteins exert very flexible substrate recognition, i.e., one-to-many interaction rather than the conventional rigid one-to-one interaction. We propose calling the mechanism the "cholesterol fill-in model".

  20. Intracerebroventricular administration of chondroitinase ABC reduces acute edema after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Finan, John D; Cho, Frances S; Kernie, Steven G; Morrison, Barclay

    2016-03-12

    Brain edema is a significant challenge facing clinicians managing severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the acute period. If edema reaches a critical point, it leads to runaway intracranial hypertension that, in turn, leads to severe morbidity or death if left untreated. Clinical data on the efficacy of standard interventions is mixed. The goal of this study was to validate a novel therapeutic strategy for reducing post-traumatic brain edema in a mouse model. Prior in vitro work reported that the brain swells due to coupled electrostatic and osmotic forces generated by large, negatively charged, immobile molecules in the matrix that comprises brain tissue. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) digests chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a molecule that contributes to this negative charge. Therefore, we administered ChABC by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection after controlled cortical impact TBI in the mouse and measured associated changes in edema. Almost half of the edema induced by injury was eliminated by ChABC treatment. ICV administration of ChABC may be a novel and effective method of treating post-traumatic brain edema in the acute period.

  1. ABC inference of multi-population divergence with admixture from unphased population genomic data.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John D; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Hearn, Jack; Stone, Graham N; Hickerson, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Rapidly developing sequencing technologies and declining costs have made it possible to collect genome-scale data from population-level samples in nonmodel systems. Inferential tools for historical demography given these data sets are, at present, underdeveloped. In particular, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has yet to be widely embraced by researchers generating these data. Here, we demonstrate the promise of ABC for analysis of the large data sets that are now attainable from nonmodel taxa through current genomic sequencing technologies. We develop and test an ABC framework for model selection and parameter estimation, given histories of three-population divergence with admixture. We then explore different sampling regimes to illustrate how sampling more loci, longer loci or more individuals affects the quality of model selection and parameter estimation in this ABC framework. Our results show that inferences improved substantially with increases in the number and/or length of sequenced loci, while less benefit was gained by sampling large numbers of individuals. Optimal sampling strategies given our inferential models included at least 2000 loci, each approximately 2 kb in length, sampled from five diploid individuals per population, although specific strategies are model and question dependent. We tested our ABC approach through simulation-based cross-validations and illustrate its application using previously analysed data from the oak gall wasp, Biorhiza pallida. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Glycolysis Inhibition Inactivates ABC Transporters to Restore Drug Sensitivity in Malignant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ayako; Tsuji, Daisuke; Miki, Hirokazu; Cui, Qu; Sayed, Salah Mohamed El; Ikegame, Akishige; Oda, Asuka; Amou, Hiroe; Nakamura, Shingen; Harada, Takeshi; Fujii, Shiro; Kagawa, Kumiko; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Sakai, Akira; Ozaki, Shuji; Okano, Kazuma; Nakamura, Takahiro; Itoh, Kohji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cells eventually acquire drug resistance largely via the aberrant expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ATP-dependent efflux pumps. Because cancer cells produce ATP mostly through glycolysis, in the present study we explored the effects of inhibiting glycolysis on the ABC transporter function and drug sensitivity of malignant cells. Inhibition of glycolysis by 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPA) suppressed ATP production in malignant cells, and restored the retention of daunorubicin or mitoxantrone in ABC transporter-expressing, RPMI8226 (ABCG2), KG-1 (ABCB1) and HepG2 cells (ABCB1 and ABCG2). Interestingly, although side population (SP) cells isolated from RPMI8226 cells exhibited higher levels of glycolysis with an increased expression of genes involved in the glycolytic pathway, 3BrPA abolished Hoechst 33342 exclusion in SP cells. 3BrPA also disrupted clonogenic capacity in malignant cell lines including RPMI8226, KG-1, and HepG2. Furthermore, 3BrPA restored cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin and doxorubicin on KG-1 and RPMI8226 cells, and markedly suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth in combination with doxorubicin in RPMI8226-implanted mice. These results collectively suggest that the inhibition of glycolysis is able to overcome drug resistance in ABC transporter-expressing malignant cells through the inactivation of ABC transporters and impairment of SP cells with enhanced glycolysis as well as clonogenic cells. PMID:22073292

  3. Mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters: from endogenous substrates to pathology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Stephan; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2011-12-01

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles in higher eukaryotes. They are essential for a number of important metabolic pathways, including fatty acid α- and β-oxidation, and biosynthesis of etherphospholipids and bile acids. However, the peroxisomal membrane forms an impermeable barrier to these metabolites. Therefore, peroxisomes need specific transporter proteins to transfer these metabolites across their membranes. The mammalian peroxisomal membrane harbours three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In recent years, significant progress has been made in unravelling the functions of these ABC transporters. There is ample evidence that they are involved in the transport of very long-chain fatty acids, pristanic acid, di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids and tetracosahexaenoic acid (C24:6ω3). Surprisingly, only one disease is associated with a deficiency of a peroxisomal ABC transporter. Mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein are the cause for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, an inherited metabolic storage disorder. This review describes the current state of knowledge on the mammalian peroxisomal ABC transporters with a particular focus on their function in metabolite transport. © 2011 Academic Medical Center & Rothamsted Research Ltd. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Improving the Stability of Chondroitinase ABC I via Interaction with Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mina Sadat; Moghadam, Tahereh Tohidi; Khajeh, Khosro; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2017-08-31

    Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) cleaves glycosaminoglycan chains which are responsible for most of the inhibition of axon regrowth in spinal cord injury. The application of chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) in damaged nervous tissue is found to prune glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans and facilitate axon regeneration. However, a limiting factor for such application is the enzyme's instability. In this study, the structure and activity of cABC I have been investigated upon interaction with various concentrations of Gold nanorods. The enzyme preserved its major activity with increase in substrate affinity in the presence of the nanostructures. Analysis of circular dichroism spectropolarimetry data showed that secondary structural content of the enzyme slightly increased. The complex form of the enzyme also showed higher storage stability. Fluorescence studies indicated that enzyme obtained more rigidity in its structure. Taking higher stability of enzyme upon interaction, result of this investigation interaction paves the way for utilizing tiny plasmonic nanostructures for fruitful applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Skin conductance variations compared to ABC scale for pain evaluation in newborns.

    PubMed

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Faraoni, Maddalena; Polica, Elisa; Pagani, Valeria; Vagli, Elena; Boldrini, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    To validate spontaneous skin conductance variations as a specific reliable mean to measure pain in full-term healthy newborns during heel stick, comparing it with the ABC scale. To compare oral sucrose to wrapping effectiveness for non-pharmacological analgesia during the same procedure. All recruited newborns (n = 158) underwent a heel stick for metabolic screening at 48 h of life with non-pharmacological analgesia by oral sucrose (group A) or wrapping (group B) according to randomization. Their pain was estimated by ABC scale score (standard method) and measured by skin conductance variations. A positive correlation was founded between peaks per sec measure and ABC score (rs = 0.303, p < 0.005). ABC score in group A was lower than in group B (p < 0.001). Difference in mean ABC score among newborn subgroups treated by different nurses was not statistically significant for wrapping while it was significant for sucrose (p = 0.001). Skin conductance measurement device is a reliable method to evaluate pain. Novel technological devices may be a useful support to clinical observation in this field. Oral sucrose is more effective than wrapping in reducing pain. Operators should be well periodically re-trained in performing non pharmacological analgesia during minor procedure on newborns.

  6. Inferring population history with DIY ABC: a user-friendly approach to approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Santos, Filipe; Beaumont, Mark A; Robert, Christian P; Marin, Jean-Michel; Balding, David J; Guillemaud, Thomas; Estoup, Arnaud

    2008-12-01

    Genetic data obtained on population samples convey information about their evolutionary history. Inference methods can extract part of this information but they require sophisticated statistical techniques that have been made available to the biologist community (through computer programs) only for simple and standard situations typically involving a small number of samples. We propose here a computer program (DIY ABC) for inference based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), in which scenarios can be customized by the user to fit many complex situations involving any number of populations and samples. Such scenarios involve any combination of population divergences, admixtures and population size changes. DIY ABC can be used to compare competing scenarios, estimate parameters for one or more scenarios and compute bias and precision measures for a given scenario and known values of parameters (the current version applies to unlinked microsatellite data). This article describes key methods used in the program and provides its main features. The analysis of one simulated and one real dataset, both with complex evolutionary scenarios, illustrates the main possibilities of DIY ABC. The software DIY ABC is freely available at http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/diyabc.

  7. Inferring population history with DIY ABC: a user-friendly approach to approximate Bayesian computation

    PubMed Central

    Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Santos, Filipe; Beaumont, Mark A.; Robert, Christian P.; Marin, Jean-Michel; Balding, David J.; Guillemaud, Thomas; Estoup, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Genetic data obtained on population samples convey information about their evolutionary history. Inference methods can extract part of this information but they require sophisticated statistical techniques that have been made available to the biologist community (through computer programs) only for simple and standard situations typically involving a small number of samples. We propose here a computer program (DIY ABC) for inference based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), in which scenarios can be customized by the user to fit many complex situations involving any number of populations and samples. Such scenarios involve any combination of population divergences, admixtures and population size changes. DIY ABC can be used to compare competing scenarios, estimate parameters for one or more scenarios and compute bias and precision measures for a given scenario and known values of parameters (the current version applies to unlinked microsatellite data). This article describes key methods used in the program and provides its main features. The analysis of one simulated and one real dataset, both with complex evolutionary scenarios, illustrates the main possibilities of DIY ABC. Availability: The software DIY ABC is freely available at http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/diyabc. Contact: j.cornuet@imperial.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are also available at http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/diyabc PMID:18842597

  8. Phylodynamic Inference with Kernel ABC and Its Application to HIV Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Art F.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The shapes of phylogenetic trees relating virus populations are determined by the adaptation of viruses within each host, and by the transmission of viruses among hosts. Phylodynamic inference attempts to reverse this flow of information, estimating parameters of these processes from the shape of a virus phylogeny reconstructed from a sample of genetic sequences from the epidemic. A key challenge to phylodynamic inference is quantifying the similarity between two trees in an efficient and comprehensive way. In this study, I demonstrate that a new distance measure, based on a subset tree kernel function from computational linguistics, confers a significant improvement over previous measures of tree shape for classifying trees generated under different epidemiological scenarios. Next, I incorporate this kernel-based distance measure into an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework for phylodynamic inference. ABC bypasses the need for an analytical solution of model likelihood, as it only requires the ability to simulate data from the model. I validate this “kernel-ABC” method for phylodynamic inference by estimating parameters from data simulated under a simple epidemiological model. Results indicate that kernel-ABC attained greater accuracy for parameters associated with virus transmission than leading software on the same data sets. Finally, I apply the kernel-ABC framework to study a recent outbreak of a recombinant HIV subtype in China. Kernel-ABC provides a versatile framework for phylodynamic inference because it can fit a broader range of models than methods that rely on the computation of exact likelihoods. PMID:26006189

  9. Marine medaka ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and new insight into teleost Abch nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Hye-Min; Choi, Ik-Young; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The ABC gene family is recognized as one of the largest gene families in all kingdoms of life. Although many genes involved in the ABC superfamily have been annotated from several fish species, information on large sets of the ABC superfamily and their evolutionary characterization are still unclear. In the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, 50 ABC transporters were identified with bioinformatics-aided in silico analyses, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into the eight subfamilies (A–H) that include all members of all ABC subfamilies. Interestingly, several teleosts’ Abcg members were closely clustered with Abch members in a distinctive clade. The abch gene was also observed in the coelacanth and the spotted gar, suggesting that this gene was retained from a bilaterian ancestor and that a gene loss event recently occurred in the tetrapod lineage. In teleosts, the nomenclature of previously annotated abcg genes should be considered carefully, as they form a distinctive clade with the marine medaka abch subfamily and other teleost abch genes, but not with the members of the Abcg subfamily. PMID:26472499

  10. Implicating ABC Transporters in Insecticide Resistance: Research Strategies and a Decision Framework.

    PubMed

    Gott, Ryan C; Kunkel, Grace R; Zobel, Emily S; Lovett, Brian R; Hawthorne, David J

    2017-02-28

    Pest insects damage crops, transmit diseases, and are household nuisances. Historically, they have been controlled with insecticides, but overuse often leads to resistance to one or more of these chemicals. Insects gain resistance to insecticides through behavioral, metabolic, genetic, and physical mechanisms. One frequently overlooked strategy is through the use of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC transporters, present in all domains of life, perform natural excretory functions, thus the exploitation of these transporters to excrete insecticides and contribute to resistance is highly plausible. Previous work has implicated ABC transporters in some cases of insecticide resistance. Proposed herein is a framework meant as a formal guide for more easily incorporating the analysis of ABC transporters into existing resistance monitoring using suggested simple research methods. This framework functions as a simple decision tree and its utility is demonstrated using case examples. Determining a role for ABC transporters in insecticide resistance would help to shape future resistance management plans and guide the design of new insecticides.

  11. The Role of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic ABC Transporter Family in Failure of Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    El-Awady, Raafat; Saleh, Ekram; Hashim, Amna; Soliman, Nehal; Dallah, Alaa; Elrasheed, Azza; Elakraa, Ghada

    2017-01-01

    Over the years chemotherapy failure has been a vital research topic as researchers have been striving to discover reasons behind it. The extensive studies carried out on chemotherapeutic agents confirm that resistance to chemotherapy is a major reason for treatment failure. “Resistance to chemotherapy,” however, is a comprehensive phrase that refers to a variety of different mechanisms in which ATP-binding cassette (ABC) mediated efflux dominates. The ABC is one of the largest gene superfamily of transporters among both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; it represents a variety of genes that code for proteins, which perform countless functions, including drug efflux – a natural process that protects cells from foreign chemicals. Up to date, chemotherapy failure due to ABC drug efflux is an active research topic that continuously provides further evidence on multiple drug resistance (MDR), aiding scientists in tackling and overcoming this issue. This review focuses on drug resistance by ABC efflux transporters in human, viral, parasitic, fungal and bacterial cells and highlights the importance of the MDR permeability glycoprotein being the mutual ABC transporter among all studied organisms. Current developments and future directions to overcome this problem are also discussed. PMID:28119610

  12. Harnessing Drug Resistance: Using ABC Transporter Proteins To Target Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Heather M.; Kachadourian, Remy; Day, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) class of proteins is one of the most functionally diverse transporter families found in biological systems. Although the abundance of ABC proteins varies between species, they are highly conserved in sequence and often demonstrate similar functions across prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Beginning with a brief summary of the events leading to our present day knowledge of ABC transporters, the purpose of this review is to discuss the potential for utilizing ABC transporters as a means for cellular glutathione (GSH) modulation. GSH is one of the most abundant thiol antioxidants in cells. It is involved in cellular division, protein and DNA synthesis, maintenance of cellular redox status and xenobiotic metabolism. Cellular GSH levels are often altered in many disease states including cancer. Over the past two decades there has been considerable emphasis on methods to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and ionization radiation therapy by GSH depletion. We contend that ABC transporters, particularly multi-drug resistant proteins (MRPs), may be used as therapeutic targets for applications aimed at modulation of GSH levels. This review will emphasize MRP-mediated modulation of intracellular GSH levels as a potential alternative and adjunctive approach for cancer therapy. PMID:17585883

  13. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  14. Marine medaka ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and new insight into teleost Abch nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kang, Hye-Min; Choi, Ik-Young; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-10-16

    The ABC gene family is recognized as one of the largest gene families in all kingdoms of life. Although many genes involved in the ABC superfamily have been annotated from several fish species, information on large sets of the ABC superfamily and their evolutionary characterization are still unclear. In the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma, 50 ABC transporters were identified with bioinformatics-aided in silico analyses, and their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into the eight subfamilies (A-H) that include all members of all ABC subfamilies. Interestingly, several teleosts' Abcg members were closely clustered with Abch members in a distinctive clade. The abch gene was also observed in the coelacanth and the spotted gar, suggesting that this gene was retained from a bilaterian ancestor and that a gene loss event recently occurred in the tetrapod lineage. In teleosts, the nomenclature of previously annotated abcg genes should be considered carefully, as they form a distinctive clade with the marine medaka abch subfamily and other teleost abch genes, but not with the members of the Abcg subfamily.

  15. The role of ABC transporters in ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Ween, M P; Armstrong, M A; Oehler, M K; Ricciardelli, C

    2015-11-01

    Over 80% of ovarian cancer patients develop chemoresistance which results in a lethal course of the disease. A well-established cause of chemoresistance involves the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters, or ABC transporters that transport a wide range of substrates including metabolic products, nutrients, lipids, and drugs across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. Expressions of various ABC transporters, shown to reduce the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapy drugs, are increased following chemotherapy and impact on ovarian cancer survival. Although clinical trials to date using ABC transporter inhibitors have been disappointing, ABC transporter inhibition remains an attractive potential adjuvant to chemotherapy. A greater understanding of their physiological functions and role in ovarian cancer chemoresistance will be important for the development of more effective targeted therapies. This article will review the role of the ABC transporter family in ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance as well as the clinical attempts used to date to reverse chemoresistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The therapeutic potential of targeting ABC transporters to combat multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bugde, Piyush; Biswas, Riya; Merien, Fabrice; Lu, Jun; Liu, Dong-Xu; Chen, Mingwei; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Most disseminated cancers remain fatal despite the availability of a variety of conventional and novel treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and biologically targeted therapy. A major factor responsible for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). The overexpression of various ABC transporters in cancer cells can efficiently remove the anticancer drug from the cell, thus causing the drug to lose its effect. Areas covered: In this review, we summarised the ongoing research related to the mechanism, function, and regulation of ABC transporters. We integrated our current knowledge at different levels from molecular biology to clinical trials. We also discussed potential therapeutic strategies of targeting ABC transporters to reverse MDR in cancer cells. Expert opinion: Involvement of various ABC transporters to cancer MDR lays the foundation for developing tailored therapies that can overcome MDR. An ideal MDR reversal agent should have broad-spectrum ABC-transporter inhibitory activity, be potent, have good pharmacokinetics, have no trans-stimulation effects, and have low or no toxicity. Alternatively, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems containing both the cytotoxic drug and reversing agent may represent a useful approach to reversing MDR with minimal off-target toxicity.

