Science.gov

Sample records for abcd optical system

  1. Generalized Stokes parameters of a stochastic electromagnetic beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingbin; Zhao, Daomu

    2008-08-01

    On the basis of the generalized diffraction integral formula for an ABCD optical system in the spatial domain, a propagation law for the generalized Stokes parameters of a stochastic electromagnetic beam passing through an ABCD optical system is obtained. We describe the Stokes parameters of the source as linear combinations of the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix, and study the changes in the spectral degree of polarization and in the state of the polarization ellipse of a stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam propagating through a gradient-index fiber with the help of generalized Stokes parameters and the cross-spectral density matrix. The medium has significant effect on the change of the spectral degree of polarization. However, when the correlation coefficients of the source satisfy the relation delta(xx)=delta(yy)=delta(xy)=delta(yx), the medium does not influence the spectral degree of polarization.

  2. Speckles Statistics and Decorrelation Effects in Complex ABCD Optical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    field decorrelation effects regarding secondary fringe formation in phase shifting speckle interferometry is discussed. In particular, the correlation ... coefficient resulting from load-induced object tilt, in-plane translations, and displacements parallel to the optic axis as a function of the number

  3. Propagation of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan; Cai, Yangjian; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2012-04-23

    The propagation of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the degree of the polarization of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system are derived in turbulent atmosphere, respectively. The average intensity distribution and the degree of the polarization of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters, the topological charge, the transverse coherent lengths, and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a partially coherent hollow vortex Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere are also examined in detail. This research is beneficial to the practical applications in free-space optical communications and the remote sensing of the dark hollow beams.

  4. Characterizing the divergence properties of the laser diode beams propagation through collimator and aperture ABCD optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Hedayati Rad, M.; Kashani, F. D.; Eftekhari, M. M.; Reza Mahzoun, M.

    2010-11-01

    The propagation properties of Gaussian laser beams through a complete optical path including free space and the optics of transmitter and receiver containing a collimator, an aperture and a lens is studied. Based on the Collins integral and using the second order moment method, analytical formulas for intensity distribution and Power In Bucket (PIB) along the propagation path are derived. The effects of initial beam divergence, collimator-source separation distance and beam width deviation on laser beams properties are investigated. Obtained results are confirmed and illustrated with numerical examples and resulted graphs.

  5. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval. PMID:22924881

  6. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Timothy J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2012-11-01

    A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval.

  7. Effect of ABCD transformations on beam paraxiality.

    PubMed

    Vaveliuk, Pablo; Martinez-Matos, Oscar

    2011-12-19

    The limits of the paraxial approximation for a laser beam under ABCD transformations is established through the relationship between a parameter concerning the beam paraxiality, the paraxial estimator, and the beam second-order moments. The applicability of such an estimator is extended to an optical system composed by optical elements as mirrors and lenses and sections of free space, what completes the analysis early performed for free-space propagation solely. As an example, the paraxiality of a system composed by free space and a spherical thin lens under the propagation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes is established. The results show that the the paraxial approximation fails for a certain feasible range of values of main parameters. In this sense, the paraxial estimator is an useful tool to monitor the limits of the paraxial optics theory under ABCD transformations.

  8. Two telescopes ABCD electro-optic beam combiner based on lithium niobate for near infrared stellar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, S.; Caballero, O.; Nolot, A.; Gineys, M.; Moulin, T.; Delboulbé, A.; Jocou, L.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Berger, J.-P.; Martin, G.

    2011-06-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) based electro-optic modulators are well known in the optical communications field, due to their high bandwidth and deep rejection ratio [1]. These performances could be used in the field of astronomy for stellar interferometry in the mid-infrared domain [2]. With our partners from Photline Technologies, we have conceived, developed and characterized a 2T ABCD [3] beam combiner in the near-infrared (1.5μm, the H-band in astrophysics). The modulation scheme, presented below in Figure 1, allows to determine the fringe characteristics in a single shot measurement, without the need to externally scan the optical phase delay. Fine adjustment of the relative phase can be achieved using the electro-optic properties of the lithium niobate waveguides. In particular, the phase on each output can be electrically controlled and locked by using appropriate electrodes. These devices have to ensure modal filtering to reject optical aberrations of the wavefront and thus optimize the fringes contrast, which means that they have to be single mode through all the spectral range of interest. This also means that the couplers should be achromatic and balanced in order to optimize the fringe contrast. We will present results on global transmission, performance of the couplers and the electro-optic behavior of the device using monochromatic as well as wide spectral sources in the H-band.

  9. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  10. ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhan; Liu, Liren; Xu, Rongwei; Luan, Zhu

    2005-08-10

    We report the formulation of an ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution that separate media of different refractive indices based on optical phase matching. The equations for the spot sizes and wave-front radii of the beams are also obtained by using theABCD matrix. With these matrices, we can more conveniently design and evaluate some special optical systems, including these kinds of elements.

  11. Constitutive Expression of the Cytochrome P450 EthABCD Monooxygenase System Enables Degradation of Synthetic Dialkyl Ethers in Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Purswani, Jessica; Breuer, Uta; Pozo, Clementina; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2013-01-01

    In Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001, Rhodococcus zopfii IFP 2005, and Gordonia sp. strain IFP 2009, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase EthABCD catalyzes hydroxylation of methoxy and ethoxy residues in the fuel oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The expression of the IS3-type transposase-flanked eth genes is ETBE dependent and controlled by the regulator EthR (C. Malandain et al., FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 72:289–296, 2010). In contrast, we demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) that the betaproteobacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, which possesses the ethABCD genes but lacks ethR, constitutively expresses the P450 system at high levels even when growing on nonether substrates, such as glucose. The mutant strain A. tertiaricarbonis L10, which is unable to degrade dialkyl ethers, resulted from a transposition event mediated by a rolling-circle IS91-type element flanking the eth gene cluster in the wild-type strain L108. The constitutive expression of Eth monooxygenase is likely initiated by the housekeeping sigma factor σ70, as indicated by the presence in strain L108 of characteristic −10 and −35 binding sites upstream of ethA which are lacking in strain IFP 2001. This enables efficient degradation of diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) without any lag phase in strain L108. However, ethers with larger residues, n-hexyl methyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and alkyl aryl ethers, were not attacked by the Eth system at significant rates in resting-cell experiments, indicating that the residue in the ether molecule which is not hydroxylated also contributes to the determination of substrate specificity. PMID:23354715

  12. Open Source Solutions for Libraries: ABCD vs Koha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macan, Bojan; Fernandez, Gladys Vanesa; Stojanovski, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present an overview of the two open source (OS) integrated library systems (ILS)--Koha and ABCD (ISIS family), to compare their "next-generation library catalog" functionalities, and to give comparison of other important features available through ILS modules. Design/methodology/approach: Two open source…

  13. A UNIMARC Bibliographic Format Database for ABCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megnigbeto, Eustache

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: ABCD is a web-based open and free software suite for library management derived from the UNESCO CDS/ISIS software technology. The first version was launched officially in December 2009 with a MARC 21 bibliographic format database. This paper aims to detail the building of the UNIMARC bibliographic format database for ABCD.…

  14. Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jennifer E; Kelly, Damien P; Sheridan, John T

    2009-08-01

    Correlation properties of speckle fields at the output of quadratic phase systems with hard square and circular apertures are examined. Using the linear canonical transform and ABCD ray matrix techniques to describe these general optical systems, we first derive analytical formulas for determining axial and lateral speckle sizes. Then using a numerical technique, we extend the analysis so that the correlation properties of nonaxial speckles can also be considered. Using some simple optical systems as examples, we demonstrate how this approach may be conveniently applied. The results of this analysis apply broadly both to the design of metrology systems and to speckle control schemes.

  15. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  16. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  17. Optical characterization for off-axis illumination in DLP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Enguo; Qu, Bixiang; Yu, Feihong

    2012-10-01

    Matrix optics is a general method to research and calculate geometric optical properties. Based on the principle of image formation for paraxial rays in geometrical optics, the ray tracing matrix properties of an illumination in Digital Light Processing (DLP) system are derived by ABCD matrix method for paraxial optics and optical elements is considered as thin-lens approximation, including fly-eye lens array, relay lens and TIR prisms. Through the theory analysis according to the transfer matrix, dual-face fly-eye lens array is measured as a function to change beam angle instead of beam characteristics, which is compared with single-face fly-eye lens. Consequently, the second surface of dual-face fly-eye lens can be seen as a field lens which can reduce the relay system diameter. In addition, it has been found that the TIR prisms generate magnification astigmatism and different angle magnification in meridian plane and sagittal plane, when the light beam transmits the TIR prisms, and could not be ignored in the DLP system design. Thus, a novel off-axis illumination system which employed a cylindrical lens is developed. The research indicates that the imagery quality of relay lens system is ideal, and the novel system can solve the difficult problems about astigmatism and angle magnification.

  18. Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya

    2008-09-29

    Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic beams through paraxial ABCD optical systems operating through turbulent atmosphere is investigated with the help of the ABCD matrices and the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. In particular, the analytic formula is derived for the cross-spectral density matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam. We applied our analysis for the ABCD system with a single lens located on the propagation path, representing, in a particular case, the unfolded double-pass propagation scenario of active laser radar. Through a number of numerical examples we investigated the effect of local turbulence strength and lens' parameters on spectral, coherence and polarization properties of the EGSM beam.

  19. Modular Optical PDV System

    SciTech Connect

    Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

    2008-12-11

    A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

  20. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  1. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  2. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOEpatents

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  3. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOEpatents

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  4. Optical controlled keyboard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Długosz, Dariusz; Niewiarowski, Bartosz; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Control systems of our computers are common devices, based on the manipulation of keys or a moving ball. Completely healthy people have no problems with the operation of such devices. Human disability makes everyday activities become a challenge and create trouble. When a man can not move his hands, the work becomes difficult or often impossible. Controlled optical keyboard is a modern device that allows to bypass the limitations of disability limbs. The use of wireless optical transmission allows to control computer using a laser beam, which cooperates with the photodetectors. The article presents the construction and operation of non-contact optical keyboard for people with disabilities.

  5. ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at surfaces of hyperboloid of revolution and efficiency computation for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling by way of a hyperbolic lens on the fiber tip.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, S; Sarkar, S

    1997-11-20

    We report the formulation of an ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at the surfaces of the hyperboloid of revolution that separate media of different refractive indices. The analysis includes an arbitrary angle of incidence and is based on matching the optical phase at the interface. Finally, we deduce expressions for spot sizes and wave-front radii and use them to obtain the ABCD matrix. Based on the formulated ABCD matrix for refraction under paraxial approximation, we also report a simple theoretical investigation of the coupling efficiency of a laser diode to a single-mode fiber with a hyperbolic lens formed on its tip.

  6. Digital Optical Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  7. Modular optical detector system

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  8. Fiber optic multiplex optical transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A multiplex optical transmission system which minimizes external interference while simultaneously receiving and transmitting video, digital data, and audio signals is described. Signals are received into subgroup mixers for blocking into respective frequency ranges. The outputs of these mixers are in turn fed to a master mixer which produces a composite electrical signal. An optical transmitter connected to the master mixer converts the composite signal into an optical signal and transmits it over a fiber optic cable to an optical receiver which receives the signal and converts it back to a composite electrical signal. A de-multiplexer is coupled to the output of the receiver for separating the composite signal back into composite video, digital data, and audio signals. A programmable optic patch board is interposed in the fiber optic cables for selectively connecting the optical signals to various receivers and transmitters.

  9. Optical key system

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  10. Optical key system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

    2000-04-25

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  11. Active optical zoom system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Shen, Chuan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Chun-Mei

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we propose an active optical zoom system. The zoom module of the system is formed by a liquid lens and a spatial light modulator (SLM). By controlling the focal lengths of the liquid lens and the encoded digital lens on the SLM panel, we can change the magnification of an image without mechanical moving parts and keep the output plane stationary. The magnification can change from 1/3 to 3/2 as the focal length of the encoded lens on the SLM changes from infinity to 24 cm. The proposed active zoom system is simple and flexible, and has widespread application in optical communications, imaging systems, and displays.

  12. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  13. Binary optics at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logue, James; Power, Michael

    1993-01-01

    An overview of binary optics development at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems is presented. Design software used for mask design is presented. A brief discussion of fabrication follows. Two examples of actual projects are used to highlight the discussion: (1) a large aspheric lens; and (2) a set of grating and lenslet arrays.

  14. ABC Transporter Subfamily D: Distinct Differences in Behavior between ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 in Subcellular Localization, Function, and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes. On the other hand, ABCD4 is deduced to take part in the transport of vitamin B12 from lysosomes into the cytosol. It is well known that the dysfunction of ABCD1 results in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it is reported that ABCD3 and ABCD4 are responsible for hepatosplenomegaly and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. In this review, the targeting mechanism and physiological functions of the ABCD transporters are summarized along with the related disease. PMID:27766264

  15. Optical subscriber interconnect system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, Richard; Wolfgang, Hans; Strasser, Helmut

    1993-02-01

    To match the inherent needs of data traffic, office communications demand medium-speed connectionless packet transport in addition to circuit-switched voice and data transmission. Optical solutions to this requirement should be low in cost rather than extremely high in performance to be cost competitive with copper systems. A subscriber-premises system will be proposed which combines a digital private automatic branch exchange (PABX) with local area network (LAN) functionality. It is based on a double-star passive optical network, extending to optical wall outlets. The subsets with telephone functionality provide the opto/electrical conversion and give access to the packet channel via Terminal Adaptors (TA). Different types of customer LANs may coexist on the same network, since their data frames are embedded in an intermediate MAC-layer. The feasibility of transmission over multimode fibers at not aggregate bit rate of approx. 140 Mb/s at 1300 nm downstream and 780 nm upstream allowing the use of low-cost components (e.g. 780 nm compact-disc laser diodes) has been experimentally investigated. Calculations predict cost-of-ownership parity with conventional copper-based PABXs without LAN functionality and a cost-advantage over the usual separate LAN+PABX installations. The network topology, protocol and the implications of multimode transmission on the system will be discussed.

  16. East Indian Families Raising ABCD Adolescents: Cultural and Generational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Shruti S.

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…

  17. Optical systems engineering - A tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the use of the systems engineering approach in the design of optical systems, noting that the use of such an approach which involves an integrated interdisciplinary approach to the development of systems is most appropriate for optics. It is shown that the high precision character of optics leads to complex and subtle effects on optical system performance, resulting from structural, thermal dynamical, control system, and manufacturing and assembly considerations. Attention is given to communication problems that often occur among users and optical engineers due to the unique factors of optical systems. It is concluded that it is essential that the optics community provide leadership to resolve communication problems and fully formalize the field of optical systems engineering.

  18. Optical gyroscope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.; Goldstein, R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Light beams pass in opposite directions through a single mode fiber optic wave guide that extends in a circle or coil in an optical gyroscope system which measures the rotation rate of the coil by measuring the relative phase shifts of the beams by interferometric techniques. Beam splitting and phase shifting of the light are facilitated by utilizing brief pulses of light and by using light-controlling devices which are operated for a brief time only when the light pulse passes in one direction through the device but not at a different time when the pulse is passing in the opposite direction through the device. High accuracy in rotation measurement is achieved at both very slow and very fast rotation rates, by alternately operating the system so that at zero rotation the interfering waves are alternately 90 out of phase and in phase. Linear polarization of the light beams is maintained by coiling the full length of the optic fiber in a single plane.

  19. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  20. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  1. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  2. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system wherein a welding torch having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features include an actively cooled electrode holder which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm, and a weld pool contour detector comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom, being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  3. New keratoscope optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, A. V.; Puryayev, D. T.

    1995-06-01

    For successfully carrying out microsurgical operations and contact lens fitting it is necessary to measure the corneal shape with a precision of 50 μm within a time of 0.05 s without patient discomfort. Special devices, keratoscopes, are used for this purpose. A new keratoscope has been designed which provides a series of unique advantages: the ability to investigate a cornea of any complicated shape, and an insensitivity to positional errors of the patient's eye relative to the device. In addition, special mathematical algorithms and software for image processing have been developed. A working model of the new device is now being used successfully for patient treatment in the Fyodorov clinic (Moscow). The original device optical system enables one to apply it in the instrument-making industry for testing the complicated aspherical surfaces of optical elements used in laser equipment.

  4. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  5. PROSPECT: Optical Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Ken; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment (PROSPECT), is a short baseline, reactor neutrino experiment which focuses on measurements of the flux and energy spectrum of antineutrinos emitted from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using these measurements, PROSPECT will probe for eV-scale sterile neutrinos while making a high precision measurement of the U-235 antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT contains two phases; the first phase consists of a mobile detector near the reactor core while the second phase adds a larger fixed detector further from the core. The PROSPECT Phase 1 detector consists of a 2ton optically segmented liquid scintillator with each segment read-out by two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are calibrated with a photon source generated by a nanosecond pulsed laser. In this project, we developed a plan to determine the effectiveness of a 450nm fiber-pigtailed diode laser as it coupled with several modules including an optical fiber splitter, an optical diffuser, and an attenuator. The project tested for the system ability to deliver light uniformly to each of the cells in the detector. We will present the design and result of this project as well as discuss how it will be implemented in PROSPECT.

  6. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  7. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  8. Laser optical displacement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starritt, Larry W.; Matthews, Larryl K.

    1995-04-01

    The current quality of our nations bridges is on a decline. There are roughly half a million highway bridges in the United States and out of the half a million more than 200,000 are deficient. With catastrophic failure of bridges causing the loss of life and property, the need for bridge inspection and maintenance is evident. When the Silver Bridge that crossed the Ohio River collapsed in December 1967, 46 people were killed. The failure to prevent the disaster was attributed to the poor inspection techniques used by the bridge inspectors. Current inspection techniques depend on humans being able to recognize structural imperfections without the aid of instrumentation. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 mandated both national bridge inspection standards and training for bridge inspectors. This act has encouraged the development of instruments that would allow inspectors to perform more complete inspections of bridges. To improve the quality of inspection and data, there is a great need for proven methods and instruments used to acquire data. The Laser Optical Displacement System (L.O.D.S.) developed at New Mexico State University by the Optical and Materials Science Lab is such a device. The L.O.D.S. has been tested and proven in both laboratory situations and in the field. This paper describes some of the methods that are now being used to measure deflections in bridges. Then, a description of the development and application of the L.O.D.S. unit is given.

  9. Propagation equation of Hermite-Gauss beams through a complex optical system with apertures and its application to focal shift.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sun; Jin, Guo; Tingfeng, Wang

    2013-07-01

    Based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral (Collins' formula), the propagation equation of Hermite-Gauss beams through a complex optical system with a limiting aperture is derived. The elements of the optical system may be all those characterized by an ABCD ray-transfer matrix, as well as any kind of apertures represented by complex transmittance functions. To obtain the analytical expression, we expand the aperture transmittance function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions. Thus the limiting aperture is expressed as a superposition of a series of Gaussian-shaped limiting apertures. The advantage of this treatment is that we can treat almost all kinds of apertures in theory. As application, we define the width of the beam and the focal plane using an encircled-energy criterion and calculate the intensity distribution of Hermite-Gauss beams at the actual focus of an aperture lens.

  10. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  11. Optical power source control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husbands, C. R.

    1984-05-01

    An optical power source control system having a four port optical coupler, an optical receiver and associated comparator circuits operably connected to the optical transmission line connecting the source to an output connector. When the output connector is mated with another connector, the receiver senses the optical energy reflected from the glass/air and air/glass interfaces of the connectors and provides an appropriate signal. This signal is sufficiently high when compared to a threshold voltage level to permit the power source to operate. When the output connector is in the unmated condition the reflected optical power from the air/glass interface is no longer present and therefore the signal from the receiver falls below the threshold voltage level. With this reduced signal level, power flow to the optical source is removed or reduced thereby controlling the operation of the optical power source.

  12. Multiaperture optical system research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Richard T.

    1987-11-01

    A basic and applied research program concerned with multiaperture optics is described. The intent is to explore to what extent the principles of the insect eye can be incorporated into the design of optical instruments. The advantages and disadvantages of multiaperture optics are investigated in the basic part of the program. The applied part of the program was devoted to the design and construction of prototype instruments based on the design information generated during the basic part of the program.

  13. Future Optical Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Networking Equipment Revenue and Forecast, 2000-2017 Sources: KMI, Infonetics, Ovum -RHK, OIDA member companies, TIA, IDC, CIR, Gartner, Dell’Oro, Aventis...quarter seasonality marks a re- turn to normal, established business patterns. Figure 10: Optical Transport Equipment Market ($M) Source: Ovum ...Goldman Sachs Optical Transceivers Figure 14 shows the optical transceiver market and forecast from 2000 to 2011. Ovum forecasts that Ethernet

  14. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  15. Optical modulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication, test, and delivery of an optical modulator system which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser indicating at either 1.06 or 0.53 micrometers is discussed. The delivered hardware operates at data rates up to 400 Mbps and includes a 0.53 micrometer electrooptic modulator, a 1.06 micrometer electrooptic modulator with power supply and signal processing electronics with power supply. The modulators contain solid state drivers which accept digital signals with MECL logic levels, temperature controllers to maintain a stable thermal environment for the modulator crystals, and automatic electronic compensation to maximize the extinction ratio. The modulators use two lithium tantalate crystals cascaded in a double pass configuration. The signal processing electronics include encoding electronics which are capable of digitizing analog signals between the limit of + or - 0.75 volts at a maximum rate of 80 megasamples per second with 5 bit resolution. The digital samples are serialized and made available as a 400 Mbps serial NRZ data source for the modulators. A pseudorandom (PN) generator is also included in the signal processing electronics. This data source generates PN sequences with lengths between 31 bits and 32,767 bits in a serial NRZ format at rates up to 400 Mbps.

  16. System for testing optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  17. System for testing optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Golob, J.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.; Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector. 2 figs.

  18. Optical aberration compensation in a multiplexed optical trapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čižmár, T.; Dalgarno, H. I. C.; Ashok, P. C.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Dholakia, K.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we discuss optical aberrations within a multiplexed optical trapping system. We analyze two of the most powerful methods for optical trap multiplexing: time-shared beam steering and holographic beam shaping in a tandem system with an acousto-optic deflector and spatial light modulator. We show how to isolate and correct for the aberrations introduced by these individual optical components using the spatial light modulator and demonstrate the enhancement this provides to optical trapping.

  19. Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Optical Network with Physical Star Topology," Advanced Fiber Communications Technologies , Leonid G. Kazovsky... advances in the performance and capabilities of optical fiber communication systems. While some of these technologies are interrelated (for example...multi gigabit per second hybrid circuit/packet switched lightwave network ," Proc. SPIE Advanced Fiber Communications Technologies , Boston 󈨟, Sept.

  20. Tolerancing the LITE optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Mark E.

    This paper describes the optical system used in the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) and presents the results of a study designed to generate a tolerance budget for the LITE, using the combination of manual and Monte Carlo tolerancing techniques utilizing the SYNOPSYS optical analysis program. The tolerance budget derived for LITE, including the contributions of both the fabrication and the alignment of the optical-path elements, are presented. It is shown that the nature of the design allows for typical optical shop tolerances of about 5 mils of despace and decenter, 0.1 deg of tilt, and about 5 fringes of surface figure error.

  1. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  2. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  3. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Background and MURI Program Objectives Chromogenic phenomena (for example: electrochromism, photochromism , thermochromism, piezochromism, and...achieving real time tunability of optical properties of materials. Photochromism and electrochromism in polymeric and organic materials have been...chromogenic phenomena, especially electrochromism, photochromism , photoelectrochromism, thermochromism, tunable luminescence, and tunable reflection, in

  4. "Now I Know My ABCDs": Asset-Based Community Development with School Children in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Butterfield, Alice K.; Yeneabat, Mulu; Moxley, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Asset-based community development (ABCD) is a promising practice for communities to engage in self-determination through the efforts residents invest in identifying community assets, framing and documenting the issues communities face, and taking action to advance quality of life. The ABCD literature does not report on the application of ABCD…

  5. The evolution of melanoma diagnosis: 25 years beyond the ABCDs.

    PubMed

    Rigel, Darrell S; Russak, Julie; Friedman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in lowering mortality from this cancer. Recognizing the importance of this issue 25 years ago, our group at New York University published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians the mnemonic "ABCD" to facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma. Studies have demonstrated the usefulness of this paradigm in enhancing early melanoma diagnosis as a part of clinical examinations, mass screenings, and public education programs. Approaches to melanoma diagnosis have dynamically evolved during the ensuing quarter century. In the 1990s, dermoscopy enabled the recognition of new subsurface features to differentiate between malignant and benign pigmented lesions. During the last decade, new computer-based technologies have improved diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and may result in optimizing lesion selection for biopsy and pathology review. Despite all of the advances in melanoma diagnosis, timely recognition, detection, and rapid treatment of melanoma remain critical. Although pathologic examination remains the gold standard for diagnosis, this cancer has the potential to be diagnosed through noninvasive approaches because of its cutaneous location. From the development of the ABCDs through current attempts that use complex computer algorithms and genetic markers, a clinician's ability to detect melanoma in its earliest form has been augmented. However, a "good clinical eye" is still fundamental to selecting the lesions for evaluation among the sea of those that are prevalent. As current approaches are refined and new techniques are developed, the improved ability to diagnose this cancer will hopefully enhance reaching the goal of reducing melanoma mortality.

  6. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1994-02-22

    A nonimaging illumination or concentration optical device. An optical device is provided having a light source, a light reflecting surface with an opening and positioned partially around the light source which is opposite the opening of the light reflecting surface. The light reflecting surface is disposed to produce a substantially uniform intensity output with the reflecting surface defined in terms of a radius vector R.sub.i in conjunction with an angle .phi..sub.i between R.sub.i, a direction from the source and an angle .theta..sub.i between direct forward illumination and the light ray reflected once from the reflecting surface. R.sub.i varies as the exponential of tan (.phi..sub.i -.theta..sub.i)/2 integrated over .phi..sub.i.

  7. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  8. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1998-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  9. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    2000-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  10. Optical Detection System Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    cases the wavelength 7 II TABLE 2 SAMPLE CONTENTS OF OPTICAL MATERIAL FILE ODSOPT.INP SRF2 3.000 0.120 13.000 9.000 0.120 0.100 0.130 0.600 0.200 0.850...N THESE ARE THE AVAILABLE FILTER TYPES: CORNING VYCOR SILICA MGF2 SRF2 VYC7905 INFRASIL SAPPHIRE MGO 1102 CDISE CBS CDTE SE ZNSE CAF2 DIAMOND

  11. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland

    1994-08-02

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing selected intensity output over an angular range. The device includes a light reflecting surface (24, 26) around a light source (22) which is disposed opposite the aperture opening of the light reflecting surface (24, 26). The light source (22) has a characteristic dimension which is small relative to one or more of the distance from the light source (22) to the light reflecting surface (24, 26) or the angle subtended by the light source (22) at the light reflecting surface (24, 26).

  12. Precision optical navigation guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubov, D.; McCormick, K.; Nolan, P.; Johnson, D.; Dellosa, M.; Volfson, L.; Fallahpour, A.; Willner, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the new precision optical navigation guidance system approach that provides continuous, high quality range and bearing data to fixed wing aircraft during landing approach to an aircraft carrier. The system uses infrared optical communications to measure range between ship and aircraft with accuracy and precision better than 1 meter at ranges more than 7.5 km. The innovative receiver design measures bearing from aircraft to ship with accuracy and precision better than 0.5 mRad. The system provides real-time range and bearing updates to multiple aircraft at rates up to several kHz, and duplex data transmission between ship and aircraft.

