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Sample records for abcb1 atpase activity

  1. Fentanyl Enhances Hepatotoxicity of Paclitaxel via Inhibition of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 Transport Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Hao; Bi, Bing-Tian; Feng, Kun-Yao; Huang, Wan; Zeng, Wei-An

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl, a potent opioid analgesic that is used to treat cancer pain, is commonly administered with paclitaxel in advanced tumors. However, the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanism of action is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fentanyl on the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel and its potential mechanisms of action. Pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel were tested using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and mouse liver histopathology were examined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens was examined using 1-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 was detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of ABCB1 and the activity of ABCB1 ATPase and CYP3A4 were also examined. In this study, the co-administration of fentanyl and paclitaxel prolonged the half-life (t1/2) of paclitaxel from 1.455 hours to 2.344 hours and decreased the clearance (CL) from 10.997 ml/h to 7.014 ml/h in mice. Fentanyl significantly increased the levels of ALT in mice to 88.2 U/L, which is more than 2-fold higher than the level detected in the control group, and it increased the histological damage in mouse livers. Furthermore, fentanyl enhanced the cytotoxicity of anti-carcinogens that are ABCB1 substrates and increased the accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123. Additionally, fentanyl stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity and inhibited CYP3A4 activity in the liver microsomes of mice. Our study indicates that the obvious hepatotoxicity during this co-administration was due to the inhibition of CYP3A4 activity and ABCB1 transport activity. These findings suggested that the accumulation-induced hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel when it is combined with fentanyl should be avoided. PMID:26633878

  2. Osimertinib (AZD9291), a Mutant-Selective EGFR Inhibitor, Reverses ABCB1-Mediated Drug Resistance in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Gupta, Pranav; Zeng, Leli; Xu, Megan; Wang, Xiu-Qi; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-09-15

    In recent years, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown capable of inhibiting the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we determine whether osimertinib, a novel selective, irreversible EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) TKI, could reverse ABC transporter-mediated MDR. The results showed that, at non-toxic concentrations, osimertinib significantly sensitized both ABCB1-transfected and drug-selected cell lines to substrate anticancer drugs colchicine, paclitaxel, and vincristine. Osimertinib significantly increased the accumulation of [³H]-paclitaxel in ABCB1 overexpressing cells by blocking the efflux function of ABCB1 transporter. In contrast, no significant alteration in the expression levels and localization pattern of ABCB1 was observed when ABCB1 overexpressing cells were exposed to 0.3 µM osimertinib for 72 h. In addition, ATPase assay showed osimertinib stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity. Molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations showed osimertinib has strong and stable interactions at the transmembrane domain of human homology ABCB1. Taken together, our findings suggest that osimertinib, a clinically-approved third-generation EGFR TKI, can reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR, which supports the combination therapy with osimertinib and ABCB1 substrates may potentially be a novel therapeutic stategy in ABCB1-positive drug resistant cancers.

  3. Enzastaurin inhibits ABCB1-mediated drug efflux independently of effects on protein kinase C signalling and the cellular p53 status.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Löschmann, Nadine; Sharifi, Mohsen; Ghafourian, Taravat; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2015-07-10

    The PKCβ inhibitor enzastaurin was tested in parental neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, their vincristine-resistant sub-lines, primary neuroblastoma cells, ABCB1-transduced, ABCG2-transduced, and p53-depleted cells. Enzastaurin IC50s ranged from 3.3 to 9.5 μM in cell lines and primary cells independently of the ABCB1, ABCG2, or p53 status. Enzastaurin 0.3125 μM interfered with ABCB1-mediated drug transport. PKCα and PKCβ may phosphorylate and activate ABCB1 under the control of p53. However, enzastaurin exerted similar effects on ABCB1 in the presence or absence of functional p53. Also, enzastaurin inhibited PKC signalling only in concentrations ≥ 1.25 μM. The investigated cell lines did not express PKCβ. PKCα depletion reduced PKC signalling but did not affect ABCB1 activity. Intracellular levels of the fluorescent ABCB1 substrate rhodamine 123 rapidly decreased after wash-out of extracellular enzastaurin, and enzastaurin induced ABCB1 ATPase activity resembling the ABCB1 substrate verapamil. Computational docking experiments detected a direct interaction of enzastaurin and ABCB1. These data suggest that enzastaurin directly interferes with ABCB1 function. Enzastaurin further inhibited ABCG2-mediated drug transport but by a different mechanism since it reduced ABCG2 ATPase activity. These findings are important for the further development of therapies combining enzastaurin with ABC transporter substrates.

  4. Karanjin interferes with ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Nerreter, Thomas; Sharifi, Mohsen; Ghafourian, Taravat; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2014-01-01

    The prominent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 are involved in substance transport across physiological barriers and therefore in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. They also mediate multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. Different flavonoids are known to interfere with different ABC transporters. Here, the effect of the furanoflavonol karanjin, a potential drug with antiglycaemic, gastroprotective, antifungal, and antibacterial effects, was investigated on ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2-mediated drug transport in comparison to the flavonoids apigenin, genistein, and naringenin. Cells expressing the relevant transporters (ABCB1: UKF-NB-3(ABCB1), UKF-NB-3(r)VCR¹⁰; ABCC1: G62, PC-3(r)VCR²⁰; ABCG2: UKF-NB-3(ABCG2)) were used in combination with specific fluorescent and cytotoxic ABC transporter substrates and ABC transporter inhibitors to study ABC transporter function. Moreover, the effects of the investigated flavonoids were determined on the ABC transporter ATPase activities. Karanjin interfered with drug efflux mediated by ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 and enhanced the ATPase activity of all three transporters. Moreover, karanjin exerted more pronounced effects than the control flavonoids apigenin, genistein, and naringenin on all three transporters. Most notably, karanjin interfered with ABCB1 at low concentrations being about 1 µM. Taken together, these findings should be taken into account during further consideration of karanjin as a potential drug for different therapeutic indications. The effects on ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 may affect the pharmacokinetics of co-administered drugs.

  5. Tangeretin, a citrus pentamethoxyflavone, antagonizes ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibiting its transport function.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sen-Ling; Yuan, Zhong-Wen; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Xie, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and tumor metastasis are the main causes of chemotherapeutic treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. In this study, at achievable nontoxic plasma concentrations, citrus flavonoid tangeretin has been shown to reverse ABCB1-mediated cancer resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents effectively. Co-treatment of cells with tangeretin and paclitaxel activated apoptosis as well as arrested cell cycle at G2/M-phase. Tangeretin profoundly inhibited the ABCB1 transporter activity since it significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, and flutax-2 in A2780/T cells and decreased the efflux of ABCB1 substrates in Caco2 cells without altering the expression of ABCB1. Moreover, it stimulated the ATPase activity and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. The molecular docking results indicated a favorable binding of tangeretin with the transmemberane region site 1 of homology modeled ABCB1 transporter. The overall results demonstrated that tangeretin could sensitize ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells to chemotherapeutical agents by directly inhibiting ABCB1 transporter function, which encouraged further animal and clinical studies in the treatment of resistant cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Osimertinib (AZD9291) Attenuates the Function of Multidrug Resistance-Linked ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB1 in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sung-Han; Lu, Yu-Jen; Li, Yan-Qing; Huang, Yang-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Wu, Chung-Pu

    2016-06-06

    The effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy is often circumvented by multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown previously capable of modulating the function of ABCB1 and reversing ABCB1-mediated MDR in human cancer cells. Furthermore, some TKIs are transported by ABCB1, which results in low oral bioavailability, reduced distribution, and the development of acquired resistance to these TKIs. In this study, we investigated the interaction between ABCB1 and osimertinib, a novel selective, irreversible third-generation EGFR TKI that has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We also evaluated the potential impact of ABCB1 on the efficacy of osimertinib in cancer cells, which can present a therapeutic challenge to clinicians in the future. We revealed that although osimertinib stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCB1, overexpression of ABCB1 does not confer resistance to osimertinib. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that the overexpression of ABCB1 can be a major contributor to the development of osimertinib resistance in cancer patients. More significantly, we revealed an additional action of osimertinib that directly inhibits the function of ABCB1 without affecting the expression level of ABCB1, enhances drug-induced apoptosis, and reverses the MDR phenotype in ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells. Considering that osimertinib is a clinically approved third-generation EGFR TKI, our findings suggest that a combination therapy with osimertinib and conventional anticancer drugs may be beneficial to patients with MDR tumors.

  7. Alectinib (CH5424802) antagonizes ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Chen, Yifan; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Wang, Fang; Li, Delan; Chen, Likun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-03-17

    Alectinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we investigated the reversal effect of alectinib on multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which is the primary cause of chemotherapy failure. We provide the first evidence that alectinib increases the sensitivity of ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, alectinib increased the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates such as doxorubicin (DOX) and Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) by inhibiting the efflux function of the transporters in ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cells but not in their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, alectinib stimulated ATPase activity and competed with substrates of ABCB1 or ABCG2 and competed with [125I] iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling bound to ABCB1 or ABCG2 but neither altered the expression and localization of ABCB1 or ABCG2 nor the phosphorylation levels of AKT and ERK. Alectinib also enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and the intracellular accumulation of Rho 123 in ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia cells. These findings suggest that alectinib combined with traditional chemotherapy may be beneficial to patients with ABCB1- or ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  8. Alectinib (CH5424802) antagonizes ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Chen, Yifan; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Wang, Fang; Li, Delan; Chen, Likun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-01-01

    Alectinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we investigated the reversal effect of alectinib on multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which is the primary cause of chemotherapy failure. We provide the first evidence that alectinib increases the sensitivity of ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, alectinib increased the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates such as doxorubicin (DOX) and Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) by inhibiting the efflux function of the transporters in ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cells but not in their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, alectinib stimulated ATPase activity and competed with substrates of ABCB1 or ABCG2 and competed with [125I] iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling bound to ABCB1 or ABCG2 but neither altered the expression and localization of ABCB1 or ABCG2 nor the phosphorylation levels of AKT and ERK. Alectinib also enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and the intracellular accumulation of Rho 123 in ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia cells. These findings suggest that alectinib combined with traditional chemotherapy may be beneficial to patients with ABCB1- or ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:28303028

  9. Cabazitaxel is more active than first-generation taxanes in ABCB1(+) cell lines due to its reduced affinity for P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Duran, George E; Derdau, Volker; Weitz, Dietmar; Philippe, Nicolas; Blankenstein, Jörg; Atzrodt, Jens; Sémiond, Dorothée; Gianolio, Diego A; Macé, Sandrine; Sikic, Branimir I

    2018-04-19

    The primary aim of this study was to determine cabazitaxel's affinity for the ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter compared to first-generation taxanes. We determined the kinetics of drug accumulation and retention using [ 14 C]-labeled taxanes in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. In addition, membrane-enriched fractions isolated from doxorubicin-selected MES-SA/Dx5 cells were used to determine sodium orthovanadate-sensitive ATPase stimulation after exposure to taxanes. Custom [ 3 H]-azido-taxane analogues were synthesized for the photoaffinity labeling of P-gp. The maximum intracellular drug concentration was achieved faster with [ 14 C]-cabazitaxel (5 min) than [ 14 C]-docetaxel (15-30 min). MDR cells accumulated twice as much cabazitaxel than docetaxel, and these levels could be restored to parental levels in the presence of the P-gp inhibitor PSC-833 (valspodar). Efflux in drug-free medium confirmed that MDR cells retained twice as much cabazitaxel than docetaxel. There was a strong association (r 2  = 0.91) between the degree of taxane resistance conferred by P-gp expression and the accumulation differences observed with the two taxanes. One cell model expressing low levels of P-gp was not cross-resistant to cabazitaxel while demonstrating modest resistance to docetaxel. Furthermore, there was a 1.9 × reduction in sodium orthovanadate-sensitive ATPase stimulation resulting from treatment with cabazitaxel compared to docetaxel. We calculated a dissociation constant (Kd) value of 1.7 µM for [ 3 H]-azido-docetaxel and ~ 7.5 µM for [ 3 H]-azido-cabazitaxel resulting in a 4.4 × difference in P-gp labeling, and cold docetaxel was a more effective competitor than cabazitaxel. Our studies confirm that cabazitaxel is more active in ABCB1(+) cell models due to its reduced affinity for P-gp compared to docetaxel.

  10. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Overcomes Paclitaxel Resistance in ABCB1- and ABCC10-Overexpressing Cells and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Patel, Atish; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J; Qiu, Long-Hui; Patel, Bhargav A; Huang, Li-Hua; Shukla, Suneet; Yang, Dong-Hua; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs in the clinic. Unfortunately, the occurrence of cellular resistance has limited its efficacy and application. The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1/P-glycoprotein) and subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10/MRP7) are the major membrane protein transporters responsible for the efflux of paclitaxel, constituting one of the most important mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance. Here, we demonstrated that the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of paclitaxel by antagonizing the efflux function of ABCB1 and ABCC10 in cells overexpressing these transporters. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ABCB1 or ABCC10 protein expression was not altered after treatment with ibrutinib for up to 72 hours using Western blot analysis. However, the ATPase activity of ABCB1 was significantly stimulated by treatment with ibrutinib. Molecular docking analysis suggested the binding conformation of ibrutinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1. Importantly, ibrutinib could effectively enhance paclitaxel-induced inhibition on the growth of ABCB1- and ABCC10-overexpressing tumors in nude athymic mice. These results demonstrate that the combination of ibrutinib and paclitaxel can effectively antagonize ABCB1- or ABCC10-mediated paclitaxel resistance that could be of great clinical interest. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1021-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Constitutive androstane receptor upregulates Abcb1 and Abcg2 at the blood-brain barrier after CITCO activation.

    PubMed

    Lemmen, Julia; Tozakidis, Iasson E P; Bele, Prachee; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2013-03-21

    ATP-driven efflux transporters are considered to be the major hurdle in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Abcb1 (P-glycoprotein) and Abcg2 (breast cancer resistance protein/brain multidrug resistance protein) belong to the best known ABC-transporters. These ABC-transporters limit the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and protect the brain against toxic compounds in the blood but on the other hand they also reduce the efficacy of CNS pharmacotherapy. Even after 40 years of extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms of these efflux transporters are still not completely understood. To unravel the efflux transporter regulation, we analyzed the effect of the nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) on the expression of Abcb1 and Abcg2 in primary cultures of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC). CAR is a xenobiotic-activated transcription factor, which is, like the other important nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR), highly expressed in barrier tissue and known to be a positive regulator of ABC-transporters. We demonstrate that activation of porcine CAR by the human CAR (hCAR) ligand CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde) leads to an up-regulation of both transporters, whereas the mouse-specific CAR ligand TCPOBOP (1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene) had no effect on transporter expression. The stimulation of PBCEC with CITCO caused a significant up-regulation of both efflux-transporters on RNA-level, protein level and transport level. Furthermore the additional application of a CAR inhibitor significantly decreased the transporter expression to control niveau. In conclusion our data prove CAR activation only by the human ligand CITCO leading to an increased ABC-transporter expression and transport activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Osimertinib (AZD9291) Enhanced the Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents in ABCB1- and ABCG2-Overexpressing Cells In Vitro, In Vivo, and Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Chen, Yifan; Xu, Meng; Chen, Likun; Zhang, Xu; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Zhao, Hongyun; Wang, Fang; Xia, Zhongjun; Chen, Xiaoqin; Fu, Liwu

    2016-08-01

    The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters has been proved to be a major trigger for multidrug resistance (MDR) in certain types of cancer. In our study, we investigated whether osimertinib (AZD9291), a third-generation irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both activating EGFR mutations and resistance-associated T790M point mutation, could reverse MDR induced by ABCB1 and ABCG2 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo Our results showed that osimertinib significantly increased the sensitivity of ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cells to their substrate chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in the model of ABCB1-overexpressing KBv200 cell xenograft in nude mice. Mechanistically, osimertinib increased the intracellular accumulations of doxorubicin (DOX) and Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) by inhibiting the efflux function of the transporters in ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cells but not in their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, osimertinib stimulated the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 and competed with the [(125)I] iodoarylazidoprazosin photolabeling bound to ABCB1 or ABCG2, but did not alter the localization and expression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 in mRNA and protein levels nor the phosphorylations of EGFR, AKT, and ERK. Importantly, osimertinib also enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and intracellular accumulation of Rho 123 in ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia cells. Overall, these findings suggest osimertinib reverses ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR via inhibiting ABCB1 and ABCG2 from pumping out chemotherapeutic agents and provide possibility for cancer combinational therapy with osimertinib in the clinic. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1845-58. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Use of a combined effect model approach for discriminating between ABCB1- and ABCC1-type efflux activities in native bivalve gill tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Melissa; CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy

    Aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, employ ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters for efflux of potentially toxic chemicals. Anthropogenic water contaminants can, as chemosensitizers, disrupt efflux transporter function enabling other, putatively toxic compounds to enter the organism. Applying rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR we identified complete cDNAs encoding ABCB1- and ABCC1-type transporter homologs from zebra mussel providing the molecular basis for expression of both transporter types in zebra mussel gills. Further, efflux activities of both transporter types in gills were indicated with dye accumulation assays where efflux of the dye calcein-am was sensitive to both ABCB1- (reversin 205, verapamil)more » and ABCC1- (MK571) type specific inhibitors. The assumption that different inhibitors targeted different efflux pump types was confirmed when comparing measured effects of binary inhibitor compound mixtures in dye accumulation assays with predictions from mixture effect models. Effects by the MK571/reversin 205 mixture corresponded better with independent action, whereas reversin 205/verapamil joint effects were better predicted by the concentration addition model indicating different and equal targets, respectively. The binary mixture approach was further applied to identify the efflux pump type targeted by environmentally relevant chemosensitizing compounds. Pentachlorophenol and musk ketone, which were selected after a pre-screen of twelve compounds that previously had been identified as chemosensitizers, showed mixture effects that corresponded better with concentration addition when combined with reversine 205 but with independent action predictions when combined with MK571 indicating targeting of an ABCB1-type efflux pump by these compounds. - Highlights: • Sequences and function of ABC efflux transporters in bivalve gills were explored. • Full length Dreissena polymorpha abcb1 and abcc1 cDNA sequences were identified. • A

  14. The Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Burcu, Mehmet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Baer, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) on malignant cells is associated with inferior chemotherapy outcomes. Both, ABCB1 and ABCG2, are substrates of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-1; Pim-1 knockdown decreases their cell surface expression, but SGI-1776, the first clinically tested Pim inhibitor, was shown to reverse drug resistance by directly inhibiting ABCB1-mediated transport. We sought to characterize Pim-1-dependent and -independent effects of SGI-1776 on drug resistance. SGI-1776 at the Pim-1-inhibitory and non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 μM decreased the IC50s of the ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrate drugs in cytotoxicity assays in resistant cells, with no effect on the IC50 of non-substrate drug, nor in parental cells. SGI-1776 also increased apoptosis of cells overexpressing ABCG2 or ABCB1 exposed to substrate chemotherapy drugs and decreased their colony formation in the presence of substrate, but not non-substrate, drugs, with no effect on parental cells. SGI-1776 decreased ABCB1 and ABCG2 surface expression on K562/ABCB1 and K562/ABCG2 cells, respectively, with Pim-1 overexpression, but not HL60/VCR and 8226/MR20 cells, with lower-level Pim-1 expression. Finally, SGI-1776 inhibited uptake of ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in a concentration-dependent manner irrespective of Pim-1 expression, inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 photoaffinity labeling with the transport substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([125I]IAAP) and stimulated ABCB1 and ABCG2 ATPase activity. Thus SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibits drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Decrease in ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression mediated by Pim-1 inhibition represents a novel mechanism of chemosensitization. PMID:23261525

  15. Uncaria alkaloids reverse ABCB1-mediated cancer multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bao-Yuan; Zeng, Yu; Li, Ying-Jie; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Nan; Yao, Nan; Chen, Min-Feng; Yang, Zai-Gang; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zeng, Chang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is the main cause of cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), which leads to chemotherapy failure. Uncaria alkaloids are the major active components isolated from uncaria, which is a common Chinese herbal medicine. In this study, the MDR-reversal activities of uncaria alkaloids, including rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, isocorynoxeine (Icory), hirsutine and hirsuteine, were screened; they all exhibited potent reversal efficacy when combined with doxorubicin. Among them, Icory significantly sensitized ABCB1-overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to vincristine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel, but not to the non-ABCB1 substrate cisplatin. Noteworthy, Icory selectively reversed ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cancer cells but not ABCC1- or ABCG2-mediated MDR. Further mechanistic study revealed that Icory increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in ABCB1-overexpressing cells by blocking the efflux function of ABCB1. Instead of inhibiting ABCB1 expression and localization, Icory acts as a substrate of the ABCB1 transporter by competitively binding to substrate binding sites. Collectively, these results indicated that Icory reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR by suppressing its efflux function, and it would be beneficial to increase the efficacy of these types of uncaria alkaloids and develop them to be selective ABCB1-mediated MDR-reversal agents. PMID:28534954

  16. The Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Burcu, Mehmet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Baer, Maria R

    2013-02-15

    Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) on malignant cells is associated with inferior chemotherapy outcomes. Both, ABCB1 and ABCG2, are substrates of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-1; Pim-1 knockdown decreases their cell surface expression, but SGI-1776, the first clinically tested Pim inhibitor, was shown to reverse drug resistance by directly inhibiting ABCB1-mediated transport. We sought to characterize Pim-1-dependent and -independent effects of SGI-1776 on drug resistance. SGI-1776 at the Pim-1-inhibitory and non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 μM decreased the IC(50)s of the ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrate drugs in cytotoxicity assays in resistant cells, with no effect on the IC(50) of non-substrate drug, nor in parental cells. SGI-1776 also increased apoptosis of cells overexpressing ABCG2 or ABCB1 exposed to substrate chemotherapy drugs and decreased their colony formation in the presence of substrate, but not non-substrate, drugs, with no effect on parental cells. SGI-1776 decreased ABCB1 and ABCG2 surface expression on K562/ABCB1 and K562/ABCG2 cells, respectively, with Pim-1 overexpression, but not HL60/VCR and 8226/MR20 cells, with lower-level Pim-1 expression. Finally, SGI-1776 inhibited uptake of ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in a concentration-dependent manner irrespective of Pim-1 expression, inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 photoaffinity labeling with the transport substrate [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([(125)I]IAAP) and stimulated ABCB1 and ABCG2 ATPase activity. Thus SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibits drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Decrease in ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression mediated by Pim-1 inhibition represents a novel mechanism of chemosensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ABCB1 as predominant resistance mechanism in cells with acquired SNS-032 resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rothweiler, Florian; Voges, Yvonne; Balónová, Barbora; Blight, Barry A.; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2016-01-01

    The CDK inhibitor SNS-032 had previously exerted promising anti-neuroblastoma activity via CDK7 and 9 inhibition. ABCB1 expression was identified as major determinant of SNS-032 resistance. Here, we investigated the role of ABCB1 in acquired SNS-032 resistance. In contrast to ABCB1-expressing UKF-NB-3 sub-lines resistant to other ABCB1 substrates, SNS-032-adapted UKF-NB-3 (UKF-NB-3rSNS- 032300nM) cells remained sensitive to the non-ABCB1 substrate cisplatin and were completely re-sensitized to cytotoxic ABCB1 substrates by ABCB1 inhibition. Moreover, UKF-NB-3rSNS-032300nM cells remained similarly sensitive to CDK7 and 9 inhibition as UKF-NB-3 cells. In contrast, SHEPrSNS-0322000nM, the SNS-032-resistant sub-line of the neuroblastoma cell line SHEP, displayed low level SNS-032 resistance also when ABCB1 was inhibited. This discrepancy may be explained by the higher SNS-032 concentrations that were used to establish SHEPrSNS-0322000nM cells, since SHEP cells intrinsically express ABCB1 and are less sensitive to SNS-032 (IC50 912 nM) than UKF-NB-3 cells (IC50 153 nM). In conclusion, we show that ABCB1 expression represents the primary (sometimes exclusive) resistance mechanism in neuroblastoma cells with acquired resistance to SNS-032. Thus, ABCB1 inhibitors may increase the SNS-032 efficacy in ABCB1-expressing cells and prolong or avoid resistance formation. PMID:27517323

  18. Human ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 mediate resistance to BI 2536, a potent and selective inhibitor of Polo-like kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Hsiao, Sung-Han; Sim, Hong-May; Luo, Shi-Yu; Tuo, Wei-Cherng; Cheng, Hsing-Wen; Li, Yan-Qing; Huang, Yang-Hui; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2013-10-01

    The overexpression of the serine/threonine specific Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) has been detected in various types of cancer, and thus has fast become an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. BI 2536 is the first selective inhibitor of Plk1 that inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting G2/M cell cycle arrest at nanomolar concentrations. Unfortunately, alike most chemotherapeutic agents, the development of acquired resistance to BI 2536 is prone to present a significant therapeutic challenge. One of the most common mechanisms for acquired resistance in cancer chemotherapy is associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Here, we discovered that overexpressing of either ABCB1 or ABCG2 is a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to BI 2536 in human cancer cells. Moreover, BI 2536 stimulates the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibits the drug substrate transport mediated by these transporters. More significantly, the reduced chemosensitivity and BI 2536-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells overexpressing either ABCB1 or ABCG2 can be significantly restored in the presence of selective inhibitor or other chemotherapeutic agents that also interact with ABCB1 and ABCG2, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors nilotinib and lapatinib. Taken together, our findings indicate that in order to circumvent ABCB1 or ABCG2-mediated acquired resistance to BI 2536, a combined regimen of BI 2536 and inhibitors or clinically active drugs that potently inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters, should be considered as a potential treatment strategy in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ABCB1 identifies a subpopulation of uveal melanoma cells with high metastatic propensity

    PubMed Central

    Landreville, Solange; Agapova, Olga A.; Kneass, Zachary T.; Salesse, Christian; Harbour, J. William

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs is the leading cause of death in melanoma. Yet, the mechanisms of metastasis remain poorly understood. One key question is whether all cells in a primary tumor are equally likely to metastasize or whether subpopulations of cells preferentially give rise to metastases. Here, we identified a subpopulation of uveal melanoma cells expressing the multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1 that are highly metastatic compared to ABCB1− bulk tumor cells. ABCB1+ cells also exhibited enhanced clonogenicity, anchorage independent growth, tumorigenicity and mitochondrial activity compared to ABCB1− cells. A375 cutaneous melanoma cells contained a similar subpopulation of highly metastatic ABCB1+ cells. These findings suggest that some uveal melanoma cells have greater potential for metastasis than others, and that a better understanding of such cells may be necessary for more successful therapies for metastatic melanoma. PMID:21575142

  20. Paclitaxel sensitivity in relation to ABCB1 expression, efflux and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Healey, Sue; Henderson, Michelle; Wong, Mark; Emmanuel, Catherine; Galletta, Laura; Johnatty, Sharon E; Bowtell, David; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray; Harnett, Paul; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Balleine, Rosemary L; deFazio, Anna

    2014-05-09

    ABCB1 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter B1) mediates cellular elimination of many chemotherapeutic agents including paclitaxel, which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. A significant association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1 and progression-free survival has been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. Variable paclitaxel clearance due to genotype specific differences in ABCB1 activity in cancer cells and/or normal tissues may underlie the association. Using cell-based models, we evaluated the correlations between ABCB1 expression, polymorphisms, transporter activity and paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer (n = 10) and lymphoblastoid (n = 19) cell lines. Close associations between ABCB1 expression, transporter function and paclitaxel sensitivity were found in lymphoblastoid cell lines, although we could not demonstrate an association with common SNPs. In ovarian cancer cell lines, ABCB1 expression was low and the association between expression and function was lost. These results suggest that ABCB1 related survival difference in ovarian cancer patients is more likely to be due to differential whole body paclitaxel clearance mediated by normal cells rather than a direct effect on cancer cells.

  1. Carfilzomib resistance due to ABCB1/MDR1 overexpression is overcome by nelfinavir and lopinavir in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Besse, A; Stolze, S C; Rasche, L; Weinhold, N; Morgan, G J; Kraus, M; Bader, J; Overkleeft, H S; Besse, L; Driessen, C

    2018-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitor (PI) carfilzomib (CFZ) has activity superior to bortezomib (BTZ) and is increasingly incorporated in multiple myeloma (MM) frontline therapy and relapsed settings. Most MM patients ultimately experience PI-refractory disease, an unmet medical need with poorly understood biology and dismal outcome. Pharmacologic targeting of ABCB1 improved patient outcomes, including MM, but suffered from adverse drug effects and insufficient plasma concentrations. Proteomics analysis identified ABCB1 overexpression as the most significant change in CFZ-resistant MM cells. We addressed the functional role of ABCB1 overexpression in MM and observed significantly upregulated ABCB1 in peripheral blood malignant plasma cells (PCs) vs untreated patients’ bone marrow PC. ABCB1 overexpression reduces the proteasome-inhibiting activity of CFZ due to drug efflux, in contrast to BTZ. Likewise, the cytotoxicity of established anti-MM drugs was significantly reduced in ABCB1-expressing MM cells. In search for potential drugs targeting ABCB1 in clinical trials, we identified the HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir (NFV) and lopinavir (LPV) as potent functional modulators of ABCB1-mediated drug export, most likely via modulation of mitochondria permeability transition pore. NFV and LPV restored CFZ activity at therapeutically relevant drug levels and thus represent ready-to-use drugs to be tested in clinical trials to target ABCB1 and to re-sensitize PC to established myeloma drugs, in particular CFZ. PMID:28676669

  2. ABCB1 regulation through LRPPRC is influenced by the methylation status of the GC -100 box in its promoter

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Stephany; Binato, Renata; Du Rocher, Bárbara; Ferreira, Gerson; Cappelletti, Paola; Soares-Lima, Sheila; Pinto, Luis Felipe; Mencalha, André; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    One of the potential mechanisms of imatinib mesylate (IM) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is increased level of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Pgp is an efflux pump capable of activating the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The gene encoding Pgp (ABCB1) has several binding sites in its promoter region, along with CpG islands and GC boxes, involved in its epigenetic control. In previous work, we performed a proteomic study to identify proteins involved in IM cross-resistance in acute leukemia. Among these proteins, we identified LRPPRC as a potential regulator of ABCB1 transcription via an invMED1 binding site in ABCB1. Interestingly, this invMED1 binding site overlaps with the GC -100 box. In this work, we investigated the potential role of LRPPRC in the regulation of ABCB1 transcriptional activity in CML resistance. In addition, we evaluated the potential connection between this regulation and the methylation status of the ABCB1 promoter in its GC -100 box. Our results show that LRPPRC binds prominently to the ABCB1 promoter in Lucena cells, an IM-resistant cell line. Luciferase assays showed that ABCB1 transcription is positively regulated by LRPPRC upon its knockdown. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the ABCB1 promoter is differentially methylated at its GC -100 box in K562 cells compared with Lucena cells, and in CML patients with different response to IM. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Pgp expression after DNA demethylation treatment showed that LRPPRC binding is affected by the methylation status of ABCB1 GC -100 box. Taken together, our findings indicate that LRPPRC is a transcription factor related to ABCB1 expression and highlight the importance of epigenetic regulation in CML resistance. PMID:25089713

  3. ABCB1 regulation through LRPPRC is influenced by the methylation status of the GC -100 box in its promoter.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Stephany; Binato, Renata; Du Rocher, Bárbara; Ferreira, Gerson; Cappelletti, Paola; Soares-Lima, Sheila; Pinto, Luis Felipe; Mencalha, André; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2014-08-01

    One of the potential mechanisms of imatinib mesylate (IM) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is increased level of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Pgp is an efflux pump capable of activating the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The gene encoding Pgp (ABCB1) has several binding sites in its promoter region, along with CpG islands and GC boxes, involved in its epigenetic control. In previous work, we performed a proteomic study to identify proteins involved in IM cross-resistance in acute leukemia. Among these proteins, we identified LRPPRC as a potential regulator of ABCB1 transcription via an invMED1 binding site in ABCB1. Interestingly, this invMED1 binding site overlaps with the GC -100 box. In this work, we investigated the potential role of LRPPRC in the regulation of ABCB1 transcriptional activity in CML resistance. In addition, we evaluated the potential connection between this regulation and the methylation status of the ABCB1 promoter in its GC -100 box. Our results show that LRPPRC binds prominently to the ABCB1 promoter in Lucena cells, an IM-resistant cell line. Luciferase assays showed that ABCB1 transcription is positively regulated by LRPPRC upon its knockdown. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the ABCB1 promoter is differentially methylated at its GC -100 box in K562 cells compared with Lucena cells, and in CML patients with different response to IM. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Pgp expression after DNA demethylation treatment showed that LRPPRC binding is affected by the methylation status of ABCB1 GC -100 box. Taken together, our findings indicate that LRPPRC is a transcription factor related to ABCB1 expression and highlight the importance of epigenetic regulation in CML resistance.

  4. Genetic variability in ABCB1, occupational pesticide exposure, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shilpa; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Paul, Kimberly C; Liew, Zeyan; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2015-11-01

    Studies suggested that variants in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein, a xenobiotic transporter, may increase susceptibility to pesticide exposures linked to Parkinson's Disease (PD) risk. To investigate the joint impact of two ABCB1 polymorphisms and pesticide exposures on PD risk. In a population-based case control study, we genotyped ABCB1 gene variants at rs1045642 (c.3435C/T) and rs2032582 (c.2677G/T/A) and assessed occupational exposures to organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on self-reported occupational use and record-based ambient workplace exposures for 282 PD cases and 514 controls of European ancestry. We identified active ingredients in self-reported occupational use pesticides from a California database and estimated ambient workplace exposures between 1974 and 1999 employing a geographic information system together with records for state pesticide and land use. With unconditional logistic regression, we estimated marginal and joint contributions for occupational pesticide exposures and ABCB1 variants in PD. For occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes, we estimated odds ratios of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.87, 4.07)] to 3.71 [95% CI: (1.96, 7.02)], with the highest odds ratios estimated for occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes at both SNPs; but we found no multiplicative scale interactions. This study lends support to a previous report that commonly used pesticides, specifically OCs and OPs, and variant ABCB1 genotypes at two polymorphic sites jointly increase risk of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Abcb1a but not Abcg2 played a predominant role in limiting the brain distribution of Huperzine A in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajun; Yue, Mei; Zhou, Dandan; Wang, Meiyu; Zhang, Hongjian

    2017-09-01

    Huperzine A has been used for improving symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Its cholinergic side effect is thought to be an exaggerated pharmacological outcome linked to its high brain or CNS concentrations. Although Huperzine A is brain penetrable, its interaction with efflux transporters (ABCB1 and ABCG2) has not been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to characterize roles of ABCB1 and ABCG2 in the transmembrane transport of Huperzine A and identify a rate limiting step in its brain distribution. Data obtained from stably transfected MDCK II cells showed that Huperzine A is a substrate of ABCB1 but not ABCG2. ABCB1 inhibitors significantly inhibited ABCB1 mediated efflux of Huperzine A. In Abcb1a -/- mice, the brain to plasma concentration ratio of Huperzine A was significantly increased as compared to the wild type mice, while there were no obvious differences between the wild type and Abcg2 -/- mice. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ABCB1 but not ABCG2 played a predominant role in the efflux of Huperzine A across BBB. The current finding is clinically relevant as changes in ABCB1 activity in the presence of ABCB1 inhibitors or genetic polymorphism may affect efficacy and safety of Huperzine A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ABCB1 polymorphisms are associated with clozapine plasma levels in psychotic patients.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Giorgio; Lastella, Marianna; Ciapparelli, Antonio; Catena Dell'Osso, Mario; Ciofi, Laura; Guidotti, Emanuele; Danesi, Romano; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Del Tacca, Mario; Di Paolo, Antonello

    2009-08-01

    ABCB1 is a transmembrane transporter that is expressed in excretory organs (kidneys and liver), in intestine mucosa and on the blood-brain barrier. Because of the particular distribution of the protein, the activity of ABCB1 may significantly affect drug pharmacokinetics during absorption and distribution. Of note, several SNPs of ABCB1 are known and many of them affect transporter activity and/or expression. In this view, changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are ABCB1 substrates could be clinically relevant and the evaluation of ABCB1 SNPs should deserve particular attention. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and clozapine plasma levels in psychotic patients. c.1236C>T (exon 12), c.2677G>T (exon 21) and c.3435C>T (exon 26) SNPs of ABCB1 were evaluated by PCR techniques, while plasma levels of clozapine and norclozapine were measured by HPLC in 40 men (aged, 47.6 +/- 16.6 years, median: 42 years) and 20 women (aged 40.7 +/- 11.4 years, median: 38 years) 1 month after the start of clozapine administration. A total of three SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with a calculated frequency of the wild-type alleles of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.45 for SNPs on exons 12, 21 and 26, respectively. Patients with c.3435CC or c.2677GG genotypes had significantly lower dose-normalized clozapine levels than those who were heterozygous or TT carriers. More interestingly, c.3435CC patients (15 subjects) needed significantly higher daily doses of clozapine (246 +/- 142 mg/day) compared with the remaining 24 CT and 21 TT patients (140 +/- 90 mg/day) in order to achieve the same clinical benefit. c.3435CC patients require higher clozapine doses to achieve the same plasma concentrations as CT or TT patients, and ABCB1 genotyping should be considered as a novel strategy that should improve drug use.

  7. Breed distribution of the ABCB1-1Delta (multidrug sensitivity) polymorphism among dogs undergoing ABCB1 genotyping.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Katrina L; Meurs, Kathryn M

    2008-09-15

    To evaluate the breed distribution of the ABCB1-1Delta polymorphism in a large number of dogs in North America, including dogs of several herding breeds in which this polymorphism has been detected and other breeds in which this polymorphism has not yet been identified. Cross-sectional study. 5,368 dogs from which buccal swab samples were collected for purposes of ABCB1 genotyping. From May 1, 2004, to September 30, 2007, DNA specimens derived from buccal swab samples collected from 5,368 dogs underwent ABCB1 genotyping. These data were reviewed, and results for each dog were recorded in a spreadsheet, along with the dog's breed. The genotypes for each breed were tallied by use of a sorting function. The ABCB1-1Delta allele was identified in 9 breeds of dogs and in many mixed-breed dogs. Breeds that had the ABCB1-1Delta allele included Collie, Longhaired Whippet, Australian Shepherd (standard and miniature), Shetland Sheepdog, Old English Sheepdog, Border Collie, Silken Windhound, and German Shepherd Dog (a breed in which this mutation had not been detected previously). The ABCB1-1Delta polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to many adverse drug reactions and with suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is present in many herding breeds of dog. Veterinarians should be familiar with the breeds that have the ABCB1-1Delta polymorphism to make appropriate pharmacologic choices for these patients.

  8. ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and violent suicide attempt among survivors.

    PubMed

    Peñas-Lledó, E; Guillaume, S; Delgado, A; Naranjo, M E G; Jaussent, I; LLerena, A; Courtet, P

    2015-02-01

    Those suicide attempters that choose violent methods dramatically diminish the possibility of survival. Completed suicide using violent means, which is common among first-time suicide attempters, was recently found to be more likely among T allele carriers in the three most common ABCB1 SNPs, encoding for P-gp. Thus, this study examined, for the first time, whether these ABCB1 SNPs were associated with the use of violent means among survivors of a suicide attempt. Suicide attempters (n = 578, 87.4% women; of whom 16.6% committed a violent intent) were genotyped for exonic SNPs in the ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T/A, C3435T). The relations of the three genotypes and of the TTT haplotype with the use of a violent suicide method were evaluated separately. The impact of confounds on these variables was controlled. A higher frequency (p = 0.02) of suicide attempters using violent methods was found among those carrying the ABCB1 haplotype (1236TT-2677TT-3435TT). Since gender and number of previous suicide attempts were identified as confounds, the relation was tested in the subset of women who were first-time attempters or second- and more-time attempters. The ABCB1 haplotype increased the risk more than three times in those women attempting a violent suicide for the first time (OR = 3.6; CI95%: 1.08-12.09; p = 0.04). The ABCB1 haplotype (1236TT-2677TT-3435TT) was related to the use of a violent suicide attempt method. Genotyping for these three ABCB1 SNPs may be helpful to detect people at risk of first suicide intents using violent methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms influence tacrolimus concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Arnaud; Mourad, Michel; De Meyer, Martine; De Pauw, Luc; Eddour, Djamila Chaib; Latinne, Dominique; Elens, Laure; Haufroid, Vincent; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This prospective study investigated the effect of genetic polymorphisms in a biotransformation enzyme (CYP3A5) and a transporter protein (ABCB1) on tacrolimus (Tac) whole blood concentrations in renal transplantation, and more specifically on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) drug concentrations, after renal transplantation. A total of 96 renal transplant recipients were genotyped for the exon 11 (1199G>A), 21 (3435C>T) and 26 (2677G>T/A) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene and for the intron 3 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene. Tac blood and PBMC concentrations were determined at day 7 after transplantation and at steady state, and then compared with recipient genotypes. The ABCB1 1199G>A, 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs, appeared to reduce the activity of P-glycoprotein towards Tac, increasing Tac PBMC concentrations. The impact of ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on Tac blood concentrations was negligible. As increased Tac intracellular concentrations might in turn enhance immunosuppressive status and prevention or rejection, ABCB1 recipient genotyping might be useful to better individualize the Tac immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation.

  10. Genuine functions of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu; Masuda, Masatoshi; Nakai, Emi; Furumiya, Kenji; Togawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kawai, Yuko; Nakahira, Keiko; Shinkai, Shigeko; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1) was recognized as a drug-exporting protein from cancer cells three decade ago. Apart from the multidrug transporter side effects of P-gp, normal physiological functions of P-gp have been reported. P-gp could be responsible for translocating platelet-activating factor (PAF) across the plasma membrane and PAF inhibited drug transport mediated by P-gp in cancer cells. P-gp regulated the translocation of sphingomyelin (SM) and GlcCer, and short chain C(6)-NBD-GlcCer was found in the apical medium of P-gp cells exclusively and not in the basolateral membrane. SM plays an important role in the esterification of cholesterol. High expression of P-gp prevents stem-cell differentiation, leading to the proliferation and amplification of this cell repertoire, and functional P-gp plays a fundamental role in regulating programmed cell death, apoptosis. The transporter function of P-gp is therefore necessary to protect cells from death. P-gp can translocate both C(6)-NBD-PC and C(6)-NBD-PE across the apical membrane. This PC translocation was also confirmed with [(3)H]choline radioactivity. Progesterone is not transported by P-gp, but blocks P-gp-mediated efflux of other drugs and P-gp can mediate the transport of a variety of steroids. Cells transfected with human P-gp esterified more cholesterol. P-gp might also be involved in the transport of cytokines, particularly IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4 and IFNgamma, out of activated normal lymphocytes into the surrounding medium. P-gp expression is also associated with a volume-activated chloride channel, thus P-gp is bifunctional with both transport and channel regulators. We also present information about P-gp polymorphism and new structural concepts, "gate" and "twist", of the P-gp structure.

  11. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibited network of mitochondrion transport along microtubule and BMP signal-induced cell shape in chimpanzee left cerebrum by systems-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Minghu; Huang, Juxiang; Qi, Lianxiu

    2012-10-01

    We constructed the significant low-expression P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibited transport and signal network in chimpanzee compared with high-expression (fold change ≥2) the human left cerebrum in GEO data set, by using integration of gene regulatory activated and inhibited network inference method with gene ontology (GO) analysis. Our result showed that ABCB1 transport and signal upstream network RAB2A inhibited ABCB1, and downstream ABCB1-inhibited SMAD1_2, NCK2, SLC25A46, GDF10, RASGRP1, EGFR, LRPPRC, RASSF2, RASA4, CA2, CBLB, UBR5, SLC25A16, ITGB3BP, DDIT4, PDPN, RAB2A in chimpanzee left cerebrum. We obtained that the different biological processes of ABCB1 inhibited transport and signal network repressed carbon dioxide transport, ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, folic acid transport, mitochondrion transport along microtubule, water transport, BMP signaling pathway, Ras protein signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway in chimpanzee compared with the inhibited network of the human left cerebrum, as a result of inducing inhibition of mitochondrion transport along microtubule and BMP signal-induced cell shape in chimpanzee left cerebrum. Our hypothesis was verified by the same and different biological processes of ABCB1 inhibited transport and signal network of chimpanzee compared with the corresponding activated network of chimpanzee and the human left cerebrum, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Relation of polymorphism C1236T and C3435T in ABCB1 gene with bone marrow suppression in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifah, S.; Hamdi, T.; Widyawati, T.; Sari, M. I.; Anggraini, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    ABCB1 is agene that encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transmembrane active efflux pump for a variety of carcinogens and cytostatics.ABCB1 polymorphisms C1236T and C3435T contribute to the variability oftherapeutic outcome and side effects.The present study was conducted to investigatethe relation of C1236T and C3435T polymorphisms in ABCB1 gene with bone marrow suppression in breast cancer patients treated withchemotherapy72 Indonesian womens isolated DNA sampleswere amplified using the PCR method. The analysis process of ABCB1 C1236T and C3435T polymorphism was by using thePCR-RFLP method. The frequencies of ABCB1 C1236T genotype for homozygous CC,heterozygous CT and variant TT was 11(15.28%), 42(58.33%), 19(26.39%), respectively. No associationwas between ABCB1 C1236T and C3435T polymorphisms in both individually and haplotypes with bone marrow suppression event (p > 0.05). There was no specific deviation of allele and genotype frequency from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. There was a linkage between heterozygous CT-heterozygous CT in position 1236 and 3435 within 25 people (35%).

  13. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-11-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism.

  14. Conditions of activation of yeast plasma membrane ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sychrová, H; Kotyk, A

    1985-04-08

    The in vivo activation of the H+-ATPase of baker's yeast plasma membrane found by Serrano in 1983 was demonstrated with D-glucose aerobically and anaerobically (as well as in a respiration-deficient mutant) and, after suitable induction, with maltose, trehalose, and galactose. The activated but not the control ATPase was sensitive to oligomycin. No activation was possible in a cell-free extract with added glucose. The ATPase was not activated in yeast protoplasts which may account for the absence of glucose-stimulated secondary active transports in these wall-less cells and provide support for a microscopic coupling between ATPase activity and these transports in yeast cells.

  15. Modulation of bilirubin neurotoxicity by the Abcb1 transporter in the Ugt1-/- lethal mouse model of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Bockor, Luka; Bortolussi, Giulia; Vodret, Simone; Iaconcig, Alessandra; Jašprová, Jana; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Vitek, Libor; Tiribelli, Claudio; Muro, Andrés F

    2017-01-01

    Moderate neonatal jaundice is the most common clinical condition during newborn life. However, a combination of factors may result in acute hyperbilirubinemia, placing infants at risk of developing bilirubin encephalopathy and death by kernicterus. While most risk factors are known, the mechanisms acting to reduce susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity remain unclear. The presence of modifier genes modulating the risk of developing bilirubin-induced brain damage is increasingly being recognised. The Abcb1 and Abcc1 members of the ABC family of transporters have been suggested to have an active role in exporting unconjugated bilirubin from the central nervous system into plasma. However, their role in reducing the risk of developing neurological damage and death during neonatal development is still unknown.To this end, we mated Abcb1a/b-/- and Abcc1-/- strains with Ugt1-/- mice, which develop severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. While about 60% of Ugt1-/- mice survived after temporary phototherapy, all Abcb1a/b-/-/Ugt1-/- mice died before postnatal day 21, showing higher cerebellar levels of unconjugated bilirubin. Interestingly, Abcc1 role appeared to be less important.In the cerebellum of Ugt1-/- mice, hyperbilirubinemia induced the expression of Car and Pxr nuclear receptors, known regulators of genes involved in the genotoxic response.We demonstrated a critical role of Abcb1 in protecting the cerebellum from bilirubin toxicity during neonatal development, the most clinically relevant phase for human babies, providing further understanding of the mechanisms regulating bilirubin neurotoxicity in vivo. Pharmacological treatments aimed to increase Abcb1 and Abcc1 expression, could represent a therapeutic option to reduce the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Icariin may benefit the mesenchymal stem cells of patients with steroid-associated osteonecrosis by ABCB1-promoter demethylation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z-B; Wang, J-W; Xiao, H; Zhang, Q-S; Kan, W-S; Mo, F-B; Hu, S; Ye, S-N

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we found out a previously undefined function of icariin which restored the dynamic balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) via ABCB1-promoter demethylation. These findings provided important information regarding potential implication of icariin targeting epigenetic changes for the treatment of steroid -associated ONFH. Here, we investigated whether icariin can also exert a beneficial role in the reactivation of MSCs in the patients with steroid-associated ONFH via ABCB1-promoter demethylation. Bone marrow was collected from the proximal femur in patients with steroid-associated ONFH (n = 20) and patients with new femoral neck fractures (n = 22), and then MSCs were isolated. We investigated cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, the transcript levels of ABCB1 and oxidative stress-related genes, methylation extent at CpG islands of ABCB1 promoter, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability of MSCs from the femoral neck fractures group and from the steroid-associated ONFH group treated with or without icariin. We observed that MSCs from the steroid-associated ONFH group showed reduced proliferation ability, elevated ROS level, depressed MMP, weakened osteogenesis, and enhanced adipogenesis while low P-gp activity, transcription level of ABCB1, and oxidative stress-related genes as well as aberrant CpG islands hypermethylation of ABCB1 were also noted in steroid-associated ONFH group. Treatment with icariin obviously induced de novo P-gp expression, decreased oxidative stress, and promoted osteogenesis. Icariin may be a potential drug targeting epigenetic changes for the treatment of steroid-associated ONFH.

  17. ABCB1-1Delta polymorphism can predict hematologic toxicity in dogs treated with vincristine.

    PubMed

    Mealey, K L; Fidel, J; Gay, J M; Impellizeri, J A; Clifford, C A; Bergman, P J

    2008-01-01

    Dogs that harbor the naturally occurring ABCB1-1Delta polymorphism experience increased susceptibility to avermectin-induced neurological toxicosis as a result of deficient P-glycoprotein function. Whether or not the ABCB1-1Delta polymorphism affects susceptibility to toxicity of other P-glycoprotein substrate drugs has not been studied. Dogs that possess the ABCB1-1Delta mutation are more likely to develop hematologic toxicity associated with vincristine than ABCB1 wild-type dogs. Thirty-four dogs diagnosed with lymphoma were included in this study. Cheek swab samples were obtained from dogs diagnosed with lymphoma that were to be treated with vincristine. DNA was extracted from cheek swabs and the ABCB1 genotype was determined. Hematologic adverse drug reactions were recorded for each dog and graded according to the Veterinary Comparative Oncology Group's criteria for adverse event reporting (Consensus Document). In order to avoid possible bias, ABCB1 genotype results for a particular patient were not disclosed to oncologists until an initial adverse event report had been submitted. Dogs heterozygous or homozygous for the ABCB1-1Delta mutation were significantly more likely to develop hematologic toxicity, specifically neutropenia (P= .0005) and thrombocytopenia (P= .0001), after treatment with vincristine than ABCB1 wild-type dogs. At currently recommended dosages (0.5-0.7 mg/M(2)), vincristine is likely to cause hematologic toxicity in dogs with the ABCB1-1Delta mutation, resulting in treatment delays and unacceptable morbidity and mortality. Assessing the ABCB1-1Delta genotype before vincristine administration and decreasing the dosage may prevent toxicity and treatment delays resulting from neutropenia or thrombocytopenia.

  18. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  19. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. ABCB1 haplotype and OPRM1 118A > G genotype interaction in methadone maintenance treatment pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Daniel T; Coller, Janet K; Hallinan, Richard; Byrne, Andrew; White, Jason M; Foster, David JR; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Genetic variability in ABCB1, encoding the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter, has been linked to altered methadone maintenance treatment dose requirements. However, subsequent studies have indicated that additional environmental or genetic factors may confound ABCB1 pharmacogenetics in different methadone maintenance treatment settings. There is evidence that genetic variability in OPRM1, encoding the mu opioid receptor, and ABCB1 may interact to affect morphine response in opposite ways. This study aimed to examine whether a similar gene-gene interaction occurs for methadone in methadone maintenance treatment. Methods: Opioid-dependent subjects (n = 119) maintained on methadone (15–300 mg/day) were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 (61A > G; 1199G > A; 1236C > T; 2677G > T; 3435C > T), as well as for the OPRM1 118A > G single nucleotide polymorphism. Subjects’ methadone doses and trough plasma (R)-methadone concentrations (Ctrough) were compared between ABCB1 haplotypes (with and without controlling for OPRM1 genotype), and between OPRM1 genotypes (with and without controlling for ABCB1 haplotype). Results: Among wild-type OPRM1 subjects, an ABCB1 variant haplotype group (subjects with a wild-type and 61A:1199G:1236C:2677T:3435T haplotype combination, or homozygous for the 61A:1199G:1236C:2677T:3435T haplotype) had significantly lower doses (median ± standard deviation 35 ± 5 versus 180 ± 65 mg/day, P < 0.01) and Ctrough (78 ± 22 versus 177 ± 97 ng/mL, P < 0.05) than ABCB1 wild-type subjects. Among subjects with the most common ABCB1 haplotype combination (wild-type with 61A:1199G:1236T:2677T:3435T), the OPRM1 118 A/G genotype was associated with a significantly higher Ctrough than 118 A/A (250 ± 126 versus 108 ± 36 ng/mL, P = 0.016). No ABCB1 haplotype group or OPRM1 genotype was associated with dose or Ctrough without taking into account confounding genetic variability at the other locus. Therefore, two

  1. Quantification and in situ localisation of abcb1 and abcc9genes in toxicant-exposed sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Borra, Marco; Mladineo, Ivona

    2013-12-01

    A multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism mediated by ABC binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins is an efficient chemical defence mechanism in sea urchin embryos. The aim of our work was to evidence whether exposure to sub-lethal doses of specific contaminants (oxybenzone (OXI), mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and trybutiltin (TBT)) would induce MXR transporter activity during embryonic development (from zygote to blastula stage) in purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos. Further, we present data on molecular identification, transport function, expression levels and gene localisation of two ABC efflux transporters-P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/P-gp) and sulfonylurea-receptor-like protein (ABCC9/SUR-like). Partial cDNA sequences of abcb1 and abcc9 were identified and quantitative PCR (qPCR) evidenced an increase in mRNA transcript levels of both ABC transporters during the two-cell, as well as an overall decrease during the blastulae stage. Calcein-AM efflux activity assay indicated the activation of multidrug resistance-associated protein/ABCC-like transport in the presence of HgCl2 and TBT in exposed blastulae. The in situ hybridisation of the two-cell and blastula stages showed ubiquitous localisation of both transcripts within cells, supporting qPCR data. In conclusion, ABCB1 and ABCC9 are constitutive, as are HgCl2, TBT and OXI-inducible ABC membrane transporters, coexpressed in the zygote, two-cell and blastula stages of the P. lividus. Their ubiquitous cell localisation further fortifies their protective role in early embryonic development.

  2. Purification and ATPase activity of human ABCA1.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Kioka, Noriyuki; Matsuo, Michinori; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2006-04-21

    ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and high density lipoprotein metabolism. Apolipoprotein A-I binds to ABCA1 and cellular cholesterol and phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine, are loaded onto apoA-I to form pre-beta high density lipoprotein (HDL). It is proposed that ABCA1 translocates phospholipids and cholesterol directly or indirectly to form pre-beta HDL. To explore the mechanism of ABCA1-mediated pre-beta HDL formation, we expressed human ABCA1 in insect Sf9 cells and purified it. Trypsin limited-digestion of purified ABCA1 in the detergent-soluble form suggested that it retained conformation similar to ABCA1 expressed in the membranes of human fibroblast WI-38 cells. Purified ABCA1 showed robust ATPase activity when reconstituted in liposomes made of synthetic phosphatidylcholine. ABCA1 showed lower ATPase activity when reconstituted in liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylglycerol and also showed weak specificity in acyl chain species. ATPase activity was reduced by the addition of cholesterol and decreased by 25% in the presence of 20% cholesterol. Beta-sitosterol and campesterol showed similar inhibitory effects but stigmasterol did not, suggesting structure-specific interaction between ABCA1 and sterols. Glibenclamide suppressed ABCA1 ATPase, suggesting that it inhibits apoA-I-dependent cellular cholesterol efflux by suppressing ABCA1 ATPase activity. These results suggest that the ATPase activity of ABCA1 is stimulated preferentially by phospholipids with choline head groups, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. This study with purified human ABCA1 provides the first biochemical basis of the mechanism for HDL formation mediated by ABCA1.

  3. Novel insertion mutation of ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Son, Hyoung-Won; Park, Seung-Cheol; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and acts as an efflux pump for xenobiotics. In the Border Collie, a nonsense mutation caused by a 4-base pair deletion in the ABCB1 gene is associated with a premature stop to P-gp synthesis. In this study, we examined the full-length coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie that lacked the aforementioned deletion mutation. The sequence was compared to the corresponding sequences of a wild-type Beagle and seven ivermectin-tolerant family members of the Border Collie. When compared to the wild-type Beagle sequence, that of the ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie was found to have one insertion mutation and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene. While the eight SNPs were also found in the family members' sequences, the insertion mutation was found only in the ivermectin-sensitive dog. These results suggest the possibility that the SNPs are species-specific features of the ABCB1 gene in Border Collies, and that the insertion mutation may be related to ivermectin intolerance.

  4. Novel insertion mutation of ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Ik; Son, Hyoung-Won; Park, Seung-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and acts as an efflux pump for xenobiotics. In the Border Collie, a nonsense mutation caused by a 4-base pair deletion in the ABCB1 gene is associated with a premature stop to P-gp synthesis. In this study, we examined the full-length coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie that lacked the aforementioned deletion mutation. The sequence was compared to the corresponding sequences of a wild-type Beagle and seven ivermectin-tolerant family members of the Border Collie. When compared to the wild-type Beagle sequence, that of the ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie was found to have one insertion mutation and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene. While the eight SNPs were also found in the family members' sequences, the insertion mutation was found only in the ivermectin-sensitive dog. These results suggest the possibility that the SNPs are species-specific features of the ABCB1 gene in Border Collies, and that the insertion mutation may be related to ivermectin intolerance. PMID:21113104

  5. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  6. Association of ABCB1 genetic variants with renal function in Africans and in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Bochud, Murielle; Eap, Chin B; Maillard, Marc; Johnson, Toby; Vollenweider, Peter; Bovet, Pascal; Elston, Robert C; Bergmann, Sven; Beckmann, Jacques S; Waterworth, Dawn M; Mooser, Vincent; Gabriel, Anne; Burnier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is expressed in human endothelial and mesangial cells, which contribute to control renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association of ABCB1 variants with renal function in African and Caucasian subjects. Methods In Africans (290 subjects from 62 pedigrees), we genotyped the 2677G>T and 3435 C>T ABCB1 polymorphisms. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured using inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) using para-aminohippurate clearance. In Caucasians (5382 unrelated subjects), we analyzed 30 SNPs located within and around ABCB1, using data from the Affymetrix 500 K chip. GFR was estimated using the simplified Modification of the Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Results In Africans, compared to the reference genotype (GG or CC), each copy of the 2677T and 3435T allele was associated, respectively, with: GFR higher by 10.6 ± 2.9 (P < 0.001) and 4.4 ± 2.3 (P = 0.06) mL/min; ERPF higher by 47.5 ± 11.6 (P < 0.001) and 28.1 ± 10.5 (P = 0.007) mL/min; and renal resistances lower by 0.016 ± 0.004 (P < 0.001) and 0.011 ± 0.004 (P = 0.004) mm Hg/mL/min. In Caucasians, we identified 3 polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene that were strongly associated with all estimates of GFR (smallest P value = 0.0006, overall P = 0.014 after multiple testing correction). Conclusion Variants of the ABCB1 gene were associated with renal function in both Africans and Caucasians and may therefore confer susceptibility to nephropathy in humans. If confirmed in other studies, these results point toward a new candidate gene for nephropathy in humans. PMID:18518969

  7. Association of ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism with phenobarbital resistance in Thai patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Keangpraphun, T; Towanabut, S; Chinvarun, Y; Kijsanayotin, P

    2015-06-01

    One-third of patients with epilepsy are resistant to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Drug-resistant epilepsy is believed to be multifactorial involving both genetic and non-genetic factors. Genetic variations in the ABCB1 gene encoding the drug efflux transporter, p-glycoprotein (p-gp), may influence the interindividual variability in AED response by limiting drugs from reaching their target. Phenobarbital (PB), one of the most cost-effective and widely used AEDs in developing countries, has been reported to be transported by p-gp. This study aimed to investigate the association of a genetic variant, ABCB1 3435C>T, and non-genetic factors with phenobarbital response in Thai patients with epilepsy. One hundred and ten Thai patients with epilepsy who were treated with PB maintenance doses were enrolled in this study. Two phenotypic groups, PB-responsive epilepsy and PB-resistant epilepsy, were defined according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria. Subjects were genotyped for ABCB1 3435C>T (rs1045642). Multiple logistic regression analysis was tested for the association of ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and non-genetic factors with PB response. Sixty-two PB-responsive epilepsy subjects and 48 PB-resistant epilepsy subjects were identified. All genotype frequencies of the ABCB1 3435C>T SNP were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0·05). The ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and type of epilepsy were associated with response to PB. Patients with PB-resistant epilepsy had a significantly higher frequency of ABCB1 3435CC genotype and had focal epilepsy more often than patients with PB-responsive epilepsy (adjusted OR = 3·962, 95% CI = 1·075-14·610, P-value = 0·039; adjusted OR = 5·936, 95% CI = 2·272-15·513, P-value < 0·001, respectively). The model explained 25·5% of the variability in response to PB (R(2)  = 0·255). Thai patients of ABCB1 3435CC genotype and with focal epilepsy were more often PB resistant. Those two

  8. The multidrug resistance 1 gene Abcb1 in brain and placenta: comparative analysis in human and guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Jane J; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Iqbal, Majid; Moisiadis, Vasilis; Turecki, Gustavo; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain.