  17. ABC inference of multi-population divergence with admixture from unphased population genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, John D; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Hearn, Jack; Stone, Graham N; Hickerson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly developing sequencing technologies and declining costs have made it possible to collect genome-scale data from population-level samples in nonmodel systems. Inferential tools for historical demography given these data sets are, at present, underdeveloped. In particular, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has yet to be widely embraced by researchers generating these data. Here, we demonstrate the promise of ABC for analysis of the large data sets that are now attainable from nonmodel taxa through current genomic sequencing technologies. We develop and test an ABC framework for model selection and parameter estimation, given histories of three-population divergence with admixture. We then explore different sampling regimes to illustrate how sampling more loci, longer loci or more individuals affects the quality of model selection and parameter estimation in this ABC framework. Our results show that inferences improved substantially with increases in the number and/or length of sequenced loci, while less benefit was gained by sampling large numbers of individuals. Optimal sampling strategies given our inferential models included at least 2000 loci, each approximately 2 kb in length, sampled from five diploid individuals per population, although specific strategies are model and question dependent. We tested our ABC approach through simulation-based cross-validations and illustrate its application using previously analysed data from the oak gall wasp, Biorhiza pallida. PMID:25113024

  18. Non-A, non-B hepatitis unrelated to the hepatitis C virus (non-ABC).

    PubMed

    Alter, H J; Bradley, D W

    1995-02-01

    The history of non-ABC hepatitis is a kaleidoscope of intriguing, but often conflicting and confounding data. Studies of transfusion-associated non-ABC hepatitis are less convincing than they originally seemed. Chimpanzee cross-challenge studies, once the bastion for the theory of multiple NANB hepatitis agents, now have an alternative explanation in the impaired immune response associated with HCV infection and the ability of this agent to reinfect individuals previously assumed to be immune. Nonetheless, there are so many cases of acute and chronic NANB hepatitis that cannot currently be attributed to HCV that it is hard to avoid the implication of at least one, and possibly more, non-ABC hepatitis agents. There are now some transmission studies in small primates to support this contention, though recent chimpanzee transmission studies have been disappointingly negative. As with the hepatitis C virus, the breakthrough in this disease will not come from classic serology or virology, but from molecular biology. Similar molecular approaches to those that elucidated HCV are in progress and are promising in preliminary experiments. It is anticipated that the pace of molecular biology is such that a great deal more will be known about non-ABC in a relatively brief time, and perhaps one or more non-ABC agents will prove to be real and clinically relevant.

  19. Escherichia coli DNA photolyase stimulates uvrABC excision nuclease in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sancar, A; Franklin, K A; Sancar, G B

    1984-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimers are the major photoproducts produced in cellular DNA upon UV irradiation. In Escherichia coli there are dark and photorepair mechanisms that eliminate the dimers from DNA and prevent their lethal and mutagenic effects. To determine whether these repair mechanisms act cooperatively or competitively in repairing DNA, we investigated the effects upon one another of DNA photolyase, which mediates photorepair, and uvrABC excision nuclease, an enzyme complex of the uvrABC gene products, which catalyzes nucleotide excision repair. We found that photolyase stimulates the removal of pyrimidine dimers but not other DNA adducts by uvrABC excision nuclease. The two subunits of uvrABC excision nuclease, the uvrA and uvrB proteins which together bind to the dimer region of DNA, had no effect on the activity of photolyase. T4 endonuclease V, which like photolyase is specific for pyrimidine dimers, was inhibited by photolyase, suggesting that these two proteins recognize the same or similar chemical structures in UV-irradiated DNA that are different from those recognized by uvrABC excision nuclease. Images PMID:6390436

  20. Reversal of antifungal resistance mediated by ABC efflux pumps from Candida albicans functionally expressed in yeast.

    PubMed

    Schuetzer-Muehlbauer, Manuela; Willinger, Birgit; Egner, Ralf; Ecker, Gerhard; Kuchler, Karl

    2003-09-01

    The enhanced efflux of antifungal drugs through ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitutes a major cause of clinical multidrug resistance (MDR). The inhibition of drug efflux pumps by specific compounds is considered to be a feasible strategy to overcome clinical antifungal resistance. Therefore, several blockers of mammalian and yeast ABC drug pumps, including FK506, propafenones, as well as the antifungal drug terbinafine were tested for their capacity to reverse CDR-mediated azole resistance in bakers yeast and in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. We have functionally expressed the C. albicans Cdr1p and Cdr2p transporters in hypersensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae recipient strains lacking several endogenous ABC pumps. Cdr1p and Cdr2p were functional in yeast, as they conferred pronounced drug resistance to known antifungal drugs, including azoles and terbinafine. We employ two functional assays to demonstrate that ABC pump inhibitors reverse CDR-mediated antifungal resistance, thereby restoring drug susceptibility of yeast cells and resistant clinical isolates. Our results suggest that reversal of antifungal resistance can be achieved through ABC pump-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  1. Nitric oxide synthase enzymes in the airways of mice exposed to ovalbumin: NOS2 expression is NOS3 dependent.

    PubMed

    Bratt, Jennifer M; Williams, Keisha; Rabowsky, Michelle F; Last, Michael S; Franzi, Lisa M; Last, Jerold A; Kenyon, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1(-/-), NOS2(-/-), and NOS3(-/-) genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3(-/-) strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1(-/-) animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2(-/-), and NOS3(-/-) allergen-exposed mice. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This "homeostatic" mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia.

  2. Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzymes in the Airways of Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: NOS2 Expression Is NOS3 Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Williams, Keisha; Rabowsky, Michelle F.; Last, Michael S.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Design. The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Materials or Subjects. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1−/−, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Results. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3−/− strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1−/− animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− allergen-exposed mice. Conclusion. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This “homeostatic” mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia. PMID:20953358

  3. Tissue-Specific Transcript Profiling for ABC Transporters in the Sequestering Larvae of the Phytophagous Leaf Beetle Chrysomela populi

    PubMed Central

    Gretscher, René R.; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects evolved ingenious adaptations to use extraordinary food sources. Particularly, the diet of herbivores enriched with noxious plant secondary metabolites requires detoxification mechanisms. Sequestration, which involves the uptake, transfer, and concentration of occasionally modified phytochemicals into specialized tissues or hemolymph, is one of the most successful detoxification strategies found in most insect orders. Due to the ability of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) carriers to transport a wide range of molecules including phytochemicals and xenobiotics, it is highly likely that they play a role in this sequestration process. To shed light on the role of ABC proteins in sequestration, we describe an inventory of putative ABC transporters in various tissues in the sequestering juvenile poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi. Results In the transcriptome of C. populi, we predicted 65 ABC transporters. To link the proteins with a possible function, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses with ABC transporters of other insects and of humans. While tissue-specific profiling of each ABC transporter subfamily suggests that ABCB, C and G influence the plant metabolite absorption in the gut, ABCC with 14 members is the preferred subfamily responsible for the excretion of these metabolites via Malpighian tubules. Moreover, salicin, which is sequestered from poplar plants, is translocated into the defensive glands for further deterrent production. In these glands and among all identified ABC transporters, an exceptionally high transcript level was observed only for Cpabc35 (Cpmrp). RNAi revealed the deficiency of other ABC pumps to compensate the function of CpABC35, demonstrating its key role during sequestration. Conclusion We provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the ABC family in a phytophagous beetle species. RNA-seq data from different larval tissues propose the importance of ABC pumps to achieve a homeostasis of plant

  4. The role of ABC transporters in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox).

    PubMed

    Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2008-05-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters play an important role in cancer drug resistance, protection against xenobiotics, and in general in the passage of drugs through cellular and tissue barriers. This review explores how human ABC transporters modulate the pharmacological effects of various drugs, and how this predictable ADME-TOX modulation can be used during the process of drug discovery and development. We provide a description of the relevant human ABC drug transporters and review the models and assay systems that can be applied for the analysis of their expected drug interactions. The use of the in vitro, in vivo, in silico models, their combination, and the emerging clinical information are evaluated with respect to their potential application in early drug screening.

  5. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in cancer: role of ABC multidrug transporters.

    PubMed

    Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Cserepes, Judit; Elkind, N Barry; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2005-01-01

    Recent antitumor drug research has seen the development of a large variety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with increasing specificity and selectivity. These are highly promising agents for specific inhibition of malignant cell growth and metastasis. However, their therapeutic potential also depends on access to their intracellular targets, which may be significantly affected by certain ABC membrane transporters. It has been recently shown that several human multidrug transporter ABC proteins interact with specific TKIs, and the ABCG2 transporter has an especially high affinity for some of these kinase inhibitors. These results indicate that multidrug resistance protein modulation by TKIs may be an important factor in the treatment of cancer patients; moreover, the extrusion of TKIs by multidrug transporters may result in tumor cell TKI resistance. Interaction with multidrug resistance ABC transporters may also significantly modify the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of TKIs in patients.

  6. Exploiting Synthetic Lethality for the Therapy of ABC Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Emre, N.C. Tolga; Ceribelli, Michele; Zhang, Meili; Wright, George; Xiao, Wenming; Powell, John; Platig, John; Kohlhammer, Holger; Young, Ryan M.; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yandan; Xu, Weihong; Buggy, Joseph J.; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Mathews, Lesley A.; Shinn, Paul; Guha, Rajarshi; Ferrer, Marc; Thomas, Craig; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Knowledge of oncogenic mutations can inspire therapeutic strategies that are synthetically lethal, affecting cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Lenalidomide is an active agent in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but its mechanism of action is unknown. Lenalidomide kills ABC DLBCL cells by augmenting interferon β (IFNβ) production, owing to the oncogenic MYD88 mutations in these lymphomas. In a cereblon-dependent fashion, lenalidomide downregulates IRF4 and SPIB, transcription factors that together prevent IFNβ production by repressing IRF7 and also amplify pro-survival NF-κB signaling by transactivating CARD11. Blockade of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling using the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib also downregulates IRF4 and consequently synergizes with lenalidomide in killing ABC DLBCLs, suggesting attractive therapeutic strategies. PMID:22698399

  7. Reversal of ABC drug transporter-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cells: Evaluation of current strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Calcagno, Anna Maria; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters that actively efflux a variety of amphipathic compounds can cause multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells, which is a major obstacle in the success of cancer chemotherapy. The development of synthetic small molecule compounds or the identification of natural products that block ABC transporter-mediated efflux has been the conventional approach used to combat MDR. The strategy of using chemosensitizers, however, has not been successful in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, alternative approaches to identify or to synthesize compounds that can induce selective toxicity in cancer cells overexpressing one or more ABC transporters have been undertaken. This review summarizes the recent advances in identifying strategies to restore sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in multidrug resistant cancer cells. PMID:19079736

  8. The role of ABC transporters in kin recognition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Lakshmannan, Venkatachalam

    2011-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to the surrounding rhizosphere including communications with neighboring plants and microbes is essential for plant survival. Recently, it has been established that several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana have the ability to recognize rhizospheric neighbors based or their genetic identity. This study investigated the role of ABC transporters in kin recognition in A. thaliana based on previous evidence that root secretions are involved in the kin recognition response and that ABC transporters are responsible for secretion of a number of compounds. Three genes, AtPGP1, AtATH1 and AtATH10, are all implicated to be partially involved in the complex kin recognition response in A. thaliana based on this report. These findings highlight the importance of ABC transporters in understanding root secretions and plant-plant community interactions. PMID:21758011

  9. The role of ABC transporters in kin recognition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Biedrzycki, Meredith L; L, Venkatachalam; Bais, Harsh P

    2011-08-01

    The ability to sense and respond to the surrounding rhizosphere including communications with neighboring plants and microbes is essential for plant survival. Recently, it has been established that several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana have the ability to recognize rhizospheric neighbors based or their genetic identity. This study investigated the role of ABC transporters in kin recognition in A. thaliana based on previous evidence that root secretions are involved in the kin recognition response and that ABC transporters are responsible for secretion of a number of compounds. Three genes, AtPGP1, ATATH1 and ATATH10, are all implicated to be partially involved in the complex kin recognition response in A. thaliana based on this report. These findings highlight the importance of ABC transporters in understanding root secretions and plant-plant community interactions. 

  10. Anger and the ABC model underlying Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Smith, Phillip N

    2004-06-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should display greater trait anger than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this prediction regarding the ABC model. 186 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Second Edition to measure irrational thinking and trait anger, respectively. Students who scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance scored significantly higher on Trait Anger than did those who scored lower on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs which is central to the model.

  11. A test of the ABC model underlying rational emotive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Daniel J; Leslie, Yvonne M

    2003-02-01

    The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should respond to daily stressors or hassles differently than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this aspect of the ABC model. 192 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Hassles Scale to measure irrational thinking and daily hassles, respectively. Students who scored higher on overall irrational thinking reported a significantly higher frequency of hassles than did those who scored lower on overall irrational thinking, while students who scored higher on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance reported a significantly greater intensity of hassles than did those who scored lower on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs central to this model.

  12. Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid. PMID:16391084

  13. Phylodynamic Inference with Kernel ABC and Its Application to HIV Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Poon, Art F Y

    2015-09-01

    The shapes of phylogenetic trees relating virus populations are determined by the adaptation of viruses within each host, and by the transmission of viruses among hosts. Phylodynamic inference attempts to reverse this flow of information, estimating parameters of these processes from the shape of a virus phylogeny reconstructed from a sample of genetic sequences from the epidemic. A key challenge to phylodynamic inference is quantifying the similarity between two trees in an efficient and comprehensive way. In this study, I demonstrate that a new distance measure, based on a subset tree kernel function from computational linguistics, confers a significant improvement over previous measures of tree shape for classifying trees generated under different epidemiological scenarios. Next, I incorporate this kernel-based distance measure into an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework for phylodynamic inference. ABC bypasses the need for an analytical solution of model likelihood, as it only requires the ability to simulate data from the model. I validate this "kernel-ABC" method for phylodynamic inference by estimating parameters from data simulated under a simple epidemiological model. Results indicate that kernel-ABC attained greater accuracy for parameters associated with virus transmission than leading software on the same data sets. Finally, I apply the kernel-ABC framework to study a recent outbreak of a recombinant HIV subtype in China. Kernel-ABC provides a versatile framework for phylodynamic inference because it can fit a broader range of models than methods that rely on the computation of exact likelihoods. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David . E-mail: dsarrut@univ-lyon2.fr; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noel; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sebastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Methods and materials: Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. Results: All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm{sup 3} and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Conclusion: Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.

  15. Nonrigid registration method to assess reproducibility of breath-holding with ABC in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Ayadi, Myriam; Badel, Jean-Noël; Ginestet, Chantal; Clippe, Sébastien; Carrie, Christian

    2005-02-01

    To study the interfraction reproducibility of breath-holding using active breath control (ABC), and to develop computerized tools to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) intrathoracic motion in each patient. Since June 2002, 11 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a Phase II trial have undergone four CT scans: one during free-breathing (reference) and three using ABC. Patients left the room between breath-hold scans. The patient's breath was held at the same predefined phase of the breathing cycle (about 70% of the vital capacity) using the ABC device, then patients received 3D-conformal radiotherapy. Automated computerized tools for breath-hold CT scans were developed to analyze lung and tumor interfraction residual motions with 3D nonrigid registration. All patients but one were safely treated with ABC for 7 weeks. For 6 patients, the lung volume differences were <5%. The mean 3D displacement inside the lungs was between 2.3 mm (SD 1.4) and 4 mm (SD 3.3), and the gross tumor volume residual motion was 0.9 mm (SD 0.4) to 5.9 mm (SD 0.7). The residual motion was slightly greater in the inferior part of the lung than the superior. For 2 patients, we detected volume changes >300 cm(3) and displacements >10 mm, probably owing to atelectasia and emphysema. One patient was excluded, and two others had incomplete data sets. Breath-holding with ABC was effective in 6 patients, and discrepancies were clinically accountable in 2. The proposed 3D nonrigid registration method allows for personalized evaluation of breath-holding reproducibility with ABC. It will be used to adapt the patient-specific internal margins.

  16. Effect of body temperature on chondroitinase ABC's ability to cleave chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Plaas, Anna H; Howland, Dena R

    2007-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC (Ch'ase ABC) is a bacterial lyase that degrades chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This enzyme has received significant attention as a potential therapy for promoting central nervous system and peripheral nervous system repair based on its degradation of CS GAGs. Determination of the stability of Ch'ase ABC activity at temperatures equivalent to normal (37 degrees C) and elevated (39 degrees C) body temperatures is important for optimizing its clinical usage. We report here data obtained from examining enzymatic activity at these temperatures across nine lots of commercially available protease-free Ch'ase ABC. CS GAG degrading activity was assayed by using 1) immunohistochemical detection of unsaturated disaccharide stubs generated by digestion of proteoglycans in tissue sections and 2) fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and quantify unsaturated disaccharide digestion products. Our results indicate that there is a significant effect of lot and time on enzymatic thermostability. Average enzymatic activity is significantly decreased at 1 and 3 days at 39 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, the average activity seen after 1 day was significantly different between the two temperatures. Addition of bovine serum albumin as a stabilizer significantly preserved enzymatic activity at 1 day, but not 3 days, at 39 degrees C. These results show that the CS GAG degrading activity of Ch'ase ABC is significantly decreased with incubation at body temperature over time and that all lots do not show equal thermostability. These findings are important for the design and interpretation of experimental and potential clinical studies involving Ch'ase ABC. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. H-ABC syndrome and DYT4: Variable expressivity or pleiotropy of TUBB4 mutations?

