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Sample records for abcc-jnih adult health

  1. Health Tips for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Reporters Meetings & Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Weight Management Health Tips for Adults Related Topics English English ... at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  2. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  3. Prenatal Famine and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L.H.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    We review human studies on the relation between acute exposures to prenatal famine and adult physical and mental health. These studies are observational and include exposures to a famine environment by natural or man-made causes or, more commonly, from the interplay between natural and human factors. These natural experiments provide an opportunity to examine long-term outcomes after famine exposures by comparing exposed and nonexposed individuals. The studies show consistent associations between prenatal famine and adult body size, diabetes, and schizophrenia. For other measures of adult health, findings are less robust. A relation between prenatal famine and some reported epigenetic changes may provide a potential mechanism to explain specific associations. Much progress can be made if current separate studies are further analyzed with comparable definitions of exposures and outcomes and using common analytic strategies. PMID:21219171

  4. Health Literacy Education within Adult Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    Building health literacy skills among adult learners has the potential to contribute to efforts to eliminate health disparities and improve health outcomes. Adults with limited literacy skills are more likely to be underserved by health services and at risk for poorer health. Recognition of the need for stronger health literacy skills and a desire…

  5. Interactive Influences on Health and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lilian H.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines multiple convergent forces affecting health, relates these to social determinants of health and critical adult health learning, and closes with discussion of opportunities for adult educators to contribute to human health at the individual, community, health provider, policy/regulatory agency, and international levels.

  6. Health Contract with Sedentary Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David; Rhodes, Darson

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Health educators used health contracts with sedentary older adults for the purpose of increasing exercise or physical activity. Design and Methods: Two health educators helped 25 sedentary older adults complete health contracts, and then they conducted follow-up evaluations. The percentage of scheduled exercise sessions successfully…

  7. Health Literacy and Adult Basic Education Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golbeck, Amanda L.; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Paschal, Angelia M.

    2005-01-01

    Adult basic education (ABE) is an ideal venue for developing health literacy skills. Literacy and numeracy assessments used in ABE were identified and the most common were examined for health components. Only the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) included health. The two most common health literacy assessments used in general…

  8. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  9. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  10. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  11. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  12. Sexual health promotion and adult retail stores.

    PubMed

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine

    2004-05-01

    To explore the extent to which adult retail stores may contribute to a community's sexual health promotion infrastructure, we collected data from 294 customer service employees of 80 adult retail stores in 61 U.S. cities. Findings indicated that these stores and their employees do possess at least a baseline level of characteristics that indicate they are serving, or have the potential to serve, as sexual health resources in their communities. As researchers and practitioners continue to explore new and effective mechanisms for responding to sexual health issues, they should consider outlets such as adult stores. Enhancing the capacity of these stores to contribute to sexual health may require strategic collaborations between sexual health researchers, sexual health practitioners, and the adult retail industry in order to develop initiatives that are responsive to the unique goals and cultures of each. Copyright The American Society of Gene Therapy

  13. Coping and health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2008-02-01

    Although coping has been shown to influence physical health in younger populations, whether coping affects health in older adults appears to depend upon how coping and health are conceptualized. This article reviews recent literature on coping and health in older adults in three areas. First, we discuss coping's distinct relevance to health in older adults. Second, we describe ways in which coping may differ between older and younger populations. Third, we detail recent and notable findings of coping's specific effects on biomedical health and health in general. The recent literature suggests that coping may be a developmental and multifaceted process. Positive coping strategies may have positive and even protective effects on health, whereas negative strategies may have negative effects.

  14. Career Education for Adults: Health Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Dept. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    An outgrowth of State-sponsored institutes conducted by Auburn University, Alabama, to produce career education teaching modules for adults, the health module is one of five field-tested curriculum guides adopted from findings of the nationally oriented Adult Performance Level Study conducted at the University of Texas. (Basic to the Texas study…

  15. Independent older adults perspectives on oral health.

    PubMed

    Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... even help you ward off depression and maintain orthopedic health (related to bones and muscles). Healthy Weight ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions. What are clinical ...

  17. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  18. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  19. College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

  20. Diabetes and Adult Day Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko, Holly I.; DeCoster, Vaughn A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a profile of individuals with diabetes who receive services in adult day centers. This exploratory study uses an administrative data set (N = 280) from five programs in central Ohio to examine four areas: demographics, health and mental health, financial and social resources, and disenrollment status. Older…

  1. Acculturation and Health of Korean American Adults.

    PubMed

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing cultural diversity in the United States and significant health disparities among immigrant populations make acculturation an important concept to measure in health research. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine acculturation and health of Korean American adults. A convenience sample of 517 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city completed a survey in either English or Korean. All four groups of Berry's acculturation model were identified using cluster analysis with Lee's Acculturation Scale. Assimilation, integration, and separation were found in the English survey sample, whereas integration, separation, and marginalization were found in the Korean survey sample. Moreover, the findings revealed that acculturation is a bidimensional process, and the unique nature of samples may determine acculturation groups. Physical health and mental health were significantly related to acculturation in the English survey sample. However, there was not a significant relationship between health and acculturation in the Korean survey sample. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Furie, Karen L.; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E.; Waddy, Salina P.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W.; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D.; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA’s Life’s Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index <25 kg/m2) and 3 ideal health factors (untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, untreated total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, and fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL). In addition, in relation to maintenance of cognitive health, we recommend following previously published guidance from the AHA/American Stroke Association, Institute of Medicine, and Alzheimer’s Association that incorporates control of cardiovascular risks and suggest social engagement and other related strategies. We define optimal brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA’s Life’s Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to

  3. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  4. National health surveillance of adults with disabilities, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and adults with no disabilities.

    PubMed

    Havercamp, Susan M; Scott, Haleigh M

    2015-04-01

    People with disabilities experience worse health and poorer access to health care compared to people without disability. Large-scale health surveillance efforts have largely excluded adults with intellectual and developmental disability. This study expands knowledge of health status, health risks and preventative health care in a representative US sample comparing the health of adults with no disability to adults with intellectual and developmental disability and to adults with other types of disability. The purposes of this study were (1) to identify disparities between adults with intellectual and developmental disability and adults with no disability and (2) compare this pattern of disparities to the pattern between adults with other types of disability and adults without disability. This study compares health status, health risks and preventative health care in a national sample across three groups of adults: No Disability, Disability, and Intellectual and Developmental Disability. Data sources were the 2010 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey and the National Core Indicators Consumer Survey. Adults with disability and with intellectual and developmental disability were more likely to report being in poor health compared to adults without disability. Disability and intellectual and developmental disability conferred unique health risks and health care utilization patterns. Significant disparities in health and health care utilization were found for adults with disability and developmental disability relative to adults without disability. Disability training for health care providers and health promotion research that identifies disability as a demographic group is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent health and adult labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2014-09-01

    Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Health Literacy, Health Disparities, and Sources of Health Information in U.S. Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane; Simko, Lynn C; Colbert, Alison M; Bennett, Ian M

    Low health literacy in older adults has been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e., mortality, decreased physical and cognitive functioning, and less preventive care utilization). Many factors associated with low health literacy are also associated with health disparities. Interaction with healthcare providers and sources of health information are influenced by an individual's health literacy and can impact health outcomes. This study examined the relationships between health literacy, sources of health information, and demographic/background characteristics in older adults (aged 65 years and older) related to health literacy and disparities. This descriptive, correlational study is a secondary analysis of the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy, a large-scale national assessment. Older adults with lower health literacy have less income and education, rate their health as poor or fair, have visual or auditory difficulties, need help filling out forms, reading newspaper, or writing notes, and use each source of health information less (print and nonprint). Many of these characteristics and skills are predictive of health literacy and associated with health disparities. The results expand our knowledge of characteristics associated with health literacy and sources of health information used by older adults. Interventions to improve health outcomes including health disparities can focus on recognizing and meeting the health literacy demands of older adults.

  7. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health care provider - adult ... you should ask: Can I eat dairy foods? What foods can make my problem worse? Can I ...

  8. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    PubMed

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  9. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health care...

  10. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health care...

  11. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health care...

  12. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health care...

  13. The Kilauea Volcano adult health study.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people reside near active volcanoes, yet data are limited on effects to human health. The Kilauea Volcano is the largest point source for sulfur dioxide in the United States, releasing air pollution on nearby communities since 1983. : The objectives of this study were to provide the first population-based epidemiological estimates and qualitative descriptions of cardiorespiratory health effects associated with volcanic air pollution. An environmental-epidemiological design was used. Exposure levels of Kilauea's air pollutants were determined by environmental sampling. Prevalence estimates of cardiorespiratory health effects in adults were measured (N = 335) and compared between an exposed and nonexposed reference community. Descriptions of the human-environment interaction with the long-standing eruption were recorded from informants in the natural setting. Ambient and indoor concentrations of volcanic air pollution were above the World Health Organization's recommended exposure levels. There were statistically significant increased odds associated with exposure for self-reported cough, phlegm, rhinorrhea, sore and dry throat, sinus congestion, wheezing, eye irritation, and diagnosed bronchitis. Thirty-five percent of the informants perceived that their health was affected by the eruption, mainly current and former smokers and those with chronic respiratory disease. Hypotheses were supported regarding particulate air pollution and the association with adverse cardiovascular functioning. This emerging environmental health issue is under continuing investigation.

  14. Health disparities among adults with developmental disabilities, adults with other disabilities, and adults not reporting disability in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Havercamp, Susan M; Scandlin, Donna; Roth, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to identify disparities between adults with developmental disabilities and non-disabled adults in health and medical care, and (2) to compare this pattern of disparities to the pattern of disparities between adults with other disabilities and adults without disabilities. The authors compared data on health status, health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and utilization of medical care across three groups of adults: No Disability, Disability, and Developmental Disability. Data sources were the 2001 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the North Carolina National Core Indicators survey. Adults with developmental disabilities were more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles and seven times as likely to report inadequate emotional support, compared with adults without disabilities. Adults with disabilities and developmental disabilities were significantly more likely to report being in fair or poor health than adults without disabilities. Similar rates of tobacco use and overweight/obesity were reported. Adults with developmental disabilities had a similar or greater risk of having four of five chronic health conditions compared with non-disabled adults. Significant medical care utilization disparities were found for breast and cervical cancer screening as well as for oral health care. Adults with developmental disabilities presented a unique risk for inadequate emotional support and low utilization of breast and cervical cancer screenings. Significant disparities in health and medical care utilization were found for adults with developmental disabilities relative to non-disabled adults. The National Core Indicators protocol offers a sound methodology to gather much-needed surveillance information on the health status, health risk behaviors, and medical care utilization of adults with developmental disabilities. Health promotion efforts must be specifically designed for this population.

  15. Gender Differences in Adult Health: An International Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Omar; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used data from United States, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Bangladesh to explore gender differences in adult health. Found that women fared worse than men across variety of self-reported health measures in all four countries. Data from Jamaica indicated that gender disparities in adult health arose early and persisted throughout the life cycle, with…

  16. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  17. Improving health literacy through adult basic education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morony, Suzanne; Lamph, Emma; Muscat, Danielle; Nutbeam, Don; Dhillon, Haryana M; Shepherd, Heather; Smith, Sian; Khan, Aisha; Osborne, Julie; Meshreky, Wedyan; Luxford, Karen; Hayen, Andrew; McCaffery, Kirsten J

    2017-05-25

    Adults with low literacy are less empowered to take care of their health, have poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare costs. We facilitated partnerships between adult literacy teachers and community health providers to deliver a health literacy training program in adult basic education classrooms. Following course completion we interviewed 19 adult education teachers (15 delivering the health literacy program; 4 delivering standard literacy classes) and four community health providers (CHPs) about their experiences, and analysed transcripts using Framework analysis. Written feedback from eight teachers on specific course content was added to the Framework. Health literacy teachers reported a noticeable improvement in their student's health behaviours, confidence, vocabulary to communicate about health, understanding of the health system and language, literacy and numeracy skills. CHP participation was perceived by teachers and CHPs as very successful, with teachers and CHPs reporting they complemented each other's skills. The logistics of coordinating CHPs within the constraints of the adult education setting was a significant obstacle to CHP participation. This study adds to existing evidence that health is an engaging topic for adult learners, and health literacy can be successfully implemented in an adult basic learning curriculum to empower learners to better manage their health. Health workers can deliver targeted health messages in this environment, and introduce local health services. Investment in adult literacy programs teaching health content has potential both to meet the goals of adult language and literacy programs and deliver health benefit in vulnerable populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  19. EARLY CHILDHOOD INVESTMENTS SUBSTANTIALLY BOOST ADULT HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143, while only 126 among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, while none in the treatment group is. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  20. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  1. Adult Learning in Health and Safety: Some Issues and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    This document, which was developed for presentation at a seminar on adult learning and safety, examines approaches to occupational safety and health (OSH) learning/training in the workplace. Section 1 examines selected factors affecting adults' learning in workplace OSH programs. The principal dimensions along which individual adult learners will…

  2. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  3. Experiences of Autism Acceptance and Mental Health in Autistic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cage, Eilidh; Di Monaco, Jessica; Newell, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Mental health difficulties are highly prevalent in individuals on the autism spectrum. The current study examined how experiences and perceptions of autism acceptance could impact on the mental health of autistic adults. 111 adults on the autism spectrum completed an online survey examining their experiences of autism acceptance, along with…

  4. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  5. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  6. Infusing Adult Education Principles Into a Health Insurance Literacy Program.

    PubMed

    Brown, Virginia

    2018-03-01

    Health insurance literacy is an emerging concept in the health education and health promotion field. The passage of the Affordable Care Act highlighted the link between health insurance and health outcomes. However, the law does not specifically address how the public should be educated on choosing an appropriate health insurance plan. Research shows adults, regardless of previous health insurance status, are likely confused and uncertain about their selection. The University of Maryland Extension developed and created health insurance Smart Choice Health Insurance™ to reduce confusion and increase confidence and capability to make this decision. Andragogy, an adult learning theory, was used to guide the development of the program and help ensure best practices are used to achieve desired outcomes. Using the six principles of andragogy, the team incorporated reality-based case studies, allowed adults time to practice, and emphasized choice making and many other elements to create an atmosphere conducive to adult learning. Results from Smart Choice indicate the program is successful in reducing confusion and increasing confidence. Furthermore, feedback from participants and trained educators indicates that adults were engaged in the program and found the materials useful. Based on program success, creation of new health insurance literacy programs grounded in adult education principles is under way.

  7. Adult day health care evaluation study: methodology and implementation. Adult Day Health Care Evaluation Development Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, S C; Rothman, M L; Chapko, M; Inui, T S; Kelly, J R; Ehreth, J

    1991-01-01

    The Adult Day Health Care Evaluation Study was developed in response to a congressional mandate to study the medical efficacy and cost effectiveness of the Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) effort in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Four sites providing ADHC in VA facilities are participating in an ongoing randomized controlled trial. Three years of developmental work prior to the study addressed methodological issues that were problematic in previous studies. This developmental work resulted in the methodological approaches described here: (1) a patient recruitment process that actively recruits and screens all potential candidates using empirically developed admission criteria based on predictors of nursing home placement in VA; (2) the selection and development of measures of medical efficacy that assess a wide range of patient and caregiver outcomes with sufficient sensitivity to detect small but clinically important changes; and (3) methods for detailed, accurate, and efficient measurement of utilization and costs of health care within and outside VA. These approaches may be helpful to other researchers and may advance the methodological sophistication of long-term care program evaluation. PMID:1991678

  8. Nutrition: Eating for Better Health. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This teaching guide is part of a series of materials developed, with input from adult learners, to aid adult literacy teachers in incorporating health education into the curriculum. This guide aims to help teachers to provide adult students with information about good nutritional habits and positive health behaviors that will substantially reduce…

  9. Comprehension of Health-related Written Materials by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults with low verbal ability or older than 77 years of age had difficulty understanding texts high in text cohesion but low in Flesch Reading Ease. These results imply that writers must increase Flesch Reading Ease without disrupting text cohesion to ensure comprehension of health-related texts. PMID:19543546

  10. The health status of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of young adults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of young adults and argue for creating a national health agenda for young adults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan.

  11. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  12. Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

  13. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  14. A Mental Health Training Format for Adult Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Fiona; Specht, Jacqueline; Rodger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the needs of adult education staff pertaining to adult students' mental health issues within a local school board. The study utilized mixed-methods design and was divided into progression of three separate studies. An initial focus group was conducted to identify the 12 participants' concerns and provide a direction…

  15. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Living Arrangements and Health of Older Adults in India.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Tannistha; Chen, Feinian; Vanneman, Reeve

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the association between the multigenerational household context and health of older adults in India, taking into account potential selection effects. Using data from the India Human Development Survey (2004-05), a nationally representative multitopic data set, we employed a two-step analytical strategy--logistic regression followed by propensity score stratification method--to model the effect of contrasting living arrangement types on short-term illness. Overall, older adults living in multigenerational households have the lowest levels of short-term illness. Among them, those who live with their spouse, adult children, and young grandchildren experience the highest health gains. Health advantage diminishes when older adults live only with a spouse and adult children, and further diminishes when they live only with their spouse. Solitary living is associated with the highest likelihood of short-term morbidity. Good health is also shown to be associated with household wealth, gender, household size, and urban residence. Our study demonstrates that multigenerational households--the traditional and the most dominant form of living arrangement in India--have protective health benefits for older adults, while taking into account potential selection mechanisms. On Contrary to some epidemiological studies, we do not find any elevated risk of exposure to short-term illness, when older adults are living in households with young grandchildren. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  18. Tracking Psychosocial Health in Adults with Epilepsy—Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kobau, R; Cui, W; Kadima, N; Zack, MM; Sajatovic, M; Kaiboriboon, K; Jobst, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides population-based estimates of psychosocial health among U.S. adults with epilepsy from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of the following measures of psychosocial health among adults with and those without epilepsy: 1) the Kessler-6 scale of Serious Psychological Distress; 2) cognitive limitation; the extent of impairments associated with psychological problems; and work limitation; 3) Social participation; and 4) the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health scale. Results Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy, especially those with active epilepsy, reported significantly worse psychological health, more cognitive impairment, difficulty in participating in some social activities, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions These disparities in psychosocial health in U.S. adults with epilepsy serve as baseline national estimates of their HRQOL, consistent with Healthy People 2020 national objectives on HRQOL. PMID:25305435

  19. Health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Judith A A E; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2016-09-01

    Since the introduction of cardiac surgery, the prospects for children born with a cardiac defect have improved spectacularly. Many reach adulthood and the population of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing and ageing. However, repair of congenital heart disease does not mean cure. Many adults with congenital heart disease encounter late complications. Late morbidity can be related to the congenital heart defect itself, but may also be the consequence of the surgical or medical treatment or longstanding alterations in hemodynamics, neurodevelopment and psychosocial development. This narrative review describes the cardiac and non-cardiac long-term morbidity in the adult population with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Suicide Among Homeless Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Jun, Jung Sim; Kim, Yi Jin; Roh, Soonhee; Moon, Sung Seek; Bukonda, Ngoyi; Hines, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role of mental health and substance abuse problems on the suicidal ideation and suicide attempts of 156 homeless adults. The logistic regression results indicated that homeless adults with anxiety were significantly more likely than those without anxiety to have both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Also, homeless adults with drug abuse were significantly more likely than those without drug abuse to have suicidal ideation. The study suggests that to reduce the suicide of the homeless, case managers need to screen mental health and substance abuse issues and to provide appropriate treatment services at homeless shelters.

  1. Health Literacy and Cognitive Performance among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Alex D.; Sano, Mary; Wolf, Michael S.; Siu, Albert L.; Halm, Ethan A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Specific cognitive abilities may explain the association of health literacy with health status. We studied the relationship between health literacy and memory and verbal fluency in older adults. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Setting Twenty senior centers and apartment buildings in New York City, NY. Participants Independently living, English and Spanish-speaking adults ages 60 and older (n=414). Measurements Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). The associations of S-TOFHLA scores with immediate and delayed recall (Wechsler Memory Scale II), verbal fluency (Animal Naming), and global cognitive function (Mini Mental Status Exam, MMSE), were modeled with multivariable logistic and linear regression. Results Health literacy was inadequate in 24.3%. Impairment of immediate recall occurred in 20.4%; delayed recall, 15.0%; verbal fluency, 9.9%; and MMSE, 17.4%. Abnormal cognitive function was strongly associated with inadequate health literacy: immediate recall (AOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.71 to 6.94, p<.0001); delayed recall (AOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.58 to 7.67, p = .002); and verbal fluency (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.44 to 8.38, p=.006). These associations persisted in subgroups that excluded individuals with normal age-adjusted MMSE scores. Conclusion Memory and verbal fluency are strongly associated with health literacy, independently of education and health status, even among those with subtle cognitive dysfunction. Reducing the cognitive burden of health information might mitigate the detrimental effects of limited health literacy in older adults. Research that examines the impact of materials tailored to older adults' cognitive limitations on health literacy and health outcomes is needed. PMID:19515101

  2. Are Health Answers Online for Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresci, Mary K.; Jarosz, Patricia A.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has the potential for engaging urban seniors in managing their health. This study examined computer and Internet use among urban seniors and their interest in using the Internet as a health-management tool. Findings indicated that many participants were interested in storing and accessing health-related information using an…

  3. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  4. Health Professional Advice and Adult Action to Reduce Sodium Intake.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sandra L; Coleman King, Sallyann M; Park, Soyoun; Fang, Jing; Odom, Erika C; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sodium intake is a key modifiable risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although 95% of U.S. adults exceed intake recommendations, knowledge is limited regarding whether doctor or health professional advice motivates patients to reduce intake. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and determinants of taking action to reduce sodium, and to test whether receiving advice was associated with action. Analyses, conducted in 2014, used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey representative of non-institutionalized adults. Respondents (n=173,778) from 26 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico used the new optional sodium module. We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) based on average marginal predictions, accounting for the complex survey design. Fifty-three percent of adults reported taking action to reduce sodium intake. Prevalence of action was highest among adults who received advice (83%), followed by adults taking antihypertensive medications, adults with diabetes, adults with kidney disease, or adults with a history of cardiovascular disease (range, 73%-75%), and lowest among adults aged 18-24 years (29%). Overall, 23% of adults reported receiving advice to reduce sodium intake. Receiving advice was associated with taking action (prevalence ratio=1.59; 95% CI=1.56, 1.61), independent of sociodemographic and health characteristics, although some disparities were observed across race/ethnicity and BMI categories. Our results suggest that more than half of U.S. adults in 26 states and two territories are taking action to reduce sodium intake, and doctor or health professional advice is strongly associated with action. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Young adult conservation jobs and worker health

    Treesearch

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workers’ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...

  6. Poverty grown up: how childhood socioeconomic status impacts adult health.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Kathleen; Sandel, Megan; Zuckerman, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and health status are directly related across the world. Children with low-socioeconomic status not only experience greater health problems in childhood but also aspects of their socioeconomic status become biologically incorporated through both critical periods of development and cumulative effects, leading to poor health outcomes as adults. We explore 3 main influences related to child's socioeconomic status that impact long-term health: the material environment, the social environment, and the structural or community environment. These influences illustrate the importance of clinical innovations, health services research, and public policies that address the socioeconomic determinants of these distal health outcomes.

  7. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  8. Current Status and Issues Regarding Transitional Health Care for Adults and Young Adults with Special Health Care Needs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Akamizu, Takashi

    2018-05-15

    With the progress of medical care in recent years, the prognosis of intractable diseases of childhood onset has markedly improved. Young adults with special health care needs require continuous medical support throughout their lifetimes. To provide them with optimal health care services, a smooth transition from the pediatric medical system to the adult one is essential. However, in Japan many adult health providers are not sufficiently prepared to care for these patients, due both to limited opportunities to gain up-to-date medical knowledge on transitional health care and a lack of familiarity with the medical treatment of childhood-onset chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss current issues in transitional health care in Japan from an internist's viewpoint.

  9. Health Care Needs of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, I. Leslie

    1987-01-01

    Experience with provision of optimal health services to mentally retarded individuals in institutional settings can be applied and adapted to design services for such adults living in the community. Coordination of health care by a team of nurses, primary care physicians, and special medical services is recommended. (Author/DB)

  10. Childhood Adversity, Religion, and Change in Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Research indicates that childhood adversity is associated with poor mental health in adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the deleterious long-term effects of childhood adversity on adult mental health are reduced for individuals who are involved in religious practices. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of American adults ( N = 1,635), I find that religious salience and spirituality buffer the noxious effects of childhood abuse on change in positive affect over time. By contrast, these stress-buffering properties of religion fail to emerge when negative affect serves as the outcome measure. These results underscore the importance of religion as a countervailing mechanism that blunts the negative impact of childhood abuse on adult mental health over time. I discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for views about religion, childhood adversity, and mental health.

  11. Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Stabile, Mark; Manivong, Phongsack; Roos, Leslie L.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a strong connection between birth weight and future outcomes. We ask how health problems after birth affect outcomes using data from public health insurance records for 50,000 children born between 1979 and 1987 in the Canadian province of Manitoba. We compare children to siblings born an average of three years apart. We find…

  12. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  14. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  15. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  16. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  17. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  18. The Effect of Childhood Health Status on Adult Health in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Huyang; Rizzo, John A.; Fang, Hai

    2018-01-01

    Childhood health in China was poor in the 1950s and 1960s because of limited nutrition. In the last three decades, China has distinguished itself through its tremendous economic growth and improvements in health and nutrition. However, prior to such growth, access to good nutrition was more variable, with potentially important implications, not only for childhood health, but also for adult health, because of its long-term effects lasting into adulthood. To shed light on these issues, this study examined the long-run association between childhood health and adult health outcomes among a middle-aged Chinese population and addresses the endogeneity of childhood health. A nationwide database from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was employed. Three adult health outcomes variables were used: self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function. The local variation in grain production in the subjects’ fetal period and the first 24 months following birth was employed as an instrument for childhood health in order to correct for its endogeneity. Childhood health recalled by the respondents was positively and significantly associated with their adult health outcomes in terms of self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function in single-equation estimates that did not correct for the endogeneity of childhood health. A good childhood health status increased the probabilities of good adult health, good adult cognitive function, and good adult physical function by 16% (95% CI: 13–18%), 13% (95% CI: 10–15%), and 14% (95% CI: 12–17%), respectively. After correcting for endogeneity, the estimated effects of good childhood health were consistent but stronger. We also studied the male and female populations separately, finding that the positive effects of childhood health on adult health were larger for males. In China, childhood health significantly affects adult health. This suggests that early interventions to promote

  19. The Effect of Childhood Health Status on Adult Health in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Huyang; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2018-01-26

    Childhood health in China was poor in the 1950s and 1960s because of limited nutrition. In the last three decades, China has distinguished itself through its tremendous economic growth and improvements in health and nutrition. However, prior to such growth, access to good nutrition was more variable, with potentially important implications, not only for childhood health, but also for adult health, because of its long-term effects lasting into adulthood. To shed light on these issues, this study examined the long-run association between childhood health and adult health outcomes among a middle-aged Chinese population and addresses the endogeneity of childhood health. A nationwide database from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was employed. Three adult health outcomes variables were used: self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function. The local variation in grain production in the subjects' fetal period and the first 24 months following birth was employed as an instrument for childhood health in order to correct for its endogeneity. Childhood health recalled by the respondents was positively and significantly associated with their adult health outcomes in terms of self-reported health status, cognition, and physical function in single-equation estimates that did not correct for the endogeneity of childhood health. A good childhood health status increased the probabilities of good adult health, good adult cognitive function, and good adult physical function by 16% (95% CI: 13-18%), 13% (95% CI: 10-15%), and 14% (95% CI: 12-17%), respectively. After correcting for endogeneity, the estimated effects of good childhood health were consistent but stronger. We also studied the male and female populations separately, finding that the positive effects of childhood health on adult health were larger for males. In China, childhood health significantly affects adult health. This suggests that early interventions to promote

  20. Significant unmet oral health needs of homebound elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Ornstein, Katherine A; DeCherrie, Linda; Gluzman, Rima; Scott, Elizabeth S; Kansal, Jyoti; Shah, Tushin; Katz, Ralph; Soriano, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the oral health status, use of dental care, and dental needs of homebound elderly adults and to determine whether medical diagnoses or demographic factors influenced perceived oral health. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants' homes in New York City. Homebound elderly adults (N = 125). A trained dental research team conducted a comprehensive clinical examination in participants' homes and completed a dental use and needs survey and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index. Participants who reported a high level of unmet oral health needs were more likely to be nonwhite, although this effect was not significant in multivariate analysis. Individual medical diagnoses and the presence of multiple comorbidities were not associated with unmet oral health needs. The oral health status of homebound elderly adults was poor regardless of their medical diagnoses. High unmet oral health needs combined with strong desire to receive dental care suggests there is a need to improve access to dental care for this growing population. In addition to improving awareness of geriatricians and primary care providers who care for homebound individuals, the medical community must partner with the dental community to develop home-based programs for older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Transition to adult-oriented health care: perspectives of youth and adults with complex physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Young, Nancy L; Barden, Wendy S; Mills, Wendy A; Burke, Tricia A; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood, and their parents (n = 30). Respondents discussed their health care services, their experience with clinical transition, and contributing factors. We analyzed the transcripts using qualitative methods. All participants identified challenges in transition, including: lack of access to health care; lack of professionals' knowledge; lack of information and uncertainty regarding the transition process. Two solutions were identified: early provision of detailed information and more extensive support throughout the clinical transition process. The challenges of clinical transition were universal. More extensive information and support is needed during transition to ensure an efficient move to appropriate adult-oriented health care.

  2. Hydrate for health: listening to older adults' need for information.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Adult Learning in Health Professions Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the process of learning in health professions education (HPE) in terms of key issues that shape HPE learning and essential strategies for promoting and facilitating learning among professionals.

  4. Sexual orientation and health among U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Dahlhamer, James M; Galinsky, Adena M; Joestl, Sarah S

    2014-07-15

    To provide national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is an annual multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year. Analyses were based on data collected in 2013 from 34,557 adults aged 18 and over. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation were examined for adults aged 18-64, and separately for men and women. Based on the 2013 NHIS data, 96.6% of adults identified as straight, 1.6% identified as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identified as bisexual. The remaining 1.1% of adults identified as ''something else,'' stated ''I don't know the answer,'' or refused to provide an answer. Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18-64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. NHIS sexual orientation data can be used to track progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives related to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In addition, the data can be used to examine a wide range of health disparities among adults identifying as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  5. Correlates of Worry About Health Care Costs Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M

    2018-06-01

    Although older adults in the United States incur more health care expenses than younger adults, little research has been done on their worry about health care costs. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey ( n = 7,253 for those 65+ years), we examined factors associated with older adults' health care cost worries, defined as at least a moderate level of worry, about ability to pay for normal health care and/or for health care due to a serious illness or accident. Bivariate analyses were used to compare worriers and nonworriers. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of income, health status, health care service use, and insurance type with worry status. Older age and having Medicaid and Veterans Affairs (VA)/military health benefits were associated with lower odds of worry, while low income, chronic pain, functional limitations, psychological distress, and emergency department visits were associated with higher odds. Practice and policy implications for the findings are discussed.

  6. Health care expenditure burdens among adults with diabetes in 2001.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Didem M; Banthin, Jessica S; Encinosa, William E

    2006-03-01

    High out-of-pocket costs can pose a significant burden on patients with chronic conditions such as diabetes and contribute to decreased treatment adherence. We examined financial burdens among adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. estimated how frequently adults with diabetes live in families in which spending on health insurance premiums and health care services exceed a specified percentage of family-level after-tax disposable income. We found that adults with diabetes face greater risks of high burdens compared with adults with any other highly prevalent medical condition. Adults with diabetes have lower incomes and pay a higher share of total expenditures out-of-pocket compared with adults with heart disease, hypertension, and cancer. Among adults with diabetes, women, those who live in poverty, and those with coexisting conditions are more likely to bear high burdens. Among nonelderly adults, those with public coverage and the uninsured have greater risk of high burdens compared with those with private insurance. More than 23% of the uninsured and more than 20% of those with public coverage spend more than half of their disposable income on health care. Among the elderly, those with private nonemployment related insurance have the greatest risk of high burdens followed by those with Medicare only, those with private employment-related coverage, and those enrolled in Medicaid. Prescription medications and diabetic supplies account for 63% to 70% of out-of-pocket expenditures among the nonelderly and 62% to 69% among the elderly. Our study identifies the subpopulations among adults with diabetes who are more likely to have high burdens, so that intervention measures can be targeted to help reduce treatment noncompliance. Our analysis also emphasizes the role of medications and diabetic supplies in contributing to high out-of-pocket burdens.

  7. Maternal Exercise Improves the Metabolic Health of Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Harris, Johan E; Baer, Lisa A; Stanford, Kristin I

    2018-03-01

    The intrauterine environment can modulate the course of development and confer an enduring effect on offspring health. The effects of maternal diet to impair offspring metabolic health are well established, but the effects of maternal exercise on offspring metabolic health have been less defined. Because physical exercise is a treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), maternal exercise is an appealing intervention to positively influence the intrauterine environment and improve the metabolic health of offspring. Recent research has provided insights into the effects of maternal exercise on the metabolic health of adult offspring, which is the focus of this review. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Religion and health-promoting behaviors among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Horton, Shalonda E B

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest we capitalize upon religion's health benefits to prevent obesity. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine how emerging adults used religion to manage their health. Two focus groups were conducted among White and African American participants. Content analysis of the data revealed categories about their attitudes regarding parental and religious influences, religion's influence on behavior, negative health effects of religion, barriers, obesity prevention, and health promotion programs. Society sends out "easy" solutions for unhealthy behaviors, but we should focus on healthy behavior benefits, remove barriers, and consider religion's part in health promotion (obesity prevention).

  9. Oral health promotion programme for older migrant adults.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive; Schofield, Margot; Minichiello, Victor

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a community-based oral health promotion programme on the use of oral health services, oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of older Greek and Italian adults attending community clubs and living in Melbourne, Australia. The oral health promotion intervention consisted of three components: a series of oral health seminars, held at the clubs in the participants' native languages, the provision of oral health care products, and the production of oral health information sheets. The intervention programme was known as the Oral Health Information Seminars/Sheets (ORHIS). The content of each session was determined following suggestions and findings from the data collected. A pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was chosen to evaluate the intervention. A total of 520 independent-living older adults, members of Greek or Italian social clubs participated in this evaluation. Participants who took part in the intervention responded with higher levels of achievement than those in the control groups. After controlling for baseline variables, experimental groups were significantly more likely than the control groups at post-test to have improved oral health attitudes, oral health knowledge, and self-assessed physical health status, as well as, self-reported oral hygiene practices and use of oral health services. The ORHIS approach was successful within the setting of social clubs, and highly acceptable to these communities. As such, it represents a helpful approach for the design of (oral) health interventions in older adults. Further research is required to test the long-tem impact including the economic evaluation of the ORHIS approach.

  10. Childhood maltreatment and adult mental health.

    PubMed

    Dovran, Anders; Winje, Dagfinn; Øverland, Simon; Arefjord, Kjersti; Hansen, Anita; Waage, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between reported childhood maltreatment and general psychological and post-traumatic distress was examined in a sample of 551 adults from different risk samples. Exposure to childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short Form, which detects physical, emotional and sexual abuse and past physical and emotional neglect. The participants' current levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms and general psychological stress symptoms were measured with the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Symptom Checklist 90 - Revised, respectively. The results reveal a high prevalence of reported childhood maltreatment in both men and women, and the severity levels of the five types of childhood maltreatment showed significant associations with the extent of current post-traumatic and general psychological distress. The findings emphasize the need for appropriate procedures for identifying childhood maltreatment.

  11. Adult mesenchymal stem cells and women's health.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arnold I

    2015-02-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were previously described as multipotent cells that could differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and other mesenchymal tissues. New information suggests that MSCs can be found in every tissue of the body because they function as perivascular cells--pericytes--found outside all blood vessels. When these vessels break or are inflamed, pericytes are detached and form MSCs, which are activated by their local microenvironment of injury. Such MSCs function to secrete powerful immune-modulatory and regenerative agents; more than 450 clinical trials are now ongoing, covering a huge spectrum of clinical conditions. How such activated MSCs affect menstrual cycle, menopause, or osteotrophic cancers has only recently been studied. This article outlines these issues and challenges the scientific and medical community to use this newfound knowledge to uncover new clinical logics and medial solutions for women.

  12. The digital health divide: evaluating online health information access and use among older adults.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W

    2015-04-01

    Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide debate. This study evaluated the potential digital health divide in relation to characteristic and belief differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information sources. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted using a random sample of older adults. A total of 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9 years, SD = 10.4) participated in the study. Seventy-six percent of all respondents had Internet access. Users and nonusers of online health information differed significantly on age (M = 66.29 vs. M = 71.13), education, and previous experience with the health care system. Users and nonusers of online health information also differed significantly on Internet and technology access, however, a large percentage of nonusers had Internet access (56.3%), desktop computers (55.9%), and laptop computers or netbooks (43.2%). Users of online health information had higher mean scores on the Computer Self-Efficacy Measure than nonusers, t(159) = -7.29, p < .0001. This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information. Findings suggest strategies for reducing this divide and implications for health education programs to promote HIT use among older adults. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. Seeing Health Insurance and HealthCare.gov Through the Eyes of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Charlene A; Asch, David A; Vinoya, Cjloe M; Ford, Carol A; Baker, Tom; Town, Robert; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-08-01

    We describe young adults' perspectives on health insurance and HealthCare.gov, including their attitudes toward health insurance, health insurance literacy, and benefit and plan preferences. We observed young adults aged 19-30 years in Philadelphia from January to March 2014 as they shopped for health insurance on HealthCare.gov. Participants were then interviewed to elicit their perceived advantages and disadvantages of insurance and factors considered important for plan selection. A 1-month follow-up interview assessed participants' plan enrollment decisions and intended use of health insurance. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology, and salience scores were calculated for free-listing responses. We enrolled 33 highly educated young adults; 27 completed the follow-up interview. The most salient advantages of health insurance for young adults were access to preventive or primary care (salience score .28) and peace of mind (.27). The most salient disadvantage was the financial strain of paying for health insurance (.72). Participants revealed poor health insurance literacy with 48% incorrectly defining deductible and 78% incorrectly defining coinsurance. The most salient factors reported to influence plan selection were deductible (.48) and premium (.45) amounts as well as preventive care (.21) coverage. The most common intended health insurance use was primary care. Eight participants enrolled in HealthCare.gov plans: six selected silver plans, and three qualified for tax credits. Young adults' perspective on health insurance and enrollment via HealthCare.gov can inform strategies to design health insurance plans and communication about these plans in a way that engages and meets the needs of young adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative optimism in older adults' future health expectations.