  9. The Role of the N-Domain in the ATPase Activity of the Mammalian AAA ATPase p97/VCP*

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Hajime; Ewens, Caroline A.; Tsang, Chun; Yeung, Heidi O.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Freemont, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a type II ATPase associated with various cellular activities that forms a homohexamer with each protomer containing an N-terminal domain (N-domain); two ATPase domains, D1 and D2; and a disordered C-terminal region. Little is known about the role of the N-domain or the C-terminal region in the p97 ATPase cycle. In the p97-associated human disease inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia, the majority of missense mutations are located at the N-domain D1 interface. Structure-based predictions suggest that such mutations affect the interaction of the N-domain with D1. Here we have tested ten major inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia-linked mutants for ATPase activity and found that all have increased activity over the wild type, with one mutant, p97A232E, having three times higher activity. Further mutagenesis of p97A232E shows that the increase in ATPase activity is mediated through D2 and requires both the N-domain and a flexible ND1 linker. A disulfide mutation that locks the N-domain to D1 in a coplanar position reversibly abrogates ATPase activity. A cryo-EM reconstruction of p97A232E suggests that the N-domains are flexible. Removal of the C-terminal region also reduces ATPase activity. Taken together, our data suggest that the conformation of the N-domain in relation to the D1-D2 hexamer is directly linked to ATP hydrolysis and that the C-terminal region is required for hexamer stability. This leads us to propose a model where the N-domain adopts either of two conformations: a flexible conformation compatible with ATP hydrolysis or a coplanar conformation that is inactive. PMID:22270372

  10. ABCB1 and ABCC1-like transporters in immune system cells from sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Echinus esculentus and oysters Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Lima-Santos, Leonardo; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2017-11-01

    ABC transporters activity and expression have been associated with the multixenobiotic resistance phenotype (MXR). The activity of these proteins leads to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of several xenobiotics, thus reducing their toxicity. However, little attention has been given to the expression of ABC transporters in marine invertebrates and few studies have investigated their role in immune system cells of sea urchins and shellfish bivalves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity of the ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 in immune system cells of sea urchins (coelomocytes) and oysters (hemocytes) from different climatic regions (Brazil and France). Sea urchins and oysters were collected at Paraíba coast; Brazil (Echinometra lucunter and Crassostrea gasar) and Rade of Brest; France (Echinus esculentus and Crassostrea gigas). Coelomocytes and hemocytes were stained with the ABC transporter substrate calcein-AM and dye accumulation analyzed under flow cytometry. Reversin 205 (ABCB1 transporter blocker) and MK571 (ABCC1 transporter blocker) were used as pharmacological tools to investigate ABC transporter activity. A different pattern of calcein accumulation was observed in coelomocytes: phagocytes > colorless spherulocytes > vibrate cells > red spherulocytes. The treatment with MK571 increased calcein fluorescence levels in coelomocytes from both species. However, reversin 205 treatment was not able to increase calcein fluorescence in E. esculentus coelomocytes. These data suggest that ABCC1-like transporter activity is present in both sea urchin species, but ABCB1-like transporter activity might only be present in E. lucunter coelomocytes. The activity of ABCC1-like transporter was observed in all cell types from both bivalve species. However, reversin 205 only increased calcein accumulation in hyalinocytes of the oyster C. gasar, suggesting the absence of ABCB1-like transporter activity in all other cell types

  11. Separation of large mammalian ventricular myosin differing in ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Heinz; Maisch, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a possible heterogeneity of human ventricular myosin, papillary muscles of patients with valvular dysfunction were examined using a modified native gel electrophoresis. Myosin was separated into 2 components termed VA and VB, whereby the VA to VB proportion appeared to depend on the ventricular load. The proportion of the faster migrating band VA was correlated (P<0.05) with end-diastolic pressure and the aortic pressure-cardiac index product. The regression based on these variables accounted for 67% of the variation in VA (R2=0.67). The VA proportion was, however, not significantly correlated with cardiac norepinephrine concentration. The ATPase activity of the 2 components of myosin was assessed from the Ca3(PO4)2 precipitation by incubating the gel in the presence of ATP and CaCl2. The ATPase activity of VA was 60% of that of VB. The VA and VB forms were observed also in the cat (31.4% VA), dog (32.1% VA), pig (28.5% VA), wild pig (33.7% VA), and roe deer (30.5% VA). VA and VB were not detected in the rat exhibiting the 3 isoforms V1, V2, and V3, rabbit (100% V3), and hare (86% V1). The data demonstrate a heterogeneity of large mammalian ventricular myosin, whereby an increased cardiac load appeared to be associated with a higher myosin VA proportion that exhibited a reduced ATPase activity.

  12. ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism is associated with tetrahydrocannabinol blood levels in heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Kebir, Oussama; Lafaye, Genevieve; Blecha, Lisa; Chaumette, Boris; Mouaffak, Fayçal; Laqueille, Xavier; Benyamina, Amine

    2018-04-01

    ABCB1 polymorphisms are known to modify drug pharmacokinetics but have yet to be studied for their role in generating and maintaining cannabis dependence. The objective of this study is to determine if ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642) polymorphism may modulate Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood levels in a sample of heavy cannabis users. The study sample includes 39 Caucasian individuals, recruited in two French addictology centres, with isolated cannabis dependence and heavy use (defined as ≥ 7 joints per week). Each underwent clinical evaluation, cannabis blood metabolite dosage (THC, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH) and genotyping of ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism. In this population (males: 74.4%, average age 29.5 +/- 9), average cannabis use was 21 joints per week (median 12; range 7 - 80). T carriers (TT/CT) had significantly lower plasma THC levels (ng/ml) versus non T carriers (8 vs 15.70, significant), controlling for level of weekly use, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH levels. Our results show that ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism may modulate serum THC levels in chronic heavy cannabis users. The exact mechanisms and roles that this may play in cannabis dependence genesis and evolution remain to be elucidated. These results should be controlled in a replication study using a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ferulic acid reverses ABCB1-mediated paclitaxel resistance in MDR cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Ganesan; Balupillai, Agilan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Gunaseelan, Srithar; Mary, Beaulah; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-09-05

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The use of the dietary phytochemicals as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention as a plausible approach for overcoming the drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based phenolic acid, ferulic acid, could sensitize paclitaxel efficacy in ABCB1 overexpressing (P-glycoprotein) colchicine selected KB Ch(R)8-5 cell line. In vitro drug efflux assays demonstrated that ferulic acid inhibits P-glycoprotein transport function in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. However, ferulic acid significantly downregulates ABCB1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Cytotoxicity assay reveals that ferulic acid decreased paclitaxel resistance in KBCh(R)8-5 and HEK293/ABCB1 cells, which indicates its chemosensitizing potential. Clonogenic cell survival assay and apoptotic morphological staining further confirm the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in drug resistant KB Ch(R)8-5 cell lines. Ferulic acid treatment enhances paclitaxel mediated cell cycle arrest and upregulates paclitaxel-induced apoptotic signaling in KB resistant cells. Hence, it has been concluded that downregulation of ABCB1 and subsequent induction of paclitaxel-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptotic signaling may be the cause for the chemosensitizing potential of ferulic acid in P-gp overexpressing cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) restricts brain accumulation and Cytochrome P450-3A (CYP3A) limits oral availability of the novel ALK/ROS1 inhibitor lorlatinib.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlong; Sparidans, Rolf W; Wang, Yaogeng; Lebre, Maria C; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2018-05-09

    Lorlatinib (PF-06463922) is a promising oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 inhibitor currently in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) containing an ALK rearrangement. With therapy-resistant brain metastases a major concern in NSCLC, lorlatinib was designed to have high membrane and blood-brain barrier permeability. We investigated the roles of the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2, and the multispecific drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A in plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of lorlatinib using genetically modified mouse strains. In vitro, human ABCB1 and mouse Abcg2 modestly transported lorlatinib. Following oral lorlatinib administration (at 10 mg/kg), brain accumulation of lorlatinib, while relatively high in wild-type mice, was still 4-fold increased in Abcb1a/1b -/- and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2 -/- mice, but not in single Abcg2 -/- mice. Lorlatinib plasma levels were not altered. Oral coadministration of the ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar increased the brain accumulation of lorlatinib in wild-type mice 4-fold, i.e. to the same level as in Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2 -/- mice, without altering plasma exposure. Similar results were obtained for lorlatinib testis accumulation. In Cyp3a -/- mice, the plasma exposure of lorlatinib was increased 1.3-fold, but was then 2-fold reduced upon transgenic over-expression of human CYP3A4 in liver and intestine, whereas relative tissue distribution of lorlatinib remained unaltered. Our data indicate that lorlatinib brain accumulation is substantially limited by P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier, but this can be effectively reversed by elacridar coadministration. Moreover, oral availability of lorlatinib is markedly restricted by CYP3A4 activity. These insights may be used in optimizing the therapeutic application of lorlatinib. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  15. Low ABCB1 and high OCT1 levels play a favorable role in the molecular response to imatinib in CML patients in the community clinical practice.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Vasconcelos, Flavia; Mauricio Scheiner, Marcos Antonio; Moellman-Coelho, Arthur; Mencalha, André Luiz; Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary; Maia, Raquel Ciuvalschi

    2016-12-01

    Despite the favorable clinical evolution of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), resistance or intolerance to imatinib is present in approximately 35% of patients. Sokal score is a widely used risk factor, however efflux and influx transporters are provisional risk factors implicated in imatinib resistance. This study analyzed Sokal score, ABCB1, ABCG2 and OCT1 mRNA transporter expression levels as well as P-glycoprotein expression and efflux transporters activity to seek a possible correlation between these factors and the molecular response at 12 months from imatinib start as well as 8-year overall survival (OS). Low plus intermediate Sokal score correlated to optimal imatinib responses, as well as OS at 8-years, thus confirming the established role of Sokal score as a prognostic factor in CML patients. Low ABCB1 and high OCT1 mRNA levels were associated with an optimal molecular response, while the inverse levels were associated with non-responders (warning and failure) patients. Our results suggest that ABCB1 and OCT1 mRNA expressions may present biological relevance to identify responder and non-responder patients to imatinib treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the dynamic nature of the ABC transporters: ABCB1 and MsbA as examples for the potential synergies of MD theory and EPR applications.

    PubMed

    Stockner, Thomas; Mullen, Anna; MacMillan, Fraser

    2015-10-01

    ABC transporters are primary active transporters found in all kingdoms of life. Human multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein, has an extremely broad substrate spectrum and confers resistance against chemotherapy drug treatment in cancer cells. The bacterial ABC transporter MsbA is a lipid A flippase and a homolog to the human ABCB1 transporter, with which it partially shares its substrate spectrum. Crystal structures of MsbA and ABCB1 have been solved in multiple conformations, providing a glimpse into the possible conformational changes the transporter could be going through during the transport cycle. Crystal structures are inherently static, while a dynamic picture of the transporter in motion is needed for a complete understanding of transporter function. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can provide structural information on ABC transporters, but the strength of these two methods lies in the potential to characterise the dynamic regime of these transporters. Information from the two methods is quite complementary. MD simulations provide an all atom dynamic picture of the time evolution of the molecular system, though with a narrow time window. EPR spectroscopy can probe structural, environmental and dynamic properties of the transporter in several time regimes, but only through the attachment sites of an exogenous spin label. In this review the synergistic effects that can be achieved by combining the two methods are highlighted, and a brief methodological background is also presented. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  18. Relationship Between ABCB1 Polymorphisms and Cold Pain Sensitivity Among Healthy Opioid-naive Malay Males.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Zalina; Lee, Chee Siong; Ibrahim, Muslih Abdulkarim; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Tan, Soo Choon; Mohamad, Nasir; Ismail, Rusli

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous and exogenous opioids are substrates of the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, which is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCB1 may contribute to interindividual differences in pain modulation and analgesic responses. We investigated the relationship between ABCB1 polymorphisms and cold pain sensitivity among healthy males. Cold pain responses, including pain threshold and pain tolerance, were measured using the cold-pressor test (CPT). DNA was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms, including c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642), using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 152 participants were recruited in this observational study. Frequencies of mutated allele for c.1236C>T, c.2677G>T/A, and c.3435C>T polymorphisms were 56.6%, 49.7%, and 43.4%, respectively. Our results revealed an association of the CGC/CGC diplotype (c.1236C>T, c.2677G>T/A, and c.3435C>T) with cold pain sensitivity. Participants with the CGC/CGC diplotype had 90% and 72% higher cold pain thresholds (87.62 seconds vs. 46.19 seconds, P = 0.010) and cold pain tolerances (97.24 seconds vs. 56.54 seconds, P = 0.021), respectively, when compared with those without the diplotype. The CGC/CGC diplotype of ABCB1 polymorphisms was associated with variability in cold pain threshold and pain tolerance in healthy males. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Association between ABCB1 genotype and seizure outcome in Collies with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Bergman, R L; Mealey, K L

    2012-01-01

    Medically refractory seizures are an important problem in both humans and dogs with epilepsy. Altered expression of ABCB1, the gene encoding for p-glycoprotein (PGP), has been proposed to play a role in drug-resistant epilepsy. Heterogeneity of the ABCB1 gene is associated with seizure outcome in dogs with epilepsy. Twenty-nine Collies with epilepsy being treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Prospective and retrospective cohort study. Dogs were classified as having a good outcome (≤ 1 seizure/month, no cluster seizures) or a poor outcome (>1 seizure/month, with or without cluster seizures) based on owner-completed questionnaire. Serum AED concentrations were measured, and ABCB1 genotyping was performed on buccal tissue samples. Association analyses were performed for genotype and seizure outcome, number of AEDs administered, serum AED concentrations, and incidence of adverse effects. Fourteen dogs of 29 (48%) were homozygous for the ABCB1-1∆ mutation (M/M), 11 dogs (38%) were heterozygous (M/N), and 4 dogs (14%) had the wild-type genotype (N/N). Dogs with the M/M genotype were significantly more likely to have fewer seizures and have less AED-related sedation than M/N or N/N dogs (P = .003 and P = .001, respectively). Serum phenobarbital and bromide concentrations did not differ between groups, but the M/N and N/N groups received a larger number of AEDs than the M/M group (P = .014). ABCB1 genotype is associated with seizure outcome in Collies with epilepsy. This cannot be attributed to differences in PGP function, but might be because of intrinsic variations in seizure severity among phenotypes. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Coller, Janet K; Barratt, Daniel T; Dahlen, Karianne; Loennechen, Morten H; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-12-01

    The most common treatment for opioid dependence is substitution therapy with another opioid such as methadone. The methadone dosage is individualized but highly variable, and program retention rates are low due in part to nonoptimal dosing resulting in withdrawal symptoms and further heroin craving and use. Methadone is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein transporter, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, which regulates central nervous system exposure. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of ABCB1 genetic variability on methadone dose requirements. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from opioid-dependent subjects (n = 60) and non-opioid-dependent control subjects (n = 60), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 61, 1199, 1236, 2677, and 3435. ABCB1 haplotypes were inferred with PHASE software (version 2.1). There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes between the 2 populations. ABCB1 genetic variability influenced daily methadone dose requirements, such that subjects carrying 2 copies of the wild-type haplotype required higher doses compared with those with 1 copy and those with no copies (98.3 +/- 10.4, 58.6 +/- 20.9, and 55.4 +/- 26.1 mg/d, respectively; P = .029). In addition, carriers of the AGCTT haplotype required significantly lower doses than noncarriers (38.0 +/- 16.8 and 61.3 +/- 24.6 mg/d, respectively; P = .04). Although ABCB1 genetic variability is not related to the development of opioid dependence, identification of variant haplotypes may, after larger prospective studies have been performed, provide clinicians with a tool for methadone dosage individualization.

  1. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  2. [Properties and localization of Mg- and Ca-ATpase activities in wheat embryo cell nuclei].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, N A; Belkina, G G; Stepanenko, S Y; Atalykova, F I; Oparin, A I

    1978-05-01

    The isolated nuclei of wheat embryo possess the ATPase activity. The addition of Mg2+ and Ca2+ significantly increases the activities of nuclear ATPases, whereas Hg2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ inhibit the activity. The activating effect of Mg2+ is enhanced by an addition of Na and K ions. The activity of wheat embryo nuclear Mg-ATPase is higher than its Ca-ATPase activity; both ATPases also differ in their pH optima. Separation of total nuclear protein according to the solubility of its individual protein components in wheat and strong salt solutions, using the detergents, as well as ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis do not result in separation of Mg-activated and Ca-activated ATPases, although their levels of activities and ratios change in the course of fractionation. The Mg- and Ca-ATPase activities of the wheat embryo nuclei were found in the nuclear fraction of albumin, in nonhistone proteins and nuclear membranes. In the albumin nuclear fraction and subfractions of non-histone proteins the higher level of activity is observed in Ca-ATPase, whereas in the nuclei and soluble fractions of residual proteins in Mg-ATPase.

  3. Cytophotometric study of ATPase activity in brain neurons and gliocytes of paradoxical sleep-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Klenikova, V A; Taranova, N P

    1989-01-01

    Conditions were chosen for optimal demonstration of ATPases in brain slices by a modified method of Wachstein and Meisel, and the reaction was shown to obey the Bouguer-Beer laws, confirming that ATPase activity can be determined quantitatively in single cells by cytophotometry. In rats in a state of relative physiological rest specific activity of both Na+, K+-ATPase and Mg++-ATPase in gliocytes of the hippocampus and dorsal raphe was found to be considerably higher than in neurons. Deprivation of the paradoxical phase of sleep of the rats for 24 h led to a significant increase in Na+, K+-ATPase activity in hippocampal neurons and to a decrease in its activity in gliocytes of the hippocampus and dorsal nucleus raphe. It is suggested that these changes in Na+, K+-ATPase activity may be due to some extent to a change in excitability of neurons and depolarization of the glia when sleep is disturbed.

  4. ABCB1 polymorphism as prognostic factor in breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel and doxorubicin neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jun; Im, Seock-Ah; Keam, Bhumsuk; Ham, Hye Seon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Yu Jung; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Han, Wonshik; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Tae-You; Park, In Ae; Noh, Dong Young

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) transporter and P-glycoprotein are associated with resistance to anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ABCB1 and CYP3A genes in breast cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Stage II/III breast cancer patients were treated with three cycles of neoadjuvant, after which the patients received curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. The polymorphisms of ABCB1 and CYP3A were genotyped. The correlation of polymorphism of ABCB1, CYP3A, and clinical outcomes was analyzed. Among the 216 patients, ABCB1 3435TT genotype had a longer overall survival (OS). than CC/CT. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that good PS, invasive ductal carcinoma, non-triple negative phenotype and initial operable stage were significantly associated with a lower death risk. ABCB1 3435TT genotype had a higher AUC than CC/CT for docetaxel. These higher AUCs in the C3435TT was associated with increased toxicities of neutropenia and diarrhea. This study showed that the genetic polymorphism of ABCB1 C3435T might be associated with a longer OS. Our results also suggest that the prediction of docetaxel toxicity might be possible for C3435T polymorphism. This study results provides valuable information on individualized therapy according to genotypes. PMID:25410489

  5. Abscisic acid induction of vacuolar H+-ATPase activity in mesembryanthemum crystallinum is developmentally regulated

    PubMed

    Barkla; Vera-Estrella; Maldonado-Gama; Pantoja

    1999-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated as a key component in water-deficit-induced responses, including those triggered by drought, NaCl, and low- temperature stress. In this study a role for ABA in mediating the NaCl-stress-induced increases in tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) and Na+/H+ antiport activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, leading to vacuolar Na+ sequestration, were investigated. NaCl or ABA treatment of adult M. crystallinum plants induced V-ATPase H+ transport activity, and when applied in combination, an additive effect on V-ATPase stimulation was observed. In contrast, treatment of juvenile plants with ABA did not induce V-ATPase activity, whereas NaCl treatment resulted in a similar response to that observed in adult plants. Na+/H+ antiport activity was induced in both juvenile and adult plants by NaCl, but ABA had no effect at either developmental stage. Results indicate that ABA-induced changes in V-ATPase activity are dependent on the plant reaching its adult phase, whereas NaCl-induced increases in V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport activity are independent of plant age. This suggests that ABA-induced V-ATPase activity may be linked to the stress-induced, developmentally programmed switch from C3 metabolism to Crassulacean acid metabolism in adult plants, whereas, vacuolar Na+ sequestration, mediated by the V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport, is regulated through ABA-independent pathways.

  6. Resveratrol modulates ATPase activity of liposome-reconstituted ABCG1.

    PubMed

    de Athayde Moncorvo Collado, Alejandro; Corbalán, Natalia; Homolya, László; Morero, Roberto; Minahk, Carlos

    2013-08-02

    ABCG1 is a half-sized transporter with an unquestionable importance in cholesterol homeostasis. So far, its expression and thus its activity was suggested to be regulated at transcriptional level by LXR and PPAR agonists including polyphenols. However, it is unknown whether there are other mechanisms of up-regulation of ABCG1 activity. In the present work resveratrol was shown to induce a nearly twofold increase in ATPase activity of reconstituted ABCG1. Evidence is presented for the first time suggesting that resveratrol is able to activate ABCG1 activity by an alternative mechanism that involves an indirect interaction. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vincristine-induced central neurotoxicity in a collie homozygous for the ABCB1Δ mutation.

    PubMed

    Krugman, L; Bryan, J N; Mealey, K L; Chen, A

    2012-03-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female collie was presented to an oncology specialty service after developing tetraparesis and self-mutilation that progressively worsened while receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma. Neurologic examination revealed ataxia, paresis and diminished conscious proprioception in all limbs with entire spinal reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord was normal. Electromyography of the limbs ruled out a vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and cerebrospinal fluid and serum testing for Neospora and Toxoplasma were normal. Results of MDR1 genotyping revealed that the dog was homozygous for the ABCB1-1Δ (MDR1) mutation. This clinical presentation strongly resembled the effects seen from inadvertent intrathecal administration of vincristine in humans. Dogs that are homozygous for the ABCB1-1Δ (MDR1) mutation should not receive standard dosages of chemotherapy drugs known to be eliminated by P-glycoprotein, the gene product of ABCB1. Testing for this mutation is strongly recommended before chemotherapy initiation for at-risk breeds. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity following Reversible and Irreversible Freezing Injury 1

    PubMed Central

    Iswari, S.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed as a site of functional alteration during early stages of freezing injury. To test this, plasma membrane was purified from Solanum leaflets by a single step partitioning of microsomes in a dextran-polyethylene glycol two phase system. Addition of lysolecithin in the ATPase assay produced up to 10-fold increase in ATPase activity. ATPase activity was specific for ATP with a Km around 0.4 millimolar. Presence of the ATPase enzyme was identified by immunoblotting with oat ATPase antibodies. Using the phase partitioning method, plasma membrane was isolated from Solanum commersonii leaflets which had four different degrees of freezing damage, namely, slight (reversible), partial (partially reversible), substantial and total (irreversible). With slight (reversible) damage the plasma membrane ATPase specific activity increased 1.5- to 2-fold and its Km was decreased by about 3-fold, whereas the specific activity of cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase in the microsomes were not different from the control. However, with substantial (lethal, irreversible) damage, there was a loss of membrane protein, decrease in plasma membrane ATPase specific activity and decrease in Km, while cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c reductase were unaffected. These results support the hypothesis that plasma membrane ATPase is altered by slight freeze-thaw stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666856

  9. The Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene Abcb1 in Brain and Placenta: Comparative Analysis in Human and Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Jane J.; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Iqbal, Majid; Moisiadis, Vasilis; Turecki, Gustavo; Matthews, Stephen G.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain. PMID:25353162

  10. Rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid activation of gill Na+,K+-ATPase was analyzed in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) transferred from low salinity (0.1 ppt) to high salinity (25-35 ppt). In parr and presmolt, Salmo salar gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity started to increase 3 days after transfer. Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to 35 ppt seawater (SW) induced a rise in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity 3 hr after transfer. After 12 hr, the values dropped to initial levels but showed a second significant increase 3 days after transfer. The absence of detergent in the enzyme assay resulted in lower values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase, and the rapid increase after transfer to SW was not observed. Na+,K+-ATPase activity of gill filaments in vitro for 3 hr increased proportionally to the osmolality of the culture medium (600 mosm/kg > 500 mosm/kg > 300 mosm/kg). Osmolality of 800 mosm/kg resulted in lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity relative to 600 mosm/kg. Increasing medium osmolality to 600 mosm/kg with mannitol also increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity observed in hyperosmotic medium in a dose-dependent manner (10-4 M > 10-5 M > 10-6 M). Actinomycin D or bumetanide in the culture (doses of 10-4 M, 10-5 M, and 10-6 M) did not affect gill Na+,K+-ATPase. Injection of fish with actinomycin D prior to gill organ culture, however, prevented the increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in hyperosmotic media. The results show a very rapid and transitory increase in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the first hours after the transfer of Fundulus heteroclitus to SW that is dependent on translational and transcriptional processes. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Association of ABCB1 polymorphisms with the antiemetic efficacy of granisetron plus dexamethasone in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Daiki; Kim, Yong-Il; Nakamichi, Hidenori; Daimon, Takashi; Suwa, Kaori; Iwabe, Yutaro; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Masayuki; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to antiemetic treatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists is a problem, with 20-30% of patients showing unsatisfactory responses. Efflux transport by P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ATP-binding cassette ABCB1 gene in the blood-brain barrier, has been the suggested resistance mechanism. We evaluated the association between the antiemetic efficacy of granisetron plus dexamethasone and ABCB1 polymorphisms 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A. Sixty-four breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide were evaluated for their responses to antiemetic therapy. Genotyping of patient DNA samples for ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed; the genotypes were then investigated for their association with the efficacy of prophylactic antiemetics. The acute phase complete response rate was 83% in GG subjects (n = 12), and 69% (n = 35) and 41% (n = 17) in heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 2677T/A allele, respectively (p = 0.047). The ABCB1 2677 TT genotype group showed significantly lower rates of complete control of acute emesis than the group with GG genotypes (p = 0.045). No significant association with complete response was found for 3435C>T (p = 0.190). ABCB1 polymorphisms may influence the extent of acute emesis control in granisetron-treated patients, making the ABCB1 genotype a predictor of prophylactic antiemetic response.

  12. Relationship between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and severe neutropenia in patients with breast cancer treated with doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Midori; Tsuji, Daiki; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Kim, Yong-Il; Daimon, Takashi; Iwabe, Yutaro; Hatori, Masahiro; Makuta, Ryo; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nakamichi, Hidenori; Shiokawa, Mitsuru; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2015-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is one of the major adverse events which results in the reduction of chemotherapy. Doxorubicin is a substrate of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) transporter; reportedly, ABCB1 polymorphisms influence doxorubicin pharmacokinetics. We evaluated the association between chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and ABCB1 polymorphisms in patients with breast cancer. We investigated 141 patients with breast cancer treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. Peripheral blood samples obtained from patients were genotyped for the ABCB1 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms. The genotypes were then investigated for their association with grade 3 or greater neutropenia, and further their risk factors were examined using a multivariate logistic regression. The proportion of patients with grade 3 or greater neutropenia was 85.7% in the homozygous variant group, and 80% and 58.6% in the heterozygous variant and GG genotype groups, respectively (p = 0.021). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism was a strong predictor of grade 3 or greater neutropenia (odds ratio: 3.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-9.81; p = 0.007). ABCB1 polymorphisms may influence the extent of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in AC combination-treated patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibits the influx and increases the efflux of 11C-metoclopramide across the blood-brain barrier: a PET study on non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Auvity, Sylvain; Caillé, Fabien; Marie, Solène; Wimberley, Catriona; Bauer, Martin; Langer, Oliver; Buvat, Irène; Goutal, Sébastien; Tournier, Nicolas

    2018-05-10

    Rationale : PET imaging using radiolabeled high-affinity substrates of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) has convincingly revealed the role of this major efflux transporter in limiting the influx of its substrates from blood into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Many drugs, such as metoclopramide, are weak ABCB1 substrates and distribute into the brain even when ABCB1 is fully functional. In this study, we used kinetic modeling and validated simplified methods to highlight and quantify the impact of ABCB1 on the BBB influx and efflux of 11 C-metoclopramide, as a model weak ABCB1 substrate, in non-human primates. Methods : The regional brain kinetics of a tracer dose of 11 C-metoclopramide (298 ± 44 MBq) were assessed in baboons using PET without (n = 4) or with intravenous co-infusion of the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar (4 mg/kg/h, n = 4). Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions were generated to estimate the regional volume of distribution ( V T ) as well as the influx ( K 1 ) and efflux ( k 2 ) rate constants, using a one-tissue compartment model. Modeling outcome parameters were correlated with image-derived parameters, i.e. area under the curve AUC 0-30 min and AUC 30-60 min (SUV.min) as well as the elimination slope (k E ; min -1 ) from 30 to 60 min of the regional time-activity curves. Results : Tariquidar significantly increased the brain distribution of 11 C-metoclopramide ( V T = 4.3 ± 0.5 mL/cm 3 and 8.7 ± 0.5 mL/cm 3 for baseline and ABCB1 inhibition conditions, respectively, P<0.001), with a 1.28-fold increase in K 1 (P < 0.05) and a 1.64-fold decrease in k 2 (P < 0.001). The effect of tariquidar was homogeneous across different brain regions. The most sensitive parameters to ABCB1 inhibition were V T (2.02-fold increase) and AUC 30-60 min (2.02-fold increase). V T was significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated with AUC 30-60 min (r 2 = 0.95), AUC 0-30 min (r 2 = 0.87) and k E (r 2 = 0.62). Conclusion : 11 C-metoclopramide PET imaging revealed the

  14. Effects of Zuccagnia punctata extracts and their flavonoids on the function and expression of ABCB1/P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Chieli, Elisabetta; Romiti, Nadia; Catiana Zampini, Iris; Garrido, Gabino; Inés Isla, María

    2012-12-18

    Zuccagnia punctata extracts (ZpE) are used in ethnomedicine as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs. The pharmacological properties of ZpE and their polyphenolic components suggest that they may be used as potential modulators on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) multidrug transporter. P-gp is well known for its role in the acquired drug resistance by tumors following chemotherapy, causing a low drug bioavailability by extruding them out of the cells. To evaluate the effects of ZpE and three of their phenolic components: 7-hydroxyflavanone (HF), 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (DHC) on P-gp activity and expression. The effects of natural products on ABCB1/P-gp function and expression were evaluated by R-123 accumulation assay and western blot analysis using HK-2 cells as experimental model. The ABCB1 mRNA content was determined by SQRT-PCR. The accumulation of R-123 in HK-2 cells was significantly increased by ZpE and DHF, and to a lesser extent by DHC, indicating their roles on the efflux transporter activity. However, HF did not show any effect. HK-2 cells maintained in the presence of ZpE or DHF for 72 h, showed an increase in P-gp expression whereas activity was unchanged or decreased. No changes were observed in ABCB1 mRNA content. Furthermore, in these assay conditions, more sensibility of HK-2 cells to the cytotoxic action of cyclosporine A (P-gp substrate) was observed. These results may suggest an impact of Zuccagnia punctata and some of its components on the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates, as well as a potential role on multidrug resistance modulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. K+ Stimulation of ATPase Activity Associated with the Chloroplast Inner Envelope 1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weihua; Berkowitz, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize ATPase activity associated with purified chloroplast inner envelope preparations from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) plants. Comparison of free Mg2+ and Mg·ATP complex effects on ATPase activity revealed that any Mg2+ stimulation of activity was likely a function of the use of the Mg·ATP complex as a substrate by the enzyme; free Mg2+ may be inhibitory. In contrast, a marked (one- to twofold) stimulation of ATPase activity was noted in the presence of K+. This stimulation had a pH optimum of approximately pH 8.0, the same pH optimum found for enzyme activity in the absence of K+. K+ stimulation of enzyme activity did not follow simple Michaelis-Menton kinetics. Rather, K+ effects were consistent with a negative cooperativity-type binding of the cation to the enzyme, with the Km increasing at increasing substrate. Of the total ATPase activity associated with the chloroplast inner envelope, the K+-stimulated component was most sensitive to the inhibitors oligomycin and vanadate. It was concluded that K+ effects on this chloroplast envelope ATPase were similar to this cation's effects on other transport ATPases (such as the plasmalemma H+-ATPase). Such ATPases are thought to be indirectly involved in active K+ uptake, which can be facilitated by ATPase-dependent generation of an electrical driving force. Thus, K+ effects on the chloroplast enzyme in vitro were found to be consistent with the hypothesized role of this envelope ATPase in facilitating active cation transport in vivo. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:16668922

  16. Inhibition of ATPase activity in rat synaptic plasma membranes by simultaneous exposure to metals.

    PubMed

    Carfagna, M A; Ponsler, G D; Muhoberac, B B

    1996-03-08

    Inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities by in vitro exposure to Cd2+, Pb2+ and Mn2+ was investigated in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs). Cd2+ and Pb2+ produced a larger maximal inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase than of Mg2+-ATPase activity. Metal concentrations causing 50% inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity (IC50 values) were Cd2+ (0.6 microM) < Pb2+ (2.1 microM) < Mn2+ (approximately 3 mM), and the former two metals were substantially more potent in inhibiting SPM versus synaptosomal Na+/K+-ATPase. Dixon plots of SPM data indicated that equilibrium binding of metals occurs at sites causing enzyme inhibition. In addition, IC50 values for SPM K+-dependent p-nitrophenylphosphatase inhibition followed the same order and were Cd2+ (0.4 microM) < Pb2+ (1.2 microM) < Mn2+ (300 microM). Simultaneous exposure to the combinations Cd2+/Mn2+ or Pb2+/Mn2+ inhibited SPM Na+/K+-ATPase activity synergistically (i.e., greater than the sum of the metal-induced inhibitions assayed separately), while Cd2+/Pb2+ caused additive inhibition. Simultaneous exposure to Cd2+/Pb2+ antagonistically inhibited Mg2+-ATPase activity while Cd2+/Mn2+ or Pb2+/Mn2+ additively inhibited Mg2+-ATPase activity at low Mn2+ concentrations, but inhibited antagonistically at higher concentrations. The similar IC50 values for Cd2+ and Pb2+ versus Mn2+ inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase and the pattern of inhibition/activation upon exposure to two metals simultaneously support similar modes of interaction of Cd2+ and Pb2+ with this enzyme, in agreement with their chemical reactivities.

  17. Sperm Na+, K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activity: A preliminary study of comparison of swim up and density gradient centrifugation methods for sperm preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Larasati, Manggiasih D.; Asmarinah, Mansur, Indra G.

    2018-02-01

    As one of the treatment for infertility, the success rate of Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is still relatively low. Several sperm preparation methods, swim-up (SU) and the density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) are frequently used to select for better sperm quality which also contribute to IUI failure. Sperm selection methods mainly separate the motile from the immotile sperm, eliminating the seminal plasma. The sperm motility involves the structure and function of sperm membrane in maintaining the balance of ion transport system which is regulated by the Na+, K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase enzymes. This study aims to re-evaluate the efficiency of these methods in selecting for sperm before being used for IUI and based the evaluation on sperm Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activities. Fourteen infertile men from couples who underwent IUI were involved in this study. The SU and DGC methods were used for the sperm preparation. Semen analysis was performed based on the reference value of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010. After isolating the membrane fraction of sperms, the Na+, K+-ATPase activity was defined as the difference in the released inorganic phosphate (Pi) with and without the existence of 10 mM ouabain in the reaction, while the Ca2+-ATPase was determined as the difference in Pi contents with and without the existence of 55 µm CaCl2. The prepared sperm demonstrated a higher percentage of motile sperm compared to sperm from the whole semen. Additionally, the percentage of motile sperm of post-DGC showed higher result than the sperm from post-SU. The velocity of sperm showed similar pattern with the percentage of motile sperm, in which the velocity of prepared sperm was higher than the sperm from whole semen. Furthermore, the sperm velocity of post-DGC was higher compared to the sperm from post-SU. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity of prepared sperm was higher compared to whole semen, whereas Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the post DGC was higher than post SU. The Ca2

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Korean subjects with influence of genetic polymorphisms of ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong; Yoo, Hee-Doo; Ngo, Lien; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of gabapentin in healthy Korean subjects and to investigate the possible effect of genetic polymorphisms (1236C > T, 2677G > T/A, and 3435C > T) of ABCB1 gene on PK parameters of gabapentin. Data were collected from bioequivalence studies, in which 173 subjects orally received three different doses of gabapentin (300, 400, and 800 mg). Only data from reference formulation were used. Population pharmacokinetics (PKs) of gabapentin was estimated using a nonlinear mixed-effects model (NONMEM). Gabapentin showed considerable inter-individual variability (from 5.2- to 8.7-fold) in PK parameters. Serum concentration of gabapentin was well fitted by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag time. An inhibitory Emax model was applied to describe the effect of dose on bioavailability. The oral clearance was estimated to be 11.1 L/h. The volume of distribution was characterized as 81.0 L. The absorption rate constant was estimated at 0.860 h -1 , and the lag time was predicted at 0.311 h. Oral bioavailability was estimated to be 68.8% at dose of 300 mg, 62.7% at dose of 400 mg, and 47.1% at dose of 800 mg. The creatinine clearance significantly influenced on the oral clearance (P < 0.005) and ABCB1 2677G > T/A genotypes significantly influenced on the absorption rate constant (P < 0.05) of gabapentin. However, ABCB1 1236C > T and 3435C > T genotypes showed no significant effect on gabapentin PK parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the oral bioavailability of gabapentin is decreased when its dosage is increased. In addition, ABCB1 2677G > T/A polymorphism can explain the substantial inter-individual variability in the absorption of gabapentin.

  19. The influence of thapsigargin on Na,K-ATPase activity in cultured nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mito, T; Kuwahara, S; Delamere, N A

    1995-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the influence of thapsigargin on the NaK-ATPase activity of cultured cells (ODM2) derived from human nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. The rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was diminished in cells that had been pretreated with thapsigargin then permeabilized. Following 20 min exposure of intact cells to thapsigargin, the cells were permeabilized with digitonin and the rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was measured immediately in a calcium-free buffer. In permeabilized cells that had been pretreated with 1 microM thapsigargin for 20 min, the rate of ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis (Na,K-ATPase activity) was reduced by 38%. Pretreatment with lesser concentrations of thapsigargin caused smaller changes of Na,K-ATPase activity. The decrease of Na,K-ATPase activity was the same whether or not calmodulin antagonists W7 or trifluoperazine were present during the thapsigargin pretreatment period. This inhibitory effect upon the Na,K-ATPase may serve to limit the extent of sodium pump activation that takes place in intact cells when thapsigargin causes sodium pump stimulation by a mechanism that appears to involve changes in cytoplasmic ion levels when potassium channels open.

  20. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Usman, Taofeek O; Adebayo, Joseph O; Olatunji, Victoria A

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in rats. The 25 and 50 mg/(kg·d) of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa were respectively given to rats in the experimental groups for 28 d, and rats in the control group received an appropriate volume of distilled water as vehicle. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in the kidney were assayed by spectrophotometric method. Administrations of 25 and 50 mg/(kg·d) of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa significantly decreased the Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in the kidney of rats (P<0.05). However, the renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of the experimental rats was not affected by either dose of the extract. And the plasma Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) levels of the experimental rats had no significant changes. Administration of either dose of the extract did not result in any significant changes in body and kidney weights, the concentrations of plasma albumin and total protein, and alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. However, concentrations of creatinine and urea were significantly reduced by 50 mg/kg of the extract (P<0.05). The present study indicates that oral administration of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa may preserve the renal function despite a decreased renal Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity.

  2. Effects of high temperature and noise on erythrocyte membrane ATPase activity in pilots during flight.

    PubMed

    Qin, S Z; Yu, Q F; Ma, G X; Hao, W W; Li, M G; Zhao, H

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of heat and noise on erythrocyte membrane ATPase activities in pilots during flying. Method. Twenty-four pilots performing bombing for 3 h (45-53 degrees C, 122-97 dB in the cabin) served as the subjects. 21 ground personnel served as control (27 degrees C in the room). Blood samples were taken from both groups before flying (6:00 a.m.), and immediately (12:00 a.m.) and 8 h (8:00 p.m.) after flying. Na(+)-K+ ATPase, and Ca2(+)-Mg2+ ATPase activities in erythrocyte membrane were determined with colorimetry. Result. The Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity in erythrocyte membrane at 6:00 a.m. in pilots was higher than that in control group at the same time (P<0.01). The Ca2(+)-Mg2+ ATPase activities in erythrocyte membrane at 12:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. in pilots were significantly higher, compared with those in control group at the same time (P<0.01). Conclusion. The ATPase values obtained in our study were all within normal range, and the daytime variation of both groups are the same. Exposure of human body to heat and noise for long time may be harmful, the higher ATPase activity is, the more catabolism of ATP will be. ATP exhaustion will lead to Ca2+ overload in erythrocyte thus stiffen the red cell membrane.

  3. Abscisic Acid Induction of Vacuolar H+-ATPase Activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Maldonado-Gama, Minerva; Pantoja, Omar

    1999-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated as a key component in water-deficit-induced responses, including those triggered by drought, NaCl, and low- temperature stress. In this study a role for ABA in mediating the NaCl-stress-induced increases in tonoplast H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) and Na+/H+ antiport activity in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, leading to vacuolar Na+ sequestration, were investigated. NaCl or ABA treatment of adult M. crystallinum plants induced V-ATPase H+ transport activity, and when applied in combination, an additive effect on V-ATPase stimulation was observed. In contrast, treatment of juvenile plants with ABA did not induce V-ATPase activity, whereas NaCl treatment resulted in a similar response to that observed in adult plants. Na+/H+ antiport activity was induced in both juvenile and adult plants by NaCl, but ABA had no effect at either developmental stage. Results indicate that ABA-induced changes in V-ATPase activity are dependent on the plant reaching its adult phase, whereas NaCl-induced increases in V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport activity are independent of plant age. This suggests that ABA-induced V-ATPase activity may be linked to the stress-induced, developmentally programmed switch from C3 metabolism to Crassulacean acid metabolism in adult plants, whereas, vacuolar Na+ sequestration, mediated by the V-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiport, is regulated through ABA-independent pathways. PMID:10398716

  4. 1236 C/T and 3435 C/T polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene in Mexican breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Rubio, S A; Quintero-Ramos, A; Durán-Cárdenas, A; Franco-Topete, R A; Castro-Cervantes, J M; Oceguera-Villanueva, A; Jiménez-Pérez, L M; Balderas-Peña, L M A; Morgan-Villela, G; Del-Toro-Arreola, A; Daneri-Navarro, A

    2015-02-13

    MDR1, which is encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is involved in multidrug resistance (hydrophobic), as well as the elimination of xenotoxic agents. The association between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in different populations has been described previously; however, the results have been inconclusive. In this study, we examined the association between polymorphisms 3435 C/T and 1236 C/T in the ABCB1 gene and breast cancer development in Mexican women according to their menopausal status and molecular classification. Molecular subtypes as well as allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed. A total of 248 women with initial breast cancer diagnosis and 180 ethnically matched, healthy, unrelated individuals were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect polymorphisms 3435 C/T and 1236 C/T in the ABCB1 gene. Premenopausal T allele carriers of the 3435 C/T polymorphism showed a 2-fold increased risk of breast cancer with respect to the reference and postmenopausal groups, as well as triple-negative expression regarding the luminal A/B molecular subrogated subtypes. In contrast, the CT genotype of the 1236 polymorphism was a protective factor against breast cancer. We conclude that the T allele carrier of the 3435 C/T polymorphism in the ABCB1 gene in combination with an estrogen receptor-negative status may be an important risk factor for breast cancer development in premenopausal women.

  5. Neurotoxic effects of ivermectin administration in genetically engineered mice with targeted insertion of the mutated canine ABCB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Krystyna L; Swain, Marla D; Robl, Martin G; Tinaza, Constante A; Swaim, Heidi L; Jones, Yolanda L; Myers, Michael J; Yancy, Haile F

    2012-09-01

    To develop in genetically engineered mice an alternative screening method for evaluation of P-glycoprotein substrate toxicosis in ivermectin-sensitive Collies. 14 wild-type C57BL/6J mice (controls) and 21 genetically engineered mice in which the abcb1a and abcb1b genes were disrupted and the mutated canine ABCB1 gene was inserted. Mice were allocated to receive 10 mg of ivermectin/kg via SC injection (n = 30) or a vehicle-only formulation of propylene glycol and glycerol formal (5). Each was observed for clinical signs of toxic effects from 0 to 7 hours following drug administration. After ivermectin administration, considerable differences were observed in drug sensitivity between the 2 types of mice. The genetically engineered mice with the mutated canine ABCB1 gene had signs of severe sensitivity to ivermectin, characterized by progressive lethargy, ataxia, and tremors, whereas the wild-type control mice developed no remarkable effects related to the ivermectin. The ivermectin sensitivity modeled in the transgenic mice closely resembled the lethargy, stupor, disorientation, and loss of coordination observed in ivermectin-sensitive Collies with the ABCB1-1Δ mutation. As such, the model has the potential to facilitate toxicity assessments of certain drugs for dogs that are P-glycoprotein substrates, and it may serve to reduce the use of dogs in avermectin derivative safety studies that are part of the new animal drug approval process.

  6. ABCB1 polymorphism as a predictive biomarker for amrubicin-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Osamu; Oguri, Tetsuya; Uemura, Takehiro; Kunii, Eiji; Nakao, Makoto; Hijikata, Hisatoshi; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Takemura, Masaya; Maeno, Ken; Niimi, Akio

    2014-07-01

    Amrubicin is a promising therapy for lung cancer, but is associated with a high incidence of severe neutropenia. The present study assessed the utility of ABCB1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) polymorphism as a predictor of amrubicin-induced neutropenia. Fifty-four Japanese lung cancer patients who received amrubicin chemotherapy were consecutively recruited and toxicities and SNPs (MDR1; C1236T, C3435T and G2677T/A, NQO1; C609T) were evaluated. The incidence of neutropenia was higher in patients treated with 40 mg/m2 of amrubicin (n=32) compared to patients treated with 35 mg/m2 of amrubicin (n=22) (53.1% vs. 22.7%). Patients who were homogenous for the wild-type allele of C3435T were at significantly higher risk of neutropenia compared to patients with other genotypes. By contrast, the C609T genotype of NQO1 was not related to neutropenia. C3435T polymorphisms of ABCB1 might be able to predict severe amrubicin-induced neutropenia. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Genomewide analysis of ABCBs with a focus on ABCB1 and ABCB19 in Malus domestica.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan Juan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-03-01

    The B subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins (ABCB) plays a vital role in auxin efflux. However, no systematic study has been done in apple. In this study, we performed genomewide identification and expression analyses of the ABCB family in Malus domestica for the first time. We identified a total of 25 apple ABCBs that were divided into three clusters based on the phylogenetic analysis. Most ABCBs within the same cluster demonstrated a similar exon-intron organization. Additionally, the digital expression profiles of ABCB genes shed light on their functional divergence. ABCB1 and ABCB19 are two well-studied auxin efflux carrier genes, and we found that their expression levels are higher in young shoots of M106 than in young shoots ofM9. Since young shoots are the main source of auxin synthesis and auxin efflux involves in tree height control. This suggests that ABCB1 and ABCB19 may also take a part in the auxin efflux and tree height control in apple.

  8. Effects of a detergent micelle environment on P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Abel, Biebele; Chufan, Eduardo E.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter that uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to export many structurally dissimilar hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds, including anticancer drugs from cells. Several structural studies on purified P-gp have been reported, but only limited and sometimes conflicting information is available on ligand interactions with the isolated transporter in a dodecyl-maltoside detergent environment. In this report we compared the biochemical properties of P-gp in native membranes, detergent micelles, and when reconstituted in artificial membranes. We found that the modulators zosuquidar, tariquidar, and elacridar stimulated the ATPase activity of purified human or mouse P-gp in a detergent micelle environment. In contrast, these drugs inhibited ATPase activity in native membranes or in proteoliposomes, with IC50 values in the 10–40 nm range. Similarly, a 30–150-fold decrease in the apparent affinity for verapamil and cyclic peptide inhibitor QZ59-SSS was observed in detergent micelles compared with native or artificial membranes. Together, these findings demonstrate that the high-affinity site is inaccessible because of either a conformational change or binding of detergent at the binding site in a detergent micelle environment. The ligands bind to a low-affinity site, resulting in altered modulation of P-gp ATPase activity. We, therefore, recommend studying structural and functional aspects of ligand interactions with purified P-gp and other ATP-binding cassette transporters that transport amphipathic or hydrophobic substrates in a detergent-free native or artificial membrane environment. PMID:28283574

  9. Lack of thyroid hormone effect on activation energy of NaK-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Rahimifar, M; Ismail-Beigi

    1977-02-01

    In order to differentiate whether activation of NaK-ATPase in thyroid thermogenesis is due to increased numbers of active 'sodium pump' units or due to a change in the kinetics of the enzyme, the effect of T3 on activation energy (Ea) of NaK-ATPase was determined in rat liver, kidney and brain. Injection of T3 produced significant increases in the specific activity of NaK-ATPase in liver and kidney but not in brain homogenates. T3 injections produced no significant change in the Ea of NaK-ATPase in any of the three tissues. The data are compatible with the hypothesis that thyroid stimulation of the sodium pump is brought about by an increase in the number of active pump units.

  10. Na+, K+-activated-ATPase inhibition in rainbow trout: A site for organochlorine pesticide toxicity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1971-01-01

    1. The Na+, K+-activated, Mg2+-dependent-ATPase enzyme system in a heavy microsomal fraction of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) brain was inhibited in vitro by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides.2. T50 (concentration at 50 per cent inhibition) values for dicofol, endosulfan and DDT were 5 × 10−6, 3 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−4 M respectively. Similar inhibition by these pesticides occurred in kidney and gill ATPase preparations.3. An unexpected finding was a failure of the classic inhibitor, ouabain, to block the Na+, K+-activated component of ATPase activity in the gill.4. It is suggested that inhibition of ATPase activity may be a causal factor in the toxic effects of organochlorine pesticides in fishes.

  11. Tetrahydrocarbazoles are a novel class of potent P-type ATPase inhibitors with antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, Maike; Kjellerup, Lasse; Cohrt, Karen O’Hanlon; Gordon, Sandra; Mortensen, Anne Louise; Clausen, Johannes D.; Pallin, Thomas David; Hansen, John Bondo; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Dalby-Brown, William

    2018-01-01

    We have identified a series of tetrahydrocarbazoles as novel P-type ATPase inhibitors. Using a set of rationally designed analogues, we have analyzed their structure-activity relationship using functional assays, crystallographic data and computational modeling. We found that tetrahydrocarbazoles inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis of the fungal H+-ATPase, depolarize the fungal plasma membrane and exhibit broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Comparative inhibition studies indicate that many tetrahydrocarbazoles also inhibit the mammalian Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and Na+,K+-ATPase with an even higher potency than Pma1. We have located the binding site for this compound class by crystallographic structure determination of a SERCA-tetrahydrocarbazole complex to 3.0 Å resolution, finding that the compound binds to a region above the ion inlet channel of the ATPase. A homology model of the Candida albicans H+-ATPase based on this crystal structure, indicates that the compounds could bind to the same pocket and identifies pocket extensions that could be exploited for selectivity enhancement. The results of this study will aid further optimization towards selective H+-ATPase inhibitors as a new class of antifungal agents. PMID:29293507

  12. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H+-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha. However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H+-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H+-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H+-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H+-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  13. Genetic Variants in ABCB1, CYP2C19, and Cardiovascular Outcomes Following Treatment with Clopidogrel and Prasugrel

    PubMed Central

    Mega, Jessica L.; Close, Sandra L.; Wiviott, Stephen D.; Shen, Lei; Walker, Joseph R.; Simone, Tabassome; Antman, Elliott M.; Braunwald, Eugene; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The thienopyridine clopidogrel is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. Both clopidogrel and the third-generation thienopyridine prasugrel are subject to efflux via P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1, also known as MDR1). In vitro and clinical studies suggest that ABCB1 polymorphisms, particularly C3435T, may be associated with altered drug metabolism and efficacy. Methods We genotyped 2,932 patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in TRITON-TIMI 38 treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel and 321 healthy individuals in whom we measured the pharmacologic response to clopidogrel or prasugrel. Findings Among ACS patients treated with clopidogrel, ABCB1 C3435T genotype was significantly associated with risk for the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke (P=0.0064). TT homozygotes (804/2,932 [27%] of the population) had a 72% increased risk of the primary endpoint as compared with CT /CC individuals (52/414 [12.9%] vs. 80/1,057 [7.8%], HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.22–2.44, P=0.002). ABCB1 C3435T and CYP2C19 genotypes were significant, independent predictors of the primary endpoint, and the 47% (681/1454) of the population who were either CYP2C19 reduced-function allele carriers, ABCB1 3435 TT homozygotes, or both were at significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.38–2.82, P=0.0002). In healthy subjects, 3435 TT homozygotes had a reduction in platelet aggregation with clopidogrel that was 7.3 absolute percentage points lower (i.e., less platelet inhibition) vs. CT/CC individuals (P=0.0127). ABCB1 genotypes were not significantly associated with clinical or pharmacologic outcomes among ACS or healthy individuals treated with prasugrel. Interpretation Individuals with the ABCB1 3435 TT genotype have less platelet inhibition and are at significantly increased risk of recurrent ischemic events in the setting of clopidogrel treatment. Taking into account both ABCB1 and CYP2C19, nearly half of

  14. The AAA protein spastin possesses two levels of basal ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiangyu; Lin, Zhijie; Fan, Guanghui; Lu, Jing; Hou, Yongfei; Habai, Gulijiazi; Sun, Linyue; Yu, Pengpeng; Shen, Yuequan; Wen, Maorong; Wang, Chunguang

    2018-05-01

    The AAA ATPase spastin is a microtubule-severing enzyme that plays important roles in various cellular events including axon regeneration. Herein, we found that the basal ATPase activity of spastin is negatively regulated by spastin concentration. By determining a spastin crystal structure, we demonstrate the necessity of intersubunit interactions between spastin AAA domains. Neutralization of the positive charges in the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) of spastin dramatically decreases the ATPase activity at low concentration, although the ATP-hydrolyzing potential is not affected. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the AAA domain, the MTBD region of spastin is also involved in regulating ATPase activity, making interactions between spastin protomers more complicated than expected. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Effects of plasmalemmal V-ATPase activity on plasma membrane potential of resident alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Heming, T A; Bidani, A

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base status and functional responses of alveolar macrophages (mphi) are influenced by the activity of plasmalemmal V-type H+-pump (V-ATPase), an electrogenic H+ extruder that provides a possible link between intracellular pH (pHi) and plasma membrane potential (Em). This study examined the relationships among Em, pHi, and plasmalemmal V-ATPase activity in resident alveolar mphi from rabbits. Em and pHi were measured using fluorescent probes. Em was -46 mV and pHi was 7.14 at an extracellular pH (pHo) of 7.4. The pHi declined progressively at lower pHo values. Decrements in pHo, also caused depolarization of the plasma membrane, independent of V-ATPase activity. The pH effects on Em were sensitive to external K+, and hence, probably involved pH-sensitive K+ conductance. H+ were not distributed at equilibrium across the plasma membrane. V-ATPase activity was a major determinant of the transmembrane H+ disequilibrium. Pump inhibition with bafilomycin A1 caused cytosolic acidification, due most likely to the retention of metabolically generated H+. V-ATPase inhibition also caused depolarization of the plasma membrane, but the effects were mediated indirectly via the accompanying pHi changes. V-ATPase activity was sensitive to Em. Em hyperpolarization (valinomycin-clamp) reduced V-ATPase activity, causing an acidic shift in baseline pHi under steady-state conditions and slowing pHi recovery from NH4Cl prepulse acid-loads. The findings indicate that a complex relationship exists among Em, pHi, and pHo that was partially mediated by plasmalemmal V-ATPase activity. This relationship could have important consequences for the expression of pH- and/or voltage-sensitive functions in alveolar mphi.

  16. HG-829 Is a Potent Noncompetitive Inhibitor of the ATP-Binding Cassette Multidrug Resistance Transporter ABCB1

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Gisela; Robey, Robert W.; Sokol, Lubomir; McGraw, Kathy L.; Clark, Justine; Lawrence, Nicholas J.; Sebti, Said M.; Wiese, Michael; List, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane drug export mediated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein contributes to clinical resistance to antineoplastics. In this study, we identified the substituted quinoline HG-829 as a novel, noncompetitive, and potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor that overcomes in vitro and in vivo drug resistance. We found that nontoxic concentrations of HG-829 restored sensitivity to P-glycoprotein oncolytic substrates. In ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines, HG-829 significantly enhanced cytotoxicity to daunorubicin, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, and etoposide. Coadministration of HG-829 fully restored in vivo antitumor activity of daunorubicin in mice without added toxicity. Functional assays showed that HG-829 is not a Pgp substrate or competitive inhibitor of Pgp-mediated drug efflux but rather acts as a noncompetitive modulator of P-glycoprotein transport function. Taken together, our findings indicate that HG-829 is a potent, long-acting, and noncompetitive modulator of P-glycoprotein export function that may offer therapeutic promise for multidrugresistant malignancies. PMID:22761337

  17. Relationship of CYP2D6, CYP3A, POR, and ABCB1 genotypes with galantamine plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Zumbach, Serge; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2013-04-01

    The frequently prescribed antidementia drug galantamine is extensively metabolized by the enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP3A and is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein. We aimed to study the relationship between genetic variants influencing the activity of these enzymes and transporters with galantamine steady state plasma concentrations. In this naturalistic cross-sectional study, 27 older patients treated with galantamine were included. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, POR, and ABCB1, and galantamine steady state plasma concentrations were determined. The CYP2D6 genotype seemed to be an important determinant of galantamine pharmacokinetics, with CYP2D6 poor metabolizers presenting 45% and 61% higher dose-adjusted galantamine plasma concentrations than heterozygous and homozygous CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (median 2.9 versus 2.0 ng/mL · mg, P = 0.025, and 1.8 ng/mL · mg, P = 0.004), respectively. The CYP2D6 genotype significantly influenced galantamine plasma concentrations. The influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the treatment efficacy and tolerability should be further investigated.

  18. Trichoderma asperellum Induces Maize Seedling Growth by Activating the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    López-Coria, M; J L Hernández-Mendoza; Sánchez-Nieto, S

    2016-10-01

    Although Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects on numerous plants, there is not enough knowledge about the mechanism by which they improves plant growth. In this study, we evaluated the participation of plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, a key enzyme involved in promoting cell growth, in the elongation induced by T. asperellum and compared it with the effect of 10 μM indol acetic acid (IAA) because IAA promotes elongation and PM H + -ATPase activation. Two seed treatments were tested: biopriming and noncontact. In neither were the tissues colonized by T. asperellum; however, the seedlings were longer than the control seedlings, which also accumulated IAA and increased root acidification. An auxin transport inhibitor (2,3,5 triiodobenzoic acid) reduced the plant elongation induced by Trichoderma spp. T. asperellum seed treatment increased the PM H + -ATPase activity in plant roots and shoots. Additionally, the T. asperellum extracellular extract (TE) activated the PM H + -ATPase activity of microsomal fractions of control plants, although it contained 0.3 μM IAA. Furthermore, the mechanism of activation of PM H + -ATPase was different for IAA and TE; in the latter, the activation depends on the phosphorylation state of the enzyme, suggesting that, in addition to IAA, T. asperellum excretes other molecules that stimulate PM H + -ATPase to induce plant growth.