    PubMed

    Erro, Roberto; Hersheson, Joshua; Ganos, Christos; Mencacci, Niccoló E; Stamelou, Maria; Batla, Amit; Thust, Stefanie Catherine; Bras, Jose M; Guerreiro, Rita J; Hardy, John; Quinn, Niall P; Houlden, Henry; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2015-05-01

    Recently, mutations in the TUBB4A gene have been found to underlie hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) syndrome, a rare neurodegenerative disorder of infancy and childhood. TUBB4A mutations also have been described as causative of DYT4 ("hereditary whispering dysphonia"). However, in DYT4, brain imaging has been reported to be normal and, therefore, H-ABC syndrome and DYT4 have been construed to be different disorders, despite some phenotypic overlap. Hence, the question of whether these disorders reflect variable expressivity or pleiotropy of TUBB4A mutations has been raised. We report four unrelated patients with imaging findings either partially or totally consistent with H-ABC syndrome, who were found to have TUBB4A mutations. All four subjects had a relatively homogenous phenotype characterized by severe generalized dystonia with superimposed pyramidal and cerebellar signs, and also bulbar involvement leading to complete aphonia and swallowing difficulties, even though one of the cases had an intermediate phenotype between H-ABC syndrome and DYT4. Genetic analysis of the TUBB4A gene showed one previously described and two novel mutations (c.941C>T; p.Ala314Val and c.900G>T; p.Met300Ile) in the exon 4 of the gene. While expanding the genetic spectrum of H-ABC syndrome, we confirm its radiological heterogeneity and demonstrate that phenotypic overlap with DYT4. Moreover, reappraisal of previously reported cases would also argue against pleiotropy of TUBB4A mutations. We therefore suggest that H-ABC and DYT4 belong to a continuous phenotypic spectrum associated with TUBB4A mutations. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Developing a utility index for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-C) for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Cicely; Breheny, Katie; Lloyd, Andrew; Brazier, John; Bailey, Donald B; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Cohen, Jonathan; Petrillo, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a utility index (the ABC-UI) from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C), for use in quantifying the benefit of emerging treatments for fragile X syndrome (FXS). The ABC-C is a proxy-completed assessment of behaviour and is a widely used measure in FXS. A subset of ABC-C items across seven dimensions was identified to include in health state descriptions. This item reduction process was based on item performance, factor analysis and Rasch analysis performed on an observational study dataset, and consultation with five clinical experts and a methodological expert. Dimensions were combined into health states using an orthogonal design and valued using time trade-off (TTO), with lead-time TTO methods used where TTO indicated a state valued as worse than dead. Preference weights were estimated using mean, individual level, ordinary least squares and random-effects maximum likelihood estimation [RE (MLE)] regression models. A representative sample of the UK general public (n = 349; mean age 35.8 years, 58.2% female) each valued 12 health states. Mean observed values ranged from 0.92 to 0.16 for best to worst health states. The RE (MLE) model performed best based on number of significant coefficients and mean absolute error of 0.018. Mean utilities predicted by the model covered a similar range to that observed. The ABC-UI estimates a wide range of utilities from patient-level FXS ABC-C data, allowing estimation of FXS health-related quality of life impact for economic evaluation from an established FXS clinical trial instrument.

  19. Adaptive Evolution of Thermotoga maritima Reveals Plasticity of the ABC Transporter Network.

    PubMed

    Latif, Haythem; Sahin, Merve; Tarasova, Janna; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Portnoy, Vasiliy A; Nogales, Juan; Zengler, Karsten

    2015-08-15

    Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophilic anaerobe that utilizes a vast network of ABC transporters to efficiently metabolize a variety of carbon sources to produce hydrogen. For unknown reasons, this organism does not metabolize glucose as readily as it does glucose di- and polysaccharides. The leading hypothesis implicates the thermolability of glucose at the physiological temperatures at which T. maritima lives. After a 25-day laboratory evolution, phenotypes were observed with growth rates up to 1.4 times higher than and glucose utilization rates exceeding 50% those of the wild type. Genome resequencing revealed mutations in evolved cultures related to glucose-responsive ABC transporters. The native glucose ABC transporter, GluEFK, has more abundant transcripts either as a result of gene duplication-amplification or through mutations to the operator sequence regulating this operon. Conversely, BglEFGKL, a transporter of beta-glucosides, is substantially downregulated due to a nonsense mutation to the solute binding protein or due to a deletion of the upstream promoter. Analysis of the ABC2 uptake porter families for carbohydrate and peptide transport revealed that the solute binding protein, often among the transcripts detected at the highest levels, is predominantly downregulated in the evolved cultures, while the membrane-spanning domain and nucleotide binding components are less varied. Similar trends were observed in evolved strains grown on glycerol, a substrate that is not dependent on ABC transporters. Therefore, improved growth on glucose is achieved through mutations favoring GluEFK expression over BglEFGKL, and in lieu of carbon catabolite repression, the ABC transporter network is modulated to achieve improved growth fitness. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Age-associated B cells (ABC) inhibit B lymphopoiesis and alter antibody repertoires in old age.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard L; Khomtchouk, Kelly; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2017-04-26

    With old age (∼2y old), mice show substantial differences in B cell composition within the lymphoid tissues. In particular, a novel subset of IgM(+) CD21/35(lo/-) CD23(-) mature B cells, the age-associated B cells or ABC, increases numerically and proportionately. This occurs at the expense of other B cell subsets, including B2 follicular B cells in spleen and recirculating primary B cells in bone marrow. Our studies suggest that ABC have a distinctive antibody repertoire, as evidenced by relatively high reactivity to the self-antigens phosphorylcholine (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). While PC and MDA are found on apoptotic cells and oxidized lipoproteins, antibodies to these antigens are also cross-reactive with epitopes on bacterial species. In old mice, ABC express TNFα and are pro-inflammatory. ABC can inhibit growth and/or survival in pro-B cells as well as common lymphoid progenitors (CLP). In particular, ABC cause apoptosis in pro-B cells with relatively high levels of the surrogate light chain (SLC) and, consequently, promote an "SLC low" pathway of B cell differentiation in old mice. SLC together with μ heavy chain comprises the pre-B cell receptor (preBCR) critical for pre-B cell expansion and selection of the μ heavy chain Vh repertoire. The low level of SLC likely impairs normal preBCR driven proliferation and alters μ heavy chain Vh selection thereby affecting the antibody specificities of new B cells. In this manner, ABC may contribute to both qualitative and quantitative disruptions of normal B lymphopoiesis in old age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Identification of an ATPase, MsmK, which energizes multiple carbohydrate ABC transporters in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Marion, Carolyn; Aten, Andrew E; Woodiga, Shireen A; King, Samantha J

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and results in over 1 million deaths each year worldwide. Asymptomatic colonization of the airway precedes disease, and acquisition of carbohydrates from the host environment is necessary for bacterial survival. We previously demonstrated that S. pneumoniae cleaves sialic acid from human glycoconjugates to be used as a carbohydrate source. The satABC genes are required for growth and import of sialic acid. The satABC genes are predicted to encode components of an ABC transporter but not the ATPases essential to energize transport. As this subunit is essential, an ATPase must be encoded elsewhere in the genome. We identified msmK as a candidate based on similarity to other known carbohydrate ATPases. Recombinant MsmK hydrolyzed ATP, revealing that MsmK is an ATPase. An msmK mutant was reduced in growth on and transport of sialic acid, demonstrating that MsmK is the ATPase energizing the sialic acid transporter. In addition to satABC, S. pneumoniae contains five other loci that are predicted to encode CUT1 family carbohydrate ABC transporter components; each of these lacks a predicted ATPase. Data indicate that msmK is also required for growth on raffinose and maltotetraose, which are the substrates of two other characterized carbohydrate ABC transporters. Furthermore, an msmK mutant was reduced in airway colonization. Together, these data imply that in vivo, MsmK energizes multiple carbohydrate transporters in S. pneumoniae. This is the first demonstration of a shared ATPase in a pathogenic bacterium.

  2. Sialidase, chondroitinase ABC, and combination therapy after spinal cord contusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mountney, Andrea; Zahner, Matthew R; Sturgill, Elizabeth R; Riley, Christopher J; Aston, Jeffrey W; Oudega, Martin; Schramm, Lawrence P; Hurtado, Andres; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2013-02-01

    Axon regeneration in the central nervous system is severely hampered, limiting functional recovery. This is in part because of endogenous axon regeneration inhibitors that accumulate at the injury site. Therapeutic targeting of these inhibitors and their receptors may facilitate axon outgrowth and enhance recovery. A rat model of spinal cord contusion injury was used to test the effects of two bacterial enzyme therapies that target independent axon regeneration inhibitors, sialidase (Vibrio cholerae) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC, Proteus vulgaris). The two enzymes, individually and in combination, were infused for 2 weeks via implanted osmotic pumps to the site of a moderate thoracic spinal cord contusion injury. Sialidase was completely stable, whereas ChABC retained>30% of its activity in vivo over the 2 week infusion period. Immunohistochemistry revealed that infused sialidase acted robustly throughout the spinal cord gray and white matter, whereas ChABC activity was more intense superficially. Sialidase treatment alone resulted in improved behavioral and anatomical outcomes. Rats treated exclusively with sialidase showed significantly increased hindlimb motor function, evidenced by higher Basso Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) and BBB subscores, and fewer stepping errors on a horizontal ladder. Sialidase-treated rats also had increased serotonergic axons caudal to the injury. ChABC treatment, in contrast, did not enhance functional recovery or alter axon numbers after moderate spinal cord contusion injury, and dampened the response of sialidase in the dual enzyme treatment group. We conclude that sialidase infusion enhanced recovery from spinal cord contusion injury, and that combining sialidase with ChABC failed to improve outcomes.

  3. Tricontinuous Cubic Structures in ABC/A/C Copolymer and Homopolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotera, Tomonari

    2002-10-01

    Using the Monte Carlo lattice-simulation technique, we present numerical evidence of the formation of gyroid and nongyroid tricontinuous cubic phases in high polymeric systems of ABC/A/C triblock copolymer and homopolymer blends. By increasing the volume fraction of homopolymer, a remarkable phase sequence G (gyroid) --> D (diamond) --> P (primitive) is observed, which is common to certain surfactant systems. Our results indicate that the ABC triblock copolymer system with blending homopolymers may be a zoo of cubic phases, suitable for comparative studies of these phases.

  4. Second-harmonic generation from atomic-scale ABC-type laminate optical metamaterials (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, Luca; Kieninger, Clemens M.; Frölich, Andreas M.; Lauermann, Matthias; Frenzel, Tobias; Köhnle, Kira; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Koos, Christian; Wegener, Martin

    2015-09-01

    [invited] We introduce ABC laminate metamaterials composed of layers of three different dielectrics. Each layer has zero bulk second-order optical nonlinearity, yet centro-symmetry is broken locally at each inner interface. To achieve appreciable effective bulk metamaterial second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, we densely pack many inner surfaces to a stack of atomically thin layers grown by conformal atomic-layer deposition. For the ABC stack, centro-symmetry is also broken macroscopically. Our experimental results for excitation at around 800 nm wavelength indicate interesting application perspectives for frequency conversion or electro-optic modulation in silicon photonics.

  5. Conformational coupling of the nucleotide-binding and the transmembrane domains in ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Wen, Po-Chao; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2011-08-03

    Basic architecture of ABC transporters includes two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Although the transport process takes place in the TMDs, which provide the substrate translocation pathway across the cell membrane and control its accessibility between the two sides of the membrane, the energy required for the process is provided by conformational changes induced in the NBDs by binding and hydrolysis of ATP. Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the NBDs, therefore, need to be coupled to structural changes in the TMDs. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated the structural elements involved in the conformational coupling between the NBDs and the TMDs in the Escherichia coli maltose transporter, an ABC importer for which an intact structure is available both in inward-facing and outward-facing conformations. The prevailing model of coupling is primarily based on a single structural motif, known as the coupling helices, as the main structural element for the NBD-TMD coupling. Surprisingly, we find that in the absence of the NBDs the coupling helices can be conformationally decoupled from the rest of the TMDs, despite their covalent connection. That is, the structural integrity of the coupling helices and their tight coupling to the core of the TMDs rely on the contacts provided by the NBDs. Based on the conformational and dynamical analysis of the simulation trajectories, we propose that the core coupling elements in the maltose transporter involve contributions from several structural motifs located at the NBD-TMD interface, namely, the EAA loops from the TMDs, and the Q-loop and the ENI motifs from the NBDs. These three structural motifs in small ABC importers show a high degree of correlation in motion and mediate the necessary conformational coupling between the core of TMDs and the helical subdomains of NBDs. A comprehensive analysis of the structurally known ABC transporters shows a high degree

  6. ABC transporter activity linked to radiation resistance and molecular subtype in pediatric medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Wendy J; Crowther, Lisa M; Little, Erica B; Freeman, Ruth; Harliwong, Ivon; Veleva, Desi; Hassall, Timothy E; Remke, Marc; Taylor, Michael D; Hallahan, Andrew R

    2013-10-04

    Resistance to radiation treatment remains a major clinical problem for patients with brain cancer. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, and occurs in the cerebellum. Though radiation treatment has been critical in increasing survival rates in recent decades, the presence of resistant cells in a substantial number of medulloblastoma patients leads to relapse and death. Using the established medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and Daoy, we developed a novel model system to enrich for and study radiation tolerant cells early after radiation exposure. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, dead cells and cells that had initiated apoptosis were removed, allowing surviving cells to be investigated before extensive proliferation took place. Isolated surviving cells were tumorigenic in vivo and displayed elevated levels of ABCG2, an ABC transporter linked to stem cell behavior and drug resistance. Further investigation showed another family member, ABCA1, was also elevated in surviving cells in these lines, as well as in early passage cultures from pediatric medulloblastoma patients. We discovered that the multi-ABC transporter inhibitors verapamil and reserpine sensitized cells from particular patients to radiation, suggesting that ABC transporters have a functional role in cellular radiation protection. Additionally, verapamil had an intrinsic anti-proliferative effect, with transient exposure in vitro slowing subsequent in vivo tumor formation. When expression of key ABC transporter genes was assessed in medulloblastoma tissue from 34 patients, levels were frequently elevated compared with normal cerebellum. Analysis of microarray data from independent cohorts (n = 428 patients) showed expression of a number of ABC transporters to be strongly correlated with certain medulloblastoma subtypes, which in turn are associated with clinical outcome. ABC transporter inhibitors are already being trialed clinically, with the aim of decreasing

  7. ABC transporter activity linked to radiation resistance and molecular subtype in pediatric medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to radiation treatment remains a major clinical problem for patients with brain cancer. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, and occurs in the cerebellum. Though radiation treatment has been critical in increasing survival rates in recent decades, the presence of resistant cells in a substantial number of medulloblastoma patients leads to relapse and death. Methods Using the established medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and Daoy, we developed a novel model system to enrich for and study radiation tolerant cells early after radiation exposure. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, dead cells and cells that had initiated apoptosis were removed, allowing surviving cells to be investigated before extensive proliferation took place. Results Isolated surviving cells were tumorigenic in vivo and displayed elevated levels of ABCG2, an ABC transporter linked to stem cell behavior and drug resistance. Further investigation showed another family member, ABCA1, was also elevated in surviving cells in these lines, as well as in early passage cultures from pediatric medulloblastoma patients. We discovered that the multi-ABC transporter inhibitors verapamil and reserpine sensitized cells from particular patients to radiation, suggesting that ABC transporters have a functional role in cellular radiation protection. Additionally, verapamil had an intrinsic anti-proliferative effect, with transient exposure in vitro slowing subsequent in vivo tumor formation. When expression of key ABC transporter genes was assessed in medulloblastoma tissue from 34 patients, levels were frequently elevated compared with normal cerebellum. Analysis of microarray data from independent cohorts (n = 428 patients) showed expression of a number of ABC transporters to be strongly correlated with certain medulloblastoma subtypes, which in turn are associated with clinical outcome. Conclusions ABC transporter inhibitors are already being

  8. The ABCs of School Choice: The Comprehensive Guide to Every Private School Choice Program in America. 2013 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The ABCs of School Choice" is the most comprehensive guide to every private school choice program in America, showcasing the voucher, tax-credit scholarship, education savings accounts, and individual tax credit/deduction programs currently operating in 21 states and Washington, D.C. "The ABCs of School Choice" provides policymakers, advocates,…

  9. mRMR-ABC: A Hybrid Gene Selection Algorithm for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Alshamlan, Hala; Badr, Ghada; Alohali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bee colony (ABC) is a relatively recent swarm intelligence optimization approach. In this paper, we propose the first attempt at applying ABC algorithm in analyzing a microarray gene expression profile. In addition, we propose an innovative feature selection algorithm, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), and combine it with an ABC algorithm, mRMR-ABC, to select informative genes from microarray profile. The new approach is based on a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to measure the classification accuracy for selected genes. We evaluate the performance of the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm by conducting extensive experiments on six binary and multiclass gene expression microarray datasets. Furthermore, we compare our proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm with previously known techniques. We reimplemented two of these techniques for the sake of a fair comparison using the same parameters. These two techniques are mRMR when combined with a genetic algorithm (mRMR-GA) and mRMR when combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm (mRMR-PSO). The experimental results prove that the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm achieves accurate classification performance using small number of predictive genes when tested using both datasets and compared to previously suggested methods. This shows that mRMR-ABC is a promising approach for solving gene selection and cancer classification problems.

  10. Evaluation of the Construct Validity of the Kamphaus-Reynolds Supplementary Scoring System for the K-ABC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The construct validity of a supplemental scoring system for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) was evaluated with 146 referred school-age children (aged 6 to 12.5 years) and the K-ABC normative sample. Results support the construct validity of only part of the scoring model. (SLD)

  11. The ABCs of School Choice: The Comprehensive Guide to Every Private School Choice Program in America. 2016 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "The ABCs of School Choice" is a comprehensive, data-rich guide to every private school choice program in America. The 2016 edition of "The ABCs of School Choice" is the best yet, not just because of the new look and the fantastic growth in the number of school choice programs, but also because it is now paired with a…

  12. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. Starting with ABC and Finishing with XYZ: What Financial Reporting Model Best Fits a Faculty and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Prudence Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the range of financial reporting models available for use in the Australian higher education sector, the possible application of activity-based costing (ABC) in faculties and the eventual rejection of ABC in favour of a more qualitative model designed specifically for use in one institution, in a particular Faculty. The…

  14. mRMR-ABC: A Hybrid Gene Selection Algorithm for Cancer Classification Using Microarray Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Alshamlan, Hala; Badr, Ghada; Alohali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bee colony (ABC) is a relatively recent swarm intelligence optimization approach. In this paper, we propose the first attempt at applying ABC algorithm in analyzing a microarray gene expression profile. In addition, we propose an innovative feature selection algorithm, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), and combine it with an ABC algorithm, mRMR-ABC, to select informative genes from microarray profile. The new approach is based on a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to measure the classification accuracy for selected genes. We evaluate the performance of the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm by conducting extensive experiments on six binary and multiclass gene expression microarray datasets. Furthermore, we compare our proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm with previously known techniques. We reimplemented two of these techniques for the sake of a fair comparison using the same parameters. These two techniques are mRMR when combined with a genetic algorithm (mRMR-GA) and mRMR when combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm (mRMR-PSO). The experimental results prove that the proposed mRMR-ABC algorithm achieves accurate classification performance using small number of predictive genes when tested using both datasets and compared to previously suggested methods. This shows that mRMR-ABC is a promising approach for solving gene selection and cancer classification problems. PMID:25961028

  15. Starting with ABC and Finishing with XYZ: What Financial Reporting Model Best Fits a Faculty and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Prudence Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the range of financial reporting models available for use in the Australian higher education sector, the possible application of activity-based costing (ABC) in faculties and the eventual rejection of ABC in favour of a more qualitative model designed specifically for use in one institution, in a particular Faculty. The…

  16. The K-ABC: A Construct Validity Study with the WISC-R and Stanford-Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klanderman, John; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Elementary school children (N=41) were administered Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), and Stanford-Binet. Analyses appeared to support the viability of the K-ABC as measure of the properties of mental functioning that are similar to those measured by WISC-R and…

  17. Multifaceted NOS Instruction: Contextualizing Nature of Science with Documentary Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Mark; Binns, Ian C.; Koehler, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on inservice science teachers' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) before and after a two-week intensive summer professional development (PD). The PD combined traditional explicit NOS instruction, numerous interactive interventions that highlighted NOS aspects, along with documentary films that portrayed NOS in context of…

  18. mNos2 Deletion and Human NOS2 Replacement in Alzheimer Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Colton, Carol A.; Wilson, Joan G.; Everhart, Angela; Wilcock, Donna M.; Puoliväli, Jukka; Heikkinen, Taneli; Oksman, Juho; Jääskeläinen, Olli; Lehtimäki, Kimmo; Laitinen, Teemu; Vartiainen, Nina; Vitek, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Alzheimer disease relies on knowledge of disease onset and the sequence of development of brain pathologies. We present a comprehensive analysis of early and progressive changes in a mouse model that demonstrates a full spectrum of characteristic Alzheimer disease–like pathologies. This model demonstrates an altered immune redox state reminiscent of the human disease and capitalizes on data indicating critical differences between human and mouse immune responses, particularly in nitric oxide levels produced by immune activation of the NOS2 gene. Using the APPSwDI+/+/mNos2−/− (CVN-AD) mouse strain, we show a sequence of pathologic events leading to neurodegeneration,which include pathologically hyperphosphorylated tau in the perforant pathway at 6 weeks of age progressing to insoluble tau, early appearance of β-amyloid peptides in perivascular deposits around blood vessels in brain regions known to be vulnerable to Alzheimer disease, and progression to damage and overt loss in select vulnerable neuronal populations in these regions. The role of species differences between hNOS2 and mNos2 was supported by generating mice in which the human NOS2 gene replaced mNos2. When crossed with CVN-AD mice, pathologic characteristics of this new strain (APPSwDI+/−/HuNOS2tg+/+/mNos2−/−) mimicked the pathologic phenotypes found in the CVN-AD strain. PMID:25003233

  19. mNos2 deletion and human NOS2 replacement in Alzheimer disease models.