    PubMed

    Vanderzanden, Karen; Ruthig, Joelle C

    2018-05-13

    Despite a common belief that health declines with age, many older adults remain optimistic about their future health. However, the longitudinal impact of personal and comparatively optimistic future health estimates (FHEs) is unclear. Among 408 older adults (M age  = 70.32 years), this study identified the prevalence, source, and two-year stability of comparatively optimistic FHEs; examined demographic, psychosocial, and health correlates of comparative FHEs; and assessed the role of comparative FHEs in predicting eight-year survival odds. Nearly half of participants were comparatively optimistic due to interpersonal pessimism more so than personal optimism. Regarding stability, comparative optimism declined over the two-year period. Being younger and having more perceived control, dispositional optimism, and recent positive emotions were associated with better FHEs for oneself and a similar other. Beyond effects of age, gender, relationship status, and dispositional optimism, optimistic personal FHEs predicted eight-year survival odds. Findings have implications for predicting survival and advancing the conceptual understanding of comparative FHEs. Statement of contribution What is already known on the subject? Previous research has demonstrated that older adults tend to believe diminished health accompanies increasing age. Despite this notion, older adults remain comparatively optimistic about their health. What does this study add? The longitudinal results of the current study indicated that nearly half of participants were categorized as comparative optimists, primarily due to interpersonal pessimism. The current study demonstrated that there is little distinction between personal FHEs and those for a similar other in terms of demographic, psychosocial, and health correlates. The current study identified factors that predicted eight-year survival among older adults, such as being female, younger, in a committed relationship, and better personal FHEs. © 2018

  15. Physical therapists' health promotion activities for older adults.

    PubMed

    Healey, William E; Broers, K Blaire; Nelson, Julie; Huber, Gail

    2012-01-01

    It is not known to what extent and how effectively physical therapists working with older adults are promoting health with their patients. The purpose of this study was to describe what physical therapists in a midwestern urban area do with older adults (65 years and older) for health and wellness promotion in the clinical setting. A total of 65 physical therapists were invited to participate in the study. Of them, 24 respondents met the inclusion criteria and 14 were able to attend 1 of 3 focus group interviews held at the investigators' university location. Participants were female physical therapists mostly in their 30s who worked with older adults greater than 60% of the time in inpatient, outpatient, or home care settings. Focus group interviews were tape-recorded and field notes were taken. Data were transcribed, coded individually, and underwent member-checking and peer review to ensure trustworthiness of the study's findings. Three major themes emerged. First, participants believed health promotion is a part of physical therapist practice. Second, participants described the health promotion benefits of more one-on-one time with patients. Third, these physical therapists acknowledged several factors that impact their delivery of health promotion. We found that these experienced physical therapists from a variety of practice settings were consistently practicing health promotion while treating older adults. Participants reported the one-on-one time spent that helped build relationships as the main facilitator of practicing health promotion. Although there were no objective measures of the effectiveness of their health-promoting efforts, subjectively all felt confident in their ability to promote health with their older patients.

  16. Psychologists and the Transition From Pediatrics to Adult Health Care.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Monaghan, Maureen C; Gilleland Marchak, Jordan; Driscoll, Kimberly A; Hilliard, Marisa E

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines for optimal transition call for multidisciplinary teams, including psychologists, to address youth and young adults' multifactorial needs. This study aimed to characterize psychologists' roles in and barriers to involvement in transition from pediatric to adult health care. Psychologists were invited via professional listservs to complete an online survey about practice settings, roles in transition programming, barriers to involvement, and funding sources. Participants also responded to open-ended questions about their experiences in transition programs. One hundred participants responded to the survey. Involvement in transition was reported at multiple levels from individual patient care to institutional transition programming, and 65% reported more than one level of involvement. Direct clinical care (88%), transition-related research (50%), and/or leadership (44%) involvement were reported, with 59% reporting more than one role. Respondents often described advocating for their involvement on transition teams. Various sources of funding were reported, yet, 23% reported no funding for their work. Barriers to work in transition were common and included health care systems issues such as poor coordination among providers or lack of a clear transition plan within the clinic/institution. Psychologists assume numerous roles in the transition of adolescents from pediatric to adult health care. With training in health care transition-related issues, psychologists are ideally positioned to partner with other health professionals to develop and implement transition programs in multidisciplinary settings, provided health care system barriers can be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Education and Health: Evidence on Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ayyagari, Padmaja; Grossman, Daniel; Sloan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Although the education-health relationship is well documented, pathways through which education influences health are not well understood. This study uses data from a 2003-4 cross sectional supplemental survey of respondents to the longitudinal Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus to assess effects of education on health and mechanisms underlying the relationship. The supplemental survey provides rich detail on use of personal health care services (e.g., adherence to guidelines for diabetes care) and personal attributes which are plausibly largely time invariant and systematically related to years of schooling completed, including time preference, self-control, and self-confidence. Educational attainment, as measured by years of schooling completed, is systematically and positively related to time to onset of diabetes, and conditional on having been diagnosed with this disease on health outcomes, variables related to efficiency in health production, as well as use of diabetes specialists. However, the marginal effects of increasing educational attainment by a year are uniformly small. Accounting for other factors, including child health and child socioeconomic status which could affect years of schooling completed and adult health, adult cognition, income, and health insurance, and personal attributes from the supplemental survey, marginal effects of educational attainment tend to be lower than when these other factors are not included in the analysis, but they tend to remain statistically significant at conventional levels. PMID:21213044

  18. Health care resource utilization in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Andrew S; Pilote, Louise; Ionescu-Ittu, Raluca; Rahme, Elham; Marelli, Ariane J

    2007-03-15

    The number of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is increasing. However, rates of health care resource utilization in this population are unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of general health care resources in adults with CHD and to examine the impact of CHD severity on resource utilization. The study consisted of adults alive in 1996 who had > or = 1 diagnosis of a CHD lesion conforming to the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, in the physician's claims database of the province of Quebec from 1983 to 2000. From 1996 to 2000, rates of health care utilization were measured. The impact of the severity of CHD on the use of health care resources was determined using multivariate models to adjust for age, gender, Charlson co-morbidity score, and duration of follow-up. The study population consisted of 22,096 adults with CHD (42% men). From 1996 to 2000, 87% received outpatient care from specialists, 68% visited emergency rooms, 51% were hospitalized, and 16% were admitted to critical care units. Patients with severe CHD had higher adjusted rates of outpatient cardiologist care (rate ratio [RR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06 to 2.45), emergency department utilization (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17), hospitalization (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43), and days in critical care (RR 2.12, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.50) than patients with other congenital cardiac lesions. Hospitalization rates were higher than in the general Quebec adult population (RR 2.08, 95% CI 2.00 to 2.17). In conclusion, adults with CHD have high rates of health care resource utilization, particularly those with severe lesions. Appropriate resource allocation is required to serve this growing population.

  19. Health Literacy: Cancer Prevention Strategies for Early Adults.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gardening is beneficial for adult mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-07-01

    Gardening has been reported as being beneficial for mental well-being for vulnerable populations since 2000. However, little is known concerning its role in the general population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of gardening and mental health in adults in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, gardening engagement, and adult mental health by General Health Questionnaire was obtained by household interview. Statistical analyses including chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling were performed. Of 9709 Scottish adults aged 16-99, 5 531 (57.0%) people did not do any gardening or building work in the last four weeks. A total of 888 (9.2%) people reported poor self-rated health. Gardening was associated with adult mental health in people both with or without heart conditions including ability to concentrate, feeling playing a useful part in things, feeling capable of making decisions, thinking of self as worthless, feeling reasonably happy, etc. General adults with or without heart conditions could benefit from engaging with gardening or building work. Future public health programmes promoting such activity should be encouraged in order to optimise adult mental health.

  1. Social determinants of dental health services utilisation of Greek adults.

    PubMed

    Pavi, E; Karampli, E; Zavras, D; Dardavesis, T; Kyriopoulos, J

    2010-09-01

    To identify the determinants of dental care utilisation among Greek adults, with a particular emphasis on socio-economic determinants. Data were collected through a national survey on health and health care services utilisation of a sample of 4,003 Greek adults stratified by geographic region, age and gender. A purpose made questionnaire was used during face-to-face interviews. A 2-stage model was developed to assess the impact of independent variables on dental utilisation likelihood and frequency. 39.6% (1,562) of Greek adults reported having visited a dentist within the last year. Among dental attenders, 32.6% reported prevention as the reason for visit. Statistically significant differences in dental care utilisation were observed in relation to demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, income, education, place of residence, private insurance coverage and self-rated oral health are important determinants of dental services utilisation. Mean number of dental visits within previous year was 1.6. Results from Poisson regression analysis indicated that lower income level correlates to lower number of dental visits, while having visited for treatment (rather than for prevention) correlated to higher number of dental visits. Greek adults do not exhibit satisfactory dental visiting behaviour. Extent of care sought is associated with need for treatment rather than preventive reasons. The findings confirm the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in dental services utilisation among Greek adults.

  2. Chinese older adults' Internet use for health information.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen K M; Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Henry C Y; Tse, Kin-Po; Lam, Chun-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

  3. Physical activity measurement in older adults: relationships with mental health.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sarah J; Strath, Scott J; Swartz, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55-87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling-William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

  4. Health Literacy, Cognitive Ability, and Functional Health Status among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068

  5. Families, resources, and adult health: where do sexual minorities fit?

    PubMed

    Denney, Justin T; Gorman, Bridget K; Barrera, Cristina B

    2013-03-01

    Extensive research documents the relevance of families and socioeconomic resources to health. This article extends that research to sexual minorities, using 12 years of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 460,459) to examine self-evaluations of health among male and female adults living in same-sex and different-sex relationships. Adjusting for socioeconomic status eliminates differences between same- and different-sex cohabitors so that they have similarly higher odds of poor health relative to married persons. Results by gender reveal that the cohabitation disadvantage for health is more pronounced for different-sex cohabiting women than for men, but little difference exists between same-sex cohabiting men and women. Finally, the presence of children in the home is more protective for women's than men's health, but those protections are specific to married women. In all, the results elucidate the importance of relationship type, gender, and the presence of children when evaluating health.

  6. The Obama health care plan: what it means for mental health care of older adults.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.

  7. The Developmental Approach to Child and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatricians should consider the costs and benefits of preventing rather than treating childhood diseases. We present an integrated developmental approach to child and adult health that considers the costs and benefits of interventions over the life cycle. We suggest policies to promote child health that are currently outside the boundaries of conventional pediatrics. We discuss current challenges to the field and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:23547057

  8. Hospitalization and aesthetic health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of hospitalization on arts engagement among older people; and to assess perceptions of whether hospitals are aesthetically deprived environments. A Survey of Aesthetic and Cultural Health was developed to explore the role of aesthetics before, during and after hospital. Study participants were n = 150 hospital in-patients aged >65. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Attendance at arts events was an important part of life for this sample and a large drop off was noted in continuation of these activities in the year post-hospital stay. Physical health issues were the main causes but also loss of confidence and transport issues. Film, dance, and music were the most popular arts for this sample prior to hospital stay. Noise pollution caused by other patients, lack of control over TV/radio, and access to receptive arts in hospital (reading and listening to music) were important issues for patients in hospital. This study identifies a trend for decreasing exposure to arts beginning with a hospital stay and concludes that older people may need encouragement to resume engagement in arts following a hospital stay. There is relatively limited evidence regarding the nature of, and potential benefit from, aesthetics in healthcare and limited studies with rigorous methodology, and further research is needed to understand the aesthetic preferences of older people in hospital. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  10. Examining Reports of Mental Health in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinton, Chris; Tomlinson, Katie; Estes, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have a disposition towards anxiety. Information regarding this is typically derived from parents and carers. The perspectives of the individuals with WS are rarely included in research of this nature. We examined the mental health of 19 adults with WS using explicit (psychiatric…

  11. Diabetes Literacy: Health and Adult Literacy Practitioners in Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes pedagogy in a series of "diabetes literacy" programs involving culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities. The programs were jointly delivered in local community sites, including neighbourhood centres and public housing halls, by qualified nutritionists from a public health service and adult literacy…

  12. Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…

  13. Lifestyle and Health Behaviours of Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, B. E.; Daly, P.; Smyth, F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is currently no published research in Ireland on the health behaviours of adults with an intellectual disability (ID). With an increasing age profile and similar patterns of morbidity to the general population, the ID population would benefit from baseline data from which to establish risk factors. Methods: A questionnaire survey…

  14. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... starter tips Resources Additional Resources Cultural Competence Health Literacy Older Adults Plain Language Visual Impairment Web sites Content last updated: October 30, 2007 skip to navigation | skip to content ACCESSIBILITY | FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT | PRIVACY POLICY | CONTACT US Office of Disease ...

  15. The Health Status of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lisa A.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria L.; Rich, Steve; Sidney, Stephen; Kripke, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured…

  16. Is Food Insufficiency Associated with Health Status and Health Care Utilization Among Adults with Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Cunningham, William; Andersen, Ron; Harrison, Gail; Gelberg, Lillian

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Preliminary studies have shown that among adults with diabetes, food insufficiency has adverse health consequences, including hypoglycemic episodes and increased need for health care services. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of food insufficiency and to describe the association of food insufficiency with health status and health care utilization in a national sample of adults with diabetes. METHODS We analyzed data from adults with diabetes (n = 1,503) interviewed in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship of food insufficiency to self-reported health status and health care utilization. RESULTS Six percent of adults with diabetes reported food insufficiency, representing more than 568,600 persons nationally (95% confidence interval, 368,400 to 768,800). Food insufficiency was more common among those with incomes below the federal poverty level (17% vs 4%, P≤.001). Adults with diabetes who were food insufficient were more likely to report fair or poor health status than those who were not (63% vs 43%; odds ratio, 2.2; P =.05). In a multivariate analysis, fair or poor health status was independently associated with poverty, nonwhite race, low educational achievement, and number of chronic diseases, but not with food insufficiency. Diabetic adults who were food insufficient reported more physician encounters, either in clinic or by phone, than those who were food secure (12 vs 7, P <.05). In a multivariate linear regression, food insufficiency remained independently associated with increased physician utilization among adults with diabetes. There was no association between food insufficiency and hospitalization in bivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Food insufficiency is relatively common among low-income adults with diabetes and was associated with higher physician utilization. PMID:11422638

  17. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults’ limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide debate. This study evaluated the potential digital health divide in relation to characteristic and belief differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information sources. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was conducted using a random sample of older adults. A total of 225 older adults (age range = 50–92 years, M = 68.9 years, SD = 10.4) participated in the study. Results Seventy-six percent of all respondents had Internet access. Users and nonusers of online health information differed significantly on age (M = 66.29 vs. M = 71.13), education, and previous experience with the health care system. Users and nonusers of online health information also differed significantly on Internet and technology access, however, a large percentage of nonusers had Internet access (56.3%), desktop computers (55.9%), and laptop computers or netbooks (43.2%). Users of online health information had higher mean scores on the Computer Self-Efficacy Measure than nonusers, t(159) = −7.29, p < .0001. Conclusion This study found significant differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information. Findings suggest strategies for reducing this divide and implications for health education programs to promote HIT use among older adults. PMID:25156311

  18. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Muraco, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. Design and Methods: We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. Results: We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Implications: Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. PMID:28087798

  19. Social Network Types and Mental Health Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bryan, Amanda E B; Muraco, Anna

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to identify social network types among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults and examine the relationship between social network type and mental health. We analyzed the 2014 survey data of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,450) from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify clusters of social network ties based on 11 indicators. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between social network types and mental health. We found five social network types. Ordered from greatest to least access to family, friend, and other non-family network ties, they were diverse, diverse/no children, immediate family-focused, friend-centered/restricted, and fully restricted. The friend-centered/restricted (33%) and diverse/no children network types (31%) were the most prevalent. Among individuals with the friend-centered/restricted type, access to social networks was limited to friends, and across both types children were not present. The least prevalent type was the fully restricted network type (6%). Social network type was significantly associated with mental health, after controlling for background characteristics and total social network size; those with the fully restricted type showed the poorest mental health. Unique social network types (diverse/no children and friend-centered/restricted) emerge among LGBT older adults. Moreover, individuals with fully restricted social networks are at particular risk due to heightened health needs and limited social resources. This study highlights the importance of understanding heterogeneous social relations and developing tailored interventions to promote social connectedness and mental health in LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Health Risk Behaviors and Mental Health Problems as Mediators of the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health risk behaviors, and we explored whether adult health risk behaviors or mental health problems mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health problems and health care utilization. Methods. We used logistic regression to analyze data from the Mental Health Supplement of the Ontario Health Survey, a representative population sample (N = 8116) of respondents aged 15 to 64 years. Results. We found relationships between childhood sexual abuse and smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.99), alcohol problems (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.44), obesity (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.27), having more than 1 sexual partner in the previous year (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.44, 3.80), and mental health problems (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.78. 2.87). We also found relationships between these factors (with the exception of obesity) and childhood physical abuse. Mediation analysis suggested that health risk behaviors and particularly mental health problems are partial mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and adult health. Conclusions. Public health approaches that aim to decrease child abuse by supporting positive parent–child relationships, reducing the development of health risk behaviors, and addressing children's mental health are likely to improve long-term population health. PMID:18703446

  1. Mental health literacy as a mediator in use of mental health services among older korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhee, T Greg; Lee, Hee Yun; Park, Byung Hyun; Sharratt, Monica L

    2017-02-01

    Existing literature suggests that mental health literacy is positively associated with mental health services utilization. Despite an aging population that faces significant mental health concerns in Korea, the role of mental health literacy on mental health services utilization is not known among older adults in Korea. This study aimed to (1) identify whether mental health literacy mediates the association between population characteristics and mental health services utilization and (2) identify an optimal path model for mental health services utilization among Korean older adults. Using a cross-sectional survey with a quota sampling strategy, we collected and analyzed responses from 596 community-dwelling individuals ages 65 years and older. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to estimate the effect of mental health literacy as a mediator. When controlling for other relevant covariates in the optimal path model, mental health literacy mediated the relationships between three socio-demographic factors (education, general literacy, and health status) and mental health services utilization. The model fit index shows that the SEM fits very well (CFI = 0.92, NFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07). Efforts to improve mental health literacy through community-based education programs may need to particularly target Korean older adults with the relevant socio-demographic characteristics to enhance their utilization of appropriate mental health services.

  2. Validation of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale for adults.

    PubMed

    Donizzetti, Anna Rosa; Petrillo, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    We present the validation study of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale adult version, aimed to measure illusory beliefs about health. The scale was administered to 643 participants (54.3% females), having an average age of 29.7 years (standard deviation = 18.31). The results of the analyses confirmed the dimensions of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale as developed in the previous adolescent study (Beliefs: Religious, Superstitious, in Extraordinary Events, Parapsychological, and Pseudo-scientific of a biomedical nature), as well as the convergent and discriminant validity through the correlation with other constructs (locus of control and self-efficacy). The results also showed significant differences between subgroups by gender and age. The Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and thus may be used effectively to identify the varied range of illusory beliefs related to health, even within the context of lifelong educational programs aimed at health promotion.

  3. Validation of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale for adults

    PubMed Central

    Donizzetti, Anna Rosa; Petrillo, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    We present the validation study of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale adult version, aimed to measure illusory beliefs about health. The scale was administered to 643 participants (54.3% females), having an average age of 29.7 years (standard deviation = 18.31). The results of the analyses confirmed the dimensions of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale as developed in the previous adolescent study (Beliefs: Religious, Superstitious, in Extraordinary Events, Parapsychological, and Pseudo-scientific of a biomedical nature), as well as the convergent and discriminant validity through the correlation with other constructs (locus of control and self-efficacy). The results also showed significant differences between subgroups by gender and age. The Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and thus may be used effectively to identify the varied range of illusory beliefs related to health, even within the context of lifelong educational programs aimed at health promotion. PMID:29379631

  4. Mental health interventions among older adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Niclasen, Janni; Lund, Lisbeth; Obel, Carsten; Larsen, Lars

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to identify documented mental health promotion interventions developed and tested among population-based older adults. A systematic review based on PRISMA guidelines. The literature was searched in PsycINFO and PubMed between June and September 2016. The Effective Public Health Practice Project tool was used to assess the quality of the included study. In total 53 randomized controlled trial studies qualified for the systematic review. Across studies, three types of common conceptual themes emerged for interventions, including: 1) individual characteristics; 2) content and structure of the interventions; and 3) implementation of the interventions. No specific interventions could be recommended on the aforementioned basis. We conclude that a number of factors are of central importance for an intervention to have the desired effect. If these factors are considered, mental health can be successfully promoted among older adults.

  5. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health.

    PubMed

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P

    2009-07-01

    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  6. Health promotion in young adults at a university in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program. A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test. The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants’ overall evaluation score (83% rated “excellent” or “good”) and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events. In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members’ health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and

  7. Clinical Preventive Services for Older Adults: The Interface Between Personal Health Care and Public Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Chesley L.; Shenson, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging must become a priority objective for both population and personal health services, and will require innovative prevention programming to span those systems. Uptake of essential clinical preventive services is currently suboptimal among adults, owing to a number of system- and office-based care barriers. To achieve maximum health results, prevention must be integrated across community and clinical settings. Many preventive services are portable, deliverable in either clinical or community settings. Capitalizing on that flexibility can improve uptake and health outcomes. Significant reductions in health disparities, mortality, and morbidity, along with decreases in health spending, are achievable through improved collaboration and synergy between population health and personal health systems. PMID:22390505

  8. The Kaiser Permanente Northern California Adult Member Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nancy; Lin, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) Member Health Survey (MHS) is used to describe sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of the adult membership of this large, integrated health care delivery system to monitor trends over time, identify health disparities, and conduct research. To provide an overview of the KPNC MHS and share findings that illustrate how survey statistics and data have been and can be used for research and programmatic purposes. The MHS is a large-scale, institutional review board-approved survey of English-speaking KPNC adult members. The confidential survey has been conducted by mail triennially starting in 1993 with independent age-sex and geographically stratified random samples, with an option for online completion starting in 2005. The full survey sample and survey data are linkable at the individual level to Health Plan and geocoded data. Respondents are assigned weighting factors for their survey year and additional weighting factors for analysis of pooled survey data. Statistics from the 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 surveys show trends in sociodemographic and health-related characteristics and access to the Internet and e-mail for the adult membership aged 25 to 79 years and for 6 age-sex subgroups. Pooled data from the 2008 and 2011 surveys show many significant differences in these characteristics across the 5 largest race/ethnic groups in KPNC (non-Hispanic whites, blacks, Latinos, Filipinos, and Chinese). The KPNC MHS has yielded unique insights and provides an opportunity for researchers and public health organizations outside of KPNC to leverage our survey-generated statistics and collaborate on epidemiologic and health services research studies.

  9. Health Promotion for Young Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.

  10. Health Promotion for Young Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Scherer, Emily A.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21–30) compared with participants over age 30. Methods Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Results Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a non-significant difference between age groups). Conclusions Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group. PMID:27799016

  11. [The health of adults undergoing an eviction process].

    PubMed

    Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Bernal Solano, Mariola; Mateo Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Escudero Espinosa, Cecilia; Sánchez Cantalejo, Carmen; González Usera, Isis; Robles Ortega, Humbelina; Mata Martín, José Luis; Fernández Santaella, M Carmen; Vila Castellar, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To analyze perceived health status and other health-related indicators in the adult population in Granada (Spain) undergoing an eviction process from their homes, whether rented or owned, in comparison with health indicators in the general adult population in Andalusia. A cross-sectional survey was administered by trained staff. The survey included instruments from the Andalusian Health Survey 2011 for measuring variables related to physical and mental health, as well as health-related habits. We compared the results with those obtained from the Andalusian general population through the Andalusian Health Survey. A bivariate analysis using the χ2 test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. We obtained a total sample of 205 people in the process of eviction. A total of 59.5% (n=122) were women, and 40.5% (n=83) were men. Participants were more likely to have poor health (odds ratio [OR]: 12.63, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 8.74-18.27), have cardiovascular diseases (OR: 3.08; 95%CI: 1.54- 6.16), or to smoke (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.21-2.33) compared with the Andalusian general population. Most of the health indicators analyzed showed a worse outcome for women undergoing an eviction process. Our results suggest that, in the current context of economic crisis, people undergoing a process of eviction in Granada and its metropolitan area show poorer health than the Andalusian general population. Further research is needed on health and evictions from different methodological approaches, for a better understanding of the topic. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Health literacy and self-rated health in adults primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Marques, Suzana Raquel Lopes; Escarce, Andrezza Gonzalez; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To verify the association between health literacy, social determinants and self-rated health in adult's primary health care patients. Methods this is an Observational cross-sectional study in which a total of 380 patients of the Unified Health System in the context of primary health care were interviewed. The sample was probabilistic, stratified by gender, age, and Basic Health Unit. Health literacy was evaluated by an instrument of analysis of the perception of adults about the understanding of health orientations and possible difficulties in this process (Health Literacy Scale). Descriptive and association analyses were performed (Pearson's chi-square test, p≤0.05). Results It was verified that the majority of the interviewees belongs to classes C1 and C2 and attended high school (complete or incomplete). Regarding self-rated health, to be considered healthy and with good health were the predominant perceptions. In the Health Literacy Scale, it was verified that most patients reported never presenting difficulties in the situations of this instrument, except understanding written orientations. It was observed the association with a statistical significance of the better perception of health literacy with higher educational level and economic classification, as well as with self-rated of good health. Conclusion There was a statistical association between health literacy, social determinants, and self-rated health in the analyzed adults. It is noteworthy the contribution of the Health Literacy Scale for emphasizing the perception of difficulties in everyday health situations. It is necessary to develop dialogic relationships that build more robust communication processes between professionals and healthcare patients to favor health literacy skills.

  13. Deaf adults and health care: Giving voice to their stories.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Kate

    2014-09-01

    Deaf adults often experience significant healthcare disparities. This article gives voice to nine Deaf adults as they describe their lifelong experiences with health care. Qualitative, hermeneutic interviews with nine culturally Deaf adults. Each participant was interviewed three times, aided by a certified American Sign Language interpreter. Participants recalled childhood memories of painful and frightening procedures to investigate the deafness, which frequently overshadowed emotional needs. Communication barriers between Deaf patients and providers left the patients not understanding the diagnosis or treatment, medication use, or side effects. Descriptions included distressing or embarrassing interactions, and cries for help gone unanswered. Consequently, minimal health promotion occurs and most participants rely on the emergency department for health care. Deaf patients should be screened for physical, sexual, and emotional abuse at every healthcare encounter. Assessments should include social support and social resources. Specific questions about pain, sleep, appetite changes, suicidal thoughts, and interest may help to identify manifestations of illness and health. Certified interpreters may be useful during the healthcare encounter, but ultimately the Deaf patient is best positioned to identify the most comfortable or meaningful means of communication between patient and healthcare provider. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Transitioning HIV-infected youth into adult health care.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    With advances in antiretroviral therapy, most HIV-infected children survive into adulthood. Optimal health care for these youth includes a formal plan for the transition of care from primary and/or subspecialty pediatric/adolescent/family medicine health care providers (medical home) to adult health care provider(s). Successful transition involves the early engagement and participation of the youth and his or her family with the pediatric medical home and adult health care teams in developing a formal plan. Referring providers should have a written policy for the transfer of HIV-infected youth to adult care, which will guide in the development of an individualized plan for each youth. The plan should be introduced to the youth in early adolescence and modified as the youth approaches transition. Assessment of developmental milestones is important to define the readiness of the youth in assuming responsibility for his or her own care before initiating the transfer. Communication among all providers is essential and should include both personal contact and a written medical summary. Progress toward the transition should be tracked and,once completed, should be documented and assessed.

  15. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults – PNS 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; de Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares; Medina, Lhais Barbosa de Paula; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. METHODS Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years) from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013), we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators), according to the presence of depression (minor and major), evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9), and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days) over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9), higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65), passive smoking (PR = 1.55), risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72), TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13), consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43) and soft drink (PR = 1.42). The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors. PMID:28591352

  16. [Health literacy of adults in Germany: Findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) study].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Susanne; Hoebel, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In today's information society, health literacy (HL) is considered important for health maintenance and disease management. In this context, dealing with health information is fundamental and requires different cognitive and social skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HL levels in the adult population of Germany, and to identify associations with health behaviours and health status. The analyses were based on data from the German Health Update (GEDA) study, a cross-sectional survey of the German-speaking adult population of Germany, which was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. Health literacy was assessed with the short form of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS EU-Q16), along with questions about socio-demographics, health behaviours, and health status. The HLS-EU-Q16 index could be calculated for 4845 respondents. According to the criteria of the HLS-EU-Q16, more than half of the adults had "adequate" HL (55.8 %). Every third person (31.9 %) had "problematic" and almost every eighth person (12.3 %) had "inadequate" HL. We found significant differences in HL by educational level, but no differences in HL by sex and age group. Certain health behaviours were positively associated with health literacy. A low HL level was associated with poorer physical and mental health. The results point to a need for action to improve HL in the adult population. The strengthening of health literacy should not solely aim at the promotion of individual skills, but also give high priority to the development of health-literate settings.

  17. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  18. Health literacy among Indian adults seeking dental care.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Audrey M; Shankar Aradhya, M R

    2013-01-01

    Poor literacy can impede one's ability not only to seek out needed health information but also to process, understand and use it to make appropriate health care decisions. The objective of the study was to assess the health literacy among adult patients seeking oral health care at in a private dental hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on 500 subjects. The questionnaire designed by Chew and colleagues (2004) was modified and used as the survey instrument. To be eligible to participate in the study, the participants had to be aged above 18 years and able to read or write English/Kannada (local language). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t-test (two tailed, independent) was used to find the significance of study parameters at 95% confidence interval. About 60.4% of the subjects had low health literacy level, 29.4% average and only 10.2% had high health literacy levels. Age and educational qualification had a suggestive significant difference with the mean health literacy scores while gender did not have any significant difference. Subjects who had completed post-graduation (57.8%) too had low health literacy levels. A large number of patients have low levels of health literacy that may interfere with their ability to process and understand basic health information.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences, dispositional mindfulness, and adult health.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Robert C; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Gooze, Rachel A; Becker, Brandon D; Gallagher, Kathleen C; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether greater dispositional mindfulness is associated with better adult health across a range of exposures to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). In 2012, a web-based survey of 2160 Pennsylvania Head Start staff was conducted. We assessed ACE score (count of eight categories of childhood adversity), dispositional mindfulness (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised), and the prevalence of three outcomes: multiple health conditions (≥ 3 of 7 conditions), poor health behavior (≥ 2 of 5 behaviors), and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (≥ 2 of 5 indicators). Respondents were 97% females, and 23% reported ≥ 3 ACEs. The prevalences of multiple health conditions, poor health behavior, and poor HRQOL were 29%, 21%, and 13%, respectively. At each level of ACE exposure, health outcomes were better in those with greater mindfulness. For example, among persons reporting ≥ 3 ACEs, those in the highest quartile of mindfulness had a prevalence of multiple health conditions two-thirds that of those in the lowest quartile (adjusted prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.66 (0.51, 0.86)); for those reporting no ACEs, the ratio was 0.62 (0.41, 0.94). Across a range of exposures to ACEs, greater dispositional mindfulness was associated with fewer health conditions, better health behavior, and better HRQOL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social relationships, leisure activity, and health in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2014-06-01

    Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modeling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Health literacy and the social determinants of health: a qualitative model from adult learners.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Gillian; Shaw, Adrienne; Jaswal, Sabrena; Smith, Sian; Harpham, Trudy

    2017-02-01

    Health literacy, ‘the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health’, is key to improving peoples’ control over modifiable social determinants of health (SDH). This study listened to adult learners to understand their perspectives on gathering, understanding and using information for health. This qualitative project recruited participants from community skills courses to identify relevant ‘health information’ factors. Subsequently different learners put these together to develop a model of their ‘Journey to health’. Twenty-seven participants were recruited; twenty from community health literacy courses and seven from an adult basic literacy and numeracy course. Participants described health as a ‘journey’ starting from an individual's family, ethnicity and culture. Basic (functional) health literacy skills were needed to gather and understand information. More complex interactive health literacy skills were needed to evaluate the importance and relevance of information in context, and make health decisions. Critical health literacy skills could be used to adapt negative external factors that might inhibit health-promotion. Our model is an iterative linear one moving from ethnicity, community and culture, through lifestyle, to health, with learning revisited in the context of different sources of support. It builds on existing models by highlighting the importance of SDH in the translation of new health knowledge into healthy behaviours, and the importance of health literacy in enabling people to overcome barriers to health.

  2. Health, education, work, and independence of young adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Kathleen B

    2006-01-01

    Healthy People 2010, the U.S. government's goal for a healthier nation, calls for improved data collection to understand the health status of relatively small population groups, such as young adults with disabilities. This study looks at the transition outcomes of graduates of pediatric systems of care for children with disabilities and chronic conditions. Young adult graduates of a state program for children with special healthcare needs and a specialty children's hospital were sent a mail survey that focused on their healthcare access and use, insurance status, health behaviors and perceptions, education, work, and markers of independent living. The survey was based on the , National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the U.S. Census and other surveys done by the state and hospital programs. Experts in healthcare and school-to-work transition of youth with special needs, health and labor economists, independent living center counselors, program administrators, nurses, social workers, and physicians offered ideas on various versions of the instrument that were piloted on youth before mailing to graduates. A follow-up mailing was sent to all those who did not respond to the first mailing. Results from the surveys of these young people with special healthcare needs are compared with data on typical young adults to determine the disparities. Mail surveys were sent to all patients aged 18 years and older at the time of their discharge in the preceding fiscal (state program) or calendar (children's hospital) year. The response rate was 51%. Ninety-one percent of the respondents were Whites and 61% were women, with a median age of 21.1 years; 69% reported independence in activities of daily living. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION/CLINICAL RESULTS: Eighty percent of graduates reported having a usual source of care, but 42% used the emergency room compared with 25% of typical young adults. Twenty-nine percent had no health insurance and only

  3. Who Gets Needed Mental Health Care? Use of Mental Health Services among Adults with Mental Health Need in California

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Timely and appropriate treatment could help reduce the burden of mental illness. Purpose This study describes mental health services use among Californians with mental health need, highlights underserved populations, and discusses policy opportunities. Methods Four years of California Health Interview Survey data (2011, 2012, 2013, 2014) were pooled and weighted to the 2013 population to estimate mental health need and unmet need (n=82,706). Adults with mental health need had “unmet need” if they did not use prescription medication and did not have at least four or more mental health visits in the past year. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the probability adults with mental health need did not receive past-year treatment (n=5,315). Results Seventy-seven percent of Californians with mental health need received no or inadequate mental health treatment in 2013. Men, Latinos, Asians, young people, older adults, people with less education, uninsured adults, and individuals with limited English proficiency were significantly more likely to have unmet need. Cost of treatment and mental health stigma were common reasons for lack of care. Conclusion Unmet mental health need is predominant in California. Policy recommendations include continued expansion of mental health coverage, early identification, and ensuring that treatment is culturally and linguistically appropriate. PMID:28729814

  4. Towards an understanding of adult judgments of synergistic health benefits.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ian G J; Dohle, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Numerous scientific studies show that certain combinations of dietary and/or lifestyle factors produce health benefits which are greater than the sum of the benefits associated with each factor alone. To address an existing knowledge gap, we assessed the extent to which individuals understand that certain combinations present these 'synergistic health benefits'. Health benefit judgments were obtained from lay adults for a range of dietary and/or lifestyle combinations that have been found to present synergistic benefits. Association between these judgments and socio-cognitive characteristics such as numeracy, education, and health interest (HI) were examined. Three hundred and fifty-two Swiss adults were presented with a description of one of eight synergistically beneficial combinations. Each participant provided a categorical benefit judgment (i.e., subadditive, additive, or synergistic) for the combination and explained the cognitive reasoning underlying their judgment. Participants completed measures of numeracy and HI. The proportion of combinations judged to present a synergistic benefit was modest for 'macro-level' combinations (e.g., diet and exercise), but low for 'micro-level' combinations (e.g., two phytochemicals). Cognitive reasoning data showed that a higher proportion of judgments for micro-level (cf. macro-level) combinations were based on greater subjective epistemic uncertainty. Higher interest in health was associated with a better understanding of synergistic benefits, but numeracy and education level were not. There is considerable scope to improve the extent to which lay adults understand that specific combination of diet and lifestyle behaviours can synergistically benefit their health. Our results enable us to make informed recommendations for public health interventions. What is already known on this subject? Combining certain dietary and/or lifestyle factors can result in synergistic health benefits. People could maintain/enhance their

  5. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  6. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. Older adults and mobile phones for health: a review.