  19. The actin-activated ATPase of co-polymer filaments of myosin and myosin-rod.

    PubMed Central

    Stepkowski, D; Orlova, A A; Moos, C

    1994-01-01

    The actin activated ATPase of myosin at low ionic strength shows a complex dependence on actin concentration, in contrast with the simple hyperbolic actin activation kinetics of heavy meromyosin and subfragment-1. To investigate how the aggregation of myosin influences the actomyosin ATPase kinetics, we have studied the actin-activated ATPase of mixed filaments in which the myosin molecules are separated from each other by copolymerization with myosin rod. Electron microscopy of copolymer filaments, alone and bound to actin, indicates that the myosin heads are distributed randomly along the co-polymer filaments. The actin-activated ATPase of myosin decreases with increasing rod, approaching a plateau of about 30% of the control at a rod/myosin molar ratio of 4:1. The decrease in ATPase persists even at Vmax, the extrapolated limit at infinite actin, indicating that it is not due merely to the loss of cooperative actin binding. Furthermore, the actin dependence of the ATPase still shows a biphasic character like that of control myosin, even at rod/myosin ratio of 12:1, so this complexity is not probably due solely to the structural proximity of myosin molecules, but may involve a non-equivalence of myosin heads or myosin molecules in the filament environment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8198528

  20. Glycosphingolipid storage in Fabry mice extends beyond globotriaosylceramide and is affected by ABCB1 depletion

    PubMed Central

    Kamani, Mustafa A; Provençal, Philippe; Boutin, Michel; Pacienza, Natalia; Fan, Xin; Novak, Anton; Huang, Tonny C; Binnington, Beth; Au, Bryan C; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Lingwood, Clifford A; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Fabry disease is caused by α-galactosidase A deficiency leading to accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in tissues. Clinical manifestations do not appear to correlate with total Gb3 levels. Studies examining tissue distribution of specific acyl chain species of Gb3 and upstream glycosphingolipids are lacking. Material & methods/Results: Thorough characterization of the Fabry mouse sphingolipid profile by LC-MS revealed unique Gb3 acyl chain storage profiles. Storage extended beyond Gb3; all Fabry tissues also accumulated monohexosylceramides. Depletion of ABCB1 had a complex effect on glycosphingolipid storage. Conclusion: These data provide insights into how specific sphingolipid species correlate with one another and how these correlations change in the α-galactosidase A-deficient state, potentially leading to the identification of more specific biomarkers of Fabry disease. PMID:28116130

  1. MicroRNA-873 mediates multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer cells by targeting ABCB1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di-di; Li, Xue-Song; Meng, Xiao-Na; Yan, Jing; Zong, Zhi-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel combination chemotherapy; however, ovarian cancer cells often develop resistance to these drugs. Increasingly, microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-873 have been implicated in drug resistance in many cancers, but the role of miR-873 in ovarian cancer remains unknown. MTT cell viability assays revealed that the sensitivities of ovarian cancer lines to cisplatin and paclitaxel increased following transfection with miR-873 (P < 0.05). After predicting the miR-873 binding region in the 3'-untranslated region of ABCB1, dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed this prediction. RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that MDR1 expression was significantly downregulated after transfection with miR-873 and upregulated after transfection with anti-miR-873 at both mRNA and protein levels compared to negative controls (P < 0.05). Experiments in a mouse xenograft model confirmed that intratumoral administration of miR-873 could enhance the efficacy of cisplatin in inhibiting tumor growth in ovarian cancer in vivo (P < 0.05). ABCB1 overexpression reduced sensitivities of ovarian cancer lines OVCAR3 and A2780 to cisplatin and paclitaxel, which can be reversed by miR-873 mimic transfection (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-873 increased the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel by targeting MDR1 expression. Our findings suggest that combination therapies with chemotherapy agents and miR-873 may suppress drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  2. Myofibril ATPase activity of cardiac and skeletal muscle of exhaustively exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, A N; Turcotte, R; Rossiter, M; Secord, D; Maybank, P E

    1984-01-01

    The activation characteristics of Mg-ATP and Ca2+ on cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibril ATPase activity were studied in rats following a run to exhaustion. In addition, the effect of varying ionic strength was determined on skeletal muscle from exhausted animals. The exhausted group (E) ran at a speed of 25 m min-1 with an 8% incline. Myofibril ATPase activities for control (C) and E were determined with 1, 3 and 5 mM Mg-ATP and 1 and 10 microM Ca2+ at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. For control skeletal muscle, at 1 and 10 microM Ca2+, there was an increase in ATPase activity from 1 to 5 mM Mg-ATP (P less than 0.05). For E animals the myofibril ATPase activities at 10 microM Ca2+ and all Mg-ATP concentrations were similar to C (P greater than 0.05). At 1.0 microM Ca2+ and all Mg-ATP concentrations were similar to C (P greater than 0.05). At 1.0 microM Ca2+ the activities at 3 and 5 mM Mg-ATP were greater for the E animals (P less than 0.05). Increasing KCl concentrations resulted in greater inhibition for E animals. With cardiac muscle, the myofibril ATPase activities at 1.0 microM free Ca2+ were lower for E at all Mg-ATP levels (P less than 0.05). In contrast, at 10 microM Ca2+, the E group exhibited an elevated myofibril ATPase activity. The results indicate that Mg-ATP and Ca2+ activation of cardiac and skeletal muscle myofibril ATPase is altered with exhaustive exercise.

  3. Preparation of a highly concentrated, completely monomeric, active sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Lüdi, H; Hasselbach, W

    1985-11-21

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from fast skeletal muscle were partially delipidated with sodium cholate at high ionic strength and sedimented in a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Phospholipid content was reduced from 0.777 mumol/mg protein to 0.242 mumol/mg protein. As judged from gel electrophoresis and high pressure liquid gel chromatography, accessory proteins were removed during centrifugation and the Ca2+-ATPase was obtained in an almost pure form. Addition of myristoylglycerophosphocholine (1 mg/mg protein) reactivates ATPase and dinitrophenylphosphatase activity to the same degree obtained with native vesicles. Using the analytical ultracentrifuge it could be demonstrated that the reactivated Ca2+-ATPase was present exclusively in a monomeric state. These results were obtained at high and low ionic strength and up to a protein concentration of 10 mg/ml. Therefore this preparation should be very useful to investigate differences between oligomeric and monomeric Ca2+-ATPase.

  4. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    SciTech Connect

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L., E-mail: aladamso@uncg.edu

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transportmore » activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.« less

  5. Active Detergent-solubilized H+,K+-ATPase Is a Monomer*

    PubMed Central

    Dach, Ingrid; Olesen, Claus; Signor, Luca; Nissen, Poul; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper V.; Ebel, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The H+,K+-ATPase pumps protons or hydronium ions and is responsible for the acidification of the gastric fluid. It is made up of an α-catalytic and a β-glycosylated subunit. The relation between cation translocation and the organization of the protein in the membrane are not well understood. We describe here how pure and functionally active pig gastric H+,K+-ATPase with an apparent Stokes radius of 6.3 nm can be obtained after solubilization with the non-ionic detergent C12E8, followed by exchange of C12E8 with Tween 20 on a Superose 6 column. Mass spectroscopy indicates that the β-subunit bears an excess mass of 9 kDa attributable to glycosylation. From chemical analysis, there are 0.25 g of phospholipids and around 0.024 g of cholesterol bound per g of protein. Analytical ultracentrifugation shows one main complex, sedimenting at s20,w = 7.2 ± 0.1 S, together with minor amounts of irreversibly aggregated material. From these data, a buoyant molecular mass is calculated, corresponding to an H+,K+-ATPase α,β-protomer of 147.3 kDa. Complementary sedimentation velocity with deuterated water gives a picture of an α,β-protomer with 0.9–1.4 g/g of bound detergent and lipids and a reasonable frictional ratio of 1.5, corresponding to a Stokes radius of 7.1 nm. An α2,β2 dimer is rejected by the data. Light scattering coupled to gel filtration confirms the monomeric state of solubilized H+,K+-ATPase. Thus, α,β H+,K+-ATPase is active at least in detergent and may plausibly function as a monomer, as has been established for other P-type ATPases, Ca2+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase. PMID:23055529

  6. Poliovirus 2C protein forms homo-oligomeric structures required for ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter; Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Effantin, Grégory; Steven, Alasdair C; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2009-08-14

    The poliovirus protein 2C plays an essential role in viral RNA replication, although its precise biochemical activities or structural requirements have not been elucidated. The protein has several distinctive properties, including ATPase activity and membrane and RNA binding, that are conserved among orthologs of many positive-strand RNA viruses. Sequence alignments have placed these proteins in the SF3 helicase family, a subset of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily. A feature common to AAA+ proteins is the formation of oligomeric rings that are essential for their catalytic functions. Here we show that a recombinant protein, MBP-2C, in which maltose-binding protein was fused to 2C, formed soluble oligomers and that ATPase activity was restricted to oligomer-containing fractions from gel-filtration chromatography. The active fraction was visualized by negative-staining electron microscopy as ring-like particles composed of 5-8 protomers. This conclusion was confirmed by mass measurements obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Mutation of amino acid residues in the 2C nucleotide-binding domain demonstrated that loss of the ability to bind or hydrolyze ATP did not affect oligomerization. Co-expression of active MBP-2C and inactive mutant proteins generated mixed oligomers that exhibited little ATPase activity, suggesting that incorporation of inactive subunits eliminates the function of the entire particle. Finally, deletion of the N-terminal 38 amino acids blocked oligomerization of the fusion protein and eliminated ATPase activity, despite retention of an unaltered nucleotide-binding domain.

  7. Poliovirus 2C Protein Forms Homo-oligomeric Structures Required for ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Peter; Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Effantin, Grégory; Steven, Alasdair C.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    2009-01-01

    The poliovirus protein 2C plays an essential role in viral RNA replication, although its precise biochemical activities or structural requirements have not been elucidated. The protein has several distinctive properties, including ATPase activity and membrane and RNA binding, that are conserved among orthologs of many positive-strand RNA viruses. Sequence alignments have placed these proteins in the SF3 helicase family, a subset of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily. A feature common to AAA+ proteins is the formation of oligomeric rings that are essential for their catalytic functions. Here we show that a recombinant protein, MBP-2C, in which maltose-binding protein was fused to 2C, formed soluble oligomers and that ATPase activity was restricted to oligomer-containing fractions from gel-filtration chromatography. The active fraction was visualized by negative-staining electron microscopy as ring-like particles composed of 5–8 protomers. This conclusion was confirmed by mass measurements obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Mutation of amino acid residues in the 2C nucleotide-binding domain demonstrated that loss of the ability to bind or hydrolyze ATP did not affect oligomerization. Co-expression of active MBP-2C and inactive mutant proteins generated mixed oligomers that exhibited little ATPase activity, suggesting that incorporation of inactive subunits eliminates the function of the entire particle. Finally, deletion of the N-terminal 38 amino acids blocked oligomerization of the fusion protein and eliminated ATPase activity, despite retention of an unaltered nucleotide-binding domain. PMID:19520852

  8. Orphan Kinesin NOD Lacks Motile Properties But Does Possess a Microtubule-stimulated ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Baskin, Ronald J.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2001-01-01

    NOD is a Drosophila chromosome-associated kinesin-like protein that does not fall into the chromokinesin subfamily. Although NOD lacks residues known to be critical for kinesin function, we show that microtubules activate the ATPase activity of NOD >2000-fold. Biochemical and genetic analysis of two genetically identified mutations of NOD (NODDTW and NOD“DR2”) demonstrates that this allosteric activation is critical for the function of NOD in vivo. However, several lines of evidence indicate that this ATPase activity is not coupled to vectorial transport, including 1) NOD does not produce microtubule gliding; and 2) the substitution of a single amino acid in the Drosophila kinesin heavy chain with the analogous amino acid in NOD results in a drastic inhibition of motility. We suggest that the microtubule-activated ATPase activity of NOD provides transient attachments of chromosomes to microtubules rather than producing vectorial transport. PMID:11739796

  9. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  10. Milrinone and thyroid hormone stimulate myocardial membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and share structural homologies.

    PubMed Central

    Mylotte, K M; Cody, V; Davis, P J; Davis, F B; Blas, S D; Schoenl, M

    1985-01-01

    We have recently shown that thyroid hormone in physiological concentrations stimulates sarcolemma-enriched rabbit-myocardial-membrane Ca2+-ATPase in vitro. In this study, milrinone [2-methyl-5-cyano-(3,4'-bipyridin)-6(1H)-one], a cardiac inotropic agent, was thyromimetic in the same system. At clinically achievable concentrations (50-500 nM), milrinone significantly stimulated membrane Ca2+-ATPase in vitro. This action was antagonized by W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], an agent that also blocks thyroid hormone action on the Ca2+-ATPase, at concentrations as low as 5 microM. Progressive additions of milrinone to membranes incubated with a fixed concentration of thyroxine (0.10 nM) or triiodothyronine resulted in a progressive obliteration of the thyroid hormone effect on Ca2+-ATPase. Amrinone [5-amino-(3,4'-bipyridin)-6(1H)-one], the parent bipyridine of milrinone, had no effect on myocardial Ca2+-ATPase activity. X-ray crystallographic analysis of milrinone and amrinone revealed structural homologies between the phenolic ring of thyroxine and the substituted ring of milrinone, whereas amrinone did not share these homologies. The mechanism(s) of the inotropic actions of thyroxine and of milrinone is not clearly understood, but these observations implicate Ca2+-ATPase, a calcium pump-associated enzyme, as one mediator of the effects on the heart of these two compounds. PMID:2933747

  11. Salinity dependent Na+-K+ATPase activity in gills of the euryhaline crab Chasmagnathus granulata.

    PubMed

    Schleich, C E; Goldemberg, L A; López Mañanes, A A

    2001-09-01

    The occurrence and response of Na+-K+ATPase specific activity to environmental salinity changes were studied in gill extracts of all of the gills of the euryhaline crab Chasmagnathus granulata from Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). All of the gills exhibited a salinity dependent Na+-K+ATPase activity, although the pattern of response to environmental salinity was different among gills. As described in other euryhaline crabs highest Na+-K+ATPase specific activity was found in posterior gills (6 to 8), which, with exception of gill 6, increased upon acclimation to reduced salinity. However, a high increase of activity also occurred in anterior gills (1 to 5) in diluted media. Furthermore, both short and long term differential changes of Na+-K+ATPase activity occurred among the gills after the transfer of crabs to reduced salinity. The fact that variations of Na+-K+ATPase activity in the gills were concomitant with the transition from osmoconformity to ionoregulation suggests that this enzyme is a component of the branchial ionoregulatory mechanisms at the biochemical level in this crab.

  12. Salinity fluctuation influencing biological adaptation: growth dynamics and Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity in a euryhaline bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Meng, Yang; Song, Youxin; Tan, Yalin; Warren, Alan; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    Although salinity fluctuation is a prominent characteristic of many coastal ecosystems, its effects on biological adaptation have not yet been fully recognized. To test the salinity fluctuations on biological adaptation, population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity were investigated in the euryhaline bacterium Idiomarina sp. DYB, which was acclimated at different salinity exposure levels, exposure times, and shifts in direction of salinity. Results showed: (1) bacterial population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity changed significantly in response to salinity fluctuation; (2) patterns of variation in bacterial growth dynamics were related to exposure times, levels of salinity, and shifts in direction of salinity change; (3) significant tradeoffs were detected between growth rate (r) and carrying capacity (K) on the one hand, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity on the other; and (4) beneficial acclimation was confirmed in Idiomarina sp. DYB. In brief, this study demonstrated that salinity fluctuation can change the population growth dynamics, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and tradeoffs between r, K, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity, thus facilitating bacterial adaption in a changing environment. These findings provide constructive information for determining biological response patterns to environmental change. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Global Survey of ATPase Activity in Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Corrie; Frando, Andrew; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo

    Effective malaria control and elimination in hyperendemic areas of the world will require treatment of disease-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) blood stage infection but also blocking parasite transmission from humans to mosquito to prevent disease spread. Numerous antimalarial drugs have become ineffective due to parasite drug resistance and many currently used therapies do not kill gametocytes, highly specialized sexual parasite stages with distinct physiology that are necessary for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector. Further confounding next generation drug development against Pf is the lack of known biochemical activity for most parasite gene products as well as themore » unknown metabolic needs of non-replicating gametocyte. Here, we take a systematic activity-based proteomics approach to survey the large and druggable ATPase family that is associated with replicating blood stage asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. We experimentally confirm existing annotation and predict ATPase function for 38 uncharacterized proteins. ATPase activity broadly changes during the transition from asexual schizonts to gametocytes, indicating altered metabolism and regulatory roles of ATPases specific for each lifecycle stage. By mapping the activity of ATPases associated with gametocytogenesis, we assign biochemical activity to a large number of uncharacterized proteins and identify new candidate transmission blocking targets.« less

  14. Increased pressure during retrograde cerebral perfusion provides better preservation of the Na+, K+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luojia; Li, Zhijun; Yang, Yanmin; Zhu, Raymound; Summers, Randy; Deslauriers, Roxanne; Ye, Jian

    2006-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine if increased perfusion pressure during retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) provides better preservation of the brain Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Twenty pigs were subjected to anesthesia alone (control group, n=5), hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) (HCA group, n = 5), HCA+RCP at perfusion pressures of 24-29 mmHg (Low-pressure group, n=5), or HCA+RCP at perfusion pressures of 34-40 mmHg (High-pressure group, n = 5). The brain was harvested for the measurement of tissue Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Relative to the control pigs (67.2 +/- 2.1%), significant impairment of Na+, K+-ATPase activity was observed in all three experimental groups (29.8 +/- 7.4% in HCA group, 33.5 +/- 2.9% in the Low-pressure group, and 52.0 +/- 1.8% in the High-pressure group, p < 0.01). The best preservation of the enzyme, particularly in the cortex and cerebellum regions, was observed in the High-pressure group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, HCA causes severe impairment of Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and increasing perfusion pressures from 24-29 to 34-40 mmHg during RCP significantly improves preservation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and the improvement of the protection varies in different regions of the brain.

  15. Functional Impact of ABCB1 Variants on Interactions between P-Glycoprotein and Methadone

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chuan; Chiou, Mu-Han; Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be one of the major contributors. To investigate the mechanism of P-gp’s interaction with methadone, as well as the effect of genetic variants on the interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established in the present study. The RNA and protein expression levels of human P-gp were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Utilizing rhodamine 123 efflux assay and calcein-AM uptake study, methadone was demonstrated to be an inhibitor of wild-type human P-gp via non-competitive kinetic (IC50 = 2.17±0.10 µM), while the variant-type human P-gp, P-gp with 1236T-2677T-3435T genotype and P-gp with 1236T-2677A-3435T genotype, showed less inhibition potency (IC50 = 2.97±0.09 µM and 4.43±1.10 µM, respectively) via uncompetitive kinetics. Methadone also stimulated P-gp ATPase and inhibited verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity under therapeutic concentrations. These results may provide a possible explanation for higher methadone dosage requirements in patients carrying variant-type of P-gp and revealed the possible drug-drug interactions in patients who receive concomitant drugs which are also P-gp substrates. PMID:23527191

  16. Organophosphate inhibition of avian salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    1. Adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were given freshwater or saltwater (1.5% NaCl) for 11 days and half of each group was also given an organophosphate (17 p.p.m. fenthion) in the diet on days 6–11.2. After 11 days, ducks drinking saltrwater had lost more weight and had higher plasma Na and uric acid concentration and osmolalities than birds drinking freshwater.3. Saltwater treatment stimulated the salt gland to increased weight and Na, K-ATPase activity.4. Fenthion generally reduced plasma and brain cholinesterase activity and depressed cholinesterase and Na, K-ATPase activities in salt glands of birds drinking saltwater.

  17. Phenylarsine Oxide Inhibits the Fusicoccin-Induced Activation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1

    PubMed Central

    Olivari, Claudio; Albumi, Cristina; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fusicoccin (FC) induces the activation of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, we used phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a known inhibitor of protein tyrosine-phosphatases. PAO was supplied in vivo in the absence or presence of FC to radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings and cultured Arabidopsis cells prior to PM extraction. Treatment with PAO alone caused a slight decrease of PM H+-ATPase activity and, in radish, a decrease of PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins. When supplied prior to FC, PAO drastically inhibited FC-induced activation of PM H+-ATPase, FC binding to the PM, and the FC-induced increase of the amount of 14-3-3 associated with the PM. On the contrary, PAO was completely ineffective on all of the above-mentioned parameters when supplied after FC. The H+-ATPase isolated from PAO-treated Arabidopsis cells maintained the ability to respond to FC if supplied with exogenous, nonphosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins. Altogether, these results are consistent with a model in which the dephosphorylated state of tyrosine residues of a protein(s), such as 14-3-3 protein, is required to permit FC-induced association between the 14-3-3 protein and the PM H+-ATPase. PMID:10677439

  18. Characteristics of the Mg2+-ATPase Activity Associated with the Membrane-Bound Maize Coupling Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The membrane-bound coupling factor of maize mesophyll thylakoids is a latent ATPase. Mg2+-ATPase activity can be induced in the light with either dithiothreitol or low concentrations of trypsin. Maize thylakoids that are activated with light plus trypsin exhibit considerably higher levels of activity in Na2SO3-dependent Mg2+-ATPase assays compared to thylakoids that are light and dithiothreitol activated (1400 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour versus 200 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour). Treatment with light and dithiothreitol or light plus trypsin were also required to demonstrate high levels of octyl glucoside-dependent Mg2+-ATPase activity in maize mesophyll thylakoids. Only small differences in octyl glucoside-dependent Mg2+-ATPase activity were observed in preparations that were activated in the light with either trypsin or dithiothreitol. Mg2+-ATPase activity can also be induced in maize mesophyll chloroplasts by illuminating intact preparations under appropriate conditions. Little or no ATPase activity was observed in the absence of illumination or in the presence of light plus methyl viologen. The active state decayed in the dark with a t½ of 6 to 7 minutes at room temperature. Based on the effect of the thiol oxidant, o-iodosobenzoate, and the uncoupler, nigericin, on the kinetics of deactivation of ATPase activity in intact maize chloroplasts, it appears that the activation process requires a transmembrane proton gradient and reduction of a key disulfide bridge in the gamma of chloroplast coupling factor one. PMID:16667119

  19. Glycation of myofibrillar proteins and ATPase activity after incubation with eleven sugars.

    PubMed

    Syrový, I

    1994-01-01

    Rat skeletal muscle myofibrils were incubated in the presence of D-glucose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-ribose, D-tagatose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-mannose, L-sorbose, L-rhamnose or DL-glyceraldehyde and myofibrillar ATPase activity as well as the extent of glycation was measured. The attachment of sugars to proteins during glycation was generally dependent on the percentage of a given sugar present in the open-chain form. Glycation resulted in the decrease of myofibrillar ATPase activity. This decrease was low after incubation of myofibrillar proteins with slowly glycating sugars (e.g. glucose) and high with fast glycating sugars (e.g. ribose or glyceraldehyde). ATPase activity was less reduced in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol.

  20. Influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms and haplotypes on tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and dosage requirements in children with liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; McKiernan, Patrick J; Shields, Michael; Millership, Jeff S; Collier, Paul S; McElnay, James C

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 on the incidence of nephrotoxicity and tacrolimus dosage-requirements in paediatric patients following liver transplantation. METHODS Fifty-one paediatric liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were genotyped for ABCB1 C1236>T, G2677>T and C3435>T polymorphisms. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rates (EGFR) indicative of renal toxicity were determined and correlated with the corresponding genotypes. RESULTS The present study revealed a higher incidence of the ABCB1 variant-alleles examined among patients with renal dysfunction (≥30% reduction in EGFR) at 6 months post-transplantation (1236T allele: 63.3% vs 37.5% in controls, P= 0.019; 2677T allele: 63.3% vs. 35.9%, p = 0.012; 3435T allele: 60% vs. 39.1%, P= 0.057). Carriers of the G2677->T variant allele also had a significant reduction (%) in EGFR at 12 months post-transplant (mean difference = 22.6%; P= 0.031). Haplotype analysis showed a significant association between T-T-T haplotypes and an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity at 6 months post-transplantation (haplotype-frequency = 52.9% in nephrotoxic patients vs 29.4% in controls; P= 0.029). Furthermore, G2677->T and C3435->T polymorphisms and T-T-T haplotypes were significantly correlated with higher tacrolimus dose-adjusted pre-dose concentrations at various time points examined long after drug initiation. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that ABCB1 polymorphisms in the native intestine significantly influence tacrolimus dosage-requirement in the stable phase after transplantation. In addition, ABCB1 polymorphisms in paediatric liver transplant recipients may predispose them to nephrotoxicity over the first year post-transplantation. Genotyping future transplant recipients for ABCB1 polymorphisms, therefore, could have the potential to individualize better tacrolimus immunosuppressive therapy and

  1. Effect of an ADP analog on isometric force and ATPase activity of active muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Karatzaferi, Christina; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Chinn, Marc K; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen; Cooke, Roger

    2003-04-01

    The role played by ADP in modulating cross-bridge function has been difficult to study, because it is hard to buffer ADP concentration in skinned muscle preparations. To solve this, we used an analog of ADP, spin-labeled ADP (SL-ADP). SL-ADP binds tightly to myosin but is a very poor substrate for creatine kinase or pyruvate kinase. Thus ATP can be regenerated, allowing well-defined concentrations of both ATP and SL-ADP. We measured isometric ATPase rate and isometric tension as a function of both [SL-ADP], 0.1-2 mM, and [ATP], 0.05-0.5 mM, in skinned rabbit psoas muscle, simulating fresh or fatigued states. Saturating levels of SL-ADP increased isometric tension (by P'), the absolute value of P' being nearly constant, approximately 0.04 N/mm(2), in variable ATP levels, pH 7. Tension decreased (50-60%) at pH 6, but upon addition of SL-ADP, P' was still approximately 0.04 N/mm(2). The ATPase was inhibited competitively by SL-ADP with an inhibition constant, K(i), of approximately 240 and 280 microM at pH 7 and 6, respectively. Isometric force and ATPase activity could both be fit by a simple model of cross-bridge kinetics.

  2. Molecular model of the outward facing state of the human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), and comparison to a model of the human MRP5 (ABCC5)

    PubMed Central

    Ravna, Aina W; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Sager, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a particular limitation to cancer chemotherapy, antibiotic treatment and HIV medication. The ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and the human MRP5 (ABCC5) are involved in multidrug resistance. Results In order to elucidate structural and molecular concepts of multidrug resistance, we have constructed a molecular model of the ATP-bound outward facing conformation of the human multidrug resistance protein ABCB1 using the Sav1866 crystal structure as a template, and compared the ABCB1 model with a previous ABCC5 model. The electrostatic potential surface (EPS) of the ABCB1 substrate translocation chamber, which transports cationic amphiphilic and lipophilic substrates, was neutral with negative and weakly positive areas. In contrast, EPS of the ABCC5 substrate translocation chamber, which transports organic anions, was generally positive. Positive-negative ratios of amino acids in the TMDs of ABCB1 and ABCC5 were also analyzed, and the positive-negative ratio of charged amino acids was higher in the ABCC5 TMDs than in the ABCB1 TMDs. In the ABCB1 model residues Leu65 (transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1)), Ile306 (TMH5), Ile340 (TMH6) and Phe343 (TMH6) may form a binding site, and this is in accordance with previous site directed mutagenesis studies. Conclusion The Sav1866 X-ray structure may serve as a suitable template for the ABCB1 model, as it did with ABCC5. The EPS in the substrate translocation chambers and the positive-negative ratio of charged amino acids were in accordance with the transport of cationic amphiphilic and lipophilic substrates by ABCB1, and the transport of organic anions by ABCC5. PMID:17803828

  3. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE ATPASE ACTIVITY OF THE BAI STRAIN A (MYELOBLASTOSIS) AVIAN TUMOR VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Novikoff, Alex B.; de Thé, Guy; Beard, D.; Beard, J. W.

    1962-01-01

    Thymus glands of chicks with leukemia induced by BAI strain A (myeloblastosis) virus were fixed in cold 4 per cent formaldehyde-sucrose. Frozen sections were incubated in the ATPase medium of Wachstein and Meisel and studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The ATPase activity of the virus is localized to the outermost membrane of the virus. The membrane of the blast-like cells of the thymus cortex from which the virus emerges, by budding, also possesses such activity. It appears likely that the outermost membrane of the virus is derived from the plasma membrane of these cells. PMID:13939125

  4. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrastructure and ATPase activity of the rectal gland of the chondrichthyean fish Hydrolagus colliei (Holocephali).

    PubMed

    Lagios, M D; Stasko-Concannon, S

    1979-05-18

    The anatomy, histology, ultrastructure and ATPase activity of the intramural rectal gland of the chondrichthyean Hydrolagus colliei, are described. The cells of the rectal gland of Hydrolagus demonstrate the same well developed lateral and basal cisternae, elongate mitochondria and luminal border as those of their elasmobranch counterparts. ATPase activity within the rectal gland of Hydrolagus is as intense as that in a number of elasmobranchs examined in the course of the study. Despite its primitive intramural location the rectal gland of Hydrolagus represents a homolog of the more specialized and better known elasmobranch gland and appears as well suited for cation excretion.

  6. ATPase activity and light scattering of acto-heavy meromyosin: dependence on ATP concentration and on ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Dancker, P

    1975-01-01

    1. The dependence on ATP concentration of ATPase activity and light scattering decrease of acto-HMM could be described at very low ionic strength by one hyperbolic adsorption isotherm with a dissociation constant of 3 X 10(-6)M. Hence the increase of ATP ase activity was paralleled by a decrease in light scattering. At higher values of ionic strength ATPase activity stopped rising before HMM was completely saturated with ATP. Higher ionic strength prevented ATPase activity from further increasing when the rigor links (links between actin and nucleotide-free myosin), which have formerly protected the ATPase against the suppressing action of higher ionic strength have fallen below a certain amount. This protecting influence of rigor links did not require tropomyosin-troponin. 2. For complete activation of ATPase activity by actin less actin was needed when HMM was incompletely saturated with ATP than when it was completely saturated with ATP. 3. The apparent affinity of ATP to regulated acto-HMM (which contained tropomyosin-troponin) was lower than to unregulated acto-HMM (which was devoid of tropomyosin-troponin). In the presence of rigor complexes (indicated by an incomplete decrease of light scattering) the ATPase activity of regulated acto-HMM was higher than that of unregulated acto-HMM. At increasing ATP concentrations the ATPase activity of regulated acto-HMM stopped rising at a similar degree of saturation with ATP as the ATPase activity of unregulated acto-HMM at the same ionic strength.

  7. Tributyltin (TBT) inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase activity in mussel mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Pagliarani, Alessandra; Bandiera, Patrizia; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Nesci, Salvatore; Borgatti, Anna Rosa

    2008-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), one of the most toxic lipophilic aquatic pollutants, can be efficiently incorporated from sea water and sediments by filter-feeding molluscs. As far as we are aware TBT effects on the mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive Mg-ATPase, the enzymatic core of energy production and a known target of TBT toxicity in mammals, have not been yet investigated in molluscs; thus the hydrolytic capability of the mitochondrial complex in the presence of micromolar concentrations of TBT was assayed in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Gill and mantle ATPase activities were progressively depressed by increasing TBT doses up to a maximal inhibition (82% in the gills and 74% in the mantle) at 0.62 microM TBT. Non-cooperative inhibition kinetics (n(H) approximately -1) and a non-competitive mechanism with respect to ATP substrate were pointed out. The mitochondrial Mg-ATPase susceptivity to TBT in the marine mussel was consistent with the formation of a TBT-Mg-ATPase complex, apparently more stable in the gills than in the mantle. The complex shape of the dose-response curve and the partial release of Mg-ATPase inhibition within the 0.6-34.4 microM TBT range suggest multiple interactions of TBT with the enzyme complex putatively related to its molecular mechanism of toxicity.

  8. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the level and activation state of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase during aging of red beet slices.

    PubMed

    Papini, R; De Michelis, M I

    1997-07-01

    The effect of aging on the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) parenchyma discs was analyzed in PM purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Aging increased both the activity in the amount of immunodetectable H(+)-ATPase in the PM. The activity assayed at slightly alkaline pH values increased earlier and more strongly than that assayed at acidic pH values, so that the pH curve of the enzyme from aged beet discs was shifted toward more alkaline values. Aging decreased the stimulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity by controlled trypsin treatments or by lysophosphatidylcholine. After trypsin treatment the pH dependence of H(+)-ATPase from dormant or aged beet discs became equal. These results indicate that aging not only increases the level of H(+)-ATPase in the PM, but also determines its activation, most likely by modifying the interaction between the autoinhibitory carboxyl-terminal domain and the catalytic site. When the PM H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed at a slightly alkaline pH, the tyrosine modifier N-acetylimidazole inhibited the H(+)-ATPase in the PM from dormant beet discs much less than in the PM from aged discs, suggesting that modification of a tyrosine residue may be involved in the activation of the PM H(+)-ATPase induced by aging. The results are discussed with regard to aging-induced development of transmembrane transport activities.

  10. Genetic association of NOS1 exon18, NOS1 exon29, ABCB1 1236C/T, and ABCB1 3435C/T polymorphisms with the risk of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongbin; Peng, Cong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xu; Chen, Qicong; Huang, Zunnan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. Previous publications have investigated the association of NOS1 and ABCB1 polymorphisms with PD risk. However, those studies have provided some contradictory results. Methods: Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Embase, PDgene, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to evaluate the strength of association. Results: The analysis results indicated that NOS1 exon18 polymorphism was associated with developing PD in 4 genetic models (allelic: OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.09–1.44, P = 0.001; homozygous: OR = 1.79, 95%CI 1.32–2.45, P < 0.001; recessive: OR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.26–2.28, P < 0.001; dominant: OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.02–1.46, P = 0.03), whereas exon29 polymorphism was not correlated to PD susceptibility. In addition, ABCB1 1236C/T polymorphism was related to PD in the recessive (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.66–0.97, P = 0.025) and overdominant (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.43, P = 0.02) models, which might indicate the opposite effects of 2 minor variants of this locus on Parkinson's disease. However, this associated result was not robust enough to withstand statistically significant correction. On the other hand, no association was found between ABCB1 3435C/T polymorphism and the predisposition to PD in 5 genetic models, and such an absence of relationship was further confirmed by subgroup analysis in Caucasians and Asians. Whether the polymorphisms of these 4 loci were linked to PD or not, our study provided some interesting findings that differ from the previous results with regard to their genetic susceptibility. Conclusion: The NOS1 exon18 and ABCB1 1236C/T variants might play a role in the risk of Parkinson's disease, whereas NOS1 exon29 and ABCB1 3435C/T polymorphisms might not contribute to PD susceptibility. PMID

  11. Host genetic variants of ABCB1 and IL15 influence treatment outcome in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Kham, S K Y; Ariffin, H; Oei, A M I; Lin, H P; Tan, A M; Quah, T C; Yeoh, A E J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Host germline variations and their potential prognostic importance is an emerging area of interest in paediatric ALL. Methods: We investigated the associations between 20 germline variations and various clinical end points in 463 children with ALL. Results: After adjusting for known prognostic factors, variants in two genes were found to be independently associated with poorer EFS: ABCB1 T/T at either 2677 (rs2032582) or 3435 (rs1045642) position (P=0.003) and IL15 67276493G/G (rs17015014; P=0.022). These variants showed a strong additive effect affecting outcome (P<0.001), whereby patients with both risk genotypes had the worst EFS (P=0.001), even after adjusting for MRD levels at the end of remission induction. The adverse effect of ABCB1 T/T genotypes was most pronounced in patients with favourable cytogenetics (P=0.011) while the IL15 67276493G/G genotype mainly affected patients without common chromosomal abnormalities (P=0.022). In both cytogenetic subgroups, increasing number of such risk genotypes still predicted worsening outcome (P<0.001 and=0.009, respectively). Conclusion: These results point to the prognostic importance of host genetic variants, although the specific mechanisms remain unclarified. Inclusion of ABCB1 and IL15 variants may help improve risk assignment strategies in paediatric ALL. PMID:24434428

  12. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    PubMed

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA polymerase V activity is autoregulated by a novel intrinsic DNA-dependent ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Aysen L; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Bertram, Jeffrey G; Woodgate, Roger; Cox, Michael M; Goodman, Myron F

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V), a heterotrimeric complex composed of UmuD′2C, is marginally active. ATP and RecA play essential roles in the activation of pol V for DNA synthesis including translesion synthesis (TLS). We have established three features of the roles of ATP and RecA. (1) RecA-activated DNA polymerase V (pol V Mut), is a DNA-dependent ATPase; (2) bound ATP is required for DNA synthesis; (3) pol V Mut function is regulated by ATP, with ATP required to bind primer/template (p/t) DNA and ATP hydrolysis triggering dissociation from the DNA. Pol V Mut formed with an ATPase-deficient RecA E38K/K72R mutant hydrolyzes ATP rapidly, establishing the DNA-dependent ATPase as an intrinsic property of pol V Mut distinct from the ATP hydrolytic activity of RecA when bound to single-stranded (ss)DNA as a nucleoprotein filament (RecA*). No similar ATPase activity or autoregulatory mechanism has previously been found for a DNA polymerase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02384.001 PMID:24843026

  14. Changes in acetylcholinesterase, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of hyper- and hypothyroid adult rats.

    PubMed

    Carageorgiou, Haris; Pantos, Constantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Cokkinos, Dennis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-08-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) are crucial determinants of normal development and metabolism, especially in the central nervous system. The metabolic rate is known to increase in hyperthyroidism and decrease in hypothyroidism. The aim of this work was to investigate how changes in metabolism induced by THs could affect the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na+,K+)- and Mg2+-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of adult rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by subcutaneous administration of thyroxine (25 microg/100 g body weight) once daily for 14 days, and hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of propylthiouracil (0.05%) for 21 days. All enzyme activities were evaluated spectrophotometrically in the homogenated brain regions of 10 three-animal pools. A region-specific behavior was observed concerning the examined enzyme activities in hyper- and hypothyroidism. In hyperthyroidism, AChE activity was significantly increased only in the hippocampus (+22%), whereas Na+,K+-ATPase activity was significantly decreased in the hyperthyroid rat hippocampus (-47%) and remained unchanged in the frontal cortex. In hypothyroidism, AChE activity was significantly decreased in the frontal cortex (-23%) and increased in the hippocampus (+21%). Na+,K+-ATPase activity was significantly decreased in both the frontal cortex (-35%) and the hippocampus (-43%) of hypothyroid rats. Mg2+-ATPase remained unchanged in the regions of both hyper- and hypothyroid rat brains. Our data revealed that THs affect the examined adult rat brain parameters in a region- and state-specific way. The TH-reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity may increase the synaptic acetylcholine release and, thus, modulate AChE activity. Moreover, the above TH-induced changes may affect the monoamine neurotransmitter systems in the examined brain regions.

  15. [Effect of glycine and strychnine on Cl(-)-activated Mg2+-ATPase from bream brain microsomes (Abamis brama L.)].

    PubMed

    Menzikov, S A; Menzikova, O V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of glycine and strychnine on Mg2+-ATPase from the microsomal fraction of the bream (Abramis brama L.) brain was studied. The glycine in the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-4) M activates the enzyme. The effect of glycine on Mg2+-ATPase is obviated by 100 microM strychnine. The strychnine in the concentration range 5-90 microM activates the basal Mg2+-ATPase but decreases the effect of the enzyme activation by 10(-4) M glycine. The effect of Cl- on Mg2+-ATPase depends on the substrate concentration (Mg2+-ATP) and is not observed in the presence of 100 microM strychnine. A receptor-dependent pathway of glycine and strychnine action on Cl(-)-activated Mg2+-ATPase from bream brain microsomes is proposed.

  16. Estrogen Modulation of MgATPase Activity of Nonmuscle Myosin-II-B Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Gorodeski, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that estrogen controls epithelial paracellular resistance through modulation of myosin. The objective was to understand how estrogen modulates non-muscle myosin-II-B (NMM-II-B), the main component of the cortical actomyosin in human epithelial cervical cells. Experiments used human cervical epithelial cells CaSki as a model, and end points were NMM-II-B phosphorylation, filamentation, and MgATPase activity. The results were as follows: 1) treatment with estrogen increased phosphorylation and MgATPase activity and decreased NMM-II-B filamentation; 2) estrogen effects could be blocked by antisense nucleotides for the estrogen receptor-α and by ICI-182,780, tamoxifen, and the casein kinase-II (CK2) inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-β-(D)-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole and attenuated by AG1478 and PD98059 (inhibitors of epithelial growth factor receptor and ERK/MAPK) but not staurosporine [blocker of protein kinase C (PKC)]; 3) treatments with the PKC activator sn-1,2-di-octanoyl diglyceride induced biphasic effect on NMM-II-B MgATPase activity: an increase at 1 nM to 1 μM and a decrease in activity at more than 1 μM; 4) sn-1,2-dioctanoyl diglyceride also decreased NMM-II-B filamentation in a monophasic and saturable dose dependence (EC50 1–10 μM); 5) when coincubated directly with purified NMM-II-B filaments, both CK2 and PKC decreased filamentation and increased MgATPase activity; 6) assays done on disassembled NMM-II-B filaments showed MgATPase activity in filaments obtained from estrogen-treated cells but not estrogen-depleted cells; and 7) incubations in vitro with CK2, but not PKC, facilitated MgATPase activity, even in disassembled NMM-II-B filaments. The results suggest that estrogen, in an effect mediated by estrogen receptor-α and CK2 and involving the epithelial growth factor receptor and ERK/MAPK cascades, increases NMM-II-B MgATPase activity independent of NMM-II-B filamentation status. PMID:17023528

  17. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P < 0.0001). Similarly, MDA content of erythrocyte membranes was significantly increased during hibernation (P < 0.025). The activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the erythrocyte membrane was significantly decreased in the hibernating state as compared to the active state. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was also decreased, though not significant, during hibernation. These results suggest that during hibernation, the bears are under increased oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Substrates Control Multimerization and Activation of the Multi-Domain ATPase Motor of Type VII Secretion

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, Oren S.; Dovala, Dustin; Li, Xueming; ...

    2015-04-09

    We report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus secrete virulence factors via type VII protein secretion (T7S), a system that intriguingly requires all of its secretion substrates for activity. To gain insights into T7S function, we used structural approaches to guide studies of the putative translocase EccC, a unique enzyme with three ATPase domains, and its secretion substrate EsxB. The crystal structure of EccC revealed that the ATPase domains are joined by linker/pocket interactions that modulate its enzymatic activity. EsxB binds via its signal sequence to an empty pocket on the C-terminal ATPase domain, which is accompanied by an increasemore » in ATPase activity. Surprisingly, substrate binding does not activate EccC allosterically but, rather, by stimulating its multimerization. Thus, the EsxB substrate is also an integral T7S component, illuminating a mechanism that helps to explain interdependence of substrates, and suggests a model in which binding of substrates modulates their coordinate release from the bacterium.« less

  19. The prokaryotic enhancer binding protein NTRC has an ATPase activity which is phosphorylation and DNA dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S; Dixon, R

    1992-01-01

    The prokaryotic activator protein NTRC binds to enhancer-like elements and activates transcription in response to nitrogen limitation by catalysing open complex formation by sigma 54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Formation of open complexes requires the phosphorylated form of NTRC and the reaction is ATP dependent. We find that NTRC has an ATPase activity which is activated by phosphorylation and is strongly stimulated by the presence of DNA containing specific NTRC binding sites. Images PMID:1534752

  20. Quantitation of Na+, K+-atpase Enzymatic Activity in Tissues of the Mammalian Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to quantify vestibular Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, a microassay technique was developed which is sufficiently sensitive to measure the enzymatic activity in tissue from a single animal. The assay was used to characterize ATPase in he vestibular apparatus of the Mongolian gerbil. The quantitative procedure employs NPP (5 mM) as synthetic enzyme substrate. The assay relies upon spectrophotometric measurement (410 nm) of nitrophenol (NP) released by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Product formation in the absence of ouabain reflects both specific (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and non-specific (Mg(++)-ATPase) enzymatic activity. By measuring the accumulation of reaction product (NP) at three-minute intervals during the course of incubation, it is found that the overall enzymatic reaction proceeds linearly for at least 45 minutes. It is therefore possible to determine two separate reaction rates from a single set of tissues. Initial results indicate that total activity amounts to 53.3 + or - 11.2 (S.E.M.) nmol/hr/mg dry tissue, of which approximately 20% is ouabain-sensitive.

  1. V-ATPase proton pumping activity is required for adult zebrafish appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration.

  2. V-ATPase Proton Pumping Activity Is Required for Adult Zebrafish Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Joana; Aires, Rita; Becker, Jörg D.; Jacinto, António; Certal, Ana C.; Rodríguez-León, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ion channels and transporters generates ion-specific fluxes that encode electrical and/or chemical signals with biological significance. Even though it is long known that some of those signals are crucial for regeneration, only in recent years the corresponding molecular sources started to be identified using mainly invertebrate or larval vertebrate models. We used adult zebrafish caudal fin as a model to investigate which and how ion transporters affect regeneration in an adult vertebrate model. Through the combined use of biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that V-ATPase activity contributes to a regeneration-specific H+ ef`flux. The onset and intensity of both V-ATPase expression and H+ efflux correlate with the different regeneration rate along the proximal-distal axis. Moreover, we show that V-ATPase inhibition impairs regeneration in adult vertebrate. Notably, the activity of this H+ pump is necessary for aldh1a2 and mkp3 expression, blastema cell proliferation and fin innervation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of V-ATPase during adult vertebrate regeneration. PMID:24671205

  3. Mechanism of the asymmetric activation of the MinD ATPase by MinE

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Tae; Wu, Wei; Lovell, Scott; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Summary MinD is a component of the Min system involved in the spatial regulation of cell division. It is an ATPase in the MinD/ParA/Mrp deviant Walker A motif family which is within the P loop GTPase superfamily. Its ATPase activity is stimulated by MinE, however, the mechanism of this activation is unclear. MinD forms a symmetric dimer with two binding sites for MinE, however, a recent model suggested that MinE occupying one site was sufficient for ATP hydrolysis. By generating heterodimers with one binding site for MinE we show that one binding site is sufficient for stimulation of the MinD ATPase. Furthermore, comparison of structures of MinD and related proteins led us to examine the role of N45 in the switch I region. An asparagine at this position is conserved in four of the deviant Walker A motif subfamilies (MinD, chromosomal ParAs, Get3 and FleN) and we find that N45 in MinD is essential for MinE stimulated ATPase activity and suggest that it is a key residue affected by MinE binding. PMID:22651575

  4. The Antibiotic Novobiocin Binds and Activates the ATPase That Powers Lipopolysaccharide Transport.

    PubMed

    May, Janine M; Owens, Tristan W; Mandler, Michael D; Simpson, Brent W; Lazarus, Michael B; Sherman, David J; Davis, Rebecca M; Okuda, Suguru; Massefski, Walter; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2017-12-06

    Novobiocin is an orally active antibiotic that inhibits DNA gyrase by binding the ATP-binding site in the ATPase subunit. Although effective against Gram-positive pathogens, novobiocin has limited activity against Gram-negative organisms due to the presence of the lipopolysaccharide-containing outer membrane, which acts as a permeability barrier. Using a novobiocin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain with a leaky outer membrane, we identified a mutant with increased resistance to novobiocin. Unexpectedly, the mutation that increases novobiocin resistance was not found to alter gyrase, but the ATPase that powers lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transport. Co-crystal structures, biochemical, and genetic evidence show novobiocin directly binds this ATPase. Novobiocin does not bind the ATP binding site but rather the interface between the ATPase subunits and the transmembrane subunits of the LPS transporter. This interaction increases the activity of the LPS transporter, which in turn alters the permeability of the outer membrane. We propose that novobiocin will be a useful tool for understanding how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to LPS transport.

  5. Ubiquitinated Proteins Activate the Proteasomal ATPases by Binding to Usp14 or Uch37 Homologs*

    PubMed Central

    Peth, Andreas; Kukushkin, Nikolay; Bossé, Marc; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of ubiquitinated proteins by 26 S proteasomes requires ATP hydrolysis, but it is unclear how the proteasomal ATPases are regulated and how proteolysis, substrate deubiquitination, degradation, and ATP hydrolysis are coordinated. Polyubiquitinated proteins were shown to stimulate ATP hydrolysis by purified proteasomes, but only if the proteins contain a loosely folded domain. If they were not ubiquitinated, such proteins did not increase ATPase activity. However, they did so upon addition of ubiquitin aldehyde, which mimics the ubiquitin chain and binds to 26 S-associated deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs): in yeast to Ubp6, which is essential for the ATPase activation, and in mammalian 26 S to the Ubp6 homolog, Usp14, and Uch37. Occupancy of either DUB by a ubiquitin conjugate leads to ATPase stimulation, thereby coupling deubiquitination and ATP hydrolysis. Thus, ubiquitinated loosely folded proteins, after becoming bound to the 26 S, interact with Ubp6/Usp14 or Uch37 to activate ATP hydrolysis and enhance their own destruction. PMID:23341450

  6. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-07-11

    Light activates proton (H(+))-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO(2) to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO(2) levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H(+)-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO(2) and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H(+)-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure.

  7. The lactate receptor (HCAR1/GPR81) contributes to doxorubicin chemoresistance via ABCB1 transporter up-regulation in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, W; Kania, K D; Blauz, A; Ciszewski, W M

    2017-08-01

    The lactate receptor, also known as hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1/GPR81), plays a vital role in cancer biology. Recently, HCAR1 was reported to enhance metastasis, cell growth, and survival of pancreatic, breast, and cervical cancer cells. This study showed, for the first time, the mechanism of HCAR1-mediated chemoresistance to doxorubicin through regulation of ABCB1 transporter. We observed the HCAR1 agonists L-lactate, D-lactate and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) induced up-regulation of ABCB1. HCAR1 silencing decreased ABCB1 mRNA and protein by 80% and 40%, respectively. Moreover, cellular doxorubicin accumulation decreased by 30% after DHBA treatment, while HCAR1 silencing increased accumulation of ABCB1 substrates by nearly 2-fold. Based on growth inhibition assays, cell cycle analysis, and annexin V staining assays, we demonstrated that HCAR1 enhances cell survival and doxorubicin resistance. Finally, DHBA-stimulated up-regulation of ABCB1 functionality was suppressed by pharmacological inhibition of the PKC pathway. Taken together, our study shows the novel role of HCAR1 in development of chemoresistance in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells via ABCB1 transporter up-regulation.

  8. Morphometric analysis of the cerebral expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCB1 in chronic schizophrenia: Circumscribed deficits in the habenula.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Hildebrandt, Jens; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Pahnke, Jens

    2016-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that microvascular abnormalities and malfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) significantly contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB1 is an important molecular component of the intact BBB, which has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the regional and cellular expression of ABCB1 in schizophrenia is yet unexplored. Therefore, we studied ABCB1 protein expression immunohistochemically in twelve human post-mortem brain regions known to play a role in schizophrenia, in 13 patients with schizophrenia and nine controls. In ten out of twelve brain regions under study, no significant differences were found with regard to the numerical density of ABCB1-expressing capillaries between all patients with schizophrenia and control cases. The left and right habenular complex, however, showed significantly reduced capillary densities in schizophrenia patients. In addition, we found a significantly reduced density of ABCB1-expressing neurons in the left habenula. Reduced ABCB1 expression in habenular capillaries might contribute to increased brain levels of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with schizophrenia, while decreased expression of this protein in a subpopulation of medial habenular neurons (which are probably purinergic) might be related to abnormalities of purines and their receptors found in this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Conformational changes in human Hsp70 induced by high hydrostatic pressure produce oligomers with ATPase activity but without chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Thaís L S; Borges, Julio Cesar; Ramos, Carlos H; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; Oliveira Júnior, Reinaldo S; Pascutti, Pedro G; Foguel, Debora; Palhano, Fernando L

    2014-05-13

    We investigated the folding of the 70 kDa human cytosolic inducible protein (Hsp70) in vitro using high hydrostatic pressure as a denaturing agent. We followed the structural changes in Hsp70 induced by high hydrostatic pressure using tryptophan fluorescence, molecular dynamics, circular dichroism, high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, ATPase activity, and chaperone activity. Although monomeric, Hsp70 is very sensitive to hydrostatic pressure; after pressure had been removed, the protein did not return to its native sate but instead formed oligomeric species that lost chaperone activity but retained ATPase activity.

  10. The role or non-role of ATPase activation by phenytoin in the stabilization of excitable membranes.

    PubMed

    Deupree, J D

    1977-09-01

    The role or non-role of NaK ATPase, Mg ATPase, and CaMg ATPase involvement in stabilization of excitable membranes by phenytoin is critically evaluated. There is no substantial evidence to indicate that the membrane-stabilizing effect of phenytoin is due to activation of the NaK ATPase. Previous reports of activation of the NaK ATPase at low potassium and high sodium are probably not due to phenytoin but to a potassium contamination in the phenytoin solution. In vitro experiments do not provide any clear evidence of any alterations of NaK ATPase properties by phenytoin. However, one cannot rule out the possibility that phenytoin alters the efficiency of the sodium-potassium pump. Likewise, the Ca ATPase is not inhibited by phenytoin. However, there is some evidence that the Mg ATPase in synaptic vesicles is substantially inhibited by phenytoin. There is substantial evidence indicating that phenytoin partially blocks passive diffusion of sodium into stimulated nerves. The mechanism by which phenytoin blocks sodium influx and the relationship of this effect to the drug's anticonvulsant action remain to be determined.

  11. A phytochemical study of the Cuphea glutinosa from Southern Brazil: Na+,K+-ATPase activity inhibition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Zago, Adriana M; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié Martins; Bohnert, Crystiani; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Morandini, Liziane M; Coelho, Helena S; Fogaça, Aline O; Andrade, Cinthia M; Mostardeiro, Marco A; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2018-05-21

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of Cuphea glutinosa (CG) and its effect on Na + , K + -ATPase from cardiac muscle. The ethanolic extract showed higher antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous and ethyl acetate fraction. Ethyl acetate fraction showed β-sitosterol-3-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, isoquercetin, gallic acid methyl ester, and gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also reduced the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity. CG presented a promising antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on the Na + , K + -ATPase activity, supporting biochemical evidences the popular use of this plant in the treatment of heart failure.

  12. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion ofmore » two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.« less

  13. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Single Soleus Fiber Maximal Shortening Velocity and ATPase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study characterizes the time course of change in single soleus muscle fiber size and function elicited by hindlimb un weighting (HU) and analyzes the extent to which varying durations of HU altered maximal velocity of shortening (V(sub o)), myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), and relative content of slow and fast myosin in individual soleus fibers. After 1, 2, or 3 weeks of HU, soleus muscle bundles were prepared and stored in skinning solution at -20 C. Single fibers were isolated and mounted between a motor arm and a transducer, and fiber force, V(sub o), and ATPase activity were measured. Fiber myosin content was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU, soleus fibers exhibited a progressive reduction in fiber diameter (16, 22, and 42%, respectively) and peak force (42, 48, and 7%, respectively). Peak specific tension was significantly reduced after 1 week of HU (18%) and showed no further change in 2-3 weeks of HU. During 1 and 3 wk of HU, fiber V(sub o) and ATPase showed a significant increase. By 3 week, V(sub o) had increased from 1.32 +/- 0.04 to 2.94 +/- 0.17 fiber lengths/s and fiber ATPase from 291 +/- 16 to 1064 +/- 128 micro-M min(sub -1) mm(sub -3). The percent fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain increased from 4% to 29% by 3 week of HU, and V(sub o) and ATPase activity within a fiber were highly correlated. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU showed increases in V(sub o) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers. The mechanism eliciting increased fiber V(sub o) and ATPase activity was not obvious but may have been due to increases in fast myosin that went undetected on SDS gels and/or other factors unrelated to the myosin filament.

  14. cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates and activates nuclear Ca2+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Rogue, Patrick J.; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Meyer, Alphonse; Freyermuth, Solange; Krady, Marie-Marthe; Malviya, Anant N.

    1998-01-01

    A Ca2+-pump ATPase, similar to that in the endoplasmic reticulum, has been located on the outer membrane of rat liver nuclei. The effect of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on nuclear Ca2+-ATPase (NCA) was studied by using purified rat liver nuclei. Treatment of isolated nuclei with the catalytic unit of PKA resulted in the phosphorylation of a 105-kDa band that was recognized by antibodies specific for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase type 2b. Partial purification and immunoblotting confirmed that the 105-kDa protein band phosphorylated by PKA is NCA. The stoichiometry of phosphorylation was 0.76 mol of phosphate incorporated/mol of partially purified enzyme. Measurement of ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into purified nuclei showed that PKA phosphorylation enhanced the Ca2+-pumping activity of NCA. We show that PKA phosphorylation of Ca2+-ATPase enhances the transport of 10-kDa fluorescent-labeled dextrans across the nuclear envelope. The findings reported in this paper are consistent with the notion that the crosstalk between the cAMP/PKA- and Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways identified at the cytoplasmic level extends to the nucleus. Furthermore, these data support a function for crosstalk in the regulation of calcium-dependent transport across the nuclear envelope. PMID:9689054

  15. Clathrin coat controls synaptic vesicle acidification by blocking vacuolar ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Zohreh; Rammner, Burkhard; Woehler, Andrew; Lafer, Eileen M; Mim, Carsten; Jahn, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    Newly-formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) are rapidly acidified by vacuolar adenosine triphosphatases (vATPases), generating a proton electrochemical gradient that drives neurotransmitter loading. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is needed for the formation of new SVs, yet it is unclear when endocytosed vesicles acidify and refill at the synapse. Here, we isolated clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) from mouse brain to measure their acidification directly at the single vesicle level. We observed that the ATP-induced acidification of CCVs was strikingly reduced in comparison to SVs. Remarkably, when the coat was removed from CCVs, uncoated vesicles regained ATP-dependent acidification, demonstrating that CCVs contain the functional vATPase, yet its function is inhibited by the clathrin coat. Considering the known structures of the vATPase and clathrin coat, we propose a model in which the formation of the coat surrounds the vATPase and blocks its activity. Such inhibition is likely fundamental for the proper timing of SV refilling. PMID:29652249

  16. Oxysterols decrease apical-to-basolateral transport of Aß peptides via an ABCB1-mediated process in an in vitro Blood-brain barrier model constituted of bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pol, Julien; Candela, Pietra; Boucau, Marie-Christine; Fenart, Laurence; Gosselet, Fabien

    2013-06-23

    It is known that activation of the liver X receptors (LXRs) by natural or synthetic agonists decreases the amyloid burden and enhances cognitive function in transgenic murine models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that LXR activation may affect the transport of amyloid ß (Aß) peptides across the blood-brain barrier (the BBB, which isolates the brain from the peripheral circulation). By using a well-characterized in vitro BBB model, we demonstrated that LXR agonists (24S-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol and T0901317) modulated the expression of target genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis (such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1)) and promoted cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoproteins. Interestingly, we also observed a decrease in Aß peptide influx across brain capillary endothelial cells, although ABCA1 did not appear to be directly involved in this process. By focusing on others receptors and transporters that are thought to have major roles in Aß peptide entry into the brain, we then demonstrated that LXR stimulation provoked an increase in expression of the ABCB1 transporter (also named P-glycoprotein (P-gp)). Further investigations confirmed ABCB1's involvement in the restriction of Aß peptide influx. Taken as a whole, our results not only reinforce the BBB's key role in cerebral cholesterol homeostasis but also demonstrate the importance of the LXR/ABCB1 axis in Aß peptide influx-highlighting an attractive new therapeutic approach whereby the brain could be protected from peripheral Aß peptide entry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. THE LOCALIZATION OF MYOFIBRILLAR ATPASE ACTIVITY IN THE FLIGHT MUSCLES OF THE BLOWFLY, CALLIPHORA ERYTHROCEPHALA

    PubMed Central

    Tice, Lois W.; Smith, David S.

    1965-01-01

    The distribution of ATPase activity in the asynchronous flight muscles of Calliphora erythrocephala (Diptera) was studied at a fine structural level, using preparations of teased fibers, both unfixed and after brief fixation in hydroxyadipaldehyde, incubated in a medium for the histochemical demonstration of myosin or actomyosin ATPase. In relaxed fibrils, activity was found confined to the A bands and was absent from the H zones as well as from the Z and I band regions. At high magnification, deposits of final product, lead phosphate, appeared primarily related to the thick filaments, or to short lateral extensions from them. Evidence was gathered which indicated that this enzyme activity was that of a triphosphatase which did not act on dinucleoside or non-nucleoside substrates. PMID:4221034

  18. ABCB1 c.2677G>T variation is associated with adverse reactions of OROS-methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Won; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sung Hee; Hong, Hyun Ju; Lee, Min Goo; Yook, Ki-Hwan

    2013-08-01

    Osmotic-release oral system (OROS)-methylphenidate (MPH) is a safe and well-tolerated drug. Some patients cannot continue this regimen with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). As drug efflux transporters of the central nervous system, ABCB1 plays an important role in the clearance of psychotropic drugs and their metabolites from brain tissues. We hypothesized that genetic variations in the ABCB1 gene may affect ADRs to OROS-MPH. We analyzed ADRs of OROS-MPH in 134 children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who completed a 4-week trial of OROS-MPH. The ADRs of OROS-MPH were evaluated by administering the Barkley Stimulant Side Effects Rating Scale. Our study proved that MPH is a substrate for ABCB1 by using membrane vesicle assay. We analyzed the influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms on ADRs to OROS-MPH. From the association study between ABCB1 polymorphisms and ADRs of OROS-MPH, c.2677G>T (p.Ala893Ser, rs2032582) showed a strong association with OROS-MPH-related ADRs (P = 0.008; odds ratio, 5.72). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis indicated that the TT genotype at the ABCB1 2677 locus is an independent determinant of ADRs attributed to OROS-MPH. In a functional study, the 893Ser variant markedly reduced MPH transport across the cell membrane. This is the first study to demonstrate that the TT genotype at position 2677 in the ABCB1 gene is associated with ADRs to OROS-MPH.