    PubMed

    Colton, Carol A; Wilson, Joan G; Everhart, Angela; Wilcock, Donna M; Puoliväli, Jukka; Heikkinen, Taneli; Oksman, Juho; Jääskeläinen, Olli; Lehtimäki, Kimmo; Laitinen, Teemu; Vartiainen, Nina; Vitek, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying Alzheimer disease relies on knowledge of disease onset and the sequence of development of brain pathologies. We present a comprehensive analysis of early and progressive changes in a mouse model that demonstrates a full spectrum of characteristic Alzheimer disease-like pathologies. This model demonstrates an altered immune redox state reminiscent of the human disease and capitalizes on data indicating critical differences between human and mouse immune responses, particularly in nitric oxide levels produced by immune activation of the NOS2 gene. Using the APPSwDI(+)/(+)mNos2(-/-) (CVN-AD) mouse strain, we show a sequence of pathologic events leading to neurodegeneration,which include pathologically hyperphosphorylated tau in the perforant pathway at 6 weeks of age progressing to insoluble tau, early appearance of β-amyloid peptides in perivascular deposits around blood vessels in brain regions known to be vulnerable to Alzheimer disease, and progression to damage and overt loss in select vulnerable neuronal populations in these regions. The role of species differences between hNOS2 and mNos2 was supported by generating mice in which the human NOS2 gene replaced mNos2. When crossed with CVN-AD mice, pathologic characteristics of this new strain (APPSwDI(+)/(-)/HuNOS2(tg+)/(+)/mNos2(-/-)) mimicked the pathologic phenotypes found in the CVN-AD strain.

  20. CodABC: a computational framework to coestimate recombination, substitution, and molecular adaptation rates by approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Miguel; Lopes, Joao S; Beaumont, Mark A; Posada, David

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of substitution and recombination rates can provide important insights into the molecular evolution of protein-coding sequences. Here, we present a new computational framework, called "CodABC," to jointly estimate recombination, substitution and synonymous and nonsynonymous rates from coding data. CodABC uses approximate Bayesian computation with and without regression adjustment and implements a variety of codon models, intracodon recombination, and longitudinal sampling. CodABC can provide accurate joint parameter estimates from recombining coding sequences, often outperforming maximum-likelihood methods based on more approximate models. In addition, CodABC allows for the inclusion of several nuisance parameters such as those representing codon frequencies, transition matrices, heterogeneity across sites or invariable sites. CodABC is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/codabc/, includes a GUI, extensive documentation and ready-to-use examples, and can run in parallel on multicore machines.

  1. CodABC: A Computational Framework to Coestimate Recombination, Substitution, and Molecular Adaptation Rates by Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Miguel; Lopes, Joao S.; Beaumont, Mark A.; Posada, David

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of substitution and recombination rates can provide important insights into the molecular evolution of protein-coding sequences. Here, we present a new computational framework, called “CodABC,” to jointly estimate recombination, substitution and synonymous and nonsynonymous rates from coding data. CodABC uses approximate Bayesian computation with and without regression adjustment and implements a variety of codon models, intracodon recombination, and longitudinal sampling. CodABC can provide accurate joint parameter estimates from recombining coding sequences, often outperforming maximum-likelihood methods based on more approximate models. In addition, CodABC allows for the inclusion of several nuisance parameters such as those representing codon frequencies, transition matrices, heterogeneity across sites or invariable sites. CodABC is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/codabc/, includes a GUI, extensive documentation and ready-to-use examples, and can run in parallel on multicore machines. PMID:25577191

  2. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps.

  3. The combined application of human adipose derived stem cells and Chondroitinase ABC in treatment of a spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Sarveazad, Arash; Babahajian, Asrin; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Behnam, Babak; Yari, Abazar; Akbari, Abolfazl; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Janzadeh, Atousa; Amini, Naser; Agah, Shahram; Fallah, Ali; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-02-01

    Although stem cell therapy has become a major focus as a new option for management of spinal cord injury (SCI), its effectiveness should be promoted. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administrating human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in a rat model of spinal cord injury. hADSCs derived from superficial layer of abdominal adipose tissue were used to treat a contusion-induced SCI. Animals were randomly allocated to five equal groups including sham (only laminectomy), SCI (SCI+vehicle injection), hADSCs (1×10⁶ hADSCs/10μl intra-spinal injection), ChABC (10μl of 100U/ml ChABC intra-spinal injection injection), and hADSCs+ChABC. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan tests were used to evaluate locomotor function. 8weeks after treatment, cavity size, myelination, cell differentiation (neuron and astrocyte), and chondroitin sulfate amount were analyzed. hADSC transplanted animals, ChABC injected animals (P<0.001), and hADSC+ChABC treated rats (P<0.001) displayed significant motor improvement compared to SCI group. Combination therapy of hADSCs and ChABC led to greater locomotor recovery compared to using hADSCs (P<0.001) or ChABC (P<0.01) alone. Spinal cords in the combined and single therapy groups had cavities filled with myelinated areas and less chondroitin sulfate content in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). hADSCs expressed GFAP, B III tubulin and Map2. Combination therapy with ChABC and hADSCs exhibits more significant functional recovery than single therapy using either. This result may be applicable in selection of the best therapeutic strategy for SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. My Favorite Assignment: From the ABC 2010 Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2011-01-01

    The seven Favorite Assignments featured in this article were originally presented at the 2010 ABC Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois. The reader can consider a variety of learning objectives from team building to persuasion, application of electronic media to face-to-face communication, and much more. Some Favorite Assignments take a full…

  5. My Favorite Assignment: From the ABC 2010 Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2011-01-01

    The seven Favorite Assignments featured in this article were originally presented at the 2010 ABC Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois. The reader can consider a variety of learning objectives from team building to persuasion, application of electronic media to face-to-face communication, and much more. Some Favorite Assignments take a full…

  6. The ABC's of Financing Church and Synagogue Libraries. Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, Cash Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaford, Claudia

    The ABCs of financing church and synagogue libraries are presented in this guide as Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, and Cash Accounting. Acquiring funds and the basic means needed to start a library are described, including resources such as books, shelves, office supplies, and financial resources; ideas and methods are presented for soliciting both…

  7. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) in the Assessment of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rethazi, Maya; Wilson, Anne Keeton

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) could discriminate between learning disabled and normal preadolescents. Tested 43 learning disabled (LD) students and 20 students without learning disabilities. Results indicated that the Achievement score relative to the Mental Processing Composite score was the only measure to…

  8. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... cholesterol helps remove cholesterol from your blood vessels. Diabetes HealthSense Find tools and programs that can help ...

  9. A wheat ABC transporter contributes to both grain formation and mycotoxin tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi which acts as a disease virulence factor, aiding fungal pathogenesis of cereals spikelets and spread of the economically important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Previously, a fragment of a wheat ABC transporter gene was shown to be...

  10. The ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory in Himalaya for aerosol, ozone and halocarbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Bonasoni, P; Laj, P; Angelini, F; Arduini, J; Bonafè, U; Calzolari, F; Cristofanelli, P; Decesari, S; Facchini, M C; Fuzzi, S; Gobbi, G P; Maione, M; Marinoni, A; Petzold, A; Roccato, F; Roger, J C; Sellegri, K; Sprenger, M; Venzac, H; Verza, G P; Villani, P; Vuillermoz, E

    2008-03-01

    In this work we present the new ABC-Pyramid Atmospheric Research Observatory (Nepal, 27.95 N, 86.82 E) located in the Himalayas, specifically in the Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. This measurement station has been set-up with the aim of investigating natural and human-induced environmental changes at different scales (local, regional and global). After an accurate instrumental set-up at ISAC-CNR in Bologna (Italy) in autumn 2005, the ABC-Pyramid Observatory for aerosol (physical, chemical and optical properties) and trace gas measurements (ozone and climate altering halocarbons) was installed in the high Khumbu valley in February 2006. Since March 2006, continuous measurements of aerosol particles (optical and physical properties), ozone (O3) and meteorological parameters as well as weekly samplings of particulate matter (for chemical analyses) and grab air samples for the determination of 27 halocarbons, have been carried out. These measurements provide data on the typical atmospheric composition of the Himalayan area between India and China and make investigations of the principal differences and similarities between the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons possible. The study is carried out within the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR "SHARE-Asia" (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment in Asia) and UNEP-"ABC" (Atmospheric Brown Clouds) projects. With the name of "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" the station is now part of the Observatory program of the ABC project.

  11. ABC Analysis for Inventory Management: Bridging the Gap between Research and Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravinder, Handanhal; Misra, Ram B.

    2014-01-01

    ABC analysis is a well-established categorization technique based on the Pareto Principle for determining which items should get priority in the management of a company's inventory. In discussing this topic, today's operations management and supply chain textbooks focus on dollar volume as the sole criterion for performing the categorization. The…

  12. ABCs of Being Smart: T Is for Tips for Working with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    As part of her series, "ABCs of Being Smart," Joanne Foster presents time-tested tips for parents of toddlers to teens. Categories include: traits to tap when meeting with teachers to strengthen home and school connections or resolve any issues; strategies for parents to add to their "toolbox"; and tactical measures to consider…

  13. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  14. Learning from each other: ABC transporter regulation by protein phosphorylation in plant and mammalian systems.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Bibek; Laurent, Christophe; Geisler, Markus

    2015-10-01

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter family in higher plants is highly expanded compared with those of mammalians. Moreover, some members of the plant ABC subfamily B (ABCB) display very high substrate specificity compared with their mammalian counterparts that are often associated with multi-drug resistance phenomena. In this review, we highlight prominent functions of plant and mammalian ABC transporters and summarize our knowledge on their post-transcriptional regulation with a focus on protein phosphorylation. A deeper comparison of regulatory events of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and ABCB1 from the model plant Arabidopsis reveals a surprisingly high degree of similarity. Both physically interact with orthologues of the FK506-binding proteins that chaperon both transporters to the plasma membrane in an action that seems to involve heat shock protein (Hsp)90. Further, both transporters are phosphorylated at regulatory domains that connect both nt-binding folds. Taken together, it appears that ABC transporters exhibit an evolutionary conserved but complex regulation by protein phosphorylation, which apparently is, at least in some cases, tightly connected with protein-protein interactions (PPI). © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) gives exact results under the assumption of model error.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Richard David

    2013-05-06

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) or likelihood-free inference algorithms are used to find approximations to posterior distributions without making explicit use of the likelihood function, depending instead on simulation of sample data sets from the model. In this paper we show that under the assumption of the existence of a uniform additive model error term, ABC algorithms give exact results when sufficient summaries are used. This interpretation allows the approximation made in many previous application papers to be understood, and should guide the choice of metric and tolerance in future work. ABC algorithms can be generalized by replacing the 0-1 cut-off with an acceptance probability that varies with the distance of the simulated data from the observed data. The acceptance density gives the distribution of the error term, enabling the uniform error usually used to be replaced by a general distribution. This generalization can also be applied to approximate Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In light of this work, ABC algorithms can be seen as calibration techniques for implicit stochastic models, inferring parameter values in light of the computer model, data, prior beliefs about the parameter values, and any measurement or model errors.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the K-ABC with Gifted Referrals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Leslie C.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Harrison, Patti L.; Taylor, Lynn R.; Hwang, Y. Robin

    1997-01-01

    Four models of intellectual abilities were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and data from 197 children referred for a gifted program who took the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). All four models were a possible fit, but the best understanding came from a model posited on a theory of fluid-crystallized abilities. (SLD)

  17. Energy transduction and alternating access of the mammalian ABC transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Verhalen, Brandy; Dastvan, Reza; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; Peskova, Yelena; Koteiche, Hanane A; Nakamoto, Robert K; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2017-03-30

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters of the exporter class harness the energy of ATP hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to power the energetically uphill efflux of substrates by a dedicated transmembrane domain (TMD). Although numerous investigations have described the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and defined the architecture of ABC exporters, a detailed structural dynamic understanding of the transduction of ATP energy to the work of substrate translocation remains elusive. Here we used double electron-electron resonance and molecular dynamics simulations to describe the ATP- and substrate-coupled conformational cycle of the mouse ABC efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp; also known as ABCB1), which has a central role in the clearance of xenobiotics and in cancer resistance to chemotherapy. Pairs of spin labels were introduced at residues selected to track the putative inward-facing to outward-facing transition. Our findings illuminate how ATP energy is harnessed in the NBDs in a two-stroke cycle and elucidate the consequent conformational motion that reconfigures the TMD, two critical aspects of Pgp transport mechanism. Along with a fully atomistic model of the outward-facing conformation in membranes, the insight into Pgp conformational dynamics harmonizes mechanistic and structural data into a novel perspective on ATP-coupled transport and reveals mechanistic divergence within the efflux class of ABC transporters.

  18. Semi-automatic selection of summary statistics for ABC model choice.

    PubMed

    Prangle, Dennis; Fearnhead, Paul; Cox, Murray P; Biggs, Patrick J; French, Nigel P

    2014-02-01

    A central statistical goal is to choose between alternative explanatory models of data. In many modern applications, such as population genetics, it is not possible to apply standard methods based on evaluating the likelihood functions of the models, as these are numerically intractable. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a commonly used alternative for such situations. ABC simulates data x for many parameter values under each model, which is compared to the observed data x obs. More weight is placed on models under which S(x) is close to S(x obs), where S maps data to a vector of summary statistics. Previous work has shown the choice of S is crucial to the efficiency and accuracy of ABC. This paper provides a method to select good summary statistics for model choice. It uses a preliminary step, simulating many x values from all models and fitting regressions to this with the model as response. The resulting model weight estimators are used as S in an ABC analysis. Theoretical results are given to justify this as approximating low dimensional sufficient statistics. A substantive application is presented: choosing between competing coalescent models of demographic growth for Campylobacter jejuni in New Zealand using multi-locus sequence typing data.

  19. Sustainable urban stormwater management in the tropics: An evaluation of Singapore's ABC Waters Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; Lu, X. X.

    2016-07-01

    The Active Beautiful Clean (ABC) Waters Program was implemented in 2006 as part of Singapore's stormwater management strategy and reflects the country's move towards Water Sensitive Urbanism through the adoption of Low-Impact Development (LID) ideology and practices. It is the first holistic and comprehensive LID program in the tropics and holds promise for extension to other tropical cities. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the goals, LID practices (ABC design features) and design considerations as well as results of several monitored sites, including a constructed wetland, two rain gardens, green roofs and three canal restoration projects. We evaluate the ABC Waters Program based on these initial results and consider the challenges, issues and the research needs for it to meet its hydrological and water quality remediation goals. So far, the ABC design features evaluated perform well in removing particulates. Performance in nutrient removal is poor. With over 60 projects completed within 10 years, post-project monitoring and evaluation is necessary and complements on-going laboratory and modelling research projects conducted by local academic institutions.

  20. The ABC-F protein EttA gates ribosome entry into the translation elongation cycle

    PubMed Central

    Boël, Grégory; Smith, Paul C.; Ning, Wei; Englander, Michael T.; Chen, Bo; Hashem, Yaser; Testa, Anthony J.; Fischer, Jeffrey J.; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Frank, Joachim; Gonzalez, Ruben L.; Hunt, John F.

    2014-01-01

    ABC-F proteins have evaded functional characterization even though they comprise one of the most widely distributed branches of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Herein, we demonstrate that YjjK, the most prevalent eubacterial ABC-F protein, gates ribosome entry into the translation elongation cycle through a nucleotide-dependent interaction sensitive to ATP/ADP ratio. Accordingly, we rename this protein Energy-dependent Translational Throttle A (EttA). We determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli EttA and used it to design mutants for biochemical studies, including enzymological assays of the initial steps of protein synthesis. These studies suggest that EttA may regulate protein synthesis in energy-depleted cells, which have a low ATP/ADP ratio. Consistent with this inference, ΔettA cells exhibit a severe fitness defect in long-term stationary phase. These studies demonstrate that an ABC-F protein regulates protein synthesis via a novel mechanism sensitive to cellular energy status. PMID:24389466

  1. The ABC-F protein EttA gates ribosome entry into the translation elongation cycle.

    PubMed

    Boël, Grégory; Smith, Paul C; Ning, Wei; Englander, Michael T; Chen, Bo; Hashem, Yaser; Testa, Anthony J; Fischer, Jeffrey J; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Frank, Joachim; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Hunt, John F

    2014-02-01

    ABC-F proteins have evaded functional characterization even though they compose one of the most widely distributed branches of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Herein, we demonstrate that YjjK, the most prevalent eubacterial ABC-F protein, gates ribosome entry into the translation elongation cycle through a nucleotide-dependent interaction sensitive to ATP/ADP ratio. Accordingly, we rename this protein energy-dependent translational throttle A (EttA). We determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli EttA and used it to design mutants for biochemical studies including enzymological assays of the initial steps of protein synthesis. These studies suggest that EttA may regulate protein synthesis in energy-depleted cells, which have a low ATP/ADP ratio. Consistently with this inference, EttA-deleted cells exhibit a severe fitness defect in long-term stationary phase. These studies demonstrate that an ABC-F protein regulates protein synthesis via a new mechanism sensitive to cellular energy status.