  13. Imaging performance tests of diffractive optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jianchao; Su, Yun; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yue; Jin, Jiangao

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive optical imaging is a new method to realize high-resolution imaging from geostationary orbit(GEO). Technical advantages of diffractive optical imaging is analyzed in the field of space optics. For application of super large diameter space optical system, the system scheme and a new achromatic method is proposed. An imaging system is developed and tested, the result of optical system wavefront is 0.169λ(RMS), optical system MTF is 0.85, and the imaging system MTF is 0.19. Test results show the new achromatic method is feasible. The above conclusions have reference significance for the development of super large diameter diffractive optical imaging system.

  14. Roadmap on quantum optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumke, Rainer; Lu, Zehuang; Close, John; Robins, Nick; Weis, Antoine; Mukherjee, Manas; Birkl, Gerhard; Hufnagel, Christoph; Amico, Luigi; Boshier, Malcolm G.; Dieckmann, Kai; Li, Wenhui; Killian, Thomas C.

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap bundles fast developing topics in experimental optical quantum sciences, addressing current challenges as well as potential advances in future research. We have focused on three main areas: quantum assisted high precision measurements, quantum information/simulation, and quantum gases. Quantum assisted high precision measurements are discussed in the first three sections, which review optical clocks, atom interferometry, and optical magnetometry. These fields are already successfully utilized in various applied areas. We will discuss approaches to extend this impact even further. In the quantum information/simulation section, we start with the traditionally successful employed systems based on neutral atoms and ions. In addition the marvelous demonstrations of systems suitable for quantum information is not progressing, unsolved challenges remain and will be discussed. We will also review, as an alternative approach, the utilization of hybrid quantum systems based on superconducting quantum devices and ultracold atoms. Novel developments in atomtronics promise unique access in exploring solid-state systems with ultracold gases and are investigated in depth. The sections discussing the continuously fast-developing quantum gases include a review on dipolar heteronuclear diatomic gases, Rydberg gases, and ultracold plasma. Overall, we have accomplished a roadmap of selected areas undergoing rapid progress in quantum optics, highlighting current advances and future challenges. These exciting developments and vast advances will shape the field of quantum optics in the future.

  15. Wyko Systems For Optical Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creath, Katherine

    1987-03-01

    WYKO produces interferometer systems for a number of optical metrology applications. Systems to be discussed include: WISP, an interferogram analysis package that uses input from a graphics digitizing tablet or video camera; TOPO, a microscope system for profiling surfaces such as mirrors, hard disks, magnetic tape, and paint; SIRIS, used to test optical components ranging in size from a millimeter to meters; IR3, a 10.6 μm Twyman-Green interferometer for testing up to 16-in, diameter objects; LADITE, a wavefront analysis system whose major application is the testing of diode lasers; HOLOCAM, for quantitative holographic interferometry; and MAX, a projected fringe contouring system. All products but WISP use phase-measurement interferometry principles to obtain data. This paper gives the general operational principles of these systems and describes some of their applications and results.

  16. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  17. Multiaperture Optical System Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    object point. The correlation albeit being non- immaging is unambigous but also multiple, allowing verification by coincidence. The advantages of...neighboring FOVs. Such an arrangement will allow the detectors monitoring the overlapping FOVs to compare notes which can be exploited for motion detection...element is comparable with the detector size and since the detector size limits the resolving power, the overall size of the system is necessarily small

  18. Atmospheric Optical Communication Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Tnteral system noise due to dark current id is Oven by . 1d = 2qGrB"" (2-9) Dark current is due to detecor biasing in some instances, and in somue...8217 without extansive pro- gr-=:ing exer’ence. Although. the znodel is designed to be Lteracdve, slight mod-.- i~cadons winl ezw :&31 r~ing of the progrsm

  19. System for testing optical fibers

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Terence J.; Franks, Larry A.; Nelson, Melvin A.

    1981-01-01

    A system for nondestructively determining the attenuation coefficient, .alpha.(.lambda.), of low-loss optical fiber wave guides. Cerenkov light pulses are generated at a plurality of locations in the fiber by a beam of charged particles. The transit times of selected spectral components and their intensities are utilized to unfold the .alpha.(.lambda.) values over the measured spectrum.

  20. Chaotic systems in optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siuzdak, J.

    2016-09-01

    Communications application of chaotic oscillations of lasers with optoelectronic feedback was discussed. The possibility of eavesdropping of the transmission was analyzed. It was proved that if the rogue party precisely knows parameters of the chaotic system it may recreate the entire signals solely by observation of the optical signal power causing security breach.

  1. CP symmetry in optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Brenda; Bahabad, Alon; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a model of a dual-core optical waveguide with opposite signs of the group-velocity dispersion in the two cores, and a phase-velocity mismatch between them. The coupler is embedded into an active host medium, which provides for the linear coupling of a gain-loss type between the two cores. The same system can be derived, without phenomenological assumptions, by considering the three-wave propagation in a medium with the quadratic nonlinearity, provided that the depletion of the second-harmonic pump is negligible. This linear system offers an optical realization of the charge-parity symmetry, while the addition of the intracore cubic nonlinearity breaks the symmetry. By means of direct simulations and analytical approximations, it is demonstrated that the linear system generates expanding Gaussian states, while the nonlinear one gives rise to broad oscillating solitons, as well as a general family of stable stationary gap solitons.

  2. Optical isolator system for fiber-optic uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George

    1988-01-01

    A low loss optical isolator suitable for fiber-optic uses has been assembled from commercial components. The isolator exhibits reverse isolation of greater than 70 dB, with a forward loss of less than 1.3dB. This system provides an effective approach for reducing instabilities encountered in the output signal of semiconductor lasers in certain applications of fiber-optic systems. The paper presents a phenomenological explanation for the superior performance of the isolator system.

  3. Optical isolator system for fiber-optic uses.

    PubMed

    Lutes, G

    1988-04-01

    A low loss optical isolator suitable for fiber-optic uses has been assembled from commercial components. The isolator exhibits reverse isolation of >70 dB, with a forward loss of <1.3 dB. This system provides an effective approach for reducing instabilities encountered in the output signal of semiconductor lasers in certain applications of fiber-optic systems. The paper presents a phenomenological explanation for the superior performance of the isolator system.

  4. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Diels, Jean-Claude M.

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  5. Thermal/Optical analysis of optical system of star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Si-yu; Huang, Yi-fan

    2011-08-01

    Spacecraft would be expected to encounter diverse extreme environmental (EE) conditions throughout their mission phases. These EE conditions are often coupled. Star tracker is a high accurate 3-axis attitude measuring instrument used in various spacecrafts. In this paper, an effective scheme to the thermal/optical analysis in optical system of star sensor was described and the concept of thermal optical analysis of star tracker optical system was introduced in detail. Using finite element analysis (FEA) and ray tracing, we can study the relationship of optical properties of optical systems and optical system's temperature distribution . A lens system configuration having six uncemented elements was discussed. The lens system was a 56mm EFL, which was different from common lens used in imaging system that this lens system was required to have a high resolving power in design thoughts. It was designed to determine the attitude of space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars. Based on this system, the FEA models of the optical system were established for temperature distribution calculation and for thermal-elastic structural deformation analysis respectively. Using the models, the steady-state temperature distributions of the tracker were simulated. The rigid body displacements of the optical components under homogeneous temperature changes and certain temperature distributions were derived out. It is convenient to use Zernike polynomials as the data transmission between optical and structural analysis programs. Here, Zernike polynomials and their fitting method are used as an example to determine the thermal induced optical degradations of the optical system.

  6. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  7. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  8. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  9. Optical Strain Measurement System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of physical phenomena affecting the durability of SSME components require measurement systems operational in hostile environments. The need for such instrumentation caused the definition and operation of an optical strain measurement system. This optical strain measurement system based on the speckle shift method is being developed. This is a noncontact, automatic method of measuring surface strain in one dimension that corrects for error due to rigid body motion. It provides a gauge length of 1 to 2 mm and allows the region of interest on the test specimen to be mapped point by point. The output is a graphics map of the points inspected on the specimen; data points is stored in quasi-real time. This is the first phase of a multiphase effort in optical strain measurement. The speckle pattern created by the test specimen is interpreted as high order interference fringes resulting from a random diffraction grating, being the natural surface roughness of the specimen. Strain induced on the specimen causes a change in spacing of the surface roughness, which in turn shifts the position of the interference pattern (speckles).

  10. Optical fiber data transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    This Phase 2 effort applies the results of Phase 1 to design and fabricate an optical slip ring system for a helicopter rotor blade/wind tunnel application. In this application, there are two assemblies: one on the rotating portion of the mechanical system, one on the stationary portion. The assembly on the rotating portion digitizes and encodes 128 transducer signals from various parts of the blade, and optically transfers data across the noncontacting coupling. Two complete identical independent channels are provided. On the stationary side, the signals are decoded and one channel is transmitted in digital form to a computer for recording and analysis. The second channel reconstructs the analog transducer signals for real time observation. In the opposite direction, eight signal channels enable control signals to be passed from the stationary to the rotating part of the system. Power to the rotor mounted electronics is supplied via power slip rings. The advantages of the optical over the traditional electro-mechanical slip ring method of data transfer across a rotating joint are long life, low-maintenance, immunity to crosstalk, and wider bandwidth. Successful completion of this effort demonstrated that this method is practical and reliable, and can be implemented under difficult conditions of available space, power, environment, and stringent performance and equipment life requirements.

  11. Architecture for an advanced biomedical collaboration domain for the European paediatric cancer research community (ABCD-4-E).

    PubMed

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Gossy, Christian; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Today, progress in biomedical research often depends on large, interdisciplinary research projects and tailored information and communication technology (ICT) support. In the context of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project the exchange of data between data source (Source Domain) and data consumer (Consumer Domain) systems in a distributed computing environment needs to be facilitated. This work presents the requirements and the corresponding solution architecture of the Advanced Biomedical Collaboration Domain for Europe (ABCD-4-E). The proposed concept utilises public as well as private cloud systems, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and web-based applications to provide the core capabilities in accordance with privacy and security needs. The utility of crucial parts of the concept was evaluated by prototypic implementation. A discussion of the design indicates that the requirements of ENCCA are fully met. A whole system demonstration is currently being prepared to verify that ABCD-4-E has the potential to evolve into a domain-bridging collaboration platform in the future.

  12. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  13. Optical analysis of electro-optical systems by MTF calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarini, Elisa Signoreto; Dos Santos, Daniel, Jr.; Stefani, Mário Antonio; Yasuoka, Fátima Maria Mitsue; Castro Neto, Jarbas C.; Rodrigues, Evandro Luís Linhari

    2011-08-01

    One of the widely used methods for performance analysis of an optical system is the determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The MTF represents a quantitative and direct measure of image quality, and, besides being an objective test, it can be used on concatenated optical system. This paper presents the application of software called SMTF (software modulation transfer function), built in C++ and Open CV platforms for MTF calculation on electro-optical system. Through this technique, it is possible to develop specific method to measure the real time performance of a digital fundus camera, an infrared sensor and an ophthalmological surgery microscope. Each optical instrument mentioned has a particular device to measure the MTF response, which is being developed. Then the MTF information assists the analysis of the optical system alignment, and also defines its resolution limit by the MTF graphic. The result obtained from the implemented software is compared with the theoretical MTF curve from the analyzed systems.

  14. Pioneer imaging photopolarimeter optical system.

    PubMed

    Pellicori, S F; Russell, E E; Watts, L A

    1973-06-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft en route to the vicinity of Jupiter is described. This instrument is capable of moderate resolution spin-scan imaging and high precision polarimetric and photometric mapping of Jupiter in red and blue light. The field of view can be selectively changed from 0.50 mrad square to 40 mrad square to accommodate resolution and radiance combinations ranging from the zodiacal background to that of Jupiter. The dynamic range (radiance) of the instrument is greater than 10(8). Optical materials were chosen to survive, with minimum degradation, the rigors of a nearly 2-year journey to Jupiter including transit through the Jovian trapped radiation belts. The optics are described in detail, and the operational system is outlined. The procedures for preflight and in-flight calibration are described, and some performance characteristics and preliminary flight results are presented.

  15. Melanomas non-invasive diagnosis application based on the ABCD rule and pattern recognition image processing algorithms.

    PubMed

    Isasi, A Gola; Zapirain, B García; Zorrilla, A Méndez

    2011-09-01

    In this paper an automated dermatological tool for the parameterization of melanomas is presented. The system is based on the standard ABCD Rule and dermatological Pattern Recognition protocols. On the one hand, a complete stack of algorithms for the asymmetry, border, color, and diameter parameterization were developed. On the other hand, three automatic algorithms for digital image processing have been developed in order to detect the appropriate patterns. These allow one to calculate certain quantitative features based on the aspect and inner patterns of the melanoma using simple-operation algorithms, in order to minimize response time. The database used consists of 160 500 x 500-pixel RGB images (20 images per pattern) cataloged by dermatologists, and the results have turned out to be successful according to assessment by medical experts. While the ABCD algorithms are mathematically reliable, the proposed algorithms for pattern recognition produced a remarkable rate of globular, reticular, and blue veil Pattern recognition, with an average above 85% of accuracy. It thus proves to be a reliable system when performing a diagnosis.

  16. CRT electron-optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Shoji

    1995-09-01

    CRT is the most successful electron optical system, commercially. Over a hundred million systems are produced each year, and distributed to the whole world as television sets or personal computers. Therefore, the system has to be extremely cost and power effective, and ergonomics is the important issue at its design. Also, CRT has to be bright enough to be watched in the luminous living or office room. Therefore, electron beam current and anode voltage (CRT screen voltage) are as high as 0.5 to 7 mA and 20 to 33 kV, respectively. These unique restrictions cause unique electron lens design such as in-line rotationally asymmetrical lens or dynamic quadrupole lens and deflection yoke design such as self converging deflection yoke which produces barrel shaped vertical and pin-cushion shaped horizontal magnetic fields. In this paper the recent technical advancement and future trends of the CRT electron optical system will be discussed. The discussion will be restricted only to the picture tube, and other devices such as camera tube, oscilloscope tube will be excluded.

  17. Electro-Optic Surface Field Imaging System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    ELECTRO - OPTIC SURFACE FIELD IMAGING SYSTEM L. E. Kingsley and W. R. Donaldson LABORATORY FOR LASER ENERGETICS University of Rochester 250 East...surface electric fields present during switch operation. The electro - optic , or Pockel’s effect, provides an extremely useful probe of surface electric...fields. Using the electro - optic effect, surface fields can be measured with an optical probe. This paper describes an electro - optic probe which is

  18. Establishing Information Security Systems via Optical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-11

    for Fig. 13(b) is 6.83 dB. Figure 13(c) shows a recovered object , when only setup parameters are wrong (wavelength error of 10.0 nm and distance...The research goal is to establish information security systems via optical imaging, the primary objective is to develop optical imaging technologies...TERMS Optical Imaging, Optical Cryptosystems , Diffractive Imaging, Optical Encryption 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18

  19. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  20. System of optical noncontact microtopography.

    PubMed

    Costa, M F; Almeida, J B

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we describe a method of noncontact optical microtopography based on discrete triangulation. We show that a light beam with an oblique incidence on a surface can be used to assess the distance of the latter to a reference plane if the bright spot produced on the surface is imaged onto an array of detectors that tracks its lateral displacement. The light beam is swept over the surface so that large areas can be scanned. The authors have used their system with success for the topographic inspection of several surfaces, e.g., thin copper and silver films, polyethylene rough films and molds, graphite, machined metallic parts, and fabrics.

  1. Optical fibre gas detections systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This tutorial review covers the principles of and prospects for fibre optic sensor technology in gas detection. Many of the potential benefits common to fibre sensor technology also apply in the context of gas sensing - notably long distance - many km - access to multiple remote measurement points; invariably intrinsic safety; access to numerous important gas species and often uniquely high levels of selectivity and/or sensitivity. Furthermore, the range of fibre sensor network architectures - single point, multiple point and distributed - enable unprecedented flexibility in system implementation. Additionally, competitive technologies and regulatory issues contribute to final application potential.

  2. Synthesis of optical system from reflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, Victor A.; Pozhinskaya, Irina I.; Sobolev, Kirill; Jurova, Svetlana

    1996-10-01

    The possible element of telescope optical system with the composite aperture can be two-mirror system, consisting of two confocal paraboloids (Mersen system). This system is an aplanatic anastigmat for infinite target. Its obvious deficiency is the image field curvature. The ways of its elimination are defined by the application of optical system. The possible versions of their constructive realization are considered.

  3. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  4. Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiuxiang

    2007-12-24

    The propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an arbitrary ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity at any receiver plane are obtained. As an elementary example, the average intensity and its radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens are studied. To show the effects of a lens on the average intensity and the intensity radius of the laser beam in turbulent atmosphere, the properties of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam and a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied and numerically calculated. The average intensity profiles of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens can have a shape similar to that of the initial beam for a longer propagation distance than that of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. With the increment in the propagation distance, the average intensity radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens will be smaller than that at the focal plane of a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. Meanwhile, the intensity distributions at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens with different w(0) and Omega(0) are also studied.

  5. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  6. Wide field strip-imaging optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Arthur H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strip imaging wide angle optical system is provided. The optical system is provided with a 'virtual' material stop to avoid aberrational effects inherent in wide angle optical systems. The optical system includes a spherical mirror section for receiving light from a 180-degree strip or arc of a target image. Light received by the spherical mirror section is reflected to a frusto-conical mirror section for subsequent rereflection to a row of optical fibers. Each optical fiber transmits a portion of the received light to a detector. The optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance associated with optical fibers to substantially eliminate vignetting effects inherent in wide-angle systems. Further, the optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance of the optical fibers to substantially limit spherical aberration. The optical system is ideally suited for any application wherein a 180-degree strip image need be detected, and is particularly well adapted for use in hostile environments such as in planetary exploration.

  7. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  8. The ERIS adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Fedrigo, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Soenke, Christian; Brast, Roland; Conzelmann, Ralf; Delabre, Bernard; Duchateau, Michel; Frank, Christoph; Klein, Barbara; Amico, Paola; Hubin, Norbert; Esposito, Simone; Antichi, Jacopo; Carbonaro, Luca; Puglisi, Alfio; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the new Adaptive Optics based instrument for ESO's VLT aiming at replacing NACO and SINFONI to form a single compact facility with AO fed imaging and integral field unit spectroscopic scientific channels. ERIS completes the instrument suite at the VLT adaptive telescope. In particular it is equipped with a versatile AO system that delivers up to 95% Strehl correction in K band for science observations up to 5 micron It comprises high order NGS and LGS correction enabling the observation from exoplanets to distant galaxies with a large sky coverage thanks to the coupling of the LGS WFS with the high sensitivity of its visible WFS and the capability to observe in dust embedded environment thanks to its IR low order WFS. ERIS will be installed at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT unit hosting the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). The wavefront correction is provided by the AOF deformable secondary mirror while the Laser Guide Star is provided by one of the four launch units of the 4 Laser Guide Star Facility for the AOF. The overall layout of the ERIS AO system is extremely compact and highly optimized: the SPIFFI spectrograph is fed directly by the Cassegrain focus and both the NIX's (IR imager) and SPIFFI's entrance windows work as visible/infrared dichroics. In this paper we describe the concept of the ERIS AO system in detail, starting from the requirements and going through the estimated performance, the opto-mechanical design and the Real-Time Computer design.

  9. ERIS adaptive optics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Soenke, Christian; Fedrigo, Enrico; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Hubin, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics facility (AOF). It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is planned for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project is currently in its Phase A awaiting for approval to continue to the next phases. The Adaptive Optics system of ERIS will include two wavefront sensors (WFS) to maximize the coverage of the proposed sciences cases. The first is a high order 40x40 Pyramid WFS (PWFS) for on axis Natural Guide Star (NGS) observations. The second is a high order 40x40 Shack-Hartmann WFS for single Laser Guide Stars (LGS) observations. The PWFS, with appropriate sub-aperture binning, will serve also as low order NGS WFS in support to the LGS mode with a field of view patrolling capability of 2 arcmin diameter. Both WFSs will be equipped with the very low read-out noise CCD220 based camera developed for the AOF. The real-time reconstruction and control is provided by a SPARTA real-time platform adapted to support both WFS modes. In this paper we will present the ERIS AO system in all its main aspects: opto-mechanical design, real-time computer design, control and calibrations strategy. Particular emphasis will be given to the system performance obtained via dedicated numerical simulations.

  10. A mathematical analysis of the ABCD criteria for diagnosing malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Kwon, Kiwoon

    2017-03-01

    The medical community currently employs the ABCD (asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter of the lesion) criteria in the early diagnosis of a malignant melanoma. Although many image segmentation and classification methods are used to analyze the ABCD criteria, it is rare to see a study containing mathematical justification of the parameters that are used to quantify the ABCD criteria. In this paper, we suggest new parameters to assess asymmetry, border irregularity, and color variegation, and explain the mathematical meaning of the parameters. The suggested parameters are then tested with 24 skin samples. The parameters suggested for the 24 skin samples are displayed in three-dimensional coordinates and are compared to those presented in other studies (Ercal et al 1994 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41 837–45, Cheerla and Frazier 2014 Int. J. Innovative Res. Sci., Eng. Technol. 3 9164–83) in terms of Pearson correlation coefficient and classification accuracy in determining the malignancy of the lesions.

  11. Optical Technology: Interacting with Traditional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Karen

    1987-01-01

    Reviews optical technology products currently on the market, including their storage capacities, formats and uses, and outlines the benefits of integrating optical storage devices with online databases. A description of the HAYSTACK system is offered as a model of optical technology for library applications. A suggested reading list is provided.…

  12. GridOPTICS Software System

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Bora A; Ciraci, PNNL Selim; Gibson, PNNL Tara; Rice, PNNL Mark; Sharma, PNNL Poorva; Yin, PNNL Jian; Allwardt, PNNL Craig; PNNL,

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allow power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.

  13. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  14. THE SHADOW BOX OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A simple replacement for the Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) was designed and built at NRL for use as a research tool in the experimental...transport, and simple to maintain. Experimental evaluation of two proposed landing systems, the Laterally Compounded Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System

  15. Accuracy of optical navigation systems for automatic head surgery: optical tracking versus optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Díaz, Jesús; Riva, Mauro H.; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    The choice of a navigation system highly depends on the medical intervention and its accuracy demands. The most commonly used systems for image guided surgery (IGS) are based on optical and magnetic tracking systems. This paper compares two optical systems in terms of accuracy: state of the art triangulation-based optical tracking (OT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We use an experimental setup with a combined OCT and cutting laser, and an external OT. We simulate a robotic assisted surgical intervention, including planning, navigation, and processing, and compare the accuracies reached at a specific target with each navigation system.

  16. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  17. Optical Potential Field Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical system for creating a potential field map of a bounded two dimensional region containing a goal location and an arbitrary number of obstacles. The potential field mapping system has an imaging device and a processor. Two image writing modes are used by the imaging device, electron deposition and electron depletion. Patterns written in electron deposition mode appear black and expand. Patterns written in electron depletion mode are sharp and appear white. The generated image represents a robot's workspace. The imaging device under processor control then writes a goal location in the work-space using the electron deposition mode. The black image of the goal expands in the workspace. The processor stores the generated images, and uses them to generate a feedback pattern. The feedback pattern is written in the workspace by the imaging device in the electron deposition mode to enhance the expansion of the original goal pattern. After the feedback pattern is written, an obstacle pattern is written by the imaging device in the electron depletion mode to represent the obstacles in the robot's workspace. The processor compares a stored image to a previously stored image to determine a change therebetween. When no change occurs, the processor averages the stored images to produce the potential field map.

  18. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  19. Patterns in a Nonlinear Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, F. T.; Ramazza, P. L.

    We discuss the general features of patten formation in nonlinear optics, regarding the system sizes along the coordinates longitudinal and transverse to the wavefront propagation as the crucial parameters in determining the possible dynamical behaviours. As a specific example of optical pattern forming system, we review the phenomena observed in a prototypical nonlinear interferometer formed by a Kerr-like medium with optical feedback. Particular attention is devoted to the role of nonlocal interactions in determining the pattern forming scenarios observed.

  20. Silicon retina for optical tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohbehn, K.; Jenkins, R. E.; Sun, X.; Andreou, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    There are a host of position sensors, such as quadcells and CCD's, which are candidates for detecting optical position errors and providing error signals for a mirror positioning loop. We are developing a novel, very high bandwidth, biologically inspired position sensor for optical position tracking systems. We present recent test results and design issues for the use of biologically inspired silicon retinas for spaceborne optical position tracking systems.

  1. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  2. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  3. Optics Toolbox: An Intelligent Relational Database System For Optical Designers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Scott W.; Hopkins, Robert E.

    1986-12-01

    Optical designers were among the first to use the computer as an engineering tool. Powerful programs have been written to do ray-trace analysis, third-order layout, and optimization. However, newer computing techniques such as database management and expert systems have not been adopted by the optical design community. For the purpose of this discussion we will define a relational database system as a database which allows the user to specify his requirements using logical relations. For example, to search for all lenses in a lens database with a F/number less than two, and a half field of view near 28 degrees, you might enter the following: FNO < 2.0 and FOV of 28 degrees ± 5% Again for the purpose of this discussion, we will define an expert system as a program which contains expert knowledge, can ask intelligent questions, and can form conclusions based on the answers given and the knowledge which it contains. Most expert systems store this knowledge in the form of rules-of-thumb, which are written in an English-like language, and which are easily modified by the user. An example rule is: IF require microscope objective in air and require NA > 0.9 THEN suggest the use of an oil immersion objective The heart of the expert system is the rule interpreter, sometimes called an inference engine, which reads the rules and forms conclusions based on them. The use of a relational database system containing lens prototypes seems to be a viable prospect. However, it is not clear that expert systems have a place in optical design. In domains such as medical diagnosis and petrology, expert systems are flourishing. These domains are quite different from optical design, however, because optical design is a creative process, and the rules are difficult to write down. We do think that an expert system is feasible in the area of first order layout, which is sufficiently diagnostic in nature to permit useful rules to be written. This first-order expert would emulate an expert

  4. Teaching How to Write Instructional Objectives to Pre-Service Language Teachers through the ABCD Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the ABCD model as a way to train teachers of English to write clear and specific objectives. It is stated here that most of the instructional objectives written by pre-service teachers are inadequately formulated. With this in mind, pre-service teachers (n = 46) were trained in writing instructional objectives…

  5. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  6. Comparison of dermatoscopic ABCD rule and risk stratification in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lorentzen, H; Weismann, K; Kenet, R O; Secher, L; Larsen, F G

    2000-01-01

    For didactic and documentation purposes the dermatoscopic ABCD rule and the dermatoscopic risk stratification have been proposed. The aim of this investigation was to compare the ability of the 2 methods to separate patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma from individuals with other pigmented skin lesions. Three dermatologists, experienced users of dermatoscopy, assessed macroscopic clinical and dermatoscopic slides from 258 patients referred to the skin cancer outpatient clinic by the ABCD rule and risk stratification methods. Diagnostic performance of the 2 methods was compared by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. When all pigmented skin lesions were compared, there was a trend for the observers to perform better using risk stratification. When only lesions with a well-defined pigment network were included, the diagnostic performance of the risk stratification method was superior to the dermatoscopic ABCD rule (areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve median 0.93 vs. 0.80, p<0.004) for all observers. The agreement between the 2 methods was moderate to substantial (kappa coefficient 0.53-0.62). More melanomas were identified when the rules were combined. The dermatoscopic ABCD rule has been accepted as a standard for identifying melanomas with the dermatoscope, but should be considered secondary to pigment network analysis.

  7. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat. PMID:27137382

  8. Power system applications of fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Johnston, A.; Lutes, G.; Daud, T.; Hyland, S.