  19. Influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on calcineurin inhibitor-related neurotoxicity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Naruto, Takuya; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hisaki; Tanaka, Fumiko; Goto, Hiroaki; Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Yokota, Shumpei

    2010-01-01

    One severe side effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs: such as cyclosporine [CsA] and tacrolimus [FK506]) is neurotoxicity. CNIs are substrates for CYP3A5 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by ABCB1 gene. In the present study, we hypothesized that genetic variability in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genes may be associated with CNI-related neurotoxicity. The effects of the polymorphisms, such as CYP3A5 A6986G, ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T, associated with CNI-related neurotoxicity were evaluated in 63 patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.   Of the 63 cases, 15 cases developed CNI-related neurotoxicity. In the CsA patient group (n = 30), age (p = 0.008), hypertension (p = 0.017), renal dysfunction (p < 0.001), ABCB1 C1236T (p < 0.001), and G2677T/A (p = 0.014) were associated with neurotoxicities. The CC genotype at ABCB1 C1236T was associated with it, but not significantly so (p = 0.07), adjusted for age, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. In the FK506 patient group (n = 33), CYP3A5 A6986G (p < 0.001), and ABCB1 C1236T (p = 0.002) were associated with neurotoxicity. At least one A allele at CYP3A5 A6986G (expressor genotype) was strongly associated with it according to logistic regression analysis (p = 0.01; OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 1.4-51.4).   The polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genes were associated with CNI-related neurotoxicity. This outcome is probably because of CYP3A5 or P-gp functions or metabolites of CNIs. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Autophagy regulates cisplatin-induced stemness and chemoresistance via the upregulation of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naik, Prajna Paramita; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Sinha, Niharika; Das, Chandan Kanta; Mishra, Rajakishore; Patil, Shankargouda; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar

    2018-02-01

    We inspected the relevance of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 in OSCC stemness and deciphered the role of autophagy/mitophagy in regulating stemness and chemoresistance. A retrospective analysis of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 with respect to the various clinico-pathological factors and their correlation was analysed in sixty OSCC samples. Furthermore, the stemness and chemoresistance were studied in resistant oral cancer cells using sphere formation assay, flow cytometry and florescence microscopy. The role of autophagy/mitophagy was investigated by transient transfection of siATG14, GFP-LC3, tF-LC3, mKeima-Red-Mito7 and Western blot analysis of autophagic and mitochondrial proteins. In OSCC, high CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expressions were correlated with higher tumour grades and poor differentiation and show significant correlation in their co-expression. In vitro and OSCC tissue double labelling confirmed that CD44 + cells co-expresses ABCB1 and ADAM17. Further, cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant FaDu cells displayed stem-like features and higher CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17 expression. Higher autophagic flux and mitophagy were observed in resistant FaDu cells as compared to parental cells, and inhibition of autophagy led to the decrease in stemness, restoration of mitochondrial proteins and reduced expression of CD44, ABCB1 and ADAM17. The CD44 + /ABCB1 + /ADAM17 + expression in OSCC is associated with stemness and chemoresistance. Further, this study highlights the involvement of mitophagy in chemoresistance and autophagic regulation of stemness in OSCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Aänismaa, Päivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HDAC Inhibition Improves the Sarcoendoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Sacchetto, Roberta; Motta, Benedetta M.; Corti, Corrado; D’Elia, Yuri; Rosato-Siri, Marcelo D.; Suffredini, Silvia; Pompilio, Giulio; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Stilli, Donatella

    2018-01-01

    SERCA2a is the Ca2+ ATPase playing the major contribution in cardiomyocyte (CM) calcium removal. Its activity can be regulated by both modulatory proteins and several post-translational modifications. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the function of SERCA2 can be modulated by treating CMs with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA). The incubation with SAHA (2.5 µM, 90 min) of CMs isolated from rat adult hearts resulted in an increase of SERCA2 acetylation level and improved ATPase activity. This was associated with a significant improvement of calcium transient recovery time and cell contractility. Previous reports have identified K464 as an acetylation site in human SERCA2. Mutants were generated where K464 was substituted with glutamine (Q) or arginine (R), mimicking constitutive acetylation or deacetylation, respectively. The K464Q mutation ameliorated ATPase activity and calcium transient recovery time, thus indicating that constitutive K464 acetylation has a positive impact on human SERCA2a (hSERCA2a) function. In conclusion, SAHA induced deacetylation inhibition had a positive impact on CM calcium handling, that, at least in part, was due to improved SERCA2 activity. This observation can provide the basis for the development of novel pharmacological approaches to ameliorate SERCA2 efficiency. PMID:29385061

  3. HDAC Inhibition Improves the Sarcoendoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Bocchi, Leonardo; Sacchetto, Roberta; Florio, Maria Cristina; Motta, Benedetta M; Corti, Corrado; Weichenberger, Christian X; Savi, Monia; D'Elia, Yuri; Rosato-Siri, Marcelo D; Suffredini, Silvia; Piubelli, Chiara; Pompilio, Giulio; Pramstaller, Peter P; Domingues, Francisco S; Stilli, Donatella; Rossini, Alessandra

    2018-01-31

    SERCA2a is the Ca 2+ ATPase playing the major contribution in cardiomyocyte (CM) calcium removal. Its activity can be regulated by both modulatory proteins and several post-translational modifications. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether the function of SERCA2 can be modulated by treating CMs with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA). The incubation with SAHA (2.5 µM, 90 min) of CMs isolated from rat adult hearts resulted in an increase of SERCA2 acetylation level and improved ATPase activity. This was associated with a significant improvement of calcium transient recovery time and cell contractility. Previous reports have identified K464 as an acetylation site in human SERCA2. Mutants were generated where K464 was substituted with glutamine (Q) or arginine (R), mimicking constitutive acetylation or deacetylation, respectively. The K464Q mutation ameliorated ATPase activity and calcium transient recovery time, thus indicating that constitutive K464 acetylation has a positive impact on human SERCA2a (hSERCA2a) function. In conclusion, SAHA induced deacetylation inhibition had a positive impact on CM calcium handling, that, at least in part, was due to improved SERCA2 activity. This observation can provide the basis for the development of novel pharmacological approaches to ameliorate SERCA2 efficiency.

  4. Glucose starvation increases V-ATPase assembly and activity in mammalian cells through AMP kinase and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Christina M; Forgac, Michael

    2018-06-08

    The vacuolar H + -ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-driven proton pump involved in many cellular processes. An important mechanism by which V-ATPase activity is controlled is the reversible assembly of its two domains, namely the peripheral V 1 domain and the integral V 0 domain. Although reversible assembly is conserved across all eukaryotic organisms, the signaling pathways controlling it have not been fully characterized. Here, we identify glucose starvation as a novel regulator of V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells. During acute glucose starvation, the V-ATPase undergoes a rapid and reversible increase in assembly and activity as measured by lysosomal acidification. Because the V-ATPase has recently been implicated in the activation of AMP kinase (AMPK), a critical cellular energy sensor that is also activated upon glucose starvation, we compared the time course of AMPK activation and V-ATPase assembly upon glucose starvation. We observe that AMPK activation precedes increased V-ATPase activity. Moreover, the starvation-induced increase in V-ATPase activity and assembly are prevented by the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin. These results suggest that increased assembly and activity of the V-ATPase upon glucose starvation are dependent upon AMPK. We also find that the PI3K/Akt pathway, which has previously been implicated in controlling V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, also plays a role in the starvation-induced increase in V-ATPase assembly and activity. These studies thus identify a novel stimulus of V-ATPase assembly and a novel signaling pathway involved in regulating this process. The possible function of starvation-induced increase in lysosomal V-ATPase activity is discussed. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Fluoride on Na+,K+ ATPase Activity in Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    A, Shashi; G, Meenakshi

    2015-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the role of long-term consumption of excessive fluoride on electrolyte homeostasis and their transporting mechanisms in erythrocytes of subjects afflicted with dental and skeletal fluorosis. A total of 620 adult (20-50 years) Indian residents participated in this study: 258 men and 242 women exposed to high concentrations of fluoride and 120 age and gender-matched control subjects. Erythrocytes were isolated from blood samples, washed, and used for the estimation of intraerythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations. Na+,K+ ATPase activity was determined spectrophotometrically from a ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Erythrocyte analytes were correlated with the water and serum fluoride concentrations by Pearson's bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results indicated a significant increase in intraerythrocyte sodium (F=14306.265, P<0.0001) in subjects from endemic fluorosis study groups as compared to controls. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of intracellular sodium was found with water and serum fluoride concentrations. Mean concentration of intraerythrocytic potassium ions showed significant reduction (F=9136.318, P<0.0001) in subjects exposed to fluoride. A significant (P<0.05) negative correlation of potassium ions was noted with water and serum fluoride concentrations. Na+,K+ ATPase activity was significantly declined (F=1572.763, P<0.0001) in subjects exposed to fluoride. A significant (P<0.05) inverse relationship of Na+,K+ ATPase activity was revealed with water and serum fluoride concentrations.

  6. Novel understanding of ABC transporters ABCB1/MDR/P-glycoprotein, ABCC2/MRP2, and ABCG2/BCRP in colorectal pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Vibeke; Svenningsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lina Almind; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Holmskov, Uffe; Stensballe, Allan; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in colonic pathophysiology as they had recently been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. METHODS: Literature search was conducted on PubMed using combinations of the following terms: ABC transporters, ATP binding cassette transporter proteins, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative, colitis, Crohns disease, colorectal cancer, colitis, intestinal inflammation, intestinal carcinogenesis, ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp/CD243/MDR1), ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), Abcb1/Mdr1a, abcc2/Mrp2, abcg2/Bcrp, knock-out mice, tight junction, membrane lipid function. RESULTS: Recently, human studies reported that changes in the levels of ABC transporters were early events in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to CRC. A link between ABCB1, high fat diet and gut microbes in relation to colitis was suggested by the animal studies. The finding that colitis was preceded by altered gut bacterial composition suggests that deletion of Abcb1 leads to fundamental changes of host-microbiota interaction. Also, high fat diet increases the frequency and severity of colitis in specific pathogen-free Abcb1 KO mice. The Abcb1 KO mice might thus serve as a model in which diet/environmental factors and microbes may be controlled and investigated in relation to intestinal inflammation. Potential molecular mechanisms include defective transport of inflammatory mediators and/or phospholipid translocation from one side to the other of the cell membrane lipid bilayer by ABC transporters affecting inflammatory response and/or function of tight junctions, phagocytosis and vesicle trafficking. Also, diet and microbes give rise to molecules which are potential substrates for the ABC transporters and which may additionally affect ABC transporter function through nuclear receptors and transcriptional regulation. Another critical role of ABCB1 was suggested by the finding that

  7. Loss of Vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) Activity in Yeast Generates an Iron Deprivation Signal That Is Moderated by Induction of the Peroxiredoxin TSA2 *

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Heba I.; Kane, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) acidify intracellular organelles and help to regulate overall cellular pH. Yeast vma mutants lack V-ATPase activity and allow exploration of connections between cellular pH, iron, and redox homeostasis common to all eukaryotes. A previous microarray study in a vma mutant demonstrated up-regulation of multiple iron uptake genes under control of Aft1p (the iron regulon) and only one antioxidant gene, the peroxiredoxin TSA2 (Milgrom, E., Diab, H., Middleton, F., and Kane, P. M. (2007) Loss of vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase activity in yeast results in chronic oxidative stress. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 7125–7136). Fluorescent biosensors placing GFP under transcriptional control of either an Aft1-dependent promoter (PFIT2-GFP) or the TSA2 promoter (PTSA2-GFP) were constructed to monitor transcriptional signaling. Both biosensors were up-regulated in the vma2Δ mutant, and acute V-ATPase inhibition with concanamycin A induced coordinate up-regulation from both promoters. PTSA2-GFP induction was Yap1p-dependent, indicating an oxidative stress signal. Total cell iron measurements indicate that the vma2Δ mutant is iron-replete, despite up-regulation of the iron regulon. Acetic acid up-regulated PFIT2-GFP expression in wild-type cells, suggesting that loss of pH control contributes to an iron deficiency signal in the mutant. Iron supplementation significantly decreased PFIT2-GFP expression and, surprisingly, restored PTSA2-GFP to wild-type levels. A tsa2Δ mutation induced both nuclear localization of Aft1p and PFIT2-GFP expression. The data suggest a novel function for Tsa2p as a negative regulator of Aft1p-driven transcription, which is induced in V-ATPase mutants to limit transcription of the iron regulon. This represents a new mechanism bridging the antioxidant and iron-regulatory pathways that is intimately linked to pH homeostasis. PMID:23457300

  8. Loss of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) activity in yeast generates an iron deprivation signal that is moderated by induction of the peroxiredoxin TSA2.

    PubMed

    Diab, Heba I; Kane, Patricia M

    2013-04-19

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) acidify intracellular organelles and help to regulate overall cellular pH. Yeast vma mutants lack V-ATPase activity and allow exploration of connections between cellular pH, iron, and redox homeostasis common to all eukaryotes. A previous microarray study in a vma mutant demonstrated up-regulation of multiple iron uptake genes under control of Aft1p (the iron regulon) and only one antioxidant gene, the peroxiredoxin TSA2 (Milgrom, E., Diab, H., Middleton, F., and Kane, P. M. (2007) Loss of vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase activity in yeast results in chronic oxidative stress. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 7125-7136). Fluorescent biosensors placing GFP under transcriptional control of either an Aft1-dependent promoter (P(FIT2)-GFP) or the TSA2 promoter (P(TSA2)-GFP) were constructed to monitor transcriptional signaling. Both biosensors were up-regulated in the vma2Δ mutant, and acute V-ATPase inhibition with concanamycin A induced coordinate up-regulation from both promoters. PTSA2-GFP induction was Yap1p-dependent, indicating an oxidative stress signal. Total cell iron measurements indicate that the vma2Δ mutant is iron-replete, despite up-regulation of the iron regulon. Acetic acid up-regulated P(FIT2)-GFP expression in wild-type cells, suggesting that loss of pH control contributes to an iron deficiency signal in the mutant. Iron supplementation significantly decreased P(FIT2)-GFP expression and, surprisingly, restored P(TSA2)-GFP to wild-type levels. A tsa2Δ mutation induced both nuclear localization of Aft1p and P(FIT2)-GFP expression. The data suggest a novel function for Tsa2p as a negative regulator of Aft1p-driven transcription, which is induced in V-ATPase mutants to limit transcription of the iron regulon. This represents a new mechanism bridging the antioxidant and iron-regulatory pathways that is intimately linked to pH homeostasis.

  9. Correlation between clinical response to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment and polymorphisms of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2): monocentric study.

    PubMed

    Tandia, Mahamadou; Mhiri, Asma; Paule, Bernard; Saffroy, Raphaël; Cailliez, Valérie; Noé, Gaëlle; Farinotti, Robert; Bonhomme-Faivre, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    We studied the relation between the polymorphism of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), encoded by ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes, respectively, and the pharmacokinetic variability and clinical response during the treatment with sorafenib of hepatocellular carcinoma. At the Paul Brousse Hospital in Villejuif, France, 47 consecutive patients with advanced HCC treated with a single agent sorafenib, were enrolled. Sorafenib exposure was measured by its plasma concentration 3 h after oral administration of 400 mg (bid) by liquid chromatography. All enrolled patients were genotyped for ABCB1 (rs2032582; rs1045642) and ABCG2 (rs2231137; rs2231142; rs2622604) by blood genomic DNA extraction and Mass ARRAY genotyping. The clinical response was evaluated after 3months of treatment according to the RECIST criteria. Significant associations between sorafenib exposure and the studied polymorphisms were observed for ABCB1 3435C>T, ABCG2 34G>A, ABCG2 1143C>T and ABCG2 421C>A, but not for ABCB1 2677G>TA SNP. In heterozygous patients for ABCB1 3435 C>T, ABCG2 34 G>A and ABCG2 1143 C>T polymorphisms were significantly associated with the lowest sorafenib plasma levels. Those patients presented a tendency to have the best clinical evolution. Heterozygous forms of the studied polymorphisms could be associated with a better therapeutic response.

  10. Long non-coding RNA LUCAT1 modulates methotrexate resistance in osteosarcoma via miR-200c/ABCB1 axis.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Shi, Liying

    2018-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been verified to participate in the tumorigenesis of multiple cancers. Nevertheless, the deepgoing role molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs on osteosarcoma chemoresistance remain unclear. In present study, we investigate the function of lncRNA LUCAT1 on osteosarcoma methotrexate (MTX) resistant phenotype and discover the potential regulatory mechanism. Results showed that LUCAT1 was up-regulated in MTX-resistant cells (MG63/MTX, HOS/MTX) compared to that in parental cells. LncRNA LUCAT1 and ABCB1 protein expression levels were both up-regulated when induced by different concentration of methotrexate. In vitro and vivo, LUCAT1 knockdown decreased the expression levels drug resistance related genes (MDR1, MRP5, LRP1), proliferation, invasion and tumor growth of osteosarcoma cells. Bioinformatics tools and luciferase assay reveled that miR-200c both targeted the 3'-UTR of LUCAT1 and ABCB1 mRNA, suggesting the modulation of LUCAT1 on ABCB1 through sponging miR-200c. Rescue experiments confirmed the combined role of LUCAT1, miR-200c and ABCB1 on osteosarcoma proliferation, invasion and methotrexate resistance. Overall, results indicate the vital role of LUCAT1 in the methotrexate resistance regulation through miR-200c/ABCB1 pathway, providing a novel insight and treatment strategy for osteosarcoma drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nucleotide-induced asymmetry within ATPase activator ring drives σ54-RNAP interaction and ATP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang

    2013-12-10

    It is largely unknown how the typical homomeric ring geometry of ATPases associated with various cellular activities enables them to perform mechanical work. Small-angle solution X-ray scattering, crystallography, and electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions revealed that partial ATP occupancy caused the heptameric closed ring of the bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) NtrC1 to rearrange into a hexameric split ring of striking asymmetry. The highly conserved and functionally crucial GAFTGA loops responsible for interacting with σ54–RNA polymerase formed a spiral staircase. We propose that splitting of the ensemble directs ATP hydrolysis within the oligomer, and the ring's asymmetry guides interaction between ATPase andmore » the complex of σ54 and promoter DNA. Similarity between the structure of the transcriptional activator NtrC1 and those of distantly related helicases Rho and E1 reveals a general mechanism in homomeric ATPases whereby complex allostery within the ring geometry forms asymmetric functional states that allow these biological motors to exert directional forces on their target macromolecules.« less

  12. Subcellular localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity during nuclear maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Inés; Cisint, Susana B; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-08-01

    The localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity in Bufo arenarum oocytes was investigated by ultracytochemical techniques during progesterone-induced nuclear maturation, under in vitro conditions. No Ca2+ deposits were detected in either control oocytes or progesterone-treated ones for 1-2 h. At the time when nuclear migration started, electron dense deposits of Ca2+ were visible in vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and in the space between the annulate lamellae membranes. Furthermore, Ca-ATPase activity was also detected in these membrane structures. As maturation progressed, the cation deposits were observed in the cytomembrane structures, which underwent an important reorganization and redistribution. Thus, they moved from the subcortex and became located predominantly in the oocyte cortex area when nuclear maturation ended. Ca2+ stores were observed in vesicles surrounding or between the cortical granules, which are aligned close to the plasma membrane. The positive Ca-ATPase reaction in these membrane structures could indicate that the calcium deposit is an ATP-dependent process. Our results suggest that during oocyte maturation calcium would be stored in membrane structures where it remains available for release at the time of fertilization. Data obtained under our experimental conditions indicate that calcium from the extracellular medium would be important for the oocyte maturation process.

  13. Phorbol esters inhibit smooth muscle contractions through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaguri, T.; Watson, S. P.

    1990-01-01

    1. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle has been investigated. 2. The phorbol esters, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), relaxed tissues precontracted by submaximal concentrations of carbachol, histamine or substance P. 3. This inhibitory action of the phorbol esters was reversed following the application of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Similarly, pretreatment with ouabain inhibited the ability of phorbol esters to relax tissues precontracted by the above agonists. 4. The slow relaxation of the tonic component of contraction induced by submaximal concentrations of carbachol and histamine, and all concentrations of substance P, was abolished in the presence of ouabain. 5. In Na(+)-loaded tissues, PDBu and carbachol caused a concentration-dependent increase of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, assessed by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb(+)-uptake. Extrusion of Na+, assessed by the cellular content of the ion, was also stimulated by PDBu (the effect of carbachol was not investigated). 6. We conclude that phorbol esters inhibit the tonic component of contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of these agonists through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We suggest that PKC may exert feedback control over the tonic component of agonist contractions through stimulation of the pump. PMID:1691673

  14. Salt stress reduces kernel number of corn by inhibiting plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephan; Hütsch, Birgit W; Schubert, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Salt stress affects yield formation of corn (Zea mays L.) at various physiological levels resulting in an overall grain yield decrease. In this study we investigated how salt stress affects kernel development of two corn cultivars (cvs. Pioneer 3906 and Fabregas) at and shortly after pollination. In an earlier study, we found an accumulation of hexoses in the kernel tissue. Therefore, it was hypothesized that hexose uptake into developing endosperm and embryo might be inhibited. Hexoses are transported into the developing endosperm by carriers localized in the plasma membrane (PM). The transport is driven by the pH gradient which is built up by the PM H + -ATPase. It was investigated whether the PM H + -ATPase activity in developing corn kernels was inhibited by salt stress, which would cause a lower pH gradient resulting in impaired hexose import and finally in kernel abortion. Corn grown under control and salt stress conditions was harvested 0 and 2 days after pollination (DAP). Under salt stress sucrose and hexose concentrations in kernel tissue were higher 0 and 2 DAP. Kernel PM H + -ATPase activity was not affected at 0 DAP, but it was reduced at 2 DAP. This is in agreement with the finding, that kernel growth and thus kernel setting was not affected in the salt stress treatment at pollination, but it was reduced 2 days later. It is concluded that inhibition of PM H + -ATPase under salt stress impaired the energization of hexose transporters into the cells, resulting in lower kernel growth and finally in kernel abortion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Redox Activation of the Universally Conserved ATPase YchF by Thioredoxin 1.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Liya; Suppanz, Ida; Ba, Qiaorui; MacInnes, Katherine; Drepper, Friedel; Warscheid, Bettina; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-20

    YchF/Ola1 are unconventional members of the universally conserved GTPase family because they preferentially hydrolyze ATP rather than GTP. These ATPases have been associated with various cellular processes and pathologies, including DNA repair, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. In particular, a possible role in regulating the oxidative stress response has been suggested for both bacterial and human YchF/Ola1. In this study, we analyzed how YchF responds to oxidative stress and how it potentially regulates the antioxidant response. Our data identify a redox-regulated monomer-dimer equilibrium of YchF as a key event in the functional cycle of YchF. Upon oxidative stress, the oxidation of a conserved and surface-exposed cysteine residue promotes YchF dimerization, which is accompanied by inhibition of the ATPase activity. No dimers were observed in a YchF mutant lacking this cysteine. In vitro, the YchF dimer is dissociated by thioredoxin 1 (TrxA) and this stimulates the ATPase activity. The physiological significance of the YchF-thioredoxin 1 interaction was demonstrated by in vivo cross-linking, which validated this interaction in living cells. This approach also revealed that both the ATPase domain and the helical domain of YchF are in contact with TrxA. YchF/Ola1 are the first redox-regulated members of the universally conserved GTPase family and are inactivated by oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue within the nucleotide-binding motif. Our data provide novel insights into the regulation of the so far ill-defined YchF/Ola1 family of proteins and stipulate their role as negative regulators of the oxidative stress response.

  16. Redox Activation of the Universally Conserved ATPase YchF by Thioredoxin 1

    PubMed Central

    Hannemann, Liya; Suppanz, Ida; Ba, Qiaorui; MacInnes, Katherine; Drepper, Friedel; Warscheid, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: YchF/Ola1 are unconventional members of the universally conserved GTPase family because they preferentially hydrolyze ATP rather than GTP. These ATPases have been associated with various cellular processes and pathologies, including DNA repair, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. In particular, a possible role in regulating the oxidative stress response has been suggested for both bacterial and human YchF/Ola1. In this study, we analyzed how YchF responds to oxidative stress and how it potentially regulates the antioxidant response. Results: Our data identify a redox-regulated monomer–dimer equilibrium of YchF as a key event in the functional cycle of YchF. Upon oxidative stress, the oxidation of a conserved and surface-exposed cysteine residue promotes YchF dimerization, which is accompanied by inhibition of the ATPase activity. No dimers were observed in a YchF mutant lacking this cysteine. In vitro, the YchF dimer is dissociated by thioredoxin 1 (TrxA) and this stimulates the ATPase activity. The physiological significance of the YchF-thioredoxin 1 interaction was demonstrated by in vivo cross-linking, which validated this interaction in living cells. This approach also revealed that both the ATPase domain and the helical domain of YchF are in contact with TrxA. Innovation: YchF/Ola1 are the first redox-regulated members of the universally conserved GTPase family and are inactivated by oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue within the nucleotide-binding motif. Conclusion: Our data provide novel insights into the regulation of the so far ill-defined YchF/Ola1 family of proteins and stipulate their role as negative regulators of the oxidative stress response. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 141–156. PMID:26160547

  17. Mechanical loading stimulates ecto-ATPase activity in human tendon cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuzaki, M; Bynum, D; Almekinders, L; Faber, J; Banes, A J

    2005-09-01

    Response to external stimuli such as mechanical signals is critical for normal function of cells, especially when subjected to repetitive motion. Tenocytes receive mechanical stimuli from the load-bearing matrix as tension, compression, and shear stress during tendon gliding. Overloading a tendon by high strain, shear, or repetitive motion can cause matrix damage. Injury may induce cytokine expression, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activation resulting in loss of biomechanical properties. These changes may result in tendinosis or tendinopathy. Alternatively, an immediate effector molecule may exist that acts in a signal-dampening pathway. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a candidate signal blocker of mechanical stimuli. ATP suppresses load-inducible inflammatory genes in human tendon cells in vitro. ATP and other extracellular nucleotide signaling are regulated efficiently by two distinct mechanisms: purinoceptors via specific receptor-ligand binding and ecto-nucleotidases via the hydrolysis of specific nucleotide substrates. ATP is released from tendon cells by mechanical loading or by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) stimulation. We hypothesized that mechanical loading might stimulate ecto-ATPase activity. Human tendon cells of surface epitenon (TSC) and internal compartment (TIF) were cyclically stretched (1 Hz, 0.035 strain, 2 h) with or without ATP. Aliquots of the supernatant fluids were collected at various time points, and ATP concentration (ATP) was determined by a luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Total RNA was isolated from TSC and TIF (three patients) and mRNA expression for ecto-nucleotidase was analyzed by RT-PCR. Human tendon cells secreted ATP in vitro (0.5-1 nM). Exogenous ATP was hydrolyzed within minutes. Mechanical load stimulated ATPase activity. ATP was hydrolyzed in mechanically loaded cultures at a significantly greater rate compared to no load controls. Tenocytes (TSC and TIF) expressed ecto-nucleotidase mRNA (ENTPD

  18. Vascular activation of K+ channels and Na+-K+ ATPase activity of estrogen-deficient female rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Junior, Rogério Faustino; Fiorim, Jonaina; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; de Sousa Ronconi, Karoline; Botelho, Tatiani; Grando, Marcella D; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate vascular potassium channels and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in estrogen deficient female rats. Female rats that underwent ovariectomy were assigned to receive daily treatment with placebo (OVX) or estrogen replacement (OVX+E2, 1mg/kg, once a week, i.m.). Aortic rings were used to examine the involvement of K + channels and Na + -K + -ATPase in vascular reactivity. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was analyzed in the presence of L-NAME (100μM) and K + channels blockers: tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30nM), apamin (0.5mM), charybdotoxin (ChTX, 0.1mM) and iberiotoxin plus apamin. When aortic rings were pre-contracted with KCl (60mM) or pre-incubated with TEA (5mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5mM) and iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30nM) plus apamin (0.5μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was less effective in the ovariectomized group. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX decreased the relaxation by sodium nitroprusside in all groups but this reduction was greater in the ovariectomized group. Estrogen deficiency also increased aortic functional Na + -K + ATPase activity evaluated by K + -induced relaxation. L-NAME or endothelium removal were not able to block the increase in aortic functional Na + -K + ATPase activity, however, TEA (5mM) restored this increase to the control level. We also found that estrogen deficiency increased superoxide anion production and reduced nitric oxide release in aortic ring from ovariectomized animals. In summary, our results emphasize that the process underlying ACh-induced relaxation is preserved in ovariectomized animals due to the activation of K + channels and increased Na + -K + ATPase activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual prototyping study shows increased ATPase activity of Hsp90 to be the key determinant of cancer phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vali, Shireen; Pallavi, Rani; Kapoor, Shweta; Tatu, Utpal

    2010-03-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that regulates key signaling proteins and thereby impacts cell growth and development. Chaperone cycle of Hsp90 is regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis through its intrinsic ATPase activities, which is in turn modulated by interaction with its co-chaperones. Hsp90 ATPase activity varies in different organisms and is known to be increased in tumor cells. In this study we have quantitatively analyzed the impact of increasing Hsp90 ATPase activity on the activities of its clients through a virtual prototyping technology, which comprises a dynamic model of Hsp90 interaction with clients involved in proliferation pathways. Our studies highlight the importance of increased ATPase activity of Hsp90 in cancer cells as the key modulator for increased proliferation and survival. A tenfold increase in ATPase activity of Hsp90 often seen in cancer cells increases the levels of active client proteins such as Akt-1, Raf-1 and Cyclin D1 amongst others to about 12-, 8- and 186-folds respectively. Additionally we studied the effect of a competitive inhibitor of Hsp90 activity on the reduction in the client protein levels. Virtual prototyping experiments corroborate with findings that the drug has almost 10- to 100-fold higher affinity as indicated by a lower IC(50) value (30-100 nM) in tumor cells with higher ATPase activity. The results also indicate a 15- to 25-fold higher efficacy of the inhibitor in reducing client levels in tumor cells. This analysis provides mechanistic insights into the links between increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, tumor phenotype and the hypersensitivity of tumor Hsp90 to inhibition by ATP analogs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-009-9046-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  20. A CRISPR-Cas9 Generated MDCK Cell Line Expressing Human MDR1 Without Endogenous Canine MDR1 (cABCB1): An Improved Tool for Drug Efflux Studies.

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Maria; Simoff, Ivailo; Backlund, Maria; Wegler, Christine; Keiser, Markus; Handin, Niklas; Müller, Janett; Lundquist, Patrik; Jareborg, Anne-Christine; Oswald, Stefan; Artursson, Per

    2017-09-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably transfected with transport proteins are commonly used models for drug transport studies. However, endogenous expression of especially canine MDR1 (cMDR1) confounds the interpretation of such studies. Here we have established an MDCK cell line stably overexpressing the human MDR1 transporter (hMDR1; P-glycoprotein), and used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to knockout the endogenous cMDR1. Genomic screening revealed the generation of a clonal cell line homozygous for a 4-nucleotide deletion in the canine ABCB1 gene leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon. Knockout of cMDR1 expression was verified by quantitative protein analysis and functional studies showing retained activity of the human MDR1 transporter. Application of this cell line allowed unbiased reclassification of drugs previously defined as both substrates and non-substrates in different studies using commonly used MDCK-MDR1 clones. Our new MDCK-hMDR1 cell line, together with a previously developed control cell line, both with identical deletions in the canine ABCB1 gene and lack of cMDR1 expression represent excellent in vitro tools for use in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance

    PubMed Central

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-01-01

    Aims A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. Methods A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. Results The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h−1 with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. Conclusion The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. PMID:24433464

  2. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-07-01

    A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Osmotic and thermal effects on in situ ATPase activity in permeabilized gill epithelial cells of the fish Gillichthys mirabilis

    PubMed

    KÜLtz; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Long-jawed mudsuckers (Gillichthys mirabilis) were acclimated to sea water (SW) at 7 °C, SW at 26 °C or dilute sea water (DSW) at 26 °C for 5 months. Gill cells were isolated and the proportion of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells was determined. The number of cells harvested amounted to 4.7x10(7)±0.6x10(7) to 10.6x10(7)±1.1x10(7) and the yield was between 7.1x10(8)±0.6x10(8) and 10.7x10(8)±1.4x10(8) cells g-1 gill epithelial mass. Cell viability was 96.8±0.4 to 97.8±0.6 %. The number, size and volume of MR cells decreased significantly during DSW acclimation, but did not change during thermal acclimation. The protein content was not influenced by osmotic or thermal acclimation and ranged between 20.0±1.6 and 22.1±1.5 pg cell-1. Using a new method, which is based on the formation of plasma membrane channels by alamethicin, we were able to permeabilize gill cells. For the first time, the Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities of fish gills were determined in intact cells in situ. The activity of both ATPases was dependent on alamethicin concentration (optimum 100 µg mg-1 protein) and on preincubation time (optimum 10 min). The in situ activity of both ATPases was influenced by osmotic, but not thermal, acclimation. A positive linear correlation was found between in situ Na+/K+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume. However, we show, for the first time, that a negative linear correlation exists between H+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume, suggesting a localization of H+-ATPase in pavement cells. In permeabilized cells, the activity of both ATPases was 2.6­3.9 times higher than that of crude homogenates and 1.6­2.1 times higher than that of permeabilized homogenate vesicles. We hypothesize that in crude homogenates three-quarters of Na+/K+-ATPase and two-thirds of H+-ATPase activity are not detectable both because of a mixture of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles and because

  4. Adaptation of H+-pumping and plasma membrane H+ ATPase activity in proteoid roots of white lupin under phosphate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Müller, Caroline; Zörb, Christian; Schubert, Sven

    2002-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is able to adapt to phosphorus deficiency by producing proteoid roots that release a huge amount of organic acids, resulting in mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphate in rhizosphere. The mechanisms responsible for the release of organic acids by proteoid root cells, especially the trans-membrane transport processes, have not been elucidated. Because of high cytosolic pH, the release of undissociated organic acids is not probable. In the present study, we focused on H+ export by plasma membrane H+ ATPase in active proteoid roots. In vivo, rhizosphere acidification of active proteoid roots was vanadate sensitive. Plasma membranes were isolated from proteoid roots and lateral roots from P-deficient and -sufficient plants. In vitro, in comparison with two types of lateral roots and proteoid roots of P-sufficient plants, the following increase of the various parameters was induced in active proteoid roots of P-deficient plants: (a) hydrolytic ATPase activity, (b) Vmax and Km, (c) H+ ATPase enzyme concentration of plasma membrane, (d) H+-pumping activity, (e) pH gradient across the membrane of plasmalemma vesicles, and (f) passive H+ permeability of plasma membrane. In addition, lower vanadate sensitivity and more acidic pH optimum were determined for plasma membrane ATPase of active proteoid roots. Our data support the hypothesis that in active proteoid root cells, H+ and organic anions are exported separately, and that modification of plasma membrane H+ ATPase is essential for enhanced rhizosphere acidification by active proteoid roots.

  5. SLC22A1-ABCB1 haplotype profiles predict imatinib pharmacokinetics in Asian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Onkar; Chan, Jason Yongsheng; Lin, Keegan; Heng, Charles Chuah Thuan; Chowbay, Balram

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the influence of SLC22A1, PXR, ABCG2, ABCB1 and CYP3A5 3 genetic polymorphisms on imatinib mesylate (IM) pharmacokinetics in Asian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Healthy subjects belonging to three Asian populations (Chinese, Malay, Indian; n = 70 each) and CML patients (n = 38) were enrolled in a prospective pharmacogenetics study. Imatinib trough (C(0h)) and clearance (CL) were determined in the patients at steady state. Haplowalk method was applied to infer the haplotypes and generalized linear model (GLM) to estimate haplotypic effects on IM pharmacokinetics. Association of haplotype copy numbers with IM pharmacokinetics was defined by Mann-Whitney U test. Global haplotype score statistics revealed a SLC22A1 sub-haplotypic region encompassing three polymorphisms (rs3798168, rs628031 and IVS7+850C>T), to be significantly associated with IM clearance (p = 0.013). Haplotype-specific GLM estimated that the haplotypes AGT and CGC were both associated with 22% decrease in clearance compared to CAC [CL (10(-2) L/hr/mg): CAC vs AGT: 4.03 vs 3.16, p = 0.017; CAC vs CGC: 4.03 vs 3.15, p = 0.017]. Patients harboring 2 copies of AGT or CGC haplotypes had 33.4% lower clearance and 50% higher C(0h) than patients carrying 0 or 1 copy [CL (10(-2) L/hr/mg): 2.19 vs 3.29, p = 0.026; C(0h) (10(-6) 1/ml): 4.76 vs 3.17, p = 0.013, respectively]. Further subgroup analysis revealed SLC22A1 and ABCB1 haplotypic combinations to be significantly associated with clearance and C(0h) (p = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively). This exploratory study suggests that SLC22A1-ABCB1 haplotypes may influence IM pharmacokinetics in Asian CML patients.

  6. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity through altering ATPase activities and oxidative stress in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-W.; Department of Otolaryngology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Liu, S.-H.

    2006-09-01

    Cisplatin has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat many kinds of malignancies. Its damage to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) system has been reported. However, the underlying biochemical change in the inner ear or central vestibular nervous system is not fully understood. In this study, we attempted to examine whether cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity and D-methionine protection were correlated with the changes of ATPase activities and oxidative stress of ampullary tissue of vestibules as well as cerebellar cortex (the inhibitory center of VOR system) of guinea pigs. By means of a caloric test coupled with electronystagmographic recordings, we found that cisplatinmore » exposure caused a dose-dependent (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) vestibular dysfunction as revealed by a decrease of slow phase velocity (SPV). In addition, cisplatin significantly inhibited the Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in the ampullary tissue with a good dose-response relationship but not those of cerebellar cortex. Regression analysis indicated that a decrease of SPV was well correlated with the reduction of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities of the ampullary tissue. D-Methionine (300 mg/kg) reduced both abnormalities of SPV and ATPase activities in a correlated manner. Moreover, cisplatin exposure led to a significant dose-dependent increase of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide concentrations of the vestibules, which could be significantly suppressed by D-methionine. However, cisplatin did not alter the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide of the cerebellum. In conclusion, cisplatin inhibited ATPase activities and increased oxidative stress in guinea pig vestibular labyrinths. D-Methionine attenuated cisplatin-induced vestibulotoxicity associated with ionic disturbance through its antioxidative property.« less

  7. 2,3-Dihydroxy-quinoxaline induces ATPase activity of Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Zeifman, Alexey A; Novikov, Fedor N; Stroylov, Victor S; Stroganov, Oleg V; Chilov, Ghermes G; Skoblov, Alexander Y; Miroshnikov, Anatoly I; Skoblov, Yuri S

    2014-01-31

    2,3-Dihydroxy-quinoxaline, a small molecule that promotes ATPase catalytic activity of Herpes Simplex Virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), was identified by virtual screening. This compound competitively inhibited HSV-TK catalyzed phosphorylation of acyclovir with Ki=250 μM (95% CI: 106-405 μM) and dose-dependently increased the rate of the ATP hydrolysis with KM=112 μM (95% CI: 28-195 μM). The kinetic scheme consistent with this experimental data is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Small terminase couples viral DNA-binding to genome-packaging ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ankoor; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Datta, Pinaki; Lander, Gabriel C.; Cingolani, Gino

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Packaging of viral genomes into empty procapsids is powered by a large DNA-packaging motor. In most viruses, this machine is composed of a large (L) and a small (S) terminase subunit complexed with a dodecamer of portal protein. Here, we describe the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the bacteriophage P22 S-terminase in a nonameric conformation. The structure presents a central channel ~23 Å in diameter, sufficiently large to accommodate hydrated B-DNA. The last 23 residues of S-terminase are essential for binding to DNA and assembly to L-terminase. Upon binding to its own DNA, S-terminase functions as a specific activator of L-terminase ATPase activity. The DNA-dependent stimulation of ATPase activity thus rationalizes the exclusive specificity of genome-packaging motors for viral DNA in the crowd of host DNA, ensuring fidelity of packaging and avoiding wasteful ATP hydrolysis. This posits a model for DNA-dependent activation of genome-packaging motors of general interest in virology. PMID:22771211

  9. Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on acetylcholinesterase, (Na(+), K (+))- and Mg ( 2+ )-ATPase activities of adult rat hypothalamus and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Carageorgiou, Haris; Pantos, Constantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Cokkinos, Dennis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are recognized as key metabolic hormones, and the metabolic rate increases in hyperthyroidism, while it decreases in hypothyroidism. The aim of this work was to investigate how changes in metabolism induced by THs could affect the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na(+), K(+))- and Mg(2+)-ATPase in the hypothalamus and the cerebellum of adult rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by subcutaneous administration of thyroxine (25 microg/100 g body weight) once daily for 14 days, while hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of propylthiouracil (0.05%) for 21 days. All enzyme activities were evaluated spectrophotometrically in the homogenated brain regions of 10 three-animal pools. Neither hyper-, nor hypothyroidism had any effect on the examined hypothalamic enzyme activities. In the cerebellum, hyperthyroidism provoked a significant decrease in both the AChE (-23%, p < 0.001) and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities (-26%, p < 0.001). Moreover, hypothyroidism had a similar effect on the examined enzyme activities: AChE (-17%, p < 0.001) and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (-27%, p < 0.001). Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was found unaltered in both the hyper- and the hypothyroid brain regions. neither hyper-, nor hypothyroidism had any effect on the examined hypothalamic enzyme activities. In the cerebellum, hyperthyroidism provoked a significant decrease in both the AChE and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. The decreased (by the THs) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities may increase the synaptic acetylcholine release, and thus, could result in a decrease in the cerebellar AChE activity. Moreover, the above TH-induced changes may affect the monoamine neurotransmitter systems.

  10. Association between erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and some blood lipids in type 1 diabetic patients from Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Iwalokun, Senapon O

    2007-01-01

    Background Altered levels of erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase, atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipid metabolites have been implicated in diabetic complications but their pattern of interactions remains poorly understood. This study evaluated this relationship in Nigerian patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 34 consented Type 1 diabetic patients and age -matched 27 non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically and LDL-cholesterol estimated using Friedewald formula. Total protein content and Na+K+-ATPase activity were also determined spectrophotometrically from ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Results Results indicate significant (P < 0.05) reduction in Na+K+-ATPase activity in the Type 1 diabetic patients (0.38 ± 0.08 vs. 0.59 ± 0.07 uM Pi/mgprotein/h) compared to the control but with greater reduction in the diabetic subgroup with poor glycemic control (n = 20) and in whom cases of hypercholesterolemia (8.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (2.9%) and elevated LDL-cholesterol (5.9% each) were found. Correlation analyses further revealed significant (P < 0.05) inverse correlations [r = -(0.708-0.797] between all the atherogenic lipid metabolites measured and Na+K+-ATPase in this subgroup contrary to group with good glycemic control or non-diabetic subjects in which significant (P < 0.05) Na+K+-ATPase and HDL-C association were found (r = 0.427 - 0.489). The Na+K+-ATPase from the diabetic patients also exhibited increased sensitivity to digoxin and alterations in kinetic constants Vmax and Km determined by glycemic status of the patients. Conclusion It can be concluded that poor glycemic control evokes greater reduction in erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and promote enzyme-blood atherogenic lipid relationships in Type 1 diabetic Nigerian patients. PMID:17908327

  11. Design and Synthesis of Human ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein) Inhibitors by Peptide Coupling of Diverse Chemical Scaffolds on Carboxyl and Amino Termini of (S)-Valine-Derived Thiazole Amino Acid

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) serves as a therapeutic target for the development of multidrug resistance reversal agents. In this study, we synthesized 21 novel compounds by peptide coupling at corresponding carboxyl and amino termini of (S)-valine-based bis-thiazole and monothiazole derivatives with diverse chemical scaffolds. Using calcein-AM efflux assay, we identified compound 28 (IC50 = 1.0 μM) carrying 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl and 2-aminobenzophenone groups, respectively, at the amino and carboxyl termini of the monothiazole zwitter-ion. Compound 28 inhibited the photolabeling of P-gp with [125I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin with IC50 = 0.75 μM and stimulated the basal ATP hydrolysis of P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 ATPase = 0.027 μM). Compound 28 at 3 μM reduced resistance in cytotoxicity assay to paclitaxel in P-gp-expressing SW620/Ad300 and HEK/ABCB1 cell lines. Biochemical and docking studies showed site-1 to be the preferable binding site for 28 within the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp. PMID:24773054

  12. Heat shock factor-1 knockout induces multidrug resistance gene, MDR1b, and enhances P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-based drug extrusion in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Karthikeyan; Vedam, Kaushik; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2012-01-01

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF-1), a transcription factor for heat-shock proteins (HSPs), is known to interfere with the transcriptional activity of many oncogenic factors. In the present work, we have discovered that HSF-1 ablation induced the multidrug resistance gene, MDR1b, in the heart and increased the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), an ATP binding cassette that is usually associated with multidrug-resistant cancer cells. The increase in P-gp enhanced the extrusion of doxorubicin (Dox) to alleviate Dox-induced heart failure and reduce mortality in mice. Dox-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was significantly reduced in HSF-1−/− mice. DNA-binding activity of NF-κB was higher in HSF-1−/− mice. IκB, the NF-κB inhibitor, was depleted due to enhanced IκB kinase (IKK)-α activity. In parallel, MDR1b gene expression and a large increase in P-gp and lowering Dox loading were observed in HSF-1−/− mouse hearts. Moreover, application of the P-gp antagonist, verapamil, increased Dox loading in HSF-1−/− cardiomyocytes, deteriorated cardiac function in HSF-1−/− mice, and decreased survival. MDR1 promoter activity was higher in HSF-1−/− cardiomyocytes, whereas a mutant MDR1 promoter with heat-shock element (HSE) mutation showed increased activity only in HSF-1+/+ cardiomyocytes. However, deletion of HSE and NF-κB binding sites diminished luminescence in both HSF-1+/+ and HSF-1−/− cardiomyocytes, suggesting that HSF-1 inhibits MDR1 activity in the heart. Thus, because high levels of HSF-1 are attributed to poor prognosis of cancer, systemic down-regulation of HSF-1 before chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic approach to ameliorate the chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and enhance cancer prognosis. PMID:22615365

  13. One-Year Follow-up of Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship between Clinical Variables and Abcb1 Gene Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, A; Gassó, P; Mas, S; Plana, M T; Lafuente, A; Lázaro, L

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Differences in response to fluoxetine (FLX) may be influenced by certain genes that are involved in FLX transportation ( ABCB1 ). We examined remission and recovery from the index episode in a cohort of patients treated with FLX, and also investigated associations between genetic variants in ABCB1 and remission, recovery, and suicide risk. Methods: This was a naturalistic 1-year follow-up study of 46 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). At 12 months they underwent a diagnostic interview with the K-SADS-PL. Results: It was found that remission was around 69.5% and recovery 56.5%. Remission and recovery were associated with lower scores on the CDI at baseline, with fewer readmissions and suicide attempts, and with lower scores on the CGI and higher scores on the GAF scale. No relationship was found between ABCB1 and remission or recovery. However, a significant association was observed between the G2677T ABCB1 polymorphism and suicide attempts. Conclusion: Other factors such as stressful events, family support, and other genetic factors are likely to be involved in MDD outcome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of ABCB1, ABCC2, UGT2B7 and HNF4α genetic polymorphisms on oxcarbazepine concentrations and therapeutic efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunhong; Zhang, Bijun; Liu, Zhirong; Tang, Yelei; Zhang, Yinxi; Wang, Shan; Guo, Yi; Ding, Yao; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Meiping

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of ABCB1, ABCC2, UGT2B7 and HNF4α genetic polymorphisms on plasma oxcarbazepine (OXC) concentrations and therapeutic efficacy in Han Chinese patients with epilepsy. We recruited 116 Han Chinese patients with epilepsy who were receiving OXC monotherapy. Blood samples were taken and OXC levels were measured. The polymorphisms of ABCB1 rs1045642, ABCC2 rs2273697, UGT2B7 rs7439366, and HNF4α rs2071197 were determined. The therapeutic efficacy of OXC at the 1-year time-point was assessed. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. The genetic polymorphism of ABCB1 rs1045642 was found to be associated with normalized OXC concentration and therapeutic efficacy in patients with epilepsy (P<0.05). As for UGT2B7 rs7439366, the allele polymorphism exhibited a correlation with treatment outcome, but not OXC concentration. The polymorphisms of ABCC2 rs2273697 and HNF4α rs2071197 was not associated with OXC concentrations and therapeutic efficacy. These results suggested that ABCB1 rs1045642 and UGT2B7 rs7439366 may affect OXC pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy in Han Chinese patients with epilepsy. However, further studies in larger populations and other ethnic groups are required. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Residues in the Lipopolysaccharide ABC Transporter That Coordinate ATPase Activity with Extractor Function.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Brent W; Owens, Tristan W; Orabella, Matthew J; Davis, Rebecca M; May, Janine M; Trauger, Sunia A; Kahne, Daniel; Ruiz, Natividad

    2016-10-18

    The surface of most Gram-negative bacteria is covered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), creating a permeability barrier against toxic molecules, including many antimicrobials. To assemble LPS on their surface, Gram-negative bacteria must extract newly synthesized LPS from the inner membrane, transport it across the aqueous periplasm, and translocate it across the outer membrane. The LptA to -G proteins assemble into a transenvelope complex that transports LPS from the inner membrane to the cell surface. The Lpt system powers LPS transport from the inner membrane by using a poorly characterized ATP-binding cassette system composed of the ATPase LptB and the transmembrane domains LptFG. Here, we characterize a cluster of residues in the groove region of LptB that is important for controlling LPS transport. We also provide the first functional characterization of LptFG and identify their coupling helices that interact with the LptB groove. Substitutions at conserved residues in these coupling helices compromise both the assembly and function of the LptB 2 FG complex. Defects in LPS transport conferred by alterations in the LptFG coupling helices can be rescued by changing a residue in LptB that is adjacent to functionally important residues in the groove region. This suppression is achieved by increasing the ATPase activity of the LptB 2 FG complex. Taken together, these data identify a specific binding site in LptB for the coupling helices of LptFG that is responsible for coupling of ATP hydrolysis by LptB with LptFG function to achieve LPS extraction. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is synthesized at the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and transported across several compartments to the cell surface, where it forms a barrier that protects these organisms from antibiotics. The LptB 2 FG proteins form an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uses energy from ATP hydrolysis in the cytoplasm to facilitate extraction of LPS from the outer face of the

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Promotes V-ATPase Activation and Vacuolar Acidification and Delays Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Leaf Senescence1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Ji, Yingbin; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    PI3K and its product PI3P are both involved in plant development and stress responses. In this study, the down-regulation of PI3K activity accelerated leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and suppressed the activation of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PI3K bound to the V-ATPase B subunit (VHA-B). Analysis of bimolecular fluorescence complementation in tobacco guard cells showed that PI3K interacted with VHA-B2 in the tonoplasts. Through the use of pharmacological and genetic tools, we found that PI3K and V-ATPase promoted vacuolar acidification and stomatal closure during leaf senescence. Vacuolar acidification was suppressed by the PIKfyve inhibitor in 35S:AtVPS34-YFP Arabidopsis during MeJA-induced leaf senescence, but the decrease was lower than that in YFP-labeled Arabidopsis. These results suggest that PI3K promotes V-ATPase activation and consequently induces vacuolar acidification and stomatal closure, thereby delaying MeJA-induced leaf senescence. PMID:26739232

  17. Job Sharing in the Endomembrane System: Vacuolar Acidification Requires the Combined Activity of V-ATPase and V-PPase.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Anne; Andrés, Zaida; Medzihradszky, Anna; Krüger, Falco; Scholl, Stefan; Delang, Simon; Patir-Nebioglu, M Görkem; Gute, Gezahegn; Yang, Haibing; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy Ann; Pfeiffer, Anne; Krebs, Melanie; Lohmann, Jan U; Schumacher, Karin

    2015-12-01

    The presence of a large central vacuole is one of the hallmarks of a prototypical plant cell, and the multiple functions of this compartment require massive fluxes of molecules across its limiting membrane, the tonoplast. Transport is assumed to be energized by the membrane potential and the proton gradient established by the combined activity of two proton pumps, the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) and the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Exactly how labor is divided between these two enzymes has remained elusive. Here, we provide evidence using gain- and loss-of-function approaches that lack of the V-ATPase cannot be compensated for by increased V-PPase activity. Moreover, we show that increased V-ATPase activity during cold acclimation requires the presence of the V-PPase. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a mutant lacking both of these proton pumps is conditionally viable and retains significant vacuolar acidification, pointing to a so far undetected contribution of the trans-Golgi network/early endosome-localized V-ATPase to vacuolar pH. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions in Ca-ATPase activity isolated from Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) larvae].

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo S; Coelho, Milton V

    2007-01-01

    ATPases, an important target of insecticides, are enzymes that hydrolyze ATP and use the energy released in that process to accomplish some type of cellular work. Pachymerus nucleorum (Fabricius) larvae possess an ATPase, that presents high Ca-ATPase activity, but no Mg-ATPase activity. In the present study, the effect of zinc and copper ions in the activity Ca-ATPase of that enzyme was tested. More than 90% of the Ca-ATPase activity was inhibited in 0.5 mM of copper ions or 0.25 mM of zinc ions. In the presence of EDTA, but not in the absence, the inhibition by zinc was reverted with the increase of calcium concentration. The inhibition by copper ions was not reverted in the presence or absence of EDTA. The Ca-ATPase was not inhibited by treatment of the ATPase fraction with copper, suggesting that the copper ion does not bind directly to the enzyme. The results suggest that zinc and copper ions form a complex with ATP and bind to the enzyme inhibiting its Ca-ATPase activity.

  19. V-ATPase and osmotic imbalances activate endolysosomal LC3 lipidation.

    PubMed

    Florey, Oliver; Gammoh, Noor; Kim, Sung Eun; Jiang, Xuejun; Overholtzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Recently a noncanonical activity of autophagy proteins has been discovered that targets lipidation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) onto macroendocytic vacuoles, including macropinosomes, phagosomes, and entotic vacuoles. While this pathway is distinct from canonical autophagy, the mechanism of how these nonautophagic membranes are targeted for LC3 lipidation remains unclear. Here we present evidence that this pathway requires activity of the vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and is induced by osmotic imbalances within endolysosomal compartments. LC3 lipidation by this mechanism is induced by treatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, and through exposure to the Heliobacter pylori pore-forming toxin VacA. These data add novel mechanistic insights into the regulation of noncanonical LC3 lipidation and its associated processes, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), and demonstrate that the widely and therapeutically used drug chloroquine, which is conventionally used to inhibit autophagy flux, is an inducer of LC3 lipidation.

  20. ABCB1 genetic polymorphism and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers among smokers, tobacco chewers and alcoholics in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sam, Soya Sisy; Thomas, Vinod; Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Reddy, Kanipakapatanam Sathyanarayana; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2007-10-01

    Upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers are associated with the tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Certain toxins and carcinogens causing UADT cancers are found to be substrates of polymorphic ABCB1 gene encoded P-glycoprotein efflux pump. This study investigates the association between ABCB1 gene polymorphism at exon 26 (3435C>T) and risk to UADT cancers in Tamilians, a population of south India. The study included 219 unrelated histopathologically confirmed cases and 210 population-based controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and genotyped for ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the homozygous ABCB1 TT genotype was significantly associated with an overall increased risk for developing UADT cancers [odds ratio (OR): 2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-5.02]. Further, the determination of gene-environment interaction by stratified analyses have revealed a significant interaction between the smoking and homozygous TT genotype [(OR: 7.52; CI: 1.50-37.70) and (OR: 16.89; CI: 3.87-73.79) for 11-20 and >20 pack-years, respectively]. The strongest interaction was observed among the regular tobacco chewers (OR: 45.29; CI: 8.94-130.56) homozygous for TT genotype. No suggestion, however, of an interaction between the genotypes and the alcohol consumption on the multiplicative scale was made. The ABCB1 gene polymorphism at exon 26 (3435C>T) may be one of the risk factors for susceptibility to UADT cancers. Furthermore, the significant interaction among habitual smokers and tobacco chewers, homozygous for TT genotype modulates the risk to UADT cancers in the Tamilian population of south India.

  1. The effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose requirements in Caucasian liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Provenzani, Alessio; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Biondi, Filippo; Sanguedolce, Rosario; Vizzini, Giovanni; Palazzo, Ugo; Polidori, Piera; Triolo, Fabio; Gridelli, Bruno; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2009-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A enzyme and of the drug transporter ABCB1. We have investigated the effects of possible relevant CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in both donors and recipients on tacrolimus blood levels achieved in a population of 32 Caucasian liver transplant patients. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus doses (mg/kg/day) and trough blood levels (C(0)) were determined. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for genotyping CYP3A5*3 [6986A>G] as well as ABCB1 at exons 21 [2677G>T] and 26 [3435C>T]. 87.5% of the population showed a CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. For the ABCB1 SNPs, in the case of 3435C>T the total frequency observed for the allelic variant was 50%. For the 2677G>T, the total frequency of the allelic variant was 12.5%, lower than in other Caucasian populations and without any significant linkage with 3435C>T. At 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus dose requirements were significantly higher in patients receiving a liver with one copy of the *1 allele compared to those homozygous for the *3 allele (0.111+/-0.057 vs. 0.057+/-0.030 [P<0.05] at 3 month and 0.086+/-0.051 vs. 0.044+/-0.025 [P<0.05] at 6 month). For the recipients' genotypes, the presence of at least one *1 copy tended, though not statistically significantly, to increase tacrolimus doses. With regard to the ABCB1 SNPs, they did not show any influence on tacrolimus dosing requirements. Pharmacogenetic analysis of CYP3A5 in the donor could contribute to determine the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus in liver transplant patients.

  2. Increased erythrocyte Na+ pump and NaK-ATPase activity during lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Hokin-Neaverson, M; Burckhardt, W A; Jefferson, J W

    1976-05-01

    A significant mean increase of 18% in erythrocyte sodium pump activity (p less than 0.01, t test) was observed during lithium treatment, as compared with the activity before lithium treatment was started, in a group of 20 patients who were treated with lithium therapy for a variety of psychiatric conditions. The mean level of erythrocyte membrane ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity in a group of 35 subjects who were receiving lithium therapy was significantly higher than that of a different group of 38 subjects who were not receiving lithium therapy (p less than 0.005, t test). These observations may offer a biochemical mode of action for lithium in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder, since a deficiency of sodium pump activity has been shown to be associated with that disorder.

  3. Down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Chen, Yang-Mei; Zhu, Fei; Tang, Shi-Ting; Xiao, Ji-Dong; Li, Lv-Li; Lin, Xin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine whether the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) activity in ischemic penumbra is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. An experimental model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was made by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and the changes of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the ischemic penumbra was examined by Enzyme Assay Kit. Extensive infarction was observed in the frontal and parietal cortical and subcortical areas at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 3 d and 7 d after tMCAO. Enzyme Assay analyses revealed the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was decreased in the ischemic penumbra of model rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion compared with sham-operated rats, and reduced to its minimum at 48 h, while the infarct volume was enlarged gradually. In addition, accompanied by increased brain water content, apoptosis-related bcl-2 and Bax proteins, apoptotic index and neurologic deficits Longa scores, but fluctuated the ratio of bcl-2/Bax. Correlation analysis showed that the infarct volume, apoptotic index, neurologic deficits Longa scores and brain water content were negatively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity, while the ratio of bcl-2/Bax was positively related with Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Our results suggest that down-regulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in ischemic penumbra might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury presumably through the imbalance ratio of bcl-2/Bax and neuronal apoptosis, and identify novel target for neuroprotective therapeutic intervention in cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:26722460

  4. Detection and functional characterization of Pgp1 (ABCB1) and MRP3 (ABCC3) efflux transporters in the PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Zaja, Roko; Klobucar, Roberta Sauerborn; Smital, Tvrtko

    2007-03-30

    The PLHC-1 hepatoma cell line derived from topminnow (Poeciliopsis lucida) is one of the most frequently used fish cell lines in aquatic ecotoxicology. These cells have been well characterized regarding the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. However, the presence of the ABC transport proteins possibly involved in the MultiXenobiotic Resistance (MXR) mechanism as phase III of cellular detoxification has never been described in the PLHC-1 cells. The main goal of this study was the detection and functional characterization of toxicologically relevant xenobiotic efflux transporters from ABCB and ABCC subfamily in the PLHC-1 cells. Using specific primer pairs two PCR products 1769 and 1023bp in length were successfully cloned and sequenced. Subsequent multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences share a high degree of homology with the P-glycoprotein (Pgp1; ABCB1) and the MRP3 (ABCC3). Functional experiments with fluorescent model substrates and specific inhibitors were used to verify that transport activities of Pgp- and MRP-related proteins are indeed present in PLHC-1 cells. Accumulation or efflux/retention rates of rhodamine 123, calcein-AM or monochlorbimane were time- and concentration-dependent. Cyclosporine A, MK571, verapamil, reversine 205, indomethacine and probenecid were used as specific inhibitors of Pgp1 and/or MRPs transport activities, resulting in a dose dependent inhibition of related transport activities in PLHC-1 cells. Similar to mammalian systems, the obtained IC(50) values were in the lower micromolar range. Taken together these data demonstrate that: (1) the PLHC-1 cells do express a functional MXR mechanism mediated by toxicologically relevant ABC efflux transporters; and (2) the presence of all three critical phases of cellular detoxification additionally affirms the PLHC-1 cells as a reliable in vitro model in aquatic toxicology.