  2. Advances in the molecular detection of ABC transporters involved in multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Gottesman, Michael M

    2011-04-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters are important mediators of multidrug resistance (MDR) in patients with cancer. Although their role in MDR has been extensively studied in vitro, their value in predicting response to chemotherapy has yet to be fully determined. Establishing a molecular diagnostic assay dedicated to the quantitation of ABC transporter genes is therefore critical to investigate their involvement in clinical MDR. In this article, we provide an overview of the methodologies that have been applied to analyze the mRNA expression levels of ABC transporters, by describing the technology, its pros and cons, and the experimental protocols that have been followed. We also discuss recent studies performed in our laboratory that assess the ability of the currently available high-throughput gene expression profiling platforms to discriminate between highly homologous genes. This work led to the conclusion that high-throughput TaqMan-based qRT-PCR platforms provide standardized clinical assays for the molecular detection of ABC transporters and other families of highly homologous MDR-linked genes encoding, for example, the uptake transporters (solute carriers-SLCs) and the phase I and II metabolism enzymes.

  3. ABCs of Being Smart: T Is for Tips for Working with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    As part of her series, "ABCs of Being Smart," Joanne Foster presents time-tested tips for parents of toddlers to teens. Categories include: traits to tap when meeting with teachers to strengthen home and school connections or resolve any issues; strategies for parents to add to their "toolbox"; and tactical measures to consider…

  4. Transcriptome-based identification of ABC transporters in the western tarnished plant bug lygus hesperus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic cle...

  5. Africa Bibliographic Centre (ABC): An Experiment in African Documentation and Library Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, O. C.

    This description of the Africa Bibliographic Centre (ABC) concept--which is still in a formative stage--provides brief summaries of the 12 components of the system, including an African lending library, bibliographic publishing, a commission on information and bibliographic systems, an African microfiche publications center, African abstracting…

  6. Frictional response of bovine articular cartilage under creep loading following proteoglycan digestion with chondroitinase ABC.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Ines M; Chen, Faye Hui; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2006-02-01

    The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage against glass, under creep loading. The hypothesis is that chondroitinase ABC treatment increases the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage under creep. Articular cartilage samples (n = 12) harvested from two bovine knee joints (1-3 months old) were divided into a control group (intact specimens) and a treated group (chondroitinase ABC digestion), and tested in unconfined compression with simultaneous continuous sliding (+/- 4 mm at 1 mm/s) under a constant applied stress of 0.5 MPa, for 2500 s. The time-dependent response of the friction coefficient was measured. With increasing duration of loading, treated samples exhibited a significantly higher friction coefficient than control samples as assessed by the equilibrium value (treated: micro(eq) = 0.19 +/- 0.02; control: micro(eq) = 0.12 +/- 0.03; p = 0.002), though the coefficient achieved immediately upon loading did not increase significantly (treated: micro(min) = 0.0053 +/- 0.0025; control: micro(min) = 0.037 +/- 0.0013; p = 0.19). Our results demonstrate that removal of the cartilage glycosaminoglycans using chondroitinase ABC significantly increases the overall time-dependent friction coefficient of articular cartilage. These findings strengthen the motivation for developing chondroprotective strategies by increasing cartilage chondroitin sulfate content in osteoarthritic joints.

  7. Preservice Teachers Integrate Understandings of Diversity Into Literacy Instruction: An Adaptation of the ABC's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    2000-01-01

    Investigated preservice teachers' understandings of their own and their students' cultural backgrounds, examining how they integrated those understandings into literacy instruction. The ABC model (autobiographies, biographies of students, cross-cultural analysis, analysis of cultural differences, and classroom practices) helped stimulate students…

  8. Genetic Characterization of Vga ABC Proteins Conferring Reduced Susceptibility to Pleuromutilins in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Daniel R.; McCloskey, Lynn; Gwynn, Michael N.; Rittenhouse, Stephen F.; Scangarella, Nicole; Shawar, Ribhi; Holmes, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Retapamulin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for 6 of 5,676 S. aureus recent clinical isolates evaluated. The ABC proteins VgaAv and VgaA were found to be responsible for the reduced susceptibility to pleuromutilins exhibited by these six isolates. PMID:18838584

  9. The riboswitch regulates a thiamine pyrophosphate ABC transporter of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Shen, Hongwu; Tu, Youbin; Yu, Aiming; Li, Chunhao

    2011-08-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a biologically active form of thiamine (vitamin B₁), is an essential cofactor in all living systems. Microorganisms either synthesize TPP via de novo biosynthesis pathways or uptake exogenous thiamine from the environment via specific transporters. The oral spirochete Treponema denticola is an important pathogen that is associated with human periodontal diseases. It lacks a de novo TPP biosynthesis pathway and needs exogenous TPP for growth, suggesting that it may obtain exogenous TPP via a thiamine transporter. In this study, we identified a gene cluster that encodes a TPP ABC transporter which consists of a TPP-binding protein (TDE0143), a transmembrane permease (TDE0144), and a cytosolic ATPase (TDE0145). Transcriptional and translational analyses showed that the genes encoding these three proteins are cotranscribed and form an operon (tbpABC(Td)) that is initiated by a σ⁷⁰-like promoter. The expression level of this operon is negatively regulated by exogenous TPP and is mediated by a TPP-sensing riboswitch (Td(thi-)(box)). Genetic and biochemical studies revealed that the TDE0143 deletion mutant (T. denticola ΔtbpA) had a decreased ability to transport exogenous TPP, and the mutant failed to grow when exogenous TPP was insufficient. These results taken together indicate that the tbpABC(Td) operon encodes an ABC transporter that is required for the uptake of exogenous TPP and that the expression of this operon is regulated by a TPP-binding riboswitch via a feedback inhibition mechanism.

  10. Nanostructures and phase diagrams of ABC star triblock copolymers in pore geometries.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiben; Qiu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Linxi; Liang, Haojun

    2012-03-28

    The nanostructures and phase diagrams of ABC star triblock copolymers in pore geometries are investigated using the real-space self-consistent field theory in two-dimensional space. Two types of pores with neutral surfaces, namely, pores with small and large diameters, are considered. A rich variety of nanostructures are exhibited by the ABC star triblock copolymers in these two types of pores, which differ from those observed in bulk and in other confinements. These structures include perpendicular undulating lamellae, concentric core-shell cylinders, polygonal tiling with cylindrical arrangements, and other complex structures. Triangular phase diagrams for the ABC star triblock copolymers are constructed. The small pores clearly affect the corner and central space of the phase diagrams by distorting the bulk structures into concentric arrangements. Meanwhile, the large pores induce the transformation of bulk structures into concentric structures in most of the phase space, but slightly affect the structures at the center of the phase diagrams. Furthermore, the order-order and order-disorder phase transitions, as well as the stable and metastable phases, in the triangular phase diagrams are examined by analyzing their free energies. These observations on the ABC star triblock copolymers in the pore geometries provide a deeper insight into the behavior of macromolecules in a confined system.

  11. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  12. Computed ABC Analysis for Rational Selection of Most Informative Variables in Multivariate Data.

    PubMed

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate data sets often differ in several factors or derived statistical parameters, which have to be selected for a valid interpretation. Basing this selection on traditional statistical limits leads occasionally to the perception of losing information from a data set. This paper proposes a novel method for calculating precise limits for the selection of parameter sets. The algorithm is based on an ABC analysis and calculates these limits on the basis of the mathematical properties of the distribution of the analyzed items. The limits implement the aim of any ABC analysis, i.e., comparing the increase in yield to the required additional effort. In particular, the limit for set A, the "important few", is optimized in a way that both, the effort and the yield for the other sets (B and C), are minimized and the additional gain is optimized. As a typical example from biomedical research, the feasibility of the ABC analysis as an objective replacement for classical subjective limits to select highly relevant variance components of pain thresholds is presented. The proposed method improved the biological interpretation of the results and increased the fraction of valid information that was obtained from the experimental data. The method is applicable to many further biomedical problems including the creation of diagnostic complex biomarkers or short screening tests from comprehensive test batteries. Thus, the ABC analysis can be proposed as a mathematically valid replacement for traditional limits to maximize the information obtained from multivariate research data.

  13. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  14. Single liposome analysis of peptide translocation by the ABC transporter TAPL.

    PubMed

    Zollmann, Tina; Moiset, Gemma; Tumulka, Franz; Tampé, Robert; Poolman, Bert; Abele, Rupert

    2015-02-17

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use ATP to drive solute transport across biological membranes. Members of this superfamily have crucial roles in cell physiology, and some of the transporters are linked to severe diseases. However, understanding of the transport mechanism, especially of human ABC exporters, is scarce. We reconstituted the human lysosomal polypeptide ABC transporter TAPL, expressed in Pichia pastoris, into lipid vesicles (liposomes) and performed explicit transport measurements. We analyzed solute transport at the single liposome level by monitoring the coincident fluorescence of solutes and proteoliposomes in the focal volume of a confocal microscope. We determined a turnover number of eight peptides per minute, which is two orders of magnitude higher than previously estimated from macroscopic measurements. Moreover, we show that TAPL translocates peptides against a large concentration gradient. Maximal filling is not limited by an electrochemical gradient but by trans-inhibition. Countertransport and reversibility studies demonstrate that peptide translocation is a strictly unidirectional process. Altogether, these data are included in a refined model of solute transport by ABC exporters.

  15. Quantitative Assessment of the Association between ABC Polymorphisms and Osteosarcoma Response: a Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Jiang, Min; Zhao, Rui-Ke; Gu, Guo-Hao

    2015-01-01

    ABC proteins are one key type of transport superfamilies which undertake majority of drug transport, which affect the osteosarcoma response to chemotherapeutics. Previous studies have suggested the association between ABC polymorphisms and osteosarcoma response. However, the results of previous studies remain controversial. Therefore, we perform a meta-analysis to get a more precise estimation of this association. The association between ABC polymorphisms and osteosarcoma response was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three polymorphisms of ABC including ABCB1 rs1128503, ABCC3 rs4148416 and ABCC2 rs717620 polymorphism were investigated. Overall, significant association was observed between ABCC3 rs4148416 polymorphism and osteosarcoma response under allele contrast (T vs. C: OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.09-2.74, P=0.019), homozygote comparison (TT vs. CC: OR=2.00, 95%CI=1.25-3.23, P=0.004), recessive genetic model (TT vs. OR=1.80, 95%CI=1.14-2.84, P=0.011) and dominant genetic model (TT/TC vs. CC: OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.20-2.42, P=0.003). Moreover, significant association was also observed in Caucasian population rather than Asian population for ABCB1 rs1128503 polymorphism. We conclude that ABCC3 rs4148416 polymorphism was significantly associated with poor osteosarcoma response and ABCB1 rs1128503 polymorphism was significantly associated with good osteosarcoma response in Caucasian population rather than Asian population.

  16. Rigidifying flexible sites: An approach to improve stability of chondroitinase ABC I.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Asma; Khajeh, Khosro; Golestani, Abolfazl

    2017-04-01

    The stability of chondroitin ABC lyase I (cABC I) at physiological temperature is one of the current obstacles to its clinical application. In this study, we used a protein engineering approach; rigidify flexible sites, to improve stability of cABC I. B-factor analysis showed a flexible loop at the N-terminal domain of cABC I which may be involved in its thermal instability and five residues in this region were replaced with proline. Thermal inactivation and thermal denaturation analysis revealed that Glu138Pro mutation increased half-life and Tm of enzyme, respectively. The Km values of mutated enzymes were slightly increased compared to the wild type enzyme. The results of limited proteolysis indicated that Glu138Pro mutant was more resistant against trypsinolysis and this variant was less quenched in both acrylamide and KI quenching experiments. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence intensity of Glu138Pro variant was increased and its ANS fluorescence intensity was decreased, whereas no considerable changes were observed in the far-UV CD spectra. The structural analyses indicated compactness of structure of Glu138Pro enzyme which can be related to moderately enhanced stability of this mutant. This study demonstrated that rigidifying flexible residues can be considered as a possible approach to increase the stability of the protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preservice Teachers Integrate Understandings of Diversity Into Literacy Instruction: An Adaptation of the ABC's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong

    2000-01-01

    Investigated preservice teachers' understandings of their own and their students' cultural backgrounds, examining how they integrated those understandings into literacy instruction. The ABC model (autobiographies, biographies of students, cross-cultural analysis, analysis of cultural differences, and classroom practices) helped stimulate students…

  18. ABC's of Supervision [and] Safe Playgrounds [and] The Nuts and Bolts of Playground Maintenance. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. School of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services.

    Citing evidence that many of the nation's playgrounds are not safe for children, these three videotapes examine three areas of playground safety: supervising children during outdoor play, designing safe playgrounds, and maintaining playground equipment. The 13-minute "ABC's of Supervision" provides supervisors' strategies for preventing…

  19. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  20. Mammalian P4-ATPases and ABC Transporters And Their Role in Phospholipid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Transport of phospholipids across cell membranes plays a key role in a wide variety of biological processes. These include membrane biosynthesis, generation and maintenance of membrane asymmetry, cell and organelle shape determination, phagocytosis, vesicle tranfficking, blood coagulation, lipid homeostasis, regulation of membrane protein function, apoptosis among others. P4-ATPases and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two principal classes of membranes proteins that actively transport phospholipids across cellular membranes. P4-ATPases utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to flip aminophospholipids from the exocytoplasmic (extracellular/lumen) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes generating membrane lipid asymmetry and lipid imbalance which can induce membrane curvature. Many ABC transporters play crucial roles in lipid homeostasis by actively transporting phospholipids from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes or exporting phospholipids to protein acceptors or micelles. Recent studies indicate that some ABC proteins can also transport phospholipids in the opposite direction. The importance of P4-ATPases and ABC transporters is evident from the findings that mutations in many of these transporters are responsible for severe human genetic diseases linked to defective phospholipid transport. PMID:23103747

  1. Using ABC narrative recording to identify the function of problem behavior: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Argumedes, Malena; Roy, Dona; Duquette, Julie R; Watkins, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    Many professionals report using ABC narrative recording to identify the function of problem behavior in children with developmental disabilities, but research has not established whether their analyses yield valid results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the function identified by expert reviewers using ABC narrative recordings would match the one identified by a functional analysis (FA) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale in four children with developmental disabilities. The functions identified by all twelve experts using the ABC narrative recordings matched at least one of the functions identified by the FA for three of four participants. The experts' analyses also agreed with the informant-based assessment at a statistically significant level for two of three participants with a conclusive QABF. Altogether, the results suggest that ABC narrative recording may be useful to generate hypotheses to identify the function of problem behavior, but that more research is needed before recommending its use as a standalone functional behavior assessment.

  2. Advocacy Feature: School Cut Back on Foreign Language Classes--Emphasis Shifts to ABC Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Todd

    2004-01-01

    In a state (North Carolina, 2006) that once pushed foreign language lessons as early as kindergarten, there has been a steady curtailing of instruction in second languages to devote more time and effort to basic reading and math instruction in English, two subjects heavily tested under the state's ABCs and federal No Child Left Behind…

  3. My Favorite Assignment: Selections from the ABC 2008 Annual Convention, Lake Tahoe, Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    At the 2008 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, many attendees stood at the back of a crowded room to hear over a dozen teachers describe "My Favorite Assignment." As is customary in these lively sessions, the chair, Dan Dieterich, orchestrated a fast, efficient presentation pace; each…

  4. Will Welfare Reform Influence Marriage and Fertility? Early Evidence from the ABC Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents evidence that policy changes in Delaware with regard to welfare reform did influence marriage and childbearing outcomes using survey data from the state's A Better Chance (ABC) program (n=1,547). After 18 months, the program had positive effects on marital cohabitation, but only a small impact on actual fertility, although it reduced the…

  5. My Favorite Assignment: Selections from the ABC 2008 Annual Convention, Lake Tahoe, Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    At the 2008 Association for Business Communication (ABC) annual convention in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, many attendees stood at the back of a crowded room to hear over a dozen teachers describe "My Favorite Assignment." As is customary in these lively sessions, the chair, Dan Dieterich, orchestrated a fast, efficient presentation pace; each…

  6. Measurement properties of the Danish version of the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measure.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-04-26

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership aims to study international differences in cancer survival and the possible causes. Participating countries are Australia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the UK and a particular focus area is differences in awareness and beliefs about cancer. In this connection, the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measure has been translated into multiple languages. The aim of this study is to appraise the translation process and measurement properties of the Danish version of the ABC measure. The translation process included forward and backward translations and a pilot-test. Data quality was assessed using survey data from 3000 Danish respondents and content validity indexes were calculated based on judgments from ten academic researchers. Construct validity was determined by a confirmative factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using survey data and a known group comparison analysis including 56 persons. Test-retest reliability was assessed based on responses from 123 person whom completed the interview twice with an interval of 2-3 weeks. The translation process resulted in a Danish ABC measure conceptually equivalent to the English ABC measure. Data quality was acceptable in relation to non-response to individual items which was maximum 0.3%, but the percentage of respondents answering 'don't know' was above 3% for 16 out of 48 items. Content validity indexes showed that items adequately reflected and represented the constructs to be measured (item content validity indexes: 0.9-1.0; construct content validity indexes: 0.8-1.0). The hypothesised factor structure could not be replicated by a CFA, but EFA on each individual subscale showed that six out of seven subscales were unidimensional. The ABC measure discriminated well between non-medical academics and medical academics, but had some difficulties in discriminating between educational groups. Test-retest reliability was moderate to