    1984-01-01

    Power system applications of optical systems, primarily using fiber optics, are reviewed. The first section reviews fibers as components of communication systems. The second section deals with fiber sensors for power systems, reviewing the many ways light sources and fibers can be combined to make measurements. Methods of measuring electric field gradient are discussed. Optical data processing is the subject of the third section, which begins by reviewing some widely different examples and concludes by outlining some potential applications in power systems: fault location in transformers, optical switching for light fired thyristors and fault detection based on the inherent symmetry of most power apparatus. The fourth and final section is concerned with using optical fibers to transmit power to electric equipment in a high voltage situation, potentially replacing expensive high voltage low power transformers. JPL has designed small photodiodes specifically for this purpose, and fabricated and tested several samples. This work is described.

  9. Optical data transmission systems in radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, Branko

    1989-05-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optical data transmission includes a wide variety of particle accelerator, detector and nuclear power facility applications in which transmission systems are required to withstand exposure to the radiation background. Fiber optic links provide several major advantages over conventional electronic data transmission systems. These include immunity to electromagnetic interference and low transmission losses for very high data rates. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in radiation environment is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides, photodiodes and associated electronics components and subassemblies.

  10. New principles of optical system synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezdidko, Sergey N.

    1995-10-01

    The global synthesis and global optimization methods developed recently are based on numerical methods of search of the global extremum of the merit function. Such methods are developed without paying due regard to image formation law and with no account of the role of the separate optical subsystem for appearance of aberrations. These circumstances don't make possible effective formalization of the problem of obtaining the starting system. It should be mentioned that 'before the computer epoch' the optical system design was characterized by wide use of analytic methods based upon classical aberration theory. These methods were used both for optical system designing and the detailed study of their potential possibilities. The efficiency of said methods is proved by the possibility for an optical designer to get almost 'by hand' a real optical system. The labor-consuming and tedious procedure of the real system aberration correction took place only at final stages of operational development of the optical systems. The paper describes the author's methodology of starting system synthesis. This methodology makes possible numeric- and analytical-construction of optical systems on the basis of wide use of the classical theory of aberrations and it substantially develops 'before the computer epoch' approaches. Let us consider a set of principal peculiarities of the offered methods of starting system synthesis and the results of particular use of such methods.

  11. Fiber optic phase stepping system for interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    A closed loop phase control system using an all-fiber optical configuration has been developed for use in phase-stepping interferometry. This system drives the relative phase of two interfering beams through a sequence of pi/2 rad increments so that the initial relative phase of these beams can be determined. This phase-stepping system uses optical fibers to provide spatially uniform phase steps from a flexible, easily aligned optical configuration. In addition, this system uses phase feedback to eliminate phase modulator errors and to compensate for phase drifts caused by environmental disturbances.

  12. Aircraft Fiber-Optic Interconnect Systems Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-15

    Clad, Fused-Silica Design Case ........................ 2-22 2.3.14 Optical System Selections .......... 2-26 2.4 Optical Modulation Studies... selected almost immediately. The initial optical losses estimated for the data bus virtually guaranteed an adequate design. The only available LEDs capable...recommends sources of the double hetero-junction cavity type only for communications. Their product line is merely a selection of quality and size of

  13. Optical antenna for photofunctional molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Uosaki, Kohei

    2012-02-06

    Optical antennas can enhance the efficiency of photon-molecule interactions. To design efficient antenna structures, it is essential to consider physicochemical aspects in addition to electromagnetic considerations. Specifically, chemical interactions between optical antennas and molecules have to be controlled to enhance the overall efficiency. For this purpose, sphere-plane nanostructures are suitable optical antennas for molecular-modified functional electrode systems when a well-defined electrode is utilized as a platform.

  14. Optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system

    DOEpatents

    Buchwald, Melvin I.; Jones, Claude R.; Nelson, Leonard Y.

    1982-01-01

    An optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system which is capable of producing a plurality of frequencies in the middle infrared spectral region. Two optical pumping mechanisms are disclosed, i.e., pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J) in response to enhancement of rotational cascade lasing including stimulated Raman effects, and, pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J+2). The disclosed apparatus for optical pumping include a hole coupled cavity and a grating coupled cavity.

  15. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  16. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  17. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  18. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOEpatents

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  19. Optical components damage parameters database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Jin, Yuquan; Xie, Dongmei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    Optical component is the key to large-scale laser device developed by one of its load capacity is directly related to the device output capacity indicators, load capacity depends on many factors. Through the optical components will damage parameters database load capacity factors of various digital, information technology, for the load capacity of optical components to provide a scientific basis for data support; use of business processes and model-driven approach, the establishment of component damage parameter information model and database systems, system application results that meet the injury test optical components business processes and data management requirements of damage parameters, component parameters of flexible, configurable system is simple, easy to use, improve the efficiency of the optical component damage test.

  20. Fiber optic wide region temperature sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunjian; Nonaka, Koji; Song, Hongbin

    2008-12-01

    A fiber optic wide region temperature sensing system based on optical pulse correlation measurement and SHG differential detection technique is proposed and demonstrated. In order to establish the reliability of this fiber optic temperature sensing system, a long-term wide region outside temperature monitoring experiment with a new designed 20ps time-bias optical pulse correlation unit for wide measurement rang was carried out. The temperature measured by means of a correlation sensor had the same variation as and higher sensitivity and quick measurement response than the digital thermometer. The resolution of the correlation sensor is approximately +/-0.01 oC . This fiber optic temperature sensor can measure even in very tough environment and low and high temperature range. Not only point temperature but also a field area average temperature can monitor by this system.

  1. Multiplexed fiber-optic transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Digital, audio, and video data channels spanning 100 megahertz bandwidth are transmitted via single fiber-optical link. System is flexible by virtue of its plug-in modularity and optical patchboard that allows it to adjust to data and bandwidth changes.

  2. Streptococcus agalactiae Capsule Polymer Length and Attachment Is Determined by the Proteins CpsABCD

    PubMed Central

    Toniolo, Chiara; Balducci, Evita; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Proietti, Daniela; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Grandi, Guido; Berti, Francesco; Ros, Immaculada Margarit Y; Janulczyk, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The production of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) or secreted exopolysaccharides is ubiquitous in bacteria, and the Wzy pathway constitutes a prototypical mechanism to produce these structures. Despite the differences in polysaccharide composition among species, a group of proteins involved in this pathway is well conserved. Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) produces a CPS that represents the main virulence factor of the bacterium and is a prime target in current vaccine development. We used this human pathogen to investigate the roles and potential interdependencies of the conserved proteins CpsABCD encoded in the cps operon, by developing knock-out and functional mutant strains. The mutant strains were examined for CPS quantity, size, and attachment to the cell surface as well as CpsD phosphorylation. We observed that CpsB, -C, and -D compose a phosphoregulatory system where the CpsD autokinase phosphorylates its C-terminal tyrosines in a CpsC-dependent manner. These Tyr residues are also the target of the cognate CpsB phosphatase. An interaction between CpsD and CpsC was observed, and the phosphorylation state of CpsD influenced the subsequent action of CpsC. The CpsC extracellular domain appeared necessary for the production of high molecular weight polysaccharides by influencing CpsA-mediated attachment of the CPS to the bacterial cell surface. In conclusion, although having no impact on cps transcription or the synthesis of the basal repeating unit, we suggest that these proteins are fine-tuning the last steps of CPS biosynthesis (i.e. the balance between polymerization and attachment to the cell wall). PMID:25666613

  3. Optical simulations for Ambilight TV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyneel, Filip; Lanoye, Lieve

    2012-06-01

    Ambilight is a unique Philips feature, where RGB LEDs are used to create a dynamic light halo around the television. This extends the screen and hence increases the viewing experience, as it draws the viewer more into the action on the screen. The feature receives very positive consumer feedback. However, implementing Ambilight in the increasingly stringent design boundary conditions of a slim and thin TV set is a challenging task. Optical simulations play a vital role in each step of the Ambilight development. Ranging from prototype to final product, we use simulations, next to prototyping, to aid the choice of LEDs, optical materials and optical systems during different phases of the design process. Each step the impact of the optical system on the mechanical design and TV set dimensions needs to be taken into account. Moreover, optical simulations are essential to guarantee the required optical performance given a big spread in LED performance, mechanical tolerances and material properties. Next to performance, optical efficiency is also an important parameter to evaluate an optical design, as it establishes the required number of LEDs and the total LED power. As such optical efficiency defines the thermal power which needs to be dissipated by the LED system. The innovation roadmap does not stop here. For future systems we see a miniaturization trend, where smaller LED packages and smaller dies are used. This evolution makes the impact of mechanical tolerances on the optical design more severe. Consequentially, this approach poses a whole new challenge to the way we use optical simulations in our design process.

  4. Integrated optical biosensor system (IOBS)

    DOEpatents

    Grace, Karen M.; Sweet, Martin R.; Goeller, Roy M.; Morrison, Leland Jean; Grace, Wynne Kevin; Kolar, Jerome D.

    2007-10-30

    An optical biosensor has a first enclosure with a pathogen recognition surface, including a planar optical waveguide and grating located in the first enclosure. An aperture is in the first enclosure for insertion of sample to be investigated to a position in close proximity to the pathogen recognition surface. A laser in the first enclosure includes means for aligning and means for modulating the laser, the laser having its light output directed toward said grating. Detection means are located in the first enclosure and in optical communication with the pathogen recognition surface for detecting pathogens after interrogation by the laser light and outputting the detection. Electronic means is located in the first enclosure and receives the detection for processing the detection and outputting information on the detection, and an electrical power supply is located in the first enclosure for supplying power to the laser, the detection means and the electronic means.

  5. MX optical fiber communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, G.

    The fiber optic (FO) network for the proposed MX mobile basing scheme is described. C3 operations would be implemented through 15,000 km of FO links between 4800 sites. Burying the cables would ensure continued C3 operations in a hostile environment, although protection would be needed from burrowing rodents. Technology development criteria, such as optical sources and photodetectors for the 1300-1600 nm long wavelength region, are noted, together with construction of a test site at an Air Force base in California.

  6. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  7. Broadband reconfigurable optical beam-forming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toughlian, Edward N.; Zmuda, Henry; Carter, Charity A.

    1994-06-01

    It is shown that by applying spatial frequency dependent optical phase compensation in an optical heterodyne process, variable RF delay can be achieved over a prescribed frequency band. Experimental results that demonstrate the performance of the delay line with regard to both maximum delay and resolution over a broad bandwidth are presented. Additionally, a spatially integrated optical system is proposed for control of phased array antennas, providing mechanical stability, essentially eliminating the drift problems associated with free-space optical systems, and providing high packing density. This approach uses a class of SLM known as a deformable mirror device and leads to a steerable arbitrary antenna radiation pattern of the true time-delay type. Also considered is the ability to utilize the delay line as a general photonic signal processing element in an adaptive (reconfigurable) transversal frequency filter configuration. Such systems are widely applicable in jammer/noise canceling systems, broadband ISDN, spread spectrum secure communications and the like.

  8. Magnetic multi-lens focusing optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejbal, Z.; Bejšovec, V.; S̆tursa, J.; Hanc̆l, P.

    1996-02-01

    A magnetic focusing system called B-channel is introduced. Three methods of ion optical calculation are presented and a comparison with experimental results is shown. The properties of B-channel are discussed in comparison with a classical solenoid.

  9. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  10. Optical correlators: systems and domains of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragulinescu, Andrei; Cojoc, Dan

    2005-08-01

    The paper presents the basic concepts of the optical correlators. In our knowledge, it is the first systematic presentation of the applications of optical correlators. The main three types of optical correlators: the optical correlator in incoherent light, the optical correlator in coherent light (VanderLugt) and the joint transform correlator are presented. The optical correlators are very powerll systems used for image recognition, that perform a correlation between a bidimensional function which represents a Scene that must be analyzed and another bidimensional function that contains information about the reference function. This correlation is optically realized by a Fourier transform between the two functions. The optical Correlators have found a lot of applications for image recognition and target detection in various fields, such as the military field, robotics, medical field, industry a.s.o. Among the various applications of the optical correlators we can mention: digital fingerprints identification, credit card security, antique scripts recognition, determination of the cosmic ships and satellites behavior, amelioration of cancer tests precision, quality control etc.

  11. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Designing an adaptive optics (AO) system for extremely large telescopes (ELT's) will present new optical engineering challenges. Several of these challenges are addressed in this work, including first-order design of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems, pyramid wavefront sensors (PWFS's), and laser guide star (LGS) spot elongation. MCAO systems need to be designed in consideration of various constraints, including deformable mirror size and correction height. The y,{bar y} method of first-order optical design is a graphical technique that uses a plot with marginal and chief ray heights as coordinates; the optical system is represented as a segmented line. This method is shown to be a powerful tool in designing MCAO systems. From these analyses, important conclusions about configurations are derived. PWFS's, which offer an alternative to Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensors (WFS's), are envisioned as the workhorse of layer-oriented adaptive optics. Current approaches use a 4-faceted glass pyramid to create a WFS analogous to a quad-cell SH WFS. PWFS's and SH WFS's are compared and some newly-considered similarities and PWFS advantages are presented. Techniques to extend PWFS's are offered: First, PWFS's can be extended to more pixels in the image by tiling pyramids contiguously. Second, pyramids, which are difficult to manufacture, can be replaced by less expensive lenslet arrays. An approach is outlined to convert existing SH WFS's to PWFS's for easy evaluation of PWFS's. Also, a demonstration of PWFS's in sensing varying amounts of an aberration is presented. For ELT's, the finite altitude and finite thickness of LGS's means that the LGS will appear elongated from the viewpoint of subapertures not directly under the telescope. Two techniques for dealing with LGS spot elongation in SH WFS's are presented. One method assumes that the laser will be pulsed and uses a segmented micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) to track the LGS light subaperture by

  12. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  13. Optics & Opto-Electronic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    index at the center of the element) can be made by placing a suitably thin sample 10 I into one arm of a Twyman -Green interferometer . The optical path...isoindicial lines, an interferometric method has been developed. By placing the sample into one arm of an interferometer and observing not the fringes...themselves but the shift of the visibility of the fringes, a measurement of the group refractive index may be made. An interferometer to measure the

  14. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  15. Map synchronization in optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.; Mohanty, N.

    1973-01-01

    The time synchronization problem in an optical communication system is approached as a problem of estimating the arrival time (delay variable) of a known transmitted field. Maximum aposteriori (MAP) estimation procedures are used to generate optimal estimators, with emphasis placed on their interpretation as a practical system device, Estimation variances are used to aid in the design of the transmitter signals for best synchronization. Extension is made to systems that perform separate acquisition and tracking operations during synchronization. The closely allied problem of maintaining timing during pulse position modulation is also considered. The results have obvious application to optical radar and ranging systems, as well as the time synchronization problem.

  16. Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome: report of an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Yamagata, Takanori; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Itoh, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hironaka, Mitsugu; Honda, Ayako; Momoi, Mariko Y; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome (CADDS) is a contiguous deletion syndrome involving the ABCD1 and DXS1357E/BAP31 genes on Xq28. Although ABCD1 is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), its phenotype differs from that of CADDS, which manifests with many features of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), including severe growth and developmental retardation, liver dysfunction, cholestasis and early infantile death. We report here the fourth case of CADDS, in which a boy had dysmorphic features, including a flat orbital edge, hypoplastic nose, micrognathia, inguinal hernia, micropenis, cryptorchidism and club feet, all of which are shared by ZS. The patient achieved no developmental milestones and died of pneumonia at 8 months. Biochemical studies demonstrated abnormal metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, which was higher than that seen in X-ALD. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot showed the absence of ALD protein (ALDP) despite the presence of other peroxisomal proteins. Pathological studies disclosed a small brain with hypomyelination and secondary hypoxic-ischemic changes. Neuronal heterotopia in the white matter and leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia indicated a neuronal migration disorder. The liver showed fibrosis and cholestasis. The thymus and adrenal glands were hypoplastic. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis suggested that the deletion was a genomic rearrangement in the 90-kb span starting in DXS1357E/BACP31 exon 4 and included ABCD1, PLXNB3, SRPK3, IDH3G and SSR4, ending in PDZD4 exon 8. Thus, the absence of ALDP, when combined with defects in the B-cell antigen receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) and other factors, severely affects VLCFA metabolism on peroxisomal functions and produces ZS-like pathology.

  17. Optical disk uses in criminal identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sypherd, Allen D.

    1990-08-01

    A significant advancement in law enforcement tools has been made possible by the rapid and innovative development of electronic imaging for criminal identification systems. In particular, development of optical disks capable of high-capacity and random-access storage has provided a unique marriage of application and technology. Fast random access to any record, non-destructive reading of stored images, electronic sorting and transmission of images and an accepted legal basis for evidence are a few of the advantages derived from optical disk technology. This paper discusses the application of optical disk technology to both Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) and Automated Mugshot Retrieval Systems (AMRS). The following topics are addressed in light of AFIS and AMRS user requirements and system capabilities: Write once vs. rewritable, gray level and storage requirements, multi-volume library systems, data organization and capacity trends.

  18. Optical switching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Ranganathan, Radha; Gal, Michael; Taylor, P. Craig

    1992-01-01

    An optically bistable device is disclosed. The device includes a uniformly thick layer of amorphous silicon to constitute a Fabry-Perot chamber positioned to provide a target area for a probe beam. The probe beam has a maximum energy less than the energy band gap of the amorphous semiconductor. In a preferred embodiment, a multilayer dielectric mirror is positioned on the Fabry-Perot chamber to increase the finesse of switching of the device. The index of refraction of the amorphous material is thermally altered to alter the transmission of the probe beam.

  19. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. Thermal, mechanical, and structural considerations leading to the design of the tray hardware are discussed. In general, changes in the retested component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials, multilayer optical interference filters, and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  20. Coincidence imaging system with electron optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, Martin; Jakubek, Jan; Krejci, Frantisek; Zemlicka, J.; Horacek, M.; Radlicka, T.; Vlcek, I.

    2011-05-01

    As a part of multiple-detector system for coincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA) a new method which includes a devoted electron optic unit has been built. In order to achieve higher sensitivity, enhanced contrast and higher spatial resolution the new coincidence imaging arrangement newly incorporates to electron optic unit, source, the gamma detector and the Timepix electron detector. The electron optic unit can be configured for different electron energies. The description of the assembled apparatus, calibration and performance for different electron energies are presented.

  1. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    SciTech Connect

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  2. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, Branko

    1988-04-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopand type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed.

  3. Full-duplex optical communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  4. Optics for future solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D. D.; Vescelus, F. E.; Wellman, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The optics technology necessary for future solar system exploration is discussed. To satisfy the various mission objectives, optical components need to be of low weight, provide adequate spatial resolution and mapping coverage, provide necessary spectral resolution, provide means to perform adaptable mapping spectrometry, operate under low light levels, provide color images of high fidelity and operate under high temperatures. Future near-infrared mapping spectrometers are examined, and the use of focal-plane detectors to improve their sensitivity is discussed.

  5. Channel simulation for optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is reported for simulating the signal fading that will be experienced by typical optical communication systems. The desired irradiance or amplitude fading statistics can be simulated by incorporating a linearized optical modulator subsystem between the transmitter and receiver. This technique has been implemented in the design and construction of a laboratory channel simulator. The design of the processing electronics is discussed along with the results of tests performed for each mode of operation.

  6. Fiber optic gyroscopes for vehicle navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Soekawa, Hirokazu; Yuhara, Toshiya; Kajioka, Hiroshi; Oho, Shigeru; Sonobe, Hisao

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) have been developed for vehicle navigation systems and are used in Toyota Motor Corporation models Mark II, Chaser and Cresta in Japan. Use of FOGs in these systems requires high reliability under a wide range of conditions, especially in a temperature range between -40 and 85 degree(s)C. In addition, a high cost-performance ratio is needed. We have developed optical and electrical systems that are inexpensive and can perform well. They are ready to be mass-produced. FOGs have already been installed in luxury automobiles, and will soon be included in more basic vehicles. We have developed more inexpensive FOGs for this purpose.

  7. Optical modulators for integrated photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Andrew D.

    Optical components and systems manufactured with semiconductor wafer processing technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the cost of photonics. This dissertation will present research results into two such chip-scale optics technologies that have the potential to revolutionize the way in which data is transmitted and manipulated. The semiconductor microresonator modulators and photonic crystal modulators discussed in this work are over an order of magnitude smaller than currently available modulators and can be made in semiconductor materials with standard processing techniques developed for the microelectronics industry. In addition to presenting these two modulator technologies, this dissertation will report on the optical phase characteristics of microdisk resonators with different ratios between the coupling loss to the waveguide and the internal loss in the microdisks. By controlling the ratio of these loss mechanisms to each other, the optical phase of a signal transmitted through the waveguide coupled microdisk system can be controlled. Photonic bandgap technology is an attractive research direction because it enables the confinement of light inside an optical material to a dimension that is roughly equal to the optical wavelength in that material. One and two dimensionally periodic photonic crystal structures are discussed including distributed Bragg reflectors (1D) and photonic crystal waveguides (2D). Both rely on a periodically varying index of refraction to form optical frequency bandgaps in which light is not allowed to propagate through the material. The optical phase from reflection off of a DBR mirror is experimentally demonstrated with a DBR mirror in a free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Two dimensionally periodic photonic crystals are used to construct waveguides and couplers in this work. The propagation loss in these demonstrated structures has been reduced to the point where this technology is attractive for chip

  8. Controllable Planar Optical Focusing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical device has a first metasurface disposed over a substrate. A high-contrast pattern of the first metasurface is operable for modifying, over a first phase profile, a phase front of an incident light beam. A second metasurface, is disposed over a plane parallel to the first metasurface with a second high-contrast pattern and operable for shaping, over a second phase profile, the modified phase front of the incident light beam into a converging spherical phase front. A spacer layer, in which the modified phase front of the incident light beam diffracts, is disposed in a controllably changeable separation between the first and second metasurfaces. Controllably changing the separation between the first and the second metasurfaces by a first distance correspondingly changes the position of the focus point of the converging spherical phase front by a second distance significantly greater than the first distance.

  9. Efficient optical pulse stacker system

    DOEpatents

    Seppala, Lynn G.; Haas, Roger A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for spreading and angle-encoding each pulse of a multiplicity of small area, short pulses into several temporally staggered pulses by use of appropriate beam splitters, with the optical elements being arranged so that each staggered pulse is contiguous with one or two other such pulses, and the entire sequence of stacked pulses comprising a single, continuous long pulse. The single long pulse is expanded in area, and then doubly passed through a nonstorage laser amplifier such as KrF. After amplification, the physically separated, angle-encoded and temporally staggered pulses are recombined into a single pulse of short duration. This high intensity output beam is well collimated and may be propagated over long distance, or used for irradiating inertial confinement fusion targets.

  10. Prospective validation of the ABCD2 score for patients in the emergency department with transient ischemic attack

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jeffrey J.; Sharma, Mukul; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.; Sutherland, Jane; Symington, Cheryl; Worster, Andrew; Émond, Marcel; Stotts, Grant; Jin, Albert Y.; Oczkowski, Weislaw J.; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Murray, Heather E.; MacKey, Ariane; Verreault, Steve; Wells, George A.; Stiell, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ABCD2 score (Age, Blood pressure, Clinical features, Duration of symptoms and Diabetes) is used to identify patients having a transient ischemic attack who are at high risk for imminent stroke. However, despite its widespread implementation, the ABCD2 score has not yet been prospectively validated. We assessed the accuracy of the ABCD2 score for predicting stroke at 7 (primary outcome) and 90 days. Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled adults from eight Canadian emergency departments who had received a diagnosis of transient ischemic attack. Physicians completed data forms with the ABCD2 score before disposition. The outcome criterion, stroke, was established by a treating neurologist or by an Adjudication Committee. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity for predicting stroke 7 and 90 days after visiting the emergency department using the original “high-risk” cutpoint of an ABCD2 score of more than 5, and the American Heart Association recommendation of a score of more than 2. Results: We enrolled 2056 patients (mean age 68.0 yr, 1046 (50.9%) women) who had a rate of stroke of 1.8% at 7 days and 3.2% at 90 days. An ABCD2 score of more than 5 had a sensitivity of 31.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.1–47.5) for stroke at 7 days and 29.2% (95% CI 19.6–41.2) for stroke at 90 days. An ABCD2 score of more than 2 resulted in sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI 82.7–98.5) for stroke at 7 days with a specificity of 12.5% (95% CI 11.2–14.1). The accuracy of the ABCD2 score as calculated by either the enrolling physician (area under the curve 0.56; 95% CI 0.47–0.65) or the coordinating centre (area under the curve 0.65; 95% CI 0.57–0.73) was poor. Interpretation: This multicentre prospective study involving patients in emergency departments with transient ischemic attack found the ABCD2 score to be inaccurate, at any cut-point, as a predictor of imminent stroke. Furthermore, the ABCD2 score of more than 2 that is recommended by

  11. The design of scanning fiber optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yangbo; Xiang, Wanghua; Zu, Peng; Li, Xu; Ren, Fang; Shi, Xiaozhou; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2009-11-01

    A novel scanning fiber optical system for multi-channel optical switch has been demonstrated. This scanning fiber system consists of motor, photoelectric encoder, EPOS position controller, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), fiber laser, transmitting energy fiber bundle, reflector, five-dimensional optical adjustable mounts, etc. In this device, the control system is composed of EPOS position controller and FPGA. Furthermore, the photoelectric encoder is directly connected to the central shaft of the motor to read its position information. The reflector is slantways fixed on the other end of the motor central shaft. Also, the fiber bundle is fixed by optical adjustable mounts to achieve slight position adjustment, which is used as launching system of this configuration. In the operation process, the motor in uniform rotation state drives the photoelectric encoder and the reflector at the same angle velocity. The photoelectric encoder reads the incremental signal and absolute position signal of motor, and then sends them to EPOS position controller and FPGA respectively. FPGA sends square wave signal to the fiber laser under the control of EPOS position controller and FPGA. Triggered by the square wave signal, the fiber laser emits a laser pulse to the center point of the reflector. At the same time, the reflector makes the laser pulse transmitting into a certain transmitting energy fiber according to the angle of the reflector at that moment. Therefore, with the motor rotates at uniform speed, the laser pulse is sent to different fibers, by which multi-channel optical switch is completed.

  12. Multiband optics for imaging systems (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Gibson, Daniel J.; Bayya, Shyam S.; Nguyen, Vinh Q.; Kotov, Mikhail; McClain, Collin

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong desire to reduce size and weight of single and multiband IR imaging systems in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations on hand-held, helmet mounted or airborne platforms. NRL is developing new IR glasses that expand the glass map and provide compact solutions to multispectral imaging systems. These glasses were specifically designed to have comparable glass molding temperatures and thermal properties to enable lamination and co-molding of the optics which leads to a reduction in the number of air-glass interfaces (lower Fresnel reflection losses). Our multispectral optics designs using these new materials demonstrate reduced size, complexity and improved performance. This presentation will cover discussions on the new optical materials, multispectral designs, as well fabrication and characterization of new optics. Additionally, graded index (GRIN) optics offer further potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 µm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional materials. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations will be presented in this talk.

  13. Analysis of advanced optical glass and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Feng, Chen

    1991-01-01

    Optical lens systems performance utilizing optical materials comprising reluctant glass forming compositions was studied. Such special glasses are being explored by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) researchers utilizing techniques such as containerless processing in space on the MSFC Acoustic Levitation Furnace and on the High Temperature Acoustic Levitation Furnace in the conceptual design phase for the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of shuttle flights. The application of high refractive index and low dispersive power glasses in optical lens design was investigated. The potential benefits and the impacts to the optical lens design performance were evaluated. The results of the studies revealed that the use of these extraordinary glasses can result in significant optical performance improvements. Recommendations of proposed optical properties for potential new glasses were also made. Applications of these new glasses are discussed, including the impact of high refractive index and low dispersive power, improvements of the system performance by using glasses which are located outside of traditional glass map, and considerations in establishing glass properties beyond conventional glass map limits.