  5. Na, K-ATPase activity regulates AMPA receptor turnover through proteasome-mediated proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dawei; Hou, Qingming; Wang, Min; Lin, Amy; Jarzylo, Larissa; Navis, Allison; Raissi, Aram; Liu, Fang; Man, Heng-Ye

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal activity largely depends on two key components on the membrane: the Na, K-ATPase (NKA) that maintains the ion gradients and sets the foundation of excitability, and the ionotropic glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) through which sodium influx forms the driving force for excitation. Because the frequent sodium transients from glutamate receptor activity need to be efficiently extruded, a functional coupling between NKA and AMPARs should be a necessary cellular device for synapse physiology. We show that NKA is enriched at synapses and associates with AMPARs. NKA dysfunction induces a rapid reduction in AMPAR cell-surface expression as well as total protein abundance, leading to a long-lasting depression in synaptic transmission. AMPAR proteolysis requires sodium influx, proteasomal activity and receptor internalization. These data elucidate a novel mechanism by which NKA regulates AMPAR turnover and thereby synaptic strength and brain function. PMID:19357275

  6. A Role for the ATP7A Copper-transporting ATPase in Macrophage Bactericidal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    White, Carine; Lee, Jaekwon; Kambe, Taiho; Fritsche, Kevin; Petris, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient that is necessary for healthy immune function. This requirement is underscored by an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in copper-deficient animals; however, a molecular understanding of its importance in immune defense is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of proinflammatory agents on copper homeostasis in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interferon-γ was found to increase expression of the high affinity copper importer, CTR1, and stimulate copper uptake. This was accompanied by copper-stimulated trafficking of the ATP7A copper exporter from the Golgi to vesicles that partially overlapped with phagosomal compartments. Silencing of ATP7A expression attenuated bacterial killing, suggesting a role for ATP7A-dependent copper transport in the bactericidal activity of macrophages. Significantly, a copper-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli lacking the CopA copper-transporting ATPase was hypersensitive to killing by RAW264.7 macrophages, and this phenotype was dependent on ATP7A expression. Collectively, these data suggest that copper-transporting ATPases, CopA and ATP7A, in both bacteria and macrophage are unique determinants of bacteria survival and identify an unexpected role for copper at the host-pathogen interface. PMID:19808669

  7. Rhodamine Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein: An Amide/Thioamide “Switch” for ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Michael K.; Holt, Jason J.; Bennett, Stephanie M.; Wetzel, Bryan R.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Sawada, Geri A.; Higgins, J. William; Tombline, Gregory; Raub, Thomas J.; Detty, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We have examined 46 tetramethylrosamine/rhodamine derivatives with structural diversity in the heteroatom of the xanthylium core, the amino substituents of the 3- and 6-positions, and the alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group at the 9-substituent. These compounds were examined for affinity and ATPase stimulation in isolated MDR3 CL P-gp and human P-gp-His10, for their ability to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine in multidrug-resistant MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for transport in monolayers of MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Thioamide 31-S gave KM of 0.087 μM in human P-gp. Small changes in structure among this set of compounds affected affinity as well as transport rate (or flux) even though all derivatives examined were substrates for P-gp. With isolated protein, tertiary amide groups dictate high affinity and high stimulation while tertiary thioamide groups give high affinity and inhibition of ATPase activity. In MDCKII-MDR1 cells, the tertiary thioamide-containing derivatives promote uptake of calcein AM and have very slow passive, absorptive, and secretory rates of transport relative to transport rates for tertiary amide-containing derivatives. Thioamide 31-S promoted uptake of calcein AM and inhibited efflux of vinblastine with IC50’s of ~2 μM in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. PMID:19402665

  8. Influence of ABCB1 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Alexander Valerevich; Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Andreev, Denis Anatolevich; Ryzhikova, Kristina Anatolievna; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Ryabova, Anastasia Vladislavovna; Loskutnikov, Mark Alekseevich; Smirnov, Valeriy Valerevich; Konova, Olga Dmitrievna; Matsneva, Irina Andreevna; Bochkov, Pavel Olegovich

    2018-01-01

    Difficulties in non-vitamin K anticoagulant (NOAC) administration in acute stroke can be associated with changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of NOAC such as biotransformation, distribution, and excretion. Therefore, obtaining data on pharmacokinetics of NOAC and factors that affect it may help develop algorithms for personalized use of this drug class in patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. Pharmacokinetics of apixaban in patients with acute stroke was studied earlier by Kryukov et al. The present study enrolled 17 patients with cardioembolic stroke, who received 5 mg of apixaban. In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban, venous blood samples were collected before taking 5 mg of apixaban (point 0) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, and 12 hours after drug intake. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. Separate plasma was aliquoted in Eppendorf tubes and frozen at -70°C until analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine apixaban plasma concentration. Genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CYP3A isoenzyme group activity was evaluated by determining urinary concentration of endogenous substrate of the enzyme and its metabolite (6-β-hydroxycortisol to cortisol ratio). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics version 20.0. The protocol of this study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee; patients or their representatives signed an informed consent. ABCB1 ( rs1045642 and rs4148738 ) gene polymorphisms do not affect the pharmacokinetics of apixaban as well as CYP3A5 ( rs776746 ) gene polymorphisms. Apixaban pharmacokinetics in groups with different genotypes did not differ statistically significantly. Correlation analysis showed no statistically significant relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban and the metabolic activity of CYP3A. Questions such as depending on genotyping results for apixaban dosing and

  9. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  10. The inhibition of the mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase activity when activated by Ca2+ opens new regulatory roles for NAD.

    PubMed

    Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Ventrella, Vittoria; Pirini, Maurizio; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2018-01-26

    The mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase is uncompetitively inhibited by NAD+ only when the natural cofactor Mg2+ is replaced by Ca2+, a mode putatively involved in cell death. The Ca2+-dependent F1FO-ATPase is also inhibited when NAD+ concentration in mitochondria is raised by acetoacetate. The enzyme inhibition by NAD+ cannot be ascribed to any de-ac(et)ylation or ADP-ribosylation by sirtuines, as it is not reversed by nicotinamide. Moreover, the addition of acetyl-CoA or palmitate, which would favor the enzyme ac(et)ylation, does not affect the F1FO-ATPase activity. Consistently, NAD+ may play a new role, not associated with redox and non-redox enzymatic reactions, in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of the F1FO-ATPase activity.

  11. Genetic association analysis of ATP binding cassette protein family reveals a novel association of ABCB1 genetic variants with epilepsy risk, but not with drug-resistance.

    PubMed

    Balan, Shabeesh; Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Vellichiramal, Neetha Nanoth; Sathyan, Sanish; Joseph, Vijai; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value = 0.0002; allelic p-value = 0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value = 0.0008; allelic p-value = 0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value = 0.01; allelic p-value = 0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with greater tendency for MTLE

  12. Genetic Association Analysis of ATP Binding Cassette Protein Family Reveals a Novel Association of ABCB1 Genetic Variants with Epilepsy Risk, but Not with Drug-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Shabeesh; Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Vellichiramal, Neetha Nanoth; Sathyan, Sanish; Joseph, Vijai; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value = 0.0002; allelic p-value = 0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value = 0.0008; allelic p-value = 0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value = 0.01; allelic p-value = 0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with

  13. Oxidative stress and Na,K-ATPase activity differential regulation in brainstem and forebrain of Wistar Audiogenic rats may lead to increased seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Gabriela Machado; Resende, Maria Daniela Aparecida; Garcia, Israel José Pereira; Sartori, Daniela Bueno; Umeoka, Eduardo Henrique de Lima; Godoy, Lívea Dornela; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto; Santos, Hérica de Lima; Tilelli, Cristiane Queixa

    2018-01-15

    The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is a well-characterized seizure-prone, inbred rodent strain that, when acutely stimulated with high-intensity sounds, develops brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures that can evolve to limbic-like, myoclonic (forebrain) seizures when the acoustic stimuli are presented chronically (audiogenic kindling). In order to investigate possible mechanisms underlying WAR susceptibility to seizures, we evaluated Na,K-ATPase activity, Ca-ATPase activity, Mg-ATPase activity, lipid membrane composition and oxidative stress markers in whole forebrain and whole brainstem samples of naïve WAR, as compared to samples from control Wistar rats. We also evaluated the expression levels of α1 and α3 isoforms of Na,K-ATPase in forebrain samples. We observed increased Na,K-ATPase activity in forebrain samples and increased oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in brainstem samples of WAR. The Ca-ATPase activity, Mg-ATPase activity, lipid membrane composition and expression levels of α1 and α3 isoforms of Na,K-ATPase were unaltered. In view of previous data showing that the membrane potentials from naïve WAR's neurons are less negative than that from neurons from Wistar rats, we suggest that Na,K-ATPase increased activity might be involved in a compensatory mechanism necessary to maintain WAR's brains normal activity. Additionally, ongoing oxidative stress in the brainstem could bring Na,K-ATPase activity back to normal levels, which may explain why WAR's present increased susceptibility to seizures triggered by high-intensity sound stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose supplements increase human muscle in vitro Na+-K+-ATPase activity during prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Green, H J; Duhamel, T A; Foley, K P; Ouyang, J; Smith, I C; Stewart, R D

    2007-07-01

    Regulation of maximal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in vastus lateralis muscle was investigated in response to prolonged exercise with (G) and without (NG) oral glucose supplements. Fifteen untrained volunteers (14 males and 1 female) with a peak aerobic power (Vo(2)(peak)) of 44.8 +/- 1.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1); mean +/- SE cycled at approximately 57% Vo(2)(peak) to fatigue during both NG (artificial sweeteners) and G (6.13 +/- 0.09% glucose) in randomized order. Consumption of beverage began at 30 min and continued every 15 min until fatigue. Time to fatigue was increased (P < 0.05) in G compared with NG (137 +/- 7 vs. 115 +/- 6 min). Maximal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity (V(max)) as measured by the 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase assay (nmol.mg(-1).h(-1)) was not different between conditions prior to exercise (85.2 +/- 3.3 or 86.0 +/- 3.9), at 30 min (91.4 +/- 4.7 vs. 91.9 +/- 4.1) and at fatigue (92.8 +/- 4.3 vs. 100 +/- 5.0) but was higher (P < 0.05) in G at 90 min (86.7 +/- 4.2 vs. 109 +/- 4.1). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase content (beta(max)) measured by the vanadate facilitated [(3)H]ouabain-binding technique (pmol/g wet wt) although elevated (P < 0.05) by exercise (0<30, 90, and fatigue) was not different between NG and G. At 60 and 90 min of exercise, blood glucose was higher (P < 0.05) in G compared with NG. The G condition also resulted in higher (P < 0.05) serum insulin at similar time points to glucose and lower (P < 0.05) plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine at 90 min of exercise and at fatigue. These results suggest that G results in an increase in V(max) by mechanisms that are unclear.

  15. Biliary excretion of technetium-99m-sestamibi in wild-type dogs and in dogs with intrinsic (ABCB1-1Delta mutation) and extrinsic (ketoconazole treated) P-glycoprotein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coelho, J C; Tucker, R; Mattoon, J; Roberts, G; Waiting, D K; Mealey, K L

    2009-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of ABCB1 gene, is thought to play a role in the biliary excretion of a variety of drugs, but specific studies in dogs have not been performed. Because a number of endogenous (ABCB1 polymorphisms) and exogenous (pharmacological P-gp inhibition) factors can interfere with normal P-gp function, a better understanding of P-gp's role in biliary drug excretion is crucial in preventing adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions in dogs. The objectives of this study were to compare biliary excretion of technetium-99m-sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI), a radio-labelled P-gp substrate, in wild-type dogs (ABCB1 wild/wild), and dogs with intrinsic and extrinsic deficiencies in P-gp function. Dogs with intrinsic P-gp deficiency included ABCB1 mut/mut dogs, and dogs with presumed intermediate P-gp phenotype (ABCB1 mut/wild). Dogs with extrinsic P-gp deficiency were considered to be ABCB1 wild/wild dogs treated with the P-gp inhibitor ketoconazole (5 mg/kg PO q12h x 9 doses). Results from this study indicate that ABCB1 mut/mut dogs have significantly decreased biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI compared with ABCB1 wild/wild dogs. Treatment with ketoconazole significantly decreased biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI in ABCB1 wild/wild dogs. P-gp appears to play an important role in the biliary excretion of (99m)Tc-MIBI in dogs. It is likely that concurrent administration of a P-gp inhibitor such as ketoconazole will decrease P-gp-mediated biliary excretion of other substrate drugs as well.

  16. Expression of a constitutively activated plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells results in cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Niczyj, Marta; Champagne, Antoine; Alam, Iftekhar; Nader, Joseph; Boutry, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Increased acidification of the external medium by an activated H + -ATPase results in cell expansion, in the absence of upstream activating signaling. The plasma membrane H + -ATPase couples ATP hydrolysis with proton transport outside the cell, and thus creates an electrochemical gradient, which energizes secondary transporters. According to the acid growth theory, this enzyme is also proposed to play a major role in cell expansion, by acidifying the external medium and so activating enzymes that are involved in cell wall-loosening. However, this theory is still debated. To challenge it, we made use of a plasma membrane H + -ATPase isoform from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia truncated from its C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain (ΔCPMA4), and thus constitutively activated. This protein was expressed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells using a heat shock inducible promoter. The characterization of several independent transgenic lines showed that the expression of activated ΔCPMA4 resulted in a reduced external pH by 0.3-1.2 units, as well as in an increased H + -ATPase activity by 77-155 % (ATP hydrolysis), or 70-306 % (proton pumping) of isolated plasma membranes. In addition, ΔCPMA4-expressing cells were 17-57 % larger than the wild-type cells and displayed abnormal shapes. A proteomic comparison of plasma membranes isolated from ΔCPMA4-expressing and wild-type cells revealed the altered abundance of several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis, transport, and signal transduction. In conclusion, the data obtained in this work showed that H + -ATPase activation is sufficient to induce cell expansion and identified possible actors which intervene in this process.

  17. The effect of chlorpyrifos upon ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and biomechanics of skeleta l muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Nozdrenko, D M; Miroshnychenko, M S; Soroca, V M; Korchins ka, L V; Zavodovskiy, D O

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide, on Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and on contraction dynamics (force and length changes) of Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior muscle fiber bundles. All of the used concentrations of chlorpyrifos (10-6 to 10-5 M) caused decrease of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity. The inhibition of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity by chlorpyriphos in concentrations of 10-6 M to 7.5·10-6 M is due to permeation of sarcoplasmic reticulum rather than due to direct enzyme inhibition by organophosphate insecticides. The inhibitory properties of the compound were higher at increased concentration and exposure timeframes. Chlorpyrifos in concentration range of 10-6 to 7.5·10-6 M causes changes in muscle fiber response force that were more pronounced than changes in contractile length. We demonstrated inhibition of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity caused by noncholinergic effects of chlorpyriphos. It is possible to conclude that influence of organophosphate insecticides happens not only in the neuromuscular transmission but also on the level of subcellular structures.

  18. Spa47 is an oligomerization-activated type three secretion system (T3SS) ATPase from Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jamie L; Jones, Heather B; Kumar, Prashant; Toth, Ronald T; Middaugh, C Russell; Antony, Edwin; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative pathogens often use conserved type three secretion systems (T3SS) for virulence. The Shigella type three secretion apparatus (T3SA) penetrates the host cell membrane and provides a unidirectional conduit for injection of effectors into host cells. The protein Spa47 localizes to the base of the apparatus and is speculated to be an ATPase that provides the energy for T3SA formation and secretion. Here, we developed an expression and purification protocol, producing active Spa47 and providing the first direct evidence that Spa47 is a bona fide ATPase. Additionally, size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation identified multiple oligomeric species of Spa47 with the largest greater than 8 fold more active for ATP hydrolysis than the monomer. An ATPase inactive Spa47 point mutant was then engineered by targeting a conserved Lysine within the predicted Walker A motif of Spa47. Interestingly, the mutant maintained a similar oligomerization pattern as active Spa47, but was unable to restore invasion phenotype when used to complement a spa47 null S. flexneri strain. Together, these results identify Spa47 as a Shigella T3SS ATPase and suggest that its activity is linked to oligomerization, perhaps as a regulatory mechanism as seen in some related pathogens. Additionally, Spa47 catalyzed ATP hydrolysis appears to be essential for host cell invasion, providing a strong platform for additional studies dissecting its role in virulence and providing an attractive target for anti-infective agents. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  19. Effect of LED photobiomodulation on fluorescent light induced changes in cellular ATPases and Cytochrome c oxidase activity in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    A, Ahamed Basha; C, Mathangi D; R, Shyamala

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescent light exposure at night alters cellular enzyme activities resulting in health defects. Studies have demonstrated that light emitting diode photobiomodulation enhances cellular enzyme activities. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of fluorescent light induced changes in cellular enzymes and to assess the protective role of pre exposure to 670 nm LED in rat model. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into 10 groups of 6 animals each based on duration of exposure (1, 15, and 30 days) and exposure regimen (cage control, exposure to fluorescent light [1800 lx], LED preexposure followed by fluorescent light exposure and only LED exposure). Na + -K + ATPase, Ca 2+ ATPase, and cytochrome c oxidase of the brain, heart, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscle were assayed. Animals of the fluorescent light exposure group showed a significant reduction in Na + -K + ATPase and Ca 2+ ATPase activities in 1 and 15 days and their increase in animals of 30-day group in most of the regions studied. Cytochrome c oxidase showed increase in their level at all the time points assessed in most of the tissues. LED light preexposure showed a significant enhancement in the degree of increase in the enzyme activities in almost all the tissues and at all the time points assessed. This study demonstrates the protective effect of 670 nm LED pre exposure on cellular enzymes against fluorescent light induced change.

  20. Sphingosine inhibits the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) activity

    SciTech Connect

    Benaim, Gustavo, E-mail: gbenaim@idea.gob.ve; Instituto de Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela; Pimentel, Adriana A., E-mail: adriana.pimentel@ucv.ve

    2016-04-29

    The increase in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is the key variable for many different processes, ranging from regulation of cell proliferation to apoptosis. In this work we demonstrated that the sphingolipid sphingosine (Sph) increases the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA), in a similar manner to thapsigargin (Tg), a specific inhibitor of this Ca{sup 2+} pump. The results showed that addition of sphingosine produced a release of Ca{sup 2+} from the endoplasmic reticulum followed by a Ca{sup 2+} entrance from the outside mileu. The results presented in this work support thatmore » this sphingolipid could control the activity of the SERCA, and hence sphingosine may participate in the regulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub I} in mammalian cells.« less

  1. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  2. A bioassay-guided fractionation system to identify endogenous small molecules that activate plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuli; Yang, Yongqing; Wu, Yujiao; Liu, Xiaohui; Lei, Xiaoguang; Guo, Yan

    2017-05-17

    Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is essential for plant growth and development. Various environmental stimuli regulate its activity, a process that involves many protein cofactors. However, whether endogenous small molecules play a role in this regulation remains unknown. Here, we describe a bio-guided isolation method to identify endogenous small molecules that regulate PM H+-ATPase activity. We obtained crude extracts from Arabidopsis seedlings with or without salt treatment and then purified them into fractions based on polarity and molecular mass by repeated column chromatography. By evaluating the effect of each fraction on PM H+-ATPase activity, we found that fractions containing the endogenous, free unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3) extracted from salt-treated seedlings stimulate PM H+-ATPase activity. These results were further confirmed by the addition of exogenous C18:1, C18:2, or C18:3 in the activity assay. The ssi2 mutant, with reduced levels of C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, displayed reduced PM H+-ATPase activity. Furthermore, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 directly bound to the C-terminus of the PM H+-ATPase AHA2. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the binding of free unsaturated fatty acids to the C-terminus of PM H+-ATPase is required for its activation under salt stress. The bio-guided isolation model described in this study could enable the identification of new endogenous small molecules that modulate essential protein functions, as well as signal transduction, in plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. SAUR Inhibition of PP2C-D Phosphatases Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPases to Promote Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Spartz, Angela K.; Ren, Hong; Park, Mee Yeon; Grandt, Kristin N.; Lee, Sang Ho; Murphy, Angus S.; Sussman, Michael R.; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Gray, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin promotes cell expansion. Forty years ago, the acid growth theory was proposed, whereby auxin promotes proton efflux to acidify the apoplast and facilitate the uptake of solutes and water to drive plant cell expansion. However, the underlying molecular and genetic bases of this process remain unclear. We have previously shown that the SAUR19-24 subfamily of auxin-induced SMALL AUXIN UP-RNA (SAUR) genes promotes cell expansion. Here, we demonstrate that SAUR proteins provide a mechanistic link between auxin and plasma membrane H+-ATPases (PM H+-ATPases) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants overexpressing stabilized SAUR19 fusion proteins exhibit increased PM H+-ATPase activity, and the increased growth phenotypes conferred by SAUR19 overexpression are dependent upon normal PM H+-ATPase function. We find that SAUR19 stimulates PM H+-ATPase activity by promoting phosphorylation of the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. Additionally, we identify a regulatory mechanism by which SAUR19 modulates PM H+-ATPase phosphorylation status. SAUR19 as well as additional SAUR proteins interact with the PP2C-D subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases. We demonstrate that these phosphatases are inhibited upon SAUR binding, act antagonistically to SAURs in vivo, can physically interact with PM H+-ATPases, and negatively regulate PM H+-ATPase activity. Our findings provide a molecular framework for elucidating auxin-mediated control of plant cell expansion. PMID:24858935

  4. Mechanisms of L-Triiodothyronine-Induced Inhibition of Synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Young Adult Rat Brain Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Pradip K.; Biswas, Avijit; Ray, Arun K.; Martin, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the normal functioning of adult mammalian brain is unclear. Our studies have identified synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase as a TH-responsive physiological parameter in adult rat cerebral cortex. L-triiodothyronine (T3) and L-thyroxine (T4) both inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity (but not Mg2+-ATPase activity) in similar dose-dependent fashions, while other metabolites of TH were less effective. Although both T3 and the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in cerebrocortical synaptosomes in similar ways, the β-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol did not counteract the effect of T3. Instead, propranolol further inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was independent of β-adrenergic receptor activation. The effect of T3 on synaptosomal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was inhibited by the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine and by glutamate. Notably, both clonidine and glutamate activate Gi-proteins of the membrane second messenger system, suggesting a potential mechanism for the inhibition of the effects of TH. In this paper, we provide support for a nongenomic mechanism of action of TH in a neuronal membrane-related energy-linked process for signal transduction in the adult condition. PMID:24307963

  5. Managing Brain Extracellular K+ during Neuronal Activity: The Physiological Role of the Na+/K+-ATPase Subunit Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Stoica, Anca; MacAulay, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    During neuronal activity in the brain, extracellular K+ rises and is subsequently removed to prevent a widespread depolarization. One of the key players in regulating extracellular K+ is the Na+/K+-ATPase, although the relative involvement and physiological impact of the different subunit isoform compositions of the Na+/K+-ATPase remain unresolved. The various cell types in the brain serve a certain temporal contribution in the face of network activity; astrocytes respond directly to the immediate release of K+ from neurons, whereas the neurons themselves become the primary K+ absorbers as activity ends. The kinetic characteristics of the catalytic α subunit isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase are, partly, determined by the accessory β subunit with which they combine. The isoform combinations expressed by astrocytes and neurons, respectively, appear to be in line with the kinetic characteristics required to fulfill their distinct physiological roles in clearance of K+ from the extracellular space in the face of neuronal activity. Understanding the nature, impact and effects of the various Na+/K+-ATPase isoform combinations in K+ management in the central nervous system might reveal insights into pathological conditions such as epilepsy, migraine, and spreading depolarization following cerebral ischemia. In addition, particular neurological diseases occur as a result of mutations in the α2- (familial hemiplegic migraine type 2) and α3 isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism/alternating hemiplegia of childhood). This review addresses aspects of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of extracellular K+ in the central nervous system as well as the related pathophysiology. Understanding the physiological setting in non-pathological tissue would provide a better understanding of the pathological events occurring during disease. PMID:27148079

  6. Identification of Residues in the Lipopolysaccharide ABC Transporter That Coordinate ATPase Activity with Extractor Function

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brent W.; Owens, Tristan W.; Orabella, Matthew J.; Davis, Rebecca M.; May, Janine M.; Trauger, Sunia A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The surface of most Gram-negative bacteria is covered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), creating a permeability barrier against toxic molecules, including many antimicrobials. To assemble LPS on their surface, Gram-negative bacteria must extract newly synthesized LPS from the inner membrane, transport it across the aqueous periplasm, and translocate it across the outer membrane. The LptA to -G proteins assemble into a transenvelope complex that transports LPS from the inner membrane to the cell surface. The Lpt system powers LPS transport from the inner membrane by using a poorly characterized ATP-binding cassette system composed of the ATPase LptB and the transmembrane domains LptFG. Here, we characterize a cluster of residues in the groove region of LptB that is important for controlling LPS transport. We also provide the first functional characterization of LptFG and identify their coupling helices that interact with the LptB groove. Substitutions at conserved residues in these coupling helices compromise both the assembly and function of the LptB2FG complex. Defects in LPS transport conferred by alterations in the LptFG coupling helices can be rescued by changing a residue in LptB that is adjacent to functionally important residues in the groove region. This suppression is achieved by increasing the ATPase activity of the LptB2FG complex. Taken together, these data identify a specific binding site in LptB for the coupling helices of LptFG that is responsible for coupling of ATP hydrolysis by LptB with LptFG function to achieve LPS extraction. PMID:27795402

  7. Hyperthyroidism causes mechanical insufficiency of myocardium with possibly increased SR Ca2+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koh; Minakawa, M; Otaki, M; Odagiri, S; Itoh, K; Murakami, A; Yaku, H; Kitamura, N

    2003-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism is known to affect multiple organ functions, and thyroid hormone has been known to improve myocardial function in a failing heart. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the functional and metabolic effects of thyroid hormone on myocardium in a rat model exposed to long-term excess thyroid hormone, particularly focusing on the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) function. 3,5,3'-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), or the vehicle, was subcutaneously given for 4 weeks (T3 and control [C] group). Bolus I.V. Thapsigargin (TG) was used to test the SERCA2 function (C-TG and T3-TG) in Langendorff perfused heart. Myocardial functions such as LV-developed pressure (LVDP; mmHg), +/- dP/dt (mmHg/s), tau (ms), and oxygen consumption (MVO(2); ml/min/g wt) were measured. SERCA2 and GLUT4 protein level were also evaluated by Western immunoblotting. Left ventricle to body weight (LV/BW) ratio was significantly higher in the T3 group. Both negative dP/dt and tau were significantly decreased by TG. It is interesting that the decrement of negative dP/dt and tau attained by TG was significantly larger in the hyperthyroid group (T3-TG) than in a normal heart (C-TG). SERCA2 and GLUT4 protein levels were not significantly different between control and the T3 group. We conclude that prolonged exposure to thyroid hormone causes hypertrophy of the myocardium and an augmentation of the SR Ca(2+) ATPase activity. Care must be taken in hyperthyroid heart during the ischemia-reperfusion process where the SRECA2 function is inhibited.

  8. Impact of ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 polymorphisms on plasma trough concentrations of apixaban in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Satoshi; Hira, Daiki; Fujii, Ryo; Kimura, Yuuma; Tomitsuka, Chiho; Yamane, Takuya; Tabuchi, Yohei; Ozawa, Tomoya; Itoh, Hideki; Horie, Minoru; Terada, Tomohiro; Katsura, Toshiya

    2017-09-01

    During anticoagulant therapy, major bleeding is one of the most severe adverse effects. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 polymorphisms and plasma trough concentrations of apixaban, a direct inhibitor of coagulation factor X. A total of 70 plasma concentrations of apixaban from 44 Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation were analyzed. In these analyses, the plasma trough concentration/dose (C/D) ratio of apixaban was used as a pharmacokinetic index and all data were stratified according to the presence of ABCB1 (ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T), ABCG2 (ABCG2 421C>A), and CYP3A5 (CYP3A5*3) polymorphisms. Influences of various clinical laboratory parameters (age, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, aspartate amino transferase, and alanine amino transferase) on the plasma trough C/D ratio of apixaban were included in analyses. Although no ABCB1 polymorphisms affected the plasma trough C/D ratio of apixaban, the plasma trough C/D ratio of apixaban was significantly higher in patients with the ABCG2 421A/A genotype than in patients with the ABCG2 421C/C genotype (P<0.01). The plasma trough C/D ratio of apixaban in patients with CYP3A5*1/*3 or *3/*3 genotypes was also significantly higher than that in patients with the CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype (P<0.05). Furthermore, the plasma trough C/D ratio of apixaban decreased with increased estimated glomerular filtration rate. These results indicate that ABCG2 421A/A and CYP3A5*3 genotypes and renal function are considered potential factors affecting trough concentrations of apixaban.

  9. A Markov chain model to evaluate the effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms on adverse events associated with tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sy, Sherwin K B; Heuberger, Jules; Shilbayeh, Sireen; Conrado, Daniela J; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    The SNP A6986G of the CYP3A5 gene (*3) results in a non-functional protein due to a splicing defect whereas the C3435T was associated with variable expression of the ABCB1 gene, due to protein instability. Part of the large interindividual variability in tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity can be accounted for by these genetic factors. Seventy-two individuals were examined for A6986G and C3435T polymorphism using a PCR-RFLP-based technique to estimate genotype and allele frequencies in the Jordanian population. The association of age, hematocrit, platelet count, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with tacrolimus dose- and body-weight-normalized levels in the subset of 38 pediatric renal transplant patients was evaluated. A Markov model was used to evaluate the time-dependent probability of an adverse event occurrence by CYP3A5 phenotypes and ABCB1 genotypes. The time-dependent probability of adverse event was about double in CYP3A5 non-expressors compared to the expressors for the first 12 months of therapy. The CYP3A5 non-expressors had higher corresponding normalized tacrolimus levels compared to the expressors in the first 3 months. The correlation trend between probability of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus concentrations for the two CYP3A5 phenotypes persisted for the first 9 months of therapy. The differences among ABCB1 genotypes in terms of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus levels were only observed in the first 3 months of therapy. The information on CYP3A5 genotypes and tacrolimus dose requirement is important in designing effective programs toward management of tacrolimus side effects particularly for the initial dose when tacrolimus blood levels are not available for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  10. Association of ABCB1 and ABCG2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with clinical findings and response to chemotherapy treatments in Kurdish patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, Houshiyar; Ghaderi, Bayazid; Amini, Sabrieh; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Abdi, Mohammad; Hoseini, Abdolhakim

    2016-06-01

    The possible interaction between gene polymorphisms and risk of cancer progression is very interesting. Polymorphisms in multi-drug resistance genes have an important role in response to anti-cancer drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible effects of ABCB1 C3435T and ABCG2 C421A single nucleotide polymorphisms on clinical and pathological outcomes of Kurdish patients with breast cancer. One hundred breast cancer patients and 200 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Clinical and pathological findings of all individuals were reported, and immunohistochemistry staining was used to assess the tissue expression of specific breast cancer proteins. The ABCB1 C3435T and ABCG2 C421 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). The distribution of different genotypes between patient and control groups was only significant for ABCG2 C421A. A allele of ABCG2 C421A polymorphisms were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Patients with AA genotype of ABCG2 C421A were at higher risk of progressing breast cancer. Patients with A allele of ABCG2 had complete response to chemotherapeutic agents. There was no statistically significant association between ABCB1 C3435T and ABCG2 C421A polymorphisms and tissue expression of ER, PR, Her2/neu, and Ki67. The ABCB1 C3435T has no correlation with clinical findings and treatment with chemotherapy drugs. The A allele of ABCG2 C421A may be a risk factor for progression of breast cancer in Kurdish patients. In addition, breast cancer patients with C allele of this polymorphism have weaker response to treatments with anthracyclines and Paclitaxol.

  11. Association of ABCB1 and SLC22A16 Gene Polymorphisms with Incidence of Doxorubicin-Induced Febrile Neutropenia: A Survey of Iranian Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Abolfazl; Dehghan Manshadi, Hamid Reza; Mobaraki, Maryam; Zare, Mahkameh; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy is used to treat breast cancer patients; however, neutropenia is a common hematologic side effect and can be life-threatening. The ABCB1 and SLC22A16 genes encode proteins that are essential for doxorubicin transport. In this study, we explored the effect of 2 common polymorphisms in ABCB1 (rs10276036 C/T) and SLC22A16 (rs12210538 A/G) on the development of grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia in Iranian breast cancer patients. Our results showed no significant association between these polymorphisms and grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia; however, allele C of ABCB1 (rs10276036 C/T) (p = 0.315, OR = 1.500, 95% CI = 0.679-3.312) and allele A of SLC22A16 (rs12210538 A/G) (p = 0.110, OR = 2.984, 95% CI = 0.743-11.988) tended to have a greater association with grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia, whereas allele T of ABCB1 (rs10276036) (p = 0.130, OR = 0.515, 95% CI = 0.217-1.223) and allele G of SLC22A16 (rs12210538) (p = 0.548, OR = 0.786, 95% CI = 0.358-1.726) tended to protect against this condition. In addition to breast cancer, a statistically significant association was also observed between the development of grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia and other clinical manifestations such as stage IIIC cancer (p = 0.037) and other diseases (p = 0.026). Our results indicate that evaluation of the risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia development and consideration of molecular and clinical findings may be of value when screening for high-risk breast cancer patients.

  12. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Michael; Loibl, Mathias; Zisser, Gertrude; Luschnig, Daniel; Kappel, Lisa; Rössler, Ingrid; Grassegger, Manuela; Hromic, Altijana; Krieger, Elmar; Gruber, Karl; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2017-03-17

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research. Here, we present the characterization of a novel mutant variant of the eukaryotic AAA-ATPase Drg1 that shows dysregulation of ATPase activity and altered interaction with Rlp24, its substrate in ribosome biogenesis. This defective regulation is the consequence of amino acid exchanges at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the adjacent D1 AAA-domain. The effects caused by these mutations strongly resemble those of pathological mutations of the AAA-ATPase p97 which cause the hereditary proteinopathy IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia). Our results therefore suggest well conserved mechanisms of regulation between structurally, but not functionally related members of the AAA-family.

  13. Endogenous acetylcholine increases alveolar epithelial fluid transport via activation of alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Yan, Xi Xin; Li, Hong Lin; Li, Rong Qin

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of endogenous acetylcholine to alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and related molecular mechanisms were explored. AFC was measured in Balb/c mice after vagotomy and vagus nerve stimulation. Effects of acetylcholine chloride on AFC in Kunming mice and Na,K-ATPase function in A549 alveolar epithelial cells also were determined. AFC significantly decreased in mice with left cervical vagus nerve transection compared with controls (48.69 ± 2.57 vs. 66.88 ± 2.64, P ≤ 0.01), which was reversed by stimulation of the peripheral (60.81 ± 1.96, P ≤ 0.01). Compared with control, acetylcholine chloride dose-dependently increased AFC and elevated Na,K-ATPase activity, and these increases were blocked or reversed by atropine. These effects were accompanied by recruitment of Na,K-ATPase α1 to the cell membrane. Thus, vagus nerves participate in alveolar epithelial fluid transport by releasing endogenous acetylcholine in the infusion-induced pulmonary edema mouse model. Effects of endogenous acetylcholine on AFC are likely mediated by Na,K-ATPase function through activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on alveolar epithelia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Na+/K+ ATPase regulates the expression and localization of acetylcholine receptors in a pump activity-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Motomichi; Iwasaki, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    Na+/K+ ATPase is a plasma membrane-localized sodium pump that maintains the ion gradients between the extracellular and intracellular environments, which in turn controls the cellular resting membrane potential. Recent evidence suggests that the pump is also localized at synapses and regulates synaptic efficacy. However, its precise function at the synapse is unknown. Here we show that two mutations in the α subunit of the eat-6 Na+/K+ ATPase in Caenorhabditis elegans dramatically increase the sensitivity to acetylcholine (Ach) agonists and alter the localization of nicotinic Ach receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). These defects can be rescued by mutated EAT-6 proteins which lack its pump activity, suggesting the presence of a novel function for Ach signaling. The Na+/K+ ATPase accumulates at postsynaptic sites and appears to surround Ach receptors to maintain rigid clusters at the NMJ. Our findings suggest a critical pump activity-independent, allele –specific role for Na+/K+ ATPase on postsynaptic organization and synaptic efficacy. PMID:18599311

  15. Ethylene Mediates Alkaline-Induced Rice Growth Inhibition by Negatively Regulating Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haifei; Zhang, Quan; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen

    2017-01-01

    pH is an important factor regulating plant growth. Here, we found that rice was better adapted to low pH than alkaline conditions, as its growth was severely inhibited at high pH, with shorter root length and an extreme biomass reduction. Under alkaline stress, the expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis enzymes in rice roots was strongly induced by high pH and exogenous ethylene precursor ACC and ethylene overproduction in etol1-1 mutant aggravated the alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of rice growth, especially for the root elongation with decreased cell length in root apical regions. Conversely, the ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag+) and ein2-1 mutants could partly alleviate the alkaline-induced root elongation inhibition. The H+-ATPase activity was extremely inhibited by alkaline stress and exogenous ACC. However, the H+-ATPase-mediated rhizosphere acidification was enhanced by exogenous Ag+, while H+ efflux on the root surface was extremely inhibited by exogenous ACC, suggesting that ethylene negatively regulated H+-ATPase activity under high-pH stress. Our results demonstrate that H+-ATPase is involved in ethylene-mediated inhibition of rice growth under alkaline stress. PMID:29114258

  16. Myosin Activator Omecamtiv Mecarbil Increases Myocardial Oxygen Consumption and Impairs Cardiac Efficiency Mediated by Resting Myosin ATPase Activity.

    PubMed

    Bakkehaug, Jens Petter; Kildal, Anders Benjamin; Engstad, Erik Torgersen; Boardman, Neoma; Næsheim, Torvind; Rønning, Leif; Aasum, Ellen; Larsen, Terje Steinar; Myrmel, Truls; How, Ole-Jakob

    2015-07-01

    Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a novel inotropic agent that prolongs systolic ejection time and increases ejection fraction through myosin ATPase activation. We hypothesized that a potentially favorable energetic effect of unloading the left ventricle, and thus reduction of wall stress, could be counteracted by the prolonged contraction time and ATP-consumption. Postischemic left ventricular dysfunction was created by repetitive left coronary occlusions in 7 pigs (7 healthy pigs also included). In both groups, systolic ejection time and ejection fraction increased after OM (0.75 mg/kg loading for 10 minutes, followed by 0.5 mg/kg/min continuous infusion). Cardiac efficiency was assessed by relating myocardial oxygen consumption to the cardiac work indices, stroke work, and pressure-volume area. To circumvent potential neurohumoral reflexes, cardiac efficiency was additionally assessed in ex vivo mouse hearts and isolated myocardial mitochondria. OM impaired cardiac efficiency; there was a 31% and 23% increase in unloaded myocardial oxygen consumption in healthy and postischemic pigs, respectively. Also, the oxygen cost of the contractile function was increased by 63% and 46% in healthy and postischemic pigs, respectively. The increased unloaded myocardial oxygen consumption was confirmed in OM-treated mouse hearts and explained by an increased basal metabolic rate. Adding the myosin ATPase inhibitor, 2,3-butanedione monoxide abolished all surplus myocardial oxygen consumption in the OM-treated hearts. Omecamtiv mecarbil, in a clinically relevant model, led to a significant myocardial oxygen wastage related to both the contractile and noncontractile function. This was mediated by that OM induces a continuous activation in resting myosin ATPase. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Different frequencies and effects of ABCB1 T3435C polymorphism on clinical and laboratory features of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Kurdish patients.

    PubMed

    Maroofi, Farzad; Amini, Sabrieh; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Bayazid; Abdi, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Finding the effects of gene polymorphism on cancer pathogenesis is very desirable. The ATP-binding cassette is involved in drug metabolism, and the polymorphism of this gene may be an important risk factor in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) or progression and/or response to chemotherapy agents. For the first time, the present study was aimed to evaluate the probable effects of ABCB1 T3435C polymorphism on clinical and laboratory features of Kurdish patients with B-CLL. This descriptive analytical case-control study was performed on 50 B-CLL patients and 100 healthy subjects. Serum levels of beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and blood WBC, RBC, Plt and ESR were measured. The T3435C polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene was determined by PCR-RFLP. Concentration of serum and blood markers was significantly higher in the malignant group than in the benign subjects. The CC genotype had the highest frequency (66%) in the patient groups. There are no significant differences between the genotypes and type of treatment. Our results demonstrate the high frequency of C allele of ABCB1 T3435C in B-CLL patients with Kurdish ethnicity. We also show that this polymorphism has a significant risk factor in B-CLL. However, the effect of this polymorphism on clinical and laboratory characteristics of B-CLL patients was not significant.

  18. Comparison of proton-specific ATPase activities in plume and root tissues of two co-occurring hydrocarbon seep tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi.

    PubMed

    Dattagupta, Sharmishtha; Redding, Meredith; Luley, Kathryn; Fisher, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi are co-occurring species of vestimentiferan tubeworms found at hydrocarbon seepage sites on the upper Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Like all vestimentiferans, they rely on internal sulfide-oxidizing symbiotic bacteria for nutrition. These symbionts produce hydrogen ions as a byproduct of sulfide oxidation, which the host tubeworm needs to eliminate to prevent acidosis. The hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila uses a high activity of P- and V-type H + -ATPases located in its plume epithelium to excrete protons. Unlike R. pachyptila , the seep species grow a posterior root, which they can use in addition to their plumes as a nutrient exchange surface. In this study we measured the ATPase activities of plume and root tissues collected from L. luymesi and S. jonesi , and used a combination of inhibitors to determine the relative activities of P- and V-type H + -ATPases. We found that the total H + -ATPase activity of their plumes was approximately 14 μmol h -1  g -1 wet weight, and that of their roots was between 5 and 7 μmol h -1  g -1 wet weight. These activities were more than ten times lower than those measured in R. pachyptila . We suggest that seep tubeworms might use passive channels to eliminate protons across their roots, in addition to ATP-dependant proton pumps located in their plumes and roots. In addition, we found strong differences between the types of ATPase activities in the plumes of L. luymesi and S. jonesi . While the H + -ATPase activity of L. luymesi plumes is dominated by P-type ATPases, S. jonesi has an unusually high activity of V-type H + -ATPases. We suggest that S. jonesi relies on its high V-type H + -ATPase activity to drive carbon dioxide uptake across its plume surface. L. luymesi , on the other hand, might rely partially on bicarbonate uptake across its root.

  19. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  20. Aldosterone stimulates vacuolar H+-ATPase activity in renal acid-secretory intercalated cells mainly via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Christian; Kampik, Nicole B.; Vedovelli, Luca; Rothenberger, Florina; Păunescu, Teodor G.; Stehberger, Paul A.; Brown, Dennis; John, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Urinary acidification in the collecting duct is mediated by the activity of H+-ATPases and is stimulated by various factors including angiotensin II and aldosterone. Classically, aldosterone effects are mediated via the mineralocorticoid receptor. Recently, we demonstrated a nongenomic stimulatory effect of aldosterone on H+-ATPase activity in acid-secretory intercalated cells of isolated mouse outer medullary collecting ducts (OMCD). Here we investigated the intracellular signaling cascade mediating this stimulatory effect. Aldosterone stimulated H+-ATPase activity in isolated mouse and human OMCDs. This effect was blocked by suramin, a general G protein inhibitor, and GP-2A, a specific Gαq inhibitor, whereas pertussis toxin was without effect. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U-73122, chelation of intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA, and blockade of protein kinase C prevented the stimulation of H+-ATPases. Stimulation of PKC by DOG mimicked the effect of aldosterone on H+-ATPase activity. Similarly, aldosterone and DOG induced a rapid translocation of H+-ATPases to the luminal side of OMCD cells in vivo. In addition, PD098059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation, blocked the aldosterone and DOG effects. Inhibition of PKA with H89 or KT2750 prevented and incubation with 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP mildly increased H+-ATPase activity. Thus, the nongenomic modulation of H+-ATPase activity in OMCD-intercalated cells by aldosterone involves several intracellular pathways and may be mediated by a Gαq protein-coupled receptor and PKC. PKA and cAMP appear to have a modulatory effect. The rapid nongenomic action of aldosterone may participate in the regulation of H+-ATPase activity and contribute to final urinary acidification. PMID:21832245

  1. Association of genotypes and haplotypes of multi-drug transporter genes ABCB1 and ABCG2 with clinical response to imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony; Aziz Baba, Abdul; Goh, Ai Sim; Wahid Fadilah, S Abdul; Teh, Alan; Rosline, Hassan; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2014-04-01

    The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has become a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. However, the high efficacy of IM has been hampered by the issue of clinical resistance that might due to pharmacogenetic variability. In the current study, the contribution of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 (T1236C, G2677T/A and C3435T) and two SNPs of ABCG2 (G34A and C421A) genes in mediating resistance and/or good response among 215 CML patients on IM therapy were investigated. Among these patients, the frequency distribution of ABCG2 421 CC, CA and AA genotypes were significantly different between IM good response and resistant groups (P=0.01). Resistance was significantly associated with patients who had homozygous ABCB1 1236 CC genotype with OR 2.79 (95%CI: 1.217-6.374, P=0.01). For ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism, a better complete cytogenetic remission was observed for patients with variant TT/AT/AA genotype, compared to other genotype groups (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.239-0.957, P=0.03). Haplotype analysis revealed that ABCB1 haplotypes (C1236G2677C3435) was statistically linked to higher risk to IM resistance (25.8% vs. 17.4%, P=0.04), while ABCG2 diplotype A34A421 was significantly correlated with IM good response (9.1% vs. 3.9%, P=0.03). In addition, genotypic variant in ABCG2 421C>A was associated with a major molecular response (MMR) (OR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.273-3.811, P=0.004), whereas ABCB1 2677G>T/A variant was associated with a significantly lower molecular response (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.248-0.974, P=0.04). However, there was no significant correlation of these SNPs with IM intolerance and IM induced hepatotoxicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of genotyping of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting IM response among CML patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Imaging of ABCB1 and ABCG2 Inhibition at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier Using Elacridar and 11C-Erlotinib PET.

    PubMed

    Verheijen, Remy B; Yaqub, Maqsood; Sawicki, Emilia; van Tellingen, Olaf; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R; Hendrikse, N Harry; Steeghs, Neeltje

    2018-06-01

    Transporters such as ABCB1 and ABCG2 limit the exposure of several anticancer drugs to the brain, leading to suboptimal treatment in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor elacridar on brain uptake using 11 C-erlotinib PET. Methods: Elacridar and cold erlotinib were administered orally to wild-type (WT) and Abcb1a/b;Abcg2 knockout mice. In addition, brain uptake was measured using 11 C-erlotinib imaging and ex vivo scintillation counting in knockout and WT mice. Six patients with advanced solid tumors underwent 11 C-erlotinib PET scans before and after a 1,000-mg dose of elacridar. 11 C-erlotinib brain uptake was quantified by pharmacokinetic modeling using volume of distribution (V T ) as the outcome parameter. In addition, 15 O-H 2 O scans to measure cerebral blood flow were acquired before each 11 C-erlotinib scan. Results: Brain uptake of 11 C-erlotinib was 2.6-fold higher in Abcb1a/b;Abcg2 knockout mice than in WT mice, measured as percentage injected dose per gram of tissue ( P = 0.01). In WT mice, the addition of elacridar (at systemic plasma concentrations of ≥200 ng/mL) resulted in an increased brain concentration of erlotinib, without affecting erlotinib plasma concentration. In patients, the V T of 11 C-erlotinib did not increase after intake of elacridar (0.213 ± 0.12 vs. 0.205 ± 0.07, P = 0.91). 15 O-H 2 O PET showed no significant changes in cerebral blood flow. Elacridar exposure in patients was 401 ± 154 ng/mL. No increase in V T with increased elacridar plasma exposure was found over the 271-619 ng/mL range. Conclusion: When Abcb1 and Abcg2 were disrupted in mice, brain uptake of 11 C-erlotinib increased both at a tracer dose and at a pharmacologic dose. In patients, brain uptake of 11 C-erlotinib was not higher after administration of elacridar. The more pronounced role that ABCG2 appears to play at the human blood-brain barrier and the lower potency of elacridar

  3. Changes in freezing tolerance, plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and fatty acid composition in Pinus resinosa needles during cold acclimation and de-acclimation.

    PubMed

    Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Kiviniemi, Sari; Palta, Jiwan P

    2006-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that plasma membrane ATPase (PM H+-ATPase, EC 3.6.1.3.) is a site of incipient freezing injury because activity increases following cold acclimation and there are published data indicating that activity of PM H+-ATPase is modulated by changes in lipids associated with the enzyme. To test and extend these findings in a tree species, we analyzed PM H+-ATPase activity and the fatty acid (FA) composition of glycerolipids in purified plasma membranes (PMs) prepared by the two-phase partition method from current-year needles of adult red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) trees. Freezing tolerance of the needles decreased from -56 degrees C in March to -9 degrees C in May, and increased from -15 degrees C in September to -148 degrees C in January. Specific activity of vanadate-sensitive PM H+-ATPase increased more than two-fold following cold acclimation, despite a concurrent increase in protein concentration. During de-acclimation, decreases in PM H+-ATPase activity and freezing tolerance were accompanied by decreases in the proportions of oleic (18:1) and linoleic (18:2) acids and increases in the proportions of palmitic (16:0) and linolenic (18:3) acids in total glycerolipids extracted from the plasma membrane fraction. This pattern of changes in PM H+-ATPase activity and the 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 fatty acids was reversed during cold acclimation. In the PM fractions, changes in FA unsaturation, expressed as the double bond index (1 x 18:1 + 2 x 18:2 + 3 x 18:3), were closely correlated with changes in H+-ATPase specific activity (r2 = 0.995). Changes in freezing tolerance were well correlated with DBI (r2 = 0.877) and ATPase specific activity (r2 = 0.833) in the PM fraction. Total ATPase activity in microsomal fractions also closely followed changes in freezing tolerance (r2 = 0.969). We conclude that, as in herbaceous plants, simultaneous seasonal changes in PM H+-ATPase activity and fatty acid composition occur during cold acclimation and de

  4. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Andrew, E-mail: a.p.crowe@curtin.edu.au; Tan, Ai May

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of onlymore » 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup −6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ► Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ► Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially

  5. Iron overload impact on P-ATPases.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Leilismara; Pessoa, Marco Tulio C; Costa, Tamara G F; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2018-03-01

    Iron is a chemical element that is active in the fundamental physiological processes for human life, but its burden can be toxic to the body, mainly because of the stimulation of membrane lipid peroxidation. For this reason, the action of iron on many ATPases has been studied, especially on P-ATPases, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase and the Ca 2+ -ATPase. On the Fe 2+ -ATPase activity, the free iron acts as an activator, decreasing the intracellular Fe 2+ and playing a protection role for the cell. On the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity, the iron overload decreases the enzyme activity, raising the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ and decreasing the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus Ca 2+ concentrations, which could promote an enzyme oxidation, nitration, and fragmentation. However, the iron overload effect on the Na + ,K + -ATPase may change according to the tissue expressions. On the renal cells, as well as on the brain and the heart, iron promotes an enzyme inactivation, whereas its effect on the erythrocytes seems to be the opposite, directly stimulating the ATPase activity, or stimulating it by signaling pathways involving ROS and PKC. Modulations in the ATPase activity may impair the ionic transportation, which is essential for cell viability maintenance, inducing irreversible damage to the cell homeostasis. Here, we will discuss about the iron overload effect on the P-ATPases, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase, the Ca 2+ -ATPase, and the Fe 2+ -ATPase.

  6. Decoupling catalytic activity from biological function of the ATPase that powers lipopolysaccharide transport

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, David J.; Lazarus, Michael B.; Murphy, Lea; Liu, Charles; Walker, Suzanne; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which provide a barrier against the entry of many antibiotics. LPS assembly involves a multiprotein LPS transport (Lpt) complex that spans from the cytoplasm to the outer membrane. In this complex, an unusual ATP-binding cassette transporter is thought to power the extraction of LPS from the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane and its transport across the cell envelope. We introduce changes into the nucleotide-binding domain, LptB, that inactivate transporter function in vivo. We characterize these residues using biochemical experiments combined with high-resolution crystal structures of LptB pre- and post-ATP hydrolysis and suggest a role for an active site residue in phosphate exit. We also identify a conserved residue that is not required for ATPase activity but is essential for interaction with the transmembrane components. Our studies establish the essentiality of ATP hydrolysis by LptB to power LPS transport in cells and suggest strategies to inhibit transporter function away from the LptB active site. PMID:24639492

  7. Optical study of active ion transport in lipid vesicles containing reconstituted Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Apell, H J; Marcus, M M; Anner, B M; Oetliker, H; Läuger, P

    1985-01-01

    A fluorescence method is described for the measurement of ATP-driven ion fluxes in lipid vesicles containing purified Na,K-ATPase. The membrane voltage of enzyme containing vesicles was measured by using a voltage-sensitive indocyanine dye. By addition of valinomycin the vesicle membrane is made selectively permeable to K+ so that the membrane voltage approaches the Nernst potential for K+. With constant external K+ concentration, the time course of internal K+ concentration can be continuously measured as change of the fluorescence signal after activation of the pump. The optical method has a higher time resolution than tracer-flux experiments and allows an accurate determination of initial flux rates. From the temperature dependence of active K+ transport its activation energy was determined to be 115 kJ/mol. ATP-stimulated electrogenic pumping can be measured as fast fluorescence change when the membrane conductance is low (i.e., at low or zero valinomycin concentration). In accordance with expectation, the amplitude of the fast signal change increases with decreasing passive ion permeability of the vesicle membrane. The resolution of the charge movement is so high that a few pump turnovers can be easily detected.

  8. Structure of the active form of human origin recognition complex and its ATPase motor module

    SciTech Connect

    Tocilj, Ante; On, Kin Fan; Yuan, Zuanning

    Binding of the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) to origins of replication marks the first step in the initiation of replication of the genome in all eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the structure of the active form of human ORC determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. The complex is composed of an ORC1/4/5 motor module lobe in an organization reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp loader complexes. A second lobe contains the ORC2/3 subunits. The complex is organized as a double-layered shallow corkscrew, with the AAA+ and AAA+-like domains forming one layer, and the winged-helix domains (WHDs) forming a topmore » layer. CDC6 fits easily between ORC1 and ORC2, completing the ring and the DNA-binding channel, forming an additional ATP hydrolysis site. Analysis of the ATPase activity of the complex provides a basis for understanding ORC activity as well as molecular defects observed in Meier-Gorlin Syndrome mutations.« less

  9. Structure of the active form of human origin recognition complex and its ATPase motor module

    PubMed Central

    Tocilj, Ante; On, Kin Fan; Yuan, Zuanning; Sun, Jingchuan; Elkayam, Elad; Li, Huilin; Stillman, Bruce; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2017-01-01

    Binding of the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) to origins of replication marks the first step in the initiation of replication of the genome in all eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the structure of the active form of human ORC determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. The complex is composed of an ORC1/4/5 motor module lobe in an organization reminiscent of the DNA polymerase clamp loader complexes. A second lobe contains the ORC2/3 subunits. The complex is organized as a double-layered shallow corkscrew, with the AAA+ and AAA+-like domains forming one layer, and the winged-helix domains (WHDs) forming a top layer. CDC6 fits easily between ORC1 and ORC2, completing the ring and the DNA-binding channel, forming an additional ATP hydrolysis site. Analysis of the ATPase activity of the complex provides a basis for understanding ORC activity as well as molecular defects observed in Meier-Gorlin Syndrome mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20818.001 PMID:28112645

  10. GammaM23K, gammaM232K, and gammaL77K single substitutions in the TF1-ATPase lower ATPase activity by disrupting a cluster of hydrophobic side chains.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay; Allison, William S

    2004-07-27

    In crystal structures of the bovine F(1)-ATPase (MF(1)), the side chains of gammaMet(23), gammaMet(232), and gammaLeu(77) interact in a cluster. Substitution of the corresponding residues in the alpha(3)beta(3)gamma subcomplex of TF(1) with lysine lowers the ATPase activity to 2.3, 11, and 15%, respectively, of that displayed by wild-type. In contrast, TF(1) subcomplexes containing the gammaM(23)C, gammaM(232)C, and gammaL(77)C substitutions display 36, 36, and 130%, respectively, of the wild-type ATPase activity. The ATPase activity of the gammaM(23)C/gammaM(232)C double mutant subcomplex is 36% that of the wild-type subcomplex before and after cross-linking the introduced cysteines, whereas the ATPase activity of the gammaM(23)C/L(77)C double mutant increased from 50 to 85% that of wild-type after cross-linking the introduced cysteines. Only beta-beta cross-links formed when the alpha(3)(betaE(395)C)(3)gammaM(23)C double mutant was inactivated with CuCl(2). The overall results suggest that the attenuated ATPase of the mutant subcomplexes containing the gammaM(23)K, gammaL(77)K, and gammaM(232)K substitutions is caused by disruption of the cluster of hydrophobic amino acid side chains and that the midregion of the coiled-coil comprised of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal alpha helices of the gamma subunit does not undergo unwinding or major displacement from the side chain of gammaLeu(77) during ATP-driven rotation of the gamma subunit.

  11. A comparison of the effects of substance P and shorter analogues on the synaptosomal ATPases activities in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, L; Janiszewska, G

    1987-01-01

    The influence in vitro of SP and C-terminal fragments of analogues SP(5-11) (pyroGlu5, Tyr8); SP(6-11) (pyroGlu6, Tyr8); SP(6-11) (pyroGlu6, D-Phe7); SP(6-11) (pyroGlu6, D-Phe8) on the (Ca, Mg) and (Na, K) ATPases activities from synaptosomal membranes of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rat brain were compared. The data obtained in this study indicate the following: 1. Substance P stimulates the activities of (Na, K) and (Ca, Mg) ATPases more effectively in synaptosomal membranes from hippocampus than cerebral cortex. 2. Heptapeptide SP(5-11) (pyroGlu5, Tyr8) causes a more distinct increase of (Ca, Mg) ATPase activity in cortical synaptosomal membranes than SP does. 3. The change of L-Phe conformation to D in position 7 in hexapeptide induces reduction of enzymes activities in hippocampus. 4. Especially important for the maintenance of biological activity of drugs is the replacement of Gln5 with pyroGlu6 and conformation of Phe residues. 5. SP and shorter analogues of fragments SP C-terminal SP regulate the active cation transport in synaptosomal membranes of cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

  12. ATP binding at noncatalytic sites of soluble chloroplast F1-ATPase is required for expression of the enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Y M; Ehler, L L; Boyer, P D

    1990-11-05

    The F1-ATPase from chloroplasts (CF1) lacks catalytic capacity for ATP hydrolysis if ATP is not bound at noncatalytic sites. CF1 heat activated in the presence of ADP, with less than one ADP and no ATP at non-catalytic sites, shows a pronounced lag in the onset of ATP hydrolysis after exposure to 5-20 microM ATP. The onset of activity correlates well with the binding of ATP at the last two of the three noncatalytic sites. The dependence of activity on the presence of ATP at non-catalytic sites is shown at relatively low or high free Mg2+ concentrations, with or without bicarbonate as an activating anion, and when the binding of ATP at noncatalytic sites is slowed 3-4-fold by sulfate. The latent CF1 activated by dithiothreitol also requires ATP at noncatalytic sites for ATPase activity. A similar requirement by other F1-ATPases and by ATP synthases seems plausible.

  13. Activation of proteolytic enzymes and depression of the sarcolemmal Na+/K+-ATPase in ischemia-reperfused heart may be mediated through oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raja B; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2012-02-01

    We tested whether the activation of proteolytic enzymes, calpain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is mediated through oxidative stress. For this purpose, isolated rat hearts were subjected to a 30 min global ischemia followed by a 30 min reperfusion. Cardiac function was monitored and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, calpain, and MMP were measured. Depression of cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in I/R hearts was associated with increased calpain and MMP activities. These alterations owing to I/R were similar to those observed in hearts perfused with hypoxic medium, H(2)O(2) and xanthine plus xanthine oxidase. The I/R-induced changes were attenuated by ischemic preconditioning as well as by perfusing the hearts with N-acetylcysteine or mercaptopropionylglycine. Inhibition of MMP activity in hearts treated with doxycycline depressed the I/R-induced changes in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity without affecting the calpain activation. On the other hand, inhibition of calpain activity upon treatment with leupeptin or MDL 28170 significantly reduced the MMP activity in addition to attenuating the I/R-induced alterations in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that the I/R-induced depression in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cardiac function may be a consequence of the increased activities of both calpain and MMP because of oxidative stress in the heart.

  14. ALUMINUM CHLORIDE EFFECT ON Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase ACTIVITY AND DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION.

    PubMed

    Nozdrenko, D M; Abramchuk, O M; Soroca, V M; Miroshnichenko, N S

    2015-01-01

    We studied enzymatic activity and measured strain-gauge contraction properties of the frog Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior muscle fascicles during the action of aluminum chloride solution. It was shown that AlCl3 solutions did not affect the dynamic properties of skeletal muscle preparation in concentrations less than 10(-4) M Increasing the concentration of AlCl3 to 10(-2) M induce complete inhibition of muscle contraction. A linear correlation between decrease in Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and the investigated concentrations range of aluminum chloride was observed. The reduction in the dynamic contraction performance and the decrease Ca2+,Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum under the effect of the investigated AlCl3 solution were minimal in pre-tetanus period of contraction.

  15. Cytochrome P450 and ABCB1 genetics: association with quetiapine and norquetiapine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations and with clinical response in patients suffering from schizophrenia. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nikisch, Georg; Baumann, Pierre; Oneda, Beatrice; Kiessling, Bernhard; Weisser, Heike; Mathé, Aleksander A; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Wiedemann, Georg; Eap, Chin B

    2011-07-01

    Variability in response to atypical antipsychotic drugs is due to genetic and environmental factors. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms are implicated in the metabolism of drugs, while the P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 gene, may influence both the blood and brain drug concentrations. This study aimed to identify the possible associations of CYP and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms with quetiapine and norquetiapine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations and with response to treatment. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia receiving 600 mg of quetiapine daily were genotyped for four CYP isoforms and ABCB1 polymorphisms. Quetiapine and norquetiapine peak plasma and CSF concentrations were measured after 4 weeks of treatment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ABCB1 3435C > T (rs1045642), 2677G > T (rs2032582) and 1236C > T (rs1128503) polymorphisms predicted plasma quetiapine concentrations, explaining 41% of the variability (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the ABCB1 polymorphisms predicted 48% (p = 0.024) of the variability of the Δ PANSS total score, with the non-carriers of the 3435TT showing higher changes in the score. These results suggest that ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms may be a predictive marker of quetiapine treatment in schizophrenia.