  7. Targetable activating mutations are very frequent in GCB and ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohers, Elodie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Marchand, Vinciane; Ruminy, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Ménard, Anne-Lise; Etancelin, Pascaline; Bertrand, Philippe; Dubois, Sydney; Alcantara, Marion; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive and heterogeneous malignancy that can be divided in two major subgroups, germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC). Activating mutations of genes involved in the BCR and NF-κB pathways (CD79A, CD79B, MYD88, and CARD11) or in epigenetic regulation (EZH2) have been recently reported, preferentially in one of the two DLBCL subtypes. We analyzed the mutational status of these five recurrently mutated genes in a cohort of 161 untreated de novo DLBCL. Overall, 93 mutations were detected, in 61 (38%) of the patients. The L265P MYD88 mutation was the most frequent MYD88 variant (n = 18), observed exclusively in the ABC subtype. CD79A/CD79B ITAM domains were targeted in ABC DLBCL (12/77; 16%), whereas CARD11 mutations were equally distributed in the two subtypes. The EZH2 Y641 substitution was found almost exclusively in the GCB subgroup (15/62; 24%). Twenty cases (12%) displayed two activating mutations, including the most frequent CD79/MYD88 variants combination (n = 8) which is observed exclusively in the ABC subtype. When considering only ABC DLBCL patients treated by rituximab plus chemotherapy, the presence of an activating NF-κB mutation was associated with an unfavorable outcome (3-years OS 26% for mutated cases versus 67% for the cases without mutations, P = 0.0337). Our study demonstrates that activating and targetable mutations are observed at a very high frequency in DLBCL at the time of diagnosis, indicating that sequencing of a limited number of genes could help tailor an optimal treatment strategy in DLBCL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Inferring epidemiological parameters from phylogenies using regression-ABC: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gascuel, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Inferring epidemiological parameters such as the R0 from time-scaled phylogenies is a timely challenge. Most current approaches rely on likelihood functions, which raise specific issues that range from computing these functions to finding their maxima numerically. Here, we present a new regression-based Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach, which we base on a large variety of summary statistics intended to capture the information contained in the phylogeny and its corresponding lineage-through-time plot. The regression step involves the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, which is a robust machine learning technique. It allows us to readily deal with the large number of summary statistics, while avoiding resorting to Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. To compare our approach to existing ones, we simulated target trees under a variety of epidemiological models and settings, and inferred parameters of interest using the same priors. We found that, for large phylogenies, the accuracy of our regression-ABC is comparable to that of likelihood-based approaches involving birth-death processes implemented in BEAST2. Our approach even outperformed these when inferring the host population size with a Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model. It also clearly outperformed a recent kernel-ABC approach when assuming a Susceptible-Infected epidemiological model with two host types. Lastly, by re-analyzing data from the early stages of the recent Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone, we showed that regression-ABC provides more realistic estimates for the duration parameters (latency and infectiousness) than the likelihood-based method. Overall, ABC based on a large variety of summary statistics and a regression method able to perform variable selection and avoid overfitting is a promising approach to analyze large phylogenies. PMID:28263987

  9. Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonali; Jamshad, Mohammed; Knowles, Timothy J; Morrison, Kerrie A; Downing, Rebecca; Cant, Natasha; Collins, Richard; Koenderink, Jan B; Ford, Robert C; Overduin, Michael; Kerr, Ian D; Dafforn, Timothy R; Rothnie, Alice J

    2014-07-15

    ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters carry out many vital functions and are involved in numerous diseases, but study of the structure and function of these proteins is often hampered by their large size and membrane location. Membrane protein purification usually utilizes detergents to solubilize the protein from the membrane, effectively removing it from its native lipid environment. Subsequently, lipids have to be added back and detergent removed to reconstitute the protein into a lipid bilayer. In the present study, we present the application of a new methodology for the extraction and purification of ABC transporters without the use of detergent, instead, using a copolymer, SMA (polystyrene-co-maleic acid). SMA inserts into a bilayer and assembles into discrete particles, essentially solubilizing the membrane into small discs of bilayer encircled by a polymer, termed SMALPs (SMA lipid particles). We show that this polymer can extract several eukaryotic ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1; ABCC1), MRP4 (ABCC4), ABCG2 and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ABCC7), from a range of different expression systems. The SMALP-encapsulated ABC transporters can be purified by affinity chromatography, and are able to bind ligands comparably with those in native membranes or detergent micelles. A greater degree of purity and enhanced stability is seen compared with detergent solubilization. The present study demonstrates that eukaryotic ABC transporters can be extracted and purified without ever being removed from their lipid bilayer environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for the future study of their structure and function.

  10. Tungstate Uptake by a highly specific ABC transporter in Eubacterium acidaminophilum.

    PubMed

    Makdessi, K; Andreesen, J R; Pich, A

    2001-07-06

    The Gram-positive anaerobe Eubacterium acidaminophilum contains at least two tungsten-dependent enzymes: viologen-dependent formate dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. (185)W-Labeled tungstate was taken up by this organism with a maximum rate of 0.53 pmol min(-)1 mg(-)1 of protein at 36 degrees C. The uptake was not affected by equimolar amounts of molybdate. The genes tupABC coding for an ABC transporter specific for tungstate were cloned in the downstream region of genes encoding a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase. The substrate-binding protein, TupA, of this putative transporter was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its binding properties toward oxyanions were determined by a native polyacrylamide gel retardation assay. Only tungstate induced a shift of TupA mobility, suggesting that only this anion was specifically bound by TupA. If molybdate and sulfate were added in high molar excess (>1000-fold), they were also slightly bound by TupA. The K(d) value for tungstate was determined to be 0.5 microm. The genes encoding the tungstate-specific ABC transporter exhibited highest similarities to putative transporters from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Haloferax volcanii, Vibrio cholerae, and Campylobacter jejuni. These five transporters represent a separate phylogenetic group of oxyanion ABC transporters as evident from analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the binding proteins. Downstream of the tupABC genes, the genes moeA, moeA-1, moaA, and a truncated moaC have been identified by sequence comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences. They should participate in the biosynthesis of the pterin cofactor that is present in molybdenum- and tungsten-containing enzymes except nitrogenase.

  11. Inferring epidemiological parameters from phylogenies using regression-ABC: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Emma; Gascuel, Olivier; Alizon, Samuel

    2017-03-06

    Inferring epidemiological parameters such as the R0 from time-scaled phylogenies is a timely challenge. Most current approaches rely on likelihood functions, which raise specific issues that range from computing these functions to finding their maxima numerically. Here, we present a new regression-based Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach, which we base on a large variety of summary statistics intended to capture the information contained in the phylogeny and its corresponding lineage-through-time plot. The regression step involves the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, which is a robust machine learning technique. It allows us to readily deal with the large number of summary statistics, while avoiding resorting to Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. To compare our approach to existing ones, we simulated target trees under a variety of epidemiological models and settings, and inferred parameters of interest using the same priors. We found that, for large phylogenies, the accuracy of our regression-ABC is comparable to that of likelihood-based approaches involving birth-death processes implemented in BEAST2. Our approach even outperformed these when inferring the host population size with a Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model. It also clearly outperformed a recent kernel-ABC approach when assuming a Susceptible-Infected epidemiological model with two host types. Lastly, by re-analyzing data from the early stages of the recent Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone, we showed that regression-ABC provides more realistic estimates for the duration parameters (latency and infectiousness) than the likelihood-based method. Overall, ABC based on a large variety of summary statistics and a regression method able to perform variable selection and avoid overfitting is a promising approach to analyze large phylogenies.

  12. Analysis of HLA-ABC locus-specific transcription in normal tissues.

    PubMed

    García-Ruano, Ana Belén; Méndez, Rosa; Romero, José María; Cabrera, Teresa; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Garrido, Federico

    2010-12-01

    We developed a novel human leukocyte antigen HLA-ABC locus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the locus-specific gene expression of HLA-ABC in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs, n = 53), colon mucosa (n = 15), and larynx mucosa (n = 15). Laser-assisted tissue microdissection allowed us to study the selected cells without interference from surrounding stroma. We report evidence on the specificity of the technique, describing the HLA-ABC locus-specific gene expression patterns found in the PBLs and two solid tissues studied. PBLs showed a higher gene expression of HLA-B than of HLA-A or HLA-C (p = 4.7 × 10(-10) and p = 1.6 × 10(-6), respectively). In solid tissue, HLA-A and HLA-B gene expressions were similar and HLA-C expression lower. In particular, in larynx mucosa, significant differences were found between HLA-A and HLA-C expressions and between HLA-B and HLA-C expressions (p = 6.5 × 10(-4) and p = 8.1 × 10(-4), respectively). The same differences were observed in colon mucosa, but significance was not reached (p = 0.08 and p = 0.06, respectively). Differences in locus-specific regulation may be related to the control of cytotoxic responses of NK and CD8 positive T cells. Gene expression of HLA-ABC specific locus showed no intra-individual variability, but there was a high inter-individual variability. This may result from differences in the expression of common regulatory factors that control HLA-ABC constitutive expression.

  13. Analysis of ABC (D) stratification for screening patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Satoru; Sohara, Naondo; Onozato, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Shinichi; Inui, Yoshikatsu; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-11-21

    To evaluate the value of ABC (D) stratification [combination of serum pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody] of patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five consecutive patients with gastric cancer were enrolled into the study. The serum pepsinogen I (PG I)/pepsinogen II (PG II) and H. pylori antibody levels were measured. Patients were classified into five groups of ABC (D) stratification according to their serological status. Endoscopic findings of atrophic gastritis and histological differentiation were also analyzed in relation to the ABC (D) stratification. The mean patient age was (67.9 ± 8.9) years. Three patients (3.2%) were classified into group A, 7 patients (7.4%) into group A', 27 patients (28.4%) into group B, 54 patients (56.8%) into group C, and 4 patients (4.2%) into group D, respectively. There were only three cases in group A when the patients taking acid proton pump inhibitors and those who had undergone eradication therapy for H. pylori (group A') were excluded. These three cases had mucosal atrophy in the grey zone according to the diagnostic manual of ABC (D) stratification. Histologically, the mean age of the patients with well differentiated adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that of the patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the pattern of atrophy in the endoscopies between the well differentiated and poorly differentiated groups. ABC (D) stratification is a good method for screening patients with gastric cancers. Endoscopy is needed for grey zone cases to check the extent of mucosal atrophy.

  14. Combine effect of Chondroitinase ABC and low level laser (660nm) on spinal cord injury model in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Janzadeh, Atousa; Sarveazad, Arash; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Dameni, Sima; Samani, Fazel Sahraneshin; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Nasirinezhad, Farinaz

    2017-07-14

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC. Functional recovery, cavity size, myelination, axonal projections around the cavity, fibroblast invasion and expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSk 3β), CSPG and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression were evaluated. In statistical evaluation p<0.05 considered significant. Result showed the combination of LLLT and ChABC have more effect on reduction of cavity size, improvement of myelination and number of axons around the cavity and decreasing the expression of GSK3β, CSPG and AQP4 expression compared to LLLT and ChABC alone. In the laser and laser+enzyme groups AQP4 expression decreased significantly after SCI. Functional recovery, improved in LLLT and ChABC treated animals, but higher recovery belonged to the combination therapy group. The current study showed combination therapy by LLLT and ChABC is more efficient than a single therapy with each of them. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Inventory and general analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Yanjiao; Liu, Menghan; Meng, Zhaodong; Yu, Yanli

    2013-09-10

    The metabolic functions of ATP-binding cassette (or ABC) proteins, one of the largest families of proteins presented in all organisms, have been investigated in many protozoan, animal and plant species. To facilitate more systematic and complicated studies on maize ABC proteins in the future, we present the first complete inventory of these proteins, including 130 open reading frames (ORFs), and provide general descriptions of their classifications, basic structures, typical functions, evolution track analysis and expression profiles. The 130 ORFs were assigned to eight subfamilies based on their structures and homological features. Five of these subfamilies consist of 109 proteins, containing transmembrane domains (TM) performing as transporters. The rest three subfamilies contain 21 soluble proteins involved in various functions other than molecular transport. A comparison of ABC proteins among nine selected species revealed either convergence or divergence in each of the ABC subfamilies. Generally, plant genomes contain far more ABC genes than animal genomes. The expression profiles and evolution track of each maize ABC gene were further investigated, the results of which could provide clues for analyzing their functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments (PCR) were conducted to detect induced expression in select ABC genes under several common stresses. This investigation provides valuable information for future research on stress tolerance in plants and potential strategies for enhancing maize production under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 50 catfish ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Li, Qi; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Although a large set of full-length transcripts was recently assembled in catfish, annotation of large gene families, especially those with duplications, is still a great challenge. Most often, complexities in annotation cause mis-identification and thereby much confusion in the scientific literature. As such, detailed phylogenetic analysis and/or orthology analysis are required for annotation of genes involved in gene families. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene superfamily is a large gene family that encodes membrane proteins that transport a diverse set of substrates across membranes, playing important roles in protecting organisms from diverse environment. In this work, we identified a set of 50 ABC transporters in catfish genome. Phylogenetic analysis allowed their identification and annotation into seven subfamilies, including 9 ABCA genes, 12 ABCB genes, 12 ABCC genes, 5 ABCD genes, 2 ABCE genes, 4 ABCF genes and 6 ABCG genes. Most ABC transporters are conserved among vertebrates, though cases of recent gene duplications and gene losses do exist. Gene duplications in catfish were found for ABCA1, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC5, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF2 and ABCG2. The whole set of catfish ABC transporters provide the essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of ABC drug efflux transporters. The establishment of orthologies should allow functional inferences with the information from model species, though the function of lineage-specific genes can be distinct because of specific living environment with different selection pressure.

  17. Similarities and dissimilarities between the movement ABC-2 and the Zurich neuromotor assessment in children with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Egloff, Kristin; Caflisch, Jon; Chaouch, Aziz; Rousson, Valentin; Largo, Remo H; Jenni, Oskar G

    2014-11-01

    An established tool for the assessment of motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is the Movement-ABC-2 (M-ABC-2). The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) is also widely used for the evaluation of children's motor performance, but has not been compared with the M-ABC-2. Fifty-one children (39 males) between 5 and 7 years of age with suspected DCD were assessed using the M-ABC-2 and the ZNA. Rank correlations between scores of different test components were calculated. The structure of the tests was explored using canonical-correlation analysis. The correlation between total scores of the two motor tests was reasonable (0.66; p<0.001). However, ZNA scores were generally lower than those of M-ABC-2, due to poor performance in the fine motor adaptive component and increased contralateral associated movements (CAM). The canonical-correlation analysis revealed that ZNA measures components like pure motor skills and CAM that are not represented in the M-ABC-2. Furthermore, there was also no equivalent for the aiming and catching items of the M-ABC-2 in ZNA. The two tests measure different motor characteristics in children with suspected DCD and, thus, can be used complementary for the diagnosis of the disorder. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. In Senescence, Age-associated B Cells (ABC) Secrete TNFα and Inhibit Survival of B Cell Precursors1

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Michelle; Alter, Sarah; Frasca, Daniela; Blomberg, Bonnie B.; Riley, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Aged mice exhibit ~ 5-10 fold increases in an ordinarily minor CD21/35− CD23− mature B cell subset termed age-associated B cells (ABC). ABC from old, but not young, mice induce apoptosis in pro-B cells directly through secretion of TNFα. In addition, aged ABC, via TNFα, stimulate bone marrow cells to suppress pro-B cell growth. ABC effects can be prevented by the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Notably, CD21/35+ CD23+ follicular (FO) splenic and FO-like recirculating bone marrow B cells in both young and aged mice contain a subpopulation which produces IL-10. Unlike young adult FO B cells, old FO B cells also produce TNFα; however, secretion of IL-10 within this B cell population ameliorates the TNFα-mediated effects on B cell precursors. Loss of B cell precursors in the bone marrow of old mice in vivo was significantly associated with increased ABC relative to recirculating FO-like B cells. Adoptive transfer of aged ABC into RAG-2 KO recipients resulted in significant losses of pro-B cells within the bone marrow. These results suggest that alterations in B cell composition during old age, in particular the increase in ABC within the B cell compartments contribute to a pro-inflammatory environment within the bone marrow. This provides a mechanism of inappropriate B cell “feedback” which promotes down-regulation of B lymphopoiesis in old age. PMID:23410004

  19. Our bodies are our own: resistance to ABC-based HIV-prevention programmes in northern Tanzanian conservation organisations.

    PubMed

    Reid-Hresko, John

    2014-01-01

    ABC-based HIV-prevention programmes have been widely employed in northern Tanzanian wildlife conservation settings in an attempt to (re)shape the sexual behaviours of conservation actors. Utilising findings from 66 semi-structured interviews conducted in 2009-2010, this paper examines ABC prevention as a form of Foucauldian governmentality--circulating technologies of power that mobilise disciplinary technologies and attempt to transform such efforts into technologies of the self--and explores how individuals understand and respond to attempts to govern their behaviour. ABC regimes attempt to rework subjectivity, positioning HIV-related behaviours within a risk-based neoliberal rationality. However, efforts to use ABC as a technology to govern populations and individual bodies are largely incommensurate with existing Tanzanian sociocultural formations, including economic and gendered inequalities, and local understandings of sexuality. The language research participants used to talk about ABC and the justifications they offered for non-compliance illuminate this discrepancy. Data reveal that the recipients of ABC campaigns are active producers of understandings that work for them in their lives, but may not produce the behavioural shifts envisioned by programme goals. These findings corroborate previous research, which questions the continued plausibility of ABC as a stand-alone HIV- prevention framework.

  20. The EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a is involved in naphthalene tolerance but not efflux.

    PubMed

    Adebusuyi, Abigail A; Foght, Julia M

    2013-03-01

    The EmhABC efflux pump in Pseudomonas fluorescens LP6a effluxes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene and anthracene but not naphthalene. We previously showed that the presence of EmhABC decreased the efficiency of phenanthrene biodegradation. In this study, we determined whether P. fluorescens LP6a tolerance to naphthalene is a function of the EmhABC efflux pump and how its presence affects the efficiency of naphthalene biodegradation. Growth, membrane fatty acid (FA) composition, and cell morphology showed that 5-mmol L(-1) naphthalene is inhibitory to P. fluorescens LP6a strains. The deleterious effect of naphthalene is suppressed in the presence of EmhABC, which suggests that, although naphthalene is not effluxed by EmhABC, this efflux pump is involved in tolerance of naphthalene toxicity. LP6a mutants lacking the EmhB efflux pump were unable to convert cis-unsaturated FAs to cyclopropane FAs, indicating that naphthalene interferes with the formation of cyclopropane FAs and supporting the proposal that EmhABC is involved in FA turnover in P. fluorescens LP6a strains. The EmhABC efflux pump increases the efficiency of naphthalene metabolism in strain LP6a, which may make naphthalene efflux unnecessary. Thus, the activity of hydrocarbon efflux pumps may be an important factor to consider when selecting bacterial strains for bioremediation or biocatalysis of PAHs.