  14. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Marhic, Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. [Formula: see text].

  15. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    PubMed Central

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  16. CMB Telescopes and Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Shaul; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is now firmly establishedas a fundamental and essential probe of the geometry, constituents, and birth ofthe observable universe. The CMB is a potent observable because it can bemeasured with precision and accuracy. Just as importantly, theoretical models ofthe universe can predict the characteristics of the CMB to high accuracy, andthose predictions can be directly compared to observations. There are multipleaspects associated with making a precise measurement. In this chapter, we focuson optical components for the instrumentation used to measure the CMBpolarization and temperature anisotropy. We begin with an overview of generalconsiderations for CMB observations and discuss common concepts used inthe community. We next consider a variety of alternatives available for adesigner of a CMB telescope. Our discussion is guided by the ground- andballoon-based instruments that have been implemented over the years. In thesame vein, we compare the arc-minute resolution Atacama CosmologyTelescope (ACT) and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). CMB interferometersare presented briefly. We conclude with a comparison of the four CMBsatellites, Relikt, COBE, WMAP, and Planck, to demonstrate a remarkableevolution in design, sensitivity, resolution, and complexity over the past30 years.

  17. Nonlinear and non-Hermitian optical systems applied to the development of filters and optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro de Faria Júnior, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a method of investigation of nonlinear optical beams generated from non-Hermitian optical systems1 . This method can be applied in the development of optical filters and optical sensors to process, analyze and choose the passband of the propagation modes of an optical pulse from an non-Hermitian optical system. Non-Hermitian optical systems can be used to develop optical fiber sensors that suppress certain propagation modes of optical pulses that eventually behave as quantum noise. Such systems are described by the Nonlinear Schrödinger-like Equation with Parity-Time (PT) Symmetric Optical Potentials. There are optical fiber sensors that due to high laser intensity and frequency can produce quantum noise, such as Raman and Brillouin scattering. However, the optical fiber, for example, can be designed so that its geometry suppress certain propagation modes of the beam. We apply some results of non- Hermitian optical systems with PT symmetry to simulate optical lattice by a appropriate potential function, which among other applications, can naturally suppress certain propagation modes of an optical beam propagating through a waveguide. In other words, the optical system is modeled by a potential function in the Nonlinear Schrödinger-like Equation that one relates with the geometric aspects of the wave guides and with the optical beam interacting with the waveguide material. The paper is organized as follows: sections 1 and 2 present a brief description about nonlinear optical systems and non-Hermitian optical systems with PT symmetry. Section 3 presents a description of the dynamics of nonlinear optical pulses propagating through optical networks described by a optical potential non-Hermitian. Sections 4 and 5 present a general description of this non-Hermitian optical systems and how to get them from a more general model. Section 6 presents some conclusions and comment and the final section presents the references. Begin the abstract two

  18. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  19. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    SciTech Connect

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2015-09-15

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  20. Laser fiber optics ordnance initiation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress on system development in the laser initiation of explosive devices is summarized. The topics included are: development of compact free-running mode and Q-switched lasers, development of low-loss fiber optic bundles and connectors, study of nuclear radiation effects on the system, characterization of laser initiation sensitivities of insensitive high explosives, and the design methods used to achieve attractive system weight and cost savings. Direction for future work is discussed.

  1. Information and resolution in electromagnetic optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Toeroek, Peter

    2010-10-15

    Quantitative analysis can play a vital role in a number of polarization-based optical systems, yet to date no definition regarding resolution in the polarization domain exists. By adopting a stochastic framework, a suitable metric is developed in this article, allowing a number of polarimetric systems to be assessed and compared. In so doing, the performance dependencies of polarization-based systems are demonstrated and fundamental trends are identified.

  2. Optical systems for integration with microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Jessica M.

    My thesis research has focused on means of integrating optical systems into microfluidic chips, specifically for the creation of lab-on-a-chip flow cytometers. The benefits of microfluidics are perhaps most often applied to biological assays, which frequently employ optical readout of fluorescence or light scatter. By integrating the optical system onto the microfluidic chip, we can facilitate chip interfacing while ensuring optical alignment to a tiny sample. Integrated optical systems also offer the ability to collect light from a localized area, allowing for the collection of true angular light scatter (which carries much information about cells) and can furthermore significantly improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) relative to simple fiber or waveguide based approaches to integrated light collection. This work explores both the unique challenges and advantages encountered when creating optical systems integrated with mold-replicated microfluidic devices. The first contribution presented is the demonstration of fluid-filled lenses integrated alongside microfluidic channels using a slab waveguiding structure. The use of fluid represents an important tradeoff between lens power and Fresnel reflections. The creation of a slab waveguiding structure is critically important to control light losses when utilizing lens systems for light collection. The second contribution in this work is the demonstration of a microfluidic chip emplying a number of lenses to perform both localized excitation of the samples as well as light collection from localized areas defined by a specific angular range. Sample coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 9-16% for a single bead population, far exceeding previously-published CVs of 25-35%. The last contribution is an atypical approach to optical systems based on the unique advantages offered by microfabricated architectures, namely small sizes and close proximities to the sample. Using only custom-shaped total internal reflection

  3. Advanced Optical Fiber Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-31

    oscillator saser 0 !4Iiga B f Figure 1-2. Block diagram of the homodyne AM-WIRNA link. 1.3.2 System EvaluationI Table 1-1 contains the definitions of the...1.6). However, as a result of the spectral broadening due to the phase noise, the selection of the IF bandwidth is critical to the system...node’s intermediate frequency (IF) using a portion of the transmitter light for the laser LO. The desired channel (in this case, node 1) is then selected

  4. The JEM-EUSO optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Marchi, Alessandor Zuccaro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2011-09-22

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard the Japanese Experiment Module is an international mission devoted to the detection of ultra high-energy cosmic particles with energies E>7x10{sup 19} eV. They are revealed through emission in the atmosphere of Cherenkov and fluorescence light in the near-UV region, by using an optical system with 60 deg. field of view and a 2.3 m entrance pupil. One of the challenges consists in developing an unusual combination of large and lightweight refractive optics: two double-sided curved Fresnel lenses and a central curved Fresnel+diffractive lens, whose maximum dimensions are 2.65 m. This paper describes the development of such a optical system and its performances of the latest configurations.

  5. Demonstration of portable solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Dong, Bing

    2012-10-01

    Solar-adaptive optics (AO) are more challenging than night-time AO, in some aspects. A portable solar adaptive optics (PSAO) system featuring compact physical size, low cost, and good performance has been proposed and developed. PSAO can serve as a visiting instrument for any existing ground-based solar telescope to improve solar image quality by replacing just a few optical components. High-level programming language, LabVIEW, is used to develop the wavefront sensing and control software, and general purpose computers are used to drive the whole system. During October 2011, the feasibility and good performance of PSAO was demonstrated with the 61-cm solar telescope at San Fernando Observatory. The image contrast and resolution are noticeably improved after AO correction.

  6. The ERIS adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Esposito, S.; Agapito, G.; Antichi, J.; Biliotti, V.; Blain, C.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carbonaro, L.; Di Rico, G.; Giordano, C.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Spanò, P.; Xompero, M.; Baruffolo, A.; Kasper, M.; Egner, S.; Suàrez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Downing, M.; Reyes, J.

    2016-07-01

    ERIS is the new AO instrument for VLT-UT4 led by a Consortium of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, UK-ATC, ETH-Zurich, ESO and INAF. The ERIS AO system provides NGS mode to deliver high contrast correction and LGS mode to extend high Strehl performance to large sky coverage. The AO module includes NGS and LGS wavefront sensors and, with VLT-AOF Deformable Secondary Mirror and Laser Facility, will provide AO correction to the high resolution imager NIX (1-5um) and the IFU spectrograph SPIFFIER (1-2.5um). In this paper we present the preliminary design of the ERIS AO system and the estimated correction performance.

  7. Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator and system

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert P.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Anderson, Thomas N.; Bougher, Thomas L.

    2007-10-09

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPO) and systems are provided. The OPO has a non-linear optical material located between two optical elements where the product of the reflection coefficients of the optical elements are higher at the output wavelength than at either the pump or idler wavelength. The OPO output may be amplified using an additional optical parametric amplifier (OPA) stage.

  8. SPARCLE Optical System Design and Operational Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Peters, Bruce R.; Li, Ye; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Reardon, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) is the first demonstration of a coherent Doppler wind lidar in space. SPARCLE will be flown aboard a space shuttle In the middle part of 2001 as a stepping stone towards the development and deployment of a long-life-time operational instrument in the later part of next decade. SPARCLE is an ambitious project that is intended to evaluate the suitability of coherent lidar for wind measurements, demonstrate the maturity of the technology for space application, and provide a useable data set for model development and validation. This paper describes the SPARCLE's optical system design, fabrication methods, assembly and alignment techniques, and its anticipated operational characteristics. Coherent detection is highly sensitive to aberrations in the signal phase front, and to relative alignment between the signal and the local oscillator beams. Consequently, the performance of coherent lidars is usually limited by the optical quality of the transmitter/receiver optical system. For SPARCLE having a relatively large aperture (25 cm) and a very long operating range (400 km), compared to the previously developed 2-micron coherent lidars, the optical performance requirements are even more stringent. In addition with stringent performance requirements, the physical and environment constraints associated with this instrument further challenge the limit of optical fabrication technologies.

  9. Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test

    SciTech Connect

    Fingersh, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Blade Position Tracking System Test measures the blade deflection along the span of the blade using simple off-the-shelf infrared security cameras along with blade-mounted retro-reflective tape and video image processing hardware and software to obtain these measurements.

  10. Optical guidance system for industrial vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Robert D.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Lind, Michael A.; Buck, Erville C.; Buck, Roger L.

    1990-01-01

    An automatically guided vehicle system for steering a vehicle. Optical sensing detects an image of a segment of track mounted above the path of the vehicle. Electrical signals corresponding to the position of the track are generated. A control circuit then converts these signals into movements for the steering of the vehicle.

  11. COANP-fullerenes system for optical modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanova, S. V.; Kamanina, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    The advanced investigations of ϕ-conjugated organic molecule COANP sensitized with fullerenes have been revealed to consider this system as an affective medium for optical limiting and phase modulation. The special accent has been given to influence of the nanostructured relief at the interface on the spectral and photoconductive features.

  12. Compact scanning lidar systems using holographic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David

    1998-08-01

    Two scanning lidar systems have been built using holographic optical elements (HOE) that function as a scanning telescope primary optic. One is a ground based lidar using a reflection HOE, and uses a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser transmitter. The other system is an airborne/ground based system that uses a transmission HOE and operates at the 1064 nm fundamental of the Nd:YAG laser. Each HOE has a focal spot on the center- line, normal to the flat disk holding the hologram, and a field of view (FOV) that points approximately 45 degrees from the normal. Rotating the disk effects a conical scan of the FOV. In both systems, the same HOE is also used to collimate and steer the transmitted laser beam. The utility of using the HOEs to save weight and size in scanning lidars is evidenced by the atmospheric backscatter data collected with these systems. They also will lower the cost of commercial systems due to the low cost of replicating HOEs and the simplified mechanical scanning systems. Development of airborne scanning lidar altimeters and other lidars and passive instruments using holographic optics are underway, including the development of a one meter diameter, space qualified holographic scanning telescope for use in the ultraviolet.

  13. Birefringence insensitive optical coherence domain reflectometry system

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Davis, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A birefringence insensitive fiber optic optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) system is provided containing non-polarization maintaining (non-PM) fiber in the sample arm and the reference arm without suffering from signal degradation caused by birefringence. The use of non-PM fiber significantly reduces the cost of the OCDR system and provides a disposable or multiplexed section of the sample arm. The dispersion in the reference arm and sample arm of the OCDR system are matched to achieve high resolution imaging. This system is useful in medical applications or for non-medical in situ probes. The disposable section of non-PM fiber in the sample arm can be conveniently replaced when contaminated by a sample or a patient.

  14. Progress with the lick adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D T; Olivier, S S; Bauman, B; Max, C E; Macintosh, B

    2000-03-01

    Progress and results of observations with the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System are presented. This system is optimized for diffraction-limited imaging in the near infrared, 1-2 micron wavelength bands. We describe our development efforts in a number of component areas including, a redesign of the optical bench layout, the commissioning of a new infrared science camera, and improvements to the software and user interface. There is also an ongoing effort to characterize the system performance with both natural and laser guide stars and to fold this data into a refined system model. Such a model can be used to help plan future observations, for example, predicting the point-spread function as a function of seeing and guide star magnitude.

  15. Progress with the Lick adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald T.; Olivier, Scot S.; Bauman, Brian J.; Max, Claire E.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

    2000-07-01

    Progress and results of observations with the Lick Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System are presented. This system is optimized for diffraction-limited imaging in the near infrared, 1 - 2 micron wavelength bands. We describe our development efforts in a number of component areas including, a redesign of the optical bench layout, the commissioning of a new infrared science camera, and improvements to the software and user interface. There is also an ongoing effort to characterize the system performance with both natural and laser guide stars and to fold this data into a refined system model. Such a model can be used to help plan future observations, for example, predicting the point-spread function as a function of seeing and guide star magnitude.

  16. LDEF active optical system components experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report on the Active Optical System Components Experiment is presented. This experiment contained 136 components in a six-inch deep tray including lasers, infrared detectors and arrays, ultraviolet light detectors, light-emitting diodes, a light modulator, flash lamps, optical filters, glasses, and samples of surface finishes. The experimental results for those component characteristics appear as much related to the passage of time as to the effects of the space environment, but organic materials and extreme-infrared reflectivity of black paints show unexpected changes.

  17. Comparing optical systems, and the concept of the converter system.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F; van Gool, R D

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a complete and general method for comparing the first-order optical character of optical systems. The method provides a common basis for quantifying the difference between systems of all kinds including thin lenses, ophthalmic prisms, eyes before and after accommodation, eyes before and after refractive surgery, etc. Systems may be astigmatic or stigmatic, coaxial or noncoaxial. In special cases, the method reduces to being equivalent in essence to ostensibly incommensurate comparisons implicit or explicit in current optometric and ophthalmological usage (difference in power for refractions, corneas, and thin lenses, difference in prismatic power for prisms, ratio of magnifications for afocal telescopes, etc.). The method uses the concept of a converter system that when placed in front of or behind one system, converts its first-order optical character to the equivalent of a second system. Equations are presented for the ray transferences of the anterior and posterior converter systems for pair-wise comparisons in general. For any two systems, the transferences of the converter systems always exist and are unique. Numerical examples are presented; they illustrate converter systems that may be thin in special cases but thick otherwise. The transference of a converter system embodies and quantifies the optical difference between systems or characterizes the change from one state of a system (presurgical or preaccommodative, for example) to another (postsurgical or postaccommodative). The method provides a rational and uniform methodology for research and clinical applications in many areas of optometry and ophthalmology.

  18. Evolution Of Map Display Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, Alan

    1983-06-01

    It is now over 20 years since Ferranti plc introduced optically projected map displays into operational aircraft navigation systems. Then, as now, it was the function of the display to present an image of a topographical map to a pilot or navigator with his present position clearly identified. Then, as now, the map image was projected from a reduced image stored on colour micro film. Then, as now, the fundamental design problems are the same.In the exposed environment of an aircraft cockpit where brightness levels may vary from those associated with direct sunlight on the one hand, to starlight on the other, how does one design an optical system with sufficient luminance, contrast and resolution where in the daytime sunlight may fall on the display or in the pilot's eyes, and at night time the display luminance must not detract from the pilot's ability to pick up external clues? This paper traces the development of Ferranti plc optically projected map displays from the early V Bomber and the ill-fated TSR2 displays to the Harrier and Concorde displays. It then goes on to the development of combined map and electronic displays (COMED), showing how an earlier design, as fitted to Tornado, has been developed into the current COMED design which is fitted to the F-18 and Jaguar aircraft. In each of the above display systems particular features of optical design interest are identified and their impact on the design as a whole are discussed. The use of prisms both for optical rotation and translation, techniques for the maximisation of luminance, the problems associated with contrast enhancement, particularly with polarising filters in the presence of optically active materials, the use of aerial image combining systems and the impact of the pilot interface on the system parameter are all included.Perhaps the most interesting result in considering the evolution of map displays has not been so much the designer's solutions in overcoming the various design problems but

  19. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

    2013-10-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

  20. Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi

    2004-10-01

    With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  1. Stabilized fiber-optic frequency distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Lutes, G. F.; Sydnor, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for stabilizing reference frequencies transmitted over fiber-optic cable in a frequency distribution system is discussed. The distribution system utilizes fiber-optic cable as the transmission medium to distribute precise reference signals from a frequency standard to remote users. The stability goal of the distribution system is to transmit a 100-MHz signal over a 22-km fiber-optic cable and maintain a stability of 1 part in 10(17) for 1000-second averaging times. Active stabilization of the link is required to reduce phase variations produced by environmental effects, and is achieved by transmitting the reference signal from the frequency standard to the remote unit and then reflecting back to the reference unit over the same optical fiber. By comparing the phase of the transmitted and reflected signals at the reference unit, phase variations of the remote signal can be measured. An error voltage derived from the phase difference between the two signals is used to add correction phase.

  2. A unique, accurate LWIR optics measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantone, Stephen D.; Orband, Daniel G.

    2011-05-01

    A compact low-cost LWIR test station has been developed that provides real time MTF testing of IR optical systems and EO imaging systems. The test station is intended to be operated by a technician and can be used to measure the focal length, blur spot size, distortion, and other metrics of system performance. The challenges and tradeoffs incorporated into this instrumentation will be presented. The test station performs the measurement of an IR lens or optical system's first order quantities (focal length, back focal length) including on and off-axis imaging performance (e.g., MTF, resolution, spot size) under actual test conditions to enable the simulation of their actual use. Also described is the method of attaining the needed accuracies so that derived calculations like focal length (EFL = image shift/tan(theta)) can be performed to the requisite accuracy. The station incorporates a patented video capture technology and measures MTF and blur characteristics using newly available lowcost LWIR cameras. This allows real time determination of the optical system performance enabling faster measurements, higher throughput and lower cost results than scanning systems. Multiple spectral filters are also accommodated within the test stations which facilitate performance evaluation under various spectral conditions.

  3. Tensor ABCD law for partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Cai, Yangjian

    2002-02-15

    A 4 x 4 complex curvature tensor M>(-1) is introduced to describe partially coherent anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beams. An analytical propagation formula for the cross-spectral density of partially coherent anisotropic GSM beams is derived. The propagation law of M(-1) that is also derived may be called partially coherent tensor ABCD law. The analytical formulas presented here are useful in treating the propagation and transformation of partially coherent anisotropic GSM beams, which include previous results for completely coherent Gaussian beams as special cases.

  4. Balloon borne optical disk mass storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanek, M. D.; Jennings, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    An on-board data recording system for balloon-borne interferometer using a vacuum operable, ruggedized WORM optical drive is presented. This system, as presently under development, provides 320 Mbytes of data storage (or approximately 11 hrs at the 64 kbits/sec telemetry rate of the experiment). It has the capability of recording the unmodified telemetry bit system as transmitted or doing some preprocessing of the data onboard. The system is compact and requires less than 28 watts of battery power to operate.

  5. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  6. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-08-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  7. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Jackson, S. P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a progress report of work done in 1985 on the Communications and Control for Electric Power Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  8. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Jackson, S. P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-06-01

    This document is a progress report of work done in 1985 on the Communications and Control for Electric Power Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  9. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  10. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  11. Zoom optical system using tunable polymer lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan Yin

    2016-07-01

    This paper demonstrated a zoom optical system with variable magnification based on the tunable polymer lens. The designed system mainly consists of two polymer lenses, voice coil motors, a doublet lens and CMOS chip. The zoom magnification can be adjusted by altering the focal length of the two elastic polymer lenses synergistically through controlling the output displacement of the voice coil motor. A static doublet lens in combination with the polymer lenses stabilize the image plane at the CMOS chip. The optical structure of the zoom system is presented, as well as a detailed description including the lens materials and fabrication process. Images with each zoom magnification are captured, and the Spot diagram and MTF are simulated using Zemax software. A change in magnification from 0.13×to 8.44×is demonstrated within the tiny 0.4 mm variation of the displacement load, and produce a 16.1×full range of magnification experimentally. Simulation analyses show that all the radii of the spot diagram under different magnifications are less than 11.3 um, and the modulation transfer function reaches 107 line pairs per mm. The designed optical system shows the potential for developing stable, integrated, and low-cost zoom systems with large magnification range.

  12. Development of fiber-optic CDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Kamel M.

    2005-09-01

    Fiber-Optic code division multiple access communication systems (FO-CDMA) have been given an intensifying interest in the last decade. This is due to several advantages may be offered by this technology, where it offers a promising solution for efficient truly asynchronous multiple access network as well as it has the ability to support variable bit rate and bursty traffic. FO-CDMA system permits an extra high optical signal processing speed compared to electronic signal processing, and there is no need to use wavelength sensitive components which are required in WDMA networks. FO-CDMA may be performed in time domain "t" or in wavelength domain "λ"(spectral amplitude encoding), this strategy is called one dimensional (1-D) optical coding. One of the most serious problems for CDMA is the multiple access interference (MAI), where it produces an asymptotic floor to the error probability, and limits the number of simultaneous users. Developing of FO-CDMA system to increase the number of users as well as to improve the system performance may be done through developing the system structure, choice of the appropriate detection scheme and the proper signature codes, developing the encoders and decoders hardware, use of adequate error correcting codes, incorporating optical amplifiers, use of multidimensional FO-CDMA techniques, and use of MAI cancellation and dispersion compensation techniques. This paper highlights the main directions of system development. The main technological challenges that have to be overcome before a wide spread of this technology have been also investigated. Finally, potential applications of this technology have been discussed.

  13. Wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan H.

    Next generation extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems are moving to higher resolution optics to accommodate smaller length scales targeted by the semiconductor industry. As the numerical apertures (NA) of the optics become larger, it becomes increasingly difficult to characterize aberrations due to experimental challenges associated with high-resolution spatial filters and geometrical effects caused by large incident angles of the test wavefront. This dissertation focuses on two methods of wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems. The first method, lateral shearing interferometry (LSI), is a self-referencing interferometry where the test wavefront is incident on a low spatial frequency grating, and the resulting interference between the diffracted orders is used to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations. LSI has many advantages over other interferometric tests such as phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) due to its experimental simplicity, stability, relaxed coherence requirements, and its ability to scale to high numerical apertures. While LSI has historically been a qualitative test, this dissertation presents a novel quantitative investigation of the LSI interferogram. The analysis reveals the existence of systematic aberrations due to the nonlinear angular response from the diffraction grating that compromises the accuracy of LSI at medium to high NAs. In the medium NA regime (0.15 < NA < 0.35), a holographic model is presented that derives the systematic aberrations in closed form, which demonstrates an astigmatism term that scales as the square of the grating defocus. In the high NA regime (0.35 < NA), a geometrical model is introduced that describes the aberrations as a system of transcendental equations that can be solved numerically. The characterization and removal of these systematic errors is a necessary step that unlocks LSI as a viable candidate for high NA EUV optical testing. The second method is a novel image

  14. Optical systems design for a stratospheric lidar system.

    PubMed

    McDermid, I S; Walsh, T D; Deslis, A; White, M L

    1995-09-20

    The optical systems for the transmitter and receiver of a high-power lidar for stratospheric measurements have been designed and analyzed. The system requirements and design results are presented and explained. An important and driving factor of this design was the requirement for a small image diameter in the plane of an optical chopper to allow the high-intensity lidar returns from the lower atmosphere to be shielded from the detection system. Some results relevant to the optical performance of the system are presented. The resulting system has been constructed and is now in operation at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, and is making regular measurements of stratospheric ozone, temperature, and aerosol profiles.

  15. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás.; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, Peter

    2016-07-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, and high spatial resolution. The instrument SAFARI is a cryogenic grating-based point source spectrometer working in the wavelength domain 34 to 230 μm, providing spectral resolving power from 300 to at least 2000. The instrument shall provide low and high resolution spectroscopy in four spectral bands. Low Resolution mode is the native instrument mode, while the high Resolution mode is achieved by means of a Martin-Pupplet interferometer. The optical system is all-reflective and consists of three main modules; an input optics module, followed by the Band and Mode Distributing Optics and the grating Modules. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled linear arrays of very sensitive TES detectors. The work presented in this paper describes the optical design architecture and design concept compatible with the current instrument performance and volume design drivers.

  16. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  17. Fiber optic systems for mobile platforms II

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.E.; Moore, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the symposium of International Society for Optical Engineering. Topics covered/include: Fiber optic pressure sensor for internal combustion engine; Automotive fiber optic technology: application issues; and Fiber optic guided missile.

  18. Optical passive athermalization for infrared zoom system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Changcheng; Zheng, Jia; Lan, Ning; Xiong, Tao; Li, Yong

    2007-12-01

    In an infrared zoom system, it is difficult to obtain the best thermal compensation for all effective focal length (EFL) simultaneously by moving a single lens group. According to the principle of optical passive athermalization, the equations of focal length, achromatization and athermalization of both long and short EFL are established respectively. By analyzing the thermal aberration value relations between long EFL and short EFL, the thermal aberration values of the switching groups for short EFL athermalization are calculated. Firstly, the athermalization of long EFL is designed. Then through reasonable optical materials matching of the switching groups, the short EFL achieves athermalization as well. In this paper, a re-imaging switching zoom system is designed. It has a relative aperture of f/4.0, 100% cold shield efficiency, the EFL of 180mm/30mm at 3.7-4.8μm. The long EFL includes four refractive elements and one hybrid refractive/diffractive element. The switching groups of short EFL have two types, one is composed of four refractive elements, and the other is composed of two refractive elements and one hybrid refractive/diffractive element. Both of the short EFL achieve athermalization. With the aluminum materials of system structures, the zoom system achieves optical passive athermalization. It has the diffraction limited image quality and stable image plane from -30°C to 70°C.

  19. Green photonics realized by optical complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanri, Hiroto; Sasaki, Wakao

    2013-12-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a new smart grid model which can control DC electric power flow autonomously among individual homes, by using an optical self-organized node with optical non-linear characteristics, and these homes are assumed to be installed by distributed power supplies, and electric power storage devices, and also supposed to be supplied partly by the commercial electric power grid utilities. An electric power network is composed of nodes and devises called Power Gate Unit (PGU). The nodes have optical nonlinearity for self-organizing informations about surplus or shortage of electric power as to individual homes. The PGU is a distributing unit of actual electric power based on above informations of power surplus or shortage at each home. The PGU at each home is electrically connected to both the onsite power supplies and household load such as a solar panel, a DC motor, and a storage battery as well as the commercial electric power grid utilities. In this work, we composed our experimental self-organized DC power grid with above components and supposed the supplied maximum power from the commercial electric power grid utilities to be limited to 5V-0.5A. In this network, information about surplus or shortage of electric power will propagate through the nodes. In the experiments, surplus electric current 0.4A at a particular node was distributed toward a PGU of another node suffering from shortage of electric current. We also confirmed in the experiments and simulations that even when signal propagation path was disconnected accidentally the network could recover an optimized path. The present smart grid system we have attained may be applied by optical fiber link in the near future because our essential components controlling PGU, i.e. the nodes are electro-optical hybrid which are easily applicable to fiber optical link so as to control electric power transmission line.

  20. Optical Design Using an Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S A

    2003-08-01

    We present, as a different perspective on optimization, an expert system for optimization of optical systems that can be used in conjunction with damped least squared methods to find minima for specific design forms. Expert system optimization differs from global optimization in that it preserves the basic structure of the optical system and limits its search for a minima to a relatively small portion of the design space. In general, the high density of local minima obscures the general trend of the merit function in the region of interest for systems with a large number of variables and constraints. Surprisingly, there may be a potential decrease of an order a magnitude in the merit function for a region of solution space. While global optimization is well-suited to identifying design forms of interest, expert system optimization can be used for in-depth optimization of such forms. An expert system based upon such techniques was used to obtain the winning entry for the 2002 IODC lens design problem. The expert system used is discussed along with other design examples.