  16. Effects of Gangliosides on the Activity of the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; Bechtel, Misty D.; Bean, Jennifer L.; Winefield, Robert; Williams, Todd D.; Zaidi, Asma; Michaelis, Elias K.; Michaelis, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Control of intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) is essential for neuronal function, and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) is crucial for the maintenance of low [Ca2+]i. We previously reported on loss of PMCA activity in brain synaptic membranes during aging. Gangliosides are known to modulate Ca2+ homeostasis and signal transduction in neurons. In the present study, we observed age-related changes in the ganglioside composition of synaptic plasma membranes. This led us to hypothesize that alterations in ganglioside species might contribute to the age-associated loss of PMCA activity. To probe the relationship between changes in endogenous ganglioside content or composition and PMCA activity in membranes of cortical neurons, we induced depletion of gangliosides by treating neurons with D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP). This caused a marked decrease in the activity of PMCA, which suggested a direct correlation between ganglioside content and PMCA activity. Neurons treated with neuraminidase exhibited an increase in GM1 content, a loss in poly-sialoganglioside content, and a decrease in PMCA activity that was greater than that produced by D-PDMP treatment. Thus, it appeared that poly-sialogangliosides had a stimulatory effect whereas mono-sialogangliosides had the opposite effect. Our observations add support to previous reports of PMCA regulation by gangliosides by demonstrating that manipulations of endogenous ganglioside content and species affect the activity of PMCA in neuronal membranes. Furthermore, our studies suggest that age-associated loss in PMCA activity may result in part from changes in the lipid environment of this Ca2+ transporter. PMID:24434060

  17. The electrochemical-proton-gradient-activated states of F0F1 ATPase in plant mitochondria as revealed by detergents.

    PubMed

    Valerio, M; Diolez, P; Haraux, F

    1993-09-01

    ATP hydrolysis, triggered by the addition of polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether (Lubrol) or lauryldimethylamine oxide (LDAO) to energized plant mitochondria was studied in some details. The membrane disruption was quasi-instantaneous (2-3 s) with both detergents, as shown by the decrease of turbidity and the stopping of respiration. In pea leaf mitochondria, Lubrol triggered ATP hydrolysis in almost the same way as valinomycin plus nigericin, except that the activity was slightly stimulated and became insensitive to carboxyatractyloside. This allowed investigations of ATP hydrolysis without any interference of the ATP/ADP antiporter or the phosphate carrier. Lubrol did not prevent the ATPase from deactivating in pea leaf mitochondria, and did not trigger any ATP hydrolysis in potato tuber mitochondria. At variance with Lubrol, LDAO changed the properties of the F0F1 ATPase. It made the enzyme oligomycin insensitive and froze it in an activated state. The activity was also 5-8-times stimulated in pea leaf mitochondria. Moreover, LDAO revealed an important ATP hydrolase activity when added to energized potato tuber mitochondria. Despite the specific effect of LDAO, the activity triggered by this detergent strongly depended on the energized state of the organelles before detergent addition. From this study, it is concluded that the electrochemical proton gradient is completely necessary to activate the F0F1-ATPase in intact plant mitochondria, as known in chloroplasts and suggested by some reports in animal mitochondria. Moreover, it is suggested that the main difference between the enzymes of pea leaf and potato tuber mitochondria is their rate of deactivation after the collapse of the transmembrane electrochemical potential difference. Finally, when properly used, detergents appear to be a powerful tool to probe the state of the ATPase in intact mitochondria, and maybe in more integrated systems.

  18. Effect of Reduction of Redox Modifications of Cys-Residues in the Na,K-ATPase α1-Subunit on Its Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dergousova, Elena A.; Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Klimanova, Elizaveta A.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Lopina, Olga D.; Makarov, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal glutathionylation and other redox modifications of cysteine residues is not clear. The purpose of this study was to detect oxidized, nitrosylated, or glutathionylated cysteine residues in Na,K-ATPase, evaluate the possibility of removing these modifications and assess their influence on the enzyme activity. To this aim, we have detected such modifications in the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit purified from duck salt glands and tried to eliminate them by chemical reducing agents and the glutaredoxin1/glutathione reductase enzyme system. Detection of cysteine modifications was performed using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. We have found that purified Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit contains glutathionylated, nitrosylated, and oxidized cysteines. Chemical reducing agents partially eliminate these modifications that leads to the slight increase of the enzyme activity. Enzyme system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase, unlike chemical reducing agents, produces significant increase of the enzyme activity. At the same time, the enzyme system deglutathionylates native Na,K-ATPase to a lesser degree than chemical reducing agents. This suggests that the enzymatic reducing system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase specifically affects glutathionylation of the regulatory cysteine residues of Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit. PMID:28230807

  19. Osmoregulation and salt gland Na, K-ATPase activity following exposure to the anticholinesterase fenthion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salt gland function and osmoregulation in aquatic birds drinking hyperosmotic water has been suggested to be impaired by organophosphorus insecticides. To test this hypothesis, adult ducks (Anas rubripes) were provided various regimens of fresh or salt (1.5% NaCl) water (FW, SW) and mash containing vehicle or 21 ppm fenthion (Fn) on days 1-7 and 7-12 of this study. The 8 treatments (day 1-7:day 7-12) included :FW:FW, FW:FW+Fn, FW:SW, FW+Fn:SW, FW:SW+Fn, FW+Fn:SW+FN, SW;SW, and SW:5W+Fn. Ducks were bled by jugular venipuncture on days 1,7 and 12, and then sacrificed. Brain and salt gland acetylcholinesterase activities were substantially inhibited (44-52% and 14-26%) by Fn. However, plasma Na, Cl and osmolality, as indirect but cumulative indices of salt gland function, were uniformly elevated in all SW groups including those receiving Fn. In a second experiment, salt gland Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced after in vitro incubation with DDE (40 and 400 ?M; positive control), but was unaffected by Fn and its oxygen analog (0.04-400 ?M). The present findings suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides do not affect osmoregulatory function in adult ducks.

  20. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CALIX[4]ARENE C-99 INHIBITS MYOSIN ATPase ACTIVITY AND CHANGES THE ORGANIZATION OF CONTRACTILE FILAMENTS OF MYOMETRIUM.

    PubMed

    Labyntseva, R D; Bevza, A A; Lul'ko, A O; Cherenok, S O; Kalchenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2015-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes are cup-like macrocyclic (polyphenolic) compounds, they are regarded as promising molecular "platforms" for the design of new physiologically active compounds. We have earlier found that calix[4]arene C-99 inhibits the ATPase activity of actomyosin and myosin subfragment-1 of pig uterus in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of calix[4]arene C-99 with myosin from rat uterine myocytes. It was found that the ATPase activity of myosin prepared from pre-incubated with 100 mM of calix[4]arene C-99 myocytes was almost 50% lower than in control. Additionally, we have revealed the effect of calix[4]arene C-99 on the subcellular distribution of actin and myosin in uterus myocytes by the method of confocal microscopy. This effect can be caused by reorganization of the structure of the contractile smooth muscle cell proteins due to their interaction with calix[4]arene. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of calix[4]arene C-99 to penetrate into the uterus muscle cells and affect not only the myosin ATPase activity, but also the structure of the actin and myosin filaments in the myometrial cells. Demonstrated ability of calix[4]arene C-99 can be used for development of new pharmacological agents for efficient normalization of myometrial contractile hyperfunction.

  2. Changes in antioxidant status, protein concentration, acetylcholinesterase, (Na+,K+)-, and Mg2+ -ATPase activities in the brain of hyper- and hypothyroid adult rats.

    PubMed

    Carageorgiou, Haris; Pantos, Constantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Varonos, Dennis; Cokkinos, Dennis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2005-06-01

    It is a common knowledge that metabolic reactions increase in hyperthyroidism and decrease in hypothyroidism. The aim of this work was to investigate how the metabolic reactions could affect the total antioxidant status (TAS), protein concentration (PC) and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na+,K+)-ATPase and Mg2+ -ATPase in the brain of hyper- and hypothyroid adult male rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of thyroxine (25 microg/l00 g body weight) once daily for 14 days, while hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of propylthiouracil (0.05%) for 21 days. TAS, PC, and enzyme activities were evaluated spectrophotometrically in the homogenated brain of each animal. TAS, PC, and Mg2+ -ATPase activity were found unaffected in hyperthyroidism, while AChE and Na+,K+ -ATPase activities were reduced by 25% (p < 0.01). In contrast, TAS, (Na+,K+)-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities were found to be increased (approx. 23-30%, p < 0.001) in the hypothyroid brain, while AChE activity and PC were shown to be inhibited (approx. 23-30%, p < 0.001). These changes on brain enzyme activities may reflect the different metabolic effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Such changes of the enzyme activities may differentially modulate the brain intracellular Mg2+, neural excitability, as well as the uptake and release of biogenic amines.

  3. BOT-4-one attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation: NLRP3 alkylation leading to the regulation of its ATPase activity and ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Shim, Do-Wan; Shin, Woo-Young; Yu, Sang-Hyeun; Kim, Byung-Hak; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Koppula, Sushruta; Won, Hyung-Sik; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2017-11-08

    The ATPase activity of NLRP3 has pivotal role in inflammasome activation and is recognized as a good target for the development of the NLRP3 inflammasome-specific inhibitor. However, signals in the vicinity of the ATPase activity of NLRP3 have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate NLRP3 inflammasome-specific action of a benzoxathiole derivative, BOT-4-one. BOT-4-one exhibited an inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which was attributable to its alkylating capability to NLRP3. In particular, the NLRP3 alkylation by BOT-4-one led to an impaired ATPase activity of NLRP3, thereby obstructing the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, we found that NLRP3 alkylators, including BOT-4-one, enhance the ubiquitination level of NLRP3, which might also contribute to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, BOT-4-one appeared to be superior to other known NLRP3 alkylators in inhibiting the functionality of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its resulting anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed in vivo using a monosodium urate-induced peritonitis mouse model. Collectively, the results suggest that NLRP3 alkylators function by inhibiting ATPase activity and increasing the ubiquitination level of NLRP3, and BOT-4-one could be the type of NLRP3 inhibitor that may be potentially useful for the novel development of a therapeutic agent in controlling NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases.

  4. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor.

    PubMed

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates approximately 65 degrees . Simultaneous with this "recovery stroke," myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 A-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transition at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.

  5. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor

    SciTech Connect

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates {approx} 65{sup o}. Simultaneous with this 'recovery stroke', myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 {angstrom}-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transitionmore » at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.« less

  6. Non-Watson–Crick interactions between PNA and DNA inhibit the ATPase activity of bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Alan J.; Corey, David R.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA mimic in which the nucleobases are linked by an N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine backbone. Here we report that PNA can interact with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a non-sequence-specific fashion. We observed that a 15mer PNA inhibited the ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity of a bacteriophage T4 helicase, Dda. Surprisingly, when a fluorescein-labeled 15mer PNA was used in binding studies no interaction was observed between PNA and Dda. However, fluorescence polarization did reveal non-sequence-specific interactions between PNA and ssDNA. Thus, the inhibition of ATPase activity of Dda appears to result from depletion of the available ssDNA due to non-Watson–Crick binding of PNA to ssDNA. Inhibition of the ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity was observed for several PNAs of varying length and sequence. To study the basis for this phenomenon, we examined self-aggregation by PNAs. The 15mer PNA readily self-aggregates to the point of precipitation. Since PNAs are hydrophobic, they aggregate more than DNA or RNA, making the study of this phenomenon essential for understanding the properties of PNA. Non-sequence-specific interactions between PNA and ssDNA were observed at moderate concentrations of PNA, suggesting that such interactions should be considered for antisense and antigene applications. PMID:11842106

  7. Overproduction, purification, and ATPase activity of the Escherichia coli RuvB protein involved in DNA repair.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, H; Shiba, T; Makino, K; Nakata, A; Shinagawa, H

    1989-01-01

    The ruvA and ruvB genes of Escherichia coli constitute an operon which belongs to the SOS regulon. Genetic evidence suggests that the products of the ruv operon are involved in DNA repair and recombination. To begin biochemical characterization of these proteins, we developed a plasmid system that overproduced RuvB protein to 20% of total cell protein. Starting from the overproducing system, we purified RuvB protein. The purified RuvB protein behaved like a monomer in gel filtration chromatography and had an apparent relative molecular mass of 38 kilodaltons in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which agrees with the value predicted from the DNA sequence. The amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal region of the purified protein was analyzed, and the sequence agreed with the one deduced from the DNA sequence. Since the deduced sequence of RuvB protein contained the consensus sequence for ATP-binding proteins, we examined the ATP-binding and ATPase activities of the purified RuvB protein. RuvB protein had a stronger affinity to ADP than to ATP and weak ATPase activity. The results suggest that the weak ATPase activity of RuvB protein is at least partly due to end product inhibition by ADP. Images PMID:2529252

  8. Effect of polygodial and its direct derivatives on the mammalian Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Diogo Gomes; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; da Silva, Camila Ignácio; Kiss, Robert; Dasari, Ramesh; Chandra, Sunena; Kornienko, Alexander; Burth, Patricia

    2018-07-15

    The sesquiterpene polygodial is an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Our group recently reported the synthesis and anticancer effects of polygodial and its derivatives, and showed that these compounds retain activity against apoptosis- and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Herein, we tested the inhibitory effect of these compounds on the activity of the enzyme Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) from kidney (α 1 isoform) and brain (α 2 and α 3 isoforms) guinea pig extracts. Polygodial (1) displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of both kidney and brain purified NKA preparations, with higher sensitivity for the cerebral isoforms. Polygo-11,12-diol (2) and C11,C12-pyridazine derivative (3) proved to be poor inhibitors. Unsaturated ester (4) and 9-epipolygodial (5) inhibited NKA preparations from brain and kidney, with the same inhibitory potency. Nevertheless, they did not achieve maximum inhibition even at higher concentration. Comparing the inhibitory potency in crude homogenates and purified preparations of NKA, compounds 4 and 5 revealed a degree of selectivity toward the renal enzyme. Kinetic studies showed a non-competitive inhibition for Na + and K + by compounds 1, 4 and 5 and for ATP by 1 and 4. However, compound 5 presented a competitive inhibition type. Furthermore, K + -activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity of these purified preparations was not inhibited by 1, 4 and 5, suggesting that these compounds acted in the initial phase of the enzyme's catalytic cycle. These findings suggest that the antitumor action of polygodial and its analogues may be linked to their NKA inhibitory properties and reinforce that NKA may be an important target for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Preliminary study of gill NA+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon following electroshock or handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    We compared gill Na+,K+-ATPase in subyearling and yearling spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 3 h, 24 h, and 7 d after exposure to either a short pulsed DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8-ms pulse duration) or an acute handling stress. Mean gill Na+,K+-ATPase values ranged from 7.5 to 11.8 ??mol inorganic phosphate (Pi) ?? (mg protein)-1 ?? h-1. No significant differences were detected, with the exception of electroshocked subyearlings 7 d after treatment. Increased activity was attributed to the presence of two influential values. No significant differences were detected after removal of these observations, so the increase was not considered biologically significant. Inclusion of the outliers did not alter our interpretation of the results given that the observed increase was slight compared with the magnitude of changes reported under experimental conditions and in migrating juvenile salmonids. The treatment groups underwent a typical stress response and had significantly elevated cortisol and glucose levels 3 h after treatment. Recovery to control levels occurred within 24 h for cortisol and from 24 h to 7 d for glucose. Our results lead to the conclusion that neither acute electroshock nor acute handling stress alters Na+,K+-ATPase activity in juvenile spring chinook salmon.

  11. Thiourea modulates the expression and activity profile of mtATPase under salinity stress in seeds of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A. K.; Ramaswamy, N. K.; Mukopadhyaya, R.; Jincy, M. G. Chiramal; D'Souza, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Large areas of the globe are becoming saline due to evapotranspiration and poor irrigation practices, and sustainability of agriculture is being seriously affected. Thiourea (TU) has been identified as an effective bioregulator imparting stress tolerance to crops. The molecular mechanisms involved in the TU-mediated response are considered in this study. Methods Differential display was performed in order to identify TU-modulated transcripts in Brassica juncea seeds exposed to various treatments (distilled water; 1 m NaCl; 1 m NaCl + 500 p.p.m. TU). The differential regulation of these transcripts was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Key Results Thiourea treatment maintained the viability of seeds exposed to NaCl for 6 h. Expression analysis showed that the transcript level of alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits of mitochondrial ATPase (mtATPase) varied in seeds subjected to the different treatments for 1 h: expression level was significantly altered by 1 m NaCl relative to controls; however, in the NaCl + TU treatment it reverted back in an integrated manner. Similar results were obtained from time-kinetics studies of beta and delta subunits in roots of 8-d-old seedlings. These observations were also confirmed by the mtATPase activity from isolated mitochondria. The reversal in the expression and activity profile of mtATPase through the application of a bioregulator such as TU is a novel finding for any plant system. Conclusions The results suggest that TU treatment maintains the integrity and functioning of mitochondria in seeds as well as seedlings exposed to salinity. Thus, TU has the potential to be used as an effective bioregulator to impart salinity tolerance under field conditions, and might prove to be of high economic importance by opening new avenues for both basic and applied research. PMID:19033283

  12. CYP2E1 overexpression inhibits microsomal Ca2+-ATPase activity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Caro, Andres A; Evans, Kerry L; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2009-01-31

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a microsomal enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species during its catalytic cycle. We previously found an important role for calcium in CYP2E1-potentiated injury in HepG2 cells. The possibility that CYP2E1 may oxidatively damage and inactivate the microsomal Ca2+-ATPase in intact liver cells was evaluated, in order to explain why calcium is elevated during CYP2E1 toxicity. Microsomes were isolated by differential centrifugation from two liver cell line: E47 cells (HepG2 cells transfected with the pCI neo expression vector containing the human CYP2E1 cDNA, which overexpress active microsomal CYP2E1), and control C34 cells (HepG2 cells transfected with the pCI neo expression vector alone, which do not express significantly any cytochrome P450). The Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity was determined by measuring the accumulation of inorganic phosphate from ATP hydrolysis. CYP2E1 overexpression produced a 45% decrease in Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity (8.6 nmol Pi/min/mg protein in C34 microsomes versus 4.7 nmol Pi/min/mg protein in microsomes). Saturation curves with Ca2+ or ATP showed that CYP2E1 overexpression produced a decrease in Vmax but did not affect the Km for either Ca2+ or ATP. The decrease in activity was not associated with a decrease in SERCA protein levels. The ATP-dependent microsomal calcium uptake was evaluated by fluorimetry using fluo-3 as the fluorogenic probe. Calcium uptake rate in E47 microsomes was 28% lower than in C34 microsomes. Treatment of E47 cells with 2mM N-acetylcysteine prevented the decrease in microsomal Ca2+-ATPase found in E47 cells. These results suggest that CYP2E1 overexpression produces a decrease in microsomal Ca2+-ATPase activity in HepG2 cells mediated by reactive oxygen species. This may contribute to elevated cytosolic calcium and to CYP2E1-potentiated injury.

  13. On archaebacterial ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Hochstein, L.; Altekar, W.

    1984-01-01

    The energy transducing ATPase from Halobacterium saccharovorum was studied in order to define the origin of energy transducing systems. The ATPase required high salt concentration (4M NaCl) for activity; activity was rapidly lost when NaCl was below 1 Molar. At low salt concentration, the membrane bound ATPase activity could be stabilized in presence of spermine. However, following solubilization spermine was ineffective. Furthermore, F1 ATPase activity was stabilized by ammonium sulfate even when the NaCl concentration was less than 1 Molar. These studies suggest that stabilization by hydrophobic interactions preceded ionic ones in the evolution of the energy transducing ATPases.

  14. Influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and other factors on tacrolimus dosing in Caucasian liver and kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Provenzani, Alessio; Notarbartolo, Monica; Labbozzetta, Manuela; Poma, Paola; Vizzini, Giovanni; Salis, Paola; Caccamo, Chiara; Bertani, Tullio; Palazzo, Ugo; Polidori, Piera; Gridelli, Bruno; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2011-12-01

    Tacrolimus is a substrate of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) enzymes as well as of the drug transporter ABCB1. We have investigated the possible influence of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other factors (e.g. albumin, hematocrit and steroids) on tacrolimus blood levels achieved in a population of Caucasian liver (n=51) and kidney (n=50) transplant recipients. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation, tacrolimus doses (mg/kg/day) and trough blood levels (C0) were recorded and the weight-adjusted tacrolimus dosage (mg/kg/day) was calculated. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for genotyping CYP3A5*1 and *3 [6986A>G] as well as ABCB1 at exons 21 [2677G>T/A] and 26 [3435C>T] in both liver transplant donors and recipients and in kidney transplant recipients. Of the 152 subjects studied, 84.9% showed a CYP3A5*3/*3 genotype. The total frequency of the allelic variant *3 was 93%. For the G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms the total frequencies of the allelic variants T/A and T were 44.7 and 46.7%, respectively. At 1, 3 and 6 months after transplantation the dose-adjusted C0 levels were significantly lower in patients with one copy of the *1 allele compared to those homozygous for the *3 allele. In the case of liver transplant patients the tacrolimus dose requirements were dominantly influenced by the polymorphisms of the CYP3A5 gene in the donors. With regard to the ABCB1 SNPs, in general they did not show any appreciable influence on tacrolimus dosing requirements; however, kidney transplant recipients carrying the 2677T/A allele required significantly higher daily tacrolimus doses than subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele. Identification of CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus in the patients.

  15. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (Activation of Host-Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Elicitor-Induced Enzyme Dephosphorylation).

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Barkla, B. J.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from race 4 of Cladosporium fulvum and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells near isogenic for the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate events following the treatment of host plasma membranes with elicitor. A 4-fold increase in H+-ATPase activity, coincident with the acidification of the extracellular medium, was detected immediately after elicitor treatment. The elicitor-induced stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was inhibited by okadaic acid but not by staurosporine, suggesting that protein dephosphorylation was required for increased H+-ATPase activity. This observation was confirmed by [gamma]-32P labeling and immunodetection of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the ATPase activity suggested the role of GTP-binding proteins in mediating the putative elicitor-receptor binding, resulting in activation of a phosphatase(s), which in turn stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by dephosphorylation. PMID:12232073

  16. Antagonistic actions of renal dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine: increase in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal proximal tubules via activation of 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-da-Silva, P.; Pinto-do-O, P. C.; Bertorello, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is antinatriuretic. Since this effect of 5-HT is not accomplished by changes in glomerular haemodynamics, we have examined in this study whether 5-HT may influence sodium excretion by affecting the Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal cortical tubules. 2. Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity was determined as the rate of [32P]-ATP hydrolysis in renal cortical tubules in suspension. Basal Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal tubules was 4.8 +/- 0.4 mumol Pi mg-1 protein h-1 (n = 8). The 5-HT1A receptor agonist, (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) (10 to 3000 nM) induced a concentration-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity with an EC50 value of 355 nM (95% confidence limits: 178, 708). Maximal stimulation elicited by 3000 nM of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (+)-WAY 100135 10 to 1000 nM) with an IC50 value of 20 nM (14, 29); 0.3 microM (+)-WAY 100135 completely abolished (P < 0.01) the stimulatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT. The stimulatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT was found to be time-dependent (15 +/- 2% and 66 +/- 7% increase at 2.5 and 5.0 min, respectively). The 5-HT2 receptor agonist alpha-methyl-5-HT (100 to 3000 nM) did not induce any significant changes in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity (5.0 +/- 1.5 mumol Pi mg-1 protein h-1; n = 4). 3. The stimulatory effect 8-OH-DPAT was absent when homogenates were used. Stimulation occurred at a Vmax concentration (70 mM) of sodium supporting the notion that stimulation occurs independently of increasing sodium permeability. 4. The inhibitory effect of dopamine (P < 0.05) on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity was blunted by co-incubation with 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 microM). 5. It is concluded that activation of 5-HT1A receptors increases Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal cortical tubules; this effect may represent an important cellular mechanism, at the tubule level, responsible for the antinatriuretic effect of 5-HT. Images Figure 4 PMID:8882616

  17. Tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) differently inhibit the mitochondrial Mg-ATPase activity in mussel digestive gland.

    PubMed

    Nesci, Salvatore; Ventrella, Vittoria; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio; Borgatti, Anna Rosa; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2011-02-01

    Tri-n-butyltin (TBT) has long been considered as the most toxic among organotins, especially to membrane systems. The partially dealkylated derivative di-n-butyltin (DBT) has up to now received poor attention and, whenever considered, shown to be less toxic than TBT except on the immune system. The present kinetic approach evidences that both TBT and DBT in vitro inhibit the Mg-ATPase in mussel digestive gland mitochondria by a different mechanism. DBT even displays a higher efficiency than TBT (IC(50)=0.32 μM for TBT vs. 0.19 μM for DBT) in inhibiting the enzyme hydrolytic activity. Differently from TBT which at high concentrations (>1 μM) apparently decreases the oligomycin-sensitivity of the Mg-ATPase, DBT at any concentration tested does not affect the oligomycin sensitivity. TBT probably binds to F(0), either in the form of free enzyme or of enzyme-substrate complex (Ki=K'i), acting as non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the ATP substrate. Conversely DBT, which acts as uncompetitive inhibitor of ATP and as competitive inhibitor of Mg(2+) cofactor, may bind strongly to F(1) subunit, thus preventing ATP hydrolysis. The Mg-ATPase inhibition by both organotins warns against a potential threat to crucial cell energy metabolism processes even after years from contamination and partial TBT debutylation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cellular Location and Expression of Na+, K+-ATPase α Subunits Affect the Anti-Proliferative Activity of Oleandrin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peiying; Cartwright, Carrie; Efuet, Ekem; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan; Menter, David; Addington, Crandell; Shureiqi, Imad; Newman, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intracellular distribution of Na+, K+-ATPase α3 subunit, a receptor for cardiac glycosides including oleandrin, is differentially altered in cancer versus normal cells and whether this altered distribution can be therapeutically targeted to inhibit cancer cell survival. The cellular distribution of Na+, K+-ATPase α3 isoform was investigated in paired normal and cancerous mucosa biopsy samples from patients with lung and colorectal cancers by immunohistochemical staining. The effects of oleandrin on α3 subunit intracellular distribution, cell death, proliferation, and EKR phosphorylation were examined in differentiated and undifferentiated human colon cancer CaCO-2 cells. While Na+, K+-ATPase α3 isoform was predominantly located near the cytoplasmic membrane in normal human colon and lung epithelia, the expression of this subunit in their paired cancer epithelia was shifted to a peri-nuclear position in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. Similarly, distribution of α3 isoform was also shifted from a cytoplasmic membrane location in differentiated human colon cancer CaCO-2 cells to a peri-nuclear position in undifferentiated CaCO-2 cells. Intriguingly, oleandrin exerted threefold stronger anti-proliferative activity in undifferentiated CaCO-2 cells (IC50, 8.25 nM) than in differentiated CaCO-2 cells (IC50, >25 nM). Oleandrin (10 to 20 nM) caused an autophagic cell death and altered ERK phosphorylation in undifferentiated but not in differentiated CaCO-2 cells. These data demonstrate that the intracellular location of Na+, K+-ATPase α3 isoform is altered in human cancer versus normal cells. These changes in α3 cellular location and abundance may indicate a potential target of opportunity for cancer therapy. PMID:23073998

  19. Two ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alan E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on research on two ATPases. The first is F1F0-ATPase, also known as ATP synthase. It is the terminal enzyme in oxidative phosphorylation and famous as a nanomotor. Early work on mitochondrial enzyme involved purification in large amount, followed by deduction of subunit composition and stoichiometry and determination of molecular sizes of holoenzyme and individual subunits. Later work on Escherichia coli enzyme utilized mutagenesis and optical probes to reveal the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and detailed facets of catalysis. The second ATPase is P-glycoprotein, which confers multidrug resistance, notably to anticancer drugs, in mammalian cells. Purification of the protein in large quantity allowed detailed characterization of catalysis, formulation of an alternating sites mechanism, and recently, advances in structural characterization. PMID:22822068

  20. The role of the myosin ATPase activity in adaptive thermogenesis by skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Roger

    2011-03-01

    Resting skeletal muscle is a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis, i.e., the thermogenesis that changes in response to exposure to cold or to overfeeding. The identification of the "furnace" that is responsible for increased heat generation in resting muscle has been the subject of a number of investigations. A new state of myosin, the super relaxed state (SRX), with a very slow ATP turnover rate has recently been observed in skeletal muscle (Stewart et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:430-435, 2010). Inhibition of the myosin ATPase activity in the SRX was suggested to be caused by binding of the myosin head to the core of the thick filament in a structural motif identified earlier by electron microscopy. To be compatible with the basal metabolic rate observed in vivo for resting muscle, most myosin heads would have to be in the SRX. Modulation of the population of this state, relative to the normal relaxed state, was proposed to be a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis in resting muscle. Transfer of only 20% of myosin heads from the SRX into the normal relaxed state would cause muscle thermogenesis to double. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain was shown to transfer myosin heads from the SRX into the relaxed state, which would increase thermogenesis. In particular, thermogenesis by myosin has been proposed to play a role in the dissipation of calories during overfeeding. Up-regulation of muscle thermogenesis by pharmaceuticals that target the SRX would provide new approaches to the treatment of obesity or high blood sugar levels.

  1. Cell cycle-related fluctuations in transcellular ionic currents and plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity during early cleavages of Lymnaea stagnalis embryos.

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Dohmen, René

    1991-08-01

    During the first four mitotic division cycles of Lymnaea stagnalis embryos, we have detected cell cycle-dependent changes in the pattern of transcellular ionic currents and membrane-bound Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase activity. Ionic currents ranging from 0.05 to 2.50 μA/cm 2 have been measured using the vibrating probe technique. Enzyme activity was detected using Ando's cytochemical method (Ando et al. 1981) which reveals Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localization at the ultrastructural level, and under high-stringency conditions with respect to calcium availability, it reveals Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase. The ionic currents and Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase localization have in common that important changes occur during the M-phase of the cell cycles. Minimal outward current at the vegetal pole coincides with metaphase/anaphase. Maximal inward current at the animal pole coincides with the onset of cytokinesis at that pole. Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase is absent from one half of the embryo at metaphase/anaphase of the two- and four-cell stage, whereas it is present in all cells during the remaining part of the cell cycle. Since fluctuations of cytosolic free calcium concentrations appear to correlate with both karyokinesis and cytokinesis, we speculate that part of the cyclic pattern of Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase localization and of the transcellular ionic currents reflects the elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration during the M-phase.

  2. A mutation within the extended X loop abolished substrate-induced ATPase activity of the human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MDR3.

    PubMed

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-02-20

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. A Mutation within the Extended X Loop Abolished Substrate-induced ATPase Activity of the Human Liver ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter MDR3*

    PubMed Central

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. PMID:25533467

  4. A marked animal-vegetal polarity in the localization of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity and its down-regulation following progesterone-induced maturation.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Basant Kumar; Gupta, Brij L

    2012-02-01

    The stage-VI Xenopus oocyte has a very distinct animal-vegetal polarity with structural and functional asymmetry. In this study, we show the expression and distribution pattern of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase in stage-VI oocytes, and its changes following progesterone-induced maturation. Using enzyme-specific electron microscopy phosphatase histochemistry, [(3) H]-ouabain autoradiography, and immunofluorescence cytochemistry at light microscopic level, we find that Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity is mainly confined to the animal hemisphere. Electron microscopy histochemical results also suggest that polarized distribution of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity persists following progesterone-induced maturation, and it becomes gradually more polarized towards the animal pole. The time course following progesterone-induced maturation suggests that there is an initial up-regulation and then gradual down-regulation of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity leading to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). By GVBD, the Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity is completely down-regulated due to endocytotic removal of pump molecules from the plasma membrane into the sub-cortical region of the oocyte. This study provides the first direct evidence for a marked asymmetric localization of Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity in any vertebrate oocyte. Here, we propose that such asymmetry in Na(+),K(+) -ATPase activity in stage-VI oocytes, and their down-regulation following progesterone-induced maturation, is likely to have a role in the active state of the germinal vesicle in stage-VI oocytes and chromosomal condensation after GVBD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A new fluorescent dye accumulation assay for parallel measurements of the ABCG2, ABCB1 and ABCC1 multidrug transporter functions.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Edit; Türk, Dóra; Telbisz, Ágnes; Kucsma, Nóra; Horváth, Tamás; Szakács, Gergely; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs; Várady, György

    2018-01-01

    ABC multidrug transporters are key players in cancer multidrug resistance and in general xenobiotic elimination, thus their functional assays provide important tools for research and diagnostic applications. In this study we have examined the potential interactions of three key human ABC multidrug transporters with PhenGreen diacetate (PGD), a cell permeable fluorescent metal ion indicator. The non-fluorescent, hydrophobic PGD rapidly enters the cells and, after cleavage by cellular esterases, in the absence of quenching metal ions, PhenGreen (PG) becomes highly fluorescent. We found that in cells expressing functional ABCG2, ABCB1, or ABCC1 transporters, cellular PG fluorescence is strongly reduced. This fluorescence signal in the presence of specific transporter inhibitors is increased to the fluorescence levels in the control cells. Thus the PG accumulation assay is a new, unique tool for the parallel determination of the function of the ABCG2, ABCB1, and ABCC1 multidrug transporters. Since PG has very low cellular toxicity, the PG accumulation assay also allows the selection, separation and culturing of selected cell populations expressing either of these transporters.

  6. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Arnaldo, Francis B.; Villar, Van Anthony M.; Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Owens, Shaun A.; Asico, Laureano D.; Jones, John E.; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L.; Armando, Ines; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na+-K+-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na+-K+-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na+-K+-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na+-K+-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na+-K+-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. PMID:25080496

  7. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The ginseng's fireness is associated with the lowering activity of liver Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Dou, Deqiang

    2016-08-22

    Ginseng is an herbal medicine used worldwide that possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, its side effects are rarely discussed. The experience of Chinese medicine has revealed that taking ginseng at a high dose chronically can cause fireness, i.e., the ginseng-abuse syndrome. Here, we explored the mechanism of ginseng's fireness by comparing the energy metabolism of mice affected by red ginseng (RG), ginseng (GS), ginseng leaves (GL) and American ginseng (AG), which exhibit different drug properties according to the theory of TCM. KM mice were randomly divided into five groups (n≥30 per group) and administered distilled water or drugs, respectively. Mice receiving RG, GS, or GL received 4.5g/(kgday), while the mice receiving AG received 3g/(kgday). Control mice received distilled water. The duration of exposure for all groups was 31 days. The mice's physical characteristics, such as eye condition, rectal temperature, saliva secretion, urine, stool weight, blood coagulation time and swimming time, were measured at different times after administration. Energy metabolism indexes were measured via TSE phenoMaster/LabMaster animal monitoring system, including the mice' 24h oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), heat production (H) and energy expenditure (EE). Biochemical indices were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometer and microplate reader, including pyruvic acid content in serum and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and the content of glycogen in the liver tissue. After 31 days of drug administration, mice in the RG and GS groups exhibited obviously more eye secretions, less saliva secretion and less urine. Compared with the control group, the swimming times of mice in the GS, AG and GL groups were significantly prolonged; the clotting time of mice in the GL was extended significantly; VCO2, H and EE of mice in the GS group were obviously

  9. Structural Insights into the Unusually Strong ATPase Activity of the AAA Domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans Fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function. PMID:23979136

  10. Structural insights into the unusually strong ATPase activity of the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) protein.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-10-11

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function.

  11. NO levels in diabetes mellitus: Effects of l-NAME and insulin on LCAT, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Neslihan; Akyüz, Fahrettin; Temel, Halide Edip

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease and one of the most important health problems. Several factors may be responsible for the complications of diabetes mellitus including alterations in the activities of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and also levels of nitric oxide (NO). We have investigated the effects of alterations in serum NO levels on activities of erythrocyte membran Na/K ATPase and serum LCAT enzymes. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: group 1, control (standart diet); group 2, diabetic control (single dose of 65mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p); group 3, STZ+insulin (8IU/kg/day s.c.); group 4 (STZ+l-NAME 5mg/kg/day orally). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, showed a significant increase in blood glucose and serum cholesterol (C) and triglyceride (TG). Compared to the control group with diabetic group plasma LCAT concentrations and erythrocyte membrane Na(+)/K(+) ATPase were found to be decreased. Activities of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and serum NO level were decreased with the administration of l-NAME. We observed that insulin was ameliorated in all parameters. Serum NO levels is related to erythrocyte membrane Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. But serum NO levels did not affect the plasma LCAT activity and serum lipid profiles. Copyright © 2010 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Leone, Francisco A; Bezerra, Thais M S; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Fontes, Carlos F L; McNamara, John C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+) plus NH4 (+) of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+) and NH4 (+) binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+) and NH4 (+) of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+) during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  13. Modulation By K+ Plus NH4 + of Microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase Activity in Selected Ontogenetic Stages of the Diadromous River Shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Francisco A.; Bezerra, Thais M. S.; Garçon, Daniela P.; Lucena, Malson N.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Fontes, Carlos F. L.; McNamara, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K+ plus NH4 + of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K+ and NH4 + binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na+, K+)-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K+ and NH4 + of gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 + during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum. PMID:24586919

  14. First Analysis of the Association Between CYP3A4/5, ABCB1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Oxcarbazepine Metabolism and Transport in Chinese Epileptic Patients with Oxcarbazepine Monotherapy and Bitherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Yin, Tao; Ma, Hong-ying; Liu, Dan-Qi; Sheng, Yangh-ao; Zhou, Bo-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is widely used in anti-epileptic treatment. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), cytochrome P450 3A5(CYP3A5), and ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) are potential genes involved in OXC metabolisms and transport in vivo. This study aims to examine the genetic effects of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 on OXC metabolism and transport in Chinese epileptic patients using OXC as monotherapy and bitherapy with lamotrigine (LTG), levetiracetam (LEV), or valproic acid (VPA). Sixty-six Chinese epileptic patients were recruited from Xiangya Hospital Central South University, of whom 40 patients were receiving OXC monotherapy, 11 patients were placed in the OXC bitherapy group combined with one enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (LTG or LEV), and 15 patients were placed in the OXC bitherapy group combined with VPA. Oxcarbazepine and its main metabolite 10-hydrocarbazepine (MHD) plasma concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. In addition, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-improved multiple ligase detection reaction (PCR-iMLDR). In the OXC+VPA group, ABCB1 rs2032582 and rs2032582-rs10234411-rs1045642 TAG haplotype were associated with MHD and MHD+OXC plasma concentration before permutation test. In OXC monotherapy and OXC+ LTG/LEV groups, no significant association between genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4/5, ABCB1 gene and OXC plasma concentration parameters were observed. CYP3A4/5 and ABCB1 genetic variants might not take part in the metabolism and transport of MHD and OXC among epileptic patients using OXC monotherapy and bitherapy in combination with LEV, LTG or VPA.

  15. Effect of detergents on the H(+)-ATPase activity of inside-out and right-side-out plant plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, M G; Sommarin, M; Ulvskov, P; Larsson, C

    1990-01-29

    In search for a detergent to be used to assess the sidedness of plant plasma membrane vesicles by enzyme latency we tested the effect of 42 detergents on the ATPase activity of right-side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles from sugar beet leaves. Most of the detergents seemed to inactivate the ATPase in addition to disrupting the permeability barrier to ATP. There were two main exceptions, namely long chain polyoxyethylene acyl ethers, such as detergents of the Brij series and Lubrol WX, and long chain lysophospholipids. These two types of detergents permeabilized the membranes at low concentrations and did not inhibit the ATPase at higher concentrations. Unmasking of latent active sites seemed to explain the activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase produced by long chain polyoxyethylene acyl ethers. These detergents should therefore be ideal for determination of vesicle orientation based on ATPase latency. By contrast, long chain lysophospholipids were found to be highly specific activators of the enzyme. In addition, long chain fatty acids were found to strongly inhibit ATP-dependent proton accumulation in the vesicles without inhibiting ATP hydrolysis. This uncoupling effect of the fatty acids could be abolished by the addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA). Similarly, the proton transport capacity of ageing vesicles could be restored by addition of BSA. The latter findings may explain why isolated plasma membranes so often exhibit increased permeability to protons on ageing.

  16. [Protective effects of luteolin on neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury via improving Na+/K+ -ATPase activity].

    PubMed

    Fang, Lumei; Zhang, Mingming; Ding, Yuemin; Fang, Yuting; Yao, Chunlei; Zhang, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Luteolin, a flavone, has considerable neuroprotective effects by its anti-oxidative mechanism. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced injury. After 2 hours oxygen-glucose deprivation and 24 hours reperfusion treatment in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, the neuron viability, survival rate and apoptosis rate were evaluated by MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. The activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was examined in cultured neurons or in the hippocampus of SD rats treated by 10 minutes global cerebral ischemia and followed 24 hours reperfusion. Treatment by OGD/R markedly reduced neuronal viability, increased LDH leakage rate and increased apoptosis rate. Application of luteolin (10-100 micromol x L(-1)) during OGD inhibited OGD/R induced neuron injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control group or OGP/R-treated neurons, the activity of Na+/K+ -ATPase was significantly suppressed in global ischemia/reperfusion group or OGD/R-treated neurons. Application of luteolin during ischemia or OGD preserved the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of Na+/K+ -ATPase with ouabain attenuated the protective effect afforded by luteolin. The data provide the evidence that luteolin has neuroprotective effect against OGD/R induced injury and the protective effect may be associated with its ability to improve Na+/K+ -ATPase activity after OGD/R.

  17. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    PubMed

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  18. Altered erythrocyte sodium-lithium counter-transport and Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Luczay, A; Vásárhelyi, B; Dobos, M; Holics, K; Ujhelyi, R; Tulassay, T

    1997-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit normal concentrations of sodium and chloride in spite of the disturbance of Cl- and Na+ transport in epithelial cells. To characterize compensatory mechanisms in the regulation of sodium homeostasis, erythrocytes of 13 CF patients were analysed for sodium-lithium counter-transport (SLC), Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity and intracellular sodium content. Values were compared to those of healthy controls. Patients with CF had normal serum sodium and chloride concentrations and renal excretions of these ions were within the physiological range. Intracellular sodium concentration was similar in the CF and the control group (6.8 +/- 2.2 vs 5.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l RBCs). Red blood cells' SLC and Na+/ K(+)-ATPase activity were elevated in CF patients (381 +/- 106 mumol/h/l RBCs vs 281 +/- 64; p < 0.01) and (445 +/- 129 mumol ATP mg prot/h vs 322 +/- 84, p < 0.01). Our study demonstrates that transmembrane cation transport systems are highly activated in CF. The increased sodium transport may be part of a compensatory mechanism of sodium homeostasis in children with CF.

  19. Selective inhibition of ATPase activity during contraction alters the activation of p38 MAP kinase isoforms in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Jeffrey J.; Pizzimenti, Natalie M.; Dentel, John N.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle contractions strongly activate p38 MAP kinases, but the precise contraction-associated sarcoplasmic event(s) (e.g. force production, energetic demands and/or calcium cycling) that activate these kinases are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that during contraction the phosphorylation of p38 isoforms is sensitive to the increase in ATP demand relative to ATP supply. Energetic demands were inhibited using N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS, type II actomyosin) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, SERCA). Extensor digitorum longus muscles from Swiss Webster mice were incubated in Ringer’s solution (37°C) with or without inhibitors and then stimulated at 10 Hz for 15 min. Muscles were immediately freeze-clamped for metabolite and western blot analysis. BTS and BTS+CPA treatment decreased force production by 85%, as measured by the tension time integral, while CPA alone potentiated force by 310%. In control muscles, contractions resulted in a 73% loss of ATP content and a concomitant 7-fold increase in IMP content, a measure of sustained energetic imbalance. BTS or CPA treatment lessened the loss of ATP, but BTS+CPA treatment completely eliminated the energetic imbalance since ATP and IMP levels were nearly equal to those of non-stimulated muscles. The independent inhibition of cytosolic ATPase activities had no effect on contraction-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but combined treatment prevented the increase in phosphorylation of the γ isoform while the α/βisoforms unaffected. These observations suggest that an energetic signal may trigger phosphorylation of the p38γ isoform while other factors are involved in activating the α/β isoforms, and also may explain how contractions differentially activate signaling pathways. PMID:23296747

  20. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  1. Neurological toxicity after phenytoin infusion in a pediatric patient with epilepsy: influence of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Dorado, P; López-Torres, E; Peñas-Lledó, E M; Martínez-Antón, J; Llerena, A

    2013-08-01

    Pharmacogenetic studies have shown that genetic defects in drug-metabolizing enzymes encoded by CYP2C9, CYP2C19 genes and by the transporter ABCB1 gene can influence phenytoin (PTH) plasma levels and toxicity. The patient reported here is a 2-year-old girl with a medical history of cryptogenic (probably symptomatic) epilepsy, who had her first focal seizure with secondary generalization at 13 months of age. She initially received oral valproate treatment and three months later, she was prescribed an oral oxcarbazepine treatment. At 20 months of age, she was admitted to the Emergency Department because of generalized convulsive Status Epilepticus needing to be immediately treated with rectal diazepam (0.5 mg kg(-1)), intravenous diazepam (0.3 mg kg(-1)), and intravenous phenytoin with an initial-loading dose of 15 mg kg(-1). However, two hours after the initial-loading dose of PTH, the patient developed dizziness, nystagmus, ataxia and excessive sedation. Other potential causes of PTH toxicity were excluded such as drug interactions, decreased albumin or lab error. Therefore, to explain the neurological toxicity, PTH plasma levels and CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms were analyzed. Initial plasma PTH levels were higher than expected (69 mg l(-1); normal range: 10-20 mg l(-1)), and the patient was homozygous for the CYP2C9*2 allele, heterozygous for the CYP2C19*4 allele and homozygous for the 3435C and 1236C ABCB1 alleles. Present findings support the previously established relationship between CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and the increased risk to develop PTH toxicity owing to high plasma concentrations. Nevertheless, although the association of these genes with PTH-induced adverse effects has been well-documented in adult populations, this is the first report examining the influence of these genetic polymorphisms on PTH plasma levels and toxicity in a pediatric patient.

  2. ABCB1-Gen-Polymorphismus in einer polnischen Kohorte ist mit Risiko für bullöses Pemphigoid assoziiert.

    PubMed

    Rychlik-Sych, Mariola; Barańska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Michał; Skrętkowicz, Jadwiga; Żebrowska, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Jacek; Waszczykowska, Elżbieta

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphismen im ABCB1-Gen, das für das P-Glykoprotein kodiert, können die intrazelluläre Konzentration von Xenobiotika beeinflussen und so zur Entwicklung von Autoimmunerkrankungen, einschließlich des bullösen Pemphigoids (BP), beitragen. In der vorliegenden Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob in einer polnischen Kohorte die C3435T- und G2677T/A-Polymorphismen im ABCB1-Gen mit dem Risiko für ein BP assoziiert sind. Die Studie umfasste 71 Patienten mit BP und 156 gesunde Probanden. Der C3435T-Polymorphismus wurde mittels PCR-RFLP bestimmt und der G2677T/A-Polymorphismus mittels Allel-spezifischer PCR. Es gab zwar keine Korrelation zwischen dem C3435-Polymorphismus und dem BP-Risiko, aber wir konnten eine derartige Assoziation hinsichtlich des G2677T/A-Polymorphismus nachweisen. Das relative Risiko eines BP war bei Personen mit dem 2677TA-Genotyp um mehr als den Faktor fünf erhöht (OR = 5,52; p = 0,0063) und bei Trägern des 2677TT-Genotyps mehr als verdoppelt (OR = 2,40; p = 0,0076). Mit 2,40 (p = 0,000018) war die OR bei Trägern des 2677T-Allels ebenfalls erhöht. Die höhere Prävalenz des 2677GG-Genotyps und des 2677G-Allels bei der Kontrollgruppe sowie eine OR < 1,0 (0,22 beziehungsweise 0,33) legen eine Schutzfunktion des 2677G-Allels hinsichtlich der Ausbildung eines BP nahe. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie zeigen, dass der G2677T/A-Polymorphismus im ABCB1-Gen das Risiko für die Entstehung eines BP beeinflussen könnte. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of cilostazol in healthy subjects with genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5, CYP2C19 and ABCB1

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hee-Doo; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To investigate the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the CYP3A5, CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genes on the population pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in healthy subjects. METHODS Subjects who participated in four separate cilostazol bioequivalence studies with the same protocols were included in this retrospective analysis. One hundred and four healthy Korean volunteers were orally administered a single 50- or 100-mg dose of cilostazol. We estimated the population pharmacokinetics of cilostazol using a nonlinear mixed effects modelling (nonmem) method and explored the possible influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A (CYP3A5*3), CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) and ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T) on the population pharmacokinetics of cilostazol. RESULTS A two-compartment model with a first-order absorption and lag time described the cilostazol serum concentrations well. The apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was estimated to be 12.8 l h−1. The volumes of the central and the peripheral compartment were characterized as 20.5 l and 73.1 l, respectively. Intercompartmental clearance was estimated at 5.6 l h−1. Absorption rate constant was estimated at 0.24 h−1 and lag time was predicted at 0.57 h. The genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 had a significant (P < 0.001) influence on the CL/F of cilostazol. When CYP2C19 was evaluated, a significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed among the three genotypes (extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers) for the CL/F. In addition, a combination of CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 genotypes was found to be associated with a significant difference (P < 0.005) in the CL/F. When including these genotypes, the interindividual variability of the CL/F was reduced from 34.1% in the base model to 27.3% in the final model. However, no significant differences between the ABCB1 genotypes and cilostazol pharmacokinetic parameters were observed. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study indicate that CYP3A5 and CYP2C19

  4. Biochemical changes in the skin of rats exposed to radiation against the background of thermal stress. [X rays; ATPase and creatine kinase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Matyushichev, V.B.; Taratukhin, V.R.; Shamratova, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of exposing rats to different doses of x radiation after submitting them to a heat load, according to the tests of ATPase and creatine kinase activity of aqueous extracts of skin at the relatively late observation period was compared. The effects of the combined factors were monitored by means of a heat load (one group) and exposure to radiation alone in doses of 25, 50, 100, 250, and 400 R (5 groups). The obtained data are indicative of marked specificity of ATPase and creatine kinase reactions to the combined factors. Creatine kinase activity undergoes a 157% change, whereasmore » the mean relative deviation of ATPase activity constitutes only 71% of the normal level. The most effect loads are 36/sup 0/C + 25 R and 36/sup 0/C + 400 R. With all tested doses the extent of the effect of radiation on creatine kinase activity is only negligibly lower than the effectiveness of combined loads, whereas according to the ATPase test, radiation alone induces virtually the same changes in activity as combined factors. ATPase undergoes maximum change after irradiation in doses of 250 and 400 R; delivery of 25 to 100 R is associated with much less marked changes in activity. In contrast, creatine kinase demonstrates maximum sensitivity to radiation in a dosage of 25 R and minimum sensitivity, with a dosage of 100 R. Thermal stress (according to ATPase and creatine kinase activity) has a profound and quite substantial effect on processes of development of radiation lesion. It can be manifested by complete or partial summation of effects of each of the factors, mutual attenuation of effects, or absence of interaction between factors in the combination. All this is indicative of the complexity and differences in mechanisms of expression of effects of the factors used. (ERB)« less

  5. Smoking-induced alterations in platelet membrane fluidity and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in chronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Pannuru; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2010-06-30

    Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Platelet adhesiveness and aggregation increases as a result of smoking. Cigarette smoking modifies haemostatic parameters via thrombosis with a consequently higher rate of cardiovascular events, but smoking-induced alterations of platelet membrane fluidity and other changes have not been studied. Thirty experimental and control subjects (mean age 35+/-8) were selected for the study. Experimental subjects had smoked 10+/-2 cigarettes per day for 7-10 years. The plasma lipid profile, platelet carbonyls, sulfhydryl groups, Na(+)/k(+)-ATPase activity, fluidity using a fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), total cholesterol and phospholipids as well individual phospholipids were determined. Increases in the platelet membrane cholesterol phospholipid (C/P) ratio, phosphotidylethanolamine, phosphotidylserine with decreased phosphotidylcholine, Na(+)/k(+)-ATPase activity, fluidity and no significant change in phosphotidylinositol and sphingomylein, as well as increases in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, protein carbonyls with decreased HDL-cholesterol and sulfhydryl groups were observed in cigarette smokers. Platelet membrane total phospholipids were positively correlated with plasma LDL-cholesterol (r=0.568) and VLDL-cholesterol (r=0.614) in cigarette smokers. Increased plasma LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol might have resulted in the increased C/P ratio and decreased platelet membrane fluidity of cigarette smokers.

  6. Regulation of Yeast H+-ATPase by Protein Kinases Belonging to a Family Dedicated to Activation of Plasma Membrane Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Alain; de la Fuente, Natalia; Forment, Javier; Serrano, Ramon; Portillo, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of electrical membrane potential is a fundamental property of living cells. This biophysical parameter determines nutrient uptake, intracellular potassium and turgor, uptake of toxic cations, and stress responses. In fungi and plants, an important determinant of membrane potential is the electrogenic proton-pumping ATPase, but the systems that modulate its activity remain largely unknown. We have characterized two genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PTK2 and HRK1 (YOR267c), that encode protein kinases implicated in activation of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Pma1) in response to glucose metabolism. These kinases mediate, directly or indirectly, an increase in affinity of Pma1 for ATP, which probably involves Ser-899 phosphorylation. Ptk2 has the strongest effect on Pma1, and ptk2 mutants exhibit a pleiotropic phenotype of tolerance to toxic cations, including sodium, lithium, manganese, tetramethylammonium, hygromycin B, and norspermidine. A plausible interpretation is that ptk2 mutants have a decreased membrane potential and that diverse cation transporters are voltage dependent. Accordingly, ptk2 mutants exhibited reduced uptake of lithium and methylammonium. Ptk2 and Hrk1 belong to a subgroup of yeast protein kinases dedicated to the regulation of plasma membrane transporters, which include Npr1 (regulator of Gap1 and Tat2 amino acid transporters) and Hal4 and Hal5 (regulators of Trk1 and Trk2 potassium transporters). PMID:11003661

  7. Scopadulciol, an inhibitor of gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase from Scoparia dulcis, and its structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Asano, S; Mizutani, M; Takeguchi, N; Kojima, T; Okamura, K; Morita, N

    1991-01-01

    A new tetracyclic diterpenoid, scopadulciol [3], together with 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone, glutinol, and acacetin, was isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of Scoparia dulcis collected in Taiwan. Its structure was elucidated to be 6 beta-benzoyl-12-methyl-13-oxo-9(12)a,9(12)b-dihomo-18-podocarpanol on the basis of spectral data. It mildly inhibited hog gastric H+, K(+)-ATPase. Examination of the inhibitory activities of derivatives of scopadulcic acid B [2], including 3, revealed that methylation of the carboxyl group and introduction of an acetyl group or oxime at C-13 or C-18 markedly enhanced the inhibitory activity, while debenzoylation reduced the activity. Among the 30 compounds tested, compound 12, a methyl ester of scopadulcic acid B [2], showed the most potent activity.

  8. The Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in the Biochemistry and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lilian N D; Ribeiro-Neto, José A; Valadares, Jéssica M M; Costa, Mariana M; Lima, Luciana A R S; Grillo, Luciano A M; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Alves, Stênio N; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2016-08-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae. The exposure of the fourth instar larvae to the compounds caused a decrease in the total protein content and an increase in the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, the direct effect of FAMEs on cell membrane was assessed on purified pig kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase membranes, erythrocyte ghost membranes, and larvae membrane preparation. No modifications on total phospholipids and cholesterol content were found after FAMEs 20 min treatment on larvae membrane preparation, but only 360 µg/mL FAME 2 was able to decrease total phospholipid of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Moreover, only 60 and 360 µg/mL FAME 3 caused an activation of purified Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, that was an opposite effect of FAMEs treatment in larvae membrane preparation, and caused an inhibition of the pump activity. These data together suggest that maybe FAMEs can modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase on intact larvae for such mechanisms and not for a direct effect, one time that the direct effect of FAMEs in membrane preparation decreased the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The biochemical changes caused by the compounds were significant and may negatively influence the development and survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae.

  9. Polyamines cause plasma membrane depolarization, activate Ca2+-, and modulate H+-ATPase pump activity in pea roots.

    PubMed

    Pottosin, Igor; Velarde-Buendía, Ana María; Bose, Jayakumar; Fuglsang, Anja T; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-06-01

    Polyamines regulate a variety of cation and K(+) channels, but their potential effects on cation-transporting ATPases are underexplored. In this work, noninvasive microelectrode ion flux estimation and conventional microelectrode techniques were applied to study the effects of polyamines on Ca(2+) and H(+) transport and membrane potential in pea roots. Externally applied spermine or putrescine (1mM) equally activated eosin yellow (EY)-sensitive Ca(2+) pumping across the root epidermis and caused net H(+) influx or efflux. Proton influx induced by spermine was suppressed by EY, supporting the mechanism in which Ca(2+) pump imports 2 H(+) per each exported Ca(2+). Suppression of the Ca(2+) pump by EY diminished putrescine-induced net H(+) efflux instead of increasing it. Thus, activities of Ca(2+) and H(+) pumps were coupled, likely due to the H(+)-pump inhibition by intracellular Ca(2+). Additionally, spermine but not putrescine caused a direct inhibition of H(+) pumping in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Spermine, spermidine, and putrescine (1mM) induced membrane depolarization by 70, 50, and 35 mV, respectively. Spermine-induced depolarization was abolished by cation transport blocker Gd(3+), was insensitive to anion channels' blocker niflumate, and was dependent on external Ca(2+). Further analysis showed that uptake of polyamines but not polyamine-induced cationic (K(+)+Ca(2+)+H(+)) fluxes were a main cause of membrane depolarization. Polyamine increase is a common component of plant stress responses. Activation of Ca(2+) efflux by polyamines and contrasting effects of polyamines on net H(+) fluxes and membrane potential can contribute to Ca(2+) signalling and modulate a variety of transport processes across the plasma membrane under stress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Omeprazole, a specific inhibitor of gastric (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase, is a H/sup +/-activated oxidizing agent of sulfhydryl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Im, W.B.; Sih, J.C.; Blakeman, D.P.

    1985-04-25

    Omeprazole (5-methoxy-2-(((4-methoxy-3,5- dimethylpyridinyl)methyl)sulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole) appeared to inhibit gastric (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase by oxidizing its essential sulfhydryl groups, since the gastric ATPase inactivated by the drug in vivo or in vitro recovered its K+-dependent ATP hydrolyzing activity upon incubation with mercaptoethanol. Biological reducing agents like cysteine or glutathione, however, were unable to reverse the inhibitory effect of omeprazole. Moreover, acidic environments enhanced the potency of omeprazole. The chemical reactivity of omeprazole with mercaptans is also consistent with the biological action of omeprazole. The N-sulfenylated compound reacted at neutral pH with another stoichiometric amount of ethyl mercaptan to produce omeprazole sulfide quantitatively. Themore » gastric polypeptides of 100 kilodaltons representing (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase in the rat gastric mucosa or isolated hog gastric membranes were covalently labeled with (/sup 14/C)omeprazole. The radioactive label bound to the ATPase, however, could not be displaced by mercaptoethanol under the identical conditions where the ATPase activity was fully restored. These observations suggest that the essential sulfhydryl groups which reacted with omeprazole did not form a stable covalent bond with the drug, but rather that they further reacted with adjacent sulfhydryl groups to form disulfides which could be reduced by mercaptoethanol.« less

  11. Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of a membrane-bound Cl-/HCO3--activated ATPase complex from rat brain with sensitivity to GABAAergic ligands.

    PubMed

    Menzikov, Sergey A

    2017-02-07

    This study describes the isolation and purification of a protein complex with [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity and sensitivity to GABA A ergic ligands from rat brain plasma membranes. The ATPase complex was enriched using size-exclusion, affinity, and ion-exchange chromatography. The fractions obtained at each purification step were subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which revealed four subunits with molecular mass ∼48, 52, 56, and 59 kDa; these were retained at all stages of the purification process. Autoradiography revealed that the ∼52 and 56 kDa subunits could bind [ 3 H]muscimol. The [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity of this enriched protein complex was regulated by GABA A ergic ligands but was not sensitive to blockers of the NKCC or KCC cotransporters.

  12. Selected ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 polymorphisms do not enhance the risk of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Stephens, Camilla; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Robles-Diaz, Mercedes; Saenz-López, Pablo; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Fernandez, M Carmen; Lucena, M Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J

    2014-01-01

    Flawed ABC transporter functions may contribute to increased risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to analyse the influence of genetic variations in ABC transporters on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations in a large Spanish DILI cohort. A total of ten polymorphisms in ABCB1 (1236T>C, 2677G>T,A, 3435T>C), ABCB4 (1954A>G) and ABCC2 (-1774G>del, -1549A>G, -24C>T, 1249G>A, 3972C>T and 4544G>A) were genotyped using Taqman 5' allelic discrimination assays or sequencing in 141 Spanish DILI patients and 161 controls. The influence of specific genotypes, alleles and haplotypes on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations was analysed. None of the individual polymorphisms or haplotypes was found to be associated with DILI development. Carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 -1774del allele were however only found in DILI patients. Hence, this genotype could potentially be associated with increased risk, though its low frequency in our Spanish cohort prevented a final conclusion. Furthermore, carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 -1774G/-1549A/-24T/1249G/3972T/4544G haplotype were found to have a higher propensity for total bilirubin elevations when developing DILI. Our findings do not support a role for the analysed polymorphisms in the ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 transporter genes in DILI development in Spanish patients. The ABCC2 -1774deldel genotype was however restricted to DILI cases and could potentially contribute to enhanced DILI susceptibility.

  13. Selected ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 Polymorphisms Do Not Enhance the Risk of Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Stephens, Camilla; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Robles-Diaz, Mercedes; Saenz-López, Pablo; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Fernandez, M. Carmen; Lucena, M. Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Flawed ABC transporter functions may contribute to increased risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to analyse the influence of genetic variations in ABC transporters on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations in a large Spanish DILI cohort. Methods A total of ten polymorphisms in ABCB1 (1236T>C, 2677G>T,A, 3435T>C), ABCB4 (1954A>G) and ABCC2 (−1774G>del, −1549A>G, −24C>T, 1249G>A, 3972C>T and 4544G>A) were genotyped using Taqman 5′ allelic discrimination assays or sequencing in 141 Spanish DILI patients and 161 controls. The influence of specific genotypes, alleles and haplotypes on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations was analysed. Results None of the individual polymorphisms or haplotypes was found to be associated with DILI development. Carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 −1774del allele were however only found in DILI patients. Hence, this genotype could potentially be associated with increased risk, though its low frequency in our Spanish cohort prevented a final conclusion. Furthermore, carriers homozygous for the ABCC2 −1774G/−1549A/−24T/1249G/3972T/4544G haplotype were found to have a higher propensity for total bilirubin elevations when developing DILI. Conclusions Our findings do not support a role for the analysed polymorphisms in the ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 transporter genes in DILI development in Spanish patients. The ABCC2 −1774deldel genotype was however restricted to DILI cases and could potentially contribute to enhanced DILI susceptibility. PMID:24732756

  14. The Influence of C3435T Polymorphism of the ABCB1 Gene on Genetic Susceptibility to Depression and Treatment Response in Polish Population - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Jeleń, Agnieszka Maria; Sałagacka, Aleksandra; Żebrowska, Marta Karolina; Mirowski, Marek; Talarowska, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr; Balcerczak, Ewa Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of depression, the mechanism of the origin of this disease as well as the causes of resistance to therapy in some patients are still not fully understood. Increasingly, the possible role of genetic factors is considered. One of them is polymorphisms in the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene which encodes P-glycoprotein, responsible for the transport of xenobiotics, including antidepressant drugs, through the blood-brain barrier. C3435T was evaluated in 90 patients with recurrent depressive disorders (rDD). Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The obtained results indicate that the TT genotype occurred more frequently among patients with rDD than in healthy volunteers (p=0.0441). Also, at least one C allele was present significantly less frequent in the study group than in healthy individuals (p=0.0300). The severity of depressive symptoms was higher among patient with the CC genotype in comparison with the other genotypes (p=0.0106) but treatment response to antidepressants was better in this group than among patients with CT or TT genotypes (p=0.0301). Likewise, patients with the T allele have a significantly lower severity of symptoms (p=0.0026) and decreased therapy effectiveness (p=0.0142) than C allele carriers. This study suggests that C3435T polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene are strongly associated with a predisposition to depression development, the severity of depressive symptoms and the effectiveness of therapy with using different groups of antidepressant agents.