  1. Hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a specific ABC transporter gene expression profile clearly distinct from other stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect cells against unrelated (toxic) substances by pumping them across cell membranes. Earlier we showed that many ABC transporters are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compared to more committed progenitor cells. The ABC transporter expression signature may guarantee lifelong protection of HSCs but may also preserve stem cell integrity by extrusion of agents that trigger their differentiation. Here we have studied whether non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs) exhibit a similar ABC transporter expression signature as HSCs. Results ABC transporter expression profiles were determined in non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs) from embryonic, neonatal and adult origin as well as in various mature blood cell types. Over 11,000 individual ABC transporter expression values were generated by Taqman Low Density Arrays (TLDA) to obtain a sensitivity comparable with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. We found that the vast majority of transporters are significantly higher expressed in HSCs compared to non-HSCs. Furthermore, regardless their origin, non-HSCs exhibited strikingly similar ABC transporter expression profiles that were distinct from those in HSCs. Yet, sets of transporters characteristic for different stem cell types could be identified, suggesting restricted functions in stem cell physiology. Remarkably, in HSCs we could not pinpoint any single transporter expressed at an evidently elevated level when compared to all the mature blood cell types studied. Conclusions These findings challenge the concept that individual ABC transporters are implicated in maintaining stem cell integrity. Instead, a distinct ABC transporter expression signature may be essential for stem cell function. The high expression of specific transporters in non-HSCs and mature blood cells suggests a specialized, cell type dependent function and warrants further functional experiments to determine their

  2. Benefit of Chondroitinase ABC on Sensory Axon Regeneration in a Laceration Model of Spinal Cord Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Lisa B. E.; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A.; Gray, Rebecca; Shields, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the spinal cord following spinal cord injury (SCI) creating a molecular barrier inhibitory to axon growth. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) degrades CSPGs in vitro and in vivo. Methods We studied whether intrathecal (IT) ChABC promotes axonal regeneration in a laceration model of SCI. Three groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used: control and rats treated with low dose and high dose IT ChABC. CSPG breakdown products were measured by 2-B-6 expression, and intact CSPGs by CS-56 expression. Sensory axonal regeneration was traced following CTB injection into the median, ulnar, and sciatic nerves. Results CS-56 expression was downregulated and 2-B-6 expression was increased in the groups treated with IT ChABC but not in the control. Laminin and GFAP immunoreactivity was unaltered in the ChABC groups. The number of axons growing into the scar was 3.1 times greater (p<0.01) in the high dose ChABC group and 2.1 times greater (p<0.01) in the low dose group compared to the controls. The length of axonal growth following high and low dose ChABC was 9.9 (p<0.01) and 8.3 (p<0.01) times greater, respectively, than in the control group. Axons extended across the lesion gap and into the distal spinal cord stump in 2/8 (low dose) and in 3/9 (high dose) rats compared to none in the control group. Conclusions IT ChABC administration caused a slight decrease in CSPGs in the scar following a laceration SCI with a minimal increase in sensory axonal regeneration into and across the laceration gap. PMID:18486695

  3. An oxidative stress-based mechanism of doxorubicin cytotoxicity suggests new therapeutic strategies in ABC-DLBCL.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yun; Yu, J Jessica; Bartholdy, Boris; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Knapp, Esther E; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Hongshan; Ding, B Belinda; Yao, Zhihua; Das, Bhaskar; Zou, Yiyu; Young, Ken He; Parekh, Samir; Ye, B Hilda

    2016-12-15

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) contain 2 major molecular subtypes; namely, the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and the activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCLs. It is well documented that ABC-DLBCL cases have a significantly poorer survival response than GCB-DLBCLs in both the CHOP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone) and the rituximab (R)-CHOP eras. However, the underlying cause of this subtype disparity is poorly understood. Nevertheless, these clinical observations raise the possibility for an ABC-DLBCL-specific resistance mechanism that is directed toward 1 of the CHOP components and is inadequately addressed by rituximab. Here, we report that the main cytotoxic ingredient in CHOP, doxorubicin (Dox), has subtype-specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity in DLBCLs resulting from differences in the subcellular distribution pattern. Specifically, in cell line models of ABC-DLBCL, Dox is often enriched in the cytoplasm away from the nuclear DNA. As a result, Dox-induced cytotoxicity in ABC-DLBCLs is often dependent on oxidative stress, rather than DNA damage response. These findings are corroborated by gene signature analysis, which demonstrates that basal oxidative stress status predicts treatment outcome among patients with ABC-DLBCL, but not patients with GCB-DLBCL. In terms of redox-related resistance mechanism, our results suggest that STAT3 confers Dox resistance in ABC-DLBCLs by reinforcing an antioxidant program featuring upregulation of the SOD2 gene. Furthermore, a small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor synergizes with CHOP to trigger oxidative stress and kill ABC-DLBCL cells in preclinical models. These results provide a mechanistic basis for development of novel therapies that target either STAT3 or redox homeostasis to improve treatment outcomes for ABC-DLBCLs. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Sensitive and specific fluorescent probes for functional analysis of the three major types of mammalian ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Irina V; Pande, Praveen; Patton, Wayne F

    2011-01-01

    An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1/2 (ABCC1/2) and BCRP/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression levels of ABC transporters in live cells, but most dyes used as indicators (rhodamine 123, DiOC(2)(3), calcein-AM) have limited applicability as they do not detect all three major types of ABC transporters. Dyes with broad coverage (such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin and mitoxantrone) lack sensitivity due to overall dimness and thus may yield a significant percentage of false negative results. We describe two novel fluorescent probes that are substrates for all three common types of ABC transporters and can serve as indicators of MDR in flow cytometry assays using live cells. The probes exhibit fast internalization, favorable uptake/efflux kinetics and high sensitivity of MDR detection, as established by multidrug resistance activity factor (MAF) values and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Used in combination with general or specific inhibitors of ABC transporters, both dyes readily identify functional efflux and are capable of detecting small levels of efflux as well as defining the type of multidrug resistance. The assay can be applied to the screening of putative modulators of ABC transporters, facilitating rapid, reproducible, specific and relatively simple functional detection of ABC transporter activity, and ready implementation on widely available instruments.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lixia; Song, Tianxue; He, Rongjun; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-04-26

    ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous groups of proteins. Because of their role in detoxification, insect ABC transporters have gained more attention in recent years. In this study, we annotated ABC transporters from a newly sequenced sweetpotato whitefly genome. Bemisia tabaci Q biotype is an emerging global invasive species that has caused extensive damages to field crops as well as ornamental plants. A total of 55 ABC transporters containing all eight described subfamilies (A to H) were identified in the B. tabaci Q genome, including 8 ABCAs, 3 ABCBs, 6 ABCCs, 2 ABCDs, 1 ABCE, 3 ABCFs, 23 ABCGs and 9 ABCHs. In comparison to other species, subfamilies G and H in both phloem- and blood-sucking arthropods are expanded. The temporal expression profiles of these 55 ABC transporters throughout B. tabaci developmental stages and their responses to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, were investigated using RNA-seq analysis. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of 24 ABC transporters (44% of the total) representing all eight subfamilies was confirmed by the quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression levels estimated by RT-qPCR and RNA-seq analyses were significantly correlated (r = 0.684, p < 0.01). It is the first genome-wide analysis of the entire repertoire of ABC transporters in B. tabaci. The identification of these ABC transporters, their temporal expression profiles during B. tabaci development, and their response to a neonicotinoid insecticide lay the foundation for functional genomic understanding of their contribution to the invasiveness of B. tabaci.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  8. The eefABC multidrug efflux pump operon is repressed by H-NS in Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Masi, Muriel; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Villard, Claude; Pradel, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    The Enterobacter aerogenes eefABC locus, which encodes a tripartite efflux pump, was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli tolC mutant. E. aerogenes deltaacrA expressing EefABC became less susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. Data from eef::lacZ fusions showed that eefABC was not transcribed in the various laboratory conditions tested. However, increased transcription from Peef was observed in an E. coli hns mutant. In addition, EefA was detected in E. aerogenes expressing a dominant negative E. coli hns allele.

  9. Rhizobium etli CFN42 contains at least three plasmids of the repABC family: a structural and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Cevallos, Miguel A; Porta, Helena; Izquierdo, Javier; Tun-Garrido, Cristina; García-de-los-Santos, Alejandro; Dávila, Guillermo; Brom, Susana

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we report the identification of replication/partition regions of plasmid p42a and p42b of Rhizobium etli CFN42. Sequence analysis reveals that both replication/partition regions belong to the repABC family. Phylogenetic analysis of all the complete repABC replication/partition regions reported to date, shows that repABC plasmids coexisting in the same strain arose most likely by lateral transfer instead of by duplication followed by divergence. A model explaining how new incompatibility groups originate, is proposed.

  10. Structural validity of the Movement ABC-2 test: factor structure comparisons across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E; Sugden, David A; Barnett, Anna L

    2011-01-01

    The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor performance, which can be used to help make a diagnosis of DCD. M-ABC-2 also provides 3 sub-scales for Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching and Balance but the validity of these conceptually derived sub-scales has not previously been reported. To examine the factor structure of the M-ABC-2 test across the three age bands (AB): AB1 (3-6-year olds), AB2 (7-10-year olds) and AB3 (11-16-year olds). Data from the 2007 standardisation sample (N=1172) were used in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and structural equation modelling (LISREL 8.8) were employed to explore the relationship between the tasks within each of the 3 age bands. A model trimming approach was used to arrive at a well fitting model. In AB1 a complex factor structure emerged providing evidence for an independent general factor, as well as specific factors representing the 3 test components. In AB2 a final model emerged with four correlated factors, an additional distinction being drawn between static and dynamic balance. In addition, a 2nd order general factor explained a considerable amount of variance in each primary factor. In AB3 CFA supported the 3-factor structure of the M-ABC-2, with only modest correlations between each factor. The confirmatory factor analyses undertaken in this study further validate the structural validity of the M-ABC-2 as it has developed over time. Although its tasks are largely associated with the three sub-components within each age band, there was also clear evidence for a change in the factor structure towards differentiation in motor abilities with age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Classification of E-Nose Aroma Data of Four Fruit Types by ABC-Based Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Adak, M Fatih; Yumusak, Nejat

    2016-02-27

    Electronic nose technology is used in many areas, and frequently in the beverage industry for classification and quality-control purposes. In this study, four different aroma data (strawberry, lemon, cherry, and melon) were obtained using a MOSES II electronic nose for the purpose of fruit classification. To improve the performance of the classification, the training phase of the neural network with two hidden layers was optimized using artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is known to be successful in exploration. Test data were given to two different neural networks, each of which were trained separately with backpropagation (BP) and ABC, and average test performances were measured as 60% for the artificial neural network trained with BP and 76.39% for the artificial neural network trained with ABC. Training and test phases were repeated 30 times to obtain these average performance measurements. This level of performance shows that the artificial neural network trained with ABC is successful in classifying aroma data.

  12. STAT3 inhibition is a therapeutic strategy for ABC-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Scuto, Anna; Kujawski, Maciej; Kowolik, Claudia; Krymskaya, Ludmila; Wang, Lin; Weiss, Lawrence M; Digiusto, David; Yu, Hua; Forman, Stephen; Jove, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Persistent STAT3 signaling contributes to malignant progression in many diverse types of human cancer. STAT3 is constitutively active in activated B-cell (ABC)-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), a class of nongerminal center derived DLBCL cells for which existing therapy is weakly effective. In this report, we provide a preclinical proof of concept that STAT3 is an effective molecular target for ABC-like DLBCL therapy. Direct inhibition of STAT3 with short hairpin RNA suppressed the growth of human ABC-like DLBCL in mouse models in a manner associated with apoptosis, repression of STAT3 target genes, and inhibition of a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Together, these results suggest that STAT3 is essential to maintain the pathophysiology of ABC-like DLBCL and therefore that STAT3 inhibition may offer a promising approach in its therapy.

  13. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  18. The jABC Approach to Rigorous Collaborative Development of SCM Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörmann, Martina; Margaria, Tiziana; Mender, Thomas; Nagel, Ralf; Steffen, Bernhard; Trinh, Hong

    Our approach to the model-driven collaborative design of IKEA's P3 Delivery Management Process uses the jABC [9] for model driven mediation and choreography to complement a RUP-based (Rational Unified Process) development process. jABC is a framework for service development based on Lightweight Process Coordination. Users (product developers and system/software designers) easily develop services and applications by composing reusable building-blocks into (flow-) graph structures that can be animated, analyzed, simulated, verified, executed, and compiled. This way of handling the collaborative design of complex embedded systems has proven to be effective and adequate for the cooperation of non-programmers and non-technical people, which is the focus of this contribution, and it is now being rolled out in the operative practice.

  19. Mechanistic determinants of the directionality and energetics of active export by a heterodimeric ABC transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Nina; Vakkasoglu, Ahmet S.; Hulpke, Sabine; Abele, Rupert; Gaudet, Rachelle; Tampé, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) participates in immune surveillance by moving proteasomal products into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen for major histocompatibility complex class I loading and cell surface presentation to cytotoxic T cells. Here we delineate the mechanistic basis for antigen translocation. Notably, TAP works as a molecular diode, translocating peptide substrates against the gradient in a strict unidirectional way. We reveal the importance of the D-loop at the dimer interface of the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) in coupling substrate translocation with ATP hydrolysis and defining transport vectoriality. Substitution of the conserved aspartate, which coordinates the ATP-binding site, decreases NBD dimerization affinity and turns the unidirectional primary active pump into a passive bidirectional nucleotide-gated facilitator. Thus, ATP hydrolysis is not required for translocation per se, but is essential for both active and unidirectional transport. Our data provide detailed mechanistic insight into how heterodimeric ABC exporters operate.

  20. Long-range correlations and ensemble inequivalence in a generalized ABC model.

    PubMed

    Lederhendler, A; Mukamel, D

    2010-10-08

    A generalization of the ABC model, a one-dimensional model of a driven system of three particle species with local dynamics, is introduced, in which the model evolves under either (i) density-conserving or (ii) nonconserving dynamics. For equal average densities of the three species, both dynamical models are demonstrated to exhibit detailed balance with respect to a Hamiltonian with long-range interactions. The model is found to exhibit two distinct phase diagrams, corresponding to the canonical (density-conserving) and grand canonical (density nonconserving) ensembles, as expected in long-range interacting systems. The implications of this result to nonequilibrium steady states, such as those of the ABC model with unequal average densities, are briefly discussed.

  1. Estimation of Candida albicans ABC Transporter Behavior in Real-Time via Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Joanna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Krasowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present a fluorometric method for determining ABC transporter activity in the pathogenic fungus C. albicans during different growth phases and in response to glucose. The carbocyanine dye diS-C3(3) was previously used to monitor plasma membrane potentials and test the influence of surface-active compounds in membrane polarization. We used diS-C3(3) to show changes in fluorescence kinetics that reflect changes in the activity of ABC transporters in C. albicans growth. Cdr1-GFP fluorescence, revealed that Cdr1p relocates to the inside of the cell after the early-log growth phase. Addition of glucose to the cell suspension resulted in Cdr1p transporter expression in the CDR2-knockout strain. We confirmed the diS-C3(3) results by standard RT-PCR and Western blotting.

  2. Protein-mediated transbilayer movement of lipids in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: the relevance of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Tannert, Astrid; Pohl, Antje; Pomorski, Thomas; Herrmann, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    Lipid distribution across cellular membranes is regulated by specific membrane proteins controlling transbilayer movement of lipids. Flippases facilitate flip-flop of lipids and allow them to equilibrate between the two membrane leaflets independent of ATP. Distinct P-Type-ATPases transport specific lipids unidirectionally across the membrane at the expense of ATP. A group of ATP-dependent lipid transporters, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, was identified in studies originally related to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. Meanwhile, lipid transport activity has been shown for full and half size ABC proteins in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This activity may not only modify the organisation of lipids in membranes, but could also be of significant consequence for cell homeostasis. The various types of lipid movement mediating proteins and their cellular localisation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes are reviewed.

  3. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as modulators of ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are involved in key signaling events/pathways that regulate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Deregulated activity of TKs has been implicated in several types of cancers. In recent years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to inhibit specific kinases whose constitutive activity results in specific cancer types. These TKIs have been found to demonstrate effective anticancer activity and some of them have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use or are in clinical trials. However, these targeted therapeutic agents are also transported by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, resulting in altered pharmacokinetics or development of resistance to these drugs in cancer patients. This review covers the recent findings on the interactions of clinically important TKIs with ABC drug transporters. Future research efforts in the development of novel TKIs with specific targets, seeking improved activity, should consider these underlying causes of resistance to TKIs in cancer cells. PMID:22325423

  4. ABC effect and resonance structure in the double-pionic fusion to 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlarson, P.; Augustyniak, W.; Bardan, W.; Bashkanov, M.; Bergmann, F. S.; Berłowski, M.; Bhatt, H.; Bondar, A.; Büscher, M.; Calén, H.; Ciepał, I.; Clement, H.; Coderre, D.; Czerwiński, E.; Demmich, K.; Doroshkevich, E.; Engels, R.; Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Eyrich, W.; Fedorets, P.; Föhl, K.; Fransson, K.; Goldenbaum, F.; Goslawski, P.; Goswami, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Gullström, C.-O.; Hauenstein, F.; Heijkenskjöld, L.; Hejny, V.; Höistad, B.; Hüsken, N.; Jarczyk, L.; Johansson, T.; Kamys, B.; Kemmerling, G.; Khan, F. A.; Khoukaz, A.; Kirillov, D. A.; Kistryn, S.; Kleines, H.; Kłos, B.; Krzemień, W.; Kulessa, P.; Kupść, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lalwani, K.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Marciniewski, P.; Mariański, B.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Morsch, H.-P.; Moskal, P.; Ohm, H.; Ozerianska, I.; Perez del Rio, E.; Piskunov, N. M.; Podkopał, P.; Prasuhn, D.; Pricking, A.; Pszczel, D.; Pysz, K.; Pyszniak, A.; Ritman, J.; Roy, A.; Rudy, Z.; Sawant, S.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Shwartz, B.; Siudak, R.; Skorodko, T.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Sopov, V.; Stassen, R.; Stepaniak, J.; Stephan, E.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Szczurek, A.; Täschner, A.; Trzciński, A.; Varma, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Wolke, M.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Wurm, P.; Yamamoto, A.; Yurev, L.; Zabierowski, J.; Zieliński, M. J.; Zink, A.; Złomańczuk, J.; Żuprański, P.; Żurek, M.; WASA-at-COSY Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the double pionic fusion to 3He have been performed in the energy region of the so-called ABC effect, which denotes a pronounced low-mass enhancement in the π π -invariant mass spectrum. The experiments were carried out with the WASA detector setup at COSY (the cooler synchrotron at Forschungszentrum Jülich). Similar to the observations in the basic p n →d π0π0 reaction and in the d d →4He π0π0 reaction, the data reveal a correlation between the ABC effect and a resonance-like energy dependence in the total cross section. Differential cross sections are well described by the hypothesis of d* resonance formation during the reaction process in addition to the conventional t -channel Δ Δ mechanism. The deduced d* resonance width can be understood from collision broadening due to Fermi motion of the nucleons in initial and final nuclei.