  1. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddier, Francois; Owen, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Most solar system objects have never been observed at wavelengths longer than the R band with an angular resolution better than 1 sec. The Hubble Space Telescope itself has only recently been equipped to observe in the infrared. However, because of its small diameter, the angular resolution is lower than that one can now achieved from the ground with adaptive optics, and time allocated to planetary science is limited. We have been using adaptive optics (AO) on a 4-m class telescope to obtain 0.1 sec resolution images solar system objects at far red and near infrared wavelengths (0.7-2.5 micron) which best discriminate their spectral signatures. Our efforts has been put into areas of research for which high angular resolution is essential, such as the mapping of Titan and of large asteroids, the dynamics and composition of Neptune stratospheric clouds, the infrared photometry of Pluto, Charon, and close satellites previously undetected from the ground.

  2. Optical memory system having track following

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, D.; LaBudde, E.V.

    1984-02-14

    A high density optical storage system is disclosed which employs a laser beam for reading data in a track on a rotating optical disk containing a large number of concentric tracks. Track following is provided using a galvanometer-controlled mirror in the path of the beam which is angularly deflected during track following in response to detected track deviations, whereby the beam is controlled to accurately follow the track. Provision is also made for detecting the angular position of the mirror. A linear motor responsive to the detected angular position moves the mirror in a direction which reduces the deflection required to be provided by the mirror in order to maintain the beam accurately following the track. The mirror is also controlled in response to the rate of change of the linear motor velocity for providing greater system stability.

  3. Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.

  4. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  5. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  6. LSST active optics system software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Lotz, Paul; Xin, Bo; Claver, Charles; Angeli, George; Sebag, Jacques; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory P.

    2016-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8-meter class wide-field telescope now under construction on Cerro Pachon, near La Serena, Chile. This ground-based telescope is designed to conduct a decade-long time domain survey of the optical sky. In order to achieve the LSST scientific goals, the telescope requires delivering seeing limited image quality over the 3.5 degree field-of-view. Like many telescopes, LSST will use an Active Optics System (AOS) to correct in near real-time the system aberrations primarily introduced by gravity and temperature gradients. The LSST AOS uses a combination of 4 curvature wavefront sensors (CWS) located on the outside of the LSST field-of-view. The information coming from the 4 CWS is combined to calculate the appropriate corrections to be sent to the 3 different mirrors composing LSST. The AOS software incorporates a wavefront sensor estimation pipeline (WEP) and an active optics control system (AOCS). The WEP estimates the wavefront residual error from the CWS images. The AOCS determines the correction to be sent to the different degrees of freedom every 30 seconds. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of the AOS. More particularly, we will focus on the software architecture as well as the AOS interactions with the various subsystems within LSST.

  7. Digital optical recorder-reproducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddersen, Brad R. (Inventor); Zech, Richard G. (Inventor); Roberts, Howard N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A mass archival optical recording and reproduction system includes a recording light source such as a laser beam focussed and directed upon an acousto-optic linear modulator array (or page composer) that receives parallel blocks of data converted from a serial stream of digital data to be stored. The page composer imparts to the laser beam modulation representative of a plurality of parallel channels of data and through focussing optics downstream of the page composer parallel arrays of optical spots are recorded upon a suitable recording medium such as a photographic film floppy disc. The recording medium may be substantially frictionlessly and stably positioned for recording at a record/read station by an air-bearing platen arrangement which is preferably thermodynamically non-throttling so that the recording film may be positioned in the path of the information-carrying light beam in a static or dynamic mode. During readout, the page composer is bypassed and a readout light beam is focussed directly upon the recording medium containing an array of previously recorded digital spots, a sync bit, data positioning bits, and a tracking band. The readout beam which has been directed through the recording medium is then imaged upon a photodetector array, the output of which may be coupled to suitable electronic processing circuitry, such as a digital multiplexer, whereby the parallel spot array is converted back into the original serial data stream.

  8. Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems (H-015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibutani, Makoto; Kanai, Toshihito; Domom, Watani; Emura, Katsumi; Namiki, Junji

    1993-09-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using an optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems. The optical feeder enables compact and low-cost base stations, easy radio channel control, and flexible mobile communication systems. Basic transmission characteristics were investigated through optical transmission experiments. By using these results, it has been estimated that the optical feeder can transmit 880 telephone channels for digital TDM systems and 2000 channels for analog FDM systems through 20 km of optical fiber. Furthermore, two kinds of novel techniques, which enlarge dynamic range of the optical feeder, are reported.

  9. Conceptual design of an optic based engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, W. J.; Baumbick, R. J.; Vizzini, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of optics in the aircraft engine control systems would provide immunity to electromagnetic effects (such as lightning, radar, and nuclear pulses) for flight and propulsion control systems located throughout the aircraft and in need of communication and would result in weight reduction. This paper discusses a conceptual design of an optic engine control system that is being developed by the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. The features inherent in each of the optic-based components of the optic system, which includes the on-engine full authority digital electonic control, optic sensors, optic-based actuators, and an optic data bus for communication with the aircraft flight control system are described in detail. The diagrams of the FOCSI control system and its components are included.

  10. Optical multi-species gas monitoring sensor and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A. (Inventor); Korman, Valentin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system includes at least one light source generating light energy having a corresponding wavelength. The system's sensor is based on an optical interferometer that receives light energy from each light source. The interferometer includes a free-space optical path disposed in an environment of interest. The system's sensor includes an optical device disposed in the optical path that causes light energy of a first selected wavelength to continue traversing the optical path whereas light energy of at least one second selected wavelength is directed away from the optical path. The interferometer generates an interference between the light energy of the first selected wavelength so-traversing the optical path with the light energy at the corresponding wavelength incident on the optical interferometer. A first optical detector detects the interference. At least one second detector detects the light energy at the at least one second selected wavelength directed away from the optical path.

  11. The Optical Bichromatic Force in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, Leland M.; Galica, Scott E.; Eyler, Edward E.

    2015-06-01

    The bichromatic optical force (BCF), which can greatly exceed radiative forces, seems ideal for laser slowing and cooling of molecules because it minimizes the effects of radiative decay. However, it relies on sustained coherences between optically coupled states, and molecules, with their many sublevels and decay pathways, present new challenges in maintaining these coherences compared with simple atoms. We have conducted extensive numerical simulations of BCFs in model molecular systems based on the B leftrightarrow X transition in CaF, and have begun experimental tests in a molecular beam. In our modeling, the effects of fine and hyperfine structure are examined using a simplified level scheme that is still sufficiently complete to include the major pathways leading to loss or decoherence. To circumvent optical pumping into coherent dark states we explore two possible schemes: (1) a skewed dc magnetic field, and (2) rapid optical polarization switching. The effects of repumping to compensate for out-of-system radiative decay are also examined. Our results verify that the BCF is a promising method for creating large forces in molecular beams while minimizing out-of-system radiative losses, and provide detailed guidance for experimental designs. Compared to a two-level atom, the peak force is reduced by about an order of magnitude, but there is little reduction in the velocity range over which the force is effective. Our experiments on deflection and slowing using the CaF B leftrightarrow X, (0-0) transition, still at an early stage, include studies of both the P11(1.5)/^PQ12(0.5) branch, a quasi-cycling configuration with extensive hfs, and the R11(0.5)/^RQ21(0.5) branch, which has a much simpler hfs but requires rotational repumping. Supported by the National Science Foundation

  12. An optical tracking system for virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrimech, Hamid; Merienne, Frederic

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we present a low-cost 3D tracking system which we have developed and tested in order to move away from traditional 2D interaction techniques (keyboard and mouse) in an attempt to improve user's experience while using a CVE. Such a tracking system is used to implement 3D interaction techniques that augment user experience, promote user's sense of transportation in the virtual world as well as user's awareness of their partners. The tracking system is a passive optical tracking system using stereoscopy a technique allowing the reconstruction of three-dimensional information from a couple of images. We have currently deployed our 3D tracking system on a collaborative research platform for investigating 3D interaction techniques in CVEs.

  13. Recent development of plasma optical systems (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A. A.

    2016-02-15

    The article devotes a brief description of the recent development and current status of an ongoing research of plasma optical systems based on the fundamental plasma optical idea magnetic electron isolation, equipotentialization magnetic field lines, and the axi-symmetric cylindrical electrostatic plasma lens (PL) configuration. The experimental, theoretical, and simulation investigations have been carried out over recent years collaboratively between IP NASU (Kiev), LBNL (Berkeley, USA), and HCEI RAS (Tomsk). The crossed electric and magnetic fields inherent the PL configuration that provides the attractive method for establishing a stable plasma discharge at low pressure. Using PL configuration, several high reliability plasma devices were developed. These devices are attractive for many high-tech applications.

  14. Enhancing imaging systems using transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Kundtz, Nathan B; Landy, Nathan I

    2010-09-27

    We apply the transformation optical technique to modify or improve conventional refractive and gradient index optical imaging devices. In particular, when it is known that a detector will terminate the paths of rays over some surface, more freedom is available in the transformation approach, since the wave behavior over a large portion of the domain becomes unimportant. For the analyzed configurations, quasi-conformal and conformal coordinate transformations can be used, leading to simplified constitutive parameter distributions that, in some cases, can be realized with isotropic index; index-only media can be low-loss and have broad bandwidth. We apply a coordinate transformation to flatten a Maxwell fish-eye lens, forming a near-perfect relay lens; and also flatten the focal surface associated with a conventional refractive lens, such that the system exhibits an ultra-wide field-of-view with reduced aberration.

  15. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  16. Recent development of plasma optical systems (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The article devotes a brief description of the recent development and current status of an ongoing research of plasma optical systems based on the fundamental plasma optical idea magnetic electron isolation, equipotentialization magnetic field lines, and the axi-symmetric cylindrical electrostatic plasma lens (PL) configuration. The experimental, theoretical, and simulation investigations have been carried out over recent years collaboratively between IP NASU (Kiev), LBNL (Berkeley, USA), and HCEI RAS (Tomsk). The crossed electric and magnetic fields inherent the PL configuration that provides the attractive method for establishing a stable plasma discharge at low pressure. Using PL configuration, several high reliability plasma devices were developed. These devices are attractive for many high-tech applications.

  17. Solid-state detector and optical system for microchip analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Kamei, Toshihiro; Scherer, James R.; Street, Robert A.

    2005-03-15

    A miniaturized optical excitation and detector system is described for detecting fluorescently labeled analytes in electrophoretic microchips and microarrays. The system uses miniature integrated components, light collection, optical fluorescence filtering, and an amorphous a-Si:H detector for detection. The collection of light is accomplished with proximity gathering and/or a micro-lens system. Optical filtering is accomplished by integrated optical filters. Detection is accomplished utilizing a-Si:H detectors.

  18. Production Testing Of Electro-Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, S. L.

    1982-12-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company builds a variety of Electra-Optical Systems within its Manufacturing Division in El Segundo, California. The magnitude of the testing function within the manufacturing cycle of these systems, whether they are a Laser Fire Control System, a Thermal Imaging System, or some type of dedicated electronics, is almost beyond measure. Whereas testing was once quite simple, today's more complex products demand more complex test strategies. In our typical manufacturing cycle, there are at least nine (9) separate areas in which testing related to the product (end-item) may be performed. In this paper, an overview of these test areas will be discussed along with same of the considerations that are necessary for a logical manufacturing test strategy.

  19. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  20. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  1. A Space-Based Optical Communication System Utilizing Fiber Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-09

    single mode elliptic core fibers," Opt. Commun., 49, 3, 178-183 (1984). 35 15. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 1: Transmitting...antennas," Appl. Opt., 13,9,2134- 2141 (1974). 16. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 2: Receiving antennas," Appl. Opt., 13, 10,2397- 2401...1974). 17. B.J. Klein and J.J. Degnan, " Optical antenna gain. 3: The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain," Appl. Opt., 15

  2. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission systems described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber. 3 figs.

  3. Fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optically isolated and remotely stabilized data transmission system s described wherein optical data may be transmitted over an optical data fiber from a remote source which includes a data transmitter and a power supply at the remote source. The transmitter may be remotely calibrated and stabilized via an optical control fiber, and the power source may be remotely cycled between duty and standby modes via an optical control fiber.

  4. Quantum Dynamics Scattering Study of AB+CDE Reactions: A Seven Dimensional Treatment for the H2+C2H Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Dunyou

    2003-01-01

    A time-dependent wave-packet approach is presented for the quantum dynamics study of the AB+CDE reaction system for zero total angular momentum. A seven-degree-of-freedom calculation is employed to study the chemical reaction of H2+C2H yields H + C2H2 by treating C2H as a linear molecule. Initial state selected reaction probabilities are presented for various initial ro-vibrational states. This study shows that vibrational excitation of H2 enhances the reaction probability, whereas the excitation of C2H has only a small effect on the reactivity. An integral cross section is also reported for the initial ground states of H2 and C2H. The theoretical and experimental results agree with each other very well when the calculated seven dimensional results are adjusted to account for the lower transition state barrier heights found in recent ab initio calculations.

  5. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  6. Nano-optics with single quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Bert

    2004-04-15

    This paper reviews the recent progress in using single quantum systems, here mainly single fluorescent molecules, as local probes for nano-optical field distributions. We start by discussing the role of the absorption cross-section for the spatial resolution attainable in such experiments and its behaviour for different environmental conditions. It is shown that the spatial distribution of field components in a high-numerical aperture laser focus can be mapped with high precision using single fluorescent molecules embedded in a thin polymer film on glass. With this proof-of-principle experiment as a starting point, the possibility of mapping strongly confined and enhanced nano-optical fields close to material structures, e.g. sharp metal tips, is discussed. The mapping of the spatial distribution of the enhanced field at an etched gold tip using a single molecule is presented as an example. Energy transfer effects and quenching are identified as possible artefacts in this context. Finally, it is demonstrated that the local quenching at a sharp metal structure nevertheless can be exploited as a novel contrast mechanism for ultrahigh-resolution optical microscopy with single-molecule sensitivity.

  7. Research on the optical system for space optical clock at NTSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Han, J. X.; Zhang, S.; Zou, H. X.; Chang, H.

    2016-11-01

    Optical clocks surpass the primary Cs microwave clocks with excellent performances. This allows new studies both in fundamental physics and engineering. The paper presents the optical system for our space optical clock at NTSC. Different from it in the laboratory, novel approaches and techniques were used to meet the space requirement of compactness and reliability. The modular consisting of three robust subunits was developed, which was one laser sources breadboard and two optical paths systems breadboards. The compact dimension of the optical system is 540mm×440mm×130mm and the total mass was approximate 28 kilogram. The deformation of two optical paths systems was calculated under an overload test by a mechanical analysis and it could meet the requirement. It is a advancement from lab to engineering application based on the work, which provides effective foundation for improving the optical system.

  8. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  9. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  10. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  11. Type V intermittency in an optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yingmei; He, Da-Ren; Hou, Yuqing

    1998-03-01

    In Ref.[1] Marriott and Delisle have reported their discovery on a transition from periodicity to chaos in an optical system. Both numerically and experimentally, they found that a periodic orbit was interrupted by a chaotic motion in the middle of its first period-doubling. We have investigate this transition by computing the bifurcation diagrams, return maps, and scaling properties, and certified that the transition should be a type V intermittency[2]. [1]: C.Marriott and C.Delisle, Physica D 36(1989)198. [2]: D.-R.He et. al., Phys.Lett.A 171(1992)61.

  12. A new optical secure communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fan; Fang, Nian; Huang, Zhaoming; Wang, Chunhua

    2007-11-01

    An optical secure communication system based on digital chaos and Polarization Shift Keying (PolSK) technology is proposed. In several selected PolSK schemes, states of polarization are partially or totally uniform on Poincare sphere. Different PolSK schemes are chosen according to the real-time chaos-based pseudo-random sequences to modulate original information in different periods of clock of the transmitter. In the receiver, according to the synchronous chaotic sequences, corresponding PolSK schemes are used to demodulate the information. Simulation is carried out by using the softwares of OptiSystem and Matlab. Some analysis results are presented. In the conclusion, this system works well in communication and has strong anti-attack capacity.

  13. Multilayer optical disc system using homodyne detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Ide, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yukinobu; Watanabe, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    A write/read system using high-productivity multilayer optical discs was developed. The recording medium used in the system consists of planar recording layers and a separated guide layer, and is fabricated by web coating and lamination process. The recording layers in the medium are made of one-photon-absorption material, on which data can be recorded with a normal laser diode. The developed system is capable of focusing and tracking on the medium and amplifying readout signals by using phase-diversity homodyne detection. A highly layer-selective focusing method using homodyne detection was also proposed. This method obtains stable focus-error signals with clearly separated S-shaped curves even when layer spacing is quite narrow, causing large interlayer crosstalk. Writing on the medium and reading with the signal amplification effect of homodyne detection was demonstrated. In addition, the effectiveness of the method was experimentally evaluated.

  14. High efficiency source coupler for optical waveguide illumination system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic or optical waveguide illumination system includes a source coupling system. The source coupling system includes an optical channel with an internal cavity. A light source is disposed inside the driving circuit. Coupling losses are minimized by placing the light source within the optical channel. The source cavity and the source optical channel can be shaped to enhance the amount of light captured in the channel by total internal reflection. Multiple light distribution waveguides can be connected to the source coupling channel to produce an illumination system.

  15. Natural and engineered hydroxyectoine production based on the Pseudomonas stutzeri ectABCD-ask gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Seip, Britta; Galinski, Erwin A; Kurz, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    We report on the presence of a functional hydroxyectoine biosynthesis gene cluster, ectABCD-ask, in Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM5190(T) and evaluate the suitability of P. stutzeri DSM5190(T) for hydroxyectoine production. Furthermore, we present information on heterologous de novo production of the compatible solute hydroxyectoine in Escherichia coli. In this host, the P. stutzeri gene cluster remained under the control of its salt-induced native promoters. We also noted the absence of trehalose when hydroxyectoine genes were expressed, as well as a remarkable inhibitory effect of externally applied betaine on hydroxyectoine synthesis. The specific heterologous production rate in E. coli under the conditions employed exceeded that of the natural producer Pseudomonas stutzeri and, for the first time, enabled effective hydroxyectoine production at low salinity (2%), with the added advantage of simple product processing due to the absence of other cosolutes.

  16. Comultiplication in ABCD algebra and scalar products of bethe wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A.

    1994-07-01

    The representation of scalar products of Bethe wave functions in terms of dual fields, proved by A. G. Izergin and V. E. Korepin in 1987, plays an important role in the theory of completely integrable models. The proof in [A. G. Izergin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 297, No. 2, 331 (1987)] and [V. E. Korepin, Commun. Math. Phys., 113, 177 190 (1978)] is based on the explicit expression for the “senior” coefficient, which was guessed in the Izergin paper and then proved to satisfy some recurrent relations, which determine it unambiguously. In this paper we present an alternative proof based on direct computation. It uses the operation of comultiplication in the ABCD-algebra.

  17. ABCDE in Clinical Encounters: Presentations of Self in Doctor-Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ventres, William

    2015-01-01

    Professional discussions about communication in medical settings often ignore the various personal identities that doctors and patients bring to their clinical encounters. From my 26 years as a family physician, and informed by literature from other professional disciplines, I propose an alternate understanding: to think of doctors and patients as a collection of individual identities, each formed by a discrete presentation of self. I describe how at least 5 important presentations of self arise in clinical encounters, including those relating to meaning, community, agency, anxiety, and organism. I frame these presentations of self with the mnemonic ABCDE, briefly review key dimensions of each, and suggest how physicians can reflect on these dimensions in order to find equilibrium in their interactions with patients. Lastly, I submit that finding this balance can reduce relational challenges with patients and enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of doctor-patient communication. PMID:25964409

  18. Double-bosonization and Majid’s conjecture, (I): Rank-inductions of ABCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hongmei; Hu, Naihong

    2015-11-15

    Majid developed in [S. Majid, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 125, 151–192 (1999)] the double-bosonization theory to construct U{sub q}(g) and expected to generate inductively not just a line but a tree of quantum groups starting from a node. In this paper, the authors confirm Majid’s first expectation (see p. 178 [S. Majid, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 125, 151–192 (1999)]) through giving and verifying the full details of the inductive constructions of U{sub q}(g) for the classical types, i.e., the ABCD series. Some examples in low ranks are given to elucidate that any quantum group of classical type can be constructed from the node corresponding to U{sub q}(sl{sub 2})

  19. Metabolic Flux Analysis of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ΔnrtABCD Mutant Reveals a Mechanism for Metabolic Adaptation to Nitrogen-Limited Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsubasa; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Toya, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Fumio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic flux redirection during nitrogen-limited growth was investigated in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 glucose-tolerant (GT) strain under photoautotrophic conditions by isotopically non-stationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA). A ΔnrtABCD mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed to reproduce phenotypes arising during nitrogen starvation. The ΔnrtABCD mutant and the wild-type GT strain were cultured under photoautotrophic conditions by a photobioreactor. Intracellular metabolites were labeled over a time course using NaH13CO3 as a carbon source. Based on these data, the metabolic flux distributions in the wild-type and ΔnrtABCD cells were estimated by INST-MFA. The wild-type GT and ΔnrtABCD strains displayed similar distribution patterns, although the absolute levels of metabolic flux were lower in ΔnrtABCD. Furthermore, the relative flux levels for glycogen metabolism, anaplerotic reactions and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were increased in ΔnrtABCD. This was probably due to the increased expression of enzyme genes that respond to nitrogen depletion. Additionally, we found that the ratio of ATP/NADPH demand increased slightly in the ΔnrtABCD mutant. These results indicated that futile ATP consumption increases under nitrogen-limited conditions because the Calvin-Benson cycle and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway form a metabolic futile cycle that consumes ATP without CO2 fixation and NADPH regeneration.

  20. Regulation of bacterial conjugation in microaerobiosis by host-encoded functions ArcAB and sdhABCD.

    PubMed

    Serna, Ana; Espinosa, Elena; Camacho, Eva M; Casadesús, Josep

    2010-04-01

    The virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica (pSLT) is an F-like conjugative plasmid. High rates of pSLT transfer occur in the mammalian gut, a microaerobic environment. In this study, we describe genetic screens for host-encoded activators and repressors of the transfer operon (tra) of pSLT. We show that the transcription factor ArcA is an activator of conjugation, especially under microaerobiosis. In turn, succinate dehydrogenase (SdhABCD) is a repressor of mating in aerobiosis. ArcA binds upstream of the main tra promoter (p(traY)) and activates tra transcription, as previously described in F, R1, and R100. In the absence of ArcA, transfer of pSLT decreased 7-fold in aerobiosis and >100-fold in microaerobiosis. In aerobiosis, ArcA activates the traY promoter in an ArcB-independent manner, as described in other F-like plasmids. In microaerobiosis, however, the ArcB sensor is necessary for activation of p(traY). Lack of Sdh causes a >20-fold increase in pSLT transfer in aerobiosis, but has little effect under microaerobiosis. Sdh inhibits conjugal transfer by reducing traJ transcription, probably in an indirect manner. In turn, the sdhCDAB operon is repressed by the ArcAB system under microaerobiosis. Hence, the ArcAB two-component system of S. enterica stimulates pSLT transfer under microaerobiosis by two concerted actions: activation of the tra operon and repression of the sdhCDAB operon.

  1. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The current Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program is reviewed and the potential role of IOCs in FOCSI applications is described. The program is intended for building, environmentally testing, and demonstrating operation in piggyback flight tests (no active control with optical sensors) of a representative sensor system for propulsion and flight control. The optical sensor systems are to be designed to fit alongside the bill-of-materials sensors for comparison. The sensors are to be connected to electrooptic architecture cards which will contain the optical sources and detectors to recover and process the modulated optical signals. The FOCSI program is to collect data on the behavior of passive optical sensor systems in a flight environment and provide valuable information on installation amd maintenance problems for this technology, as well as component survivability (light sources, connectors, optical fibers, etc.).

  2. Thermal and optical characterization for POLARBEAR-2 optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Y.; Stebor, N.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Anthony, A. E.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrilll, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Linder, E.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Meng, X.; Morii, H.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Sholl, M.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zahn, O.

    2014-08-01

    POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment for B-mode detection. The PB-2 receiver has a large focal plane and aperture that consists of 7588 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 250 mK. The receiver consists of the optical cryostat housing reimaging lenses and infrared filters, and the detector cryostat housing TES bolometers. The large focal plane places substantial requirements on the thermal design of the optical elements at the 4K, 50K, and 300K stages. Infrared filters and lenses inside the optical cryostat are made of alumina for this purpose. We measure basic properties of alumina, such as the index of refraction, loss tangent and thermal conductivity. All results meet our requirements. We also optically characterize filters and lenses made of alumina. Finally, we perform a cooling test of the entire optical cryostat. All measured temperature values satisfy our requirements. In particular, the temperature rise between the center and edge of the alumina infrared filter at 50 K is only 2:0 ± 1:4 K. Based on the measurements, we estimate the incident power to each thermal stage.

  3. Optical Symbolic Processor for Expert System Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-30

    editions are obsolete. F. - 2 - 1. EXISTING OPTICAL SHUFFLE-EXCHANGE NETWORK DESIGNS There has been increasing interest recently in the implementation...resolution is incorporated in the switch depends on how the mask or the age of a message is encoded and updated. 3.2. Acousto - optic gate The acoutooptic gate...J. Seymour, ’ Optical Computing and the Fredkin Gates,’ Applied Optics , 15 May 1986. [9] R. Cuykendall and D . McMillin, ’Control-specific Optical

  4. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  5. Misalignment induced aberration off-axis optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhihai; Fan, Xuewu; Ma, Zhen; Zou, Gangyi

    2016-10-01

    Through introducing transformed pupil vector and shifted center of aberration fields vector into the nodal aberration expansions of an axially symmetric optical system, the aberration expression in third order of an off-axis optical system and misaligned off-axis optical system are detailed. Nodal aberration characteristics of misaligned off-axis optical system are revealed only by analyzing the pupil decentration vector, aberration fields shifted vector and the aberration coefficients of the axially symmetric optical system. Actually, it is well demonstrated that the 3rd spherical aberration, 3rd coma, 3rd astigmatism in a misalignment off-axis system are comparable to the aberrations in a misalignment axially symmetric system. Otherwise it will not only induced constant 3rd spherical aberration but also constant 3rd coma and 3rd astigmatism over the field of view, when aligned an off-axis optical system elements with error axial spacing.

  6. Free-space optical communication alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariola, M.; Petruccione, F.

    2016-10-01

    Optical communication systems in free space require a coarse and fine alignment system to align the receiver and transmitter. In general a coarse alignment is not entirely accurate to transmit the laser beacon in the exact direction of the visible field of the camera. During this process, some algorithms such as the raster, spiral and raster spiral scan algorithm can be used to find the spot of the laser beacon. Applications that require to transmit data in form of polarization signals, such as quantum cryptography, requires a polarisation bases alignment system to transmit and receive the photons. In this paper we present a fine alignment system using a polarised laser beacon. The system proposed was subdivided into a coarse and fine alignment system. The coarse alignment was implemented by using the GPS to acquire the geographical position of the transmitter, receiver and a reference point. The fine alignment was achieved by using a polarised laser beacon from the receiver to the transmitter and a camera located on the transmitter side. The algorithm presented was capable of excluding the background noise. Furthermore the polarisation of the laser beacon was used to align the polarisation bases of the transmitter and the receiver.