    PubMed

    Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George

    2013-10-01

    To report on the results of a review concerning the use of mobile phones for health with older adults. PubMed and CINAHL were searched for articles using "older adults" and "mobile phones" along with related terms and synonyms between 1965 and June 2012. Identified articles were filtered by the following inclusion criteria: original research project utilizing a mobile phone as an intervention, involve/target adults 60 years of age or older, and have an aim emphasizing the mobile phone's use in health. Twenty-one different articles were found and categorized into ten different clinical domains, including diabetes, activities of daily life, and dementia care, among others. The largest group of articles focused on diabetes care (4 articles), followed by COPD (3 articles), Alzheimer's/dementia Care (3 articles) and osteoarthritis (3 articles). Areas of interest studied included feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness. While there were many different clinical domains, the majority of studies were pilot studies that needed more work to establish a stronger base of evidence. Current work in using mobile phones for older adult use are spread across a variety of clinical domains. While this work is promising, current studies are generally smaller feasibility studies, and thus future work is needed to establish more generalizable, stronger base of evidence for effectiveness of these interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Status and Health Risks of the "Hidden Majority" of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the health status of and health risks faced by adults with intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. Self-report data collected from 1,022 people with mild intellectual disability in England indicated that people who do not use intellectual disability services are more likely to smoke tobacco…

  9. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  10. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  11. Health system strategies supporting transition to adult care.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Charlotte Moore; Cohen, Eyal; Bhawra, Jasmin; Weiser, Natalie; Hayeems, Robin Z; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-06-01

    The transition from paediatric to adult care is associated with poor clinical outcomes, increased costs and low patient and family satisfaction. However, little is known about health system strategies to streamline and safeguard care for youth transitioning to adult services. Moreover, the needs of children and youth are often excluded from broader health system reform discussions, leaving this population especially vulnerable to system 'disintegration'. (1) To explore the international policy profile of paediatric-to-adult care transitions, and (2) to document policy objectives, initiatives and outcomes for jurisdictions publicly committed to addressing transition issues. An international policy scoping review of all publicly available government documents detailing transition-related strategies was completed using a web-based search. Our analysis included a comparable cohort of nine wealthy Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) jurisdictions with Beveridge-style healthcare systems (deemed those most likely to benefit from system-level transition strategies). Few jurisdictions address transition of care issues in either health or broader social policy documents. While many jurisdictions refer to standardised practice guidelines, a few report the intention to use powerful policy levers (including physician remuneration and non-physician investments) to facilitate the uptake of best practice. Most jurisdictions do not address the policy infrastructure required to support successful transitions, and rigorous evaluations of transition strategies are rare. Despite the well-documented risks and costs associated with a poor transition from paediatric to adult care, little policy attention has been paid to this issue. We recommend that healthcare providers engage health system planners in the design and evaluation of system-level, policy-sensitive transition strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  12. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO): monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-06-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the "Mental health care Monitor Older adults" (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to describe MEMO and the older adults who attend outpatient mental health care regarding their predisposing and enabling characteristics and need for care. In MEMO all patients referred to the division of old age psychiatry of the participating mental health care organisations are assessed at baseline and monitored at 4, 8 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes are mental and social functioning, consumer satisfaction, and type of treatment provided (MEMO Basic). Over the years, MEMO Basic is repeated. In each cycle, additional information on specific patient groups is added (e.g. mood disorders). Data collection is supported by a web-based system for clinicians, including direct feedback to monitor patients throughout treatment. First results at baseline showed that the majority of patients that entered the division of old age psychiatry was female (69%), had low education (83%), lived alone (53%), was depressed (42%) and had a comorbid condition (82%). It seemed that older immigrants were not sufficiently reached. The current study is the first in the Netherlands to evaluate patient characteristics and outcome in mental health care provided for older adults in day-to-day practice. If MEMO works out successfully, the method should be extended to other target groups. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sinnema, Margje; Maaskant, Marian A; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; van Nieuwpoort, I Caroline; Drent, Madeleine L; Curfs, Leopold M G; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M

    2011-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in adults with PWS are scarce. We report on the prevalence of physical health problems in a Dutch cohort of adults with PWS in relation to age, BMI, and genetic subtype. Participants (n = 102) were retrieved via the Dutch Prader-Willi Parent Association and through physicians specializing in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Details regarding physical health problem spanning the participants' lifespan were collected from caretakers through semi-structured interviews. Cardiovascular problems included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cerebrovascular accidents. Respiratory infections were frequent in adulthood. In males, cryptorchidism was almost universal, for which 28/48 males had a history of surgery, mostly orchidopexy. None of the women had a regular menstrual cycle. Sixteen individuals had a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Spinal deformation, hip dysplasia, and foot abnormalities were common. Skinpicking, leg edema, and erysipelas were frequent dermatological problems. The findings in our group support the notion that the prevalence of physical health problems is underestimated. This underscores the importance of developing monitoring programs which would help to recognize physical health problems at an early stage. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Lifestyle and health conditions of adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Cruz Enders, Bertha; Silva Coura, Alexsandro; Pereira Cruz, Giovanna Karinny; da Silva Aragão, Jamilly; Carvalho de Oliveira, Déborah Raquel

    2014-01-01

    . To describe the lifestyle of adults with spinal cord injury and explore its relation with some health conditions. Cross sectional study, in which a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, habits and health conditions variables was used. Forty-seven people with spinal cord injury participated and answered the self-report questionnaire. The group under study was predominantly male (92%), under 40 years of age (47%), and had low educational level (76%). The most frequent risk factors related to the lifestyle were: smoking (28%), alcohol consumption (36%), coffee consumption (92%) and being physically inactive (64%). Association was found between having four or more risk factors related to lifestyle and the loss of appetite, as well as constipation. . The actual inadequate lifestyle is associated with the health conditions of patients, and the nursing team should pay special attention to the education and promotion of health related to people with spinal cord injury.

  15. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. METHODS We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction. PMID:27809456

  16. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran.

    PubMed

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Rashidian, Arash; Zeraati, Hojjat; Oliyaeemanesh, Alireza; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction.

  17. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Receipt of Preventive Health Services in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported rates and disparities in delivery of preventive services to young adults. Design Population-based cross-sectional analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, insurance, and usual source of care influence the receipt of preventive services. Setting 2005 and 2007 California Health Interview Surveys (CHIS). Participants 3670 and 3621 young adults aged 18-26 years who responded to CHIS 2005 and 2007, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported receipt of flu vaccination, STD screening, cholesterol screening, diet counseling, exercise counseling and emotional health screening. Results Delivery rates ranged from 16.7% (flu vaccine) to 50.6% (cholesterol screening). Being female and having a usual source of care significantly increased receipt of services, with females more likely to receive STD screening (p<.001), cholesterol screening (p<.01), emotional health screening (p<.001), diet counseling (p<.01) and exercise counseling (p<.05) than males after controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, insurance and usual source of care. Young adults with a usual source of care were more likely to receive a flu vaccine (p<.05), STD screening (p<.01), cholesterol screening (p<.001), diet counseling (p<.05) and exercise counseling (p<.05) than those without a usual source of care after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, and insurance. Conclusions Rates of preventive service delivery are generally low. Greater efforts are needed to develop guidelines for young adults to increase the delivery of preventive care to this age group, and to address the gender and ethnic/racial disparities in preventive services delivery. PMID:23260833

  19. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  20. Home Health Care With Telemonitoring Improves Health Status for Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Elizabeth; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Struk, Cynthia J.; DiCarlo, Christina M.; Kikano, George; Piña, Ileana L.; Boxer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Home telemonitoring can augment home health care services during a patient's transition from hospital to home. Home health care agencies commonly use telemonitors for patients with heart failure although studies have shown mixed results in the use of telemonitors to reduce rehospitalizations. This randomized trial investigated if older patients with heart failure admitted to home health care following a hospitalization would have a reduction in rehospitalizations and improved health status if they received telemonitoring. Patients were followed up to 180 days post-discharge from home health care services. Results showed no difference in the time to rehospitalizations or emergency visits between those who received a telemonitoring vs. usual care. Older heart failure patients who received telemonitoring had better health status by home health care discharge than those who received usual care. Therefore for older adults with heart failure telemonitoring may be important adjunct to home health care services to improve health status. PMID:23438509

  1. Relationships Between eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.

  2. Media exposure and oral health outcomes among adults.

    PubMed

    Zini, Avraham; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Vered, Yuval

    2013-02-01

    To assess the impact of media exposure on oral health outcomes among Jewish adults in Jerusalem, Israel, by means of a conceptual hierarchical model. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified sample of 254 adults 35 to 44 years (mean age, 38.63 years) in Jerusalem, Israel. Media exposure was operationally categorized by type and frequency. Behavioral data included toothbrushing, dental attendance, oral hygiene aids use, plaque level, sugar consumption, and smoking. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) index and the community periodontal index (CPI). Results were analyzed by chi-square test, independent test, one-way ANOVA, and linear and multiple logistic regression models. A total of 254 examinees consisted of 127 men and 127 mean (married couples). High type and high frequency of media exposure, as compared with other modes, revealed statistically significant higher caries experience (DMFT, 13.10), higher level of untreated decay (D, 1.67), and lower periodontal health (CPI [0], 0.39). A conceptual hierarchical regression model identified that the relationship described was mediated by sociodemographic determinants (education) and behavioral determinants (dental attendance and plaque level). Media exposure should be observed by community health program planners and general practitioners to examine the type and frequency of the messages. They also need to react on time to balanced bad advertising and add a good message at the community. This pragmatic approach could lead to better use of the media and improve oral health behavior and outcomes.

  3. LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults' health autonomy in resisting cultural stigma.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rachel M; Sanchez, Julissa; Lopez, Bianca

    2018-03-20

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups. Guided by an intersectional minority stress resilience framework, we asked: how do self-identified LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults manage cultural messages of prejudice and discrimination in relation to their health? Findings underscore how LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults established a strong sense of health autonomy to resist cultural stigma related to their intersecting identities. Young people actively educated themselves on health-related concerns, engaged in health-promoting tactics, and practised cultural negativity management to effectively navigate exposure to prejudice and discrimination.

  4. Trajectories of Health and Behavioral Health Services Use among Community Corrections–Involved Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mowbray, Orion; McBeath, Bowen; Bank, Lew; Newell, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to establish time-based trajectories of health and behavioral health services utilization for community corrections–involved (CCI) adults and to examine demographic and clinical correlates associated with these trajectories. To accomplish this aim, the authors applied a latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to services use data from a sample of rural CCI adults who reported their medical, mental health, and substance use treatment utilization behavior every 60 days for 1.5 years. LCGA established 1.5-year trajectories and demographic correlates of health services among rural CCI adults. For medical services, three classes emerged (stable-low users, 13%; stable-intermediate users, 40%; and stable-high users, 47%). For mental health and substance use services, three classes emerged (stable-low, 69% and 61%, respectively; low-baseline-increase, 10% and 12%, respectively; high-baseline decline, 21% and 28%, respectively). Employment, gender, medication usage, and depression severity predicted membership across all services. Results underscore the importance of social workers and other community services providers aligning health services access with the needs of the CCI population, and highlight CCI adults as being at risk of underservice in critical prevention and intervention domains. PMID:27257353

  5. Associations between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors in an adult female primary care population

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Katon, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors among adult women in a primary care setting. Methods In this analysis of a population of women enrolled in a large health maintenance organization (N=701), we examined the relationship between anxious and avoidant dimensions of adult attachment style and a variety of sexual, substance-related, and other health risk behaviors. After conducting descriptive statistics of the entire population, we determined the relationships between the two attachment dimensions and health behaviors using multiple regression analyses in which we controlled for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results After adjustment for covariates, the anxious dimension of attachment style was significantly associated with increased odds of self-report of having sex without knowing a partner’s history, having multiple (≥2) male partners in the past year, and history of having a sexually transmitted infection (ORs [95% CIs]=1.11 [1.03, 1.20], 1.23 [1.04, 1.45]; and 1.17 [1.05, 1.30], respectively). The avoidant attachment dimension was associated with increased odds of being a smoker and not reporting regular seatbelt use (ORs [95% CIs]=1.15 [1.01, 1.30] and 1.16 [1.01, 1.33], respectively). Conclusions Both anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachment were associated with health risk behaviors in this study. This framework may be a useful tool to allow primary care clinicians to guide screening and intervention efforts. PMID:22469278

  6. Associations between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors in an adult female primary care population.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Kym R; Ciechanowski, Paul; Katon, Wayne

    2012-05-01

    To examine the relationship between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors among adult women in a primary care setting. In this analysis of a population of women enrolled in a large health maintenance organization (N=701), we examined the relationship between anxious and avoidant dimensions of adult attachment style and a variety of sexual, substance-related, and other health risk behaviors. After conducting descriptive statistics of the entire population, we determined the relationships between the two attachment dimensions and health behaviors using multiple regression analyses in which we controlled for demographic and socioeconomic factors. After adjustment for covariates, the anxious dimension of attachment style was significantly associated with increased odds of self-report of having sex without knowing a partner's history, having multiple (≥2) male partners in the past year, and history of having a sexually transmitted infection (ORs [95% CIs]=1.11 [1.03, 1.20], 1.23 [1.04, 1.45]; and 1.17 [1.05, 1.30], respectively). The avoidant attachment dimension was associated with increased odds of being a smoker and not reporting regular seatbelt use (ORs [95% CIs]=1.15 [1.01, 1.30] and 1.16 [1.01, 1.33], respectively). Both anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachment were associated with health risk behaviors in this study. This framework may be a useful tool to allow primary care clinicians to guide screening and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Status of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Eric; Buchanan, Natasha; Townsend, Julie; Fairley, Temeika; Moore, Angela; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adolescents and young adults (AYA) ages 15 to 29 years who are diagnosed with cancer are at risk for long-term morbidity and mortality associated with treatment of their cancer and the cancer itself. In this article, the authors describe the self-reported health status of AYA cancer survivors. METHODS The authors examined 2009 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, including demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, chronic conditions, health status, and health care access, among AYA cancer survivors compared with respondents who had no history of cancer. RESULTS The authors identified 4054 AYA cancer survivors and 345,592 respondents who had no history of cancer. AYA cancer survivors, compared with respondents who had no history of cancer, reported a significantly higher prevalence of current smoking (26% vs 18%); obesity (31% vs 27%); chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease (14% vs 7%), hypertension (35% vs 29%), asthma (15% vs 8%), disability (36% vs 18%), and poor mental health (20% vs 10%) and physical health (24% vs 10%); and not receiving medical care because of cost (24% vs 15%). CONCLUSIONS AYA cancer survivors commonly reported adverse behavioral, medical, and health care access characteristics that may lead to poor long-term medical and psychosocial outcomes. Increased adherence to established follow-up guidelines may lead to improved health among AYA cancer survivors.* PMID:22688896

  8. Use of Mobile Health Applications for Health-Seeking Behavior Among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the use of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) on smartphones or tablets for health-seeking behavior among US adults. Data was obtained from cycle 4 of the 4th edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4). Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 1) having mHealth apps, 2) usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 3) helpfulness in medical care decision-making, and 4) asking a physician new questions or seeking a second opinion. Using the Andersen Model of health services utilization, independent variables of interest were grouped under predisposing factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and marital status), enabling factors (education, employment, income, regular provider, health insurance, and rural/urban location of residence), and need factors (general health, confidence in their ability to take care of health, Body Mass Index, smoking status, and number of comorbidities). In a national sample of adults who had smartphones or tablets, 36 % had mHealth apps on their devices. Among those with apps, 60 % reported the usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 35 % reported their helpfulness for medical care decision-making, and 38 % reported their usefulness in asking their physicians new questions or seeking a second opinion. The multivariate models revealed that respondents were more likely to have mHealth apps if they had more education, health insurance, were confident in their ability to take good care of themselves, or had comorbidities, and were less likely to have them if they were older, had higher income, or lived in rural areas. In terms of usefulness of mHealth apps, those who were older and had higher income were less likely to report their usefulness in achieving health behavior goals. Those who were older, African American, and had confidence in their ability to take care of their health were more likely to respond that the mHealth

  9. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users.

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Seigo; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-07-18

    In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy-having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet-has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with high eHealth

  10. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis

  11. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    PubMed

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Separate and cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences in predicting adult health and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Mariette J; Walker, John R; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Data from the Ontario Health Survey, a representative population sample (n=9,953) of respondents aged 15 years and older, were analyzed using logistic regression. Adverse childhood experiences examined were childhood physical and sexual abuse, parental marital conflict, poor parent-child relationship, low parental education and parental psychopathology. Most (72%) respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience and a considerable proportion of respondents (37%) reported two or more of these experiences. In examining the bivariate models, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a stronger influence than other types of adverse childhood experiences. With the addition of other adverse childhood experiences in the model, the odds ratios for childhood abuse were attenuated but remained statistically significant for most health outcomes. This suggests that childhood abuse may have a unique adverse influence on the development of poor adult health. When an aggregate variable was created to explore the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experience, the odds were increased, with each additional experience, for reporting multiple health problems [odds ratio (OR): 1.22], poor self-rated health (OR: 1.18), pain (OR: 1.24), disability (OR: 1.24), general practitioner use (OR: 1.12), emergency room use (OR: 1.29) and health professional use (OR: 1.19). This study suggests that childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences are overlapping risk factors for long-term adult health problems and that the accumulation of these adverse experiences increases the risk of poor adult health. This study highlights the importance of the many

  13. Housing Assistance Programs and Adult Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fenelon, Andrew; Mayne, Patrick; Simon, Alan E.; Rossen, Lauren M.; Helms, Veronica; Lloyd, Patricia; Sperling, Jon; Steffen, Barry L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether access to housing assistance is associated with better health among low-income adults. Methods We used National Health Interview Survey data (1999–2012) linked to US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) administrative records (1999–2014) to examine differences in reported fair or poor health and psychological distress. We used multivariable models to compare those currently receiving HUD housing assistance (public housing, housing choice vouchers, and multifamily housing) with those who will receive housing assistance within 2 years (the average duration of HUD waitlists) to account for selection into HUD assistance. Results We found reduced odds of fair or poor health for current public housing (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57, 0.97) and multifamily housing (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.95) residents compared with future residents. Public housing residents also had reduced odds of psychological distress (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.86). These differences were not mediated by neighborhood-level characteristics, and we did not find any health benefits for current housing choice voucher recipients. Conclusions Housing assistance is associated with improved health and psychological well-being for individuals entering public housing and multifamily housing programs. PMID:28207335

  14. Housing Assistance Programs and Adult Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fenelon, Andrew; Mayne, Patrick; Simon, Alan E; Rossen, Lauren M; Helms, Veronica; Lloyd, Patricia; Sperling, Jon; Steffen, Barry L

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether access to housing assistance is associated with better health among low-income adults. We used National Health Interview Survey data (1999-2012) linked to US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) administrative records (1999-2014) to examine differences in reported fair or poor health and psychological distress. We used multivariable models to compare those currently receiving HUD housing assistance (public housing, housing choice vouchers, and multifamily housing) with those who will receive housing assistance within 2 years (the average duration of HUD waitlists) to account for selection into HUD assistance. We found reduced odds of fair or poor health for current public housing (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57, 0.97) and multifamily housing (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.95) residents compared with future residents. Public housing residents also had reduced odds of psychological distress (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.86). These differences were not mediated by neighborhood-level characteristics, and we did not find any health benefits for current housing choice voucher recipients. Housing assistance is associated with improved health and psychological well-being for individuals entering public housing and multifamily housing programs.

  15. Childhood trauma and health outcomes in adults with comorbid substance abuse and mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nancy S; Schairer, Laura C; Dellor, Elinam; Grella, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of childhood traumatic events (CTEs) among adults with comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health problems (MHPs) and assesses the relation between cumulative CTEs and adult health outcomes. Adults with SUDs/MHPs (N=402) were recruited from residential treatment programs and interviewed at treatment admission. Exposures to 9 types of adverse childhood experiences were summed and categorized into 6 ordinal levels of exposure. Descriptive analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence and range of exposure to CTEs in comparison with a sample from primary health care. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between the cumulative exposure to CTEs and adverse health outcomes. Most of the sample reported exposure to CTEs, with higher exposure rates among the study sample compared with the primary health care sample. Greater exposure to CTEs significantly increased the odds of several adverse adult outcomes, including PTSD, alcohol dependence, injection drug use, tobacco use, sex work, medical problems, and poor quality of life. Study findings support the importance of early prevention and intervention and provision of trauma treatment for individuals with SUDs/MHPs.

  16. Pathways linking health literacy, health beliefs, and cognition to medication adherence in older adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Soones, Tacara N; Lin, Jenny L; Wolf, Michael S; O'Conor, Rachel; Martynenko, Melissa; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Federman, Alex D

    2017-03-01

    Limited health literacy is associated with low adherence to asthma controller medications among older adults. We sought to describe the causal pathway linking health literacy to medication adherence by modeling asthma illness and medication beliefs as mediators. We recruited adults aged 60 years and older with asthma from hospital and community practices in New York, New York, and Chicago, Illinois. We measured health literacy and medication adherence using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale, respectively. We used validated instruments to assess asthma illness and medication beliefs. We assessed cognition using a cognitive battery. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled illness and medication beliefs as mediators of the relationship between health literacy and adherence while controlling for cognition. Our study included 433 patients with a mean age of 67 ± 6.8 years. The sample had 84% women, 31% non-Hispanic blacks, and 39% Hispanics. The 36% of patients with limited health literacy were more likely to have misconceptions about asthma (P < .001) and asthma medications (P < .001). Health literacy had a direct effect (β = 0.089; P < .001) as well as an indirect effect on adherence mediated by medications concerns (β = 0.033; P = .002). Neither medication necessity (β = 0.044; P = .138) nor illness beliefs (β = 0.007; P = .143) demonstrated a mediational role between health literacy and adherence. Interventions designed to improve asthma controller medication adherence in older adults may be enhanced by addressing concerns about medications in addition to using communication strategies appropriate for populations with limited health literacy and cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in health status and health behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2006-07-22

    Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participated in each survey. Young adults in 2003 reported fewer traffic- and sports-related accidents, but more work-related and other accidents versus young adults in 1993. A greater percentage of men were overweight or obese in 2003. Also in 2003, a greater percentage of males and females regularly used alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis. In particular, the number that smoked cigarettes daily increased by almost 30% and daily cannabis users increased more than two-fold. Young adults reported higher rates of inter-personal violence and theft in 2003. Compared to 1993, in 2003 young adults were more likely to report a sense of coherence; they also had fewer thoughts of suicide, but a greater sense that life is meaningless. Our study provides the first Swiss data comparing the health status of 20-year-olds a decade apart. The findings suggest a significant increase in substance use. Health prevention efforts among young adults ages 18-24 should focus on substance use. In addition, developing strategies to decrease interpersonal violence, delinquent behaviour, and obesity should be a major public health priority.

  18. Characterisation of User-Defined Health Status in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, J. M.; Marsden, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Older adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) have an excess disease burden that standard health assessments are designed to detect. Older adults with ID have a broader concept of health with dimensions of well being in addition to absence of disease in line with the World Health Organization's health definition. We sought to…

  19. Adult mental health needs and expenditure in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Buckingham, Bill; Burns, Jane; Eagar, Kathy; Eckstein, Gary

    2004-06-01

    Relatively little international work has examined whether mental health resource allocation matches need. This study aimed to determine whether adult mental health resources in Australia are being distributed equitably. Individual measures of need were extrapolated to Australian Areas, and Area-based proxies of need were considered. Particular attention was paid to the prevalence of mental health problems, since this is arguably the most objective measure of need. The extent to which these measures predicted public sector, private sector and total adult mental health expenditure at an Area level was examined. In the public sector, 41.6% of expenditure variation was explained by the prevalence of affective disorders, personality disorders, cognitive impairment and psychosis, as well as the Area's level of economic resources and State/Territory effects. In the private sector, 72.4% of expenditure variation was explained by service use and State/Territory effects (with an alternative model incorporating service use and State/Territory supply of private psychiatrists explaining 69.4% of expenditure variation). A relatively high proportion (58.7%) of total expenditure variation could be explained by service utilisation and State/Territory effects. For services to be delivered equitably, the majority of variation in expenditure would have to be accounted for by appropriate measures of need. The best model for public sector expenditure included an appropriate measure of need but had relatively poor explanatory power. The models for private sector and total expenditure had greater explanatory power, but relied on less appropriate measures of need. It is concluded that mental health services in Australia are not yet being delivered equitably.

  20. Service-based health human resources planning for older adults.

    PubMed

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet; Rockwood, Kenneth; Gough, Amy; Greeley, Gogi; Montpetit, Frederick; Dill, Donna; Alder, Robert; Lackie, Kelly

    2013-08-01

    To test a service-based health human resources (HHR) planning approach for older adults in the context of home and long term care (LTC); to create a practical template/tools for use in various jurisdictions and/or health care settings. The most serious health needs of seniors in 2 Canadian jurisdictions were identified and linked to the specific services and associated competencies required of health care providers (HCPs) to address those needs. The amounts of each service required were quantified and compared against the capacity of HCPs to perform the services, measured using a self-assessment survey, by using a previously developed analytical framework. Home and LTC sectors in Nova Scotia and Nunavut, Canada. Regulated and nonregulated HCPs were invited to complete either an online or paper-based competency self-assessment survey. Survey response rates in Nova Scotia and Nunavut were 11% (160 responses) and 20% (22 responses), respectively. Comparisons of the estimated number of seniors likely to need each service with the number who can be served by the workforces in each jurisdiction indicated that the workforces in both jurisdictions are sufficiently numerous, active, productive, and competent to provide most of the services likely to be required. However, significant gaps were identified in pharmacy services, ongoing client assessment, client/family education and involvement, and client/family functional and social supports. Service-based HHR planning is feasible for identifying gaps in services required by older adults, and can guide policy makers in planning hiring/recruitment, professional development, and provider education curricula. Implementation will require commitment of policy makers and other stakeholders, as well as ongoing evaluation of its effectiveness. More broadly, the ongoing effectiveness of the approach will depend on workforce planning being conducted in an iterative way, driven by regular reevaluation of population health needs and HHR

  1. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    PubMed

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  2. Health Concerns and Health Service Utilization in a Population Cohort of Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Isaacs, Barry; Diepstra, Heidi; Wilton, Andrew S.; Brown, Hilary K.; McGarry, Caitlin; Lunsky, Yona

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many health needs that place demands on the health service sector. This study used administrative data to compare health profiles in young adults 18-24 years of age with ASD to peers with and without other developmental disability. Young adults with ASD were more likely to have almost all the…

  3. Health Conception and Health-Promoting Lifestyle among Older Adults: The Validation of a Structural Equation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    Using data from the Older Adult Project within the Health Promotion Research Program at Northern Illinois University, this study examined four dimensions of health conception and their relationship to six dimensions of health-promoting lifestyle in a population of older adults (n=364). A battery of instruments was administred to all subjects to…

  4. Adult Education and the Health Literacy of Hispanic Immigrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Jacobson, Holly E.; Olivárez, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Discussion on the advantages of integrating health literacy into adult education has primarily been theoretical and conceptual. There is a need for studies that assess the impact of adult education on health literacy. This study implemented a quasi-experimental design to explore whether basic adult instruction may constitute a venue for improving…

  5. Learning Journeys: A Resource Handbook on Adult Learning and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Joy; Atkinson, Sue

    This document explains how tutors and managers in adult education programs across the United Kingdom can smooth the journeys of adults with mental health difficulties who are returning to learning. The handbook begins with suggestions for its use and case studies of two adult learners with mental health difficulties. Sections 1 through 4 discuss…

  6. Adolescent to Adult HIV Health Care Transition From the Perspective of Adult Providers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; Ma, Alice; Chambers, Brittany D; Nichols, Sharon; Lee, Sonia; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2017-10-01

    The HIV Care Continuum highlights the need for HIV-infected youth to be tested, linked, and maintained in lifelong care. Care engagement is important for HIV-infected youth in order for them to stay healthy, maintain a low viral load, and reduce further transmission. One point of potential interruption in the care continuum is during health care transition from adolescent- to adult-centered HIV care. HIV-related health care transition research focuses mainly on youth and on adolescent clinic providers; missing is adult clinic providers' perspectives. We examined health care transition processes through semi-structured interviews with 28 adult clinic staff across Adolescent Trials Network sites. We also collected quantitative data related to clinical characteristics and transition-specific strategies. Overall, participants described health care transition as a "warm handoff" and a collaborative effort across adolescent and adult clinics. Emergent transition themes included adult clinical care culture (e.g., patient responsibility), strategies for connecting youth to adult care (e.g., adolescent clinic staff attending youth's first appointment at adult clinic), and approaches to evaluating transition outcomes (e.g., data sharing). Participants provided transition improvement recommendations (e.g., formalized protocols). Using evidence-based research and a quality improvement framework to inform comprehensive and streamlined transition protocols can help enhance the capacity of adult clinics to collaborate with adolescent clinics to provide coordinated and uninterrupted HIV-related care and to improve continuum of care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Older Adults' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Cognitive Health: Implications for Health Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anna E.; Corwin, Sara J.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods…

  8. Health Outcomes of Obtaining Housing Among Older Homeless Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Miao, Yinghui; Mitchell, Susan L; Bharel, Monica; Patel, Mitkumar; Ard, Kevin L; Grande, Laura J; Blazey-Martin, Deborah; Floru, Daniella; Steinman, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    We determined the impact of obtaining housing on geriatric conditions and acute care utilization among older homeless adults. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of 250 older homeless adults recruited from shelters in Boston, Massachusetts, between January and June 2010. We determined housing status at follow-up, determined number of emergency department visits and hospitalizations over 12 months, and examined 4 measures of geriatric conditions at baseline and 12 months. Using multivariable regression models, we evaluated the association between obtaining housing and our outcomes of interest. At 12-month follow-up, 41% of participants had obtained housing. Compared with participants who remained homeless, those with housing had fewer depressive symptoms. Other measures of health status did not differ by housing status. Participants who obtained housing had a lower rate of acute care use, with an adjusted annualized rate of acute care visits of 2.5 per year among participants who obtained housing and 5.3 per year among participants who remained homeless. Older homeless adults who obtained housing experienced improved depressive symptoms and reduced acute care utilization compared with those who remained homeless.

  9. Health Outcomes of Obtaining Housing Among Older Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yinghui; Mitchell, Susan L.; Bharel, Monica; Patel, Mitkumar; Ard, Kevin L.; Grande, Laura J.; Blazey-Martin, Deborah; Floru, Daniella; Steinman, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the impact of obtaining housing on geriatric conditions and acute care utilization among older homeless adults. Methods. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study of 250 older homeless adults recruited from shelters in Boston, Massachusetts, between January and June 2010. We determined housing status at follow-up, determined number of emergency department visits and hospitalizations over 12 months, and examined 4 measures of geriatric conditions at baseline and 12 months. Using multivariable regression models, we evaluated the association between obtaining housing and our outcomes of interest. Results. At 12-month follow-up, 41% of participants had obtained housing. Compared with participants who remained homeless, those with housing had fewer depressive symptoms. Other measures of health status did not differ by housing status. Participants who obtained housing had a lower rate of acute care use, with an adjusted annualized rate of acute care visits of 2.5 per year among participants who obtained housing and 5.3 per year among participants who remained homeless. Conclusions. Older homeless adults who obtained housing experienced improved depressive symptoms and reduced acute care utilization compared with those who remained homeless. PMID:25973822

  10. Impact of a Usual Source of Care on Health Care Use, Spending, and Quality Among Adults With Mental Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Catherine A; Witt, Whitney P; Chow, Clifton M; Gokhale, Manjusha; Walsh, Christine E; Crable, Erika L; Naeger, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    Physical comorbidities associated with mental health conditions contribute to high health care costs. This study examined the impact of having a usual source of care (USC) for physical health on health care utilization, spending, and quality for adults with a mental health condition using Medicaid administrative data. Having a USC decreased the probability of inpatient admissions and readmissions. It decreased expenditures on emergency department visits for physical health, 30-day readmissions, and behavioral health inpatient admissions. It also had a positive effect on several quality measures. Results underscore the importance of a USC for physical health and integrated care for adults with mental health conditions.

  11. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups.

  12. [Management of adult secondary insomnia in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Luís Filipe; Ribeiro, Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in adults, with secondary insomnia being the most prevalent. This sleep disorder is associated with important medical and social consequences. The General Practitioner (GP) plays a key role in the diagnosis of insomnia, which may affect about 69% of their patients in the PHC (Primary Health Care). Recognize the differential diagnosis of secondary insomnia in adults, evaluate and manage these patients in the PHC, appropriately use the treatments available and meet the criteria for referral. Bibliographic search in MEDLINE databases, and evidence based review databases, using the MeSH terms: Primary Health Care, Sleep Disorders, Insomnia, for articles published since January 2000 until July 2009, in English, Portuguese, French and Spanish. Index de Revistas Médicas Portuguesas and scientific societies dedicated to sleep disorders were searched. Mood and anxiety disorders are the main co-morbidities associated with secondary insomnia, being present in 30% to 50% of patients with insomnia. The medical pathology and substance abuse are present respectively in 10% of patients. It is essential a proper clinical history, with a history of sleep, sleep diary and the partner information. There is evidence that the combination of specific pharmacological treatments (benzodiazepines and the benzodiazepine receptor agonists) with the nonpharmacological (cognitive-behavioral therapy) may be useful in secondary insomnia, as co-adjuvant treatment of the underlying disease. There are several treatment options with their indications and adverse effects. The criteria for referral should be defined according to the availability of human resources. Due to the high prevalence and the serious consequences of secondary insomnia in adults, it must be systematically managed by the GP. It is important to know and to use non-pharmacological therapy in GP consultation, because this therapy was shown to be important in treating this type of insomnia

  13. Health Care Access for Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Heather J; Contreras, Graciela M; Rodriguez, Erica S; Smith, Jennifer M; Perkins, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    Adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) often experience health disparities. To address disparities, Healthy People 2020 includes specific disability and health goals focused on improving health care access. The study's purpose was to review the literature exploring health care access for adults with IDD to identify opportunities for occupational therapy research and practice. A scoping review was completed of articles discussing health care access among adults with IDD in the United States. Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Results are framed using the ecology of human performance theory identifying person and environmental issues affecting health care access of adults with IDD. Opportunities exist for occupational therapy to improve participation and health of adults with IDD through engaging in research and practice efforts addressing health care access. Occupational therapy could develop interventions to establish skills and abilities and recommend changes to the health care environment.

  14. Medication Adherence and Health Insurance/Health Benefit in Adult Diabetics in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Bridgelal-Nagassar, R J; James, K; Nagassar, R P; Maharaj, S

    2015-05-15

    To determine the association between health insurance/health benefit and medication adherence amongst adult diabetic patients in Kingston, Jamaica. This was a cross-sectional study. The target population was diabetics who attended the diabetic outpatient clinics in health centres in Kingston. Two health centres were selectively chosen in Kingston. All diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinics and over the age of 18 years were conveniently sampled. The sample size was 260. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was utilized which assessed health insurance/health benefit. Adherence was measured by patients' self-reports of medication usage in the previous week. The Chi-squared test was used to determine the significance of associations. Sample population was 76% female and 24% male. Type 2 diabetics comprised 93.8%. More than 95% of patients were over the age of 40 years. Approximately 32% of participants were employed. Approximately 75% of patients had health insurance/health benefit. Among those who had health insurance or health benefit, 71.5% were adherent and 28.5% were non-adherent. This difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 6.553, p = 0.01). Prevalence of medication non-adherence was 33%. AIn Kingston, diabetic patients who are adherent are more likely to have health insurance/health benefit ( p = 0.01).

  15. Contact frequency and cognitive health among older adults in Israel.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ella; Khalaila, Rabia; Litwin, Howard

    2018-05-03

    The current study set out to examine the links between contact frequency with one's social network and cognitive health in later life. It assessed both direct and indirect pathways and the possible role of ethnicity in the effect of the social network on cognitive function. We used data from adults aged 50 and above, which was collected in Israel as part of the Survey of Ageing, Retirement and Health (SHARE). A moderated mediation analysis was conducted to test the direct and indirect associations between contact frequency and cognitive function, as well as the moderation of these associations by population group. Three population groups were examined - veteran-Jews, Arabs and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Contact frequency with the close social milieu was found to be directly positively related to cognitive function. The association was also mediated by depressive symptoms, such that frequent contacts were linked to cognitive health via reduced depressive symptoms. This indirect link differed, however, among the three population groups. Contact frequency is important for cognitive health in the second half of life, and it operates both directly and by decreasing depressive symptoms. However, these links are not found among all ethnic groups and may, therefore, depend on the culture and social norms of each group and the meaning attributed to social ties.

  16. Socio-economic inequalities in health and health service use among older adults in India: results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and adult health survey.