  15. Effects of salinity on chloride cells and Na+ K+-ATPase activity in the teleost Gillchthys mirabilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, J.S.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Young, G.; Bern, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    1. Longjawed mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis, in 30ppt seawater (SW) were transferred to 1.5, 30 and 60ppt SW.2. In the first 1–3 days after transfer, plasma chloride level and plasma osmolarity rose in the 60ppt SW fish, and decreased in the 1.5ppt SW fish.3. By day 21, however, plasma chloride and osmolarity were at or near the levels seen in the controls (30ppt).4. Branchial and jawskin Na+, K+-ATPase activities were high in all salinities, and did not differ significantly among treatments.5. The vital fluorescent stains DASPEI and anthroylouabain were used to detect mitochondria and Na+, K+-ATPase, respectively, in chloride cells.6. Both stains indicated that jawskin chloride cell density did not differ among treatment groups.7. In contrast, chloride cell size increased significantly with increasing salinity.8. The chloride cells of fish in 60 ppt SW were noticeably angular in outline, whereas those of both the 1.5 and 30ppt SW fish were circular.9. The results are discussed in relation to the ion transport requirements encountered in the intertidal habitat of the mudsucker.

  16. Structures, chemotaxonomic significance, cytotoxic and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of new cardenolides from Asclepias curassavica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Rong; Tian, Hai-Yan; Tan, Ya-Fang; Chung, Tse-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Hui; Xia, Xue; Ye, Wen-Cai; Middleton, David A; Fedosova, Natalya; Esmann, Mikael; Tzen, Jason T C; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2014-11-28

    Five new cardenolide lactates (1–5) and one new dioxane double linked cardenolide glycoside (17) along with 15 known compounds (6–16 and 18–21) were isolated from the ornamental milkweed Asclepias curassavica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). The molecular structures and absolute configurations of 1–3 and 17 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Simultaneous isolation of dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides (17–21) and cardenolide lactates (1–5) provided unique chemotaxonomic markers for this genus. Compounds 1–21 were evaluated for the inhibitory activities against DU145 prostate cancer cells. The dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides showed the most potent cytotoxic effect followed by normal cardenolides and cardenolide lactates, while the C21 steroids were non-cytotoxic. Enzymatic assay established a correlation between the cytotoxic effects in DU145 cancer cells and the Ki for the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Molecular docking analysis revealed relatively strong H-bond interactions between the bottom of the binding cavity and compounds 18 or 20, and explained why the dioxane double linked cardenolide glycosides possessed higher inhibitory potency on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase than the cardenolide lactate.

  17. Adaptive responses of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 cells upon exposure to acid conditions involve ATPase activity to maintain their internal pH

    PubMed Central

    Senouci-Rezkallah, Khadidja; Jobin, Michel P; Schmitt, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the involvement of ATPase activity in the acid tolerance response (ATR) of Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 strain. In the current work, B. cereus cells were grown in anaerobic chemostat culture at external pH (pHe) 7.0 or 5.5 and at a growth rate of 0.2 h−1. Population reduction and internal pH (pHi) after acid shock at pH 4.0 was examined either with or without ATPase inhibitor N,N’-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and ionophores valinomycin and nigericin. Population reduction after acid shock at pH 4.0 was strongly limited in cells grown at pH 5.5 (acid-adapted cells) compared with cells grown at pH 7.0 (unadapted cells), indicating that B. cereus cells grown at low pHe were able to induce a significant ATR and Exercise-induced increase in ATPase activity. However, DCCD and ionophores had a negative effect on the ability of B. cereus cells to survive and maintain their pHi during acid shock. When acid shock was achieved after DCCD treatment, pHi was markedly dropped in unadapted and acid-adapted cells. The ATPase activity was also significantly inhibited by DCCD and ionophores in acid-adapted cells. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed that atpB (ATP beta chain) transcripts was increased in acid-adapted cells compared to unadapted cells before and after acid shock. Our data demonstrate that B. cereus is able to induce an ATR during growth at low pH. These adaptations depend on the ATPase activity induction and pHi homeostasis. Our data demonstrate that the ATPase enzyme can be implicated in the cytoplasmic pH regulation and in acid tolerance of B. cereus acid-adapted cells. PMID:25740257

  18. Caffeine prevents high-intensity exercise-induced increase in enzymatic antioxidant and Na+-K+-ATPase activities and reduction of anxiolytic like-behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Juliano M; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Soares, Mayara S P; Oliveira, Pathise S; Rubin, Maribel A; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Spanevello, Roselia M

    2017-11-01

    Here we investigated the impact of chronic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and caffeine consumption on the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and enzymes of the antioxidant system, as well as anxiolytic-like behaviour in the rat brain. Animals were divided into groups: control, caffeine (4 mg/kg), caffeine (8 mg/kg), HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine (4 mg/kg) and HIIT plus caffeine (8 mg/kg). Rats were trained three times per week for 6 weeks, and caffeine was administered 30 minutes before training. We assessed the anxiolytic-like behaviour, Na + -K + -ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the brain. HIIT-induced anxiolytic-like behaviour increased Na + -K + -ATPase and GPx activities and TBARS levels, altered the activities of SOD and CAT in different brain regions, and decreased GSH levels. Caffeine, however, elicited anxiogenic-like behaviour and blocked HIIT effects. The combination of caffeine and HIIT prevented the increase in SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and GPx activity in three brain regions. Our results show that caffeine promoted anxiogenic behaviour and prevented HIIT-induced changes in the antioxidant system and Na + -K + -ATPase activities.

  19. Nitric oxide inhibits ATPase activity and induces resistance to topoisomerase II-poisons in human MCF-7 breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Birandra K; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-07-01

    Topoisomerase poisons are important drugs for the management of human malignancies. Nitric oxide ( • NO), a physiological signaling molecule, induces nitrosylation (or nitrosation) of many cellular proteins containing cysteine thiol groups, altering their cellular functions. Topoisomerases contain several thiol groups which are important for their activity and are also targets for nitrosation by nitric oxide. Here, we have evaluated the roles of • NO/ • NO-derived species in the stability and activity of topo II (α and β) both in vitro and in human MCF-7 breast tumor cells. Furthermore, we have examined the effects of • NO on the ATPase activity of topo II. Treatment of purified topo IIα and β with propylamine propylamine nonoate (PPNO), an NO donor, resulted in inhibition of the catalytic activity of topo II. Furthermore, PPNO significantly inhibited topo II-dependent ATP hydrolysis. • NO-induced inhibition of these topo II (α and β) functions resulted in a decrease in cleavable complex formation in MCF-7 cells in the presence of m-AMSA and XK469 and induced significant resistance to both drugs in MCF-7 cells. PPNO treatment resulted in the nitrosation of the topo II protein in MCF-7 cancer cells and inhibited both catalytic-, and ATPase activities of topo II. Furthermore, PPNO significantly affected the DNA damage and cytotoxicity of m-AMSA and XK469 in MCF-7 tumor cells. As tumors express nitric oxide synthase and generate • NO, inhibition of topo II functions by • NO/ • NO-derived species could render tumors resistant to certain topo II-poisons in the clinic.

  20. Regulation of the ATPase activity of ABCE1 from Pyrococcus abyssi by Fe-S cluster status and Mg²⁺: implication for ribosomal function.

    PubMed

    Sims, Lynn M; Igarashi, Robert Y

    2012-08-15

    Ribosomal function is dependent on multiple proteins. The ABCE1 ATPase, a unique ABC superfamily member that bears two Fe₄S₄ clusters, is crucial for ribosomal biogenesis and recycling. Here, the ATPase activity of the Pyrococcus abyssi ABCE1 (PabABCE1) was studied using both apo- (without reconstituted Fe-S clusters) and holo- (with full complement of Fe-S clusters reconstituted post-purification) forms, and is shown to be jointly regulated by the status of Fe-S clusters and Mg²⁺. Typically ATPases require Mg²⁺, as is true for PabABCE1, but Mg²⁺ also acts as a negative allosteric effector that modulates ATP affinity of PabABCE1. Physiological [Mg²⁺] inhibits the PabABCE1 ATPase (K(i) of ∼1 μM) for both apo- and holo-PabABCE1. Comparative kinetic analysis of Mg²⁺ inhibition shows differences in degree of allosteric regulation between the apo- and holo-PabABCE1 where the apparent ATP K(m) of apo-PabABCE1 increases >30-fold from ∼30 μM to over 1 mM with M²⁺. This effect would significantly convert the ATPase activity of PabABCE1 from being independent of cellular energy charge (φ) to being dependent on φ with cellular [Mg²⁺]. These findings uncover intricate overlapping effects by both [Mg²⁺] and the status of Fe-S clusters that regulate ABCE1's ATPase activity with implications to ribosomal function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. pH-Dependent Conformational Changes in the HCV NS3 Protein Modulate Its ATPase and Helicase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Gustavo Tavares; da Costa, Emmerson Corrêa Brasil; Capaccia, Anne Miranda; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 to 200 million people worldwide and is, therefore, a major health problem. The lack of efficient treatments that specifically target the viral proteins or RNA and its high chronicity rate make hepatitis C the cause of many deaths and hepatic transplants annually. The NS3 protein is considered an important target for the development of anti-HCV drugs because it is composed of two domains (a serine protease in the N-terminal portion and an RNA helicase/NTPase in the C-terminal portion), which are essential for viral replication and proliferation. We expressed and purified both the NS3 helicase domain (NS3hel) and the full-length NS3 protein (NS3FL) and characterized pH-dependent structural changes associated with the increase in their ATPase and helicase activities at acidic pH. Using intrinsic fluorescence experiments, we have observed that NS3hel was less stable at pH 6.4 than at pH 7.2. Moreover, binding curves using an extrinsic fluorescent probe (bis-ANS) and ATPase assays performed under different pH conditions demonstrated that the hydrophobic clefts of NS3 are significantly more exposed to the aqueous medium at acidic pH. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and anisotropy assays, we have also observed more protein interaction with DNA upon pH acidification, which suggests that the hydrophobic clefts exposure on NS3 might be related to a loss of stability that could lead it to adopt a more open conformation. This conformational change at acidic pH would stimulate both its ATPase and helicase activities, as well as its ability to bind DNA. Taken together, our results indicate that the NS3 protein adopts a more open conformation due to acidification from pH 7.2 to 6.4, resulting in a more active form at a pH that is found near Golgi-derived membranes. This increased activity could better allow NS3 to carry out its functions during HCV replication. PMID:25551442

  2. Quercetin treatment regulates the Na+,K+-ATPase activity, peripheral cholinergic enzymes, and oxidative stress in a rat model of demyelination.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Beckmann, Diego; Santos, Rosmarini P; Thomé, Gustavo R; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Stefanello, Naiara; Andrades, Amanda; Aiello, Graciane; Ripplinger, Angel; Lucio, Bruna M; Ineu, Rafael; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Morsch, Vera; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2018-07-01

    Quercetin is reported to exert a plethora of health benefits through many different mechanisms of action. This versatility and presence in the human diet has attracted the attention of the scientific community, resulting in a huge output of in vitro and in vivo (preclinical) studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that quercetin can protect Na + ,K + -ATPase activity in the central nervous system, reestablish the peripheral cholinesterases activities, and reduce oxidative stress during demyelination events in rats. In line with this expectation, our study aims to find out how quercetin acts on the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity in the central nervous system, peripheral cholinesterases, and stress oxidative markers in an experimental model of demyelinating disease. Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: vehicle, quercetin, ethidium bromide (EB), and EB plus quercetin groups. The animals were treated once a day with vehicle (ethanol 20%) or quercetin 50 mg/kg for 7 (demyelination phase, by gavage) or 21 days (remyelination phase) after EB (0.1%, 10 μL) injection (intrapontine).The encephalon was removed, and the pons, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were dissected to verify the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity. Our results showed that quercetin protected against reduction in Na + ,K + -ATPase in the pons and cerebellum in the demyelination phase, and it increased the activity of this enzyme in the remyelination phase. During the demyelination, quercetin promoted the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in whole blood and lymphocytes induced by EB, and it reduced the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes in the remyelination phase. On day 7, EB increased the superoxide dismutase and decreased catalase activities, as well as increased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. Taken together, these results indicated that quercetin regulates the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity, affects the alterations of redox state

  3. Deficient erythrocyte NaK-ATPase activity in different affective states in bipolar affective disorder and normalization by lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Hokin-Neaverson, M; Jefferson, J W

    1989-01-01

    This report expands on previously presented evidence for a trait-dependent deficiency of erythrocyte sodium pump activity in bipolar affective disorder. Several parameters of erythrocyte NaK-ATPase activity in different affective states and the effects of lithium therapy were examined. In lithium-free bipolar affective disorder patients, the mean percent differences from the individual sex- and age-matched controls for erythrocyte sodium pump activity were: manic + hypomanic group, -21.5%, n = 16, p less than 0.02; depressed group, -12.4%, n = 14, p less than 0.02; euthymic group, -6.9%, n = 18, p less than 0.10. Ouabain-sensitive potassium ion uptake was less than the controls in the manic group (-25.4%, n = 3, p less than 0.02), and in the combined affectively ill group, manic + depressed (-23.4%, n = 7, p less than 0.02). Cell ouabain binding was less than the controls in the manic group (-19.0%, n = 6, p less than 0.05). NaK-ATPase activity in washed erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) was significantly lower than the controls in the manic group (-14.5%, n = 4, p less than 0.02), and the mean value for the whole group (manic + depressed + euthymic) was lower than the controls (-11.8%, n = 18, p less than 0.05). Values for ouabain binding in ghosts from the bipolar subjects were not significantly different from the matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. CGP-37157 inhibits the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ ATPase and activates ryanodine receptor channels in striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jake T; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L; Fleischer, Sidney; Copello, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    7-Chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4,1-benzothiazepin-2(3H)-one [CGP-37157 (CGP)], a benzothiazepine derivative of clonazepam, is commonly used as a blocker of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca²+ exchanger. However, evidence suggests that CGP could also affect other targets, such as L-type Ca²+ channels and plasmalemma Na+/Ca²+ exchanger. Here, we tested the possibility of a direct modulation of ryanodine receptor channels (RyRs) and/or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²+-stimulated ATPase (SERCA) by CGP. In the presence of ruthenium red (inhibitor of RyRs), CGP decreased SERCA-mediated Ca²+ uptake of cardiac and skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) microsomes (IC₅₀ values of 6.6 and 9.9 μM, respectively). The CGP effects on SERCA activity correlated with a decreased V(max) of ATPase activity of SERCA-enriched skeletal SR fractions. CGP (≥ 5 μM) also increased RyR-mediated Ca²+ leak from skeletal SR microsomes. Planar bilayer studies confirmed that both cardiac and skeletal RyRs are directly activated by CGP (EC(50) values of 9.4 and 12.0 μM, respectively). In summary, we found that CGP inhibits SERCA and activates RyR channels. Hence, the action of CGP on cellular Ca²+ homeostasis reported in the literature of cardiac, skeletal muscle, and other nonmuscle systems requires further analysis to take into account the contribution of all CGP-sensitive Ca²+ transporters.

  5. CGP-37157 Inhibits the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase and Activates Ryanodine Receptor Channels in Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jake T.; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Fleischer, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    7-Chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4,1-benzothiazepin-2(3H)-one [CGP-37157 (CGP)], a benzothiazepine derivative of clonazepam, is commonly used as a blocker of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. However, evidence suggests that CGP could also affect other targets, such as L-type Ca2+ channels and plasmalemma Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Here, we tested the possibility of a direct modulation of ryanodine receptor channels (RyRs) and/or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-stimulated ATPase (SERCA) by CGP. In the presence of ruthenium red (inhibitor of RyRs), CGP decreased SERCA-mediated Ca2+ uptake of cardiac and skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) microsomes (IC50 values of 6.6 and 9.9 μM, respectively). The CGP effects on SERCA activity correlated with a decreased Vmax of ATPase activity of SERCA-enriched skeletal SR fractions. CGP (≥5 μM) also increased RyR-mediated Ca2+ leak from skeletal SR microsomes. Planar bilayer studies confirmed that both cardiac and skeletal RyRs are directly activated by CGP (EC50 values of 9.4 and 12.0 μM, respectively). In summary, we found that CGP inhibits SERCA and activates RyR channels. Hence, the action of CGP on cellular Ca2+ homeostasis reported in the literature of cardiac, skeletal muscle, and other nonmuscle systems requires further analysis to take into account the contribution of all CGP-sensitive Ca2+ transporters. PMID:20923851

  6. Intact long-type DupA protein in Helicobacter pylori is an ATPase involved in multifunctional biological activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-yi; Chen, Cheng; Shao, Chen; Wang, Shao-bo; Wang, Ai-chu; Yang, Ya-chao; Yuan, Xiao-yan; Shao, Shi-he

    2015-04-01

    The function of intact long-type DupA protein in Helicobacter pylori was analyzed using immunoblotting and molecular biology techniques in the study. After cloning, expression and purification, ATPase activity of DupA protein was detected. Antibody was produced for localization and interaction proteins analysis. The dupA-deleted mutant was generated for adhesion and CagA protein translocation assay, susceptibility to different pH, IL-8 secretion assay, cytotoxicity to MKN-45 cells and proteins-involved apoptosis analysis. DupA protein exhibited an ATPase activity (129.5±17.8 U/mgprot) and located in bacterial membrane, while it did not involve the adhesion and CagA protein delivery of H. pylori. DupA protein involved the urease secretion as the interaction proteins. The wild type strain had a stronger growth in low pH than the dupA-deleted mutant (p < 0.001). IL-8 productions from GES-1 cells infected with the wild type strain were significantly higher than from those with the mutant (p < 0.001). The amounts of vital MKN-45 cells were decreased and the numbers of apoptotic cells were increased with the wild type strain, compared to those with the mutant after 12 h (p < 0.05). The increase of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax was significantly higher and the decrease of Bcl-2 was more obvious in MKN-45 cells exposed to the wild type strain than that exposed to the mutant after 6 h. We demonstrate that intact long-type DupA protein located in membrane as ATPase is a true virulence factor associated with duodenal ulcer development involving the IL-8 induction and urease secretion, while it inhibits gastric cancer cell growth in vitro by activating the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Salinity and Alkalinity on Luciobarbus capito Gill Na+/K+-ATPase Enzyme Activity, Plasma Ion Concentration, and Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity and alkalinity on gill Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme activity, plasma ion concentration, and osmotic pressure in Luciobarbus capito. Increasing salinity concentrations (5, 8, 11, and 14 g/L) were associated with an initial increase and then decrease in L. capito gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Activity was affected by the difference between internal and external Na+ ion concentrations and osmotic pressure (P < 0.05). Both plasma ion (Na+, K+, and Cl−) concentration and osmotic pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05). An increase in alkalinity (15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) caused a significant increase in plasma K+ and urea nitrogen concentrations (P < 0.05) but had no effect on either plasma osmotic pressure or gill filament ATPase activity. In the two-factor experiment, the saline-alkaline interaction caused a significant increase in plasma ion (Na+, Cl−, and urea nitrogen) and osmotic pressure (P < 0.05). Variance analysis revealed that salinity, alkalinity, and their interaction significantly affected osmotic pressure, with salinity being most affected, followed by alkalinity, and their interaction. Gill filament ATPase activity increased at first and then decreased; peak values were observed in the orthogonal experiment group at a salinity of 8 g/L and alkalinity of 30 mM. PMID:27981049

  8. Novel ATPase activity of the polyprotein intermediate, Viral Protein genome-linked-Nuclear Inclusion-a protease, of Pepper vein banding potyvirus

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Chhavi; Savithri, Handanahal S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pepper vein banding potyvirus VPg harbors Walker motifs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VPg exhibits ATPase activity in the presence of NIa-Pro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plausible structural and functional interplay between VPg and NIa-Pro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional relevance of prolonged presence of VPg-Pro during infection. -- Abstract: Potyviruses temporally regulate their protein function by polyprotein processing. Previous studies have shown that VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked) of Pepper vein banding virus interacts with the NIa-Pro (Nuclear Inclusion-a protease) domain, and modulates the kinetics of the protease. In the present study, we report for the first time that VPg harbors the Walker motifs A and B, andmore » the presence of NIa-Pro, especially in cis (cleavage site (E191A) VPg-Pro mutant), is essential for manifestation of the ATPase activity. Mutation of Lys47 (Walker motif A) and Asp88:Glu89 (Walker motif B) to alanine in E191A VPg-Pro lead to reduced ATPase activity, confirming that this activity was inherent to VPg. We propose that potyviral VPg, established as an intrinsically disordered domain, undergoes plausible structural alterations upon interaction with globular NIa-Pro which induces the ATPase activity.« less

  9. Pharmacogenetic study of the impact of ABCB1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on lenalidomide treatment outcomes in patients with multiple myeloma: results from a phase IV observational study and subsequent phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen Falk, Ingrid; Lund, Johan; Gréen, Henrik; Gruber, Astrid; Alici, Evren; Lauri, Birgitta; Blimark, Cecilie; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Swedin, Agneta; Forsberg, Karin; Carlsson, Conny; Hardling, Mats; Ahlberg, Lucia; Lotfi, Kourosh; Nahi, Hareth

    2018-01-01

    Despite therapeutic advances, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) continue to experience disease relapse and treatment resistance. The gene ABCB1 encodes the drug transporter P-glycoprotein, which confers resistance through drug extrusion across the cell membrane. Lenalidomide (Len) is excreted mainly via the kidneys, and, given the expression of P-gp in the renal tubuli, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCB1 gene may influence Len plasma concentrations and, subsequently, the outcome of treatment. We, therefore, investigated the influence of ABCB1 genetic variants on Len treatment outcomes and adverse events (AEs). Ninety patients with relapsed or refractory MM, who received the second-line Len plus dexamethasone in the Rev II trial, were genotyped for the ABCB1 SNPs 1199G>A (Ser400Asn, rs2229109), 1236C>T (silent, rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (Ala893Ser, rs2032582), and 3435C>T (silent, rs1045642) using pyrosequencing, and correlations to response parameters, outcomes, and AEs were investigated. No significant associations were found between genotype and either best response rates or hematological AEs, and 1236C>T, 2677G>T or 3435C>T genotypes had no impact on survival. There was a trend towards increased time to progression (TTP) in patients carrying the 1199A variant, and a significant difference in TTP between genotypes in patients with standard-risk cytogenetics. Our findings show a limited influence of ABCB1 genotype on lenalidomide treatment efficacy and safety. The results suggest that 1199G>A may be a marker of TTP following Len treatment in standard-risk patients; however, larger studies are needed to validate and clarify the relationship.

  10. Forced Expression of Heat Shock Protein 27 (Hsp27) Reverses P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated Drug Efflux and MDR1 Gene Expression in Adriamycin-resistant Human Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Ragu; Krishnamurthy, Karthikeyan; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2011-01-01

    Mutant p53 accumulation has been shown to induce the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and ATP binding cassette (ABC)-based drug efflux in human breast cancer cells. In the present work, we have found that transcriptional activation of the oxidative stress-responsive heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and expression of heat shock proteins, including Hsp27, which is normally known to augment proteasomal p53 degradation, are inhibited in Adriamycin (doxorubicin)-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/adr). Such an endogenous inhibition of HSF-1 and Hsp27 in turn results in p53 mutation with gain of function in its transcriptional activity and accumulation in MCF-7/adr. Also, lack of HSF-1 enhances nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity together with mutant p53 and induces MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), resulting in a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Ectopic expression of Hsp27, however, significantly depleted both mutant p53 and NF-κB (p65), reversed the drug resistance by inhibiting MDR1/P-gp expression in MCF-7/adr cells, and induced cell death by increased G2/M population and apoptosis. We conclude from these results that HSF-1 inhibition and depletion of Hsp27 is a trigger, at least in part, for the accumulation of transcriptionally active mutant p53, which can either directly or NF-κB-dependently induce an MDR1/P-gp phenotype in MCF-7 cells. Upon Hsp27 overexpression, this pathway is abrogated, and the acquired multidrug resistance is significantly abolished so that MCF-7/adr cells are sensitized to Dox. Thus, clinical alteration in Hsp27 or NF-κB level will be a potential approach to circumvent drug resistance in breast cancer. PMID:21784846

  11. Forced expression of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) reverses P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated drug efflux and MDR1 gene expression in Adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Ragu; Krishnamurthy, Karthikeyan; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2011-09-23

    Mutant p53 accumulation has been shown to induce the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and ATP binding cassette (ABC)-based drug efflux in human breast cancer cells. In the present work, we have found that transcriptional activation of the oxidative stress-responsive heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and expression of heat shock proteins, including Hsp27, which is normally known to augment proteasomal p53 degradation, are inhibited in Adriamycin (doxorubicin)-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/adr). Such an endogenous inhibition of HSF-1 and Hsp27 in turn results in p53 mutation with gain of function in its transcriptional activity and accumulation in MCF-7/adr. Also, lack of HSF-1 enhances nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity together with mutant p53 and induces MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), resulting in a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Ectopic expression of Hsp27, however, significantly depleted both mutant p53 and NF-κB (p65), reversed the drug resistance by inhibiting MDR1/P-gp expression in MCF-7/adr cells, and induced cell death by increased G(2)/M population and apoptosis. We conclude from these results that HSF-1 inhibition and depletion of Hsp27 is a trigger, at least in part, for the accumulation of transcriptionally active mutant p53, which can either directly or NF-κB-dependently induce an MDR1/P-gp phenotype in MCF-7 cells. Upon Hsp27 overexpression, this pathway is abrogated, and the acquired multidrug resistance is significantly abolished so that MCF-7/adr cells are sensitized to Dox. Thus, clinical alteration in Hsp27 or NF-κB level will be a potential approach to circumvent drug resistance in breast cancer.

  12. Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.

    PubMed

    Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J

    2014-12-01

    Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased α1β1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC α-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Effects of intermittent fasting on age-related changes on Na,K-ATPase activity and oxidative status induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Yshii, Lidia Mitiko; Marques Orellana, Ana Maria; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Alves, Rosana; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2015-05-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is linked to glutamate-nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms pathway in central nervous system (CNS) and also causes neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting (IF) induces adaptive responses in the brain that can suppress inflammation, but the age-related effect of IF on LPS modulatory influence on nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms is unknown. This work compared the effects of LPS on the activity of α1,α2,3 Na,K-ATPase, nitric oxide synthase gene expression and/or activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in CNS of young and older rats submitted to the IF protocol for 30 days. LPS induced an age-related effect in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in rat hippocampus that was linked to changes in α2,3-Na,K-ATPase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. IF induced adaptative cellular stress-response signaling pathways reverting LPS effects in rat hippocampus of young and older rats. The results suggest that IF in both ages would reduce the risk for deficits on brain function and neurodegenerative disorders linked to inflammatory response in the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tandem phosphorylation of Ser-911 and Thr-912 at the C terminus of yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase leads to glucose-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Silvia; Nelson, Clark J; Allen, Kenneth E; Swaney, Danielle L; Thompson, Katie L; Coon, Joshua J; Sussman, Michael R; Slayman, Carolyn W

    2007-12-07

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the post-translational regulation of P-type ATPases by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Pma1 H(+)-ATPase, which is responsible for H(+)-dependent nutrient uptake in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is one such example, displaying a rapid 5-10-fold increase in activity when carbon-starved cells are exposed to glucose. Activation has been linked to Ser/Thr phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail of the ATPase, but the specific phosphorylation sites have not previously been mapped. The present study has used nanoflow high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry to identify Ser-911 and Thr-912 as two major phosphorylation sites that are clearly related to glucose activation. In carbon-starved cells with low Pma1 activity, peptide 896-918, which was derived from the C terminus upon Lys-C proteolysis, was found to be singly phosphorylated at Thr-912, whereas in glucose-metabolizing cells with high ATPase activity, the same peptide was doubly phosphorylated at Ser-911 and Thr-912. Reciprocal (14)N/(15)N metabolic labeling of cells was used to measure the relative phosphorylation levels at the two sites. The addition of glucose to carbon-starved cells led to a 3-fold reduction in the singly phosphorylated form and an 11-fold increase in the doubly phosphorylated form. These results point to a mechanism in which the stepwise phosphorylation of two tandemly positioned residues near the C terminus mediates glucose-dependent activation of the H(+)-ATPase.

  15. The Legionella pneumophila PilT Homologue DotB Exhibits ATPase Activity That Is Critical for Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Jessica A.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Vogel, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of Legionella pneumophila to grow and cause disease in the host is completely dependent on a type IV secretion system known as the Dot/Icm complex. This membrane-spanning apparatus translocates effector molecules into host cells in a process that is poorly understood but that is known to require the putative ATPase DotB. One possible role for DotB is suggested by its similarity to the PilT family of proteins, which mediate pilus retraction. To better understand the molecular behavior of DotB, we have purified the protein and shown that it forms stable homohexameric rings and hydrolyzes ATP with a specific activity of 6.4 nmol of ATP/min/mg of protein. ATPase activity is critical to the function of DotB, as alteration of the conserved Walker box lysine residue resulted in a mutant protein, DotB K162Q, which failed to bind or hydrolyze ATP and which could not complement a ΔdotB strain for intracellular growth in macrophages. Consistent with the ability of DotB to interact with itself, the dotBK162Q allele exhibited transdominance over wild-type dotB, providing the first example of such a mutation in L. pneumophila. Finally, the DotB K162Q mutant protein had a significantly enhanced membrane localization in L. pneumophila compared to wild-type DotB, suggesting a relationship between nucleotide binding and membrane association. These results are consistent with a model in which DotB cycles between the cytoplasm and the Dot/Icm complex at the membrane, where it hydrolyzes nucleotides to provide energy to the complex. PMID:14996796

  16. Cell Signaling Associated with Na+/K+-ATPase: Activation of Phosphatidylinositide 3-Kinase IA/Akt by Ouabain Is Independent of Src

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to selective inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase such as ouabain activates several growth-related cell signaling pathways. It has been suggested that the initial event of these pathways is the binding of ouabain to a preexisting complex of Src with Na+/K+-ATPase of the plasma membrane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of Src in the ouabain-induced activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase 1A (PI3K1A) and its downstream consequences. When fibroblasts devoid of Src (SYF cells) and controls (Src++ cells) were exposed to ouabain, PI3K1A, Akt, and proliferative growth were similarly stimulated in both cell lines. Ouabain-induced activation of Akt was not prevented by the Src inhibitor PP2. In contrast, ERK1/2 were not activated by ouabain in SYF cells but were stimulated in Src++ cells; this was prevented by PP2. In isolated adult mouse cardiac myocytes, where ouabain induces hypertrophic growth, PP2 also did not prevent ouabain-induced activation of Akt and the resulting hypertrophy. Ouabain-induced increases in the levels of co-immunoprecipitation of the α-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase with the p85 subunit of PI3K1A were noted in SYF cells, Src++ cells, and adult cardiac myocytes. In conjunction with previous findings, the results presented here indicate that (a) if there is a preformed complex of Src and Na+/K+-ATPase, it is irrelevant to ouabain-induced activation of the PI3K1A/Akt pathway through Na+/K+-ATPase and (b) a more likely, but not established, mechanism of linkage of Na+/K+-ATPase to PI3K1A is the ouabain-induced interaction of a proline-rich domain of the α-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase with the SH3 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3K1A. PMID:24266852

  17. K+ and NH4(+) modulate gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus: fine tuning of ammonia excretion.

    PubMed

    Garçon, D P; Masui, D C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A

    2007-05-01

    To better comprehend the mechanisms of ionic regulation, we investigate the modulation by Na+, K+, NH4(+) and ATP of the (Na+, K+)-ATPase in a microsomal fraction from Callinectes ornatus gills. ATP hydrolysis obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with KM=0.61+/-0.03 mmol L(-1) and maximal rate of V=116.3+/-5.4 U mg(-1). Stimulation by Na+ (V=110.6+/-6.1 U mg(-1); K0.5=6.3+/-0.2 mmol L(-1)), Mg2+ (V=111.0+/-4.7 U mg(-1); K0.5=0.53+/-0.03 mmol L(-1)), NH4(+) (V=173.3+/-6.9 U mg(-1); K0.5=5.4+/-0.2 mmol L(-1)) and K+ (V=116.0+/-4.9 U mg(-1); K0.5=1.5+/-0.1 mmol L(-1)) followed a single saturation curve, although revealing site-site interactions. In the absence of NH4(+), ouabain (K(I)=74.5+/-1.2 micromol L(-1)) and orthovanadate inhibited ATPase activity by up to 87%; the inhibition patterns suggest the presence of F0F1 and K+-ATPases but not Na+-, V- or Ca2+-ATPase as contaminants. (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity was synergistically modulated by K+ and NH4(+). At 10 mmol L(-1) K+, increasing NH4(+) concentrations stimulated maximum activity to V=185.9+/-7.4 U mg(-1). However, at saturating NH4(+) (50 mmol L(-1)), increasing K+ concentrations did not stimulate activity further. Our findings provide evidence that the C. ornatus gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase may be particularly well suited for extremely efficient active NH4(+) excretion. At elevated NH4(+) concentrations, the enzyme is fully active, regardless of hemolymph K+ concentration, and K+ cannot displace NH4(+) from its exclusive binding sites. Further, the binding of NH4(+) to its specific sites induces an increase in enzyme apparent affinity for K+, which may contribute to maintaining K+ transport, assuring that exposure to elevated ammonia concentrations does not lead to a decrease in intracellular potassium levels. This is the first report of modulation by ammonium ions of C. ornatus gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase, and should further our understanding of NH4(+) excretion in benthic crabs.

  18. N-Acetylcysteine-induced vasodilatation is modulated by KATP channels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity and intracellular calcium concentration: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Vezir, Özden; Çömelekoğlu, Ülkü; Sucu, Nehir; Yalın, Ali Erdinç; Yılmaz, Şakir Necat; Yalın, Serap; Söğüt, Fatma; Yaman, Selma; Kibar, Kezban; Akkapulu, Merih; Koç, Meryem İlkay; Seçer, Didem

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and intracellular calcium levels on the vasodilatory effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in thoracic aorta by using electrophysiological and molecular techniques. Rat thoracic aorta ring preparations and cultured thoracic aorta cells were divided into four groups as control, 2mM NAC, 5mM NAC, and 10mM NAC. Thoracic aorta rings were isolated from rats for measurements of relaxation responses and Na + /K + -ATPase activity. In the cultured thoracic aorta cells, we measured the currents of K ATP channel, the concentration of intracellular calcium and mRNA expression level of K ATP channel subunits (KCNJ8, KCNJ11, ABCC8 and ABCC9). The relaxation rate significantly increased in all NAC groups compared to control. Similarly, Na + /K + - ATPase activity also significantly decreased in NAC groups. Outward K ATP channel current significantly increased in all NAC groups compared to the control group. Intracellular calcium concentration decreased significantly in all groups with compared control. mRNA expression level of ABCC8 subunit significantly increased in all NAC groups compared to the control group. Pearson correlation analysis showed that relaxation rate was significantly associated with K ATP current, intracellular calcium concentration, Na + /K + -ATPase activity and mRNA expression level of ABCC8 subunit. Our findings suggest that NAC relaxes vascular smooth muscle cells through a direct effect on K ATP channels, by increasing outward K+ flux, partly by increasing mRNA expression of K ATP subunit ABCC8, by decreasing in intracellular calcium and by decreasing in Na + /K + -ATPase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic adenine nucleotide translocase activity controls extracellular ADP levels and regulates the F1-ATPase-mediated HDL endocytosis pathway on hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardouat, G; Duparc, T; Fried, S; Perret, B; Najib, S; Martinez, L O

    2017-09-01

    Ecto-F 1 -ATPase is a complex related to mitochondrial ATP synthase which has been identified as a plasma membrane receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and has been shown to contribute to HDL endocytosis in several cell types. On hepatocytes, apoA-I binding to ecto-F 1 -ATPase stimulates extracellular ATP hydrolysis into ADP, which subsequently activates a P2Y 13 -mediated HDL endocytosis pathway. Interestingly, other mitochondrial proteins have been found to be expressed at the plasma membrane of several cell types. Among these, adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is an ADP/ATP carrier but its role in controlling extracellular ADP levels and F 1 -ATPase-mediated HDL endocytosis has never been investigated. Here we confirmed the presence of ANT at the plasma membrane of human hepatocytes. We then showed that ecto-ANT activity increases or reduces extracellular ADP level, depending on the extracellular ADP/ATP ratio. Interestingly, ecto-ANT co-localized with ecto-F 1 -ATPase at the hepatocyte plasma membrane and pharmacological inhibition of ecto-ANT activity increased extracellular ADP level when ecto-F 1 -ATPase was activated by apoA-I. This increase in the bioavailability of extracellular ADP accordingly translated into an increase of HDL endocytosis on human hepatocytes. This study thus uncovered a new location and function of ANT for which activity at the cell surface of hepatocytes modulates the concentration of extracellular ADP and regulates HDL endocytosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The TF1-ATPase and ATPase activities of assembled alpha 3 beta 3 gamma, alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta, and alpha 3 beta 3 gamma epsilon complexes are stimulated by low and inhibited by high concentrations of rhodamine 6G whereas the dye only inhibits the alpha 3 beta 3, and alpha 3 beta 3 delta complexes.

    PubMed

    Paik, S R; Yokoyama, K; Yoshida, M; Ohta, T; Kagawa, Y; Allison, W S

    1993-12-01

    The ATPase activity of the F1-ATPase from the thermophilic bacterium PS3 is stimulated at concentrations of rhodamine 6G up to about 10 microM where 70% stimulation is observed at 36 degrees C. Half maximal stimulation is observed at about 3 microM dye. At rhodamine 6G concentrations greater than 10 microM, ATPase activity declines with 50% inhibition observed at about 75 microM dye. The ATPase activities of the alpha 3 beta 3 gamma and alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta complexes assembled from isolated subunits of TF1 expressed in E. coli deleted of the unc operon respond to increasing concentrations of rhodamine 6G nearly identically to the response of TF1. In contrast, the ATPase activities of the alpha 3 beta 3 and alpha 3 beta 3 delta complexes are only inhibited by rhodamine 6G with 50% inhibition observed, respectively, at 35 and 75 microM dye at 36 degrees C. The ATPase activity of TF1 is stimulated up to 4-fold by the neutral detergent, LDAO. In the presence of stimulating concentrations of LDAO, the ATPase activity of TF1 is no longer stimulated by rhodamine 6G, but rather, it is inhibited with 50% inhibition observed at about 30 microM dye at 30 degrees C. One interpretation of these results is that binding of rhodamine 6G to a high-affinity site on TF1 stimulates ATPase activity and unmasks a low-affinity, inhibitory site for the dye which is also exposed by LDAO.

  1. Oxidative stress mediated aldehyde adduction of Grp78 in a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease: Functional independence of ATPase activity and chaperone function

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J.; Fritz, Kristofer S.; Backos, Donald S.; Shearn, Colin T.; Smathers, Rebecca L.; Jiang, Hua; MacLean, Kenneth N.; Reigan, Philip R.; Petersen, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is complicated and multifactorial but clearly involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Currently, conflicting reports exist regarding the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the etiology of ALD. The glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is the ER homologue of HSP70 and plays a critical role in the cellular response to ER stress by serving as a chaperone assisting protein folding and by regulating the signaling of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Comprised of three functional domains, an ATPase, peptide-binding, and lid domain, GRP78 folds nascent polypeptides via the substrate-binding domain. Earlier work has indicated that the ATPase function of GRP78 is intrinsically linked and essential to its chaperone activity. Previous work in our laboratory has indicated that Grp78 and the UPR are not induced in a mouse model of ALD but that Grp78 is adducted by the lipid electrophiles 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-oxononenal (4-ONE) in vivo. As impairment of Grp78 has the potential to contribute to pathogenesis in ALD, we investigated the functional consequences of aldehyde adduction upon Grp78 function. Identification of 4-HNE and 4-ONE target residues in purified human GRP78 revealed a marked propensity for Lys and His adduction within the ATPase domain and a relative paucity of adduct formation within the peptide-binding domain. Consistent with these findings, we observed a concomitant dose-dependent decrease in ATP-binding and ATPase activity without any discernible impairment of chaperone function. Collectively, our data indicate that ATPase activity is not essential for Grp78 mediated chaperone activity and is consistent with the hypothesis that ER stress does not play a primary initiating role in the early stages of ALD. PMID:24924946

  2. Ischemia/Reperfusion Model Impairs Endocannabinoid Signaling and Na+/K+ ATPase Expression and Activity in Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Luzia S; Iannotti, Fabio A; Veneziani, Luciana; Borelli-Tôrres, Rosa T; De Maio, Fabrizia; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Reis, Ricardo A M; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo

    2018-06-08

    LLC-PK1 cells, an immortalized epithelial cell line derived from pig renal proximal tubules, express all the major players of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) such as CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor, as well as the main enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of the major endocannabinoids named 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG and anandamide, AEA. Here we investigated whether the damages caused by ischemic insult either in vitro using LLC-PK1 cells exposed to antimycin A (an inductor of ATP-depletion) or in vivo using Wistar rats in a classic renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) protocol, lead to changes in AEA and 2-AG levels, as well as altered expression of genes from the main enzymes involved in the regulation of the ECS. Our data show that the mRNA levels of CB1 receptor gene were downregulated, while the transcript levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main 2-AG degradative enzyme, are upregulated in LLC-PK1 cells after IR model. Accordingly, IR was accompanied by a significant reduction in the levels of 2-AG and AEA, as well as of the two endocannabinoid related molecules, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in LLC-PK1 cells. In kidney cortex homogenates, the AEA levels were selectively significantly decreased. In addition, we found that both the in vitro and in vivo model of IR caused a reduction in the expression and activity of the Na + /K + ATPase. These changes were reversed by the CB1/CB2 agonist WIN55,212, in a CB1-receptor dependent manner on LLC-PK1 IR model. In conclusion, the ECS and Na + /K + ATPase are down-regulated following IR model in LLC-PK1 cells and rat kidney. We suggest that CB1 agonists might represent a potential strategy to reverse the consequences of IR injury in kidney tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in the activity of Cl-,HCO3(-)-ATPase in microsome fraction during early development of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga, K; Fujino, Y; Yasumasu, I

    1986-12-01

    In sea urchin embryos, primary mesenchyme cells, descendants from micromeres produced at the 16-cell stage, form spicules or CaCO3 deposits in their skeletal vacuoles, at the post-gastrula stage. Micromeres isolated at the 16-cell stage also differentiate into spicule-forming cells during their culture at the same time schedule as in the embryos. The present study was planned to observe change in the activity of Cl-,HCO3(-)-ATPase, which was expected to contribute to the carbonate supply for CaCO3 deposition, during development. ATP-hydrolysis in the microsome fraction, obtained from embryos of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, and from micromere-derived cells in culture was stimulated by Cl- and HCO3- in the presence of ouabain and EGTA. The ATP-hydrolysis was inhibited by ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of Cl-,HCO3(-)-ATPase. The activity of Cl-,HCO3(-)-ATPase in embryos and in micromere-derived cells increased during development, keeping pace with the rate of calcium deposition in spicules. Formation of calcified spicules in the cultured micromere-derived cells was inhibited by ethacrynic acid. These results indicate that Cl-,HCO3(-)-ATPase plays an important role in the mechanism of CaCO3 deposition in the primary mesenchyme cells.

  4. ACF7 regulates cytoskeletal-focal adhesion dynamics and migration and has ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Kodama, Atsuko; Fuchs, Elaine

    2008-10-03

    Coordinated interactions between microtubule (MT) and actin cytoskeletons are involved in many polarized cellular processes. Spectraplakins are enormous (>500 kDa) proteins able to bind both MTs and actin filaments (F-actin) directly. To elucidate the physiological significance and functions of mammalian spectraplakin ACF7, we've conditionally targeted it in skin epidermis. Intriguingly, ACF7 deficiency compromises the targeting of microtubules along F-actin to focal adhesions (FAs), stabilizes FA-actin networks, and impairs epidermal migration. Exploring underlying mechanisms, we show that ACF7's binding domains for F-actin, MTs, and MT plus-end proteins are not sufficient to rescue the defects in FA-cytoskeletal dynamics and migration functions of ACF7 null keratinocytes. We've uncovered an intrinsic actin-regulated ATPase domain in ACF7 and demonstrate that it is both functional and essential for these roles. Our findings provide insight into the functions of this important cytoskeletal crosslinking protein in regulating dynamic interactions between MTs and F-actin to sustain directional cell movement.

  5. Gill area, permeability and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity as a function of size and salinity in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiandao; Roer, Robert; Vana, Matthew; Pate, Susan; Check, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, extensively utilize oligohaline and freshwater regions of the estuary. With a presumptively larger surface-area-to-body weight ratio, juvenile crabs could experience osmo- and ionoregulatory costs well in excess of that of adults. To test this hypothesis, crabs ranging over three orders of magnitude in body weight were acclimated to either sea water (1,000 mOsm) or dilute sea water (150 mOsm), and gill surface area, water and sodium permeabilities (calculated from the passive efflux of 3H2O and 22Na+), gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and expression were measured. Juveniles had a relatively larger gill surface area; weight-specific gill surface area decreased with body weight. Weight-specific water and sodium fluxes also decreased with weight, but not to the same extent as gill surface area; thus juveniles were able to decrease gill permeability slightly more than adults upon acclimation to dilute media. Crabs < 5 g in body weight had markedly higher activities of gill Na+ ,K+ -ATPase than crabs > 5 g in both posterior and anterior gills. Acclimation to dilute medium induced increased expression of Na+, K+ -ATPase and enzyme activity, but the increase was not as great in juveniles as in larger crabs. The increased weight-specific surface area for water gain and salt loss for small crabs in dilute media presents a challenge that is incompletely compensated by reduced permeability and increased affinity of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase for Na+. Juveniles maintain osmotic and ionic homeostasis by the expression and utilization of extremely high levels of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase, in posterior, as well as in anterior, gills. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Is the Paracoccus halodenitrificans ATPase a chimeric enzyme?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1996-01-01

    Membranes from Paracoccus halodenitrificans contain an ATPase that is most active in the absence of NaCl. The most unusual characteristic of the enzyme is its pattern of sensitivity to various inhibitors. Azide and rhodamine 6G, inhibitors of F1F0-ATPases, inhibit ATP hydrolysis as do bafilomycin A1, concanamycin A (folimycin), N-ethylmaleimide, and p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate which are inhibitors of vacuolar ATPases. This indiscriminate sensitivity suggests that this ATPase may be a hybrid and that caution should be exercised when using inhibition as a diagnostic for distinguishing between F1F0-ATPases and vacuolar ATPases.

  7. Diphenyl diselenide elicits antidepressant-like activity in rats exposed to monosodium glutamate: A contribution of serotonin uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Velasquez, Daniela; Da Rocha, Juliana T; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2016-03-15

    Depression is a disorder with symptoms manifested at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the most widely used additive in the food industry; however, some adverse effects induced by this additive have been demonstrated in experimental animals and humans, including functional and behavioral alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound with pharmacological properties already documented, in the depressive-like behavior induced by MSG in rats. Male and female newborn Wistar rats were divided in control and MSG groups, which received, respectively, a daily subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4g/kg/day) from the 1st to 5th postnatal day. At 60th day of life, animals received (PhSe)2 (10mg/kg, intragastrically) 25min before spontaneous locomotor and forced swimming tests (FST). The cerebral cortices of rats were removed to determine [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. A single administration of (PhSe)2 was effective against locomotor hyperactivity caused by MSG in rats. (PhSe)2 treatment protected against the increase in the immobility time and a decrease in the latency for the first episode of immobility in the FST induced by MSG. Furthermore, (PhSe)2 reduced the [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and restored Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity altered by MSG. In the present study a single administration of (PhSe)2 elicited an antidepressant-like effect and decrease the synaptosomal [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and an increase in the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in MSG-treated rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A conserved histidine in human DNLZ/HEP is required for stimulation of HSPA9 ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng; Vu, Michael T; Hoff, Kevin G; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2011-05-20

    The DNL-type zinc-finger protein DNLZ regulates the activity and solubility of the human mitochondrial chaperone HSPA9. To identify DNLZ residues that are critical for chaperone regulation, we carried out an alanine mutagenesis scan of charged residues in a W115I mutant of human DNLZ and assessed the effect of each mutation on interactions with HSPA9. All mutants analyzed promote the solubility of HSPA9 upon expression in Escherichia coli. However, binding studies examining the effect of DNLZ mutants on chaperone tryptophan fluorescence identified three mutations (R81A, H107A, and D111A) that decrease DNLZ binding affinity for nucleotide-free chaperone. In addition, ATPase measurements revealed that DNLZ-R81A and DNLZ-D111A both stimulate the catalytic activity HSPA9, whereas DNLZ-H107A does not elicit an increase in activity even when present at a concentration that is 10-fold higher than the level required for half-maximal stimulation by DNLZ. These findings implicate a conserved histidine as critical for DNLZ regulation of mitochondrial HSPA9 catalytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid genotyping assays for the 4-base pair deletion of canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene and low frequency of the mutant allele in Border Collie dogs.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yabuki, Akira; Kawamichi, Takuji; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 or ABCB1 gene, is an integral component of the blood-brain barrier as an efflux pump for xenobiotics crucial in limiting drug uptake into the central nervous system. Dogs homozygous for a 4-base pair deletion of the canine MDR1 gene show altered expression or function of P-glycoprotein, resulting in neurotoxicosis after administration of the substrate drugs. In the present study, the usefulness of microchip electrophoresis for genotyping assays detecting this deletion mutation was evaluated. Mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and real-time PCR assays were newly developed and evaluated. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of Border Collies dogs in Japan to determine the allele frequency in this breed. Microchip electrophoresis showed advantages in detection sensitivity and time saving over other modes of electrophoresis. The MS-PCR assay clearly discriminated all genotypes. Real-time PCR assay was most suitable for a large-scale survey due to its high throughput and rapidity. The genotyping survey demonstrated that the carrier and mutant allele frequencies were 0.49% and 0.25%, respectively, suggesting that the mutant allele frequency in Border Collies is markedly low compared to that in the susceptible dog breeds such as rough and smooth Collies.

  10. Evaluation of the biliary and brain distribution of technetium Tc 99m sestamibi in healthy dogs with the ABCB1 wildtype genotype before and after treatment with spinosad.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Christopher S; Mattoon, John S; Roberts, Gregory D; Tucker, Russell L; Morimoto, Trevor R; Mealey, Katrina L

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether the reported drug-drug interaction between the flea medication spinosad and ivermectin is attributable to inhibition of P-glycoprotein by spinosad. 6 healthy adult dogs with the ABCB1 wildtype genotype. The study was conducted as a prospective, masked, randomized crossover design. Six dogs were allocated to 2 groups; each dog served as its own control animal. Dogs in one of the groups received spinosad at the manufacturer's recommended dose; the other group received no treatment. Forty-eight hours later, scintigraphic imaging of the head and abdomen were performed with the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (sestamibi) in both groups of dogs. After a washout period of 60 days, the dogs in each group received the alternate treatment, and scintigraphic imaging again was performed 48 hours later. Gallbladder-to-liver and brain-to-neck musculature ratios of technetium Tc 99m sestamibi were calculated for each dog and compared between treatments. No significant differences in gallbladder-to-liver or brain-to-neck musculature ratios were found between treatments. Results provided evidence that spinosad did not inhibit P-glycoprotein function 48 hours after spinosad was administered at the manufacturer's recommended dose. Further investigations will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the reported toxic interaction between spinosad and ivermectin.

  11. Effect of yeast biomass with high content of carotenoids on erythrocyte deformability, NO production and Na,K-ATPase activity in healthy and LPS treated rats.

    PubMed

    Radosinska, J; Mezesova, L; Okruhlicova, L; Frimmel, K; Breierova, E; Bartekova, M; Vrbjar, N

    2016-11-25

    Measurements of red blood cell (RBC) deformability together with estimation of NO-synthase activity and Na,K-ATPase activity were used for characterization of RBC functionality in rats subjected to single dose of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at a dose of 1 mg/kg. We hypothesized that LPS might initiate a malfunction of RBC. We also investigated the potential effect of carotenoids (10 mg/kg/day) produced in red yeast biomass of Rhodotorula glutinis on RBC in LPS-challenged rats. LPS significantly reduced the deformability of RBC (by 14%) together with decrease of NO-synthase activity by 20%. Daily supplementation of carotenoids for 10 days attenuated the LPS-induced injury, as observed by 22% increase of RBC deformability and 23% increase of NO-synthase activity. The activity of Na,K-ATPase was also improved probably due to increased number of active enzyme molecules as indicated by 66% enhancement of Vmax value, hence maintaining the activity of erythrocyte Na,K-ATPase to the level even higher as compared with healthy control animals. It may be concluded that administration of yeast biomass with high content of carotenoids resulted in advanced function of erythrocytes as concerns their ability to squeeze through narrow capillaries of the circulation, better intrinsic production of NO and improvement of intracellular homeostasis of sodium.

  12. AAA-ATPases in Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Wendler, Petra; Enenkel, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic machineries containing multisubunit protease complexes and AAA-ATPases play a key role in protein quality control and the regulation of protein homeostasis. In these protein degradation machineries, the proteolytically active sites are formed by either threonines or serines which are buried inside interior cavities of cylinder-shaped complexes. In eukaryotic cells, the proteasome is the most prominent protease complex harboring AAA-ATPases. To degrade protein substrates, the gates of the axial entry ports of the protease need to be open. Gate opening is accomplished by AAA-ATPases, which form a hexameric ring flanking the entry ports of the protease. Protein substrates with unstructured domains can loop into the entry ports without the assistance of AAA-ATPases. However, folded proteins require the action of AAA-ATPases to unveil an unstructured terminus or domain. Cycles of ATP binding/hydrolysis fuel the unfolding of protein substrates which are gripped by loops lining up the central pore of the AAA-ATPase ring. The AAA-ATPases pull on the unfolded polypeptide chain for translocation into the proteolytic cavity of the protease. Conformational changes within the AAA-ATPase ring and the adjacent protease chamber create a peristaltic movement for substrate degradation. The review focuses on new technologies toward the understanding of the function and structure of AAA-ATPases to achieve substrate recognition, unfolding and translocation into proteasomes in yeast and mammalian cells and into proteasome-equivalent proteases in bacteria and archaea. PMID:28676851

  13. AAA-ATPases in Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S; Wendler, Petra; Enenkel, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic machineries containing multisubunit protease complexes and AAA-ATPases play a key role in protein quality control and the regulation of protein homeostasis. In these protein degradation machineries, the proteolytically active sites are formed by either threonines or serines which are buried inside interior cavities of cylinder-shaped complexes. In eukaryotic cells, the proteasome is the most prominent protease complex harboring AAA-ATPases. To degrade protein substrates, the gates of the axial entry ports of the protease need to be open. Gate opening is accomplished by AAA-ATPases, which form a hexameric ring flanking the entry ports of the protease. Protein substrates with unstructured domains can loop into the entry ports without the assistance of AAA-ATPases. However, folded proteins require the action of AAA-ATPases to unveil an unstructured terminus or domain. Cycles of ATP binding/hydrolysis fuel the unfolding of protein substrates which are gripped by loops lining up the central pore of the AAA-ATPase ring. The AAA-ATPases pull on the unfolded polypeptide chain for translocation into the proteolytic cavity of the protease. Conformational changes within the AAA-ATPase ring and the adjacent protease chamber create a peristaltic movement for substrate degradation. The review focuses on new technologies toward the understanding of the function and structure of AAA-ATPases to achieve substrate recognition, unfolding and translocation into proteasomes in yeast and mammalian cells and into proteasome-equivalent proteases in bacteria and archaea.

  14. The rapid and direct determination of ATP-ase activity by ion exchange chromatography and the application to the activity of heat shock protein-90

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Manuela; Wainer, Irving W.; Bertucci, Carlo; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine nucleotides are involved as substrates or co-factors in several biochemical reactions, catalyzed by enzymes, which modulate energy production, signal transduction and cell proliferation. We here report the development and optimization of an ion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of ATP, ADP and AMP. This method is specifically aimed at the determination of the ATP-ase activity of human heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone that has emerged as target enzyme in cancer therapy. Separation of the three nucleotides was achieved in a 15-min run by using a disk shaped monolithic ethylene diamine stationary phase of small dimensions (2×6 mm i.d.), under a three-solvent gradient elution mode and UV detection at 256 nm. The described direct LC method resulted highly specific as a consequence of the baseline separation of the three adenosine nucleotides and could be applied to the determination of the enzymatic activity of ADP/ATP generating or consuming enzymes (such as kinases). Furthermore, comparison of the LOD and LOQ values of the LC method with those obtained with the malachite green assay, which is one of the most used indirect screening methodologies for ATP-ase activity, showed that the LC method has a similar range of application without presenting the drawbacks related to contamination by inorganic phosphate ions and glycerol, which are present in Hsp90 commercial samples. PMID:22497853

  15. The rapid and direct determination of ATPase activity by ion exchange chromatography and the application to the activity of heat shock protein-90.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Manuela; Wainer, Irving W; Bertucci, Carlo; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2013-01-25

    Adenosine nucleotides are involved as substrates or co-factors in several biochemical reactions, catalyzed by enzymes, which modulate energy production, signal transduction and cell proliferation. We here report the development and optimization of an ion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of ATP, ADP and AMP. This method is specifically aimed at the determination of the ATP-ase activity of human heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a molecular chaperone that has emerged as target enzyme in cancer therapy. Separation of the three nucleotides was achieved in a 15-min run by using a disk shaped monolithic ethylene diamine stationary phase of small dimensions (2mm×6mm i.d.), under a three-solvent gradient elution mode and UV detection at 256nm. The described direct LC method resulted highly specific as a consequence of the baseline separation of the three adenosine nucleotides and could be applied to the determination of the enzymatic activity of ADP/ATP generating or consuming enzymes (such as kinases). Furthermore, comparison of the LOD and LOQ values of the LC method with those obtained with the malachite green assay, which is one of the most used indirect screening methodologies for ATP-ase activity, showed that the LC method has a similar range of application without presenting the drawbacks related to contamination by inorganic phosphate ions and glycerol, which are present in Hsp90 commercial samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural requirements for inhibitory effects of bisphenols on the activity of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Woeste, Matthew; Steller, Jeffrey; Hofmann, Emily; Kidd, Taylor; Patel, Rahul; Connolly, Kevin; Jayasinghe, Manori; Paula, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenols (BPs) are a class of small organic compounds with widespread industrial applications. Previous studies have identified several BPs that interfere with the activity of the ion-translocating enzyme sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). In order to define the molecular determinants of BP-mediated SERCA inhibition, we conducted enzyme activity assays with rabbit SERCA to determine the inhibitory potencies of 27 commercially available BPs, which were the basis for structure-activity relationships. The most potent BPs inhibited SERCA at low micromolar concentrations and carried at their two phenyl rings multiple non-polar substituents, such as small alkyl groups or halides. Furthermore, the presence of methyl groups or a cyclohexyl group at the central carbon atom connecting the two phenyl moieties correlated with good potencies. For a characterization and visualization of inhibitor/enzyme interactions, molecular docking was performed, which suggested that hydrogen bonding with Asp254 and hydrophobic interactions were the major driving forces for BP binding to SERCA. Calcium imaging studies with a selection of BPs showed that these inhibitors were able to increase intracellular calcium levels in living human cells, a behavior consistent with that of a SERCA inhibitor. PMID:23643898

  17. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-12-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines.

  18. Specific Activation of the Plant P-type Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Lysophospholipids Depends on the Autoinhibitory N- and C-terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Wielandt, Alex Green; Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Lund, Anette; Ekberg, Kira; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-06-26

    Eukaryotic P-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases are primary active transport systems that are regulated at the post-translation level by cis-acting autoinhibitory domains, which can be relieved by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation or binding of specific lipid species. Here we show that lysophospholipids specifically activate a plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana AHA2) by a mechanism that involves both cytoplasmic terminal domains of AHA2, whereas they have no effect on the fungal counterpart (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pma1p). The activation was dependent on the glycerol backbone of the lysophospholipid and increased with acyl chain length, whereas the headgroup had little effect on activation. Activation of the plant pump by lysophospholipids did not involve the penultimate residue, Thr-947, which is known to be phosphorylated as part of a binding site for activating 14-3-3 protein, but was critically dependent on a single autoinhibitory residue (Leu-919) upstream of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain in AHA2. A corresponding residue is absent in the fungal counterpart. These data indicate that plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases evolved as specific receptors for lysophospholipids and support the hypothesis that lysophospholipids are important plant signaling molecules. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. LRRK2 phosphorylates pre-synaptic N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion (NSF) protein enhancing its ATPase activity and SNARE complex disassembling rate.