  5. New Interpretation of the ABC Effect in Two-Pion Production in NN Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonova, Maria N.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the basic 2 π-fusion reaction pn → d + ( ππ)0 in the energy region T p = 1-1.4GeV within the framework of a model based on a D 03-dibaryon production and its subsequent decay via two interfering routes: through an intermediate σ meson and through an isovector dibaryon D 12. We demonstrate that the constructive interference of the above two mechanisms gives a strong near-threshold enhancement in the ππ invariant-mass spectrum, i.e., the so-called ABC effect. It is shown that the σ-meson emission from the D 03 dibaryon plays a crucial role in reproducing the shape and position of the ABC enhancement and is tightly related to the idea of chiral symmetry restoration in dense and excited hadronic systems, such as the D 03 state.

  6. Direct Observation of a Gate Tunable Band Gap in Electrical Transport in ABC-Trilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodkov, Tymofiy; Khrapach, Ivan; Craciun, Monica Felicia; Russo, Saverio

    2015-07-01

    Few layer graphene systems such as Bernal stacked bilayer and rhombohedral (ABC-) stacked trilayer offer the unique possibility to open an electric field tunable energy gap. To date, this energy gap has been experimentally confirmed in optical spectroscopy. Here we report the first direct observation of the electric field tunable energy gap in electronic transport experiments on doubly gated suspended ABC-trilayer graphene. From a systematic study of the non-linearities in current \\textit{versus} voltage characteristics and the temperature dependence of the conductivity we demonstrate that thermally activated transport over the energy-gap dominates the electrical response of these transistors. The estimated values for energy gap from the temperature dependence and from the current voltage characteristics follow the theoretically expected electric field dependence with critical exponent $3/2$. These experiments indicate that high quality few-layer graphene are suitable candidates for exploring novel tunable THz light sources and detectors.

  7. DNA repair by UvrABC: In vitro analysis of the preincision complex

    SciTech Connect

    Visse, R.; Moolenaar, G.F.; Ruijter, M. De

    1994-12-31

    The UvrABC endonuclease repairs a variety of structurally different lesions. The preincision complex consisting of UvrB and damaged DNA plays a central role in successful damage recognition by UvrA and UvrB, and is a prerequisite for the subsequent processing in the presence of UvrC, resulting in dual incisions of the DNA. Although there is still an effect on efficiency, the type of lesion seems to have only a minor influence on the mechanism of repair, since incisions occur at fixed distances from each lesion. Therefore, an important aspect of unraveling the molecular mechanisms of UvrABC-dependent DNA repair is to understand how this system is able to process different lesions in a similar way. Attention in this work has been focused on which domains of UvrB are specifically involved in the formation of the UvrB-DNA preincision complex and on the structure of this complex.

  8. An ABC status report. [Advancing Blade Concept for XH-59A rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Ruddell, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) uses two rigid counterrotating rotors in a coaxial arrangement to provide advancing blades on both sides of the aircraft. This makes use of the high dynamic pressure on the advancing side of the rotors at high forward speed, virtually ignoring the low dynamic pressure on the retreating side, while still keeping the rotor system in roll trim. Theoretically such a rotor system will maintain its lift potential as speed increases. The XH-59A was designed to investigate this theory. A description is provided of the flight test program from May, 1980 to January, 1981. A summary is presented of the knowledge gained throughout the entire program, and current pitfalls are reviewed. It is concluded that the ABC has been verified, with the XH-59A envelope of blade lift coefficient as a function of advance ratio greatly exceeding that of conventional helicopter rotor systems.

  9. Distribution of AdeABC efflux system genes in genotypically diverse strains of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Sacha, Paweł; Czaban, Sławomir; Hauschild, Tomasz; Ojdana, Dominika; Kowalczuk, Oksana; Milewski, Robert; Poniatowski, Bogusław; Nikliński, Jacek; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly problematic hospital-associated pathogen. Different mechanisms contribute to the formation of multidrug resistance in A. baumannii, including the AdeABC efflux system. Distribution of the structural and regulatory genes encoding the AdeABC efflux system among genetically diverse clinical A. baumannii strains was achieved by using PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. The distribution of adeABRS genes is extremely high among our A. baumannii strains, except the adeC gene. We have observed a large proportion of strains presenting multidrug-resistance phenotype for several years. The efflux pump could be an important mechanism in these strains in resistance to antibiotics.

  10. Effect of polydispersity on the phase diagrams of linear ABC triblock copolymers in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiaoyan; Liang, Haojun; Shi, An-Chang

    2005-11-10

    By using a two-dimensional (2D) real-space self-consistent field theory, we present the phase diagrams of monodisperse ABC triblock copolymers in a three-component triangle style with the interaction energies given between the distinct blocks; this system displays richer phase behavior when compared with the corresponding diblock copolymers. Polydispersity of the end or middle blocks in the ABC linear block copolymer chains results in a completely different phase diagram. The presence of a polydisperse end block may cause strong segregation to occur among the three distinct components and larger domain sizes of the dispersed phases; a polydisperse middle block may allow a connection to form between the two phases of the two end blocks.

  11. Benefit of chondroitinase ABC on sensory axon regeneration in a laceration model of spinal cord injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A; Gray, Rebecca; Shields, Christopher B

    2008-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are up-regulated in the spinal cord after SCI, creating a molecular barrier inhibitory to axon growth. Chondroitinase ABC degrades CSPGs in vitro and in vivo. We studied whether IT ChABC promotes axonal regeneration in a laceration model of SCI. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used: control and rats treated with low-dose and high-dose IT ChABC. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan breakdown products were measured by 2-B-6 expression, and intact CSPGs by CS-56 expression. Sensory axonal regeneration was traced after CTB injection into the median, ulnar, and sciatic nerves. CS-56 expression was down-regulated and 2-B-6 expression was increased in the groups treated with IT ChABC but not in the control. Laminin and GFAP immunoreactivity was unaltered in the ChABC groups. The number of axons growing into the scar was 3.1 times greater (P < .01) in the high-dose ChABC group and 2.1 times greater (P < .01) in the low-dose group compared with the controls. The length of axonal growth after high- and low-dose ChABC was 9.9 (P < .01) and 8.3 (P < .01) times greater, respectively, than in the control group. Axons extended across the lesion gap and into the distal spinal cord stump in 2 of 8 (low dose) and in 3 of 9 (high dose) rats compared with none in the control group. Intrathecal ChABC administration caused a slight decrease in CSPGs in the scar after a laceration SCI with a minimal increase in sensory axonal regeneration into and across the laceration gap.

  12. Differential Contributions of Five ABC Transporters to Mutidrug Resistance, Antioxidion and Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an Entomopathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) confers agrochemical compatibility to fungal cells-based mycoinsecticdes but mechanisms involved in MDR remain poorly understood for entomopathogenic fungi, which have been widely applied as biocontrol agents against arthropod pests. Here we characterized the functions of five ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which were classified to the subfamilies ABC-B (Mdr1), ABC-C (Mrp1) and ABC-G (Pdr1, Pdr2 and Pdr5) and selected from 54 full-size ABC proteins of Beauveria bassiana based on their main domain architecture, membrane topology and transcriptional responses to three antifungal inducers. Disruption of each transporter gene resulted in significant reduction in resistance to four to six of eight fungicides or antifungal drugs tested due to their differences in structure and function. Compared with wild-type and complemented (control) strains, disruption mutants of all the five transporter genes became significantly less tolerant to the oxidants menadione and H2O2 based on 22−41% and 10−31% reductions of their effective concentrations required for the suppression of 50% colony growth at 25°C. Under a standardized spray, the killing actions of ΔPdr5 and ΔMrp1 mutants against Spodoptera litura second-instar larvae were delayed by 59% and 33% respectively. However, no significant virulence change was observed in three other delta mutants. Taken together, the examined five ABC transporters contribute differentially to not only the fungal MDR but antioxidant capability, a phenotype rarely associated with ABC efflux pumps in previous reports; at least some of them are required for the full virulence of B. bassiana, thereby affecting the fungal biocontrol potential. Our results indicate that ABC pump-dependent MDR mechanisms exist in entomopathogenic fungi as do in yeasts and human and plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:23596534

  13. Downregulation of ABC Transporters in Non-neoplastic Tissues Confers Better Prognosis for Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Pavel; Hlavac, Viktor; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Liska, Vaclav; Pesta, Martin; Soucek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Transport of a wide variety of substrates, including xenobiotics, is one of the main functions attributed to human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Overexpression of ABC genes is considered to be an important mechanism facilitating the development of chemoresistance. Relationships between the expression levels of ABC genes in tumor tissues and established clinicopathological features were extensively studied previously. The current study tested our hypothesis that the expression levels of ABC genes in non-neoplastic (control) tissues also provide important information in relation to the relevant tumor progression. Expression levels of all human ABC genes (48 protein coding and one pseudogene), measured by qRT-PCR, were bioinformatically analyzed. The data originated from four independently collected cohorts covering three types of tumors - breast, colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas. ABC gene expression profiles (signatures) in non-neoplastic tissues (matched to tumor samples from three different tumor types) were characteristically clustered into three main types - those with the vast majority of the genes downregulated, upregulated or heterogeneously regulated. The clusters with mostly downregulated and upregulated genes were shown to possess significant relations to good and poor prognostic markers, respectively, in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The present findings support the theory that the expression of ABC genes in non-neoplastic tissues can significantly contribute to tumor pathogenesis. Suggested multi-gene panels, consisting of the reduced number of ABC genes, have the potential to be implemented as new prognostic markers, which are especially urgent in pancreatic cancer. The results can also stimulate further primary research in carcinogenesis. PMID:28819395

  14. Assessment of the ABC/2 Method of Epidural Hematoma Volume Measurement as Compared to Computer-Assisted Planimetric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting-Ting; Yan, Ling; Yan, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xuan; Yue, Ge-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Epidural hematoma volume (EDHV) is an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with epidural hematoma (EDH) and plays a central role in treatment decision making. This study's objective was to determine the accuracy and reliability of the widely used volume measurement method ABC/2 in estimating EDHV by comparing it to the computer-assisted planimetric method. A data set of computerized tomography (CT) scans of 35 patients with EDH was evaluated to determine the accuracy of ABC/2 method, using computer-assisted planimetric technique to establish the reference criterion of EDHV for each patient. Another data set was constructed by randomly selecting 5 patients then replicating each case twice to yield 15 patients. Intra- and interobserver reliability were evaluated by asking four observers to independently estimate EDHV for the latter data set using the ABC/2 method. Estimation of EDHV using the ABC/2 method showed high intra- and interobserver reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = .99). These estimates were closely correlated with planimetric measures (r = .99). But the ABC/2 method generally overestimated EDHV, especially in the nonellipsoid-like group. The difference between the ABC/2 measures and planimetric measures was statistically significant (p < .05). The ABC/2 method could be used for EDHV measurement, which would contribute to treatment decision making as well as clinical outcome prediction. However, clinicians should be aware that the ABC/2 method results in a general volume overestimation. Future studies focusing on justification of the technique to improve its accuracy would be of practical value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. An ABC Transporter Mutation Is Correlated with Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, Linda J.; Pauchet, Yannick; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are commercially successful in reducing pest damage, yet knowledge of resistance mechanisms that threaten their sustainability is incomplete. Insect resistance to the pore-forming Cry1Ac toxin is correlated with the loss of high-affinity, irreversible binding to the mid-gut membrane, but the genetic factors responsible for this change have been elusive. Mutations in a 12-cadherin-domain protein confer some Cry1Ac resistance but do not block this toxin binding in in vitro assays. We sought to identify mutations in other genes that might be responsible for the loss of binding. We employed a map-based cloning approach using a series of backcrosses with 1,060 progeny to identify a resistance gene in the cotton pest Heliothis virescens that segregated independently from the cadherin mutation. We found an inactivating mutation of the ABC transporter ABCC2 that is genetically linked to Cry1Ac resistance and is correlated with loss of Cry1Ac binding to membrane vesicles. ABC proteins are integral membrane proteins with many functions, including export of toxic molecules from the cell, but have not been implicated in the mode of action of Bt toxins before. The reduction in toxin binding due to the inactivating mutation suggests that ABCC2 is involved in membrane integration of the toxin pore. Our findings suggest that ABC proteins may play a key role in the mode of action of Bt toxins and that ABC protein mutations can confer high levels of resistance that could threaten the continued utilization of Bt–expressing crops. However, such mutations may impose a physiological cost on resistant insects, by reducing export of other toxins such as plant secondary compounds from the cell. This weakness could be exploited to manage this mechanism of Bt resistance in the field. PMID:21187898

  16. Defining the blanks – Pharmacochaperoning of SLC6 transporters and ABC transporters?

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Peter; Freissmuth, Michael; Stockner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    SLC6 family members and ABC transporters represent two extremes: SLC6 transporters are confined to the membrane proper and only expose small segments to the hydrophilic milieu. In ABC transporters the hydrophobic core is connected to a large intracellular (eponymous) ATP binding domain that is comprised of two discontiguous repeats. Accordingly, their folding problem is fundamentally different. This can be gauged from mutations that impair the folding of the encoded protein and give rise to clinically relevant disease phenotypes: in SLC6 transporters, these cluster at the protein–lipid interface on the membrane exposed surface. Mutations in ABC-transporters map to the interface between nucleotide binding domains and the coupling helices, which provide the connection to the hydrophobic core. Folding of these mutated ABC-transporters can be corrected with ligands/substrates that bind to the hydrophobic core. This highlights a pivotal role of the coupling helices in the folding trajectory. In contrast, insights into pharmacochaperoning of SLC6 transporters are limited to monoamine transporters – in particular the serotonin transporter (SERT) – because of their rich pharmacology. Only ligands that stabilize the inward facing conformation act as effective pharmacochaperones. This indicates that the folding trajectory of SERT proceeds via the inward facing conformation. Mutations that impair folding of SLC6 family members can be transmitted as dominant or recessive alleles. The dominant phenotype of the mutation can be rationalized, because SLC6 transporters are exported in oligomeric form from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recessive transmission requires shielding of the unaffected gene product from the mutated transporter in the ER. This can be accounted for by a chaperone-COPII (coatomer protein II) exchange model, where proteinaceous ER-resident chaperones engage various intermediates prior to formation of the oligomeric state and subsequent export from the

  17. Construction of the Tricyclic A-B-C Core of the Veratrum Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Berry, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Organocatalyzed enantioselective allylation of 2-iodocyclohexenone followed by methylation and oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered enantiomerically-enriched 2-methyl 3-allyl cyclohexanone, that engaged in acid-catalyzed Robinson annulation to give the bicyclic enone. Subsequent elaboration of the pendant allyl group into an α-diazo β-keto ester set the stage for Rh-mediated cyclization to deliver the tricyclic A-B-C core of the Veratrum alkaloids. PMID:23859604

  18. Computed ABC Analysis for Rational Selection of Most Informative Variables in Multivariate Data

    PubMed Central

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multivariate data sets often differ in several factors or derived statistical parameters, which have to be selected for a valid interpretation. Basing this selection on traditional statistical limits leads occasionally to the perception of losing information from a data set. This paper proposes a novel method for calculating precise limits for the selection of parameter sets. Methods The algorithm is based on an ABC analysis and calculates these limits on the basis of the mathematical properties of the distribution of the analyzed items. The limits im-plement the aim of any ABC analysis, i.e., comparing the increase in yield to the required additional effort. In particular, the limit for set A, the “important few”, is optimized in a way that both, the effort and the yield for the other sets (B and C), are minimized and the additional gain is optimized. Results As a typical example from biomedical research, the feasibility of the ABC analysis as an objective replacement for classical subjective limits to select highly relevant variance components of pain thresholds is presented. The proposed method improved the biological inter-pretation of the results and increased the fraction of valid information that was obtained from the experimental data. Conclusions The method is applicable to many further biomedical problems in-cluding the creation of diagnostic complex biomarkers or short screening tests from comprehensive test batteries. Thus, the ABC analysis can be proposed as a mathematically valid replacement for traditional limits to maximize the information obtained from multivariate research data. PMID:26061064

  19. Evidence for an ABC-Type Riboflavin Transporter System in Pathogenic Spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Biddy, Brent A.; Liu, Wei Z.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial transporter proteins are involved in the translocation of many essential nutrients and metabolites. However, many of these key bacterial transport systems remain to be identified, including those involved in the transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Pathogenic spirochetes lack riboflavin biosynthetic pathways, implying reliance on obtaining riboflavin from their hosts. Using structural and functional characterizations of possible ligand-binding components, we have identified an ABC-type riboflavin transport system within pathogenic spirochetes. The putative lipoprotein ligand-binding components of these systems from three different spirochetes were cloned, hyperexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. Solutions of all three of the purified recombinant proteins were bright yellow. UV-visible spectra demonstrated that these proteins were likely flavoproteins; electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography confirmed that they contained riboflavin. A 1.3-Å crystal structure of the protein (TP0298) encoded by Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, demonstrated that the protein’s fold is similar to the ligand-binding components of ABC-type transporters. The structure also revealed other salient details of the riboflavin binding site. Comparative bioinformatics analyses of spirochetal genomes, coupled with experimental validation, facilitated the discovery of this new ABC-type riboflavin transport system(s). We denote the ligand-binding component as riboflavin uptake transporter A (RfuA). Taken together, it appears that pathogenic spirochetes have evolved an ABC-type transport system (RfuABCD) for survival in their host environments, particularly that of the human host. PMID:23404400

  20. Evolution of the ABC model among the segregated configurations in the zero-temperature limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misturini, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    We consider the ABC model on a ring in a strongly asymmetric regime. The main result asserts that the particles almost always form three pure domains (one of each species) and that this segregated shape evolves, in a proper time scale, as a Brownian motion on the circle, which may have a drift. This is, to our knowledge, the first proof of a zero-temperature limit for a non-reversible dynamics whose invariant measure is not explicitly known.