    PubMed

    Brinda, E M; Attermann, J; Gerdtham, U G; Enemark, U

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health (SRH) and healthcare visits and to identify factors contributing to health inequalities among older people aged 50-plus years. This study is based on a population-based, cross-sectional survey. We accessed data of 7150 older adults from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and adult health Indian survey. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the correlates of poor SRH. We estimated the concentration index to measure socio-economic inequalities in SRH and healthcare visits. Regression-based decomposition analysis was employed to explore the correlates contributing to poor SRH inequality. About 19% (95% CI: 18%, 20%) reported poor health (n = 1368) and these individuals were significantly less wealthy. In total, 5134 (71.8%) participants made at least one health service visit. Increasing age, female gender, low social caste, rural residence, multimorbidity, absence of pension support, and health insurance were significant correlates of poor SRH. The standardized concentration index of poor SRH -0.122 (95% CI: -0.102; -0.141) and healthcare visits 0.364 (95% CI: 0.324, 0.403) indicated pro-poor and pro-rich inequality, respectively. Economic status (62.3%), pension support (11.5%), health insurance coverage (11.5%), social caste (10.7%) and place of residence (4.1%) were important contributors to inequalities in poor health. Socio-economic disparities in health and health care are major concerns in India. Achievement of health equity demand strategies beyond health policies, to include pro-poor, social welfare policies among older Indians. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Child responsible personnel in adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics. Additionally, to describe the characteristics of child responsible staff in terms of gender and educational background, their competence, clinical practice and knowledge about parental mental illness. A final aim was to study whether or not the clinics had established collaboration with other services concerning follow-up for the children of parents with mental illness. Participants in this study are the staff at psychiatric clinics in a large university hospital in Norway. Practitioners were asked to answer a questionnaire prior to the initial process of implementing the new legislation in 2010 (N = 219). After a three-year period of implementing routines to adopt the new law in the clinic, the same survey was sent out to the staff in 2013 (N = 185) to monitor if changes were taking place. To study if the changes were sustained within the clinics, we conducted a two-year follow up in 2015 (N = 108). The results indicated that the systematic work to change clinical practice in the participating hospital had made a difference. Routines to follow up children's patients after the new legislation had to some extent been implemented. The child responsible personnel had more knowledge and awareness about the consequences of parental mental illness for children. The results of this study suggested that the systems change of establishing child

  18. Correlates of Health-Related Social Media Use Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. Objectives The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. Methods The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.91%), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, P<.001). Lower odds of consulting online reviews were associated with less formal education (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.65, P<.001) and being male (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.87, P<.001). Respondents with higher incomes were 1.5 times as likely to consult online rankings or reviews (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.10-2.24, P=.05), than respondents with a regular provider (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.78, P<.001), or

  19. Correlates of health-related social media use among adults.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Crookston, Benjamin T; West, Joshua H

    2013-01-30

    Sixty percent of Internet users report using the Internet to look for health information. Social media sites are emerging as a potential source for online health information. However, little is known about how people use social media for such purposes. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to establish the frequency of various types of online health-seeking behaviors, and (2) to identify correlates of 2 health-related online activities, social networking sites (SNS) for health-related activities and consulting online user-generated content for answers about health care providers, health facilities, or medical treatment. The study consisted of a telephone survey of 1745 adults who reported going online to look for health-related information. Four subscales were created to measure use of online resources for (1) using SNS for health-related activities; (2) consulting online rankings and reviews of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments; (3) posting a review online of doctors, hospitals or medical facilities, and drugs or medical treatments, and (4) posting a comment or question about health or medical issues on various social media. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Respondents consulted online rankings or reviews (41.15%), used SNS for health (31.58%), posted reviews (9.9%1), and posted a comment, question, or information (15.19%). Respondents with a chronic disease were nearly twice as likely to consult online rankings (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.63, P<.001). Lower odds of consulting online reviews were associated with less formal education (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.37-0.65, P<.001) and being male (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.87, P<.001). Respondents with higher incomes were 1.5 times as likely to consult online rankings or reviews (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.10-2.24, P=.05), than respondents with a regular provider (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.78, P<.001), or living in an urban/suburban location (OR 1

  20. Building the Foundation for a Health Education Program for Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Seung Eun; Parker, Stephany; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Shin, Yeon Ho

    2018-01-01

    We explored rural older adults perceptions of health to inform health promotion program development, using social marketing as our framework. Participants in seven focus groups viewed independence and holistic health as indicators of health and identified healthful eating and physical activity as actions to promote health. Barriers to these…

  1. Determining Factors for Utilization of Preventive Health Services among Adults with Disabilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Li, Ya-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan has provided free health checks for adults since 1995. However, very little previous research has explored the use of preventive health services by physically and mentally disabled adults. The present study aimed to understand this use of preventive health services and the factors that influence it. Research participants included disabled…

  2. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…

  3. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    PubMed

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. Harnessing the Web: How E-Health and E-Health Literacy Impact Young Adults' Perceptions of Online Health Information.

    PubMed

    Briones, Rowena

    2015-12-31

    The rise of technology has changed how people take control of their health, enabling individuals to choose to live healthier lives and make better treatment decisions. With this said, the Internet has emerged as the channel used by individuals for actively seeking or passively receiving health information. To explore how young adults assess the quality of health information, and how they construct meaning of online health information in general. Through 50 in-depth interviews, this study aims to examine how and why young adults turn to the Web for health information, and what strategies they employ to ensure that they are getting credible information. A total of 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults to explore how they make meaning of online health information. Depending on the geographic area of the participant, the interview took place face-to-face at a location convenient for them, over Skype, or over the telephone and lasted on average 40 minutes. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, fully retaining the speech style of the moderator and the participants. Data were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory approach, using a constant comparative method to allow for themes to emerge from the transcripts. The participants shared several benefits to this mode of health information seeking, claiming that it made for more productive visits with doctors and made health information more readily accessible through a variety of different formats. Additionally, the participants demonstrated their e-health literacy levels by discussing how they assessed online health information, engaging in a series of strategies that encompassed different aspects of e-health literacy. Social media channels were brought up by the participants as relatively new tools that can be used to assist in the seeking, understanding, and sharing of health information. However, participants also cautioned about the use of social media in regards to its informal nature

  5. The linkage of life course, migration, health, and aging: health in adults and elderly Mexican migrants.

    PubMed

    de Oca, Verónica Montes; García, Telésforo Ramírez; Sáenz, Rogelio; Guillén, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Migration is a phenomenon that impacts individuals throughout the life course. Particularly, Mexican elderly migrants show evidence of lifetime accumulations of the effects of migration on health conditions. Examine how the relationship between historical time and individual time explains different factors impacting the health of Mexican adult and elderly migrants in Mexico and the United States. Data from in-depth interviews with Mexican migrants living in selected locations in Mexico and the United States were used to illustrate the links between life course conditions, aging, migration, and health outcomes. According to this theoretical perspective and the data, historical time, age at migration, and the conditions under which the migration trajectory developed, show different impacts on the health and quality of life of the elderly, as revealed through analysis of labor experience, disease and accidents, medical service, health treatment, transnational networks, and family formation.

  6. Social Media Use and Mental Health among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Chloe; Ferguson, Christopher J; Negy, Charles

    2018-06-01

    In recent years many parents, advocates and policy makers have expressed concerns regarding the potential negative impact of social media use. Some studies have indicated that social media use may be tied to negative mental health outcomes, including suicidality, loneliness and decreased empathy. Other studies have not found evidence for harm, or have indicated that social media use may be beneficial for some individuals. The current correlational study examined 467 young adults for their time spent using social media, importance of social media in their lives and tendency to engage in vaguebooking (posting unclear but alarming sounding posts to get attention). Outcomes considered included general mental health symptoms, suicidal ideation, loneliness, social anxiety and decreased empathy. Results indicated that social media use was not predictive of impaired mental health functioning. However, vaguebooking was predictive of suicidal ideation, suggesting this particular behavior could be a warning sign for serious issues. Overall, results from this study suggest that, with the exception of vaguebooking, concerns regarding social media use may be misplaced.

  7. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-05-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  8. Oral Health Literacy and Oral Health Status among Adults Attending Dental College Hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Reshmi; S, Supreetha; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Tikare, Shreyas; Maliyil, Mathew J; Kalappa, Amrutha Ammanichanda

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is one among many reasons why preventable diseases remain so common and why people often do not adopt healthy practices. It is important to detect patients with inadequate oral health literacy (OHL) and to improve the level of communication between the provider and the patient. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between OHL with selected socio-demographic variables and oral health status among adults in Virajpet, Karnataka, India. A convenience sample of 187 subjects from the out-patient department of Coorg-Institute of Dental Sciences Hospital administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (REALD-30). The demographic variables and the oral health status were recorded for every participant using World Health Organization oral health survey proforma (1997). Data were analyzed using t-tests, analysis of variance, correlations and Kruskal-Wallis test. The associations between REALD-30 scores and gender, age, and ethnicity were not statistically significant. Significant associations were found between REALD scores and the following oral-health related variables: Temperomandibular joint problems, prevalence of prosthetic need, CPI (Community Periodontal Index) and loss of attachment scores. REALD-30 scores were negatively correlated with DMFT (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth) scores and DAI (Dental Aesthetic Index) scores. OHL was not associated with sex, age, or ethnicity in this sample of the Virajpet population. OHL was associated with oral health status. Lower OHL was associated with poorer oral health status. OHL instruments can be considered to be included as screening tools to identifying individuals or groups with poor oral health outcomes.

  9. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  11. A Public Health Approach to Improving the Lives of Adult Learners: Introduction to the Special Issue on Adult Literacy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brett; Esposito, Layla; McCardle, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the literacy needs of adult basic and secondary education learners must form a core part of a broader public health effort to increase educational and health outcomes for these individuals and their families. Adult learners constitute a significant proportion of the overall adult U.S. population and a proportion that impacts, directly and indirectly, on the physical and economic health of millions of families and society writ large. Enhancing the literacy skills of low literate adults has proven difficult, hampered by the relative dearth of research data on struggling adult learners and effective intervention approaches, the contextual challenges of delivering intensive interventions, limited personal and systemic resources, and competing demands on learners’ time. We propose a systems level view of adult low-literacy as one that holds promise and provides a basic framework for providing coordinated, comprehensive, and integrated services, but that requires additional research to support. Informed and coordinated efforts with the pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade education system and health and labor services sectors is needed if we are to improve the lives of these adults and their families. PMID:24288581

  12. Research Priorities to Advance the Health and Health Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Magaziner, Jay S; Allore, Heather G; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Boyd, Cynthia M; Gill, Thomas M; Go, Alan S; Greenspan, Susan L; Hanson, Leah R; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kitzman, Dalane W; Larson, Eric B; Naylor, Mary D; Shirley, Benjamin E; Tai-Seale, Ming; Teri, Linda; Tinetti, Mary E; Whitson, Heather E; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2017-07-01

    To prioritize research topics relevant to the care of the growing population of older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Survey of experts in MCC practice, research, and policy. Topics were derived from white papers, funding announcements, or funded research projects relating to older adults with MCCs. Survey conducted through the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs) Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth Initiative, a joint endeavor of the HCSRN and OAICs. Individuals affiliated with the HCSRN or OAICs and national MCC experts, including individuals affiliated with funding agencies having MCC-related grant portfolios. A "top box" methodology was used, counting the number of respondents selecting the top response on a 5-point Likert scale and dividing by the total number of responses to calculate a top box percentage for each of 37 topics. The highest-ranked research topics relevant to the health and healthcare of older adults with MCCs were health-related quality of life in older adults with MCCs; development of assessment tools (to assess, e.g., symptom burden, quality of life, function); interactions between medications, disease processes, and health outcomes; disability; implementation of novel (and scalable) models of care; association between clusters of chronic conditions and clinical, financial, and social outcomes; role of caregivers; symptom burden; shared decision-making to enhance care planning; and tools to improve clinical decision-making. Study findings serve to inform the development of a comprehensive research agenda to address the challenges relating to the care of this "high-need, high-cost" population and the healthcare delivery systems responsible for serving it. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or those with partner, and employed persons. Those with perceived

  14. Differences of oral health conditions between adults and older adults: A census in a Southern Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Boscato, Noeli; Schuch, Helena S; Grasel, Claudia E; Goettems, Marilia L

    2016-09-01

    To assess differences in the oral diseases/conditions between adults and older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out with all adults and older adults in Luzerna, South Brazil (n = 569). Clinical data included use of and need for dental prostheses; number of decayed, missing and filled teeth; and temporomandibular disorder. Differences between adults and older adults were evaluated using χ(2) -tests. Associations between independent variables and the use of and need for dental prostheses were determined using Poisson regression analyses (P < 0.05). Increased number of decayed, missing and filled teeth, use of and need for dental prostheses, higher use of complete dentures, and fewer temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms were observed in older adults. After adjustments, lower social class (P = 0.001) and unmarried status (P = 0.05) were associated with greater need for prosthetic rehabilitation. Women (P = 0.02), older individuals (P < 0.001) and those of lower socioeconomic status (P = 0.001) had a higher risk of using prostheses. A significant difference of oral conditions between adults and older adults was observed. The frequency of use of and need for dental prostheses was higher for older adults, although they had reported lower frequency of temporomandibular disorder. Women, married and individuals of higher socioeconomic status showed better oral health conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1014-1020. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  16. Memory for Allergies and Health Foods: How Younger and Older Adults Strategically Remember Critical Health Information

    PubMed Central

    McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: While older adults often display memory deficits, with practice, they can sometimes selectively remember valuable information at the expense of less value information. We examined age-related differences and similarities in memory for health-related information under conditions where some information was critical to remember. Method: In Experiment 1, participants studied 3 lists of allergens, ranging in severity from 0 (not a health risk) to 10 (potentially fatal), with the instruction that it was particularly important to remember items to which a fictional relative was most severely allergic. After each list, participants received feedback regarding their recall of the high-value allergens. Experiment 2 examined memory for health benefits, presenting foods that were potentially beneficial to the relative’s immune system. Results: While younger adults exhibited better overall memory for the allergens, both age groups in Experiment 1 developed improved selectivity across the lists, with no evident age differences in severe allergen recall by List 2. Selectivity also developed in Experiment 2, although age differences for items of high health benefit were present. Discussion: The results have implications for models of selective memory in older age, and for how aging influences the ability to strategically remember important information within health-related contexts. PMID:25975293

  17. Memory for Allergies and Health Foods: How Younger and Older Adults Strategically Remember Critical Health Information.

    PubMed

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D

    2016-05-01

    While older adults often display memory deficits, with practice, they can sometimes selectively remember valuable information at the expense of less value information. We examined age-related differences and similarities in memory for health-related information under conditions where some information was critical to remember. In Experiment 1, participants studied 3 lists of allergens, ranging in severity from 0 (not a health risk) to 10 (potentially fatal), with the instruction that it was particularly important to remember items to which a fictional relative was most severely allergic. After each list, participants received feedback regarding their recall of the high-value allergens. Experiment 2 examined memory for health benefits, presenting foods that were potentially beneficial to the relative's immune system. While younger adults exhibited better overall memory for the allergens, both age groups in Experiment 1 developed improved selectivity across the lists, with no evident age differences in severe allergen recall by List 2. Selectivity also developed in Experiment 2, although age differences for items of high health benefit were present. The results have implications for models of selective memory in older age, and for how aging influences the ability to strategically remember important information within health-related contexts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  19. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  20. Comparison of Health and Health Risk Factors Between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults and Heterosexual Adults in the United States: Results From the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Przedworski, Julia; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies identified disparities in health and health risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults, but prior investigations have been confined to samples not representative of the US adult population or have been limited in size or geographic scope. For the first time in its long history, the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey included a question on sexual orientation, providing health information on sexual minorities from one of the nation's leading health surveys. To compare health and health risk factors between LGB adults and heterosexual adults in the United States. Data from the nationally representative 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey were used to compare health outcomes among lesbian (n = 525), gay (n = 624), and bisexual (n = 515) adults who were 18 years or older and their heterosexual peers (n = 67 150) using logistic regression. Self-rated health, functional status, chronic conditions, psychological distress, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. The study cohort comprised 68 814 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 46.8 (11.8) years, and 51.8% (38 063 of 68 814) were female. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.55-5.14), heavy drinking (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.08-3.58), and moderate smoking (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.39-2.81) than heterosexual men; bisexual men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.77-12.52), heavy drinking (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22-8.16), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.08-4.10) than heterosexual men; lesbian women were more likely to report moderate psychological distress (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76), poor or fair health (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.24-2.95), multiple chronic conditions (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.22), heavy drinking (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.54-4.50), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36-3.88) than

  1. Health and Family Living. Teacher Guidebook and Student Activity Book. Adult Basic Education Project REAL: Relevant Education for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, S. Keith

    This packet contains both a teacher's guide and a student activity book designed to help adult students learn about health and family living. Both booklets cover the following topics: health in the home, safety in the home (safety tips concerning children, tips on indoor safety, first aid), helping children with school activities, leisure time and…

  2. Frailty syndrome and socioeconomic and health characteristics among older adults

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas Corrêa, Thais Aline; Dias, Flavia Aparecida; dos Santos Ferreira, Pollyana Cristina; Sousa Pegorari, Maycon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association of frailty syndrome with socioeconomic and health variables among older adults. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational and analytical household research conducted with a sample of 1,609 urban elderly. We used: semi-structured questionnaire, scales (Katz, Lawton and shortened version of Geriatric Depression Scale) and Fragility Phenotype proposed by Fried. Descriptive analysis was performed along with a bivariate and multinomial logistic regression model (p <0.05). Results: The prevalence of pre-frailty condition was 52.0% and the fragility corresponded to 13.6%. Pre-frailty and frailty associated factors were, respectively: age range between 70-79 years and ≥80 years; one to four morbidities and five or more morbidities categories; functional disability for basic and instrumental activities of daily life and depression indicative; whilst lack of a companion or income and female gender were only associated to pre-frailty. Conclusion: The conditions of pre-frailty and frailty levels were elevated with negative effects on the health of the elderly. PMID:29213155

  3. Transfers and transitions between child and adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Paul, Moli; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Islam, Zoebia; Harley, Kath; Singh, Swaran P

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of care from one healthcare provider to another is often understood as a suboptimal version of the process of transition. To separate and evaluate concepts of transfer and transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS). In a retrospective case-note survey of young people reaching the upper age boundary at six English CAMHS, optimal transition was evaluated using four criteria: continuity of care, parallel care, a transition planning meeting and information transfer. Of 154 cases, 76 transferred to AMHS. Failure to transfer resulted mainly from non-referral by CAMHS (n = 12) and refusal by service users (n = 12) rather than refusal by AMHS (n = 7). Four cases met all criteria for optimal transition, 13 met none; continuity of care (n = 63) was met most often. Transfer was common but good transition rare. Reasons for failure to transfer differ from barriers to transition. Transfer should be investigated alongside transition in research and service development.

  4. Behavioral health in young adults with epilepsy: Implications for transition of care.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Janelle L; Wilson, Dulaney A; Kellermann, Tanja; Smith, Gigi; Malek, Angela M; Wannamaker, Braxton; Selassie, Anbesaw W

    2016-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental and behavioral health disorders commonly occur with epilepsy, yet risk for young adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and risk characteristics of neurodevelopmental and behavior health comorbidities among young adults with epilepsy compared with those among young adults with migraine and healthy controls. A case-control study examining hospital admission, outpatient, and emergency department (ED) visits for young adults with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of epilepsy, migraine, or lower extremity fracture (LEF) was conducted. The association of epilepsy, migraine, or LEF with comorbidities was evaluated with univariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression. From 2000 to 2013, 29,139 young adults ages 19 to 25years were seen in hospitals and EDs for epilepsy (5666), migraine (17,507), or LEF (5966). Young adults with epilepsy had higher proportions of behavioral health comorbidities (51.8%) compared with controls with migraine (37.6%) or LEF (21.6%). In young adults with epilepsy compared with migraine, the increased risk of having any behavioral health comorbidity was 76%, and neurodevelopmental comorbidity was 297%. After adjustment, young adults with epilepsy showed significantly higher odds of each behavioral health comorbidity compared with controls with migraine and LEF. Young adults with epilepsy are particularly susceptible to behavioral health and neurodevelopmental disorders. Results are discussed within the context of transition to adult care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors of health in the protection against death and cardiovascular disease among adults with subclinical atherosclerosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention traditionally emphasizes risk-factor control, recent evidence also supports the promotion of "health-factors" associated with cardiovascular wellness. However, whether such health-factors exist among adults with advanced subclinical atherosclerosis is un...

  6. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  7. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach drawsmore » on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.« less

  8. Health and adult productivity: the relation between adult nutrition, helminths, and agricultural, hunting, and fishing yields in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Tanner, S; Rosinger, A; Leonard, W R; Reyes-García, V

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease and nutritional stress have both been associated with reductions in adult work productivity and work capacity in the context of wage labor, but less research has investigated their effects among groups relying on more traditional subsistence practices of horticulture and foraging. In this article, we examine the relations among measures of adult nutritional status (BMI, skinfold measurements, and fat-free mass) and infection (presence of soil transmitted helminth infections) and measures of adult work productivity. As part of a larger panel study among Tsimane', a foraging-horticulturalist group in the Bolivian Amazon, health surveys, anthropometric information, and the quantity of products (both crops and game) brought into the household were collected for 320 Tsimane' adults over a four-month period in 2003. In addition, a single fecal sample was collected for a sub-sample of 86 adults. Our analysis shows mixed associations between either BMI or the presence of parasitism and reported adult productivity. Muscularity was not clearly related to adult productivity. In contrast, body fatness (Skinfold z-score) was inversely associated with the average quantity of fish and game brought into the household, especially for men. These findings suggest that the effects of adult infection and nutritional stress may be less clearly identified outside of the context of wage labor. Further research linking adult physical activity levels and metabolic rates to productivity in diverse contexts is needed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core set for physical health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ruaro, João A; Ruaro, Marinêz B; Guerra, Ricardo O

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate a systematic, comprehensive description of functioning and to enable the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in clinical practice and research, core sets have been developed. The aim of this study was to propose a version of the ICF core set to classify the physical health of older adults. The proposition of the ICF core set was based on the Delphi technique. The panel of experts included 8 Brazilian researchers (physical therapists, medical doctors, nurses, and physical educators). The communication was wholly electronic. In total, there were 5 rounds of interactivity between the participants to arrive at the final version of the construct. The ICF core set presented 30 categories (14 on body functions, 4 on body structures, 9 on activities or participation, and 3 on environmental factors) and had a Cronbach α of 0.964. The presented core set is a secure, fast, and accurate instrument for assessing the physical health and engagement of older adults. It defines points related to functioning and health that are relevant when evaluating this population, as well as when reevaluating it and monitoring changes.

  10. Social networks, health promoting-behavior, and health-related quality of life in older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minjoo; De Gagne, Jennie C; Shin, Hyewon

    2018-03-01

    In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we compared the sociodemographic characteristics, social networks, health-promoting behavior, and the health-related quality of life of older Korean adults living in South Korea to those of older Korean adult immigrants living in the USA. A total of 354 older adults, aged 65 years or older, participated. Data were collected through self-directed questionnaires, and analyzed using a two way analysis of variance, t-tests, χ 2 -tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The association between four sociodemographic characteristics and health-related quality of life was significantly different between the two groups. For the older Korean adults living in South Korea, positive correlations existed between a measure of their social networks and both health-promoting behavior and health-related quality of life. For the older Korean immigrants, the findings revealed a positive correlation only between social networks and health-promoting behavior. The study findings support the important association social networks can have with health-related quality of life, and their possible relationship to health-promoting behaviors of older Korean adults. We suggest that health policy-makers and healthcare providers develop comprehensive programs that are designed to improve older adults' social networks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  12. Child incarceration and long-term adult health outcomes: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Laura S; Tesema, Lello; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini; Bath, Eraka; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J

    2018-03-12

    Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated. Findings Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated. Research limitations/implications Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population. Practical implications Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children's health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed. Social implications Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children. Originality/value No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.

  13. Multigenerational Perceptions of Mental Health Services of Deaf Adults in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.; Gum, Amber

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to better understand the perceptions and needs of multigenerational Deaf adults related to mental health services. A survey sampled participants who were between 20 and 85 years old and Deaf. Questions were developed to identify the perspectives of Deaf adults related to the availability of mental health services,…

  14. Referral Trends in Mental Health Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Sturmey, Peter; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have paid increasing attention to mental health issues in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the last decades. However, little is known about how rates of clinical referrals, types of mental health diagnoses and treatment in adults with ASDs and intellectual disability have changed. We examined patterns of change in…

  15. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  16. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  17. Implementation of Health Promotion in the Older Adults in Bangkok, Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assantachai, Prasert; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Piya-Anant, Manee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Effective strategies that bring health promotion messages to older adults in a developing country are needed. To evaluate the impact of various education media upon changes in knowledge and health behavior, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 1,268 older adults in a southwest Bangkok suburb. Group teaching…

  18. Perceived health status is associated with hours of exercise per week in older adults independent of physical health.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

  19. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health Care Transition in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Perspectives of Adult Endocrinologists in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Telo, Gabriela H.; Needleman, Joseph S.; Forbes, Peter; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.; Laffel, Lori M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Young adults with type 1 diabetes transitioning from pediatric to adult care are at risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to describe experiences, resources, and barriers reported by a national sample of adult endocrinologists receiving and caring for young adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We fielded an electronic survey to adult endocrinologists with a valid e-mail address identified through the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. RESULTS We received responses from 536 of 4,214 endocrinologists (response rate 13%); 418 surveys met the eligibility criteria. Respondents (57% male, 79% Caucasian) represented 47 states; 64% had been practicing >10 years and 42% worked at an academic center. Only 36% of respondents reported often/always reviewing pediatric records and 11% reported receiving summaries for transitioning young adults with type 1 diabetes, although >70% felt that these activities were important for patient care. While most respondents reported easy access to diabetes educators (94%) and dietitians (95%), fewer (42%) reported access to mental health professionals, especially in nonacademic settings. Controlling for practice setting and experience, endocrinologists without easy access to mental health professionals were more likely to report barriers to diabetes management for young adults with depression (odds ratio [OR] 5.3; 95% CI 3.4, 8.2), substance abuse (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.2, 5.6), and eating disorders (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.6, 3.8). CONCLUSIONS Our findings underscore the need for enhanced information transfer between pediatric and adult providers and increased mental health referral access for young adults with diabetes post-transition. PMID:26681724

  1. Health Care Transition in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Perspectives of Adult Endocrinologists in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Katharine C; Telo, Gabriela H; Needleman, Joseph S; Forbes, Peter; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Laffel, Lori M

    2016-02-01

    Young adults with type 1 diabetes transitioning from pediatric to adult care are at risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to describe experiences, resources, and barriers reported by a national sample of adult endocrinologists receiving and caring for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We fielded an electronic survey to adult endocrinologists with a valid e-mail address identified through the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We received responses from 536 of 4,214 endocrinologists (response rate 13%); 418 surveys met the eligibility criteria. Respondents (57% male, 79% Caucasian) represented 47 states; 64% had been practicing >10 years and 42% worked at an academic center. Only 36% of respondents reported often/always reviewing pediatric records and 11% reported receiving summaries for transitioning young adults with type 1 diabetes, although >70% felt that these activities were important for patient care. While most respondents reported easy access to diabetes educators (94%) and dietitians (95%), fewer (42%) reported access to mental health professionals, especially in nonacademic settings. Controlling for practice setting and experience, endocrinologists without easy access to mental health professionals were more likely to report barriers to diabetes management for young adults with depression (odds ratio [OR] 5.3; 95% CI 3.4, 8.2), substance abuse (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.2, 5.6), and eating disorders (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.6, 3.8). Our findings underscore the need for enhanced information transfer between pediatric and adult providers and increased mental health referral access for young adults with diabetes post-transition. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Latino adults' health insurance coverage: an examination of Mexican and Puerto Rican subgroup differences.

    PubMed

    Vitullo, Margaret Weigers; Taylor, Amy K

    2002-11-01

    Lack of health insurance is a serious problem in the United States. Using data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, this paper examines how insurance varies between black, white, and Latino adults. Because Latino subgroups are not homogeneous, the paper also compares the factors associated with health insurance status for Mexican and Puerto Rican adults. Results indicate that access to private health insurance for Latino adults was more closely associated with workplace characteristics than employment itself. Time lived in the United States was a major factor associated with being uninsured for Mexican adults, while language barriers were a major factor limiting Puerto Rican individuals' access to private health insurance. The paper suggests two approaches for decreasing uninsurance among Latino adults: (1) strengthening the link between employment and private health insurance and (2) addressing disparities in access to public coverage for racial and ethnic groups, including recent immigrants.

  3. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults - PNS 2013.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares de; Medina, Lhais Barbosa de Paula; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years) from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013), we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators), according to the presence of depression (minor and major), evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9), and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days) over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9), higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65), passive smoking (PR = 1.55), risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72), TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13), consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43) and soft drink (PR = 1.42). The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors. Avaliar a prevalência de comportamentos relacionados à saúde segundo a presença e tipo de depressão em adultos brasileiros. Com base em amostra de 49

  4. Mental Health Literacy in Young Adults: Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Mental Health Literacy Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro; Campos, Luísa; Almeida, Helena; Palha, Filipa

    2018-06-23

    Mental health literacy (MHL) is considered a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders, and for this reason, it has become a focus of research over the past few decades. Assessing this construct is relevant for identifying knowledge gaps and erroneous beliefs concerning mental health issues, to inform the development of interventions aimed at promoting mental health literacy as well as the evaluation of these interventions. Recently, we developed a new self-reporting measure (MHLq) for assessing mental health literacy in young people (12⁻14 years-old), meeting the need to assess MHL from a comprehensive perspective of the construct instead of focusing on a restricted number of mental disorders or specific dimensions (e.g., knowledge concerning specific disorders; stigma). The present study aimed to adapt the MHLq for the young adult population and to examine its psychometric properties, according to the following steps: (1) item adaptation, using a think aloud procedure (n = 5); (2) data collection (n = 356, aged between 18 and 25 years old; and (3) psychometric analyses (exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis). The final version of the questionnaire included 29 items (total scale α = 0.84), organized by four dimensions: (1) knowledge of mental health problems (α = 0.74); (2) erroneous beliefs/stereotypes (α = 0.72); (3) help-seeking and first aid skills (α = 0.71); and (4) self-help strategies (α = 0.60). The results suggest that the MHLq-adult form is a practical, valid, and reliable screening tool for identifying gaps in knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intentions related to mental health and mental disorders, planning promotion programs, and evaluating intervention effectiveness.

  5. The association of food insecurity with health outcomes for adults with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2017-04-01

    Adults with disabilities are more likely to live in households that are food insecure and are more likely to experience health disparities than adults without disabilities. Research examining the intersection of food insecurity and health outcomes for adults with disabilities has so far been lacking, however. The research presented here tests whether living in a food insecure household is associated with poorer self-reported health and mental health and different health care utilization, controlling for disability status and other sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate regression analyses are conducted using linked data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey and the 2012 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. Adults with and without disabilities who live in food insecure households have higher odds of reporting fair or poor health or mental health in either the current year or the subsequent year. Health care utilization patterns differ for adults who are food insecure as well, both within and across years. Efforts to address health disparities among adults with disabilities should consider the possible additional impact of food insecurity on health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding views on everyday use of personal health information: Insights from community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, A L; Osterhage, K; Demiris, G; Phelan, E A; Thielke, S M; Turner, A M

    2018-09-01

    Older adults apply various strategies to pursue healthy aging, but we know little about their views and use of personal health information to accomplish those ends. As a first step in formulating the role of personal health information management (PHIM) in healthy aging, we explored the perspectives of older adults on health and health information used in their everyday lives through four focus groups with 25 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. We found that the concept of wellness-the holistic and multidimensional nature of health and wellbeing-plays prominently in how older adults think about health and health information. Participants expressed wellness from a position of personal strength, rather than health-related deficits, by focusing on wellness activities for staying healthy through: (1) personal health practices, (2) social network support, and (3) residential community engagement. Although these themes involve personal health information, existing PHIM systems that focus on disease management are generally not designed to support wellness activities. Substantial opportunity exists to fill this wellness support gap with innovative health information technology designed for older adults. Findings carry implications for the design of PHIM tools that support healthy aging and methods for engaging older adults as co-producers of this critical support.

  7. Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2017-07-01

    Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Health Equity and Aging of Bisexual Older Adults: Pathways of Risk and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Shiu, Chengshi; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Bisexual older adults are a growing yet largely invisible, underserved, and understudied population. Utilizing the Health Equity Promotion Model, we examined hypothesized mechanisms accounting for health disparities between bisexual older adults and lesbian and gay older adults. Based on data from Caring and Aging with Pride, the largest national survey of LGBT older adults, this study (N = 2,463) utilized structural equation modeling to investigate direct and indirect associations between sexual identity (bisexual vs. lesbian and gay) and health via sexual identity factors (identity disclosure and internalized stigma), social resources, and socioeconomic status (SES). Bisexual older adults reported significantly poorer health compared with lesbian and gay older adults. Indirect effects involving sexual identity factors, social resources, and SES explained the association between bisexual identity and poorer health. A potentially protective pathway was also identified wherein bisexuals had larger social networks after adjusting for other factors. Bisexual older adults face distinct challenges and health risks relative to other older adults, likely because of the accumulation of socioeconomic and psychosocial disadvantages across the life course. Interventions taking into account older bisexuals' unique risk and protective factors may be helpful in reducing health inequities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Health Equity and Aging of Bisexual Older Adults: Pathways of Risk and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Chengshi; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Bisexual older adults are a growing yet largely invisible, underserved, and understudied population. Utilizing the Health Equity Promotion Model, we examined hypothesized mechanisms accounting for health disparities between bisexual older adults and lesbian and gay older adults. Method: Based on data from Caring and Aging with Pride, the largest national survey of LGBT older adults, this study (N = 2,463) utilized structural equation modeling to investigate direct and indirect associations between sexual identity (bisexual vs. lesbian and gay) and health via sexual identity factors (identity disclosure and internalized stigma), social resources, and socioeconomic status (SES). Results: Bisexual older adults reported significantly poorer health compared with lesbian and gay older adults. Indirect effects involving sexual identity factors, social resources, and SES explained the association between bisexual identity and poorer health. A potentially protective pathway was also identified wherein bisexuals had larger social networks after adjusting for other factors. Discussion: Bisexual older adults face distinct challenges and health risks relative to other older adults, likely because of the accumulation of socioeconomic and psychosocial disadvantages across the life course. Interventions taking into account older bisexuals’ unique risk and protective factors may be helpful in reducing health inequities. PMID:27815302

  10. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  11. Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care for Youth with Disabilities and Chronic Illnesses. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    The annotated bibliography is intended to give health care providers and planners background information and other resources on health transition issues for young adults with chronic health conditions. The 23 bibliographic citations date from 1972 to 1989 and are grouped into the following categories: U.S. demographics and health services…

  12. Health Profile of Aging Family Caregivers Supporting Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The health status of 206 female caregivers supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities at home was investigated using objective (i.e., presence of chronic health conditions and activity limitations) and subjective (i.e., self-perceived health status) health measures compared with those of women in the general population in 2…

  13. Cognition and Health Literacy in Older Adults' Recall of Self-Care Information.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jessie; Madison, Anna; Gao, Xuefei; Graumlich, James F; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Murray, Michael D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Morrow, Daniel G

    2017-04-01

    Health literacy is associated with health outcomes presumably because it influences the understanding of information needed for self-care. However, little is known about the language comprehension mechanisms that underpin health literacy. We explored the relationship between a commonly used measure of health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [STOFHLA]) and comprehension of health information among 145 older adults. Results showed that performance on the STOFHLA was associated with recall of health information. Consistent with the Process-Knowledge Model of Health Literacy, mediation analysis showed that both processing capacity and knowledge mediated the association between health literacy and recall of health information. In addition, knowledge moderated the effects of processing capacity limits, such that processing capacity was less likely to be associated with recall for older adults with higher levels of knowledge. These findings suggest that knowledge contributes to health literacy and can compensate for deficits in processing capacity to support comprehension of health information among older adults. The implications of these findings for improving patient education materials for older adults with inadequate health literacy are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Health education in schools for adults: by a teacher or health education lecture?].

    PubMed

    Tormo Molina, J; Rodríguez Fernández, M J; Hernán García, M; Fernández Ajuria, A; García-Marcos, A

    2000-03-15

    To compare the results of two ways of teaching the rational use of medicines to students of centres of permanent education of adults (CPEA): one taught by the normal teachers (after training by health personnel) and one through a lecture given by the health staff. Intervention study without randomised distribution and with a control group. Five CPEA in an urban centre. 385 students and 15 CPEA teachers. Three groups: a) "teachers" group: consisting of students who received education on medicines in the class-room through their teachers, who had been previously trained by health personnel; b) "lecture" group: students who had received a health education lecture on medicines given by health staff; c) non-intervention group. All three groups were administered a questionnaire before and after the intervention. Both questionnaires were paired. 248 people completed the first questionnaire and 149 the second. Significant gains in knowledge were only found in the teachers intervention group (p < 0.01; 7.8% increase in score). Dividing the students into terciles made these gains significantly greater (11.7%) in the students of the teachers group who in the first questionnaire had intermediate scores than in the students in the other groups who had intermediate scores. Intervention with teachers seems more effective than either a health education lecture or no intervention, especially in the improvement in knowledge of students who already had beforehand intermediate knowledge.

  15. The utility of CPD for older adult mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    Bush, Tony; Meadows-Smith, Donna; Snowdon-Carr, Vanessa; Rao, V Bapuji; Collishaw, Helen

    To investigate how mental health nurses working with older adults perceive the benefits and realities of developing the outcomes of current continuing professional development training into actual clinical practice. A structured questionnaire was used with a convenience sample of nursing staff. Qualitative analysis was performed using a grounded theory approach in order to identify emergent themes, concepts and categories of data. Four randomly selected nurses were subjected to a voluntary semistructured interview using the questionnaire as a basis for information gathering. The main reason for attending courses was developing skills. Of those attending courses, 42 per cent of qualified and 35 per cent of unqualified staff had a personal development plan (PDP) or individual performance review (IPR). Significantly, all unqualified staff who had not been on a course had no PDP or IPR. Learning was described as applicable to practice by 85 per cent of unqualified and 70 per cent of qualified staff. However, 28 per cent of unqualified staff and 20 per cent of qualified staff felt their practice had not changed as a result of their learning. CPD can be a positive experience, providing nurses with the opportunity to direct their professional development.

  16. Social capital, health, health behavior, and utilization of healthcare services among older adults: A conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Emmering, Sheryl A; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Woith, Wendy M; Dyck, Mary J; Kim, MyoungJin

    2018-06-26

    Meeting the health needs of Americans must change as the population continues to live longer. A strategy that considers social well-being is necessary. One way to improve social well-being is through increased social capital, which includes networks among individuals and norms of reciprocity and trust between them. Supporting attainment of bonding social capital from close-knit groups, such as family, and bridging or linking social capital from those who are dissimilar are vital. Research shows there is a relationship among social capital and self-reported mental and physical health, health behaviors, healthcare utilization, and mortality. Because older adults are often dependent on others for their healthcare needs, it is posited that social capital plays a key role. Nurses can be instrumental in investigating levels of social capital for individuals and determining what type of social support is needed and who in the individual's network will provide that support. When support is absent, the nurse serves as the link between patients and available resources. The purpose of this article is to introduce a conceptual framework that can assist nurses and other healthcare providers to consider social capital in older adults in the context of relationships and the social environments to which they belong. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Active travel and adults' health: The 2007-to-2011 Canadian Health Measures Surveys.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Richard; Faulkner, Guy; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Active travel may be a means of integrating physical activity into an individual's routine. This analysis investigates the relationship between utilitarian walking and cycling and objectively measured physical activity and health-related outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Adults aged 20 to 79 who participated in the 2007-to-2011 Canadian Health Measures Surveys (N = 7,160) reported the weekly time spent in utilitarian walking and cycling and wore an Actical accelerometer for seven days. They underwent a series of tests to measure physical fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and biomarkers. Differences in physical activity and health-related outcomes across levels of utilitarian walking and cycling were assessed with ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, household income, self-reported usual daily physical activity, and the complex survey design. Utilitarian walking and cycling were associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in a graded manner. Compared with respondents who reported walking 1 to 5 hours a week, those who walked more than 5 hours a week had lower skinfold thickness. Respondents who reported cycling 1 or more hours a week had greater aerobic fitness and lower BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, glycohemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and triglycerides than did those who did not cycle. They also had higher aerobic fitness and lower BMI and waist circumference than those who reported cycling less than an hour a week. Cycling at least an hour a week is associated with improved fitness and reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors. Both utilitarian walking and cycling may be means of increasing adults' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  18. Addressing sexual and reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Walters, Frinny Polanco; Gray, Susan Hayden

    2018-05-24

    This review provides support for promoting the sexual health of adolescents and young adults with developmental disabilities, and particularly those with intellectual disabilities. It offers guidance for pediatricians on incorporating counseling on sexuality and reproductive healthcare, socially appropriate behavior, and sexual abuse prevention for adolescents and young adults with developmental disabilities into healthcare visits. Additionally, it provides resources for developmentally appropriate sexuality education in the home and community to allow access to the comprehensive sexual and reproductive healthcare patients deserve. Adolescents and young adults with developmental disabilities often do not receive developmentally appropriate sexual health education, and this is associated with poor sexual health outcomes and increased rates of sexual abuse in this population. Pediatricians should discuss sexual health with all patients, including adolescents and young adults with developmental disabilities. They are well suited to provide sexual health education and inform families about appropriate sexual health resources.