  7. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  8. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  9. Stent optical inspection system calibration and performance.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Carlos; Laguarta, Ferran; Cadevall, Cristina; Matilla, Aitor; Ibañez, Sergi; Artigas, Roger

    2017-03-20

    Implantable medical devices, such as stents, have to be inspected 100% so no defective ones are implanted into a human body. In this paper, a novel optical stent inspection system is presented. By the combination of a high numerical aperture microscope, a triple illumination system, a rotational stage, and a CMOS camera, unrolled sections of the outer and inner surfaces of the stent are obtained with high resolution at high speed with a line-scan approach. In this paper, a comparison between the conventional microscope image formation and this new approach is shown. A calibration process and the investigation of the error sources that lead to inaccuracies of the critical dimension measurements are presented.

  10. Capacities of linear quantum optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth

    2012-06-01

    A wide variety of communication channels employ the quantized electromagnetic field to convey information. Their communication capacity crucially depends on losses associated to spatial characteristics of the channel such as diffraction and antenna design. Here we focus on the communication via a finite pupil, showing that diffraction is formally described as a memory channel. By exploiting this equivalence we then compute the communication capacity of an optical refocusing system, modeled as a converging lens. Even though loss of information originates from the finite pupil of the lens, we show that the presence of the refocusing system can substantially enhance the communication capacity. We mainly concentrate on communication of classical information, the extension to quantum information being straightforward.

  11. Analytic model utilizing the complex ABCD method for range dependency of a monostatic coherent lidar.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-09-10

    In this work, we present an analytic model for analyzing the range and frequency dependency of a monostatic coherent lidar measuring velocities of a diffuse target. The model of the signal power spectrum includes both the contribution from the optical system as well as the contribution from the time dependencies of the optical field. A specific coherent Doppler wind lidar system measuring wind velocity in the atmosphere is considered, in which a Gaussian field is transmitted through a simple telescope consisting of a lens and an aperture. The effects of the aperture size, the beam waist position, and pulse duration are analyzed.

  12. Coherent optical monolithic phased-array antenna steering system

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    An optical-based RF beam steering system for phased-array antennas comprising a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The system is based on optical heterodyning employed to produce microwave phase shifting by a monolithic PIC constructed entirely of passive components. Microwave power and control signal distribution to the antenna is accomplished by optical fiber, permitting physical separation of the PIC and its control functions from the antenna. The system reduces size, weight, complexity, and cost of phased-array antenna systems.

  13. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible.

  14. Overview of optical data relay system in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishiki, Y.; Yamakawa, S.; Takano, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Araki, T.; Kohata, H.

    2016-03-01

    To meet increasing demands of high-speed data transmission, JAXA has started to develop a new optical data relay system. This system provides 1.8Gbit/s data relay service through optical inter-satellite link and Ka-band feeder link using JDRS, a data relay satellite. The first user satellite is the Advanced Optical Satellite, a Japanese optical observation satellite in low earth orbit. As a total data relay system, the data relay satellite, Ka-band ground stations and two optical terminals for JDRS and the Advanced Optical Satellite are developed together. Target launch year of JDRS is 2019 in Japanese fiscal year. This paper describes the development plan and technologies of the optical data relay system.

  15. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-01-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  16. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Challener, William A

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  17. Simulation of DKIST solar adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jose; Carlisle, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Solar adaptive optics (AO) simulations are a valuable tool to guide the design and optimization process of current and future solar AO and multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) systems. Solar AO and MCAO systems rely on extended object cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to measure the wavefront. Accurate solar AO simulations require computationally intensive operations, which have until recently presented a prohibitive computational cost. We present an update on the status of a solar AO and MCAO simulation tool being developed at the National Solar Observatory. The simulation tool is a multi-threaded application written in the C++ language that takes advantage of current large multi-core CPU computer systems and fast ethernet connections to provide accurate full simulation of solar AO and MCAO systems. It interfaces with KAOS, a state of the art solar AO control software developed by the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, that provides reliable AO control. We report on the latest results produced by the solar AO simulation tool.

  18. Systems, Devices, and Materials for Digital Optical Processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Mark Alan

    The massive parallelism and flexibility of three -dimensional optical communication may allow the development of new parallel computers free from the constraints of planar electronic technology. To bring the optical computer from possibility to reality, however, requires technological and scientific development in new optical systems, devices, and materials. We present here research results in each of these areas. First described is a prototype optical information processing system using CdS/liquid crystal spatial light modulators for optical logic and memory. This system has been developed as the first step in the implementation of a fine-grained, globally-interconnected optical processing element array. Notable system features include the implementation of programmable electronic control and the analysis of the optical power distribution within the processor, both directly applicable to the design of new and more advanced optical information processing systems. Next presented is the design and initial performance data for a new spatial light modulator combining an array of silicon phototransistors with the electro-optic material (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O _3, opening new possibilities for "intelligent" optical logic, memory, and switching devices. Important to the optimal performance of this Si/PLZT device is the fabrication of embedded electrodes in the electro-optic material, reducing the device operating voltage and switching energy while improving the uniformity of the optical modulation. An extensive computer model of embedded electrode performance and details of the electrode fabrication by reactive ion beam etching and electroless Ni deposition are presented. Finally, in the area of optical materials development we present initial results in the RF magnetron deposition of electro -optic PLZT on r-plane sapphire. This work is important to the fabrication of a monolithic, Si/PLZT-on-sapphire spatial light modulator, promising superior performance to devices using

  19. Combination of 3D skin surface texture features and 2D ABCD features for improved melanoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; John, Nigel W; Smith, Lyndon; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation and diameter (ABCD) features are important indicators currently used for computer-assisted diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM); however, they often prove to be insufficient to make a convincing diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that 3D skin surface normal features in the form of tilt and slant pattern disruptions are promising new features independent from the existing 2D ABCD features. This work investigates that whether improved lesion classification can be achieved by combining the 3D features with the 2D ABCD features. Experiments using a nonlinear support vector machine classifier show that many combinations of the 2D ABCD features and the 3D features can give substantially better classification accuracy than using (1) single features and (2) many combinations of the 2D ABCD features. The best 2D and 3D feature combination includes the overall 3D skin surface disruption, the asymmetry and all the three colour channel features. It gives an overall 87.8 % successful classification, which is better than the best single feature with 78.0 % and the best 2D feature combination with 83.1 %. These demonstrate that (1) the 3D features have additive values to improve the existing lesion classification and (2) combining the 3D feature with all the 2D features does not lead to the best lesion classification. The two ABCD features not selected by the best 2D and 3D combination, namely (1) the border feature and (2) the diameter feature, were also studied in separate experiments. It found that inclusion of either feature in the 2D and 3D combination can successfully classify 3 out of 4 lesion groups. The only one group not accurately classified by either feature can be classified satisfactorily by the other. In both cases, they have shown better classification performances than those without the 3D feature in the combinations. This further demonstrates that (1) the 3D feature can be used to

  20. Performance of laser based optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Dhrupesh S.; Banerjee, Arup; Vora, Anup; Biswas, Amiya; Patel, Naimesh; Kurulkar, Amit; Dutt, Ashutosh

    2016-05-01

    Day night imaging application requires high dynamic range optical imaging system to detect targets of interest covering mid-day (>32000 Lux)[1], and moonless night ( 1mLux)[1] under clear sky- (visibility of >10km, atmospheric loss of <1dB/km) and hazy (visibility of >500m, atmospheric loss of >15dB/Km) conditions. Major governing factors for development of such camera systems are (i) covert imaging with ability to identify the target, (ii) imaging irrespective to the scene background, (iii) reliable operation , (iv) imaging capabilities in inclement weather conditions, (v) resource requirement vs availability power & mass, (vi) real-time data processing, (vii) self-calibration, and (viii) cost. Identification of optimum spectral band of interest is most important to meet these requirements. Conventional detection systems sensing in MWIR and LWIR band has certain draw backs in terms of target detection capabilities, susceptibility to background and huge thermo-mechanical resource requirement. Alternatively, range gated imaging camera system sensing in NIR/SWIR spectrum has shown significant potential to detect wide dynamic range targets. ToF Camera configured in NIR band has certain advantages in terms of Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) development with large format detectors and thermo-mechanical resource requirement compared to SWIR band camera configuration. In past, ToF camera systems were successfully configured in NIR spectrum using silicon based Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD), Intensifier CCD (ICCD) along with Gating device and pulsed laser source having emission in between 800nm to 900nm. However, these systems have a very low dynamic range and not suitable for clear sky mid-day conditions. Recently silicon based scientific grade CMOS image sensors have shown significant improvement in terms of high NIR responsivity and available in bigger formats (5MP or more), adequate Full well capacity for day time imaging (>30Ke), very low readout noise (<2e) required for

  1. Simulating Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems Using Yao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigaut, François; Van Dam, Marcos

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive Optics systems are at the heart of the coming Extremely Large Telescopes generation. Given the importance, complexity and required advances of these systems, being able to simulate them faithfully is key to their success, and thus to the success of the ELTs. The type of systems envisioned to be built for the ELTs cover most of the AO breeds, from NGS AO to multiple guide star Ground Layer, Laser Tomography and Multi-Conjugate AO systems, with typically a few thousand actuators. This represents a large step up from the current generation of AO systems, and accordingly a challenge for existing AO simulation packages. This is especially true as, in the past years, computer power has not been following Moore's law in its most common understanding; CPU clocks are hovering at about 3GHz. Although the use of super computers is a possible solution to run these simulations, being able to use smaller machines has obvious advantages: cost, access, environmental issues. By using optimised code in an already proven AO simulation platform, we were able to run complex ELT AO simulations on very modest machines, including laptops. The platform is YAO. In this paper, we describe YAO, its architecture, its capabilities, the ELT-specific challenges and optimisations, and finally its performance. As an example, execution speed ranges from 5 iterations per second for a 6 LGS 60x60 subapertures Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor Laser Tomography AO system (including full physical image formation and detector characteristics) up to over 30 iterations/s for a single NGS AO system.

  2. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    SciTech Connect

    Bissinger, H.

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  3. Physical Optics Based Computational Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, Stephen Joseph

    There is an ongoing demand on behalf of the consumer, medical and military industries to make lighter weight, higher resolution, wider field-of-view and extended depth-of-focus cameras. This leads to design trade-offs between performance and cost, be it size, weight, power, or expense. This has brought attention to finding new ways to extend the design space while adhering to cost constraints. Extending the functionality of an imager in order to achieve extraordinary performance is a common theme of computational imaging, a field of study which uses additional hardware along with tailored algorithms to formulate and solve inverse problems in imaging. This dissertation details four specific systems within this emerging field: a Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System, an Extended Depth-of-Focus Imaging System, a Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System, and a Compressive Imaging System. The Fiber Bundle Relayed Imaging System is part of a larger project, where the work presented in this thesis was to use image processing techniques to mitigate problems inherent to fiber bundle image relay and then, form high-resolution wide field-of-view panoramas captured from multiple sensors within a custom state-of-the-art imager. The Extended Depth-of-Focus System goals were to characterize the angular and depth dependence of the PSF of a focal swept imager in order to increase the acceptably focused imaged scene depth. The goal of the Platform Motion Blur Image Restoration System was to build a system that can capture a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), long-exposure image which is inherently blurred while at the same time capturing motion data using additional optical sensors in order to deblur the degraded images. Lastly, the objective of the Compressive Imager was to design and build a system functionally similar to the Single Pixel Camera and use it to test new sampling methods for image generation and to characterize it against a traditional camera. These computational

  4. Smart Optical Material Characterization System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for characterizing optical materials, using steps and equipment for generating a coherent laser light, filtering the light to remove high order spatial components, collecting the filtered light and forming a parallel light beam, splitting the parallel beam into a first direction and a second direction wherein the parallel beam travelling in the second direction travels toward the material sample so that the parallel beam passes through the sample, applying various physical quantities to the sample, reflecting the beam travelling in the first direction to produce a first reflected beam, reflecting the beam that passes through the sample to produce a second reflected beam that travels back through the sample, combining the second reflected beam after it travels back though the sample with the first reflected beam, sensing the light beam produced by combining the first and second reflected beams, and processing the sensed beam to determine sample characteristics and properties.

  5. Self-amplified optical pattern recognition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A self amplifying optical pattern recognizer includes a geometric system configuration similar to that of a Vander Lugt holographic matched filter configuration with a photorefractive crystal specifically oriented with respect to the input beams. An extraordinarily polarized, spherically converging object image beam is formed by laser illumination of an input object image and applied through a photorefractive crystal, such as a barium titanite (BaTiO.sub.3) crystal. A volume or thin-film dif ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract, and is subject to the provisions of Public Law 96-517 (35 USC 202) in which the Contractor has elected to retain title.

  6. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  7. All-optically integrated multimodality imaging system: combined photoacoustic microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a multimodality imaging system by optically integrating all-optical photoacoustic microscopy (AOPAM), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FLM) to provide complementary information including optical absorption, optical back-scattering and fluorescence contrast of biological tissue. By sharing the same low-coherence Michelson interferometer, AOPAM and OCT could be organically optically combined to obtain the absorption and scattering information of the biological tissues. Also, owing to using the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence signals are obtained to present the radiative and nonradiative transition process of absorption. Simultaneously photoacoustic angiography, tissue structure and fluorescence molecular in vivo images of mouse ear were acquired to demonstrate the capabilities of the optically integrated trimodality imaging system, which can present more information to study tumor angiogenesis, vasculature, anatomical structure and microenvironments in vivo.

  8. Structural optical design of the complex multi-group zoom systems by means of matrix optics.

    PubMed

    Kryszczyński, T; Mikucki, J

    2013-08-26

    New matrix formulas for structural optical design have been obtained from analysis of derivative of the system matrix in respect to construction parameters and movements of components. Functional parameters of the optical system become elements of the matrix, presenting working conditions of the optical system. Developed methodology of structural design multi-group zoom systems with unlimited number of components and with mechanical-electronic compensation is presented. Any optical system, such as the objective lens, reproduction system, or telescopic system, can be analyzed with this methodology. Kinematics of components pertaining to a full tract of the zoom system is determined for a discrete number of positions. Three examples of the structural design of complex zoom systems with five-components and high zooming ratio are provided.

  9. Integrated Formation Optical Communication and Estimation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Kuhnert, Andreas; Kovalik, Joseph; Hadaegh, Fred; Shaddock, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    An architecture has been designed that integrates formation estimation methodologies, precision formation sensing, and high-bandwidth formation communication into a robust, strap-on system that meets knowledge and communication requirements for the majority of planned, precision formation missions. Specifically, the integrated system supports (a) sub-millimeter metrology, (b) multiple greater than 10 Mbps communication channels over a large, 10 deg field-of-view (FOV), and (c) generalized formation estimation methodologies. The sensing sub-system consists of several absolute, metrology gauges with up to 0.1 mm precision that use amplitude-modulated lasers and a LISA-heritage phase meter. Since amplitude modulation is used, inexpensive and robust diode lasers may be used instead of complex, frequency-stabilized lasers such as for nanometer-level metrology. The metrology subsystem laser transceivers consist of a laser diode, collecting optics, and an avalanche photo diode (APD) for detecting incoming laser signals. The APD is necessary since received power is small due to the large (for optical applications) FOV. The phase meter determines the phase of the incoming amplitude modulations as measured by the APD. This phase is equivalent to time-of-flight and, therefore, distance. By placing three laser transceivers on each spacecraft, 18 clock-offset-corrupted distances are calculated. These measurements are communicated and averaged to obtain nine correct distances between the transceivers. From these correct distances, the range and bearing between spacecraft and their relative attitude are determined. Next, communication is integrated on the laser carrier through spectral separation. Metrology amplitude modulations are limited to the 45-50 MHz band, leaving 0-45 MHz for communication. Through careful design of coding scheme, error correction, and filters, six independent 10 Mbps receive channels are possible. Hence, a spacecraft can simultaneously broadcast at 10

  10. Effectiveness of adaptive optics system in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication.

    PubMed

    Jian, Huang; Ke, Deng; Chao, Liu; Peng, Zhang; Dagang, Jiang; Zhoushi, Yao

    2014-06-30

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems can suppress the signal fade induced by atmospheric turbulence in satellite-to-ground coherent optical communication. The lower bound of the signal fade under AO compensation was investigated by analyzing the pattern of aberration modes for a one-stage imaging AO system. The distribution of the root mean square of the residual aberration is discussed on the basis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the residual aberration of the AO system. The effectiveness of the AO system for improving the performance of coherent optical communication is presented in terms of the bit error rate and system availability.

  11. The Bartonella henselae SitABCD transporter is required for confronting oxidative stress during cell and flea invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, MaFeng; Bouhsira, Emilie; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2013-10-01

    Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen that possesses a flea-cat-flea transmission cycle and causes cat scratch disease in humans via cat scratches and bites. In order to establish infection, B. henselae must overcome oxidative stress damage produced by the mammalian host and arthropod vector. B. henselae encodes for putative Fe²⁺ and Mn²⁺ transporter SitABCD. In B. henselae, SitAB knockdown increases sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. We consistently show that SitAB knockdown decreases the ability of B. henselae to survive in both human endothelial cells and cat fleas, thus demonstrating that the SitABCD transporter plays an important role during the B. henselae infection cycle.

  12. Synthesis of the Tetracyclic ABCD Ring Domain of Calyciphylline A-Type Alkaloids via Reductive Radical Cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Coussanes, Guilhem; Bonjoch, Josep

    2017-02-17

    A tetracyclic compound with the ABCD ring framework of calyciphylline A-type alkaloids was synthesized from a cis-3a-methyloctahydroindole triggered by a 5-endo radical cyclization. The synthesis required two additional ring-forming steps: the construction of a seven-membered ring by aldol cyclization and the azabicyclic fragment by a radical ring closure of a trichloroacetamide-tethered enol acetate followed by a diastereoselective α-methylation of the lactam group.

  13. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-08-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast in a rapid prototyping manner, to hard polymers that could even be produced by injection moulding, or to silica in which waveguides may either be written directly, or with grooves for optical fibers. Here, we review different solutions to the system and also show results obtained in a polymer chip with DUV written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers.

  14. Main optical system of China's 2.16-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-Qiang; Zhou, Bi-Fang; Yu, Xin-Mu

    1990-04-01

    This paper introduces configuration of the main optical system of China's 2.16-m telescope and the results of its optical design. There are three foci in this telescope: the Cassegrain, the coude, and the prime foci. Ritchey-Chretien (R-C) system is used as the Cassegrain system. The 2-lens and 3-lens correctors are prepared for the Cassegrain and the prime foci, respectively. The most significant characteristic of this optical system is that the coude and Cassegrain systems share one secondary mirror. A relay mirror is added to the coude system. Some other coude configurations and a special configuration for setting the focal reducer are also discussed.

  15. Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amit D; Jung, Juergen C; Flusberg, Benjamin A; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    The compact size, mechanical flexibility, and growing functionality of optical fiber and fiber optic devices are enabling several new modalities for imaging the mammalian nervous system in vivo. Fluorescence microendoscopy is a minimally invasive fiber modality that provides cellular resolution in deep brain areas. Diffuse optical tomography is a non-invasive modality that uses assemblies of fiber optic emitters and detectors on the cranium for volumetric imaging of brain activation. Optical coherence tomography is a sensitive interferometric imaging technique that can be implemented in a variety of fiber based formats and that might allow intrinsic optical detection of brain activity at a high resolution. Miniaturized fiber optic microscopy permits cellular level imaging in the brains of behaving animals. Together, these modalities will enable new uses of imaging in the intact nervous system for both research and clinical applications. PMID:15464896

  16. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  17. Passive thermo-optic feedback for robust athermal photonic systems

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter T.; Watts, Michael R.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-06-23

    Thermal control devices, photonic systems and methods of stabilizing a temperature of a photonic system are provided. A thermal control device thermally coupled to a substrate includes a waveguide for receiving light, an absorption element optically coupled to the waveguide for converting the received light to heat and an optical filter. The optical filter is optically coupled to the waveguide and thermally coupled to the absorption element. An operating point of the optical filter is tuned responsive to the heat from the absorption element. When the operating point is less than a predetermined temperature, the received light is passed to the absorption element via the optical filter. When the operating point is greater than or equal to the predetermined temperature, the received light is transmitted out of the thermal control device via the optical filter, without being passed to the absorption element.

  18. A Perspective on Optical Biosensors and Integrated Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ligler, Frances S.

    2009-01-01

    Optical biosensors have begun to move from the laboratory to the point of use. This trend will be accelerated by new concepts for molecular recognition, integration of microfluidics and optics, simplified fabrication technologies, improved approaches to biosensor system integration, and dramatically increased awareness of the applicability of sensor technology to improve public health and environmental monitoring. Examples of innovations are identified that will lead to smaller, faster, cheaper optical biosensor systems with capacity to provide effective and actionable information. PMID:19140774

  19. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  20. The ferrous iron transporter FtrABCD is required for the virulence of Brucella abortus 2308 in mice.

    PubMed

    Elhassanny, Ahmed E M; Anderson, Eric S; Menscher, Evan A; Roop, R Martin

    2013-06-01

    Iron transport has been linked to the virulence of Brucella strains in both natural and experimental hosts. The genes designated BAB2_0837-0840 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence are predicted to encode a CupII-type ferrous iron transporter homologous to the FtrABCD transporter recently described in Bordetella. To study the role of the Brucella FtrABCD in iron transport, an isogenic ftrA mutant was constructed from B. abortus 2308. Compared with the parental strain, the B. abortus ftrA mutant displays a decreased capacity to use non-haem iron sources in vitro, a growth defect in a low iron medium that is enhanced at pH 6, and studies employing radiolabelled FeCl3 confirmed that FtrABCD transports ferrous iron. Transcription of the ftrA gene is induced in B. abortus 2308 in response to iron deprivation and exposure to acid pH, and similar to other Brucella iron acquisition genes that have been examined the iron-responsiveness of ftrA is dependent upon the iron response regulator Irr. The B. abortus ftrA mutant exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, supporting the proposition that ferrous iron is a critical iron source for these bacteria in the mammalian host.

  1. Design optimization of system level adaptive optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.; Doyle, Keith B.; Bisson, Gary R.

    2005-09-01

    By linking predictive methods from multiple engineering disciplines, engineers are able to compute more meaningful predictions of a product's performance. By coupling mechanical and optical predictive techniques mechanical design can be performed to optimize optical performance. This paper demonstrates how mechanical design optimization using system level optical performance can be used in the development of the design of a high precision adaptive optical telescope. While mechanical design parameters are treated as the design variables, the objective function is taken to be the adaptively corrected optical imaging performance of an orbiting two-mirror telescope.

  2. Power selective optical filter devices and optical systems using same

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2014-10-07

    In an embodiment, a power selective optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes at least one substantially zero-order, zero-wave plate. The zero-order, zero-wave plate is configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. The zero-order, zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  3. Isoplanatism in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Tokovinin, A; Le Louarn, M; Sarazin, M

    2000-10-01

    Turbulence correction in a large field of view by use of an adaptive optics imaging system with several deformable mirrors (DM's) conjugated to various heights is considered. The residual phase variance is computed for an optimized linear algorithm in which a correction of each turbulent layer is achieved by applying a combination of suitably smoothed and scaled input phase screens to all DM's. Finite turbulence outer scale and finite spatial resolution of the DM's are taken into account. A general expression for the isoplanatic angle thetaM of a system with M mirrors is derived in the limiting case of infinitely large apertures and Kolmogorov turbulence. Like Fried's isoplanatic angle theta0,thetaM is a function only of the turbulence vertical profile, is scalable with wavelength, and is independent of the telescope diameter. Use of angle thetaM permits the gain in the field of view due to the increased number of DM's to be quantified and their optimal conjugate heights to be found. Calculations with real turbulence profiles show that with three DM's a gain of 7-10x is possible, giving the typical and best isoplanatic field-of-view radii of 16 and 30 arcseconds, respectively, at lambda = 0.5 microm. It is shown that in the actual systems the isoplanatic field will be somewhat larger than thetaM owing to the combined effects of finite aperture diameter, finite outer scale, and optimized wave-front spatial filtering. However, this additional gain is not dramatic; it is less than 1.5x for large-aperture telescopes.

  4. An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-15

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors.

  5. An Image Stabilization Optical System Using Deformable Freeform Mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors. PMID:25599423

  6. Digital optical computers at the optoelectronic computing systems center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The Digital Optical Computing Program within the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Opto-electronic Computing Systems has as its specific goal research on optical computing architectures suitable for use at the highest possible speeds. The program can be targeted toward exploiting the time domain because other programs in the Center are pursuing research on parallel optical systems, exploiting optical interconnection and optical devices and materials. Using a general purpose computing architecture as the focus, we are developing design techniques, tools and architecture for operation at the speed of light limit. Experimental work is being done with the somewhat low speed components currently available but with architectures which will scale up in speed as faster devices are developed. The design algorithms and tools developed for a general purpose, stored program computer are being applied to other systems such as optimally controlled optical communication networks.

  7. The addition of E (Empowerment and Economics) to the ABCD algorithm in diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Khazrai, Yeganeh Manon; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Del Prato, Stefano; Cahn, Avivit; Raz, Itamar; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The ABCD (Age, Body weight, Complications, Duration of disease) algorithm was proposed as a simple and practical tool to manage patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes treatment, as for all chronic diseases, relies on patients' ability to cope with daily problems concerning the management of their disease in accordance with medical recommendations. Thus, it is important that patients learn to manage and cope with their disease and gain greater control over actions and decisions affecting their health. Healthcare professionals should aim to encourage and increase patients' perception about their ability to take informed decisions about disease management and to improve patient self-esteem and feeling of self-efficacy to become agents of their own health. E for Empowerment is therefore an additional factor to take into account in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. E stands also for Economics to be considered in diabetes care. Attention should be paid to public health policies as well as to the physician faced with the dilemma of delivering the best possible care within the problem of limited resources. The financial impact of the new treatment modalities for diabetes represents an issue that needs to be addressed at multiple strata both globally and nationally.

  8. Optical symbolic processor for expert system execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Aloke

    1987-11-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a concept for an optical computer architecture for symbolic computing by defining a computation model of a high level language, examining the possible devices for the ultimate construction of a processor, and by defining required optical operations. This quarter we investigated the implementation alternatives for an optical shuffle exchange network (SEN). Work in previous quarter had led to the conclusion that the SEN was most appropriate optical interconnection network topology for the symbolic processing architecture (SPARO). A more detailed analysis was therefore conducted to examine implementation possibilities. It was determined that while the shuffle connection of the SEN was very feasible in optics using passive devices, a full-scale exchange switch which handles conflict resolution among competing messages is much more difficult. More emphasis was therefore given to the exchange switch design. The functionalities required for the exchange switch and its controls were analyzed. These functionalities were then assessed for optical implementation. It is clear that even the basic exchange switch, that is, an exchange without the controls for conflict resolution, delivery, etc..., is quite a difficult problem in optics. We have proposed a number of optical techniques that appear to be good candidates for realizing the basic exchange switch. A reasonable approach appears to be to evaluate these techniques.

  9. Optical Design of Telescopes and other Reflective Systems using SLIDERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    Optical design tools are presented to provide automatic generation of reflective optical systems for design studies and educational use. The tools are graphical in nature and use an interactive slider interface with freely available optical design software, OSLO EDU. Operation of the sliders provides input to adjust first-order and other system parameters (e.g. focal length), while appropriate system construction parameters are automatically updated to correct aberrations. Graphical output is also presented in real-time (e.g. a lens drawing) to provide the opportunity for a truly visual approach to optical design. Available systems include two- three- and four-mirror telescopes, relays, and afocal systems, either rotationally symmetric or having just a plane of symmetry. Demonstrations are presented, including a brief discussion of interfacing optical design software to MATLAB, and general research opportunities at NASA.

  10. A novel optical scattering collection system for particulate monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C. Jr.; Nuspliger, R.J.