    PubMed

    Belluzzi, Elisa; Gonnelli, Adriano; Cirnaru, Maria-Daniela; Marte, Antonella; Plotegher, Nicoletta; Russo, Isabella; Civiero, Laura; Cogo, Susanna; Carrion, Maria Perèz; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni; Greggio, Elisa

    2016-01-13

    Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson's disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the presynaptic site, LRRK2 associates with synaptic vesicles through interaction with a panel of presynaptic proteins. Here, we show that LRRK2 kinase activity influences the dynamics of synaptic vesicle fusion. We therefore investigated whether LRRK2 phosphorylates component(s) of the exo/endocytosis machinery. We have previously observed that LRRK2 interacts with NSF, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase that couples ATP hydrolysis to the disassembling of SNARE proteins allowing them to enter another fusion cycle during synaptic exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that NSF is a substrate of LRRK2 kinase activity. LRRK2 phosphorylates full-length NSF at threonine 645 in the ATP binding pocket of D2 domain. Functionally, NSF phosphorylated by LRRK2 displays enhanced ATPase activity and increased rate of SNARE complex disassembling. Substitution of threonine 645 with alanine abrogates LRRK2-mediated increased ATPase activity. Given that the most common Parkinson's disease LRRK2 G2019S mutation displays increased kinase activity, our results suggest that mutant LRRK2 may impair synaptic vesicle dynamics via aberrant phosphorylation of NSF.

  20. The yeast H+-ATPase Pma1 promotes Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation in response to H+-coupled nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Elie; Evangelinos, Minoas; Gournas, Christos; Corrillon, Florent; Georis, Isabelle; André, Bruno

    2018-03-23

    The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H + influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H + symporters. H + -dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H + diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H + elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H + -export activity of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control. We find that when the endogenous Pma1 is replaced with a plant H + -ATPase, H + influx or increase fails to activate TORC1. Our results show that H + influx coupled to nutrient uptake stimulates TORC1 activity and that Pma1 is a key actor in this mechanism. © 2018, Saliba et al.

  1. Active compounds in Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products which promote blood circulation via inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tzen, Jason Tc; Chen, Ronald Jy; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Nan-Hei

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cardiac glycosides for congestive heart failure lies in their reversible inhibition on Na+, K+-ATPase located in human myocardium. Several steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides have been found in many Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products conventionally used to promote blood circulation. They are putatively responsible for the therapeutic effect of those medicinal products via the same mechanism of inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase. Inhibitory potency on Na+, K+-ATPase by ginsenosides, one of the identified steroid-like compounds, is significantly affected by sugar attachment that might cause steric hindrance of their binding to Na+, K+-ATPase. Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, substantially inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase. However, their inhibitory potency is abolished when sugar moieties are linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure. In contrast, no appreciable contents of steroid-like compounds are found in danshen, a well-known Chinese herb traditionally regarded as an effective medicine promoting blood circulation. Instead, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB), the major soluble ingredient in danshen, is assumed to be responsible for the therapeutic effect by inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase in a manner comparable to cardiac glycosides. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB against ischemic stroke were accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model. Whether the neuroprotection is also triggered by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase remains to be investigated. Molecular modeling suggests that cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB presumably bind to the same extracellular pocket of the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit.

  2. Migratory urge and gll Na+,K+-ATPase activity of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts from the Dennys and Penobscot River stocks, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Randall C.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.

    2010-01-01

    Hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts produced from captive-reared Dennys River and sea-run Penobscot River broodstock are released into their source rivers in Maine. The adult return rate of Dennys smolts is comparatively low, and disparity in smolt quality between stocks resulting from genetic or broodstock rearing effects is plausible. Smolt behavior and physiology were assessed during sequential 14-d trials conducted in seminatural annular tanks with circular flow. “Migratory urge” (downstream movement) was monitored remotely using passive integrated transponder tags, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was measured at the beginning and end of the trials to provide an index of smolt development. The migratory urge of both stocks was low in early April, increased 20-fold through late May, and declined by the end of June. The frequency and seasonal distribution of downstream movement were independent of stock. In March and April, initial gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities of Penobscot River smolts were lower than those of Dennys River smolts. For these trials, however, Penobscot River smolts increased enzyme activity after exposure to the tank, whereas Dennys River smolts did not, resulting in similar activities between stocks at the end of all trials. There was no clear relationship between migratory urge and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of both stocks increased in advance of migratory urge and then declined while migratory urge was increasing. Maximum movement was observed from 2 h after sunset through 1 h after sunrise but varied seasonally. Dennys River smolts were slightly more nocturnal than Penobscot River smolts. These data suggest that Dennys and Penobscot River stocks are not markedly different in either physiological or behavioral expression of smolting.

  3. Mutating the converter-relay interface of Drosophila myosin perturbs ATPase activity, actin motility, myofibril stability and flight ability.

    PubMed

    Kronert, William A; Melkani, Girish C; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2010-05-21

    We used an integrative approach to probe the significance of the interaction between the relay loop and converter domain of the myosin molecular motor from Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle. During the myosin mechanochemical cycle, ATP-induced twisting of the relay loop is hypothesized to reposition the converter, resulting in cocking of the contiguous lever arm into the pre-power stroke configuration. The subsequent movement of the lever arm through its power stroke generates muscle contraction by causing myosin heads to pull on actin filaments. We generated a transgenic line expressing myosin with a mutation in the converter domain (R759E) at a site of relay loop interaction. Molecular modeling suggests that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain of R759E myosin would be significantly disrupted during the mechanochemical cycle. The mutation depressed calcium as well as basal and actin-activated MgATPase (V(max)) by approximately 60% compared to wild-type myosin, but there is no change in apparent actin affinity (K(m)). While ATP or AMP-PNP (adenylyl-imidodiphosphate) binding to wild-type myosin subfragment-1 enhanced tryptophan fluorescence by approximately 15% or approximately 8%, respectively, enhancement does not occur in the mutant. This suggests that the mutation reduces lever arm movement. The mutation decreases in vitro motility of actin filaments by approximately 35%. Mutant pupal indirect flight muscles display normal myofibril assembly, myofibril shape, and double-hexagonal arrangement of thick and thin filaments. Two-day-old fibers have occasional "cracking" of the crystal-like array of myofilaments. Fibers from 1-week-old adults show more severe cracking and frayed myofibrils with some disruption of the myofilament lattice. Flight ability is reduced in 2-day-old flies compared to wild-type controls, with no upward mobility but some horizontal flight. In 1-week-old adults, flight capability is lost. Thus, altered myosin

  4. Clustering of ABCB1 and CYP2C19 Genetic Variants Predicts Risk of Major Bleeding and Thrombotic Events in Elderly Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Receiving Dual Antiplatelet Therapy with Aspirin and Clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, Roberta; Olivieri, Fabiola; Spazzafumo, Liana; Rose, Giuseppina; Montesanto, Alberto; Giovagnetti, Simona; Cecchini, Sara; Malatesta, Gelsomina; Di Pillo, Raffaele; Antonicelli, Roberto

    2018-06-23

    The clinical efficacy of clopidogrel in secondary prevention of vascular events is hampered by marked inter-patient variability in drug response, which partially depends on genetic make-up. The aim of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate 12-month cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) according to the clustering of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genetic variants. Participants were 100 consecutive ACS patients who were genotyped for CYP2C19 (G681A and C-806T) and ABCB1 (C3435T) polymorphisms, which affect clopidogrel metabolism and bioavailability, using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. They were then grouped as poor, extensive and ultra-rapid metabolisers based on the combination of CYP2C19 loss-of-function (CYP2C19*2) and gain-of-function (CYP2C19*17) alleles and ABCB1 alleles. The predictive value of each phenotype for acute vascular events was estimated based on 12-month cardiovascular outcomes. The poor metabolisers were at an increased risk of thrombotic events (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.099-1.45; χ 2  = 5.676; p = 0.027), whereas the ultra-rapid metabolisers had a 1.31-fold increased risk of bleeding events compared with the poor and extensive metabolisers (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.033-1.67; χ 2  = 5.676; p = 0.048). Logistic regression model, including age, sex, BMI and smoking habit, confirmed the differential risk of major events in low and ultra-rapid metabolisers. Our findings suggest that ACS patients classified as 'poor or ultra-rapid' metabolisers based on CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes should receive alternative antiplatelet therapies to clopidogrel.

  5. Biochar and lignite affect H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities in root tonoplast and nutrient contents of mung bean under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Torabian, Shahram; Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Rathjen, Judith

    2018-05-31

    This research was conducted to evaluate effects of biochar (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) and lignite (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) treatments on H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activity of root tonoplast, nutrient content, and performance of mung bean under salt stress. High saline conditions increased H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities in root tonoplast, sodium (Na) content, reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ) generation, relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity in root and leaf, but decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content index, leaf area, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content of plant tissues, root and shoot dry weight of mung bean. Lignite and biochar treatments decreased the H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities of root tonoplast under salt stress. Moreover, these treatments increased the cation exchange capacity of soil and nutrient values in plant tissues. Biochar and lignite diminished the generation of reactive oxygen species and DPPH activity in root and leaf cells, and these superior effects improved chlorophyll content index, leaf area and growth of mung bean under both conditions. In general, the results of this study demonstrated that biochar and lignite decreased the entry of Na ion into the cells, enriched plant cells with nutrients, and consequently improved mung bean performance under salt toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Entropically Driven Conformation-specific Interactions with Tomm34 Protein Modulate Hsp70 Protein Folding and ATPase Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Durech, Michal; Trcka, Filip; Man, Petr; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Hernychova, Lenka; Dvorakova, Petra; Coufalova, Dominika; Kavan, Daniel; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Muller, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Co-chaperones containing tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains enable cooperation between Hsp70 and Hsp90 to maintain cellular proteostasis. Although the details of the molecular interactions between some TPR domains and heat shock proteins are known, we describe a novel mechanism by which Tomm34 interacts with and coordinates Hsp70 activities. In contrast to the previously defined Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop), Tomm34 interaction is dependent on the Hsp70 chaperone cycle. Tomm34 binds Hsp70 in a complex process; anchorage of the Hsp70 C terminus by the TPR1 domain is accompanied by additional contacts formed exclusively in the ATP-bound state of Hsp70 resulting in a high affinity entropically driven interaction. Tomm34 induces structural changes in determinants within the Hsp70-lid subdomain and modulates Hsp70/Hsp40-mediated refolding and Hsp40-stimulated Hsp70 ATPase activity. Because Tomm34 recruits Hsp90 through its TPR2 domain, we propose a model in which Tomm34 enables Hsp70/Hsp90 scaffolding and influences the Hsp70 chaperone cycle, providing an additional role for co-chaperones that contain multiple TPR domains in regulating protein homeostasis. PMID:26944342

  7. The influence of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 3A5 and ABCB1 on starting dose- and weight-standardized tacrolimus trough concentrations after kidney transplantation in relation to renal function.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Michel; Wallemacq, Pierre; De Meyer, Martine; Brandt, Dimitri; Van Kerkhove, Valérie; Malaise, Jacques; Chaïb Eddour, Djamila; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) and ABCB1 polymorphisms have been shown to influence tacrolimus (Tc) blood concentrations in the stable phase after organ transplantation. We hypothesized that Tc pharmacokinetics may be affected by genetic mutations subsequent to starting doses. We retrospectively analyzed data from a cohort of 59 kidney transplant recipients, in whom CYP3A5 (intron 3) and ABCB1 (exons 12, 21 and 26) genotypes were correlated to dose- and weight-standardized Tc trough concentrations obtained after initial Tc doses. Renal function, expressed as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (MDRD equation), on days 7 and 14 after transplantation was evaluated and its relationship with Tc concentrations was analyzed. Dose- and weight-standardized Tc trough concentrations were lower in patients carrying the CYP3A5 *1 allele (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant association with ABCB1 polymorphisms. In a multivariate analysis, both the presence of at least one CYP3A5 *1 allele (p=0.006) and age at the time of transplantation (p=0.010) were significant independent variables affecting Tc trough blood concentrations standardized to the first dosages (model r2=0.23). GFR was not affected by Tc concentrations. Prospective trials are needed to prove that a genetic approach to Tc pharmacokinetics and its related side effects during the early period after grafting may improve patient outcome.

  8. Beneficial effects of gamma linolenic acid supplementation on nerve conduction velocity, Na+, K+ ATPase activity, and membrane fatty acid composition in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coste, T; Pierlovisi, M; Leonardi, J; Dufayet, D; Gerbi, A; Lafont, H; Vague, P; Raccah, D

    1999-07-01

    Metabolic and vascular abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Two principal metabolic defects are altered lipid metabolism resulting from the impairment of delta-6-desaturase, which converts linoleic acid (LA) into gamma linolenic acid (GLA), and reduced nerve Na+, K+ ATPase activity. This reduction may be caused by a lack of incorporation of (n-6) fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. Because this ubiquitous enzyme maintains the membrane electrical potential and allows repolarization, disturbances in its activity can alter the process of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We studied the effects of supplementation with GLA (260 mg per day) on NCV, fatty acid phospholipid composition, and Na+, K+ ATPase activity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Six groups of 10 rats were studied. Two groups served as controls supplemented with GLA or sunflower oil (GLA free). Two groups with different durations of diabetes were studied: 6 weeks with no supplementation and 12 weeks supplemented with sunflower oil. To test the ability of GLA to prevent or reverse the effects of diabetes, two groups of diabetic rats were supplemented with GLA, one group for 12 weeks and one group for 6 weeks, starting 6 weeks after diabetes induction. Diabetes resulted in a 25% decrease in NCV (P < 0.0001), a 45% decrease in Na+, K+ ATPase activity (P < 0.0001), and an abnormal phospholipid fatty acid composition. GLA restored NCV both in the prevention and reversal studies and partially restored Na+, K+ ATPase activity in the preventive treatment group (P < 0.0001). These effects were accompanied by a modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes. Overall, the results suggest that membrane fatty acid composition plays a direct role in NCV and confirm the beneficial effect of GLA supplementation in diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Spa47 Provides Mechanistic Insight into Type III Secretion System ATPase Activation and Shigella Virulence Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jamie L.; Burgess, R. Alan; Morales, Yalemi; Bouvang, Jenna M.; Johnson, Sean J.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Like many Gram-negative pathogens, Shigella rely on a complex type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into host cells, take over host functions, and ultimately establish infection. Despite these critical roles, the energetics and regulatory mechanisms controlling the T3SS and pathogen virulence remain largely unclear. In this study, we present a series of high resolution crystal structures of Spa47 and use the structures to model an activated Spa47 oligomer, finding that ATP hydrolysis may be supported by specific side chain contributions from adjacent protomers within the complex. Follow-up mutagenesis experiments targeting the predicted active site residues validate the oligomeric model and determined that each of the tested residues are essential for Spa47 ATPase activity, although they are not directly responsible for stable oligomer formation. Although N-terminal domain truncation was necessary for crystal formation, it resulted in strictly monomeric Spa47 that is unable to hydrolyze ATP, despite maintaining the canonical ATPase core structure and active site residues. Coupled with studies of ATPase inactive full-length Spa47 point mutants, we find that Spa47 oligomerization and ATP hydrolysis are needed for complete T3SS apparatus formation, a proper translocator secretion profile, and Shigella virulence. This work represents the first structure-function characterization of Spa47, uniquely complementing the multitude of included Shigella T3SS phenotype assays and providing a more complete understanding of T3SS ATPase-mediated pathogen virulence. Additionally, these findings provide a strong platform for follow-up studies evaluating regulation of Spa47 oligomerization in vivo as a much needed means of treating and perhaps preventing shigellosis. PMID:27770024

  10. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Spa47 Provides Mechanistic Insight into Type III Secretion System ATPase Activation and Shigella Virulence Regulation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jamie L; Burgess, R Alan; Morales, Yalemi; Bouvang, Jenna M; Johnson, Sean J; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-12-09

    Like many Gram-negative pathogens, Shigella rely on a complex type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into host cells, take over host functions, and ultimately establish infection. Despite these critical roles, the energetics and regulatory mechanisms controlling the T3SS and pathogen virulence remain largely unclear. In this study, we present a series of high resolution crystal structures of Spa47 and use the structures to model an activated Spa47 oligomer, finding that ATP hydrolysis may be supported by specific side chain contributions from adjacent protomers within the complex. Follow-up mutagenesis experiments targeting the predicted active site residues validate the oligomeric model and determined that each of the tested residues are essential for Spa47 ATPase activity, although they are not directly responsible for stable oligomer formation. Although N-terminal domain truncation was necessary for crystal formation, it resulted in strictly monomeric Spa47 that is unable to hydrolyze ATP, despite maintaining the canonical ATPase core structure and active site residues. Coupled with studies of ATPase inactive full-length Spa47 point mutants, we find that Spa47 oligomerization and ATP hydrolysis are needed for complete T3SS apparatus formation, a proper translocator secretion profile, and Shigella virulence. This work represents the first structure-function characterization of Spa47, uniquely complementing the multitude of included Shigella T3SS phenotype assays and providing a more complete understanding of T3SS ATPase-mediated pathogen virulence. Additionally, these findings provide a strong platform for follow-up studies evaluating regulation of Spa47 oligomerization in vivo as a much needed means of treating and perhaps preventing shigellosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Uncoupling of attenuated myo-(3H)inositol uptake and dysfunction in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in hypergalactosemic cultured bovine lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, P.R.; Tse, D.; Yorio, T.

    1991-06-01

    Attenuation of both the active transport of myo-inositol and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity has been implicated in the onset of sugar cataract and other diabetic complications in cell culture and animal models of the disease. Cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) maintained in galactose-free Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) or 40 mM galactose with and without sorbinil for up to 5 days were examined to determine the temporal effects of hypergalactosemia on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and myo-inositol uptake. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity after 5 days of continuous exposure to galactose did not change, as demonstrated by 86Rb uptake. The uptake of myo-(3H)inositol wasmore » lowered after 20 h of incubation in galactose and remained below that of the control throughout the 5-day exposure period. The coadministration of sorbinil to the galactose medium normalized the myo-(3H)inositol uptake. No significant difference in the rates of passive efflux of myo-(3H)inositol or 86Rb from preloaded galactose-treated and control cultures was observed. Culture-media reversal studies were also carried out to determine whether the galactose-induced dysfunction in myo-inositol uptake could be corrected. BLECs were incubated in galactose for 5 days, then changed to galactose-free physiological medium with and without sorbinil for a 1-day recovery period. myo-Inositol uptake was reduced to 34% of control after 6 days of continuous exposure to galactose. Within 24 h of media reversal, myo-inositol uptake returned to or exceeded control values in BLECs switched to either MEM or MEM with sorbinil.2+ reversible and occurred independently of changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in cultured lens epithelium, indicating that the two parameters are not strictly associated and that the deficit in myo-inositol uptake occurs rapidly during hypergalactosemia.« less

  12. Reactivation of the chloroplast CF1-ATPase beta subunit by trace amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit suggests a chaperonin-like activity for CF1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Avni, A; Avital, S; Gromet-Elhanan, Z

    1991-04-25

    Incubation of tobacco and lettuce thylakoids with 2 M LiCl in the presence of MgATP removes the beta subunit from their CF1-ATPase (CF1 beta) together with varying amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit (CF1 alpha). These 2 M LiCl extracts, as with the one obtained from spinach thylakoids (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072), could form active hybrid ATPases when reconstituted into inactive beta-less Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. Pure CF1 beta fractions that have been isolated from these extracts could not form such active hybrids by themselves, but could do so when supplemented with trace amounts (less than 5%) of CF1 alpha. A mitochondrial F1-ATPase alpha subunit was recently reported to be a heat-shock protein, having two amino acid sequences that show a highly conserved identity with sequences found in molecular chaperones (Luis, A. M., Alconada, A., and Cuezva, J. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7713-7716). These sequences are also conserved in CF1 alpha isolated from various plants, but not in F1 beta subunits. The above described reactivation of CF1 beta by trace amounts of CF1 alpha could thus be due to a chaperonin-like function of CF1 alpha, which involves the correct, active folding of isolated pure CF1 beta.

  13. Beating oxygen: chronic anoxia exposure reduces mitochondrial F1FO-ATPase activity in turtle (Trachemys scripta) heart

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Gina L. J.; Lau, Gigi Y.; Richards, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta can survive in the complete absence of O2 (anoxia) for periods lasting several months. In mammals, anoxia leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which culminates in cellular necrosis and apoptosis. Despite the obvious clinical benefits of understanding anoxia tolerance, little is known about the effects of chronic oxygen deprivation on the function of turtle mitochondria. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in hearts of T. scripta exposed to either normoxia or 2 weeks of complete anoxia at 5°C and during simulated acute anoxia/reoxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration, electron transport chain activities, enzyme activities, proton conductance and membrane potential were measured in permeabilised cardiac fibres and isolated mitochondria. Two weeks of anoxia exposure at 5°C resulted in an increase in lactate, and decreases in ATP, glycogen, pH and phosphocreatine in the heart. Mitochondrial proton conductance and membrane potential were similar between experimental groups, while aerobic capacity was dramatically reduced. The reduced aerobic capacity was the result of a severe downregulation of the F1FO-ATPase (Complex V), which we assessed as a decrease in enzyme activity. Furthermore, in stark contrast to mammalian paradigms, isolated turtle heart mitochondria endured 20 min of anoxia followed by reoxygenation without any impact on subsequent ADP-stimulated O2 consumption (State III respiration) or State IV respiration. Results from this study demonstrate that turtle mitochondria remodel in response to chronic anoxia exposure and a reduction in Complex V activity is a fundamental component of mitochondrial and cellular anoxia survival. PMID:23926310

  14. The Na+/K+-ATPase and the amyloid-beta peptide aβ1-40 control the cellular distribution, abundance and activity of TRPC6 channels.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Sylvain; Boonen, Marielle; Chevallet, Mireille; Jarvis, Louis; Abebe, Addis; Benharouga, Mohamed; Faller, Peter; Jadot, Michel; Bouron, Alexandre

    2015-11-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase interacts with the non-selective cation channels TRPC6 but the functional consequences of this association are unknown. Experiments performed with HEK cells over-expressing TRPC6 channels showed that inhibiting the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with ouabain reduced the amount of TRPC6 proteins and depressed Ca(2+) entry through TRPC6. This effect, not mimicked by membrane depolarization with KCl, was abolished by sucrose and bafilomycin-A, and was partially sensitive to the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA/AM. Biotinylation and subcellular fractionation experiments showed that ouabain caused a multifaceted redistribution of TRPC6 to the plasma membrane and to an endo/lysosomal compartment where they were degraded. The amyloid beta peptide Aβ(1-40), another inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, but not the shorter peptide Aβ1-16, reduced TRPC6 protein levels and depressed TRPC6-mediated responses. In cortical neurons from embryonic mice, ouabain, veratridine (an opener of voltage-gated Na(+) channel), and Aβ(1-40) reduced TRPC6-mediated Ca(2+) responses whereas Aβ(1-16) was ineffective. Furthermore, when Aβ(1-40) was co-added together with zinc acetate it could no longer control TRPC6 activity. Altogether, this work shows the existence of a functional coupling between the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and TRPC6. It also suggests that the abundance, distribution and activity of TRPC6 can be regulated by cardiotonic steroids like ouabain and the naturally occurring peptide Aβ(1-40) which underlines the pathophysiological significance of these processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Low pH-Induced Changes of Antioxidant Enzyme and ATPase Activities in the Roots of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Kai; Zhu, De-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hui-Zhe; Xiang, Jing; Lin, Xian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification is the main problem in the current rice production. Here, the effects of low pH on the root growth, reactive oxygen species metabolism, plasma membrane functions, and the transcript levels of the related genes were investigated in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) in a hydroponic system at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. There were two hybrid rice cultivars in this trial, including Yongyou 12 (YY12, a japonica hybrid) and Zhongzheyou 1 (ZZY1, an indica hybrid). Higher H+ activity markedly decreased root length, the proportion of fine roots, and dry matter production, but induced a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and led to serious lipid peroxidation in the roots of the two varieties. The transcript levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn SOD1), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 2 (Cu/Zn SOD2), catalase A (CATA) and catalase B (CATB) genes in YY12 and ZZY1 roots were significantly down-regulated after low pH exposure for two weeks. Meanwhile, a significant decrease was observed in the expression of the P-type Ca2+-ATPases in roots at pH 3.5. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT) and plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+-ATPase in the two varieties were dramatically inhibited by strong rhizosphere acidification. However, the expression levels of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) and PM H+-ATPase isoform 7 were up-regulated under H+ stress compared with the control. Significantly higher activities of APX and PM H+-ATPase could contribute to the adaptation of rice roots to low pH. PMID:25719552

  16. Modulation of Mrp1 (ABCc1) and Pgp (ABCb1) by Bilirubin at the Blood-CSF and Blood-Brain Barriers in the Gunn Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gazzin, Silvia; Berengeno, Andrea Lorena; Strazielle, Nathalie; Fazzari, Francesco; Raseni, Alan; Ostrow, J. Donald; Wennberg, Richard; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in the brain causes bilirubin encephalopathy. Pgp (ABCb1) and Mrp1 (ABCc1), highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) respectively, may modulate the accumulation of UCB in brain. We examined the effect of prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of UCB on expression of the two transporters in homozygous, jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats compared to heterozygous, not jaundiced (Jj) littermates at different developmental stages (2, 9, 17 and 60 days after birth). BBB Pgp protein expression was low in both jj and Jj pups at 9 days (about 16–27% of adult values), despite the up-regulation in jj animals (2 and 1.3 fold higher than age matched Jj animals at P9 and P17–P60, respectively); Mrp1 protein expression was barely detectable. Conversely, at the BCSFB Mrp1 protein expression was rather high (60–70% of the adult values) in both jj and Jj at P2, but was markedly (50%) down-regulated in jj pups starting at P9, particularly in the 4th ventricle choroid plexuses: Pgp was almost undetectable. The Mrp1 protein down regulation was accompanied by a modest up-regulation of mRNA, suggesting a translational rather than a transcriptional inhibition. In vitro exposure of choroid plexus epithelial cells obtained from normal rats to UCB, also resulted in a down-regulation of Mrp1 protein. These data suggest that down-regulation of Mrp1 protein at the BSCFB, resulting from a direct effect of UCB on epithelial cells, may impact the Mrp1-mediated neuroprotective functions of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and actually potentiate UCB neurotoxicity. PMID:21297965

  17. Modulation of Mrp1 (ABCc1) and Pgp (ABCb1) by bilirubin at the blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers in the Gunn rat.

    PubMed

    Gazzin, Silvia; Berengeno, Andrea Lorena; Strazielle, Nathalie; Fazzari, Francesco; Raseni, Alan; Ostrow, J Donald; Wennberg, Richard; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2011-01-31

    Accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in the brain causes bilirubin encephalopathy. Pgp (ABCb1) and Mrp1 (ABCc1), highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) respectively, may modulate the accumulation of UCB in brain. We examined the effect of prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of UCB on expression of the two transporters in homozygous, jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats compared to heterozygous, not jaundiced (Jj) littermates at different developmental stages (2, 9, 17 and 60 days after birth). BBB Pgp protein expression was low in both jj and Jj pups at 9 days (about 16-27% of adult values), despite the up-regulation in jj animals (2 and 1.3 fold higher than age matched Jj animals at P9 and P17-P60, respectively); Mrp1 protein expression was barely detectable. Conversely, at the BCSFB Mrp1 protein expression was rather high (60-70% of the adult values) in both jj and Jj at P2, but was markedly (50%) down-regulated in jj pups starting at P9, particularly in the 4(th) ventricle choroid plexuses: Pgp was almost undetectable. The Mrp1 protein down regulation was accompanied by a modest up-regulation of mRNA, suggesting a translational rather than a transcriptional inhibition. In vitro exposure of choroid plexus epithelial cells obtained from normal rats to UCB, also resulted in a down-regulation of Mrp1 protein. These data suggest that down-regulation of Mrp1 protein at the BSCFB, resulting from a direct effect of UCB on epithelial cells, may impact the Mrp1-mediated neuroprotective functions of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and actually potentiate UCB neurotoxicity.

  18. Freshwater to seawater acclimation of juvenile bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas): plasma osmolytes and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in gill, rectal gland, kidney and intestine.

    PubMed

    Pillans, Richard D; Good, Jonathan P; Anderson, W Gary; Hazon, Neil; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the osmoregulatory status of the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas acclimated to freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW). Juvenile C. leucas captured in FW (3 mOsm l(-1) kg(-1)) were acclimated to SW (980-1,000 mOsm l(-1) kg(-1)) over 16 days. A FW group was maintained in captivity over a similar time period. In FW, bull sharks were hyper-osmotic regulators, having a plasma osmolarity of 595 mOsm l(-1) kg(-1). In SW, bull sharks had significantly higher plasma osmolarities (940 mOsm l(-1) kg(-1)) than FW-acclimated animals and were slightly hypo-osmotic to the environment. Plasma Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), urea and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) concentrations were all significantly higher in bull sharks acclimated to SW, with urea and TMAO showing the greatest increase. Gill, rectal gland, kidney and intestinal tissue were taken from animals acclimated to FW and SW and analysed for maximal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the gills and intestine was less than 1 mmol Pi mg(-1) protein h(-1) and there was no difference in activity between FW- and SW-acclimated animals. In contrast Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the rectal gland and kidney were significantly higher than gill and intestine and showed significant differences between the FW- and SW-acclimated groups. In FW and SW, rectal gland Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was 5.6+/-0.8 and 9.2+/-0.6 mmol Pi mg(-1) protein h(-1), respectively. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the kidney of FW and SW acclimated animals was 8.4+/-1.1 and 3.3+/-1.1 Pi mg(-1) protein h(-1), respectively. Thus juvenile bull sharks have the osmoregulatory plasticity to acclimate to SW; their preference for the upper reaches of rivers where salinity is low is therefore likely to be for predator avoidance and/or increased food abundance rather than because of a physiological constraint.

  19. P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) limits the brain distribution of YQA-14, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Li, Zheng; Li, Jin; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2015-01-01

    YQA-14 is a promising agent for treating addiction to cocaine and opioids. However, previous studies have showed there is marked contrast between the relatively small differences in pharmacological action in vivo and the large differences in their respective receptor binding properties in vitro. We hypothesized that the conflict between the in vivo and in vitro outcomes was attributable to poor brain exposure to YQA-14 caused by drug efflux transporters. To address this issue, we investigated the directional flux of YQA-14 across Caco-2 cells at 37°C or 4°C and the bidirectional transport in the presence and absence of transporter chemical inhibitors. These phenomena were further investigated by an in vivo determination of the brain and blood pharmacokinetics (PK) profile of YQA-14 following intraperitoneal administration with and without inhibitor. The efflux ratio of YQA-14 on Caco-2 cell monolayers was 2.39 and the efflux was temperature-dependent. When co-incubated with GF120918 or LY335979, the efflux of YQA-14 was markedly decreased. However, there was no significant difference in the permeability of YQA-14 when the cells were treated with Ko143. In vivo experiments showed that the brain-to-plasma ratio increased by more than 75-fold and 20-fold with co-administration of GF120918 and LY335979, respectively. Use of Ko143 did not change the brain-to-blood ratio of YQA-14. The results indicate that the brain distribution of YQA-14 was restricted because of active efflux transport at the blood brain barrier. In addition, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) played a dominant role in limiting the distribution of YQA-14 to the brain.

  20. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K; Bindics, János; Slusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-11-11

    Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases such as cancer. However, active mechanisms of centromere disassembly are unknown. Nondividing Arabidopsis pollen vegetative cells, which transport engulfed sperm by extended tip growth, undergo loss of CenH3; centromeric heterochromatin decondensation; and bulk activation of silent rRNA genes, accompanied by their translocation into the nucleolus. Here, we show that these processes are blocked by mutations in the evolutionarily conserved AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone, CDC48A, homologous to yeast Cdc48 and human p97 proteins, both of which are implicated in ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted protein degradation. We demonstrate that CDC48A physically associates with its heterodimeric cofactor UFD1-NPL4, known to bind ubiquitin and SUMO, as well as with SUMO1-modified CenH3 and mutations in NPL4 phenocopy cdc48a mutations. In WT vegetative cell nuclei, genetically unlinked ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are uniquely clustered together within the nucleolus and all major rRNA gene variants, including those rDNA variants silenced in leaves, are transcribed. In cdc48a mutant vegetative cell nuclei, however, these rDNA loci frequently colocalized with condensed centromeric heterochromatin at the external periphery of the nucleolus. Our results indicate that the CDC48A(NPL4) complex actively removes sumoylated CenH3 from centromeres and disrupts centromeric heterochromatin to release bulk rRNA genes into the nucleolus for ribosome production, which fuels single nucleus-driven pollen tube growth and is essential for plant reproduction.

  1. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K.; Bindics, János; Ślusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases such as cancer. However, active mechanisms of centromere disassembly are unknown. Nondividing Arabidopsis pollen vegetative cells, which transport engulfed sperm by extended tip growth, undergo loss of CenH3; centromeric heterochromatin decondensation; and bulk activation of silent rRNA genes, accompanied by their translocation into the nucleolus. Here, we show that these processes are blocked by mutations in the evolutionarily conserved AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone, CDC48A, homologous to yeast Cdc48 and human p97 proteins, both of which are implicated in ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted protein degradation. We demonstrate that CDC48A physically associates with its heterodimeric cofactor UFD1-NPL4, known to bind ubiquitin and SUMO, as well as with SUMO1-modified CenH3 and mutations in NPL4 phenocopy cdc48a mutations. In WT vegetative cell nuclei, genetically unlinked ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are uniquely clustered together within the nucleolus and all major rRNA gene variants, including those rDNA variants silenced in leaves, are transcribed. In cdc48a mutant vegetative cell nuclei, however, these rDNA loci frequently colocalized with condensed centromeric heterochromatin at the external periphery of the nucleolus. Our results indicate that the CDC48ANPL4 complex actively removes sumoylated CenH3 from centromeres and disrupts centromeric heterochromatin to release bulk rRNA genes into the nucleolus for ribosome production, which fuels single nucleus-driven pollen tube growth and is essential for plant reproduction. PMID:25344531

  2. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-α-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Morimoto, Kyoko; Oshima, Nana; Yamada, Yuriko; Fu, Liwei; Taketani, Shigeru; Ando, Masayoshi; Kataoka, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-α-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24970122

  3. Osmoregulation in Lilium Pollen Grains Occurs via Modulation of the Plasma Membrane H+ ATPase Activity by 14-3-3 Proteins1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pertl, Heidi; Pöckl, Magdalena; Blaschke, Christian; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    To allow successful germination and growth of a pollen tube, mature and dehydrated pollen grains (PGs) take up water and have to adjust their turgor pressure according to the water potential of the surrounding stigma surface. The turgor pressure of PGs of lily (Lilium longiflorum) was measured with a modified pressure probe for simultaneous recordings of turgor pressure and membrane potential to investigate the relation between water and electrogenic ion transport in osmoregulation. Upon hyperosmolar shock, the turgor pressure decreased, and the plasma membrane (PM) hyperpolarizes in parallel, whereas depolarization of the PM was observed with hypoosmolar treatment. An acidification and alkalinization of the external medium was monitored after hyper- and hypoosmotic treatments, respectively, and pH changes were blocked by vanadate, indicating a putative role of the PM H+ ATPase. Indeed, an increase in PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins and an increase in PM H+ ATPase activity were detected in PGs challenged by hyperosmolar medium. We therefore suggest that in PGs the PM H+ ATPase via modulation of its activity by 14-3-3 proteins is involved in the regulation of turgor pressure. PMID:20974894

  4. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The VPH1 gene encodes a 95-kDa integral membrane polypeptide required for in vivo assembly and activity of the yeast vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Manolson, M F; Proteau, D; Preston, R A; Stenbit, A; Roberts, B T; Hoyt, M A; Preuss, D; Mulholland, J; Botstein, D; Jones, E W

    1992-07-15

    Yeast vacuolar acidification-defective (vph) mutants were identified using the pH-sensitive fluorescence of 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (Preston, R. A., Murphy, R. F., and Jones, E. W. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 7027-7031). Vacuoles purified from yeast bearing the vph1-1 mutation had no detectable bafilomycin-sensitive ATPase activity or ATP-dependent proton pumping. The peripherally bound nucleotide-binding subunits of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (60 and 69 kDa) were no longer associated with vacuolar membranes yet were present in wild type levels in yeast whole cell extracts. The VPH1 gene was cloned by complementation of the vph1-1 mutation and independently cloned by screening a lambda gt11 expression library with antibodies directed against a 95-kDa vacuolar integral membrane protein. Deletion disruption of the VPH1 gene revealed that the VPH1 gene is not essential for viability but is required for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase assembly and vacuolar acidification. VPH1 encodes a predicted polypeptide of 840 amino acid residues (molecular mass 95.6 kDa) and contains six putative membrane-spanning regions. Cell fractionation and immunodetection demonstrate that Vph1p is a vacuolar integral membrane protein that co-purifies with vacuolar H(+)-ATPase activity. Multiple sequence alignments show extensive homology over the entire lengths of the following four polypeptides: Vph1p, the 116-kDa polypeptide of the rat clathrin-coated vesicles/synaptic vesicle proton pump, the predicted polypeptide encoded by the yeast gene STV1 (Similar To VPH1, identified as an open reading frame next to the BUB2 gene), and the TJ6 mouse immune suppressor factor.

  6. Preliminary Studies of Acute Cadmium Administration Effects on the Calcium-Activated Potassium (SKCa and BKCa) Channels and Na+/K+-ATPase Activity in Isolated Aortic Rings of Rats.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Dalton V; Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Teixeira, Ariane Calazans; da Silva, David Chaves F; Angeli, Jhuli K; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2018-06-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na + /K + -ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K + channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation. After L-NAME addition, the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was abolished in presence or absence of cadmium, suggesting that acutely, this metal did not change NO release. However, tetraethylammonium (a nonselective K + channels blocker) reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation but this effect was lower in the preparations with cadmium, suggesting a decrease of K + channels function in acetylcholine response after cadmium incubation. Apamin (a selective blocker of small Ca 2+ -activated K + channels-SK Ca ), iberiotoxin (a selective blocker of large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channels-BK Ca ), and verapamil (a blocker of calcium channel) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation only in the absence of cadmium. Finally, cadmium decreases Na + /K + -ATPase activity. Our results provide evidence that the cadmium acute incubation unaffected the calcium-activated potassium channels (SK Ca and BK Ca ) and voltage-calcium channels on the acetylcholine vasodilatation. In addition, acute cadmium incubation seems to reduce the Na + /K + -ATPase activity.

  7. The B2 Alternatively Spliced Isoform of Nonmuscle Myosin II-B Lacks Actin-activated MgATPase Activity and In Vitro Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kye-Young; Kawamoto, Sachiyo; Bao, Jianjun; Sellers, James R.; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    We report the initial biochemical characterization of an alternatively spliced isoform of nonmuscle heavy meromyosin (HMM) II-B2 and compare it with HMM II-B0, the non-spliced isoform. HMM II-B2 is the HMM derivative of an alternatively spliced isoform of endogenous nonmuscle myosin (NM) II-B, which has 21-amino acids inserted into loop 2, near the actin-binding region. NM II-B2 is expressed in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum as well as in other neuronal cells (Ma et al., Mol. Biol. Cell 15 (2006) 2138-2149). In contrast to any of the previously described isoforms of NM II (II-A, II-B0, II-B1, II-C0 and II-C1) or to smooth muscle myosin, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of HMM II-B2 is not significantly increased from a low, basal level by phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain (MLC-20). Moreover, although HMM II-B2 can bind to actin in the absence of ATP and is released in its presence, it cannot propel actin in the sliding actin filament assay following MLC-20 phosphorylation. Unlike HMM II-B2, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of a chimeric HMM with the 21-amino acids II-B2 sequence inserted into the homologous location in the heavy chain of HMM II-C is increased following MLC-20 phosphorylation. This indicates that the effect of the II-B2 insert is myosin heavy chain specific. PMID:18060863

  8. The H+/K+-ATPase inhibitory activities of Trametenolic acid B from Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, and its effects on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Huang, Nianyu; Wang, Junzhi; Luo, Huajun; He, Haibo; Ding, Mingruo; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zou, Kun

    2013-09-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB), the bioactive component in the Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, was reported to possess cytotoxic activities and thrombin inhibiting effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of TAB on H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and gastric cancer. The H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity was determined by gastric parietal cells. Compared to the normal control group, TAB (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL) inhibited the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by 15.97, 16.96, 24.86 and 16.25%, respectively. In the study, 36 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, TAB-L (TAB, 5 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-M (TAB, 20 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-H (TAB, 40 mg/kg/day, i.g.) and omeprazole (OL, 10 mg/kg/day, i.g.). All mice except the control group were administrated with anhydrous alcohol (5.0 mL/kg, i.g.) for induced gastric-ulcer 1h after the 5th day. At the same time, the control mice were given the same volume of physiological saline. After 4h, TAB was evaluated for H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of ulcerative gaster, gastric ulcer index and ulcer inhibition. In vitro, the anti-proliferation effect of TAB to gastric cancer cell (HGC-27) in acid environment was detected by MTT, and the apoptosis morphological changes were also observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. The results indicated that TAB inhibited moderately H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro. Compared to the model group, TAB showed anti-ulcer effects in gastric tissue with the dosages of 20 and 5 mg/kg in vivo. Apart from that, TAB could selectively inhibit gastric cancer cell viability and reduce cell apoptosis against HGC-27 cells at low doses in acid environment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The quantal nature of calcium release to caffeine in single smooth muscle cells results from activation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, J M; Fay, F S

    1996-01-26

    Calcium release from intracellular stores occurs in a graded manner in response to increasing concentrations of either inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or caffeine. To investigate the mechanism responsible for this quantal release phenomenon, [Ca2+] changes inside intracellular stores in isolated single smooth muscle cells were monitored with mag-fura 2. Following permeabilization with saponin or alpha-toxin the dye, loaded via its acetoxymethyl ester, was predominantly trapped in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Low caffeine concentrations in the absence of ATP induced only partial Ca2+ release; however, after inhibiting the calcium pump with thapsigargin the same stimulus released twice as much Ca2+. When the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase was rendered non-functional by depleting its "ATP pool," submaximal caffeine doses almost fully emptied the stores of Ca2+. We conclude that quantal release of Ca2+ in response to caffeine in these smooth muscle cells is largely due to the activity of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase, which appears to return a portion of the released Ca2+ back to the SR, even in the absence of ATP. Apparently the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is fueled by ATP, which is either compartmentalized or bound to the SR.

  10. Auxin polar transport is essential for the development of zygote and embryo in Nicotiana tabacum L. and correlated with ABP1 and PM H+-ATPase activities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Ren, Yujun; Deng, Yingtian; Zhao, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Auxin is an important plant growth regulator, and plays a key role in apical–basal axis formation and embryo differentiation, but the mechanism remains unclear. The level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during zygote and embryo development of Nicotiana tabacum L. is investigated here using the techniques of GC-SIM-MS analysis, immunolocalization, and the GUS activity assay of DR5::GUS transgenic plants. The distribution of ABP1 and PM H+-ATPase was also detected by immunolocalization, and this is the first time that integral information has been obtained about their distribution in the zygote and in embryo development. The results showed an increase in IAA content in ovules and the polar distribution of IAA, ABP1, and PM H+-ATPase in the zygote and embryo, specifically in the top and basal parts of the embryo proper (EP) during proembryo development. For information about the regulation mechanism of auxin, an auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) and exogenous IAA were, respectively, added to the medium for the culture of ovules at the zygote and early proembryo stages. Treatment with a suitable IAA concentration promoted zygote division and embryo differentiation, while TIBA treatment obviously suppressed these processes and caused the formation of abnormal embryos. The distribution patterns of IAA, ABP1, and PM H+-ATPase were also disturbed in the abnormal embryos. These results indicate that the polar distribution and transport of IAA begins at the zygote stage, and affects zygote division and embryo differentiation in tobacco. Moreover, ABP1 and PM H+-ATPase may play roles in zygote and embryo development and may also be involved in IAA signalling transduction. PMID:20348352

  11. Clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics vary widely despite exclusion or control of polymorphisms (CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1), noncompliance, diet, smoking, co-medications (including proton pump inhibitors), and pre-existent variability in platelet function.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Lee, Ronald D; Mulford, Darcy J; Wu, Jingtao; Nudurupati, Sai; Nigam, Anu; Lampa, Michael; Brooks, Julie K; Barnard, Marc R; Michelson, Alan D

    2013-02-26

    This study sought to determine whether known genetic, drug, dietary, compliance, and lifestyle factors affecting clopidogrel absorption and metabolism fully account for the variability in clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Platelet inhibition by clopidogrel is highly variable. Patients with reduced inhibition have increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Identification of factors contributing to clopidogrel's variable response is needed to improve platelet inhibition and reduce risk for cardiovascular events. Healthy subjects (n = 160; ages 20 to 53 years; homozygous CYP2C19 extensive metabolizer genotype; no nicotine for 6 weeks, prescription drugs for 4 weeks, over-the-counter drugs for 2 weeks, and no caffeine or alcohol for 72 h; confined; restricted diet) received clopidogrel 75 mg/day for 9 days, at which time clopidogrel pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoints were measured. At steady-state, clopidogrel active metabolite (clopidogrel(AM)) pharmacokinetics varied widely between subjects (coefficients of variation [CVs] 33.8% and 40.2% for clopidogrel(AM) area under the time-concentration curve and peak plasma concentration, respectively). On-treatment vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein P2Y(12) platelet reactivity index (PRI), maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) to adenosine phosphate, and VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet response units (PRU) also varied widely (CVs 32% to 53%). All identified factors together accounted for only 18% of intersubject variation in pharmacokinetic parameters and 32% to 64% of intersubject variation in PRI, MPA, and PRU. High on-treatment platelet reactivity was present in 45% of subjects. Clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics vary widely despite rigorous exclusion or control of known disease, polymorphisms (CYP2C19, CYP3A5, ABCB1, PON1), noncompliance, co-medications, diet, smoking, alcohol, demographics, and pre-treatment platelet hyperreactivity. Thus, as yet unidentified factors

  12. Leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification via mTORC1 activation are required for position-dependent regeneration.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuya; Muto, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2018-05-29

    In animal regeneration, control of position-dependent cell proliferation is crucial for the complete restoration of patterned appendages in terms of both, shape and size. However, detailed mechanisms of this process are largely unknown. In this study, we identified leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification, via mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, as effectors of amputation plane-dependent zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. mTORC1 activation, which functions in cell proliferation, was regulated by lysosomal acidification possibly via v-ATPase activity at 3 h post amputation (hpa). Inhibition of lysosomal acidification resulted in reduced growth factor-related gene expression and suppression of blastema formation at 24 and 48 hpa, respectively. Along the proximal-distal axis, position-dependent lysosomal acidification and mTORC1 activation were observed from 3 hpa. We also report that Slc7a5 (L-type amino acid transporter), whose gene expression is position-dependent, is necessary for mTORC1 activation upstream of lysosomal acidification during fin regeneration. Furthermore, treatment with leucine and glutamine, for both proximal and distal fin stumps, led to an up-regulation in cell proliferation via mTORC1 activation, indicating that leucine/glutamine signaling possesses the ability to change the position-dependent regeneration. Our findings reveal that leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification via mTORC1 activation are required for position-dependent zebrafish fin regeneration.

  13. A Conformational Change of the γ Subunit Indirectly Regulates the Activity of Cyanobacterial F1-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Sunamura, Ei-Ichiro; Konno, Hiroki; Imashimizu, Mari; Mochimaru, Mari; Hisabori, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The central shaft of the catalytic core of ATP synthase, the γ subunit consists of a coiled-coil structure of N- and C-terminal α-helices, and a globular domain. The γ subunit of cyanobacterial and chloroplast ATP synthase has a unique 30–40-amino acid insertion within the globular domain. We recently prepared the insertion-removed α3β3γ complex of cyanobacterial ATP synthase (Sunamura, E., Konno, H., Imashimizu-Kobayashi, M., and Hisabori, T. (2010) Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 855–865). Although the insertion is thought to be located in the periphery of the complex and far from catalytic sites, the mutant complex shows a remarkable increase in ATP hydrolysis activity due to a reduced tendency to lapse into ADP inhibition. We postulated that removal of the insertion affects the activity via a conformational change of two central α-helices in γ. To examine this hypothesis, we prepared a mutant complex that can lock the relative position of two central α-helices to each other by way of a disulfide bond formation. The mutant obtained showed a significant change in ATP hydrolysis activity caused by this restriction. The highly active locked complex was insensitive to N-dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide, suggesting that the complex is resistant to ADP inhibition. In addition, the lock affected ϵ inhibition. In contrast, the change in activity caused by removal of the γ insertion was independent from the conformational restriction of the central axis component. These results imply that the global conformational change of the γ subunit indirectly regulates complex activity by changing both ADP inhibition and ϵ inhibition. PMID:23012354

  14. Functional roles of Na+/K+-ATPase in active ammonia excretion and seawater acclimation in the giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Shit F.; Hiong, Kum C.; Lam, Sock P.; Ong, Seow W.; Wee, Wei L.; Wong, Wai P.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2014-01-01

    The giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, is an amphibious fish that builds burrows in the mudflats. It can actively excrete ammonia through its gills, and tolerate high environmental ammonia. This study aimed to examine the effects of seawater (salinity 30; SW) acclimation and/or environmental ammonia exposure on the kinetic properties of Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) from, and mRNA expression and protein abundance of nka/Nka α–subunit isoforms in, the gills of P. schlosseri pre-acclimated to slightly brackish water (salinity 3; SBW). Our results revealed that the Nka from the gills of P. schlosseri pre-acclimated to SBW for 2 weeks had substantially higher affinity to (or lower Km for) K+ than NH+4, and its affinity to NH+4 decreased significantly after 6-days exposure to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl in SBW. Hence, Nka transported K+ selectively to maintain intracellular K+ homeostasis, instead of transporting NH+4 from the blood into ionocytes during active NH+4 excretion as previously suggested. Two nkaα isoforms, nkaα1 and nkaα3, were cloned and sequenced from the gills of P. schlosseri. Their deduced amino acid sequences had K+ binding sites identical to that of Nkaα1c from Anabas testudineus, indicating that they could effectively differentiate K+ from NH+4. Six days of exposure to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl in SBW, or to SW with or without 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl led to significant increases in Nka activities in the gills of P. schlosseri. However, a significant increase in the comprehensive Nkaα protein abundance was observed only in the gills of fish exposed to 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl in SW. Hence, post-translational modification could be an important activity modulator of branchial Nka in P. schlosseri. The fast modulation of Nka activity and concurrent expressions of two branchial nkaα isoforms could in part contribute to the ability of P. schlosseri to survive abrupt transfer between SBW and SW or abrupt exposure to ammonia. PMID:24795653

  15. Activation of PI3K, Akt, and ERK during early rotavirus infection leads to V-ATPase-dependent endosomal acidification required for uncoating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Song; Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kang, Mun-Il; Park, Sang-Ik; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2018-01-01

    The cellular PI3K/Akt and/or MEK/ERK signaling pathways mediate the entry process or endosomal acidification during infection of many viruses. However, their roles in the early infection events of group A rotaviruses (RVAs) have remained elusive. Here, we show that late-penetration (L-P) human DS-1 and bovine NCDV RVA strains stimulate these signaling pathways very early in the infection. Inhibition of both signaling pathways significantly reduced production of viral progeny due to blockage of virus particles in the late endosome, indicating that neither of the two signaling pathways is involved in virus trafficking. However, immunoprecipitation assays using antibodies specific for pPI3K, pAkt, pERK and the subunit E of the V-ATPase co-immunoprecipitated the V-ATPase in complex with pPI3K, pAkt, and pERK. Moreover, Duolink proximity ligation assay revealed direct association of the subunit E of the V-ATPase with the molecules pPI3K, pAkt, and pERK, indicating that both signaling pathways are involved in V-ATPase-dependent endosomal acidification. Acidic replenishment of the medium restored uncoating of the RVA strains in cells pretreated with inhibitors specific for both signaling pathways, confirming the above results. Isolated components of the outer capsid proteins, expressed as VP4-VP8* and VP4-VP5* domains, and VP7, activated the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways. Furthermore, psoralen-UV-inactivated RVA and CsCl-purified RVA triple-layered particles triggered activation of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways, confirming the above results. Our data demonstrate that multistep binding of outer capsid proteins of L-P RVA strains with cell surface receptors phosphorylates PI3K, Akt, and ERK, which in turn directly interact with the subunit E of the V-ATPase to acidify the late endosome for uncoating of RVAs. This study provides a better understanding of the RVA-host interaction during viral uncoating, which is of importance for the development of strategies aiming at

  16. The measurable heat flux that accompanies active transport by Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2008-12-28

    We present a new mesoscopic basis which can be used to derive flux equations for the forward and reverse mode of operation of ion-pumps. We obtain a description of the fluxes far from global equilibrium. An asymmetric set of transport coefficients is obtained, by assuming that the chemical reaction as well as the ion transports are activated, and that the enzyme has a temperature independent of the activation coordinates. Close to global equilibrium, the description reduces to the well known one from non-equilibrium thermodynamics with a symmetric set of transport coefficients. We show how the measurable heat flux and the heat production under isothermal conditions, as well as thermogenesis, can be defined. Thermogenesis is defined via the onset of the chemical reaction or ion transports by a temperature drop. A prescription has been given for how to determine transport coefficients on the mesocopic level, using the macroscopic coefficient obtained from measurements, the activation enthalpy, and a proper probability distribution. The method may give new impetus to a long-standing unsolved transport problem in biophysics.

  17. Factors predisposing to coma and delirium: fentanyl and midazolam exposure; CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms; and inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Skrobik, Yoanna; Leger, Caroline; Cossette, Mariève; Michaud, Veronique; Turgeon, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Delirium and sedative-induced coma are described as incremental manifestations of cerebral dysfunction. Both may be associated with sedative or opiate doses and pharmacokinetic or pharmacogenetic variables, such as drug plasma levels (exposure), drug metabolism, and/or their transport across the blood-brain barrier. To compare biological and drug treatment characteristics in patients with coma and/or delirium while in the ICU. In 99 patients receiving IV fentanyl, midazolam, or both, we evaluated drug doses, covariates likely to influence drug effects (age, body mass index, and renal and hepatic dysfunction); delirium risk factors; concomitant administration of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein substrates/inhibitors; ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms; and fentanyl and midazolam plasma levels. Delirium and coma were evaluated daily. In patients with only coma (n=15), only delirium (n=7), and neither ever (n=14), we measured plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17,macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Time to first coma was associated with fentanyl and midazolam doses (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively). The number of days in coma was associated with the number of days of coadministration of CYP3A inhibitors (r=0.30; p=0.006). Plasma levels of fentanyl were higher in patients with clinical coma (3.7±4.7 vs. 2.0±1.8 ng/mL, p=0.0001) as were midazolam plasma levels (1050±2232 vs. 168±249 ng/mL, p=0.0001). Delirium occurrence was unrelated to midazolam administration, cumulative doses, or serum levels. Days with delirium were associated with days of coadministration of P-glycoprotein inhibitor (r=0.35; p=0.0004). Delirious patients had higher levels of the inflammatory mediator IL-6 than comatose patients (129.3 vs. 35.0 pg/mL, p=0.05). Coma is associated with fentanyl and midazolam exposure; delirium is unrelated to midazolam and may be linked to inflammatory status

  18. Influence of Donor and Recipient CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 Genotypes on Clinical Outcomes and Nephrotoxicity in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Picard, Nicolas; Sebagh, Mylène; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis; Samuel, Didier; Marquet, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of the CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 exons 12, 21, and 26 polymorphisms in donors and recipients on clinical outcomes and renal function in 170 liver transplant patients on cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac). Allelic discrimination assays were used for genotyping. Multivariate time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models, multiple linear regression using the generalized estimating equation and linear mixed-effect models were used for statistical analysis. Expression of CYP3A5 by either or both the donor and the recipient was significantly associated with lower Tac, but not CsA, dose-normalized trough levels. In the whole population, graft loss was only significantly associated with longer exposure to high calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) concentrations (hazard ratio, 6.93; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-22.55), P = 0.00129), whereas in the Tac subgroup, the risk of graft loss was significantly higher in recipient CYP3A5*1 expressers (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-7.58; P = 0.0028). Renal function was significantly associated with: (1) baseline modification of diet in renal disease (β = 0.51 ± 0.05; P < 0.0001); (2) duration of patient follow-up (per visit, β = -0.98 ± 0.22; P < 0.0001); and (3) CNI exposure (per quantile increase, β = -2.42 ± 0.59; P < 0.0001). No genetic factor was associated with patient survival, acute rejection, liver function test results, recurrence of viral or other initial liver disease, or renal function. This study confirms the effect of CYP3A5*3 on tacrolimus dose requirement in liver transplantation and shows unexpected associations between the type of, and exposure to, CNI and either chronic rejection or graft loss. None of the genetic polymorphisms studied had a noticeable impact on renal function degradation at 10 years.

  19. On the distributive patterns of ATPase activity and its functional significance in retinae of certain birds.

    PubMed

    Tewari, H B; Tyagi, H R

    1977-01-01

    The present study incorporates the details of distribution of adenosine triphosphatase amongst the various constituents of retinae of Passer, Psittacula, Streptopelia and Athene. The outer segments in all the cases are intensely positive for the enzyme. This is the part where the light strikes first and initiates the visual processes. The nuclear layers are also positive for the enzyme activity. It is interesting to note that inner plexiform layers show clear-out demarcations of various sub-synaptic layers in all the birds except Psittacula. The ganglion cells and optic nerve fibres are also positive for the enzyme.

  20. Phospholemman is not required for the acute stimulation of Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase α₂-activity during skeletal muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L; Hakim Javadi, Hesamedin; Stiner, Cory A; Landero Figueroa, Julio A; Lingrel, Jerry B; Heiny, Judith A

    2015-12-15

    The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α2-isoform in skeletal muscle is rapidly stimulated during muscle use and plays a critical role in fatigue resistance. The acute mechanisms that stimulate α2-activity are not completely known. This study examines whether phosphorylation of phospholemman (PLM/FXYD1), a regulatory subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, plays a role in the acute stimulation of α2 in working muscles. Mice lacking PLM (PLM KO) have a normal content of the α2-subunit and show normal exercise capacity, in contrast to the greatly reduced exercise capacity of mice that lack α2 in the skeletal muscles. Nerve-evoked contractions in vivo did not induce a change in total PLM or PLM phosphorylated at Ser63 or Ser68, in either WT or PLM KO. Isolated muscles of PLM KO mice maintain contraction and resist fatigue as well as wild type (WT). Rb(+) transport by the α2-Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is stimulated to the same extent in contracting WT and contracting PLM KO muscles. Phosphorylation of sarcolemmal membranes prepared from WT but not PLM KO skeletal muscles stimulates the activity of both α1 and α2 in a PLM-dependent manner. The stimulation occurs by an increase in Na(+) affinity without significant change in Vmax and is more effective for α1 than α2. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of PLM is capable of stimulating the activity of both isozymes in skeletal muscle; however, contractile activity alone is not sufficient to induce PLM phosphorylation. Importantly, acute stimulation of α2, sufficient to support exercise and oppose fatigue, does not require PLM or its phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The DNA Maturation Domain of gpA, the DNA Packaging Motor Protein of Bacteriophage Lambda, Contains an ATPase Site Associated with Endonuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Marcos E.; Gaussier, Helene; Catalano, Carlos E.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Terminase enzymes are common to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses and are responsible for packaging viral DNA into the confines of an empty capsid shell. In bacteriophage lambda the catalytic terminase subunit is gpA, which is responsible for maturation of the genome end prior to packaging and subsequent translocation of the matured DNA into the capsid. DNA packaging requires an ATPase catalytic site situated in the N-terminus of the protein. A second ATPase catalytic site associated with the DNA maturation activities of the protein has been proposed; however, direct demonstration of this putative second site is lacking. Here we describe biochemical studies that define protease-resistant peptides of gpA and expression of these putative domains in E. coli. Biochemical characterization of gpA-ΔN179, a construct in which the N-terminal 179 residues of gpA have been deleted, indicates that this protein encompasses the DNA maturation domain of gpA. The construct is folded, soluble and possesses an ATP-dependent nuclease activity. Moreover, the construct binds and hydrolyzes ATP despite the fact that the DNA packaging ATPase site in the N-terminus of gpA has been deleted. Mutation of lysine 497, which alters the conserved lysine in a predicted Walker A “P-loop” sequence, does not affect ATP binding but severely impairs ATP hydrolysis. Further, this mutation abrogates the ATP-dependent nuclease activity of the protein. These studies provide direct evidence for the elusive nucleotide-binding site in gpA that is directly associated with the DNA maturation activity of the protein. The implications of these results with respect to the two roles of the terminase holoenzyme – DNA maturation and DNA packaging – are discussed. PMID:17870092

  2. Nitric oxide stress and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase impair β-cell sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b activity and protein stability.

    PubMed

    Tong, X; Kono, T; Evans-Molina, C

    2015-06-18

    The sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) pump maintains a steep Ca(2+) concentration gradient between the cytosol and ER lumen in the pancreatic β-cell, and the integrity of this gradient has a central role in regulated insulin production and secretion, maintenance of ER function and β-cell survival. We have previously demonstrated loss of β-cell SERCA2b expression under diabetic conditions. To define the mechanisms underlying this, INS-1 cells and rat islets were treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) combined with or without cycloheximide or actinomycin D. IL-1β treatment led to increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression, which occurred concurrently with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). IL-1β led to decreased SERCA2b mRNA and protein expression, whereas time-course experiments revealed a reduction in protein half-life with no change in mRNA stability. Moreover, SERCA2b protein but not mRNA levels were rescued by treatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl L-arginine), whereas the NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine) and the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) recapitulated the effects of IL-1β on SERCA2b protein stability. Similarly, IL-1β-induced reductions in SERCA2b expression were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with compound C or by transduction of a dominant-negative form of AMPK, whereas β-cell death was prevented in parallel. Finally, to determine a functional relationship between NO