  19. Incorporating health literacy in education for socially disadvantaged adults: an Australian feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Danielle M; Smith, Sian; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morony, Suzanne; Davis, Esther L; Luxford, Karen; Shepherd, Heather L; Hayen, Andrew; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2016-06-04

    Adult education institutions have been identified as potential settings to improve health literacy and address the health inequalities that stem from limited health literacy. However, few health literacy interventions have been tested in this setting. Feasibility study for an RCT of the UK Skilled for Health Program adapted for implementation in Australian adult education settings. Implementation at two sites with mixed methods evaluation to examine feasibility, test for change in participants' health literacy and pilot test health literacy measures. Twenty-two socially disadvantaged adults with low literacy participated in the program and received 80-90 hours of health literacy instruction. The program received institutional support from Australia's largest provider of vocational education and training and was feasible to implement (100 % participation; >90 % completion; high teacher satisfaction). Quantitative results showed improvements in participants' health literacy skills and confidence, with no change on a generic measure of health literacy. Qualitative analysis identified positive student and teacher engagement with course content and self-reported improvements in health knowledge, attitudes, and communication with healthcare professionals. Positive feasibility results support a larger RCT of the health literacy program. However, there is a need to identify better, multi-dimensional measures of health literacy in order to be able to quantify change in a larger trial. This feasibility study represents the first step in providing the high quality evidence needed to understand the way in which health literacy can be improved and health inequalities reduced through Australian adult education programs.

  20. Transitioning from pediatric to adult health care with familial hypercholesterolemia: Listening to young adult and parent voices.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Samantha K; Gooding, Holly; de Ferranti, Sarah; Mackie, Thomas I; Shah, Supriya; Saunders, Tully; Leslie, Laurel K

    Young adults with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are at a critical period for establishing behaviors to promote future cardiovascular health. To examine challenges transitioning to adult care for young adults with FH and parents of FH-affected young adults in the context of 2 developmental tasks, transitioning from childhood to early adulthood and assuming responsibility for self-management of a chronic disorder. Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 young adults with FH and 12 parents of affected young adults from a pediatric subspecialty preventive cardiology program in a northeastern academic medical center. Analyses were conducted using a modified grounded theory framework. Respondents identified 5 challenges: (1) recognizing oneself as a decision maker, (2) navigating emerging independence, (3) prioritizing treatment for a chronic disorder with limited signs and symptoms, (4) managing social implications of FH, and (5) finding credible resources for guidance. Both young adults and parents proposed similar recommendations for addressing these challenges, including the need for family and peer involvement to establish and maintain diet and exercise routines and to provide medication reminders. Systems-level recommendations included early engagement of adolescents in shared decision-making with health care team; providing credible, educational resources regarding FH; and using blood tests to track treatment efficacy. Young adults with FH transitioning to adult care may benefit from explicit interventions to address challenges to establishing healthy lifestyle behaviors and medication adherence as they move toward being responsible for their medical care. Further research should explore the efficacy of recommended interventions. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between attitudes toward aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz Aslan, Gülbahar; Kartal, Asiye; Özen Çınar, İlgün; Koştu, Nazan

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the factors that are associated with health-promoting behaviours in older adults is necessary to increase their willingness and motivation to participate in health-promotion activities. Understanding context-specific attitudes in relation to their influence on health-promoting behaviours is crucial in designing efficient interventions that foster health-promoting behaviours among older adults. This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults in Turkey. The study used a descriptive-correlational design. A convenience sample of 448 community-dwelling older adults who were 65 years and older and cognitively intact were selected from 6 family health centres in the city of Denizli in Turkey. The data were collected between March and June of 2014 using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the predictors of health-promoting behaviours. Attitudes toward aging, the psychosocial loss subscale, and education were statistically significant predictors of health-promoting behaviours. Attitudes toward aging were the strongest predictor of health-promoting behaviours in older adults. Attitude towards aging is a factor that affects health-promoting behaviours, and it should be considered during interventions for improving health promoting behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. A collaborative approach to improve the assessment of physical health in adult consumers with schizophrenia in Queensland mental health services.

    PubMed

    Plever, Sally; McCarthy, Irene; Anzolin, Melissa; Emmerson, Brett; Khatun, Mohsina

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a quality improvement collaborative to increase the number of physical health assessments conducted with consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia in adult community mental health services across Queensland. Sixteen adult mental health service organisations voluntarily took part in the statewide collaborative initiative to increase the number of physical health assessments completed on persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders managed through the community mental health service. Improvement in the physical health assessment clinical indicator was demonstrated across the state over a 3-year period with an increase in the number of physical health assessments recorded from 12% to 58%. Significant improvements were made over a 3-year period by all mental health services involved in the collaborative, supporting the application of a quality improvement methodology to drive change across mental health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. The Effects of Childhood, Adult, and Community Socioeconomic Conditions on Health and Mortality among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Using a large, nationally representative longitudinal sample of Chinese aged 65 and older, this study examines the effects of childhood, adult, and community socioeconomic conditions on mortality and several major health outcomes. The role of social mobility is also tested. We find that childhood socioeconomic conditions exert long-term effects on functional limitations, cognitive impairment, self-rated health, and mortality independent of adult and community socioeconomic conditions. Achieved conditions matter for most outcomes as well, considering that adult and community socioeconomic conditions have additional impacts on health among Chinese elders. The majority of the effects of childhood conditions are not mediated by adult and community conditions. The results also show that social mobility and health in later life are linked in complex ways and that psychosocial factors have marginal explanatory power for the effects of socioeconomic conditions. Overall, this study provides new longitudinal evidence from China to support the notion that health and mortality at older ages are influenced by long-term and dynamic processes structured by the social stratification system. We discuss our findings in the context of the life course and ecological perspective, emphasizing that human development is influenced by a nexus of social experiences that impact individuals throughout life. PMID:21394657

  4. Lack of Preparedness for Pediatric to Adult-Oriented Health Care Transition in Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Dwyer-Matzky, Keely; Blatt, Amy; Asselin, Barbara L; Wood, David L

    We examined the self-reported preparedness of hospitalized adolescents and young adults (AYA) for transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care with regard to: 1) previous health care transition (HCT) preparation, 2) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs of health self-management autonomy and competence, and 3) their perception of medical knowledge, attitudes, and concerns. From 2013 to 2015, 139 hospitalized patients aged 15 to 21 years completed a 40-item survey on HCT preparation, attitudes, concerns, and perception of knowledge adapted in part from validated questionnaires of the Department of Health and Human Services, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and SDT Treatment Self-Regulation Study. Fewer than 40% of all respondents endorsed previous HCT preparation such as providers discussing taking responsibility for their health, transitioning to adult providers, and only 20% had discussed future health insurance needs. Of our AYA population, 84% had 1 or more special health care needs. Older patients, female patients, and those with increased HCT preparation scores had increased autonomous motivation, positive attitudes toward transition, yet also increased transition concerns. Higher autonomous motivation and perceived competence correlated with increased perception of knowledge (P = .002, < .001 respectively) and more positive attitudes toward transition planning (P < .001, .054 respectively). Multivariate regression analysis revealed those with increased HCT preparation and those with increased perceived competence had increased perception of knowledge (β = .25, P = .005 and β = .35, P < .001). Our findings suggest that hospitalized AYA received limited education and preparation regarding key elements of HCT to adult-oriented health care. Moreover, those previously exposed to transition preparation efforts were more likely to have motivation and a sense of competence in HCT skills. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association

  5. Levels of health literacy in a community-dwelling population of Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Simon, Melissa A; Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-11-01

    Lower levels of health literacy have been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially for older adults. However, limited research has been conducted to understand health literacy levels among Chinese American older adults. The PINE study is an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 95% of whom do not speak or read English. Chinese older adults' health literacy levels were examined using the Chinese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R) test. Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square statistics were used to identify significant differences by sociodemographic and self-reported health characteristics. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine correlations between personal characteristics and health literacy level. The mean age among this sample of Chinese older adults was 72.8 years (SD = 8.3, range = 60-105) and the mean REALM-R test score was 6.9 [SD = 2.3, range (0-8)]. Health literacy was positively associated with education, marriage status, and number of people living with. Older age, being female, greater number of children, years in the United States, and preference for speaking Cantonese or Taishanese were negatively associated with health literacy. Health literary was not associated with self-reported health status or quality of life. In this Chicago Chinese population, older adults had reasonable levels of health literacy in Chinese. Future longitudinal research is needed to understand risk/protective factors associated with health literacy level in Chinese older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among homeless young adults in Venice, CA.

    PubMed

    Winetrobe, H; Rice, E; Rhoades, H; Milburn, N

    2016-03-01

    Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A New Functional Health Literacy Scale for Japanese Young Adults Based on Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Kawazoe, Nobuo; Kasano, Eri

    2017-03-01

    Health literacy predicts health outcomes. Despite concerns surrounding the health of Japanese young adults, to date there has been no objective assessment of health literacy in this population. This study aimed to develop a Functional Health Literacy Scale for Young Adults (funHLS-YA) based on item response theory. Each item in the scale requires participants to choose the most relevant term from 3 choices in relation to a target item, thus assessing objective rather than perceived health literacy. The 20-item scale was administered to 1816 university students and 1751 responded. Cronbach's α coefficient was .73. Difficulty and discrimination parameters of each item were estimated, resulting in the exclusion of 1 item. Some items showed different difficulty parameters for male and female participants, reflecting that some aspects of health literacy may differ by gender. The current 19-item version of funHLS-YA can reliably assess the objective health literacy of Japanese young adults.

  8. Meeting the Hearing Health Care Needs of the Oldest Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Barbara E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the auditory needs of and approaches to management of the oldest older adult. This article is an overview of principles of geriatric care and implications of untreated hearing loss for function, management, and care of the oldest older adult. Person-centered care is at the heart of health care delivery to the oldest older adult, who typically suffers from multimorbidity. Given the high prevalence of moderate to severe hearing loss in this cohort and the functional limitations of untreated hearing loss, audiologists must become proactive in educating stakeholders on the importance of identifying and referring the oldest older adult for management of hearing health care needs. Audiologists have an integral role to play in collaborating with health care professionals in optimizing health care for the oldest older adult.

  9. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  10. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The ... Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. ...

  11. Comparing young adults to older adults in e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use: implications for health communication.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes' is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing young adults to older adults. In this qualitative study, the investigator conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of e-cigarette users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. e-cigarettes were most commonly used for smoking cessation among both age groups. Young adults described other motivations for use including doing smoke tricks, being able to consume a wide variety of flavors, and helping them study. Some interviewees (11%) believed e-cigarettes were a healthy alternative to conventional cigarettes, while many other users (30%) expressed concerns about the unknown risks of e-cigarettes. Findings were generally consistent across both age groups in their perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and in subjective effects such as perceived addictiveness. However, individuals under 30 described unique motivations for e-cigarette use. Health messaging targeted to young adults should emphasize the potential health risks of e-cigarette use and recognize their distinct motivational aspects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The importance of building trust and tailoring interactions when meeting older adults' health literacy needs.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Charlotte; Ballinger, Claire; Nutbeam, Don; Adams, Jo

    2017-11-01

    Health literacy is the ability to access, understand and use health information. This study qualitatively explored the views and experiences of older adults with varying health literacy levels who had attended a falls clinic on their overall experience of the falls clinic, access to the service and provider-patient interaction. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine older adults using a falls clinic in England. Health literacy was assessed using the REALM and NVS-UK. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and interrogated using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Two superordinate themes emerged from the analysis: The importance of trust and relationship building to achieve effective communication with older adults; and the importance of tailoring education and healthcare to older adults' individual health literacy needs and preferences. The findings corroborate previous research emphasising the importance of face-to-face communication in responding to older adults' individual health literacy needs. Building trust in the relationship and tailoring communication to older adults' individual attributes and preferred learning styles is essential. Healthcare practitioners and managers should consider how service organisation and communication methods can enhance positive and effective relationships with patients. Improved training could support healthcare providers in meeting patients' personal communication needs. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of their patients' individual health literacy needs and communication/learning preferences. It is important to build relationships and trust with older adults attending rehabilitation services. Further training for rehabilitation professionals could support them in meeting patients' personal communication needs.

  13. Aging barriers influencing mobile health usability for older adults: A literature based framework (MOLD-US).

    PubMed

    Wildenbos, G A; Peute, Linda; Jaspers, Monique

    2018-06-01

    With the growing population of older adults as a potential user group of mHealth, the need increases for mHealth interventions to address specific aging characteristics of older adults. The existence of aging barriers to computer use is widely acknowledged. Yet, usability studies show that mHealth still fails to be appropriately designed for older adults and their expectations. To enhance designs of mHealth aimed at older adult populations, it is essential to gain insight into aging barriers that impact the usability of mHealth as experienced by these adults. This study aims to synthesize literature on aging barriers to digital (health) computer use, and explain, map and visualize these barriers in relation to the usability of mHealth by means of a framework. We performed a scoping review to synthesize and summarize reported physical and functional age barriers in relation to digital (mobile) health applications use. Aging barriers reported in the literature were mapped onto usability aspects categorized by Nielsen to explain their influence on user experience of mHealth. A framework (MOLD-US) was developed summarizing the evidence on the influence of aging barriers on mHealth use experienced by older adults. Four key categories of aging barriers influencing usability of mHealth were identified: cognition, motivation, physical ability and perception. Effective and satisfactory use of mHealth by older adults is complicated by cognition and motivation barriers. Physical ability and perceptual barriers further increase the risk of user errors and fail to notice important interaction tasks. Complexities of medical conditions, such as diminished eye sight related to diabetes or deteriorated motor skills as a result of rheumatism, can cause errors in user interaction. This research provides a novel framework for the exploration of aging barriers and their causes influencing mHealth usability in older adults. This framework allows for further systematic empirical testing

  14. Expanding federal funding to community health centers slows decline in access for low-income adults.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Stacey; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    To identify the impact of the Health Center Growth Initiative on access to care for low-income adults. Data on federal funding for health centers are from the Bureau of Primary Health Care's Uniform Data System (2000-2007), and individual-level measures of access and use are derived from the National Health Interview Survey (2001-2008). We estimate person-level models of access and use as a function of individual- and market-level characteristics. By using market-level fixed effects, we identify the effects of health center funding on access using changes within markets over time. We explore effects on low-income adults and further examine how those effects vary by insurance coverage. We calculate health center funding per poor person in a health care market and attach this information to individual observations on the National Health Interview Survey. Health care markets are defined as hospital referral regions. Low-income adults in markets with larger funding increases were more likely to have an office visit and to have a general doctor visit. These results were stronger for uninsured and publicly insured adults. Expansions in federal health center funding had some mitigating effects on the access declines that were generally experienced by low-income adults over this time period. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. The use of e-health and m-health tools in health promotion and primary prevention among older adults: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Kampmeijer, Ramon; Pavlova, Milena; Tambor, Marzena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Groot, Wim

    2016-09-05

    The use of e-health and m-health technologies in health promotion and primary prevention among older people is largely unexplored. This study provides a systematic review of the evidence on the scope of the use of e-health and m-health tools in health promotion and primary prevention among older adults (age 50+). A systematic literature review was conducted in October 2015. The search for relevant publications was done in the search engine PubMed. The key inclusion criteria were: e-health and m-health tools used, participants' age 50+ years, focus on health promotion and primary prevention, published in the past 10 years, in English, and full-paper can be obtained. The text of the publications was analyzed based on two themes: the characteristics of e-health and m-health tools and the determinants of the use of these tools by older adults. The quality of the studies reviewed was also assessed. The initial search resulted in 656 publications. After we applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 45 publications were selected for the review. In the publications reviewed, various types of e-health/m-health tools were described, namely apps, websites, devices, video consults and webinars. Most of the publications (60 %) reported studies in the US. In 37 % of the publications, the study population was older adults in general, while the rest of the publications studied a specific group of older adults (e.g. women or those with overweight). The publications indicated various facilitators and barriers. The most commonly mentioned facilitator was the support for the use of the e-health/m-health tools that the older adults received. E-health and m-health tools are used by older adults in diverse health promotion programs, but also outside formal programs to monitor and improve their health. The latter is hardly studied. The successful use of e-health/m-health tools in health promotion programs for older adults greatly depends on the older adults' motivation and support

  16. Indicators of health and safety among institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Maria Lígia Silva Nunes; Borges, Cíntia Lira; Moura, Acácia Maria Figueiredo Torres de Melo; Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of mortality, diarrheal diseases, scabies and falls; and the prevalence of pressure ulcers - all of which are related to the safety ofinstitutionalized older adults. This was a documentary retrospective study developed in a long-term residential careinstitution for older adults in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were gathered from records of health assessment indicators filed between January 2008 and December 2015. Analysis included absolute case frequency; the sum of monthly prevalence and incidence rates; mean values of cases; and mean annual incidence and prevalence rates. The incidence of mortality over these nine years ranged from 9% to 13%; of acute diarrheic disease from 13% to 45%; and scabies from 21% to 63%. The prevalence of pressure ulcers ranged from 8% to 23%. Between 2012 and 2015, the incidence rate of falls without injury varied from 38% to 83%, and with injury from12% to 20%. Analysis of the health indicators revealeda high incidence of scabies and falls and a high prevalence of pressure ulcers. The identification of less than optimal rates for performance indicators canhelp improve the quality of nursing care. Identificar a incidência de mortalidade, doenças diarreicas, escabiose e quedas, e a prevalência de lesões por pressão para a segurança do idoso institucionalizado. Estudo documental, retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos, localizada no nordeste do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio dos registros dos indicadores de avaliação de saúde, arquivados de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2015. A análise incluiu a frequência absoluta dos casos; o somatório das taxas de prevalência e incidência mensais; a média de casos e das taxas de incidência e prevalência anuais. Observa-se que a incidência de óbitos nos nove anos considerados variou de 9 a 13%; de doenças diarreicas agudas, de 13 a 45%; e de escabiose, de 21 a 63%. A prevalência de lesão por

  17. Optimizing Health Care for Adults with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary…

  18. What are young adults saying about mental health? An analysis of Internet blogs.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Madalyn A; Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

    2012-01-30

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18-25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18-25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults' sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward receiving care, we provide some recommendations for

  19. [Hypothyroidism in adults in a basic health area].

    PubMed

    López-Macías, I; Hidalgo-Requena, A; Pérez-Membrive, E; González-Rodríguez, M E; Bellido-Moyano, C; Pérula-de Torres, L A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to study the prevalence, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hypothyroid disease in adults using the computerised clinical records. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The target population was the patients of the health centres of Lucena I and II (Córdoba). Patients 14 years or older, diagnosed with hypothyroidism, born and resident in Lucena. Two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited by random sampling, who then underwent a clinical interview using a questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 49.71 years (SD 17.03; 95% CI 47.34-51.98), with 85.5% women. A diagnosis of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found in 74.8%, compared to 18.7% of primary hypothyroidism, and 6.5% of secondary hypothyroidism. The 53.7% (95% CI 46.81-60.59) of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism did not have thyroid antibodies results. However, 75.2% (95% CI 68.89-80.86) were being treated with levothyroxine. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.7% (95% CI 5.46-5.96). Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is very common in Primary Care clinics. Many patients are not correctly diagnosed and many are over-medicated, suggesting a need to review the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS)].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Richter, K; Frye, C; Meyer, I; Wölke, G; Wjst, M; Nowak, D; Magnussen, H; Wichmann, H E

    2002-05-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first study to assess the geographical variation in asthma, allergy, and allergic sensitization in adults using the same instruments and definitions. The database of the ECRHS includes information from approximately 140 000 individuals aged 20 - 44 years from 22 countries. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of the ECRHS and to present the specific contribution of the German centers in Hamburg and Erfurt. The prevalence ranged from 2.0 - 11.9 % for asthma, 9.5 - 40.9 % for allergic rhinitis, 4.0 - 32.0 % for wheeze, 3.4 - 27.9 % for bronchial hyperreactivity, and 16.2 - 44.5 % for allergic sensitisation against common aeroallergens. Although the prevalence of these atopic disorders were found to be consistently higher for the Hamburg center compared to the Erfurt center, strong regional differences in the prevalences were also found within several other European countries. Overall Europe, the lowest prevalences were seen in the Eastern and Middle European countries with the center Erfurt, followed by the Mediterranean region. The highest prevalences were reported for all English speaking centers. Strong geographic variation was reported for medication for asthma. Asthma seems to be undertreated in several countries. Environmental exposures and in particular indoor factors, and exposures at the workplace are playing a major role for asthma in adulthood. Furthermore, protective effects on atopy were found for exposures to pets (dogs) and a large number of siblings in early childhood. In conclusion, the ECRHS has shown that the prevalence of asthma varies widely. The fact that the geographical pattern is consistent with the distribution of atopy and bronchial responsiveness supports the conclusion that the geographical variations in the prevalence of asthma are true and likely due to environmental factors.

  1. Using eHealth Technologies: Interests, Preferences, and Concerns of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Patrick; Bartlett, Susan J; Paré, Guy; Symeonidis, Iphigenia; Tannenbaum, Cara; Bartlett, Gillian; Poissant, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet and eHealth technologies represent new opportunities for managing health. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, and current technology use are some of the known factors that influence individuals’ uptake of eHealth; however, relatively little is known about facilitators and barriers to eHealth uptake specific to older adults, particularly as they relate to their experiences in accessing health care. Objective The aim of our study was to explore the interests, preferences, and concerns of older adults in using the Internet and eHealth technologies for managing their health in relation to their experiences with the current health care system. Methods Two focus groups (n=15) were conducted with adults aged 50+ years. Pragmatic thematic analysis using an inductive approach was conducted to identify the interests, preferences, and concerns of using the Internet and eHealth technologies. Results Five themes emerged that include (1) Difficulty in identifying credible and relevant sources of information on the Web; (2) Ownership, access, and responsibility for medical information; (3) Peer communication and support; (4) Opportunities to enhance health care interactions; and (5) Privacy concerns. These findings support the potential value older adults perceive in eHealth technologies, particularly in their ability to provide access to personal health information and facilitate communication between providers and peers living with similar conditions. However, in order to foster acceptance, these technologies will need to provide personal and general health information that is secure, readily accessible, and easily understood. Conclusions Older adults have diverse needs and preferences that, in part, are driven by their experiences and frustrations with the health care system. Results can help inform the design and implementation of technologies to address gaps in care and access to health information for older adults with chronic conditions who may

  2. Development of the health literacy on social determinants of health questionnaire in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masayoshi; Nakayama, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-06

    Health inequities are increasing worldwide, with mounting evidence showing that the greatest cause of which are social determinants of health. To reduce inequities, a lot of citizens need to be able to access, understand, appraise, and apply information on the social determinants; that is, they need to improve health literacy on social determinants of health. However, only a limited number of scales focus on these considerations; hence, we developed the Health Literacy on Social Determinants of Health Questionnaire (HL-SDHQ) and examined its psychometric properties. We extracted domains of the social determinants of health from "the solid facts" and related articles, operationalizing the following ten domains: "the social gradient," "early life," "social exclusion," "work," "unemployment," "social support," "social capital," "addiction," "food," and "transport," Next, we developed the scale items in the ten extracted domains based on the literature and included four aspects of health literacy (ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply social determinants of health-related information) in the items. We also evaluated the ease of response and content validity. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of 33 items. The reliability and construct validity were verified among 831 Japanese adults in an internet survey. The scale items had high reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92, and also adequate results were obtained for the internal consistency of the information-processing dimensions (Cronbach's alpha values were 0.82, 0.91, 0.84, and 0.92 for accessing, understanding, appraising, and applying, respectively). The goodness of fit by confirmatory factor analysis based on the four dimensions was an acceptable value (comparative fit index = 0.901; root mean square error of approximation = 0.058). Furthermore, the bivariate relationship between HL-SDHQ and the frequency of participation in citizen's activities was similar to the theoretical

  3. Health-care access among adults with epilepsy: The U.S. National Health Interview Survey, 2010 and 2013✩

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, David J.; Kobau, Rosemarie; Luo, Yao-Hua; Helmers, Sandra L.; Zack, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Community-based and other epidemiologic studies within the United States have identified substantial disparities in health care among adults with epilepsy. However, few data analyses addressing their health-care access are representative of the entire United States. This study aimed to examine national survey data about adults with epilepsy and to identify barriers to their health care. Materials and methods We analyzed data from U.S. adults in the 2010 and the 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, multistage probability samples with supplemental questions on epilepsy. We defined active epilepsy as a history of physician-diagnosed epilepsy either currently under treatment or accompanied by seizures during the preceding year. We employed SAS-callable SUDAAN software to obtain weighted estimates of population proportions and rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to adults reporting no history of epilepsy, adults reporting active epilepsy were significantly more likely to be insured under Medicaid (RR = 3.58) and less likely to have private health insurance (RR = 0.58). Adults with active epilepsy were also less likely to be employed (RR = 0.53) and much more likely to report being disabled (RR = 6.14). They experience greater barriers to health-care access including an inability to afford medication (RR = 2.40), mental health care (RR = 3.23), eyeglasses (RR = 2.36), or dental care (RR = 1.98) and are more likely to report transportation as a barrier to health care (RR = 5.28). Conclusions These reported substantial disparities in, and barriers to, access to health care for adults with active epilepsy are amenable to intervention. PMID:26627980

  4. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Hart, Peter D; Benavidez, Gabriel; Erickson, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  5. A path analysis of Internet health information seeking behaviors among older adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as an innovative tool that older adults can use to obtain health-related information. However, the relationships among predictors of Internet health information seeking behaviors (IHISB) in this population are not well understood. To fill this gap, this study examined the direct and indirect pathways of potential predictors of IHISB among older South Korean adults, using the modified Technology Acceptance Model 3. Participants were 300 older South Korean adults who had used the Internet to obtain health information within the past month. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire and were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Two variables-prior experience and behavioral intention to use-had positive direct effects on IHISB. These findings imply that health care providers promoting IHISB among older adults should consider these individuals' prior experience with the Internet and their willingness to use the Internet as a source of health information. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Young Adults to Older Adults in E-Cigarette Perceptions and Motivations for Use: Implications for Health Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing…

  7. Health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among homeless young adults in Venice, CA

    PubMed Central

    Winetrobe, H.; Rice, E.; Rhoades, H.; Milburn, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. Methods All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Results Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Conclusions Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. PMID:25635142

  8. Exploring the Health Needs of Aging LGBT Adults in the Cape Fear Region of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Noell L; Beyer, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    This study explored issues of culturally sensitive healthcare practice and needs among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender aging adults in coastal North Carolina. Survey data results indicated the largest problem was a history of verbally harassment and need for culturally sensitive healthcare. In conclusion, culturally sensitive interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique needs of LGBT aging adults. Cultural sensitivity training for service providers is suggested as a vital step in addressing health disparities of aging LGBT adults. Implications for research include further exploration of health related needs of these often hidden and underserved population groups.

  9. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  10. Expanding Federal Funding to Community Health Centers Slows Decline in Access for Low-Income Adults

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Stacey; Zuckerman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of the Health Center Growth Initiative on access to care for low-income adults. Data Sources Data on federal funding for health centers are from the Bureau of Primary Health Care's Uniform Data System (2000–2007), and individual-level measures of access and use are derived from the National Health Interview Survey (2001–2008). Study Design We estimate person-level models of access and use as a function of individual- and market-level characteristics. By using market-level fixed effects, we identify the effects of health center funding on access using changes within markets over time. We explore effects on low-income adults and further examine how those effects vary by insurance coverage. Data Collection We calculate health center funding per poor person in a health care market and attach this information to individual observations on the National Health Interview Survey. Health care markets are defined as hospital referral regions. Principal Findings Low-income adults in markets with larger funding increases were more likely to have an office visit and to have a general doctor visit. These results were stronger for uninsured and publicly insured adults. Conclusions Expansions in federal health center funding had some mitigating effects on the access declines that were generally experienced by low-income adults over this time period. PMID:24344818

  11. Channels of health communications used among Korean and Asian Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Seon

    2010-01-01

    According to Healthy People 2010, health communication is an important tool to reduce health disparities. Communication channels in which people prefer to receive health information may differ by race/ethnicity. One of the main challenges in designing an effective health communication program is to identify the most trusted and most often used channels of health information by Asian older adults. The aim of this study is to determine which health communication channels can be used to promote healthy lifestyles among older adults. A non-probability, convenience-sampling technique was used to recruit Korean (n = 9) and Asian Indian (n = 9) older adults from two senior centers in New York City. The findings from the two focus groups identified three distinct channels used by Asian older adults when obtaining health information: interpersonal (i.e., health care providers, word of mouth), mass media (i.e., ethnic mass media sources), and community specific (i.e., religious organizations, community centers). Health communication is an important area for prevention. Increased efforts are needed to develop culturally appropriate health messages and equally important to deliver these messages in the context in which Asian older adults trust and use the most.

  12. Levels of Health Literacy in a Community-Dwelling Population of Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lower levels of health literacy have been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially for older adults. However, limited research has been conducted to understand health literacy levels among Chinese American older adults. Methods. The PINE study is an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 95% of whom do not speak or read English. Chinese older adults’ health literacy levels were examined using the Chinese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R) test. Kruskal–Wallis test and chi-square statistics were used to identify significant differences by sociodemographic and self-reported health characteristics. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine correlations between personal characteristics and health literacy level. Results. The mean age among this sample of Chinese older adults was 72.8 years (SD = 8.3, range = 60–105) and the mean REALM-R test score was 6.9 [SD = 2.3, range (0–8)]. Health literacy was positively associated with education, marriage status, and number of people living with. Older age, being female, greater number of children, years in the United States, and preference for speaking Cantonese or Taishanese were negatively associated with health literacy. Health literary was not associated with self-reported health status or quality of life. Conclusions. In this Chicago Chinese population, older adults had reasonable levels of health literacy in Chinese. Future longitudinal research is needed to understand risk/protective factors associated with health literacy level in Chinese older adults. PMID:25378449

  13. The health and quality of life outcomes among youth and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Young, Nancy L; Rochon, Trista G; McCormick, Anna; Law, Mary; Wedge, John H; Fehlings, Darcy

    2010-01-01

    Young NL, Rochon TG, McCormick A, Law M, Wedge JH, Fehlings D. The health and quality of life outcomes among youth and young adults with cerebral palsy. To describe the health and quality of life (QoL) of youth and young adults who have cerebral palsy (CP), and to assess the impact of 3 key factors (severity, age, and sex) on these outcomes. Cross-sectional survey. Participants were identified from 6 children's treatment centers in Ontario. The sample of participants (N=199) included youth (n=129; age, 13-17y) and adults (n=70; age, 23-33y) with a broad range of severity: 35% mild, 19% moderate, and 47% severe. Not applicable. Health Utilities Index (HUI(3)), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Self-Rated Health (SRH). SRH was reported to be excellent or very good by 57% of youth and 46% of adults. Mean HUI(3) scores were .30 for youth and .31 for adults. Mean AQoL scores were .28 for youth and adults. Severity of CP in childhood predicted 55% of the variance in HUI(3) scores and 45% of the variance in AQoL scores. Age and sex were not significant predictors of health or QoL. The observed health and QoL scores were much lower than those previously reported in the literature. This is likely a result of the inclusion of those with severe CP. The scores for youth were similar to those for adults and suggest that health and QoL outcomes were relatively stable across the transition to adulthood. Youth and adults with CP have limited health status and will require health care support throughout their lives to help them optimize their well being. Longitudinal follow-up studies are essential to understand better the patterns of health in this population over time. Copyright (c) 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between health, education, and health literacy: results from the Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Iris; Wang, Jen; Droomers, Mariël; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Rademakers, Jany; Uiters, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by which level of education affects health status. Health literacy was measured by the Health Activities and Literacy Scale, using data from a subsample of 5,136 adults between the ages of 25 and 65 years, gathered within the context of the 2007 Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. Linear regression analyses were used in separate models to estimate the extent to which health literacy mediates educational disparities in self-reported general health, physical health status, and mental health status as measured by the Short Form-12. Health literacy was found to partially mediate the association between low education and low self-reported health status. As such, improving health literacy may be a useful strategy for reducing disparities in health related to education, as health literacy appears to play a role in explaining the underlying mechanism driving the relationship between low level of education and poor health.

  15. Identification and characteristics of vulnerable adults attending an inner city sexual health service.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Verity; Cheserem, Emily; Milne, Cliodhna; Hopkins, Marina; Lock, Eleanor; Hamlyn, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Adult safeguarding is the function of protecting vulnerable adults from abuse or neglect. The 2012 Department of Health Draft Care and Support Bill highlighted adult safeguarding as a key government priority and stated that a clear framework is required for organisations dealing with 'adults at risk'. Adults at risk present to sexual health services but no formal guidance currently exists to aid their identification and management in this setting. We conducted a retrospective case note review which identified that vulnerable adults attend our service. They may display recognised risk factors, awareness of which is likely to facilitate identification and assessment of this group and aid appropriate onward referral. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis, management, and health services development

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, C Ellie; Robertson, Dene M; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen M; Hammond, Neil; Galanopoulos, Anastasios; Dud, Iulia; Murphy, Declan G; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive difficulties since early childhood across reciprocal social communication and restricted, repetitive interests and behaviors. Although early ASD research focused primarily on children, there is increasing recognition that ASD is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. However, although health and education services for children with ASD are relatively well established, service provision for adults with ASD is in its infancy. There is a lack of health services research for adults with ASD, including identification of comorbid health difficulties, rigorous treatment trials (pharmacological and psychological), development of new pharmacotherapies, investigation of transition and aging across the lifespan, and consideration of sex differences and the views of people with ASD. This article reviews available evidence regarding the etiology, legislation, diagnosis, management, and service provision for adults with ASD and considers what is needed to support adults with ASD as they age. We conclude that health services research for adults with ASD is urgently warranted. In particular, research is required to better understand the needs of adults with ASD, including health, aging, service development, transition, treatment options across the lifespan, sex, and the views of people with ASD. Additionally, the outcomes of recent international legislative efforts to raise awareness of ASD and service provision for adults with ASD are to be determined. Future research is required to identify high-quality, evidence-based, and cost-effective models of care. Furthermore, future health services research is also required at the beginning and end of adulthood, including improved transition from youth to adult health care and increased understanding of aging and health in older adults with ASD. PMID:27462160

  17. HEALTH CARE TRANSITION IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES: BARRIERS TO TIMELY ESTABLISHMENT OF ADULT DIABETES CARE

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Katharine C.; Wolpert, Howard A.; Laffel, Lori M.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I.; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine barriers to health care transition reported by young adults with type 1 diabetes and associations between barriers and prolonged gaps between pediatric and adult diabetes care. Methods We surveyed young adults aged 22 to 30 years with type 1 diabetes about their transition experiences, including barriers to timely establishment of adult diabetes care. We evaluated relationships between barriers and gaps in care using multivariate logistic regression. Results The response rate was 53% (258 of 484 eligible subjects). Respondents (62% female) were 26.7 ± 2.4 years old and transitioned to adult diabetes care at 19.5 ± 2.9 years. Reported barriers included lack of specific adult provider referral name (47%) or contact information (27%), competing life priorities (43%), difficulty getting an appointment (41%), feeling upset about leaving pediatrics (24%), and insurance problems (10%). In multivariate analysis, barriers most strongly associated with gaps in care >6 months were lack of adult provider name (odds ratio [OR], 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0–12.7) or contact information (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.0–13.9), competing life priorities (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.7–10.3), and insurance problems (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2–10.3). Overall, respondents reporting ≥1 moderate/major barrier (48%) had 4.7-fold greater adjusted odds of a gap in care >6 months (95% CI, 2.8–8.7). Conclusion Significant barriers to transition, such as a lack of specific adult provider referrals, may be addressed with more robust preparation by pediatric providers and care coordination. Further study is needed to evaluate strategies to improve young adult self-care in the setting of competing life priorities. PMID:23807526

  18. [Developmental origins of adult health and disease: an important concept for social inequalities in health].

    PubMed

    Charles, M-A

    2013-08-01

    According to the theory of the developmental origins of adult health and disease, development in utero and in the first years of life are critical phases during which susceptibility to many chronic diseases is set. Diseases eventually occur only if the environment and lifestyle in later life is favorable. Exposure to chemicals (environmental or drug), to infectious agents, unbalanced nutrition, or psychosocial stress prenatally or in the first months/years of life are all factors which have been shown to impact long-term health of individuals. The consequences, however, are not limited to health. A demonstrative example was provided by the study of the influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 in the United States. Nationwide, it was estimated that the loss of income over a lifetime for individuals exposed during fetal life to this epidemic amounted to 14 billion dollars. This example demonstrates that an exposure during fetal life, which is not socially differentiated, may affect the social situation of individuals in adulthood. In many situations, it is much more difficult to separate the specific effect of a given exposure from the overall effect of the social environment. Indeed, it has been shown that socioeconomic status in childhood is associated with increased risk of mortality in adulthood, even after accounting for the socioeconomic status and risky behaviors in adulthood. Among the explanations, the theory of developmental origins of health credits of biological plausibility the model of critical periods early in which the individual is particularly vulnerable to certain exposures. Thus, ensuring the best conditions for the biological, physical, emotional and cognitive development of children in early life will enable them to reach their potential in terms of health and socioeconomic return to society. Investment in this period also brings the hope of reducing the perpetuation of social inequalities and health from generation to generation. Copyright © 2013

  19. The association between health literacy and self-management abilities in adults aged 75 and older, and its moderators.