    1996-05-01

    Light collecting systems often require radically different optical surfaces than those commonly found in optical imaging systems. An optical particulate monitor must probe a volume in emission stacks to obtain a good statistical distribution of suspended particles. However, ideal imaging systems map object planes into conjugate image planes and can probe only small volumes. The authors describe the design, fabrication and performance of a novel optical scattering collection system that exploits precision-engineered reflective conical surfaces (axicons) in a telescopic arrangement that maps a line in object space onto the detector plane in image space. Such non-spherical surfaces are nearly impossible to fabricate using traditional methods, but can readily be made using the deterministic method of single-point diamond turning. In addition to complex optical surfaces, single-point diamond turning also makes possible the precision engineering of reference surfaces useful for built-in alignment of multiple surfaces and rapid assembly of the finished system.

  11. Optical system designs based on bi-directional sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Constanze; Gawronski, Ute; Perske, Franziska; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Small and compact optical system designs are needed in nearly all application scenarios of optical projection and imaging systems, e.g. automotive, metrology, medical or multimedia. Most active optical systems are based on separated imaging (e.g. camera unit) and image generating units (e.g. projection unit). This fact limits the geometrical miniaturization of the system. We present compact optical system designs using the new technology of bi-directional sensor devices. These devices combine light emitting and light detecting elements on one single chip. The application of such innovative opto-electronic devices - so-called bi-directional OLED microdisplays (BiMiDs) - offer a huge potential for miniaturization with a simultaneous increase of performance due to a new integration step. For these new bi-directional sensor devices new optical design concepts for simultaneous and sequential emission and detection are necessary. Because the simultaneous emission and detection can disturb the functionality of the optical system. New concepts has to be applied. A first concept is an exemplary 3-D metrology system applying fringe projection. A second concept is a pico-projection system with an integrated camera function. For both concepts the system configurations and the optical design are discussed. Due to the application of the bi-directional sensor device ultra-compact systems are presented.

  12. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred J; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sang-Il; Yu, Chang-Jae; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2014-05-13

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  13. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sang-Il; Yu, Chang-Jae; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-03-21

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  14. Residential solar-heating system uses pyramidal optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes reflective panels which optimize annual solar energy collection in attic installation. Subunits include collection, storage, distribution, and 4-mode control systems. Pyramid optical system heats single-family and multi-family dwellings.

  15. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong -Hyun; Park, Sang -Il; Yu, Chang -Jae; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-08-25

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  16. Optical systems fabricated by printing-based assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John; Nuzzo, Ralph; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred J.; Motala, Michael; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Sang-II; Yu; Chang-Jae; Ko, Heung-Cho; Stoykovich; Mark; Yoon, Jongseung

    2011-07-05

    Provided are optical devices and systems fabricated, at least in part, via printing-based assembly and integration of device components. In specific embodiments the present invention provides light emitting systems, light collecting systems, light sensing systems and photovoltaic systems comprising printable semiconductor elements, including large area, high performance macroelectronic devices. Optical systems of the present invention comprise semiconductor elements assembled, organized and/or integrated with other device components via printing techniques that exhibit performance characteristics and functionality comparable to single crystalline semiconductor based devices fabricated using conventional high temperature processing methods. Optical systems of the present invention have device geometries and configurations, such as form factors, component densities, and component positions, accessed by printing that provide a range of useful device functionalities. Optical systems of the present invention include devices and device arrays exhibiting a range of useful physical and mechanical properties including flexibility, shapeability, conformability and stretchablity.

  17. CHIPS microsatellite optical system: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholl, M. J.; Gaines, Geoff; Sirk, Martin; Taylor, Ellen; Hurwitz, Mark

    2008-08-01

    The Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) observatory launched on 12 January 2003, and was the first and only successful GSFC UNEX (NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center University Explorer class) mission. The UNEX program was conceived by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a new class of Explorer mission charged with demonstrating that significant science and/or technology experiments can be performed by small satellites with constrained budgets and a limited schedule. The purpose of the observatory was to examine details of the local bubble thermal pressure, spatial distribution and ionization history. The observatory was also used to observe solar spectra, both scattered from the Lunar surface and via a fortuitous 2nd order scattering path. CHIPS confirmed that spectral features within the 90-260Å band were much dimmer than was predicted by contemporary theories, and operated four years beyond its design lifetime. The observatory was placed in an extended safe-hold mode in April of 2008 for budgetary purposes. The spectrometer consisted of six spectrograph channels which delivered >λ/100 resolution spectra to a single detector. Cost constraints of UNEX led to a design based on a traditional aluminum structure, and an instrument with a large field of view (5° x 26°). All optical and optomechanical systems on the spectrometer performed flawlessly on orbit. We discuss the challenges, difficulties and lessons learned during the design, fabrication and execution stages of the mission.

  18. Optical music recognition system which learns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaga, Ichiro

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an optical music recognition system composed of a database and three interdependent processes: a recognizer, an editor, and a learner. Given a scanned image of a musical score, the recognizer locates, separates, and classifies symbols into musically meaningful categories. This classification is based on the k-nearest neighbor method using a subset of the database that contains features of symbols classified in previous recognition sessions. Output of the recognizer is corrected by a musically trained human operator using a music notation editor. The editor provides both visual and high-quality audio feedback of the output. Editorial corrections made by the operator are passed to the learner which then adds the newly acquired data to the database. The learner's main task, however, involves selecting a subset of the database and reweighing the importance of the features to improve accuracy and speed for subsequent sessions. Good preliminary results have been obtained with everything from professionally engraved scores to hand-written manuscripts.

  19. A proposed fibre optic time domain optical coherence tomography system using a micro-photonic stationary optical delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansz, Paul Vernon; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2008-04-01

    Conventional time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) relies on a reference Optical Delay Line (ODL). These reference ODLs require the physical movement of a mirror to scan a given depth range. This movement results in instrument degradation. We propose a new optical fibre based time domain OCT system that makes use of a micro-photonic structure as a stationary ODL. The proposed system uses an in-fibre interferometer, either a Michelson or a Mach-Zhender. The reference ODL makes use of a collimator to expand the light from the optical fibre. This is them expanded in one dimension via planar optics, that is, a cylindrical lens based telescope, using a concave and convex lens. The expanded beam is them passed through a transmissive Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), specifically a liquid crystal light valve used as an optical switch. Light is then reflected back through the system off the micro-photonic structure. The micro-photonic structure is a one dimensional array of stagged mirror steps, called a Stepped Mirror Structure (SMS). The system enables the selection of discrete optical delay lengths. The proposed ODL is capable of depth hoping and multicasting. We discuss the fabrication of the SMS, which consists of eight steps, each approximately 150 μm high. A change in notch frequency using an in-fibre Mach Zhender interferometer was used to gauge the average step height. The results gave an average step height of 146 μm.

  20. Optical-digital hybrid image search system in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko; Watanabe, Eriko

    2016-09-01

    To improve the versatility and usability of optical correlators, we developed an optical-digital hybrid image search system consisting of digital servers and an optical correlator that can be used to perform image searches in the cloud environment via a web browser. This hybrid system employs a simple method to obtain correlation signals and has a distributed network design. The correlation signals are acquired by using an encoder timing signal generated by a rotating disk, and the distributed network design facilitates the replacement and combination of the digital correlation server and the optical correlator.

  1. Optical fiber gas sensing system based on FBG filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shutao

    2008-10-01

    An optical fiber gas sensing system based on the law of Beer-Lambert is designed to determine the concentration of gas. This technique relies on the fact that the target gas has a unique, well-defined absorption characteristic within the infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. The narrow-band filtering characteristic of optical fiber Bragg grating is used to produce the narrow spectrum light signal. An aspheric objective optical fiber collimator is used in the system as an optical fiber gas sensing detector to improve the sensitivity and stability. Experimental results show there is a high measuring sensitivity at 0.01%, and the measuring range goes beyond 5%.

  2. Application of polydimethylsiloxane-based optical system for measuring optical density of microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yurika

    2016-12-01

    The performance of recently developed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based optical system was tested for measuring optical density of microbial culture. The data showed that PDMS-based spectrometer is superior to "one drop" spectrometers in the accuracy, and has an advantage over conventional spectrometers in measuring dense culture without dilution.

  3. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Downie, J D; Goodman, J W

    1989-10-15

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by measuring and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The necessary control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time, which adds to the residual error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper investigates this possibility by studying the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for adaptive optics use.

  4. All-optical photoacoustic imaging system using fiber ultrasound probe and hollow optical fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Miida, Yusuke; Matsuura, Yuji

    2013-09-23

    An all-optical 3D photoacoustic imaging probe that consists of an optical fiber probe for ultrasound detection and a bundle of hollow optical fibers for excitation of photoacoustic waves was developed. The fiber probe for ultrasound is based on a single-mode optical fiber with a thin polymer film attached to the output end surface that works as a Fabry Perot etalon. The input end of the hollow fiber bundle is aligned so that each fiber in the bundle is sequentially excited. A thin and flexible probe can be obtained because the probe system does not have a scanning mechanism at the distal end.

  5. Digitalized detection of optical axes' parallelism in multi-optical axes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingqi; Ling, Jun; Zhou, Bing; Zhao, Xilin

    2002-09-01

    Automation and intelligent function in performance testing of optical instrument are the key problems in modern detection technology. In this paper a testing system based on the detection in laboratory is proposed and has successfully realized the detection of multi-optical axes" parallelism. This system is on the base of optics, mechanics and electricity, and combines the modern computer technology to gather and process the data obtained in the experiment, finally high-precision quantified results can be gotten, so these results can provide reliable data for the alignment of optical axes. The paper introduces the whole testing system"s design options, system composition, operational principle and software design in detail, and it"s technical difficulties and emphases are also analyzed and discussed.

  6. Generation of high-order optical vortices by optical wedges system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebskaya, Ya. V.; Shvedov, V. G.; Volyar, A. V.

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the given report is experimental and theoretical research of the diffraction of a Gaussian beam by the optical wedges system. It is shown that this system is able to form high-order optical vortices. The effectiveness of system is about 90%. It was shown, that each wedge changes a charge of phase singularity as a result of edge diffraction. The value topological charge of the optical vortex formed after system is defined by the number of wedges in the system. Changing mutual orientation corners of wedges we can select required conditions of the vortex core. It was revealed that the optical vortex appears structurally steady if the comer of mutual orientation of wedges equals α = πn (where n-number of wedges).

  7. Glucose sensor with a Sagnac interference optical system.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Tottori, Yusaku; Miyata, Ryusuke; Kajioka, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    The angle of optical rotation was measured by detecting the phase difference between clockwise and counterclockwise circular polarized light that propagated in a sensing loop. This polarimeter, or glucose sensor, consisted of a Sagnac interference optical system with a polarization-maintaining optical fiber, so it was not affected by the control limitations of the polarization rotation angle or the optical power fluctuation that occurs with scattered light, reflection, or polarization rotation in an optical system. The angle of rotation was measured from the phase difference of the glucose sensor when the concentration of glucose was changed. We confirmed that the resolution of optical rotation was 5×10(-4)  deg, and the resolution of the glucose concentration was 1  mg/dl accordingly. The measured specific rotation of glucose was mostly equal to a physical property value. One applications of this glucose sensor is in measuring the blood sugar levels of diabetic patients.

  8. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  9. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  10. Interactive display system having a matrix optical detector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2007-01-23

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. An image beam is projected across the inlet face laterally and transversely for display on the outlet face. An optical detector including a matrix of detector elements is optically aligned with the inlet face for detecting a corresponding lateral and transverse position of an inbound light spot on the outlet face.

  11. Fiber-optic push-pull sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, David L.; Brown, David A.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber-optic push-pull sensors are those which exploit the intrinsically differential nature of an interferometer with concommitant benefits in common-mode rejection of undesired effects. Several fiber-optic accelerometer and hydrophone designs are described. Additionally, the recent development at the Naval Postgraduate School of a passive low-cost interferometric signal demodulator permits the development of economical fiber-optic sensor systems.

  12. Nonlinear Behavior in Optical and Other Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    numerical analysis). Others will be devoted to ’state of the art ’ discussions of specific problems (e.g. nonlinear waveguides, Anderson localization). It is...Nonlinearity and Statistical Physics. Approximate Cost of Workshop: $5,312. STATE OF THE ART DEVELOPMfENTS IN NONLINEAR OPTICS Organizers: J. Moloney, A... Art Developments in Nonlinear Optics V. List of Preprints and Reprints with Abstracts ANTICIPATED WORKSHOPS 1987 - 1988 I. Workshop on Singularities

  13. Application of Optical Forces in Microphotonic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    10 1.3.1 Tunable Directional Coupler ...................................................... 11 1.3.2 Wavelength...tunable directional coupler , in which the effective index of each arm is tuned via an adjustable slot width. ……………………... 12 Figure 1-7 Schematic...of photonic circuits that can filter, buffer , and reroute optical signals is expected to transform optical communications [7], enable high-speed

  14. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  15. ORION OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS Construction and commissioning progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J. B. A.; Drew, D.; Fyrth, J.; Hill, M. P.; Kemshall, P.; Oades, K.; Harvey, E.; Gumbrell, E. T.

    2012-10-01

    The Orion facility provides a unique combined long- and short-pulse laser capability. We report on the progress in constructing a comprehensive plasma optical diagnostic suite for the facility, developed for a range of warm dense matter and other materials' properties experiments. The first VISAR imaging line for the suite is due to be commissioned in 2012 and its progress will be reported. The system consists of configurable optical elements mounted on a TIM, relay optics to an optical table, optics to direct the light through a VISAR bed onto an optical streak camera and the infrastructure systems to provide remote control and services. Due to the operational model of Orion the diagnostic must have comprehensive remote control for its set up and alignment. This makes the system design more complicated than otherwise. The sub-systems required to give the degree of remote control required will be described. A modified version of the suite's ASBO imaging line was used in 2011 to support the commissioning of Orion's long- and short-pulse laser beam lines by imaging optical emission from laser targets. The set up of this system and the data it recorded with an optical streak camera during a short pulse experiment will be presented.

  16. Novel system for optical axis on-line calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wen; Yan, Huimin; Lu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    Calibration of optical axis is an essential process to ensure the quality of optical systems. Only when the light path center, CCD (Charge Coupled Device) center and rotary center of motor fit each other well, can the system run properly to fulfill the proposed function. However, in most cases, the process is conducted by experienced workers and it is hard to precisely evaluate the coherence of optical axis. So the development of an optical calibrator that can detect the optical axis and calibrate the center automatically is of high priority for precise optical instruments. In this research project, we aim to develop a novel system for optical axis online calibration. The system is based on photoelectric encoder for rotary signal sampling of motor. MCU (Micro Controlling Unit) is used as the main control module instead of PC to miniaturize and simplify the system. CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device) is employed to realize high speed data storage and processing. A motor driving circuit and a voltage interval location method are designed to control the motor to rotate precisely. The novel optical calibrator has already been taken into practical application in factories, and proved to be of high stability and resolution.

  17. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  18. Frequency Measurement System of Optical Clocks Without a Flywheel Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Miho; Ido, Tetsuya; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Kenji; Yonegaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Utako; Urabe, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    We developed a system for the remote frequency comparison of optical clocks. The system does not require a flywheel oscillator at the remote end, making it possible to evaluate optical frequencies even in laboratories, where no stable microwave reference, such as an Rb clock, a Cs clock, or a hydrogen maser exists. The system is established by the integration of several systems: a portable carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer station and a microwave signal generation system by an optical frequency comb from an optical clock. The measurement was as quick as a conventional method that employs a local microwave reference. We confirmed the system uncertainty and instability to be at the low 10(-15) level using an Sr lattice clock.

  19. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  20. High resolution optical surface metrology with the slope measuring portable optical test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Alejandro V.

    New optical designs strive to achieve extreme performance, and continually increase the complexity of prescribed optical shapes, which often require wide dynamic range and high resolution. SCOTS, or the Software Configurable Optical Test System, can measure a wide range of optical surfaces with high sensitivity using surface slope. This dissertation introduces a high resolution version of SCOTS called SPOTS, or the Slope measuring Portable Optical Test System. SPOTS improves the metrology of surface features on the order of sub-millimeter to decimeter spatial scales and nanometer to micrometer level height scales. Currently there is no optical surface metrology instrument with the same utility. SCOTS uses a computer controlled display (such as an LCD monitor) and camera to measure surface slopes over the entire surface of a mirror. SPOTS differs in that an additional lens is placed near the surface under test. A small prototype system is discussed in general, providing the support for the design of future SPOTS devices. Then the SCOTS instrument transfer function is addressed, which defines the way the system filters surface heights. Lastly, the calibration and performance of larger SPOTS device is analyzed with example measurements of the 8.4-m diameter aspheric Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's (LSST) primary mirror. In general optical systems have a transfer function, which filters data. In the case of optical imaging systems the instrument transfer function (ITF) follows the modulation transfer function (MTF), which causes a reduction of contrast as a function of increasing spatial frequency due to diffraction. In SCOTS, ITF is shown to decrease the measured height of surface features as their spatial frequency increases, and thus the SCOTS and SPOTS ITF is proportional to their camera system's MTF. Theory and simulations are supported by a SCOTS measurement of a test piece with a set of lithographically written sinusoidal surface topographies. In addition, an

  1. Precision optical angular position marker system for rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An optical system is described which generates one or more markers of the angular shaft position of rotating machinery. The system consists of a light source, an optical cable, a machinery mounted lens assembly, a light detector, and a signal conditioner. Light reflected by targets on the rotor is converted to a digital output signal. The system is highly immune to extreme environments of vibration and temperature and achieved a 0.002 percent precision under operational test conditions.

  2. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  3. Optical switching and contrast enhancement in intense laser systems by cascaded optical parametric amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Haefner, C; Wattellier, B; Barty, C J

    2005-09-06

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) can be used to improve the prepulse contrast in chirped-pulse amplification systems by amplifying the main pulse with a total saturated OPCPA gain, while not affecting the preceding prepulses of the seed oscillator mode-locked pulse train. We show that a simple modification of a multistage OPCPA system into a cascaded optical parametric amplifier (COPA) results in an optical switch and extreme contrast enhancement which can completely eliminate the preceding and trailing oscillator pulses. Instrument-limited measurement of prepulse contrast ratio of 1.4 x 10{sup 11} is demonstrated from COPA at a 30-mJ level.

  4. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  5. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea.

  6. Variable configuration fiber optic laser doppler vibrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E.; Jackson, David A.; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.

    2016-06-01

    A multichannel heterodyne fiber optic vibrometer is demonstrated which can be operated at ranges in excess of 50 m. The system is designed to measure periodic signals, impacts, rotation, 3D strain, and vibration mapping. The displacement resolution of each channel exceeds 1 nm. The outputs from all channels are simultaneous, and the number of channels can be increased by using optical switches.

  7. Proceedings: 3rd EPRI Optical Sensor Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    These are the proceedings of the third Optical Sensor System Workshop, part of an ongoing effort by EPRI to support development of optical sensor technology, to identify benefits for utility users, and to position EPRI members as more ''informed buyers'' and users.

  8. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  9. Optical Closed-Loop Propulsion Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to design and fabricate the components required for optical closed-loop control of a F404-400 turbofan engine, by building on the experience of the NASA Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. Evaluating the performance of fiber optic technology at the component and system levels will result in helping to validate its use on aircraft engines. This report includes descriptions of three test plans. The EOI Acceptance Test is designed to demonstrate satisfactory functionality of the EOI, primarily fail-safe throughput of the F404 sensor signals in the normal mode, and validation, switching, and output of the five analog sensor signals as generated from validated optical sensor inputs, in the optical mode. The EOI System Test is designed to demonstrate acceptable F404 ECU functionality as interfaced with the EOI, making use of a production ECU test stand. The Optical Control Engine Test Request describes planned hardware installation, optical signal calibrations, data system coordination, test procedures, and data signal comparisons for an engine test demonstration of the optical closed-loop control.

  10. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea. PMID:26140334

  11. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): Optical System Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Leisawitz, David; Martino, Anthony J.; Budinoff, Jason; Quijada, Manuel; Hyde, Tupper

    2007-01-01

    SPIRIT is a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. It is a spatial and spectral interferometer operating at 4 K with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. This paper describes the various components of the candidate optical system, including telescopes, pointing and tracking optics, along with their functions. Some of the tradeoffs involved in selecting various components, with their particular characteristics, are described.

  12. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  13. Wideband protection filter (WPF) integrated within optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Eberle, B.; Ebert, R.; Fisher, T.; Nemet, B.; Oron, M.; Donval, A.

    2008-10-01

    Laser radiation may lead to permanent damage of the human eye when it is exposed to high power irradiation, especially when using magnifying optics such as binoculars, sights or periscopes. Into such an optical system we integrated a novel passive solid-state threshold-triggered Wideband Protection Filter (WPF) that blocks the transmission only if the power exceeds a certain threshold. At input powers below threshold, the filter has high transmission over the whole spectral band. However, when the input power exceeds the threshold power, transmission is decreased dramatically. We demonstrate the WPF integration within a typical optical system and the influence of system parameters on the protection capability of the filter.

  14. Optical system design of dual-spectrum autocollimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yongjing; Wu, Yiming; Xiao, Maosen; Lu, Weiguo

    2015-10-01

    The optical system design of a new dual-spectrum autocollimator which can measure two different spatial azimuths simultaneously is proposed. According to the principle of dual-spectrum autocollimator, ZEMAX software is used to design and optimize the optical system. Since two light sources with different wavelength are used in the autocollimator, chromatic aberration is required to reduce off in the optical system design. The experimental results demonstrate that the measuring range of the dual-spectrum autocollimator is up to +/-30', the deviation is less than 1″, and the resolution can reach 0.1". The designed autocollimator can simultaneously measure two different azimuths fastly and accurately.

  15. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.R.; Jackson, S.P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-06-01

    Three topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power Transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  16. Performance comparison of optical interference cancellation system architectures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Maddie; Chang, Matt; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-04-10

    The performance of three optics-based interference cancellation systems are compared and contrasted with each other, and with traditional electronic techniques for interference cancellation. The comparison is based on a set of common performance metrics that we have developed for this purpose. It is shown that thorough evaluation of our optical approaches takes into account the traditional notions of depth of cancellation and dynamic range, along with notions of link loss and uniformity of cancellation. Our evaluation shows that our use of optical components affords performance that surpasses traditional electronic approaches, and that the optimal choice for an optical interference canceller requires taking into account the performance metrics discussed in this paper.

  17. Security System Responsive to Optical Fiber Having Bragg Grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Charles K. (Inventor); Ozcan, Meric (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optically responsive electronic lock is disclosed comprising an optical fiber serving as a key and having Bragg gratings placed therein. Further, an identification system is disclosed which has the optical fiber serving as means for tagging and identifying an object. The key or tagged object is inserted into a respective receptacle and the Bragg gratings cause the optical fiber to reflect a predetermined frequency spectra pattern of incident light which is detected by a decoder and compared against a predetermined spectrum to determine if an electrical signal is generated to either operate the lock or light a display of an authentication panel.

  18. System and method for reproducibly mounting an optical element

    DOEpatents

    Eisenbies, Stephen; Haney, Steven

    2005-05-31

    The present invention provides a two-piece apparatus for holding and aligning the MEMS deformable mirror. The two-piece apparatus comprises a holding plate for fixedly holding an adaptive optics element in an overall optical system and a base spatially fixed with respect to the optical system and adapted for mounting and containing the holding plate. The invention further relates to a means for configuring the holding plate through adjustments to each of a number of off-set pads touching each of three orthogonal plane surfaces on the base, wherein through the adjustments the orientation of the holding plate, and the adaptive optics element attached thereto, can be aligned with respect to the optical system with six degrees of freedom when aligning the plane surface of the optical element. The mounting system thus described also enables an operator to repeatedly remove and restore the adaptive element in the optical system without the need to realign the system once that element has been aligned.

  19. ABCD2 identifies a subclass of peroxisomes in mouse adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaoxi Liu, Jingjing Lester, Joshua D. Pijut, Sonja S. Graf, Gregory A.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examined the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing compartment in mouse adipose tissue. • We confirmed the presence of D2 on a subcellular compartment that has typical structure as a microperoxisome. • We demonstrated the scarcity of peroxisome markers on D2-containing compartment. • The D2-containing compartment may be a subpopulation of peroxisome in mouse adipose tissue. • Proteomic data suggests potential association between D2-containing compartment and mitochondria and ER. - Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter D2 (D2) is an ABC half transporter that is thought to promote the transport of very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs into peroxisomes. Both D2 and peroxisomes increase during adipogenesis. Although peroxisomes are essential to both catabolic and anabolic lipid metabolism, their function, and that of D2, in adipose tissues remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the D2 localization and the proteome of D2-containing organelles, in adipose tissue. Centrifugation of mouse adipose homogenates generated a fraction enriched with D2, but deficient in peroxisome markers including catalase, PEX19, and ABCD3 (D3). Electron microscopic imaging of this fraction confirmed the presence of D2 protein on an organelle with a dense matrix and a diameter of ∼200 nm, the typical structure and size of a microperoxisome. D2 and PEX19 antibodies recognized distinct structures in mouse adipose. Immunoisolation of the D2-containing compartment confirmed the scarcity of PEX19 and proteomic profiling revealed the presence of proteins associated with peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. D2 is localized to a distinct class of peroxisomes that lack many peroxisome proteins, and may associate physically with mitochondria and the ER.

  20. All optical fiber combined-imaging system of photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-03-01

    We present an all optical fiber combined-imaging system that integrates non-contact photoacoustic tomography (NPAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously provide PA and OCT images. The fiber-based PAT system utilizing a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fiber laser of 1550 nm measures the photoacoustic signal at the sample surface. For the generation of a PA signal, a pulse train from a bulk type Nd:YAG laser illuminates the sample via a large core multimode optical fiber. The fiber-based OCT operating at a center wavelength of 1310 nm allowed is combined with the fiber-based PAT system by sharing the same optical fiber probe. The two lights from the fiber laser and the OCT source are guided into the probe through each port of a 2 by 2 optical fiber coupler. The back-reflected lights from the sample are guided to respective imaging systems by the same coupler. With these both NPAT and OCT images could be co-registered without physical contact with the sample. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system, a phantom experiment has been carried out with a phantom composed of a black PET fiber and a fishing wire. The proposed all fiber-optic combined-imaging system has the potential for minimally invasive and improved diagnosis.

  1. Long wavelength infrared dual field-of-view optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tao; Yang, Chang-cheng

    2007-12-01

    For cooled 320×240 staring focal plane array (FPA), a novel long wavelength infrared dual field-of-view optical system is presented in the paper. The optical system is composed of re-imaging part and zooming part. The parameters of the system are 1.96 f/number, 100% cold shield efficiency, 180mm/60mm effective focal length (EFL) and 8-10 μm spectrum region. The optical system is analyzed from two modes of narrow field of view (NFOV) and wide field of view (WFOV). The system can be used in the temperature range from-30°Cand 60°C without significant degradation of optical performance. The final test results prove the designed performance is good..

  2. Optical beam transport system at FEL-SUT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomaru, K.; Kawai, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Oda, F.; Nakayama, A.; Koike, H.; Kuroda, H.

    2000-05-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has installed an FEL beam transport system at the IR FEL Research Center of the Science University of Tokyo (FEL-SUT). This system transports the FEL output beam from the FEL machine room to the optical diagnostic room through a vacuum tube. The in-vacuum multi-mirror synchronized system operated from the FEL control room enables the operator to control the multiple mirrors simultaneously on or off axis of the FEL beam and to distribute the FEL output to one of the laboratories. The essential component of the transport system is the passive control optics that is composed of an elliptical and parabolic mirror couple. Once the control optics is aligned, a parallel FEL beam with a good pointing stability is obtained without any active operation to tune the optical system for different wavelengths.