    PubMed

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-11-01

    Low health literacy is an important predictor of poor health outcomes and well-being among older adults. A reason may be that low health literacy decreases older adults' self-management abilities. We therefore assessed the association between health literacy and self-management abilities among adults aged 75 and older, and the impact of demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, and health status on this association. We used data of 1052 older adults, gathered for a previously conducted randomized controlled trial on Embrace, an integrated elderly care model. These data pertained to health literacy, self-management abilities, demographic background, socioeconomic situation, and health status. Health literacy was measured by the validated three-item Brief Health Literacy Screening instrument. Self-management abilities were measured by the validated Self-Management Ability Scale (SMAS-30). After adjustment for confounders, self-management abilities were poorer in older adults with low health literacy (β = .34, p < .001). This was more pronounced in medium- to high-educated older adults than in low-educated older adults. Sex, age, living situation, income, presence of chronic illness, and mental health status did not moderate the association between health literacy and self-management abilities. Low health literacy is associated with poor self-management abilities in a wide range of older adults. Early recognition of low health literacy among adults of 75 years and older and interventions to improve health literacy might be very beneficial for older adults.

  20. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Older adults' use of complementary and alternative medicine for mental health: findings from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Suerken, Cynthia K; Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A

    2006-06-01

    To compare complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among adults 65 and older with and without self-reported anxiety or depression, and to investigate the prevalence and predictors of CAM use for treatment by persons with anxiety or depression. Cross-sectional survey. Computer-assisted interviews conducted in participants' homes. Subjects included 5827 adults aged 65 and older who participated in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey including the Alternative Health Supplement. None. Overall use of CAM, use of four categories of CAM, and use of 20 CAM modalities. CAM use for treatment of any health condition, and CAM use to treat mental health. Eighty-one and seven tenths percent (81.7%) of older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression who used CAM in the past year, whereas 64.6% of older adults without these conditions used CAM. Differences in CAM use were driven by elevated use of spiritual practices, relaxation techniques, and use of nonvitamin, nonmineral natural products by patients with symptoms of mental conditions. Fewer than 20% of CAM users with self-reported anxiety or depression used CAM for their mental health. Few personal and health-related factors predicted CAM use for treatment among older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression. Older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression were more likely to use spiritual practices, relaxation techniques, and nonvitamin, nonmineral natural products than elders in good mental health. However, for the majority of older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression, CAM was used for purposes other than treating mental health.

  2. Health Disparities of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: What Do We Know? What Do We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahn, Gloria L.; Fox, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent attention to health of people with intellectual disabilities has used a health disparities framework. Building on historical context, the paper summarizes what is known about health disparities from reports and research and provides direction on what to do to reduce these disparities among adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  3. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  4. Development of a Scale to Measure Adults' Perceptions of Health: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James J.; Becker, Julie A.; Arenson, Christine A.; Chambers, Christopher V.; Rosenthal, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Given the national agenda on chronic disease self-management, the goal of the project described in this brief report was to develop a scale that measured adult perceptions about health but did not focus on a specific condition. The Perception of Health Scale (PHS) is based on earlier work that used the Health Belief Model as a focus. The 15-item…

  5. Helping older adults to help themselves: the role of mental health literacy in family members.

    PubMed

    White, Margaret; Casey, Leanne

    2017-11-01

    Family members may play an important role in the health and well-being of older adults. However, little is known about the factors that influence the likelihood of family members supporting older relatives to seek help from mental health professionals for mental health concerns. Mental health literacy is associated with people's help-seeking intentions regarding their own mental health concerns, and some studies have suggested it may play a role in help-seeking on behalf of others. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mental health literacy is associated with adults' likelihood of supporting an older relative to seek professional help for mental health concerns. Two hundred and sixty-three participants completed a measure of mental health literacy and responded to a hypothetical scenario by indicating their likelihood of supporting an older relative experiencing mental health problems to seek help from various sources. Mental health literacy was positively associated with intentions to support older relative's help-seeking. Interventions to increase the mental health literacy of the relatives of older adults may lead to additional support for older adults' help-seeking for mental health concerns.

  6. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  7. Cost Estimation of a Health-Check Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Morrison, J.; Melville, C.; Allan, L.; Finlayson, J.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High rates of health needs among adults with intellectual disabilities flag the need for information about the economic consequences of strategies to identify and address unmet needs. Health-check interventions are one such strategy, and have been demonstrated to effect health gains over the following 12-month period. However, little…

  8. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  9. Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Yawson, Alfred E; Baddoo, Akosua; Hagan-Seneadza, Nana Ayegua; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Hewlett, Sandra; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Biritwum, Richard

    2013-10-20

    Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana. This work was based on the World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons. Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher

  10. What Are Young Adults Saying About Mental Health? An Analysis of Internet Blogs

    PubMed Central

    Westra, Henny A; Eastwood, John D; Barnes, Kirsten L

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns, few young adults access treatment. While much research has focused on understanding the barriers to service access, few studies have explored unbiased accounts of the experiences of young adults with mental health concerns. It is through hearing these experiences and gaining an in-depth understanding of what is being said by young adults that improvements can be made to interventions focused on increasing access to care. Objective To move beyond past research by using an innovative qualitative research method of analyzing the blogs of young adults (18–25 years of age) with mental health concerns to understand their experiences. Methods We used an enhanced Internet search vehicle, DEVONagent, to extract Internet blogs using primary keywords related to mental health. Blogs (N = 8) were selected based on age of authors (18–25 years), gender, relevance to mental health, and recency of the entries. Blogs excerpts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and consensual qualitative research methods. Results Two core categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of the bloggers accounts: I am powerless (intrapersonal) and I am utterly alone (interpersonal). Overall, the young adult bloggers expressed significant feelings of powerlessness as a result of their mental health concerns and simultaneously felt a profound sense of loneliness, alienation, and lack of connection with others. Conclusions The present study suggests that one reason young adults do not seek care might be that they view the mental health system negatively and feel disconnected from these services. To decrease young adults’ sense of powerlessness and isolation, efforts should focus on creating and developing resources and services that allow young adults to feel connected and empowered. Through an understanding of the experiences of young adults with mental health problems, and their experiences of and attitudes toward

  11. Self-Reported Reasons for Not Receiving Mental Health Treatment in Adults With Serious Suicidal Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; Han, Beth; McKeon, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    This study examined self-reported reasons for not receiving mental health treatment among adults with past-year serious suicidal thoughts and their sociodemographic characteristics associated with these reasons. Using the 2008-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we examined 8,400 respondents aged 18 years or older who had past-year serious thoughts of suicide and did not receive mental health treatment that year. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported reasons for not receiving mental health treatment among these suicidal adults. Among adults with serious suicidal thoughts who did not receive mental health treatment in the past year, three-fourths did not feel the need for treatment. Of the one-fourth of those who felt the need for treatment, the main reason for not receiving treatment was financial (58.4%), followed by logistical reasons such as not knowing where to go (36.1%). A greater proportion of suicidal adults than nonsuicidal adults perceived more than 1 barrier to treatment (43.8% vs 34.3%). Among suicidal adults who did not receive mental health treatment that year, the odds of not feeling the need for mental health treatment were higher in men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), adults aged 50 years or older (AOR = 3.02; 95% CI, 2.02-4.51), racial and ethnic minorities (AORs = 1.59-2.13), publicly insured (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.14-2.07), and nonmetropolitan residents (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88). Most suicidal adults did not feel the need for mental health treatment. Of those who felt the need, multiple barriers were identified. A multifaceted approach to address these barriers is needed to promote receipt of mental health treatment among this vulnerable population. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Utilization of internet technology by low-income adults: the role of health literacy, health numeracy, and computer assistance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Davis, LaShara A; Guntzviller, Lisa M

    2010-09-01

    To examine whether low-income adults' utilization of Internet technology is predicted or mediated by health literacy, health numeracy, and computer assistance. Low-income adults (N = 131) from the midwestern United States were surveyed about their technology access and use. Individuals with low health literacy skills were less likely to use Internet technology (e.g., email, search engines, and online health information seeking), and those with low health numeracy skills were less likely to have access to Internet technology (e.g., computers and cell phones). Consistent with past research, males, older participants, and those with less education were less likely to search for health information online. The relationship between age and online health information seeking was mediated by participant literacy. The present study suggests that significant advances in technology access and use could be sparked by developing technology interfaces that are accessible to individuals with limited literacy skills.

  13. Mental Health Service Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Duong, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Empirical efforts to measure use of mental health services among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults have been notably lacking. Thus this study assessed associations between sexual orientation and mental health service use among older adults and determined the mediating role of nonspecific psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health. Data from the 2011 New York City Community Health Survey were analyzed. The analytic sample comprised 5,138 adults ages 50 and over. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between sexual orientation (LGB versus heterosexual) and past-year mental health service use (counseling or medication), adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping were conducted. Among LGB older adults, 23.9% reported receiving counseling, and 23.4% reported taking psychiatric medication in the past year. LGB respondents were significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have received counseling (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-3.13) and psychiatric medication (AOR=1.97, CI=1.36-2.86). Psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health did not mediate the association between sexual orientation and mental health service use. LGB older adults were more likely than heterosexuals to utilize mental health services, and this association was not explained by indicators of general medical, mental, or behavioral health.

  14. Reducing Young Adults' Health Care Spending through the ACA Expansion of Dependent Coverage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Novak, Priscilla

    2017-10-01

    To estimate health care expenditure trends among young adults ages 19-25 before and after the 2010 implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provision that extended eligibility for dependent private health insurance coverage. Nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2008 to 2012. We conducted repeated cross-sectional analyses and employed a difference-in-differences quantile regression model to estimate health care expenditure trends among young adults ages 19-25 (the treatment group) and ages 27-29 (the control group). Our results show that the treatment group had 14 percent lower overall health care expenditures and 21 percent lower out-of-pocket payments compared with the control group in 2011-2012. The overall reduction in health care expenditures among young adults ages 19-25 in years 2011-2012 was more significant at the higher end of the health care expenditure distribution. Young adults ages 19-25 had significantly higher emergency department costs at the 10th percentile in 2011-2012. Differences in the trends of costs of private health insurance and doctor visits are not statistically significant. Increased health insurance enrollment as a consequence of the ACA provision for dependent coverage has successfully reduced spending and catastrophic expenditures, providing financial protections for young adults. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judy A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

  16. Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Adult Hodgkin lymphoma treatment depends on the type (classical or nodular lymphocyte predominant) and includes chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Get comprehensive information on newly diagnosed and recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  17. Optimizing health care for adults with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Survival into adulthood for individuals with spina bifida has significantly improved over the last 40 years with the majority of patients now living as adults. Despite this growing population of adult patients who have increased medical needs compared to the general population, including spina bifida (SB)-specific care, age-related secondary disabilities, and general adult medical needs, there is little published information about the natural history of SB in adulthood. There are few published studies of medical conditions, interventions, or long-term complications in this population. This article will provide a review of the medical issues of adults with SB, highlighting areas that are different than pediatric care, and areas of needed research.

  18. Consumer health information technology in an adult public health primary care clinic: a heart health education feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gleason-Comstock, Julie A; Streater, Alicia; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Artinian, Nancy T; Timmins, Jessica; Baker, Suzanne; Joshua, Bosede; Paranjpe, Aniruddha

    2013-12-01

    To explore the feasibility and short term outcomes of using an interactive kiosk integrated into office flow to deliver health information in a primary care clinic. Fifty-one adults with BMI ≥25 were randomly assigned to use a kiosk with attached devices to receive a six-week healthy eating/weight monitoring (intervention) or general health/BP monitoring (attention-control) program. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks (post) and three month follow-up. Participants completed an average of 2.73 weekly sessions, with transportation and time given as limiting factors. They found the kiosk easy to use (97%), liked the touchscreen (94%), and would use the kiosk again (81%). Although there were no differences between groups, the 27 completing all assessments showed reduced weight (p=.02), and decreased systolic (p=.01) and diastolic BP (p<.001) at follow-up. Although healthy eating behaviors increased, the change was not statistically significant. Using a kiosk within a clinic setting is a feasible method of providing health information and self-monitoring. Multi-session educational content can provide beneficial short-term outcomes in overweight adults. A kiosk with attached peripherals in a clinic setting is a viable adjunct to provider education, particularly in medically underserved areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a Self-Directed Nutrition Intervention among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E.; Schlaff, Rebecca A.; Goldufsky, Tatum M.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are common among adults. A healthy diet may be beneficial for managing the consequences of such conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-directed nutrition program on dietary behaviors among adults with chronic health conditions. As part of a larger trial examining the effects of a self-directed…

  20. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcinow, Michelle L.; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; Whiting, Susan J.; Jung, Mary E.; Buchholz, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young…

  1. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  2. Perspectives of Young Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions on Vocational Peer Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klodnick, Vanessa V.; Sabella, Kathryn; Brenner, Christopher J.; Krzos, Izabela M.; Ellison, Marsha L.; Kaiser, Susan M.; Davis, Maryann; Fagan, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    For early emerging adults with serious mental health conditions, vocational services with peer mentors are a promising adaptation of adult system evidence-based practices. Peer mentors were added to the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment for 17- to 20-year-olds receiving residential and psychiatric care. To explore the…

  3. Attitudinal and Psychosocial Outcomes of a Fitness and Health Education Program on Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program for adults with Down syndrome were examined. Participants were 53 adults with Down syndrome ages 30 years and older (29 females, 24 males, M age = 39.72 years) who were randomized into a training (n = 32) or control group (n = 21). The training group participated in a…

  4. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  5. The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health and Social Capital. Wider Benefits of Learning Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Leon; Hammond, Cathie; Woods, Laura; Preston, John; Bynner, John

    Researchers investigated effects of adult learning (AL) on a range of measures of health and social capital and cohesion. Data from the National Child Development Study relating to almost 10,000 adults born in Britain in 1958 were used, with focus on changes in their lives between age 33 in 1991 and 42 in 2000. Findings indicated AL played an…

  6. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

  7. Transformation through Health Teaching for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focht-New, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have medical conditions similar to those among the general population but with more complex presentation, a extended life expectancy, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These adults' health education has been inadequate. In this qualitative study, the author describes the…

  8. Health Literacy and Social Capital: What Role for Adult Literacy Partnerships and Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…

  9. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  10. Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly…

  11. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  12. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  13. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  14. Health and Adult Literacy. Practice Application Brief No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    The increasing emphasis on managed health care, which requires health consumers to make complex decisions, is reinforcing the importance of literacy skills. "Health literacy," which refers to the ability to engage in such activities as health-related critical thinking, problem solving, self-directed learning, and self-advocacy, is…

  15. Perspectives on Health Care of Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Moss, Kathryn; Richman, Erica L.

    2008-01-01

    A focus group study was conducted with individuals with developmental disabilities to understand their perspectives on their health status, health promotion behaviors, and health care services they receive. The majority of participants reported good to excellent health, and all had some form of medical insurance. However, participants reported…

  16. [Special Report: Adult Education and Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayendra, T.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A series of five case studies examines (1) literacy, health, and conscientization in the Mandar region of India; (2) the training of community health workers in Indonesia; (3) the Chinese strategy combining health, political will, and participation; (4) British community-based health education programs, and (5) participatory methodology for…

  17. "That was grown folks' business": narrative reflection and response in older adults' family health history communication.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.

  18. Elder mistreatment and physical health among older adults: the South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Amstadter, Ananda B; Begle, Angela M; Hernandez, Melba; Acierno, Ron

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including interpersonal violence, is associated with poorer physical health in young adults. This relation has not been well-investigated among older adults in specific populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to PTEs and elder mistreatment are associated with physical health status among older adults residing in South Carolina. Older adults aged 60 and above (N = 902) participated in a structured interview assessing elder mistreatment history, PTEs, demographics, and social dependency variables. Results demonstrated that PTEs were associated with poor self-rated health independently and when controlling for other significant predictors. A recent history of emotional mistreatment was associated with poor self-rated health independently, but not when controlling for other significant predictors.

  19. Factors influencing the impact of oral health on the daily activities of adolescents, adults and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela; de Faria, Eduardo Tanajura; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Frias, Antonio Carlos; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Analyze if clinical, sociodemographic and access to dental services variables influence the impact of oral health on the daily activities of adolescents, adults and older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with secondary data from the State Oral Health Survey (SB São Paulo 2015) conducted in 163 cities of São Paulo. A total of 17,560 individuals from three age groups: 15–19-year-old (n = 5,558), 35–44-year-old (n = 6,051), and older people of 65 years or more (n = 5,951) participated in the survey. The selection was made by probabilistic sample by conglomerates in two stages. The endpoint variable was the impact of oral health on daily activities, evaluated by the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances questionnaire, containing questions about eating, talking, oral hygiene, relaxation, sports practice, smile, study or work, social contact, and sleep. Oral Impacts on Daily Performances was dichotomized with and without impact. The independent variables were sociodemographic, clinical and access variables, divided into three blocks. A hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was performed considering the complex sampling plan of clusters. Each observation received a specific weight, depending on the location that resulted in weighted frequencies and adjusted for the design effect. RESULTS: The presence of oral health impact was observed in 27.9% of the individuals. In block 1, female gender and black/brown ethnic group had a greater chance of impact of oral health on quality of life, as well as the adults and the older adults in relation to adolescents. In block 2, family income up to R$1,500 was associated with the presence of impact. In block 3, individuals who reported toothache, used the public service and sought dental treatment had a greater chance of impact. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic, clinical and access to health services variables influence the impact of oral health on the daily activities of adolescents, adults and

  20. The Impact of Professionally Conducted Cultural Programs on the Physical Health, Mental Health, and Social Functioning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Gene D.; Perlstein, Susan; Chapline, Jeff; Kelly, Jeanne; Firth, Kimberly M.; Simmens, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure the impact of professionally conducted community-based cultural programs on the physical health, mental health, and social activities of individuals aged 65 and older. Design and Methods: Participants in the study were 166 healthy, ambulatory older adults from the Washington, DC, area. We assigned them…

  1. Attitudes towards mental health, mental health research and digital interventions by young adults with type 1 diabetes: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Janine; Proudfoot, Judy; Vatiliotis, Veronica; Verge, Charles; Holmes-Walker, Deborah J; Campbell, Lesley; Wilhelm, Kay; Moravac, Catherine; Indu, Pillaveetil S; Bridgett, Madeleine

    2018-06-01

    Young people with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental disorders. Whereas treatment need is high, difficulty recruiting young people with type 1 diabetes into psychosocial studies complicates development, testing and dissemination of these interventions. Interviews with young adults with type 1 diabetes were conducted to examine attitudes towards mental health and mental health research, including barriers and motivators to participation in mental health studies and preferred sources of mental health support. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and evaluated via thematic analysis. Young adults with type 1 diabetes were recruited via social media channels of 3 advocacy organizations. A total of 31 young adults (26 females and 5 males) with an average age of 22 years were interviewed between October 2015 and January 2016. Participants were largely unaware of their increased vulnerability to common mental health problems and knew little about mental health research. Major barriers to participation included perceived stigma and lifestyle issues and low levels of trust in researchers. Opportunities to connect with peers and help others were described as key motivators. Psychological distress was considered normal within the context of diabetes. A need for some level of human contact in receiving psychosocial support was expressed. Findings provide valuable insights into the complex dynamics of engaging young adults with type 1 diabetes in mental health studies. Interviewees provided practical suggestions to assist investigation and delivery of psychosocial interventions for this vulnerable group. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Recollections of parental behaviour, adult attachment and mental health: mediating and moderating effects.

    PubMed

    Gittleman, M G; Klein, M H; Smider, N A; Essex, M J

    1998-11-01

    Attachment theory posits links between early experiences with parents, adult relationships and adult mental health, but does not specify whether these are independent, mediating, or moderating effects. Associations of parent's behaviour on the Parental Bonding Instrument, adult attachment styles and three dimensions of mental health were investigated in a large sample of women and men. Men and women with secure styles recalled higher levels of care from both parents than those with fearful styles. Maternal and paternal control were more consistent predictors of increased distress for men than for women. Fearful and preoccupied adult styles were associated with higher levels of distress in both men and women. While adult styles had few mediating effects on the association of parental behaviour and mental health, interactions between the fearful style and parental variables suggested that this form of insecurity sometimes accentuated the impact of high parental care or low paternal control on mental health in both men and women; among women, however, the secure style seemed to buffer somewhat the negative effect of high parental control. Although the amount of variance explained by either parental behaviour or adult styles was modest, patterns of moderating effects of adult styles on associations between parental behaviour and mental health suggested that both continuity and discontinuity principles can be applied to understanding these links.

  3. Nutritional status and its health-related factors among older adults in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To compare health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban counties of Taiwan. The older adult population of Taiwan is increasing. Furthermore, older people living in rural areas have shorter life expectancy and more chronic diseases than their urban counterparts. However, little is known about the health-related characteristics, nutrition-related factors and nutritional status of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Taiwan, limiting nurses' ability to identify and care for older adults at risk of poor nutritional health. Cross-sectional, comparative. Older adults were randomly selected from names of residents of an adjacent rural and urban area of northern Taiwan and having completing the 2009 health evaluation. From March-July 2010, older adult participants (N = 366) provided data on demographic and health-related information, nutritional self-efficacy, health locus of control and nutritional status. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and compared using chi-square and t-test. Older rural participants had significantly lower educational level, less adequate income, higher medication use, lower scores on self-rated health status and researcher-rated health status and lower self-rated healthy eating status than their urban counterparts. Moreover, rural participants had significantly lower nutritional self-efficacy, higher chance health locus of control and poorer nutritional status than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that nurses should assess older adults living in rural areas for nutritional health and nutrition knowledge. Based on this assessment, nurses should develop easy, practical and accessible nutritional programmes for this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physical Function and Health Status in Aging Puerto Rican Adults: The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Price, Lori Lyn; Noel, Sabrina E.; Midle, Jennifer Bassett; Falcon, Luis M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This article describes physical function in Puerto Rican older adults and examines associations between health status and physical function. It also assesses relationships between physical function and disability. Method This study uses a cross-sectional study of Puerto Ricans 45 to 75 years in Boston (N = 1,357). Measures included performance-based physical function (handgrip strength, walking speed, balance, chair stands, foot tapping), health conditions (obesity, diabetes, depressive symptomatology, history of heart disease, heart attack, stroke, and arthritis), and self-reported disability (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living). Results Older women (60-75 years) had the poorest physical function. Poor physical function was associated with obesity, diabetes, depression, history of heart attack, stroke, and arthritis, after adjusting for age, sex, education, income, and lifestyle (p < .05). Physical function and disability were correlated (p < .01). Discussion Health status among Puerto Ricans appears to contribute to poor physical function. Targeted interventions to improve strength, endurance, and balance are needed to combat physical frailty and its consequences in this population. PMID:20495158

  5. Defining Information Quality Into Health Websites: A Conceptual Framework of Health Website Information Quality for Educated Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua; LeRouge, Cynthia; Smith, K Jody; De Leo, Gianluca

    2017-10-06

    Today's health care environment encourages health care consumers to take an active role in managing their health. As digital natives, young educated adults do much of their health information management through the Internet and consider it a valid source of health advice. However, the quality of information on health websites is highly variable and dynamic. Little is known about the understandings and perceptions that young educated adults have garnered on the quality of information on health websites used for health care-related purposes. To fill this gap, the aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework of health website information quality with quality dimensions (ie, criteria) and associated quality drivers (ie, attributes) specified in the context of young educated adults' use of health websites for health care-related purposes. This aim was achieved by (1) identifying information quality dimensions of health websites from the perspective of young educated adults; (2) identifying the importance ratings of these quality dimensions; and (3) constructing a framework of health website information quality with quality dimensions and associated drivers specified in the context of young educated adults' use of health websites for health care-related purposes. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. Methods included semistructured group interviews and an individual quality assessment exercise grounded in visiting various websites and responding to Likert scale questions regarding the importance ratings of information quality dimensions and open-ended questions with specifying website quality drivers. Study participants included junior and senior undergraduate and graduate students in business, allied health, and public health majors. Qualitative, open-coding procedures were used to develop the conceptual framework reflecting the participants' means of assessing information quality on health websites. Five dimensions of information

  6. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Participation in productive activities and health outcomes among older adults in urban China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yawen; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris; Guo, Ping

    2014-10-01

    This study examined whether participating in productive activities was associated with better health outcomes among older adults in urban China, including analysis of potential gender differences. Using a sample of 10,016 urban Chinese adults aged 60 years or older from the 2006 Sample Survey of the Aged Population in Urban/Rural China, we regressed measures of self-rated health, functional health, and depression on productive activities (paid employment, helping with family, and volunteering), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Those who provided assistance to family members or volunteered had significantly lower levels of depression and better functional and self-rated health than their counterparts. Older adults with paid job, providing family assistance, or volunteering reported significantly lower levels of depression and better functional and self-rated health than those without those activities. However, only older men with paid employment reported significantly less depression, and the effect of family assistance on functional health also differed by gender. As research increasingly demonstrates the role of productive activities in maintaining health among older adults, our findings can help practitioners or policy makers strategically select or develop health programs to promote productive activities among older adults in urban China. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Computer use, internet access, and online health searching among Harlem adults.

    PubMed

    Cohall, Alwyn T; Nye, Andrea; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Kukafka, Rita; Dye, Bonnie; Vaughan, Roger D; Northridge, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    Computer use, Internet access, and online searching for health information were assessed toward enhancing Internet use for health promotion. Cross-sectional random digit dial landline phone survey. Eight zip codes that comprised Central Harlem/Hamilton Heights and East Harlem in New York City. Adults 18 years and older (N=646). Demographic characteristics, computer use, Internet access, and online searching for health information. Frequencies for categorical variables and means and standard deviations for continuous variables were calculated and compared with analogous findings reported in national surveys from similar time periods. Among Harlem adults, ever computer use and current Internet use were 77% and 52%, respectively. High-speed home Internet connections were somewhat lower for Harlem adults than for U.S. adults overall (43% vs. 68%). Current Internet users in Harlem were more likely to be younger, white vs. black or Hispanic, better educated, and in better self-reported health than non-current users (p<.01). Of those who reported searching online for health information, 74% sought information on medical problems and thought that information found on the Internet affected the way they eat (47%) or exercise (44%). Many Harlem adults currently use the Internet to search for health information. High-speed connections and culturally relevant materials may facilitate health information searching for underserved groups. Copyright © 2011 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  9. Hospitalization in older adults: association with multimorbidity, primary health care and private health plan.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Soares, Mariangela Uhlmann; Wachs, Louriele Soares; Volz, Pâmela Moraes; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-05-04

    Evaluate the association of multimorbidity, primary health care model and possession of a private health plan with hospitalization. A population-based cross-sectional study with 1,593 elderly individuals (60 years old or older) living in the urban area of the city of Bagé, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The outcome was hospitalization in the year preceding the interview. The multimorbidity was evaluated through two cut-off points (≥ 2 and ≥ 3). The primary health care model was defined by residence in areas covered by traditional care or by Family Health Strategy. The older adults mentioned the possession of a private health plan. We performed a gross and adjusted analysis by Poisson regression using a hierarchical model. The adjustment included demographic, socioeconomic, functional capacity disability and health services variables. The occurrence of overall and non-surgical hospitalization was 17.7% (95%CI 15.8-19.6) and 10.6% (95%CI 9.1-12.1), respectively. Older adults with multimorbidity were admitted to hospitals more often when to older adults without multimorbidity, regardless of the exhibition' form of operation. Having a private health plan increased the hospitalization by 1.71 (95%CI 1.09-2.69) times among residents in the areas of the Family Health Strategy when compared to elderly residents in traditional areas without a private health plan. The multimorbidity increased the occurrence of hospitalizations, especially non-surgical ones. Hospitalization was more frequent in older adults with private health plan and those living in Family Health Strategy areas, regardless of the presence of multiple diseases. Avaliar a associação da multimorbidade, modelo de atenção básica e posse de plano de saúde com hospitalização. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.593 idosos (60 anos ou mais) residentes na zona urbana do município de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul. O desfecho foi a hospitalização no ano anterior à entrevista. A

  10. Subjective health literacy and older adults' assessment of direct-to-consumer prescription drug ads.

    PubMed

    An, Soontae; Muturi, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are increasingly the intended target of direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads, but limited evidence exists as to how they assess the educational value of DTC ads and, more importantly, whether their assessment depends on their level of health literacy. In-person interviews of 170 older adults revealed that those with low subjective health literacy evaluated the educational value of DTC ads significantly lower than did those with high subjective health literacy. The results prompt us to pay more scholarly attention to determining how effectively DTC ads convey useful medical information, particularly to those with limited health literacy.

  11. Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems.

  12. A Public Health Approach to Addressing Arthritis in Older Adults: The Most Common Cause of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Helmick, Charles G.; Brady, Teresa J.

    2012-01-01

    Arthritis is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States owing to the aging of the population and increases in the prevalence of risk factors (e.g., obesity). Arthritis will play a large role in the health-related quality of life, functional independence, and disability of older adults in the upcoming decades. We have emphasized the role of the public health system in reducing the impact of this large and growing public health problem, and we have presented priority public health actions. PMID:22390506

  13. Ask the Right Questions: What Do Non-Caregiving Adult Children Need From Health Care Providers?

    PubMed

    Wells, Munira; Kartoz, Connie

    2018-05-01

    Extended healthy life spans are a relatively recent phenomenon that increase the amount of time families spend with older adults in non-caregiving roles. As the emphasis of health care moves to population health and health prevention, nurses caring for older adults must be knowledgeable about this family life stage. To learn more about the lived experience of non-caregiving adult children, 16 non-caregiving adult children were interviewed. The purpose of the current article is to share what needs non-caregiving adult children have from the health care system as they obtain care for themselves and accompany their parent for health care visits. Content analysis of transcribed interviews revealed three main themes: Lack of Holistic Care, Lack of Effective Communication, and Fragmented Care and Need for Better Care Management. Participants suggested interventions that are patient- and family-centered and culturally safe. Nurses can use findings from the current study to research interventions using family-centered care strategies to improve health outcomes for older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(5), 26-31.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Older Adults with Depression: The Impact of Stigma and Race

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy K.; Koeske, Gary; Rosen, Daniel; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Objective Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a significant barrier to help seeking, leading to negative attitudes about mental health treatment and deterring individuals who need services from seeking care. This study examined the impact of public stigma (negative attitudes held by the public) and internalized stigma (negative attitudes held by stigmatized individuals about themselves) on racial differences in treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors among older adults with depression. Method Random digit dialing was utilized to identify a representative sample of 248 African American and White adults older adults (over the age of 60) with depression (symptoms assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Telephone based surveys were conducted to assess their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors, and the factors that impacted these behaviors. Results Depressed older adult participants endorsed a high level of public stigma and were not likely to be currently engaged in, nor did they intend to seek mental health treatment. Results also suggested that African American older adults were more likely to internalize stigma and endorsed less positive attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment than their White counterparts. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma partially mediated the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment. Conclusion Stigma associated with having a mental illness has a negative influence on attitudes and intentions toward seeking mental health services among older adults with depression, particularly African American elders. Interventions to target internalized stigma are needed to help engage this population in psychosocial mental health treatments. PMID:20220602

  15. Remote Health Monitoring for Older Adults and Those with Heart Failure: Adherence and System Usability.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jarrett; Papadopoulos, Amy; Silvers, Christine Tsien; Charness, Neil; Boot, Walter R; Schlachta-Fairchild, Loretta; Crump, Cindy; Martinez, Michele; Ent, Carrie Beth

    2016-06-01

    Remote health monitoring technology has been suggested as part of an early intervention and prevention care model. Older adults with a chronic health condition have been shown to benefit from remote monitoring but often have challenges with complex technology. The current study reports on the usability of and adherence with an integrated, real-time monitoring system over an extended period of time by older adults with and without a chronic health condition. Older adults 55 years of age and over with and without heart failure participated in a study in which a telehealth system was used for 6 months each. The system consisted of a wireless wristwatch-based monitoring device that continuously collected temperature and motion data. Other health information was collected daily using a weight scale, blood pressure cuff, and tablet that participants used for health surveys. Data were automatically analyzed and summarized by the system and presented to study nurses. Forty-one older adults participated. Seventy-one percent of surveys, 75% of blood pressure readings, and 81% of daily weight measurements were taken. Participants wore the watch monitor 77% of the overall 24/7 time requested. The weight scale had the highest usability rating in both groups. The groups did not otherwise differ on device usage. The findings indicate that a health monitoring system designed for older adults can and will be used for an extended period of time and may help older adults with chronic conditions reside longer in their own homes in partnership with the healthcare system.

  16. Healthy urban living: Residential environment and health of older adults in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yafei; Dijst, Martin; Faber, Jan; Geertman, Stan; Cui, Can

    2017-09-01

    A healthy residential environment, especially for older adults, has emerged as an important issue on political and planning agenda in China. This paper aims to investigate the direct and indirect impact of residential environment on the health of older adults in Shanghai, taking into account health-related behaviours, subjective well-being and socio-demographic factors in one comprehensive conceptual model. Our results show that the residential environment is associated with older adults' health directly, and also indirectly through a series of significant behavioural (physical and social activities) and perceptual (subjective well-being) factors. After combining the direct and indirect association, the results show that good housing and neighbourhood quality and a safe social environment contribute to better subjective, physical and mental health conditions of older adults. In addition, access to cultural facilities is positively related to older adults' mental and physical health and subjective well-being, while a higher proportion of older adults in a neighbourhood appears to promote physical and social activities but not health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  18. Self-stigma and its associations with stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction in adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; Fearon, Alison N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential relationships between self-stigma (stigma awareness and stigma application) and stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction among a large sample of adults who stutter. It was hypothesized that both stigma awareness and stigma application would be inversely related to measures of physical health and health care satisfaction, and positively related to stress. Furthermore, it was anticipated that stress mediated the relationship between self-stigma and physical health. A sample of adults who stutter in the United States (n=397) completed a web survey that assessed levels of stigma awareness and stigma application, stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction. Correlational analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between these variables. Higher levels of stigma awareness and stigma application were associated with increased stress, decreased overall physical health, and decreased health care satisfaction (i.e., discomfort obtaining health care due to stuttering, and adverse health care outcomes due to stuttering), and these relationships were statistically significant. Stress was identified as a mediator between stigma application and physical health. Because adults who stutter with higher levels of self-stigma are at risk for decreased physical health through increased stress, and lower satisfaction with their health care experiences as a result of stuttering, it is important for professionals to assess and manage self-stigma in clients who stutter. Self-stigma has implications for not only psychological well-being, but stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult pertussis is unrecognized public health problem in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siriyakorn, Nirada; Leethong, Pornvimol; Tantawichien, Terapong; Sripakdee, Saowalak; Kerdsin, Anusak; Dejsirilert, Surang; Paitoonpong, Leilani

    2016-01-25

    Although pertussis has been considered a disease of childhood, it is also recognized as an important respiratory tract infection in adolescents and adults. However, in countries with routine vaccination against pertussis with high coverage, pertussis is not usually taken into consideration for the etiology of prolonged cough in adults. Previous studies in a variety of populations in developed countries have documented that pertussis is quite common, ranging from 2.9 to 32% of adolescents and adults with prolonged cough. The anticipation and early recognition of this change in the epidemiology is important because the affected adolescents and adults act as reservoirs of the disease and source of infection to the vulnerable population of infants, for whom the disease can be life threatening. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of pertussis in Thai adults with prolonged cough. Seventy-six adult patients with a cough lasting for more than 2 weeks (range, 14-180 days) were included in the present study. The data regarding medical history and physical examination were carefully analyzed. Nasopharyngeal swabs from all patients were obtained for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid of Bordetella pertussis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Paired serum samples were collected and tested for IgG antibody against pertussis toxin by using an ELISA method. Of 76 adult patients, 14 patients (18.4%) with the mean age of 59 (range, 28-85) years and the mean duration of cough of 34 (range, 14-120) days had laboratory evidence of acute pertussis infection. One patient was diagnosed by the PCR method, while the rest had serological diagnosis. Whooping cough is a significantly associated symptom of patients with chronic cough who had laboratory evidence of pertussis. (p < .05, odds ratio 3.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 14.06) CONCLUSION: Pertussis is being increasingly recognized as a cause of prolonged, distressing cough among adults in

  20. Oral health literacy and information sources among adults in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sistani, M M Naghibi; Yazdani, R; Virtanen, J; Pakdaman, A; Murtomaa, H

    2013-09-01

    To assess oral health literacy level and oral health information of Iranian adults in Tehran, and to determine the factors related to oral health literacy. A cross-sectional population study. A random sample of 1,031 adults in Tehran, Iran. Oral health literacy was measured using an oral health adult literacy questionnaire (OHL-AQ). Variation in use of information sources by socio-economic and demographic background was estimated by odds ratios. A multiple linear regression model served to determine predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores controlling for characteristics of the subjects and number of information sources. The mean OHL-AQ score was 10.5 (sd 3.0). Women (p < 0.001), younger (p < 0.001), and better educated participants (p < 0.001) had higher OHL-AQ scores. The most common sources of oral health information were dentists (52.6%), and TV/Radio (49.5%). According to the regression model, females (p = 0.001), high educational level (p < 0.001), and use of multiple information sources (two sources p = 0.01, three sources or more p = 0.002) were the main predictor factors of OHL-AQ scores. The average oral health literacy level of Iranian adults was low. Disseminating evidence-based oral health care information from multiple sources including TV/radio, dentists, and other health professionals in different settings should improve public oral health literacy.

  1. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  2. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need

  3. Drug Therapy for Gender Transitions and Health Screenings in Transgender Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Rebecca J; Bailey, Trista Askins; Bibb, Teryn J; Fenney, Megan; Williams, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Transgender medicine is a relatively new field in health care, with only a small amount of evidence-based literature available for reference. This is especially true for the older adult population, for whom most information must be extrapolated from younger adults. Be it a newly transitioned older adult or a transgendered individual who has been undergoing hormonal therapy for many years, it is important that healthcare professionals be aware of the significant effects that transgender pharmacotherapy can have on older adults. Healthcare providers must also recommend appropriate preventative screenings to transgendered persons. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: relationships between dental attendance patterns, oral health behaviour and the current barriers to dental care.

    PubMed

    Hill, K B; Chadwick, B; Freeman, R; O'Sullivan, I; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    The importance of understanding barriers to dental attendance of adults in the UK was acknowledged in the first Adult Dental Health Survey in 1968 and has been investigated in all subsequent ADH surveys. In 1968, approximately 40% of dentate adults said they attended for a regular check-up; by 2009 this was 61%. Attendance patterns were associated with greater frequency of toothbrushing, use of additional dental hygiene products, lower plaque and calculus levels. Just under three-fifths of adults said they had tried to make an NHS dental appointment in the previous five years. The vast majority (92%) successfully received and attended an appointment, while a further 1% received an appointment but did not attend. The remaining 7% of adults were unable to make an appointment with an NHS dentist. The majority of adults were positive about their last visit to the dentist, with 80% of adults giving no negative feedback about their last dentist visit. Cost and anxiety were important barriers to care. Twenty-six percent of adults said the type of treatment they had opted for in the past had been affected by the cost and 19% said they had delayed dental treatment for the same reason. The 2009 survey data demonstrated a relationship between dental anxiety and dental attendance. Adults with extreme dental anxiety were more likely to attend only when they had trouble with their teeth (22%) than for a regular check-up.

  5. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire (OHL-AQ).

    PubMed

    Vyas, Shaleen; Nagarajappa, Sandesh; Dasar, Pralhad L; Mishra, Prashant

    2016-10-01

    Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013), consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire - Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation back-translation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015) and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. The mean OHL-AQ-H score was 13.58±2.82. ICC and Cronbach's alpha for Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire - Hindi Version were 0.94 and 0.70, respectively. Comparisons of varying

  6. Health Care Coverage and Access Among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults, 2010-2016: Implications for Future Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Donna L; McManus, Margaret; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Turner, Joanna; Harwood, Christopher; White, Patience; Alarcon, Giovann

    2018-06-01

    We examine changes to health insurance coverage and access to health care among children, adolescents, and young adults since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Using the National Health Interview Survey, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare coverage and access among children, young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults between 2010 and 2016. We show significant improvements in coverage among children, adolescents, and young adults since 2010. We also find some gains in access during this time, particularly reductions in delayed care due to cost. While we observe few age-group differences in overall trends in coverage and access, our analysis reveals an age-gradient pattern, with incrementally worse coverage and access rates for young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults. Prior analyses often group adolescents with younger children, masking important distinctions. Future reforms should consider the increased coverage and access risks of adolescents and young adults, recognizing that approximately 40% are low income, over a third live in the South, where many states have not expanded Medicaid, and over 15% have compromised health. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Lau, Josephine S; Adams, Sally H; Boscardin, W John; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    To examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the Affordable Care Act. We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to (1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and (2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other sociodemographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Young adults had (1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83%-88%, p < .001), (2) the lowest rate of office-based utilization (55% vs. 67%-77%, p < .001) and (3) higher rate of emergency room visits compared with adolescents (15% vs. 12%, p < .01). Uninsured young adults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared with the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/person, p < .001) but essentially the same out-of-pocket expenses ($403 vs. $380/person, p = .57). Among young adults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language, and sex. Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of emergency room visits. The Affordable Care Act provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address noninsurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproductive Health-Care Utilization of Young Adults Insured as Dependents.

    PubMed

    Andrasfay, Theresa

    2018-05-01

    The common practice of sending an explanation of benefits to policyholders may inadvertently disclose sensitive services to the parents of dependents, making confidentiality a potential barrier to reproductive health care. This study compares the reproductive health-care utilization of young adult dependents and young adult policyholders using nationally representative data collected after full implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Data from 2,108 young adults aged 18-25 years in the 2015 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed. Logistic regressions predicted utilization of two preventive services (general doctor visit and flu vaccination) and four reproductive health services (HIV testing, obstetrician/gynecologist visit, hormonal contraceptive use, and Pap testing) from the insurance type of the young adult (dependent, privately insured policyholder, or Medicaid). In unadjusted analyses, young adult dependents had lower utilization of HIV tests than their peers who were privately insured or Medicaid policyholders. Young women dependents had lower utilization of Pap tests than young women on Medicaid. Once controls were included, young adult dependents did not have significantly lower odds of obtaining reproductive health care than privately insured policyholders. Dependent young men still had marginally lower odds of ever having an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio = .65, p = .08) and dependent young women still had marginally lower odds of ever having a Pap test (adjusted odds ratio = .58, p = .06) than comparable Medicaid policyholders. Despite confidentiality concerns, young adults insured as dependents have utilization of several reproductive health services similar to that of comparable young adult policyholders. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Similarities and Differences for e-Health Behaviors Among U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Cam

    2018-05-01

    Technology access and use are increasing worldwide. Adults can potentially use technology to assist with health promotion and medical care. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of participation in online health-related activities between different genders of U.S. adults aged 18-90 years. Primary data collected through a survey panel were used to examine associations between gender and technology ownership, Internet health-seeking behaviors and online behaviors related to health, having an app, and preferences for health information. Data were collected through an online survey panel of U.S. adults (n = 400) in March 2017. Results and Materials: Almost 75% had ever looked for health information and 56.8% had searched for information in the past month. About one-third of both genders (34.1%) reported tracking any health indicator regularly, and 24% had a health app. Compared with males, females were more likely to have ever sought health information online and to have a mobile app for health. No significant differences were observed between gender and individual or total e-health literacy scores. The top three preferences for health sources were Web sites (81.3%), in person (72.0%), and then print materials (72.0%). This study illustrates that U.S. adults are using the Internet for health activities; however, females are more likely to engage in different e-health behaviors than males. Additional research could determine the causal factors behind these group differences in the use of online healthcare and health implications in public health practice for each group.

  10. Work and Health of Parents of Adult Children with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of work schedule flexibility and the spillover of work stress to family life on the health of parents of adult children with serious mental illness (SMI). We compared 100 parents of adult children with SMI to 500 parents with nondisabled adult children using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The detrimental impact on health of a lack of work flexibility and of higher levels of negative work-to-family spillover were more pronounced among parents of adult children with SMI than parents with non-disabled adult children. The results have significant implications for developing interventions to help midlife families of persons with SMI cope with work-related stress and for policies that provide for greater work schedule flexibility. PMID:24489424

  11. Work and Health of Parents of Adult Children with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effects of work schedule flexibility and the spillover of work stress to family life on the health of parents of adult children with serious mental illness (SMI). We compared 100 parents of adult children with SMI to 500 parents with nondisabled adult children using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The detrimental impact on health of a lack of work flexibility and of higher levels of negative work-to-family spillover were more pronounced among parents of adult children with SMI than parents with non-disabled adult children. The results have significant implications for developing interventions to help midlife families of persons with SMI cope with work-related stress and for policies that provide for greater work schedule flexibility.

  12. Self-Rated Health among Adult Women of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Hernandez-Valero, Maria A.; Etzel, Carol J.; Barcenas, Carlos H.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Strom, Sara S.

    2006-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH), a consistent predictor of mortality among diverse populations, is sensitive to health indicators and social factors. American-born Hispanics report better SRH than their foreign-born counterparts but simultaneously report poorer health indicators and have shorter life expectancy. Using a matched prospective cross-sectional…

  13. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  14. Is It Really Worse to Have Public Health Insurance than to Have No Insurance at All? Health Insurance and Adult Health in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2004-01-01

    Using prospective cohort data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the extent to which health insurance coverage and the source of that coverage affect adult health. While previous research has shown that privately insured nonelderly individuals enjoy better health outcomes than their uninsured counterparts, the…

  15. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression.

  16. Impact of health literacy on depressive symptoms and mental health-related: quality of life among adults with addiction.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Alisa; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Cheng, Debbie M; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Caruso, Christine; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Health literacy has been linked to health status in a variety of chronic diseases. However, evidence for a relationship between health literacy and mental health outcomes is sparse. We hypothesized that low literacy would be associated with higher addiction severity, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and worse mental health functioning compared with those with higher literacy in adults with alcohol and drug dependence. The association of literacy with multiple mental health outcomes was assessed using multivariable analyses. Measurement instruments included the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, the Mental Component Summary scale of the Short Form Health Survey, and the Addiction Severity Index for drug and alcohol addiction. Subjects included 380 adults recruited during detoxification treatment and followed prospectively at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Based on the REALM, subjects were classified as having either low (< or = 8th grade) or higher (> or = 9th grade) literacy levels. In longitudinal analyses, low literacy was associated with more depressive symptoms. The adjusted mean difference in CES-D scores between low and high literacy levels was 4 (P<.01). Literacy was not significantly associated with mental health-related quality of life or addiction severity. In people with alcohol and drug dependence, low literacy is associated with worse depressive symptoms. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between literacy and mental health outcomes should be explored to inform future intervention efforts.

  17. A Multi-faceted Approach to Promote Comprehension of Online Health Information Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jessie; Moeller, Darcie D; Johnson, Jessica; Duwe, Elise A G; Graumlich, James F; Murray, Michael D; Morrow, Daniel G

    2017-03-10

    Older adults' self-care often depends on understanding and utilizing health information. Inadequate health literacy among older adults poses a barrier to self-care because it hampers comprehension of this information, particularly when the information is not well-designed. Our goal was to improve comprehension of online health information among older adults with hypertension who varied in health literacy abilities. We identified passages about hypertension self-care from credible websites (typical passages). We used a multi-faceted approach to redesign these passages, revising their content, language, organization and format (revised passages). Older participants read both versions of the passages at their own pace. After each passage, they summarized the passage and then answered questions about the passage. Participants better remembered the revised than the typical passages, summarizing the passages more accurately and uptaking information more efficiently (less reading time needed per unit of information remembered). The benefits for reading efficiency were greater for older adults with more health knowledge, suggesting knowledge facilitated comprehension of information in the revised passages. A systematic, multi-faceted approach to designing health documents can promote online learning among older adults with diverse health literacy abilities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Functional health status of adults with tetralogy of Fallot: matched comparison with healthy siblings.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Rachel; Veldtman, Gruschen; Hickey, Edward J; Bradley, Timothy; Gengsakul, Aungkana; Webb, Gary D; Williams, William G; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-07-01

    Survival prospects for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are now excellent. Attention should therefore shift to assessing and improving functional health status and quality of life. We aimed to assess late functional health status of adults surviving TOF repair by matched comparison to their healthy siblings. All 1,693 TOF repairs performed at our institution between 1946 and 1990 were reviewed. A matched comparison was undertaken whereby presumed survivors and their healthy sibling were contacted and asked to complete the Ontario Health Survey 1990 and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Both questionnaires were completed by 224 adult survivors and their sibling closest in age. Adults with repaired TOF had lower scores for self-perceived general health status (p < 0.001), were less likely to rate their health as good or excellent (p < 0.001), and had lower SF-36 scores for physical functioning and general health (p = 0.001) than their siblings. However, patients reported similar satisfaction with their lives, similar levels of social participation and support, and were as likely to be in long-term partnerships. Worse physical and mental health scores were associated with older age at surgery and at time of questionnaire completion and recent requirement for noncardiac medication. Although reporting lower functional health status then their siblings, quality of life and life satisfaction for adults who underwent surgery for TOF during childhood is comparable to that of their siblings without heart defects. Follow-up of younger adults is required to understand current health outcomes attributable to improvements in the management of TOF. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cigarette Smoking, Desire to Quit, and Tobacco-Related Counseling Among Patients at Adult Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Fiore, Michael C.; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined cigarette smoking prevalence, desire to quit, and tobacco-related counseling among a national sample of patients at health centers. Methods. Data came from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey and the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample included 3949 adult patients at health centers and 27 731 US adults. Results. Thirty-one percent of health center patients were current smokers, compared with 21% of US adults in general. Among currently smoking health center patients, 83% desired to quit and 68% received tobacco counseling. In multivariable models, patients had higher adjusted odds of wanting to quit if they had indications of severe mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 8.97) and lower odds if they had health insurance (AOR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.86). Patients had higher odds of receiving counseling if they had 2 or more chronic conditions (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.11, 3.78) and lower odds if they were Hispanic (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96). Conclusions. Cigarette smoking prevalence is substantially higher among patients at health centers than US adults in general. However, most smokers at health centers desire to quit. Continued efforts are warranted to reduce tobacco use in this vulnerable group. PMID:24625147

  20. Gender and Health Behavior Clustering among U.S. Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Hummer, Robert A; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2017-01-01

    U.S. trends in population health suggest alarming disparities among young adults, who are less healthy across most measureable domains than their counterparts in other high-income countries; these international comparisons are particularly troubling for women. To deepen our understanding of gender disparities in health and underlying behavioral contributions, we document gender-specific clusters of health behavior among U.S. young adults using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We find high levels of poor health behavior, but especially among men; 40 percent of men clustered into a group characterized by unhealthy behavior (e.g., poor diet, no exercise, substance use), compared to only 22 percent of women. Additionally, women tend to age out of unhealthy behaviors in young adulthood more than men. Further, we uncover gender differences in the extent to which sociodemographic position and adolescent contexts inform health behavior clustering. For example, college education was more protective for men, whereas marital status was equally protective across gender. Parental drinking mattered for health behavior clustering among men, whereas peer drinking mattered for clustering among women. We discuss these results in the context of declining female advantage in U.S. health and changing young adult social and health contexts.

  1. Training meals on wheels volunteers as health literacy coaches for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald L; Freimuth, Vicki S; Johnson, Sharon D; Kaley, Terry; Parmer, John

    2014-05-01

    Homebound older adults constitute a "hardly reached" population with respect to health communication. Older adults also typically suffer from health literacy challenges, which put them at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Suboptimal interactions with providers are one such challenge. Interventions to improve interactive health literacy focus on training consumers/patients in question preparation and asking. Meals on Wheels volunteers are uniquely suited to coach their clients in such interaction strategies. Seventy-three Meals on Wheels volunteers participated in workshops to train as health literacy coaches. The 3- to 4-hour workshops included units on communicating with older adults, on the nature of health literacy, and on the process of interactive health literacy coaching. Participants viewed and discussed videos that modeled the targeted communication behaviors for older adult patients interacting with physicians. They role-played the coaching process. After 9 months, coaches participated in a "booster" session that included videos of ideal coaching practices. Evaluation questionnaires revealed that participants had favorable reactions to the workshops with respect to utility and interest. They especially appreciated learning communication skills and seeing realistic videos. A measure of knowledge about the workshop material revealed a significant increment at posttest. Fidelity of coaching practices with respect to workshop curriculum was confirmed. This training in interactive health literacy for community-based lay volunteers constitutes one way to implement the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy for one "hardly reached" population. An online tool kit containing all workshop materials is available.

  2. Childhood Abuse and Current Health Problems among Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Medley, Amanda N.; Kendall – Tackett, Kathleen; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Child abuse has negative consequences on health functioning and the self-concept. Prior studies have garnered support for these relationships in younger adults; yet few studies have looked at the effects of abuse on health in older adults and the psychosocial variables, specifically self-efficacy, that may influence the abuse-health relationship. Methods Data obtained from the Physical Health and Disability Study were used to explore the impact of child abuse on current medical problems among older adults who were screened on physical disability status (N=1396, Mean age = 67, SD = 10.2). The study was conducted in South Florida and employed a multiethnic sample that is representative of the general population in this area. Results Child abuse was associated with the number of current medical problems and disability. Child abuse was also related to lower self-efficacy, and self-efficacy explained the relationship between abuse and the number of health problems. Conclusions There are far reaching effects of child abuse on older adults' health and self-concept. Health care providers and gerontologists need to be aware that child abuse is a life-long risk factor for increased disability and specific health problems, especially among the elderly. Future research should examine treatments designed to increase self-efficacy, especially among those who experienced child abuse, and observe any positive effects on health functioning. PMID:21922052

  3. Gender and Health Behavior Clustering among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Hummer, Robert A.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-01

    U.S. trends in population health suggest alarming disparities among young adults who are less healthy across most measureable domains than their counterparts in other high-income countries; these international comparisons are particularly troubling for women. To deepen our understanding of gender disparities in health and underlying behavioral contributions, we document gender-specific clusters of health behavior among U.S. young adults using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We find high levels of poor health behavior, but especially among men; 40 percent of men clustered into a group characterized by unhealthy behavior (e.g., poor diet, no exercise, substance use), compared to only 22 percent of women. Additionally, women tend to age out of unhealthy behaviors in young adulthood more than men. Further, we uncover gender differences in the extent to which sociodemographic position and adolescent contexts inform health behavior clustering. For example, college education was more protective for men, whereas marital status was equally protective across gender. Parental drinking mattered for health behavior clustering among men, whereas peer drinking mattered for clustering among women. We discuss these results in the context of declining female advantage in U.S. health and changing young adult social and health contexts. PMID:28287308

  4. Cigarette Smoking, Desire to Quit, and Tobacco-Related Counseling Among Patients at Adult Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Fiore, Michael C; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined cigarette smoking prevalence, desire to quit, and tobacco-related counseling among a national sample of patients at health centers. Methods. Data came from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey and the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample included 3949 adult patients at health centers and 27 731 US adults. Results. Thirty-one percent of health center patients were current smokers, compared with 21% of US adults in general. Among currently smoking health center patients, 83% desired to quit and 68% received tobacco counseling. In multivariable models, patients had higher adjusted odds of wanting to quit if they had indications of severe mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 8.97) and lower odds if they had health insurance (AOR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.86). Patients had higher odds of receiving counseling if they had 2 or more chronic conditions (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.11, 3.78) and lower odds if they were Hispanic (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96). Conclusions. Cigarette smoking prevalence is substantially higher among patients at health centers than US adults in general. However, most smokers at health centers desire to quit. Continued efforts are warranted to reduce tobacco use in this vulnerable group.

  5. Behavioral health services utilization among older adults identified within a state abuse hotline database.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G; Stiles, Paul G

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims data for two groups of older adults: those using health services and identified within a statewide abuse hotline information system and those claimants not identified within the hotline database. Behavioral health service use was greater among those identified in the abuse hotline database. The penetration rate (percentage of service users out of all enrollees) for Medicaid behavioral health service claims was more than twice that of other service users, with costs of services about 30% greater. Analyses of Medicare data revealed that the penetration rate for those in the hotline data was almost 6 times greater at approximately twice the cost compared to other service users. The results provide evidence for previous assumptions that mistreated individuals experience a higher rate of behavioral health disorders. As mental health screening by adult protective services is rarely conducted, the results suggest the need to train investigators and other service providers to screen older adults for behavioral health and substance-abuse issues as well as physical signs of abuse. Further research on the relationship of abuse to behavioral health might focus on collection of additional data involving more specific victim-related characteristics and comparisons of cases of mistreatment versus self-neglect.

  6. The Role of Internal Health Locus of Control in Relation to Self-Rated Health in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anao; Jang, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined how internal health locus of control is associated with older adults' self-rated health. Multivariate analyses with older participants (aged ≥ 60) in the MIDUS II (n = 1,533) showed that internal health locus of control was not only directly associated with positive ratings of health but also interacted with gender and race. The positive impact of internal health locus of control on self-rated health was particularly greater in females and Whites than their counterparts. Findings highlight the important role of internal health locus of control in the psychological mechanism of health and call attention to group-specific strategies for health promotion.

  7. Comparison of health-promoting behaviors of noninstitutionalized and institutionalized older adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Jeon, Eun-Young; Sok, Sohyune R; Kim, Kwuy-Bun

    2006-01-01

    To compare the health-promoting behaviors of noninstitutionalized and institutionalized Korean older adults. Descriptive survey. The study sample included 214 Korean older adults (108 noninstitutionalized and 106 institutionalized) aged 65 years or over living in Seoul and Daegu, Korea. Data were collected from April to August, 2003. Measures were the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The average scores for HPLP, self-esteem, and self-efficacy of noninstitutionalized older adults were higher than those of institutionalized participants. Noninstitutionalized participants also scored significantly higher than did the institutionalized participants on self-esteem and self-efficacy. Studies were focused on the effects of various nursing interventions for health promotion are needed for older adults, especially those in institutions.

  8. Cigarette smoking and adverse health outcomes among adults receiving federal housing assistance☆

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Veronica E.; King, Brian A.; Ashley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is higher among low-income adults and individuals who reside in federally assisted housing are particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. This study assessed smoking-related behaviors and health outcomes among U.S. adults who received federal housing assistance during 2006–2012. National Health Interview Survey data linked with administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development were analyzed; 5218 HUD-assisted adults were assessed. Demographic characteristics associated with smoking, including frequency and consumption, were assessed among adult cigarette smokers. Fourteen adverse health outcomes were examined among cigarette smoking and nonsmoking adults. One-third (33.6%) of HUD-assisted adults were current cigarette smokers. Smoking prevalence was highest among adults aged 25–44 (42.5%), non-Hispanic whites (39.5%), and adults who resided in households with children (37.5%). Half attempted to quit in the past year; 82.1% were daily smokers; and, 35.8% of daily smokers reported smoking 20+ cigarettes a day. Multivariable analyses revealed that compared to nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had increased likelihood of reporting fair or poor health (95% CI: 1.04–1.52), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CI: 1.87–3.06), disability (CI: 1.25–1.83), asthma (CI: 1.02–1.55), serious psychological distress (CI: 1.39–2.52), >1 emergency room visit in the past year (CI: 1.09–1.56), and ≥10 work loss days in the past year (CI: 1.15–3.06). Adults who receive housing assistance represent an at-risk population for adverse health outcomes associated with smoking and secondhand smoke. Housing assistance programs provide a valuable platform for the implementation of evidence-based tobacco prevention and control measures, including smokefree policies. PMID:28192095

  9. Calcium and vitamin D for bone health in adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The calcium intake requirement is challenging to determine, and the IOM recommendations are based largely on calcium balance studies. The IOM recommends a calcium intake of 1000-1200 mg per day for older adults to support the preservation of bone mass. Food sources of calcium are preferred because h...

  10. Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Adult Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) can be cured in over 75% of new cases with combination chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Subtypes include classical HL (nodular sclerosis mixed-cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich) and nodular lymphocyte–predominant HL. Get comprehensive information on HL and treatment in this clinician summary.

  11. HEALTH EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE EXPOSURE IN VIGOROUSLY EXERCISING ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the analysis was to examine the association of changes in ambient ozone concentrations with changes in the pulmonary function (PFT) of healthy adults after exercising vigorously outdoors. During May-October, 1981, 24 community residents (men and women) ran three mi...

  12. The Silence of Our Science: Nursing Research on LGBT Older Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults have been largely invisible within health and aging services research, despite being disproportionately burdened by poor health and aging outcomes. The current study examines the prevalence of LGBT aging and older adult health-related studies in the 2010-2014 nursing literature, and how this topic is being addressed. Systematic CINAHL and PubMed searches were conducted and compared to (a) quantify the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related scholarship in nursing research; (b) document the appearance of relevant publications in top nursing journals; (c) identify the focus of articles with a substantive focus on LGBT older adult health or aging; and (d) compare the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related literature in nursing, gerontology, medicine, and social work. Findings indicate that research explicitly including LGBT older adults is lacking across the health sciences, particularly in nursing (where it has been largely absent). Implications for nursing research, practice, and education are discussed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Behavioral health needs and problem recognition by older adults receiving home-based aging services.

    PubMed

    Gum, Amber M; Petkus, Andrew; McDougal, Sarah J; Present, Melanie; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2009-04-01

    Older adults' recognition of a behavioral health need is one of the strongest predictors of their use of behavioral health services. Thus, study aims were to examine behavioral health problems in a sample of older adults receiving home-based aging services, their recognition of behavioral health problems, and covariates of problem recognition. The study design was cross-sectional. Older adults (n = 141) receiving home-based aging services completed interviews that included: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; Brief Symptom Inventory-18; attitudinal scales of stigma, expectations regarding aging, and thought suppression; behavioral health treatment experience; and questions about recognition of behavioral health problems. Thirty (21.9%) participants received an Axis I diagnosis (depressive, anxiety, or substance); another 17 (12.1%) were diagnosed with an adjustment disorder. Participants were more likely to recognize having a problem if they had an Axis I diagnosis, more distress on the BSI-18, family member or friend with a behavioral health problem, and greater thought suppression. In logistic regression, participants who identified a family member or friend with a behavioral health problem were more likely to identify having a behavioral health problem themselves. Findings suggest that older adults receiving home-based aging services who recognize behavioral health problems are more likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis or be experiencing significant distress, and they are more familiar with behavioral health problems in others. This familiarity may facilitate treatment planning; thus, older adults with behavioral health problems who do not report familiarity of problems in others likely require additional education. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Internet Usage by Low-Literacy Adults Seeking Health Information: An Observational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Birru, Mehret S; Monaco, Valerie M; Charles, Lonelyss; Drew, Hadiya; Njie, Valerie; Bierria, Timothy; Detlefsen, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Background Adults with low literacy may encounter informational obstacles on the Internet when searching for health information, in part because most health Web sites require at least a high-school reading proficiency for optimal access. Objective The purpose of this study was to 1) determine how low-literacy adults independently access and evaluate health information on the Internet, 2) identify challenges and areas of proficiency in the Internet-searching skills of low-literacy adults. Methods Subjects (n=8) were enrolled in a reading assistance program at Bidwell Training Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and read at a 3rd to 8th grade level. Subjects conducted self-directed Internet searches for designated health topics while utilizing a think-aloud protocol. Subjects' keystrokes and comments were recorded using Camtasia Studio screen-capture software. The search terms used to find health information, the amount of time spent on each Web site, the number of Web sites accessed, the reading level of Web sites accessed, and the responses of subjects to questionnaires were assessed. Results Subjects collectively answered 8 out of 24 questions correctly. Seven out of 8 subjects selected "sponsored sites"-paid Web advertisements-over search engine-generated links when answering health questions. On average, subjects accessed health Web sites written at or above a 10th grade reading level. Standard methodologies used for measuring health literacy and for promoting subjects to verbalize responses to Web-site form and content had limited utility in this population. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Web health information requires a reading level that prohibits optimal access by some low-literacy adults. These results highlight the low-literacy adult population as a potential audience for Web health information, and indicate some areas of difficulty that these individuals face when using the Internet and health Web sites to find information on specific health topics. PMID

  15. Ethnic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adults in London, England.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, R; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Gallagher, J E; Bernabé, E

    2017-06-01

    To explore ethnic disparities in oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) among adults, and the role that socioeconomic factors play in that association. Data from 705 adults from a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London (England) were analysed for this study. Ethnicity was self-assigned based on the 2001 UK Census categories. OHQoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which provides information on the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts on quality of life in the previous 12 months. Ethnic disparities were assessed in logistic regression models for prevalence of oral impacts and negative binomial regression models for extent and intensity of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 12.7% (95% CI: 10.2-15.1) and the mean OHIP-14 extent and severity scores were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34) and 4.19 (95% CI: 3.74-4.64), respectively. Black adults showed greater and Asian adults lower prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts than White adults. However, significant differences were only found for the extent of oral impacts; Black adults reporting more and Asian adults fewer OHIP-14 items affected than their White counterparts. After adjustments for socioeconomic factors, Asian adults had significantly fewer OHIP-14 items affected than White adults (rate ratio: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.08-0.94). This study found disparities in OHQoL between the three main ethnic groups in South East London. Asian adults had better and Black adults had similar OHQoL than White adults after accounting for demographic and social factors. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  16. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  17. Young Adults' Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Prior to the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Boscardin, W. John; Irwin, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the ACA. Methods We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to 1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and 2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other socio-demographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Results Young adults had: 1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83-88%, P<.001) and 2), the lowest rate of office-based utilization (55% vs. 67-77%, P<.001) and higher rate of ER visits compared to adolescents (15% v. 12%, P<.01). Uninsured young adults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared to the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/ person, P<.001), but essentially the same out-of-pocket expenses ($403 vs. $380/person, p =.57). Among young adults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language and sex. Conclusions Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of ER visits. The ACA provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address non-insurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. PMID:24702839

  18. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18–35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  19. Exercise: Benefits for Body and Mind. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This teaching guide is part of a series of materials developed, with input from adult learners, to aid adult literacy teachers in incorporating health education into the curriculum. This guide aims to help teachers to provide adult students with information about good fitness habits and positive health behaviors that will substantially reduce the…

  20. The Role of the Adult Educator in Helping Learners Access and Select Quality Health Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Melissa; Grabowsky, Adelia

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, 45 percent of American adults had used the Internet to search for health information. However, according to a 2009 report, the number had increased to 71 percent of adults ages thirty to forty-nine and 46 percent of those 50 and older who had sought health information online. While the number of adults using the Internet to search for…

  1. Daily Health Symptoms of Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome and Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    Health symptoms of mothers of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 112) were compared to a nationally-representative sample of mothers of similarly-aged children without disabilities (n = 230) as well as to a sample of mothers of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 96). Health symptoms experienced in…

  2. Female-to-male transmasculine adult health: a mixed-methods community-based needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Gamarel, Kristi E; Dunham, Emilia; Hopwood, Ruben; Hwahng, Sel

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of health research about transgender people. This mixed-methods study sought to formatively investigate the health and perceived health needs of female-to-male transmasculine adults. A cross-sectional quantitative needs assessment (n = 73) and qualitative open-ended input (n = 19) were conducted in June 2011. A latent class analysis modeled six binary health indicators (depression, alcohol use, current smoking, asthma, physical inactivity, overweight status) to identify clusters of presenting health issues. Four clusters of health indicators emerged: (a) depression; (b) syndemic (all indicators); (c) alcohol use, overweight status; and (d) smoking, physical inactivity, overweight status. Transphobic discrimination in health care and avoiding care were each associated with membership in the syndemic class. Qualitative themes included personal health care needs, community needs, and resilience and protective factors. Findings fill an important gap about the health of transmasculine communities, including the need for public health efforts that holistically address concomitant health concerns.

  3. Characteristics of Adults Seeking Health Care Provider Support Facilitated by Mobile Technology: Secondary Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bosak, Kelly; Park, Shin Hye

    2017-12-21

    Mobile health technology is rapidly evolving with the potential to transform health care. Self-management of health facilitated by mobile technology can maximize long-term health trajectories of adults. Little is known about the characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers facilitated by mobile technology. This study aimed to examine the following: (1) the characteristics of adults who seek human support from health care providers for health concerns using mobile technology rather than from family members and friends or others with similar health conditions and (2) the use of mobile health technology among adults with chronic health conditions. Findings of this study were interpreted in the context of the Efficiency Model of Support. We first described characteristics of adults seeking Web-based support from health care providers. Using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t test for the continuous variable of age, we compared adults seeking Web-based and conventional support by demographics. The primary aim was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to examine whether chronic health conditions and demographic factors (eg, sex, income, employment status, race, ethnicity, education, and age) were associated with seeking Web-based support from health care providers. The sample included adults (N=1453), the majority of whom were female 57.60% (837/1453), white 75.02% (1090/1453), and non-Hispanic 89.13% (1295/1453). The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 92 years (mean 48.6, standard deviation [SD] 16.8). The majority 76.05% (1105/1453) of participants reported college or higher level of education. A disparity was found in access to health care providers via mobile technology based on socioeconomic status. Adults with annual income of US $30,000 to US $100,000 were 1.72 times more likely to use Web-based methods to contact a health care provider, and adults with an annual income above US $100,000 were 2.41 to

  4. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    PubMed Central

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  5. Medical mistrust, perceived discrimination, and satisfaction with health care among young-adult rural latinos.

    PubMed

    López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2014-01-01

    Little research has analyzed mistrust and discrimination influencing receipt of health care services among Latinos, particularly those living in rural areas. This study examined the associations between medical mistrust, perceived discrimination, and satisfaction with health care among young-adult rural Latinos. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 387 young-adult Latinos (ages 18-25) living in rural Oregon. The Behavioral Model of Vulnerable Populations was utilized as the theoretical framework. Correlations were run to assess bivariate associations among variables included in the study. Ordered logistic regression models evaluated the associations between medical mistrust, perceived discrimination, and satisfaction with health care. On average, participants used health services 4 times in the past year. Almost half of the participants had health insurance (46%). The majority reported that they were moderately (32%) or very satisfied (41%) with health care services used in the previous year. In multivariable models, medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were significantly associated with satisfaction with health care. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were significant contributors to lower satisfaction with health care among young-adult Latinos living in rural Oregon. Health care reform implementation, currently under way, provides a unique opportunity for developing evaluation systems and interventions toward monitoring and reducing rural Latino health care disparities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  6. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits.

  7. Has the Digital Health Divide Widened? Trends of Health-Related Internet Use Among Older Adults From 2003 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y Alicia; Cho, Jinmyoung

    2017-09-01

    To examine the trend of health-related Internet use (HRIU) among older adults. We analyzed data from the 2003, 2005, and 2011-2012 iterations of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). HRIU was measured by 4 online behaviors: seeking health information, buying medicine, connecting with people with similar health problems, and communicating with doctors. Internet use and HRIU among older adults increased substantially from 2003 to 2011 with more significant increases in seeking health information and communicating with doctors online. Overall, the digital health divide between different demographic groups has narrowed, especially in terms of gender, racial/ethnic group, rural/urban residence, and various health statuses; however, age, education, and household income remain persistent predictors of the digital divide. Those in the oldest group (75 or older), those with less than a high school education, and those with very low income (<$25,000/year) continuously lagged behind their counterparts in all aspects of HRIU. Despite an overall increase in HRIU and a narrowed digital divide, significant variations in HRIU in different demographic groups persisted; therefore, we call for more senior-friendly online resources and culturally appropriate interventions to bridge the digital health divide for vulnerable older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A review of health promotion funding for older adults in Europe: a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim; Tambor, Marzena; Golinowska, Stanislawa; Sowada, Christoph; Pavlova, Milena

    2016-09-05

    Health promotion interventions for older adults are important as they can decrease the onset and evolution of diseases and thus can reduce the medical costs related to those diseases. However, there is no comparative evidence on how those interventions are funded in European countries. The aim of this study is to explore the funding of health promotion interventions in general and health promotion interventions for older adults in particular in European countries. We use desk research to identify relevant sources of information such as official national documents, international databases and scientific articles. Fora descriptive overview on how health promotion is funded, we focus on three dimensions: who is funding health promotion, what are the contribution mechanisms and who are the collecting agents. In addition to general information on funding of health promotion, we explore how programs on health promotion for older population groups are funded. There is a great diversity in funding of health promotion in European countries. Although public sources (tax and social health insurance revenues) are still most often used, other mechanisms of funding such as private donations or European funds are also common. Furthermore, there is no clear pattern in the funding of health promotion for different population groups. This is of particular importance for health promotion for older adults where information is limited across European countries. This study provides an overview of funding of health promotion interventions in European countries. The main obstacles for funding health promotion interventions are lack of information and the fragmentation in the funding of health promotion interventions for older adults.

  9. Health Care Coverage and Access Among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults, 2010–2016: Implications for Future Health Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Donna L.; McManus, Margaret; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Turner, Joanna; Harwood, Christopher; White, Patience; Alarcon, Giovann

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We examine changes to health insurance coverage and access to health care among children, adolescents, and young adults since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Methods Using the National Health Interview Survey, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare coverage and access among children, young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults between 2010 and 2016. Results We show significant improvements in coverage among children, adolescents, and young adults since 2010. We also find some gains in access during this time, particularly reductions in delayed care due to cost. While we observe few age-group differences in overall trends in coverage and access, our analysis reveals an age-gradient pattern, with incrementally worse coverage and access rates for young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults. Conclusions Prior analyses often group adolescents with younger children, masking important distinctions. Future reforms should consider the increased coverage and access risks of adolescents and young adults, recognizing that approximately 40% are low income, over a third live in the South, where many states have not expanded Medicaid, and over 15% have compromised health. PMID:29599046

  10. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p < .012) in young adulthood. Our findings highlight the importance of examining intragroup variability in culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interrelationships of adult attachment orientations, health status and worrying among fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía

    2009-11-01

    This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Health care among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil, National Health Survey, 2013.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Chueiri, Patricia Sampaio; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-12-01

    To describe the care measurements provided to patients with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (2013) were used. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in which the subjects with self-reported diabetes mellitus answered questions concerning their use of health services and access to medicine. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 6.2%, while 11.5% of the population had never undergone a glucose testing. From the adults with diabetes mellitus, 80.2% had taken medications two weeks before the interview, 57.4% used the Popular Pharmacy Program, 73.2% received medical care, and 47.1% were cared for in the Health Basic Units. In 65.2%, the physician who cared for them in the last appointment was the same from previous ones, 95.3% of the patients were able to perform the required complementary examinations, and 83.3% could go to the appointments with a specialist. About 35.6 and 29.1% of the subjects with diabetes mellitus reported feet and eyes examination, respectively. About 13.4% declared previous hospitalization owing to diabetes or any complications, and 7.0% mentioned limitations in their daily activities owing to the disease. In general, women and the elderly people, those with higher education levels, white, and those living in the south and southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence of the disease and greater access to services, medicine, and appointments. The care reported by patients with diabetes, which is essential to maintain their quality of life and prevent serious outcomes, seemed, in most cases, to be adequate.

  13. The relationship between physical ill-health and mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunham, A; Kinnear, D; Allan, L; Smiley, E; Cooper, S-A

    2018-05-01

    People with intellectual disabilities face a much greater burden and earlier onset of physical and mental ill-health than the general adult population. Physical-mental comorbidity has been shown to result in poorer outcomes in the general population, but little is known about this relationship in adults with intellectual disabilities. To identify whether physical ill-health is associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and whether the extent of physical multi-morbidity can predict the likelihood of mental ill-health. To identify any associations between types of physical ill-health and mental ill-health. A total of 1023 adults with intellectual disabilities underwent comprehensive health assessments. Binary logistic regressions were undertaken to establish any association between the independent variables: total number of physical health conditions, physical conditions by International Classification of Disease-10 chapter and specific physical health conditions; and the dependent variables: problem behaviours, mental disorders of any type. All regressions were adjusted for age, gender, level of intellectual disabilities, living arrangements, neighbourhood deprivation and Down syndrome. The extent of physical multi-morbidity was not associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities as only 0.8% of the sample had no physical conditions. Endocrine disease increased the risk of problem behaviours [odds ratio (OR): 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.47], respiratory disease reduced the risk of problem behaviours (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99) and mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92), and musculoskeletal disease reduced the risk of mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.98). Ischaemic heart disease increased the risk of problem behaviours approximately threefold (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.02-10.60). The extent of physical multi-morbidity in the population with intellectual

  14. Health Disparities and Delayed Health care among Older Adults in California: A Perspective from Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Xu, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    To examine racial/ethnic/immigration disparities in health and to investigate the relationships among race/ethnic/immigration status, delayed health care, and health of the elderly. Responses from 13,508 people aged 65 and above were analyzed based on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012. Key variables include race/ethnicity/immigration status, health outcome, and delayed health care. Age, gender, education, work status, and annual family income are used as covariates. The findings indicate that Whites (regardless of country of birth) and U.S.-born Asians enjoy better health than Latinos, African-Americans, and Foreign-born Asians. Foreign-born Asians and foreign-born Latinos have the poorest self-reported health and mental health, respectively. Delayed use of health care is negatively associated with both self-reported health and mental health status. Health disparities exist among older adult populations; the combined effects of minority and immigrant status can be approximated from the results in this study. Health care accessibility and the quality of care should be promoted in minority/immigrant populations. Public health nurses have a strong potential to aide in reducing health disparities among an aging American population that continues to exhibit increasing racial/ethnic diversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Social Support and Health Service Use in Depressed Adults: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Andrea, Sarah B; Siegel, Sarah A R; Teo, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between social support and health service use among men and women with depression. Participants were 1379 adults with symptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 5) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using the framework of the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, multivariable regression models used social support, stratified by depression severity, to estimate association with utilization of mental health and nonmental health services. Partial F-tests examined a priori interactions between social support and gender. Among those with adequate social support, odds of seeing a nonmental health provider were much higher when depression was moderate [Odds Ratio (OR): 2.6 (1.3-5.3)] or severe [OR: 3.2 (1.2-8.7)], compared to those lacking social support. Conversely, odds of mental health service use were 60% lower among those with moderate depression [OR: 0.4 (0.2-1.0)] when social support was adequate as opposed to inadequate. Social support was unrelated to service use when depression was mild. Gender moderated the relationship between social support and health service use among individuals with severe depression. Social support has opposite associations with mental and nonmental health service use among adults with clinically significant depression. This association is largely attributable to the effect of male gender on the relationship between social support and health service use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Health Benefits of Digital Videogames for Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Maneeratana, Vasana; Chaney, Beth H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2012-12-01

    This article is a systematic review conducted of the research literature on digital videogames played by older adults and health outcomes associated with game play. Findings from each study meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed and summarized into emergent themes to determine the impact of digital games in promoting healthy behaviors among older adults. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted through multiple academic databases for works, published between the years 2000 and 2011, looking at digital videogame interventions with adults 65 years of age and older. Multiple combinations of search terms and Boolean operators relevant to digital videogames and older adults were queried. A criteria matrix was created to code and evaluate studies. Thirteen studies met specific criteria for inclusion and were analyzed in the final review. Significant mental, physical, and social health factors, type of digital game platform, study design, and measurements are among emergent themes summarized from the reviewed research literature. Significant mental health outcomes of digital game interventions were found in the majority of the reviewed studies, followed by physical and lastly social health outcomes in older adults. A majority of the studies revealed significant positive effects on health outcomes associated with digital videogame play among older adults. With current advancements in technology, including advanced motion sensing, digital game platforms have significant potential for positive health impact among older populations. More robust and rigorous research designs are needed to increase validity and reliability of results and establish stronger causal relationships on the health benefits of digital videogame play for older adults.

  17. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: implications for young adult health and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B; Diaz, Rafael M; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school victimization and young adult psychosocial health and risk behavior. The young adult survey from the Family Acceptance Project included 245 LGBT young adults between the ages of 21 and 25 years, with an equal proportion of Latino and non-Latino White respondents. A 10-item retrospective scale assessed school victimization due to actual or perceived LGBT identity between the ages of 13 and 19 years. Multiple regression was used to test the association between LGBT school victimization and young adult depression, suicidal ideation, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social integration, while controlling for background characteristics. Logistic regression was used to examine young adult suicide attempts, clinical levels of depression, heavy drinking and substance use problems, sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnoses, and self-reported HIV risk. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related school victimization is strongly linked to young adult mental health and risk for STDs and HIV; there is no strong association with substance use or abuse. Elevated levels of depression and suicidal ideation among males can be explained by their high rates of LGBT school victimization. Reducing LGBT-related school victimization will likely result in significant long-term health gains and will reduce health disparities for LGBT people. Reducing the dramatic disparities for LGBT youth should be educational and public health priorities. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  18. Smart homes and home health monitoring technologies for older adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Stroulia, Eleni; Nikolaidis, Ioanis; Miguel-Cruz, Antonio; Rios Rincon, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    Around the world, populations are aging and there is a growing concern about ways that older adults can maintain their health and well-being while living in their homes. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine: (1) the levels of technology readiness among older adults and, (2) evidence for smart homes and home-based health-monitoring technologies that support aging in place for older adults who have complex needs. We identified and analyzed 48 of 1863 relevant papers. Our analyses found that: (1) technology-readiness level for smart homes and home health monitoring technologies is low; (2) the highest level of evidence is 1b (i.e., one randomized controlled trial with a PEDro score ≥6); smart homes and home health monitoring technologies are used to monitor activities of daily living, cognitive decline and mental health, and heart conditions in older adults with complex needs; (3) there is no evidence that smart homes and home health monitoring technologies help address disability prediction and health-related quality of life, or fall prevention; and (4) there is conflicting evidence that smart homes and home health monitoring technologies help address chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The level of technology readiness for smart homes and home health monitoring technologies is still low. The highest level of evidence found was in a study that supported home health technologies for use in monitoring activities of daily living, cognitive decline, mental health, and heart conditions in older adults with complex needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health care expenditures of overweight and obese U.S. adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn; Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan

    2018-04-01

    U.S. adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have poorer health status and greater risks for being overweight and obese, which are major drivers of health care expenditures in the general population. Health care expenditures and IDD have not been studied using nationally representative samples, and the impact of overweight and obesity have not been examined. Using nationally representative data, we aimed to compare the health care expenditures of not-overweight, overweight and obese U.S. adults with IDD, and calculate model-adjusted expenditures. Pooled data from the 2002-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey linked to National Health Interview Survey (n = 1224) were analyzed. Two-part model regressions were conducted, with covariates being year of survey, age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income status, geographical region, urban/rural, marital status, insurance coverage, perceived health status, and perceived mental health status. Overall, obese adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities had higher expenditures than their non-obese peers. Being obese was associated with an estimated additional $2516 in mean expenditures and $1200 in median expenditures compared with the reference group, who were neither overweight nor obese. Obesity is an important predictor of higher health care costs among community-living adults with IDD Finding effective strategies and interventions to address obesity in this population has great financial and policy significance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance for the Older Adult: A Modular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This book is addressed to the teacher of health, physical education, recreation, and dance courses for older adults. The first section provides the foundation for understanding gerontology. It includes fundamental concepts within the areas of sociological, physiological, and psychological aspects of aging, health problems, and nutritional status…

  1. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  2. Health Checks in Primary Care for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: How Extensive Should They Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, U.; Kontopantelis, E.; Campbell, S.; Jarrett, H.; Lester, H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Routine health checks have gained prominence as a way of detecting unmet need in primary care for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and general practitioners are being incentivised in the UK to carry out health checks for many conditions through an incentivisation scheme known as the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF).…

  3. Becoming Old as a "Pharmaceutical Person": Negotiation of Health and Medicines among Ethnoculturally Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Peri J.; Mirza, Raza M.; Austin, Zubin; Boon, Heather S.; Fisher, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Because medication prescribing and use have become a normative aspect of health care for older adults, we seek to understand how individuals navigate prescribed-medication use within the context of aging. We reasoned that, for those who are ambulatory, medication use is likely influenced by ethnocultural meanings of health and experiences with…

  4. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  5. Mental Health Outcomes Following Recent Parental Divorce: The Case of Young Adult Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Teresa M.; Kurz, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Addresses association between recent parental divorce and mental health outcomes in young adults aged 18-23. Half of those studied (n=485) had experienced parental divorce within 15 months of the interview; the other half had not. Comparison indicated that, at the bivariate level, parental divorce was associated with poorer mental health outcomes…

  6. Does Information Improve the Health Behavior of Adults Targeted by a Conditional Transfer Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avitabile, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    We use data from the evaluation sample of Mexico's Food Assistance Program (PAL) to study whether including the attendance at health and nutrition classes among the requirements for receiving a transfer affects the health behavior of adults living in localities targeted by the program. The experimental trial has four different treatment types,…

  7. Attitudes of Overweight and Normal Weight Adults Regarding Exercise at a Health Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…

  8. The Unmet Health Care Needs of Homeless Adults: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, James J.; Singer, Daniel E.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and predictors of past-year unmet needs for 5 types of health care services in a national sample of homeless adults. Methods. We analyzed data from 966 adult respondents to the 2003 Health Care for the Homeless User Survey, a sample representing more than 436 000 individuals nationally. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the independent predictors of each type of unmet need. Results. Seventy-three percent of the respondents reported at least one unmet health need, including an inability to obtain needed medical or surgical care (32%), prescription medications (36%), mental health care (21%), eyeglasses (41%), and dental care (41%). In multivariable analyses, significant predictors of unmet needs included food insufficiency, out-of-home placement as a minor, vision impairment, and lack of health insurance. Individuals who had been employed in the past year were more likely than those who had not to be uninsured and to have unmet needs for medical care and prescription medications. Conclusions. This national sample of homeless adults reported substantial unmet needs for multiple types of health care. Expansion of health insurance may improve health care access for homeless adults, but addressing the unique challenges inherent to homelessness will also be required. PMID:20466953

  9. Behavioral Health Services Utilization among Older Adults Identified within a State Abuse Hotline Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Larsen, Rebecca G.; Stiles, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the extent to which older adults identified in a statewide abuse hotline registry utilized behavioral health services. This is important as mental health issues have been identified as a high priority for filling gaps in services for victims of mistreatment. Design and Methods: We compared Medicaid and Medicare claims…

  10. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  11. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  12. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  13. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  14. Older Adults With Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Centers in Israel: Health Status and Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Morad, Mohammed; Janicki, Matthew P.; Wexler, Orren; Henderson, C. Michael

    2004-01-01

    To determine their health status, we studied 2,282 Israeli adults with intellectual disability who were at least 40 years of age and lived in residential care. Results showed that age is a significant factor in health status. The frequency of different disease categories (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, and sensory impairments) increased…

  15. Use of Adult Day Care Centers: Do They Offset Utilization of Health Care Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the medical offset effect, the goal of the study was to examine the extent to which users and nonusers of adult day care centers (ADCC) differ in frequency of use of out-patient health services (visits to specialists) and in-patient health services (number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalizations, and visits to…

  16. Knowledge Belongs to Everyone: The Challenge for Adult Education and Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Nita

    1981-01-01

    Gives examples of health care areas that are the responsibility of individuals and the community: water and sanitation, nutrition and food habits, and family planning. Stresses the role of adult education in changing people's attitudes toward their own health care. (CT)

  17. 'Something needs to change': Mental health experiences of young autistic adults in England.

    PubMed

    Crane, Laura; Adams, Fern; Harper, Georgia; Welch, Jack; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    There is a high incidence and prevalence of mental health problems among young people, with several barriers to help-seeking noted in this group. High rates of mental health problems have also been reported in children and adults on the autism spectrum. Taken together, young autistic people may be a particularly vulnerable group when it comes to mental health. Yet, there has been remarkably little work on the mental health needs and experiences of young autistic adults (16-25 years). Adopting a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach - in which academic researchers and young autistic adults collaborated in an equitable research partnership - we explored young autistic people's experiences of mental health problems and their perspectives on the support they sought, if any, for these problems. A total of 130 young autistic adults took part in the research: 109 completed an online survey and 21 took part in detailed interviews. The results highlight how young autistic people find it difficult to evaluate their mental health, experience high levels of stigma and often face severe obstacles when trying to access mental health support. The findings also demonstrate how listening to - and learning from - young autistic people is crucial in ensuring that their mental health needs are met.

  18. Improving the Health of Adolescents & Young Adults: A Guide for States and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindis, Claire D.; Park, M. Jane; Valderrama, L. Teresa; Lee, Caron M.; Margolis, Rebecca; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Achrekar, Angeli P.; Hannan, Casey; Anglin, Trina M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence represents a unique period in the life cycle. No longer children and not yet adults, adolescents make significant choices about their health and develop attitudes and health practices that impact their current safety and well-being. Those choices also often influence their risk for future serious chronic disease. Adolescence also…

  19. Development of a Health Literacy Assessment for Young Adult College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health literacy assessment tool for young adult college students. Participants: Participants were 144 undergraduate students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-nine questions were developed, which were based on concepts identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services,…

  20. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  1. The influence of prior rape on the psychological and physical health functioning of older adults.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A; Sheffler, Julia; Arce, Darleine; Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Older adults who have experienced traumatic events earlier in life may be especially vulnerable to additional challenges associated with aging. In a cross-sectional study of older females, the present study examines whether a history of rape is associated with current psychological and health problems. This study used existing data from the female respondents (N = 1228) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a national probability sample of adults between the ages of 57 and 85 interviewed in their homes. It was determined whether or not the participant experienced forced sexual contact since the age of 18. Measures of psychological health (e.g., scales of depression, anxiety, and loneliness), the presence or absence of a number of serious health problems, and a one-item measure of self-esteem were obtained. Adult rape occurred in 7% of the sample. On average, 36 years had elapsed since the rape had occurred. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), rape was associated with lower self-esteem, psychological, and physical health functioning. Self-esteem partially mediated the association between rape and psychological functioning, but not health functioning. These associations were significant even after controlling for participant characteristics and risky health behaviors. Mechanisms linking prior rape to psychological and health problems in older age are discussed, as well as treatment recommendations for symptomatic older adults.

  2. Health Services Utilization between Older and Younger Homeless Adults.(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Ojeda, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose in the current study was to examine the relationship between health services utilization delivered by means of the Homeless Outreach Medical Services (HOMES) program and health services utilization delivered by means of the Parkland emergency room and inpatient units among a sample of older and younger homeless adults being…

  3. The Impact of Repeated Health Checks for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Dunstan, Frank; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Felce, Janet; Kerr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: An earlier study (Baxter "et al." 2006) found that a structured health check conducted in primary care identified clinically significant previously unrecognized morbidity among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim here was to examine whether follow-up health checks would identify equally significant newly identified morbidity…

  4. A Survey on Mental Health Care for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, H. W. M.; Chui, E. M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental Health Services for adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Asia is less described than those in the western world. With the improvements in the economy and medical care in Asia, there is an increase in awareness of mental health services for people with ID in this part of the world. A study was carried out to look into…

  5. Disparities in Health, Health Care Access, and Life Experience Between American Indian and White Adults in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heehyul; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Goins, R Turner

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the factors associated with depressive symptoms and chronic illnesses in American Indians compared with White adults born in the post-World War II period, 1946 to 1964, and living in South Dakota. A cross-sectional design of American Indian and White adults aged 50 and older in South Dakota (Brookings, Vermillion, Sioux Falls, and all others areas of South Dakota) between January 2013 and May 2013 was used. American Indian and White adults (born between 1946 and 1964; N = 349). Data included sociodemographic factors and measures of chronic physical health condition, health care access, adverse childhood experiences, body mass index (BMI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Technology Acceptance Model, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Depressive Symptoms. American Indian adults reported more chronic diseases and conditions, a lower self-perceived physical health, were more likely to be overweight or obese, had more adverse childhood experience (ACE), and reported a lower level of alcohol intake compared to White adults. BMI was significantly associated with an increased number of chronic conditions for both groups, and American Indians' better perception of their physical health was significantly associated with lower total number of chronic conditions. Self-perceived mental health, a better level of access to health care, and a higher degree of social support were significantly inversely associated with the number of depressive symptoms for American Indian adults, while a greater level of ACE was significantly associated with an increased number of depressive symptoms for this group. The current study not only support previous studies but also contributes to understanding the disparities in and risk factors potentially impacting American Indians' physical and mental health. Our findings highlight the need to investigate the American Indians' perceptions and knowledge about health

  6. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  7. Mechanisms by which childhood personality traits influence adult health status: educational attainment and healthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Vogt, Thomas M; Dubanoski, Joan P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a life span health behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect-Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health.

  8. The Effects of the Affordable Care Act Adult Dependent Coverage Expansion on Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Background In September 2010, the Affordable Care Act increased the availability of private health insurance for young adult dependents in the United States and prohibited coverage exclusions for their pre-existing conditions. The coverage expansion improved young adults’ financial protection from medical expenses and increased their mental health care use. These short-term effects signal the possibility of accompanying changes in mental health through one or more mechanisms: treatment-induced symptom relief or improved function; improved well-being and/or reduced anxiety as financial security increases; or declines in self-reported mental health if treatment results in the discovery of illnesses. Aims In this study, we estimate the effects of this insurance coverage expansion on young adults’ mental health outcomes one year after its implementation. Methods We use a difference-in-differences (DD) framework to estimate the effects of the ACA young adult dependent coverage on mental health outcomes for adults ages 23–25 relative to adults ages 27–29 from 2007–2011. Outcome measures include a global measure of self-rated mental health, the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS), the PHQ-2 screen for depression, and the Kessler index for non-specific psychological distress. Results The overall pattern of findings suggests that both age groups experienced modest improvements in a range of outcomes that captured both positive and negative mental health following the 2010 implementation of the coverage expansion. The notable exception to this pattern is a 1.4 point relative increase in the SF-12 MCS score among young adults alone, a measure that captures emotional well-being, mental health symptoms (positive and negative), and social role functioning. Discussion This study provides the first estimates of a broad range of mental health outcomes that may be responsive to changes in mental health care use and/or the increased financial security that insurance

  9. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults

    PubMed Central

    McEniry, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual infant mortality (IMR) at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s-early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n=1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We then estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent’s educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases may be associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world. PMID:20980087

  10. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care for Children and Young Adults: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Marrast, Lyndonna; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric and behavior problems are common among children and young adults, and many go without care or only receive treatment in carceral settings. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in children's and young adults' receipt of mental health and substance abuse care using nationally representative data from the 2006-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Blacks' and Hispanics' visit rates (and per capita expenditures) were about half those of non-Hispanic whites for all types and definitions of outpatient mental health services. Disparities were generally larger for young adults than for children. Black and white children had similar psychiatric inpatient and emergency department utilization rates, while Hispanic children had lower hospitalization rates. Multivariate control for mental health impairment, demographics, and insurance status did not attenuate racial/ethnic disparities in outpatient care. We conclude that psychiatric and behavioral problems among minority youth often result in school punishment or incarceration, but rarely mental health care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  12. The new adult orphan: issues and considerations for health care professionals.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, J Goodlett; Clark, Paul G

    2009-12-01

    The death of the last parent has a profound effect on survivors. Health care workers are often the first source of anticipatory guidance for newly orphaned adults as they cope with grief, loss, and awareness that their lives are forever changed. It is estimated that more than 80 million Americans were born between 1946 and 1964. As this Baby Boomer generation, often defined as seeing themselves as culturally special, becomes "orphaned," they may be less aware, less prepared, and less supported than any previous group of Americans regarding this life event. For a number of adults, the loss creates many unexpected results that can destabilize life in profound ways. This article describes the unique new realities of helping adult orphans as they relate to health care providers and discusses the problems associated with prolonged and complicated grief. Implications for geriatric caregivers, mental health providers, health educators, and others are proposed. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Maintaining the balance: older adults with chronic health problems manage life in the community.

    PubMed

    Jacelon, Cynthia S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify themes in the daily lives of community-dwelling older adults with chronic health problems. Qualitative descriptive methods based on symbolic interaction were used. Data were generated through unstructured interviews, participant diaries, and researcher logs. Participants were interviewed twice and kept diaries in between. Measures to enhance trustworthiness included bracketing, multiple data sources, repeated interviews, prolonged engagement, an audit trail, participant checking, and consultation with an expert qualitative researcher. Ten older adults 75-98 years of age living in their own homes with at least one self-reported chronic health problem participated in the research. Participants' health problems varied, and they developed strategies to maintain balance in activity, attitude, autonomy, health, and relationships. This research provides a new perspective on living with chronic illness, and the model may provide a framework for rehabilitation nurses who work with older adults.

  14. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. The Cascading Effects of Marginalization and Pathways of Resilience in Attaining Good Health Among LGBT Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Shiu, Chengshi; Emlet, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults comprise a diverse and growing health disparate population. In the present study, using the Health Equity Promotion Model, we investigated pathways by which LGBT older adults experience resilience, risk, and marginalization and their relationship to attaining positive health outcomes. Design and Methods: Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) is the first longitudinal research project designed to examine the health, aging, and well-being of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. Using data from 2014 (N = 2,415), we tested a structural equation model linking lifetime marginalization, identity affirmation and management, social and psychological resources, and health behaviors to positive health outcomes. Results: Identity affirmation positively predicted social resources and mental health, and social resources positively predicted mental health. Marginalization was associated with fewer social resources for LGBT older adults with an open identity management style, lower identity affirmation for LGBT older adults who strategically concealed their sexual identity, and poorer mental health. Mental health was associated with better health behaviors, which in turn predicted positive physical health outcomes. Implications: Although a health disparate population, good health among LGBT older adults appears to be attained via multiple resilience and risk pathways. Providers must remain aware of the historical contexts in which LGBT older adults lived and the strengths they developed in order to understand their health and to develop tailored and targeted prevention and intervention services. PMID:28087797

  16. Brain Health Knowledge in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carolyn S.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging and its effects on a person's quality of life are a growing health concern and burden for many Americans. Recently, studies have shown that adopting certain healthy behaviors may help maintain and or prevent age-related health issues such as cognitive decline. However, many people are unaware of these newfound facts. Furthermore, there is…

  17. Physical and Mental Health of Transgender Older Adults: An At-Risk and Underserved Population

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Design and Methods: Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560), we assessed direct and indirect effects of gender identity on 4 health outcomes (physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress) based on a resilience conceptual framework. Results: Transgender older adults were at significantly higher risk of poor physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress compared with nontransgender participants. We found significant indirect effects of gender identity on the health outcomes via fear of accessing health services, lack of physical activity, internalized stigma, victimization, and lack of social support; other mediators included obesity for physical health and disability, identity concealment for perceived stress, and community belonging for depressive symptomatology and perceived stress. Further analyses revealed that risk factors (victimization and stigma) explained the highest proportion of the total effect of gender identity on health outcomes. Implications: The study identifies important modifiable factors (stigma, victimization, health-related behaviors, and social support) associated with health among transgender older adults. Reducing stigma and victimization and including gender identity in nondiscrimination and hate crime statutes are important steps to reduce health risks. Attention to bolstering individual and community-level social support must be considered when developing tailored interventions to address transgender older adults’ distinct health and aging needs. PMID:23535500

  18. Oral Health Status of Older Adults Attending Senior Centers and Congregate Meal Sites in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ludmila; Martin, Nancy R; Kelly, Stephanie M; Brown, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the oral health status of older adults in randomly selected New Hampshire senior centers and congregate meal sites for the purpose of future planning, implementation and evaluation of targeted public health programs. A cross-sectional surveillance project was developed. Registered dental hygienists visually assessed denture use, number of natural teeth, teeth mobility, untreated caries, root fragments, gingivitis, need for care and treatment urgency among randomly selected active older adults living within New Hampshire communities. Altogether, 610 adults 60 years old and older attending 25 senior centers and congregate meal sites participated. Sixteen percent were edentulous and 42% reported having a removable upper or lower denture. Among edentulous adults, 5% had no dentures at all. Among 513 dentate participants, 22% had untreated caries, 14% had root fragments, 9% had gingivitis and 7% presented with obviously mobile teeth. Overall, 19% required early or urgent dental care. Differences were detected by sex, age group, urban versus rural location of the site and by the participation in a federal nutritional program for older adults. Baseline information about oral health needs of older adults in New Hampshire was gathered. Overall needs as well as existing oral health disparities will be addressed through the collaboration of public and private partners. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  19. The Need for Comprehensive Health Care Quality Measures for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Stephanie; Schwebke, Kay; Hawkins, Kevin; Ruiz, Joann; Hoo, Emma; Yeh, Charlotte S

    2017-10-24

    Research indicates that older adults receive only about half of their recommended care, with varying quality and limited attention to social issues impacting their health through the most commonly used quality measures. Additionally, many existing measures neglect to address nonclinical social determinants of health. Evidence of the need for more comprehensive measures for seniors is growing. The primary purpose of this article, which is supported by a limited review of literature, is to describe gaps among current quality measures in addressing certain nonclinical needs of older adults, including key social determinants of health. In doing so, the authors describe their position on the need for expanded measures to incorporate these factors to improve care and quality of life. The authors conducted a limited review of the literature to inform this article, focusing specifically on selected measures for older adults rather than a broader systematic review of all measures. Most research identified was related to clinical practice guidelines rather than quality measures of care as applied to older adults. Furthermore, the literature reviewed reflected limited evidence of efforts to tailor quality measures for the unique social needs of older adults, confirming a potential gap in this area. A growing need exists for improved quality measures specifically designed to help providers address the unique social needs of older adults. Filling this gap will improve overall understanding of seniors and help them to achieve optimal health and successful aging.

  20. "Seniors only want respect": designing an oral health program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ivette; Kunzel, Carol; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Greenblatt, Ariel P; Metcalf, Sara S; Northridge, Mary E

    2018-01-01

    Persistent socioeconomic disparities in the oral disease burden contribute to pain and suffering among vulnerable and underserved populations who face systemic barriers to access oral health care, including older adults living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. The aim of this study is to gain the views of racial/ethnic minority older adults regarding what they believe would support them and their peers in visiting the dentist regularly. Focus groups were conducted and digitally audio-recorded from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority women and men aged 50 years and older living in northern Manhattan who participated in one of 24 focus group sessions about improving oral health for older adults. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. The majority of recommendations from racial/ethnic minority older adults to help older adults go to the dentist regularly were centered at the organization and provider level. The preeminence of respectful treatment to racial/ethnic minority older adults may be useful to underscore in oral health programs and settings. There is a need for greater engagement of and attention to patients and other stakeholders in developing, testing, and disseminating interventions to close the gaps in oral health care disparities. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity: a multiperspective approach.

    PubMed

    Meranius, Martina Summer; Josefsson, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Multimorbidity, a condition common among older adults, may be regarded as a failure of a complex system. The aim of this study was to describe the core components in health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity. A cross-sectional design included two methods: individual interviews and group discussions. A total of 105 participants included older adults with multimorbidity and their relatives, care staff and healthcare policymakers. Data were analysed using content analysis. The results show that seven core components comprise a multiperspective view of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity: political steering, leadership, cooperation, competence, support for relatives, availability and continuity. Steps should be taken to ensure that every older adult with multimorbidity has a treatment plan according to a multiperspective view to prevent fragmentation of their health care. This study provides relevant evidence developing a multiperspective model of health and social care management for older adults with multimorbidity. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Determinants of poor self-rated health among adults in urban Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cau, Boaventura M; Falcão, Joana; Arnaldo, Carlos

    2016-08-24

    Self-rated health is a measure expressing the general condition of health of individuals. Self-rated health studies are common in developed countries and in some developing regions. Despite increasing proportion of adult and older population in sub-Saharan Africa and poor population health indicators, there is a dearth of studies on self-rated health in the region. This study examines factors associated with poor self-rated health among adult individuals in Maputo metropolitan area in Mozambique. Data for this study come from a survey of 1768 individuals aged 18 years or more carried out in Maputo metropolitan area, Mozambique, in 2015. Employing multiple logistic regression, the study used a subsample of 677 female and male respondents aged 40 years or more to estimate the determinants of poor self-rated health. About 54 % of respondents aged 40 years or more believed that their health status was poor. Female respondents [Odds Ratios (OR) = 3.43, p <0.01], single (OR = 4.71, p < 0.05), widow (OR = 1.81, p < 0.05), separated or divorced (OR = 2.08, p < 0.05) and those believing that hypertension or heart problem was a major community health problem (OR = 1.56, p < 0.05) displayed higher odds of reporting poor health than their peers, net of other factors. Furthermore, individuals aged 40-49 years (OR = 0.45, p < 0.01), or 50-59 years (OR = 0.59, p < 0.05), those whose work involves intensive physical activity (OR = 0.60, p < 0.05) and those from households treating drinking water (OR = 0.49, p < 0.01) showed lower odds of reporting poor health, adjusting for other factors. Overall, the results point to the importance of age, gender, marital status, socioeconomic circumstances, individuals' health behaviors and perceived community health problems as key determinants of poor self-rated health among adults in Maputo metropolitan area. Given the growing number of adult and older people in sub

  3. Health care in adults with Down syndrome: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K M; Davis, M M

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome increasingly survive into adulthood, yet little is known about their healthcare patterns as adults. Our study sought to characterise patterns of health care among adults with Down syndrome based on whether they had fully transitioned to adult-oriented providers by their inception in this cohort. In this retrospective observational cohort study, healthcare utilisation and annualised patient charges were evaluated in patients with Down syndrome aged 18-45 years who received care in a single academic health centre from 2000 to 2008. Comparisons were made based on patients' provider mix (only adult-focused or 'mixed' child- and adult-focused providers). The cohort included 205 patients with median index age = 28 years; 52% of these adult patients had incompletely transitioned to adult providers and received components of their care from child-focused providers. A higher proportion of these 'mixed' patients were seen exclusively by subspecialty providers (mixed = 81%, adult = 46%, P < 0.001), suggesting a need for higher intensity specialised services. Patients in the mixed provider group incurred higher annualised charges in analyses adjusted for age, mortality, total annualised encounters, and number of subspecialty disciplines accessed. These differences were most pronounced when stratified by whether patients were hospitalised during the study period (e.g., difference in adjusted means between mixed versus adult provider groups: $571 without hospitalisation, $19,061 with hospitalisation). In this unique longitudinal cohort of over 200 adults aged 18-45 years with Down syndrome, over half demonstrated incomplete transition to adult care. Persistent use of child-focused care, often with a subspecialty emphasis, has implications for healthcare charges. Future studies must identify reasons for distinct care patterns, examine their relationship with clinical outcomes, and evaluate which provider types deliver the highest

  4. Evaluation of health care services provided for older adults in primary health care centers and its internal environment

    PubMed Central

    Alhamdan, Adel A.; Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.; Hameed, Tariq A.; Al-Muammar, May N.; Bindawas, Saad M.; Al-Orf, Saada M.; Mohamed, Ashry G.; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Methods: Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Results: Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol) was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Conclusions: Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly. PMID:26318467

  5. Gaming Your Way to Health: A Systematic Review of Exergaming Programs to Increase Health and Exercise Behaviors in Adults.

    PubMed

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J; Langdon, Rebecca R

    2017-06-01

    Adults who are not engaged by traditional exercise methods require a strategy to achieve and maintain sufficient physical activity for health benefits. Exergames, or active videogames, may motivate some adults to engage in physical activity. This review explored the use of exergaming to promote physical activity behaviors and health in adults. A systematic literature review of the use of exergaming was conducted. The review included experimental studies with a nonclinical adult population, which measured changes in physical activity behaviors and changes in anthropometric healthy weight indicators. From an initial search that yielded 1644 results, nine articles were found to satisfy the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Exergaming provided a novel method for increasing or substituting physical activity in the short term. Although low participation was not associated with anthropometric changes, significant healthy anthropometric changes were associated with moderate to high exergaming participation. Exergaming may be employed as an effective exercise behavior change strategy in the short term and may have positive health benefits if recommendations are made regarding intensity and duration of play for optimal health outcomes. However, additional research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of exergaming as a long-term health promotion strategy.

  6. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  7. Trust in the Health Care System and the Use of Preventive Health Services by Older Black and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Harris, Roderick; Silverman, Myrna; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to find racial differences in the effects of trust in the health care system on preventive health service use among older adults. Methods. We conducted a telephone survey with 1681 Black and White older adults. Survey questions explored respondents' trust in physicians, medical research, and health information sources. We used logistic regression and controlled for covariates to assess effects of race and trust on the use of preventive health services. Results. We identified 4 types of trust through factor analysis: trust in one's own personal physician, trust in the competence of physicians' care, and trust in formal and informal health information sources. Blacks had significantly less trust in their own physicians and greater trust in informal health information sources than did Whites. Greater trust in one's own physician was associated with utilization of routine checkups, prostate-specific antigen tests, and mammograms, but not with flu shots. Greater trust in informal information sources was associated with utilization of mammograms. Conclusions. Trust in one's own personal physician is associated with utilization of preventive health services. Blacks' relatively high distrust of their physicians likely contributes to health disparities by causing reduced utilization of preventive services. Health information disseminated to Blacks through informal means is likely to increase Blacks' utilization of preventive health services. PMID:18923129

  8. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2018-02-01

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental health and nutritional status among the adult Serbian minority in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Spiegel, P; Van Dyke, M; Phelps, L; Wilkinson, C

    2000-08-02

    Since the beginning of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization intervention in Kosovo in June 1999, few objective data have been available on relevant health indicators for the Serbian ethnic minority in Kosovo. To determine the prevalence of undernutrition among Serbian adults aged 60 years or older and psychiatric morbidity among the adult Serbian population in Kosovo. A systematic random sample survey of 212 households was conducted between September 27 and October 2, 1999, in Pristina, the capital city, and in 10 towns in the rural municipality of Gnjilane in Kosovo. Of the 212 households surveyed, 204 adults aged 15 years or older completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and anthropometric measurements were taken for 98 adults aged 60 years or older and for a comparison group of 51 adults aged 18 to 59 years. Body mass index of less than 18.5 kg/m(2) in older adults; nonspecific psychiatric morbidity among adults; and self-reported use of health care services, access to food rations, and primary sources of prewar and postwar income. Undernutrition was found in 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%-19.2%) of Serbian adults aged 60 years or older compared with 2.0% (95% CI, 0.1%-11.8%) of Serbian adults aged 18 to 59 years. The mean (SE) total score for the GHQ-28 was 13.0 (0.52). In a comparison of the GHQ-28 scores of the Serbian adults with the Kosovar Albanian adults (data from a recent survey), the mean (SE) score adjusted for age and sex was 12.8 (0.52) vs 11.1 (0.58); P =.03, respectively. The GHQ-28 scores were also higher for the Serbians in the subcategories of social dysfunction (2.8 [0.17] vs 2.2 [0.13]; P =.008) and severe depression (1.9 [0.15] vs 0.9 [0. 09]; P<.001), respectively. Serbian women and persons living alone or in small family units were more prone to psychiatric morbidity. Of the 141 respondents reporting the need for health care services, 83 (57.6%) reported not obtaining such services; 204 of 212 (96.2%) households

  10. Self-rated oral health status, oral health service utilization, and oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Olusile, Adeyemi Oluniyi; Adeniyi, Abiola Adetokunbo; Orebanjo, Olufemi

    2014-11-27

    There is scarce information available on oral health service utilization patterns and common oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians. We conducted the 2010-2011 national oral health survey before the introduction of the national oral health policy to determine the prevalence of oral health service utilization, patterns of oral hygiene practices, and self reported oral health status, among adults in various social classes, educational strata, ethnic groups and geopolitical zones in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in North-Central, North-West, South-East, South-South and South-West geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used for the sample selection. We administered a structured questionnaire to a total of 7,630 participants. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and oral health services utilization pattern of participants was obtained. We interviewed 7, 630 participants (55.6% female). The participants ages ranged between 18 and 81 years, mean age was 37.96 (SD = 13.2). Overall 21.2% of the participants rated their oral health status as very good, 37.1% as good and 27.4% as fair. Only 26.4% reported having visited the dentist at least once prior to the conduct of the survey. More than half of these visits (54.9%) were for treatment purpose. Utilization of oral health services was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with being older, more educated and being engaged in a skilled profession. More educated persons, females and younger persons used toothbrushes for daily tooth cleaning. Age, sex, marital status, level of education and occupation were significantly related to daily frequency of tooth cleaning (p < 0.05). Our results show that while most Nigerian adults have a positive view of their oral health status, majority reported poor oral health utilization habits. Older persons resident in the northern zones of the country and less educated persons displayed

  11. Childhood friendships and adult health: findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Ylva M

    2012-06-01

    Social relations are known to influence morbidity and mortality but few have studied this association from a life-course perspective specifically targeting the importance of social relations in childhood for adult health. In childhood, a key aspect of children's relationships is the number of friendships a child has in the school class, i.e. friendship quantity. The overall aim of this study was to examine the association between childhood friendships and adult self-rated health. Data from a longitudinal study of children born in Aberdeen, Scotland, between 1950 and 1956 was used. Information on friendship quantity (1964) was derived from sociometric nominations among classmates and defined as mutual choices. The health outcome was based on self-ratings derived from a questionnaire in 2001-03. The study included various childhood and adult circumstances as possible explanatory factors. The analysis was based on ordinal logistic regression, producing odds ratios (n = 5814). The results demonstrated a gradient in women's self-rated health according to the number of friendships in the school class. A number of circumstances in childhood and adulthood were partial explanations. For men, only those without friends reported poorer self-rated health in adulthood. This finding was explained by adult socioeconomic status. It is concluded that childhood friendships are linked to health disparities in middle age, underlining the importance of such relationships and the need for a life-course perspective on health that integrates a variety of mechanisms as they interact across life.

  12. Prior Military Service, Identity Stigma, and Mental Health Among Transgender Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.; Shiu, Chengshi; Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Sturges, Allison M.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Converging evidence from large community-based samples, Internet studies, and Veterans Health Administration data suggest that transgender adults have high rates of U.S. military service. However, little is known about the role of prior military service in their mental health