  3. Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends

    DOEpatents

    Nilson, David G.; Campbell, E. Michael; MacGowan, Brian J.; Medecki, Hector

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

  4. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  5. Improvement of optical systems for detection of smokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, V. F.; Dashkovskii, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    The theory of electromagnetic radiation dispersion by polydisperse particles is analyzed. Methods of reliable optical indication of smokes to identify Fire Danger are considered. The conventional method of optical smoke detection implies measuring optical characteristics of the environment under control. After that the results obtained are converted into microphysical parameters which can be compared to the known microphysical properties of smokes.The calculated optical portrait of smokes is offered. The portrait of smokes is the field of representation points in coordinates of the degree of diffusion radiation polarization for two diffusion angles. Each of the spots indicates one of the numerous realizations of smokes. The direct match of the representation spots in the optical increases the probability of smoke A different way to protect optical system is to use the device with mutually orthogonal polarizers of the light source and detector. If hindrance is nonspherical aerosol, the signal from the device is used to correct the signals from smoke detectors.

  6. Achievable Precision for Optical Ranging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    Achievable RMS errors in estimating the phase, frequency, and intensity of a direct-detected intensity-modulated optical pulse train are presented. For each parameter, the Cramer-Rao-Bound (CRB) is derived and the performance of the Maximum Likelihood estimator is illustrated. Approximations to the CRBs are provided, enabling an intuitive understanding of estimator behavior as a function of the signaling parameters. The results are compared to achievable RMS errors in estimating the same parameters from a sinusoidal waveform in additive white Gaussian noise. This establishes a framework for a performance comparison of radio frequency (RF) and optical science. Comparisons are made using parameters for state-of-the-art deep-space RF and optical links. Degradations to the achievable errors due to clock phase noise and detector jitter are illustrated.

  7. Diamondlike Carbon Coatings for Optical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Measurements ... ............ ... 48 3.3.1 Ultraviolet-Visible ( UV -Vis) Dual Beam Spectrometer ......................... 48 3.3.2 Optical Measurements 300 to 850...measured from UV -VIS absorption measurements on samples deposited on glass slides, the optical energy gap was about 0.2 eV for the 500-watt sample...10.5 100 70 6.1 1 APR 88,Comments Excellent film (greenish dark silver color) (masked) 871-374 4746 600 9.6E-5 1000 10.5 100 70 6.1 c 1APR 88 1

  8. Optical response of correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, Dmitrii L.; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    Recent progress in experimental techniques has made it possible to extract detailed information on dynamics of carriers in a correlated electron material from its optical conductivity, σ (Ω,T) . This review consists of three parts, addressing the following three aspects of optical response: (1) the role of momentum relaxation; (2) Ω /T scaling of the optical conductivity of a Fermi-liquid metal, and (3) the optical conductivity of non-Fermi-liquid metals. In the first part (section 2), we analyze the interplay between the contributions to the conductivity from normal and umklapp electron–electron scattering. As a concrete example, we consider a two-band metal and show that although its optical conductivity is finite it does not obey the Drude formula. In the second part (sections 3 and 4), we re-visit the Gurzhi formula for the optical scattering rate, 1/τ (Ω,T)\\propto {{ Ω }2}+4{π2}{{T}2} , and show that a factor of 4{π2} is the manifestation of the ‘first-Matsubara-frequency rule’ for boson response, which states that 1/τ (Ω,T) must vanish upon analytic continuation to the first boson Matsubara frequency. However, recent experiments show that the coefficient b in the Gurzhi-like form, 1/τ (Ω,T)\\propto {{ Ω }2}+b{π2}{{T}2} , differs significantly from b  =  4 in most of the cases. We suggest that the deviations from Gurzhi scaling may be due to the presence of elastic but energy-dependent scattering, which decreases the value of b below 4, with b  =  1 corresponding to purely elastic scattering. In the third part (section 5), we consider the optical conductivity of metals near quantum phase transitions to nematic and spin-density-wave states. In the last case, we focus on ‘composite’ scattering processes, which give rise to a non-Fermi-liquid behavior of the optical conductivity at T  =  0: {σ\\prime}(Ω )\\propto {{ Ω }-1/3} at low frequencies and {σ\\prime}(Ω )\\propto {{ Ω }-1} at higher frequencies. We

  9. Optical response of correlated electron systems.

    PubMed

    Maslov, Dmitrii L; Chubukov, Andrey V

    2017-02-01

    Recent progress in experimental techniques has made it possible to extract detailed information on dynamics of carriers in a correlated electron material from its optical conductivity, [Formula: see text]. This review consists of three parts, addressing the following three aspects of optical response: (1) the role of momentum relaxation; (2) [Formula: see text] scaling of the optical conductivity of a Fermi-liquid metal, and (3) the optical conductivity of non-Fermi-liquid metals. In the first part (section 2), we analyze the interplay between the contributions to the conductivity from normal and umklapp electron-electron scattering. As a concrete example, we consider a two-band metal and show that although its optical conductivity is finite it does not obey the Drude formula. In the second part (sections 3 and 4), we re-visit the Gurzhi formula for the optical scattering rate, [Formula: see text], and show that a factor of [Formula: see text] is the manifestation of the 'first-Matsubara-frequency rule' for boson response, which states that [Formula: see text] must vanish upon analytic continuation to the first boson Matsubara frequency. However, recent experiments show that the coefficient b in the Gurzhi-like form, [Formula: see text], differs significantly from b  =  4 in most of the cases. We suggest that the deviations from Gurzhi scaling may be due to the presence of elastic but energy-dependent scattering, which decreases the value of b below 4, with b  =  1 corresponding to purely elastic scattering. In the third part (section 5), we consider the optical conductivity of metals near quantum phase transitions to nematic and spin-density-wave states. In the last case, we focus on 'composite' scattering processes, which give rise to a non-Fermi-liquid behavior of the optical conductivity at T  =  0: [Formula: see text] at low frequencies and [Formula: see text] at higher frequencies. We also discuss [Formula: see text] scaling of the

  10. Optical measurement system for characterizing plastic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahleitner, R.; Niel, Kurt S.; Frank, S.

    2008-02-01

    Injection molded plastic parts are often influenced with the surface defect tiger stripes, which dramatically reduce the visual quality. Tiger stripes are known as alternating bands of bright and dull regions normally to the molded flow direction. This defect highly depends on the injection time and on the formation of the plastic compound. In the last years, the intensity of the tiger stripes defect was controlled visually. For quantifying the tiger strip defect a new, efficient, repeatable, reliable and nondestructive optical measurement system is proposed. To evaluate the dependency of the injection time, a number of five DIN-A5 plastic specimens are molded. Each of the five plates consists of the same material but they have different injection times. For the measurement, one specimen is put into the specimen holder, which is placed on the drawer of a closed cabinet. In this inside black painted cabinet a LED light source and a CCD Camera are mounted. The beams of the LED light are diffuse reflected on the surface of the specimen. To catch only parallel beams by the lens of the camera a large distance between specimen and camera is realized by two justified mirrors in the cabinet. The bright and dull regions of the tiger stripe defect have different diffuse reflection parameters. Thus in a picture of defined brightness the visibility of this defect is very good. To enhance the repeatability the failure of the camera noise and of the light oscillation is reduced by mends of averaging multiple images. Next, the surface structure is filtered out of the image and a representing number of horizontal grey-value lines are extracted. The so called tiger line signal is the difference between the grey line and a calculated polynomial function (degree of 6) and shows the surface defect of each line oscillating on the zero x-axis. For each tiger line signal the mean squared error is evaluated. To calculate a quantitative value of the whole surface, all line errors are

  11. The Haskins Optically Corrected Ultrasound System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. H.; Iskarous, Khalil; Tiede, Mark K.; Ostry, David J.; Lehnert-LeHouillier, Heike; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric; Hailey, Donald S.

    2005-01-01

    The tongue is critical in the production of speech, yet its nature has made it difficult to measure. Not only does its ability to attain complex shapes make it difficult to track, it is also largely hidden from view during speech. The present article describes a new combination of optical tracking and ultrasound imaging that allows for a…

  12. Comparative study between the reflective optics and lens based system for microwave imaging system on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y.; Hong, I.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Liang, T.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, two-dimensional microwave imaging diagnostics such as the electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) have been developed to study magnetohydrodynamics instabilities and turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. These imaging systems utilize large optics to collect passive emission or reflected radiation. The design of this optics can be classified into two different types: reflective or refractive optical systems. For instance, an ECEI/MIR system on the TEXTOR tokamak [Park et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3787 (2004)] employed the reflective optics which consisted of two large mirrors, while the TEXTOR ECEI upgrade [B. Tobias et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 093502 (2009)] and systems on DIII-D, ASDEX-U, and KSTAR adopted refractive systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages in the standing wave problem and optical aberrations. In this paper, a comparative study between the two optical systems has been performed in order to design a MIR system for KSTAR.

  13. Design of the optical system for FSO access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojing; Yuan, Xiuhua; Huang, Dexiu

    2002-08-01

    Free space optics (FSO) is attractive for the 'last mile' communication in recent years for many combining advantages of fiber communication and other wireless technologies. FSO can provide high data rate with low power consumption, high immunity to interference, convenient deployment and flexibility. Optical system is an important section in the FSO transceiver terminal. In this paper the design of optical system based on a single Galileo telescope for both transmit and receive is proposed, and a polarization beam splitter is adopted to apart the receiving light from transmitting light. The configuration can avoid interference from the retroreflecting light of the ocular effectively. Some factors that affect the performance of the optical system are analyzed, such as the geometrical spreading loss and the loss increment according to pointing error and telescope maladjustment. Power budget shows that the system can satisfy the need of access for 1km in the light fog, and 2km in the thin fog.

  14. 20-Gbps optical LiFi transport system.

    PubMed

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Chun-Jen; Peng, Peng-Chun; Ho, Wen-Jeng

    2015-07-15

    A 20-Gbps optical light-based WiFi (LiFi) transport system employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and external light injection technique with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. Good bit error rate (BER) performance and clear constellation map are achieved in our proposed optical LiFi transport systems. An optical LiFi transport system, delivering 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 20 Gbps, is successfully demonstrated. Such a 20-Gbps optical LiFi transport system provides the advantage of a free-space communication link for high data rates, which can accelerate the visible laser light communication (VLLC) deployment.

  15. INTERCOMPARISON OF OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS FOR ROADSIDE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation describes results of an intercomparison of three optical remote sensing systems for measurements of nitric oxide emitted from passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The intercomparison included a standards comparison to establish comparability of standards, follo...

  16. Optical Power Transfer System for Powering a Remote Mobility System for Multiple Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical power transfer system for powering a remote mobility system for multiple missions comprising a high power source and a chilling station connected to a laser source. The laser source transmits a high optical energy to a beam switch assembly via an optical fiber. The beam switch assembly is optically connected to actively cooled fiber spoolers. Docking stations are adapted for securing the fiber spoolers until alternatively ready for use by a remote mobility system. The remote mobility system is optically connected to the fiber spoolers and has a receiving port adapted for securing the fiber spoolers thereon. The fiber spooler transmits the optical energy to a power conversion system which converts the optical energy received to another usable form of energy. More than one power source may be used where the remote mobility system transfers from one source to another while maintaining an operational radius to each source.

  17. Adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: System architecture and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J.M.; An, J.; Avicola, K.

    1994-03-01

    We will describe an adaptive optics system developed for the 1 meter Nickel and 3 meter Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory. Observing wavelengths will be in the visible for the 1 meter telescope and in the near IR on the 3 meter. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with an intensified CCD framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 1 meter telescope where the subaperture size is 12.5 cm. The wavefront control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix-based system. We will describe the optical system and give details of the wavefront control system design. We will present predictions of the system performance and initial test results.

  18. Adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: system architecture and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brase, James M.; An, Jong; Avicola, Kenneth; Bissinger, Horst D.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Gavel, Donald T.; Johnston, Brooks; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Presta, Robert W.; Rapp, David A.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Fisher, William A.

    1994-05-01

    We will describe an adaptive optics system developed for the 1 meter Nickel and 3 meter Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory. Observing wavelengths will be in the visible for the 1 meter telescope and in the near IR on the 3 meter. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with an intensified CCD framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 1 meter telescope where the subaperture size is 12.5 cm. The wavefront control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix-based system. We will describe the optical system and give details of the wavefront control system design. We will present predictions of the system performance and initial test results.

  19. Optical production systems using neural networks and symbolic substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botha, Elizabeth; Casasent, David; Barnard, Etienne

    1988-01-01

    Two optical implementations of production systems are advanced. The production systems operate on a knowledge base where facts and rules are encoded as formulas in propositional calculus. The first implementation is a binary neural network. An analog neural network is used to include reasoning with uncertainties. The second implementation uses a new optical symbolic substitution correlator. This implementation is useful when a set of similar situations has to be handled in parallel on one processor.

  20. Optical mechanical analogy and Hamiltonization of a nonholonomic system.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Alberto G; Bloch, Anthony M

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that there is an analogy between optics and mechanics that prompted much of the classical theory of mechanics and indeed extended it to the theory of quantum mechanics. We develop here an optical mechanical analogy for a prototypical nonholonomic mechanical system, a knife edge moving on a plane under the influence of a potential. We show that this approach is related to but different from the classical theory of Hamiltonization of nonholonomic systems.

  1. Optical wireless indoor systems: how to improve data rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, M. Olivier; Rouet, M. Claude

    2006-08-01

    Wireless networks are currently replacing connection cables via radio, visible or infrared waves. Modules and base systems are installed to cover zones in relation to a quality of service and availability. There are technological radio solutions: Bluetooth, WiFi, UWB and optics constituted by infrared or visible systems. Optic technology has important advantages: Transmitted data security, radio and medical immunity, etc. Nevertheless, optical systems seem to present a limit because this is basically a line of sight solution and the network management is based on only one wavelength with several users. The solution suggested, in the scope of this document, is to transmit various wavelengths in free space, using optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and optical modules, which are compatible in wavelength. Each Emission/reception module could have a defined and personal wavelength, with a link with the terminal identification (MAC address for instance). This approach can improve and give a full duplex data rate with a minimum of a dozen Mbps per user for broadcasting. The application field for the suggested system is potentially included in the following network types: Optic WLAN and Optic WDAN.

  2. Optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing transport system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Chen, Min-Chou

    2014-01-15

    An optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and spatial light modulators with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulating signals over a 17.5 m free-space link is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of a low-noise amplifier and data comparator, good bit error rate performance is obtained for each optical channel. Such an optical free-space WDM transport system would be attractive for providing services including data and telecommunication services.

  3. Optical System of the STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachov, O. A.

    2000-04-01

    The STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter(BEMC) is a sampling calorimeter and the core of structure consist of a lead-scintillator plate stack. The plastic scintillator in the form of Mega-tile with 40 optically isolated tiles in each layer. The tile/fiber system uses a wavelength shifting fiber to read out the signal of a tile and a optical clear fiber carry the light through the magnet structure to the electronic-PMT box. A discription of the Optical system of BEMC is presented along with a current status of the quality control program of the calorimeter production.

  4. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction.

  5. Status of the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of the progress made in the NASA/NAVY Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program. This program will culminate in open-loop flight tests of passive optical sensors and associated electro-optics on an F-18 aircraft. Currently, the program is in the final stages of hardware fabrication and environmental testing of the passive optical sensors and electro-optics. This program is a foundation for future Fly-by-Light (FBL) programs. The term Fly-by-Light is used to describe the utilization of passive optical sensors and fiber optic data links for monitoring and control of aircraft in which sensor and actuation signals are transmitted optically. The benefits of this technology for advanced aircraft include the following: improved reliability and reduced certification cost due to greater immunity to EME (electromagnetic effects); reduced harness volume and weight; elimination of short circuits and sparking in wiring due to insulation deterioration; lower maintenance costs (fewer components); greater flexibility in data bus protocol and architecture; absence of ground loops; and higher operating temperatures for electrically passive optical sensors.

  6. RF modulated fiber optic sensing systems and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Eustace, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic sensing system with an intensity sensor and a Radio Frequency (RF) modulated source was shown to have sensitivity and resolution much higher than a comparable system employing low modulating frequencies or DC mode of operation. Also the RF modulation with an appropriate configuration of the sensing system provides compensation for the unwanted intensity losses. The basic principles and applications of a fiber optic sensing system employing an RF modulated source are described. In addition the paper discusses various configurations of the system itself, its components, and modulation and detection schemes. Experimental data are also presented.

  7. Optical position measurement for a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Clemmons, James I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an optical position measurement system which is being built as part of the NASA Langley Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS). The LGMSS is a five degree-of-freedom, large-gap magnetic suspension system which is being built for Langley Research Center as part of the Advanced Controls Test Facility (ACTF). The LGMSS consists of a planar array of electromagnets which levitate and position a cylindrically shaped model containing a permanent magnet core. The optical position measurement system provides information on the location and orientation of the model to the LGMSS control system to stabilize levitation of the model.

  8. A new approach for the verification of optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Umair; Aravantinos, Vincent; Tahar, Sofiène

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly used in microsystems, telecommunication, aerospace and laser industry. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification poses many challenges to engineers. Tra­ditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide perfectly accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about them by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as an alternative to computational and numerical approaches to improve optical system analysis in a comprehensive framework. In particular, this paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of ray optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. Based on the multivariate analysis library of HOL Light, we formalize the notion of light ray and optical system (by defining medium interfaces, mirrors, lenses, etc.), i.e., we express these notions mathematically in the software. This allows us to derive general theorems about the behavior of light in such optical systems. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness, we present the stability analysis of a Fabry-Perot resonator.

  9. Compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang; Ruan, Jun; Shi, Junru; Yu, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Zhang, Shougang

    2016-09-01

    The optical system plays a significant role to cesium atomic fountain clocks, which manipulates and detects population of cesium atoms. This paper presents a compact optical system for cesium atomic fountain clocks. The optical system provides two beams with 32mW separately for cooling atoms and six beams of 12mW respectively for trapping atoms with the frequency tuning from 80MHz to 220MHz. The relative intensity noise of the detect laser beam reduces from 1.33×10-6 Hz to 1.52×10-10 Hz at 1Hz by the laser power stabilization system. The optical system operates continuously for 30 days with the fluctuation of optical power less than 3% approximately. And the frequency stability is 3×10-15 at 1000s. The results show the optical system satisfies with the needs of our cesium atomic fountain clock developed and establishes the foundation for cesium atomic fountain continuous operation.

  10. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, Stanley; Kessler, Terrance J.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse.

  11. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, S.; Kessler, T.J.; Letzring, S.A.

    1993-11-16

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse. 10 figures.

  12. Theoretical foundations for joint digital-optical analysis of electro-optical imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Stork, David G; Robinson, M Dirk

    2008-04-01

    We describe the mathematical and conceptual foundations for a novel methodology for jointly optimizing the design and analysis of the optics, detector, and digital image processing for imaging systems. Our methodology is based on the end-to-end merit function of predicted average pixel sum-squared error to find the optical and image processing parameters that minimize this merit function. Our approach offers several advantages over the traditional principles of optical design, such as improved imaging performance, expanded operating capabilities, and improved as-built performance.

  13. A Concept for Zero-Alignment Micro Optical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    DESCOUR, MICHAEL R.; KOLOLUOMA,TERHO; LEVEY,RAVIV; RANTALA,JUHA T.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WARREN,MIAL E.; WILLISON,CHRISTI LEE

    1999-09-16

    We are developing a method of constructing compact, three-dimensional photonics systems consisting of optical elements, e.g., lenses and mirrors, photo-detectors, and light sources, e.g., VCSELS or circular-grating lasers. These optical components, both active and passive, are mounted on a lithographically prepared silicon substrate. We refer to the substrate as a micro-optical table (MOT) in analogy with the macroscopic version routinely used in optics laboratories. The MOT is a zero-alignment, microscopic optical-system concept. The position of each optical element relative to other optical elements on the MOT is determined in the layout of the MOT photomask. Each optical element fits into a slot etched in the silicon MOT. The slots are etched using a high-aspect-ratio silicon etching (HARSE) process. Additional positioning features in each slot's cross-section and complementary features on each optical element permit accurate placement of that element's aperture relative to the MOT substrate. In this paper we present the results of the first fabrication and micro-assembly experiments of a silicon-wafer based MOT. Based on these experiments, estimates of position accuracy are reported. We also report on progress in fabrication of lens elements in a hybrid sol-gel material (HSGM). Diffractive optical elements have been patterned in a 13-micron thick HSGM layer on a 150-micron thick soda-lime glass substrate. The measured ms surface roughness was 20 nm. Finally, we describe modeling of MOT systems using non-sequential ray tracing (NSRT).

  14. Optical system for liquid level measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Melchionni, D.; Norgia, M.

    2014-07-15

    This work describes the development of a novel laser instrument for non-contact liquid level measurements. The physical principle of operation is based on the self-mixing effect induced in the laser diode by modulating the laser wavelength. The frequency main tone of the resulting fringes is proportional to the absolute target distance. A high speed FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) electronic performs the data acquisition and elaboration. The high elaboration/acquisition speed improves the chance of acquiring good signal also on a moving liquid target. The optical characteristics of the liquid surface have been studied in order to identify the optimal optical configuration when the surface is flat as well as when the surface is rippled. The final low-cost instrument works in real time and is able to track a filling process with 2.5 cm/s of speed, with resolution better than 1 mm for distances up to 50 cm.

  15. Optical Symbolic Processor for Expert System Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    parallel, as concurrent processes, with the shared variables acting as communication channels. As part of another effort at CS[ D , F9RL(X was identified as...the D as an adjacency matrix (not as an adjacency list since that requires linked lists). However, although Ispace inefficient adjacency matrices can be...12] Dror Sarid , Ralph S. Jameson, and Robert K. Hickernell, "Optical bistability on reflection with an InSb etalon cortrolled by a guided wave

  16. Phase space analysis in anisotropic optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Chumakov, Sergey M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1995-01-01

    From the minimal action principle follows the Hamilton equations of evolution for geometric optical rays in anisotropic media. As in classical mechanics of velocity-dependent potentials, the velocity and the canonical momentum are not parallel, but differ by an anisotropy vector potential, similar to that of linear electromagnetism. Descartes' well known diagram for refraction is generalized and a factorization theorem holds for interfaces between two anisotropic media.

  17. Long Range Electro-Optical Reconnaissance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    of $100 000 under 22 usc9W Include this nistfce with any reproduced portion of this document. ~ MAR 20 0653 AVIONICS LABORATORY AIR FORCE WRLIGHT...Group Mission Avionics Division Mission Avionics Division Avionics Laboratory Avionics Laboratory FOR THE CO./A _DER GALE D. URSAN, Chief Electro-Optics...Branch Mission Avionics Division Avionics Laboratory If your address has changed, if you wish to be removed from our mailing list, or if the

  18. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman,Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli,Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-08-03

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.

  19. A fiber-optical cable television system using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, K. C.; Liu, W. C.; Chen, K. J.; Lu, H. H.

    2013-02-01

    This investigation demonstrates a fiber-optical cable television system using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) for uplink transmission. The downstream signal is cable television and the upstream signal is generated by remodulating the downstream signal via an RSOA with a radio-frequency signal. Favorable carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second-order, and composite triple beat are obtained for the downstream and the upstream signal is successfully transmitted over 60 km of single-mode fiber.

  20. A vectorial ray-based diffraction integral for optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Birk

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of coherent laser light in optical systems is simulated by the vectorial ray-based diffraction integral (VRBDI) method which utilizes vectorial diffraction theory, ray aiming, differential ray tracing and matrix optics. On a global scale the method is not restricted to the paraxial approximation, whereas it is properly used for a local representation of the wavefront close to an aimed detection location. First, the field of a monochromatic continuous wave on an input plane is decomposed into spherical or plane wave components. Then, these components are represented by aimed ray tubes and traced through an optical system. Finally, the contributions are added coherently on an output plane whose position has to be chosen according to ray-aiming requirements. Provided that the apertures in the optical system are large with respect to the wavelength the results are fairly accurate.

  1. Optical design and system engineering of a multiresolution foveated laparoscope

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between the spatial resolution and field of view is one major limitation of state-of-the-art laparoscopes. In order to address this limitation, we demonstrated a multiresolution foveated laparoscope (MRFL) which is capable of simultaneously capturing both a wide-angle overview for situational awareness and a high-resolution zoomed-in view for accurate surgical operation. In this paper, we focus on presenting the optical design and system engineering process for developing the MRFL prototype. More specifically, the first-order specifications and properties of the optical system are discussed, followed by a detailed discussion on the optical design strategy and procedures of each subsystem. The optical performance of the final system, including diffraction efficiency, tolerance analysis, stray light and ghost image, is fully analyzed. Finally, the prototype assembly process and the final prototype are demonstrated. PMID:27139875

  2. Systems approach to identification of feedback enhanced optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Hullas; Aggarwal, Tanuj; Salapaka, Murti V.

    2008-08-01

    Feedback enhanced optical tweezers, based on Proportional and Integral (PI) control, are routinely used for increasing the stiffness of optical traps. Digital implementation of PI controller, using DSP or FPGA, enables easy maneuverability of feedback gains. In this paper, we report occurrence of a peak in the thermal noise power spectrum of the trapped bead as the proportional gain is cranked up, which imposes a limit on how stiff a trap can be made using position feedback. We explain the reasons for the deviant behavior in the power spectrum and present a mathematical formula to account for the anomaly, which is in very good agreement with the experimental observations. Further, we present a new method to do the closed loop system identification of feedback enhanced optical tweezers by applying a frequency chirp. The system model thus obtained greatly predicts the closed loop behavior of our feedback based optical tweezers system.

  3. Ultralight Weight Optical Systems Using Nano-Layered Synthesized Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie; Breckinridge, James

    2014-01-01

    Optical imaging is important for many NASA science missions. Even though complex optical systems have advanced, the optics, based on conventional glass and mirrors, require components that are thick, heavy and expensive. As the need for higher performance expands, glass and mirrors are fast approaching the point where they will be too large, heavy and costly for spacecraft, especially small satellite systems. NASA Langley Research Center is developing a wide range of novel nano-layered synthesized materials that enable the development and fabrication of ultralight weight optical device systems that enable many NASA missions to collect science data imagery using small satellites. In addition to significantly reducing weight, the nano-layered synthesized materials offer advantages in performance, size, and cost.

  4. Diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Diffraction effects of X-ray optical systems are often (justifiably) ignored due to the small wavelength of the X-ray radiation. However, the extremely large obscuration ratio inherent to grazing incidence optical systems produces a profound degradation of the diffraction image over that produced by a moderately obscured aperture of the same diameter. The contradictory requirements of large collecting area and relatively short length of optical elements has tended to result in proposed designs containing many concentric shells with increasingly higher obscuration ratios. In this paper it is shown that diffraction effects in such systems can significantly affect the achievable optical performance at the low energy (long wavelength) end of the intended operating spectral range. Parametric diffraction-limited performance predictions for both imaging and spectrographic applications will be presented and compared to AXAF performance goals and/or BBXRT fabrication techniques.

  5. A 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung

    2014-02-10

    A 10-Gbps optical worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and spatial light modulator (SLM) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. With the assistance of equalizer and low noise amplifier (LNA) at the receiving site, good bit error rate (BER) performance, clear constellation map, and clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. An optical WiMAX transport system, transmitting 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 10 Gbps is successfully demonstrated. Such a 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system would be attractive for providing services including Internet and telecommunication services. Our proposed system is suitable for the free-space lightwave transport system in visible light communication (VLC) application.

  6. Open Quantum System Studies of Optical Lattices and Nonlinear Optical Cavities: A Comprehensive Development of Atomtronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepino, Ronald A.

    2011-12-01

    A generalized open quantum theory that models the transport properties of bosonic systems is derived from first principles. This theory is shown to correctly describe the long-time behavior of a specific class of non-Markovian system-reservoir interactions. Starting with strongly-interacting bosons in optical lattices, we use this theory to construct a novel, one-to-one analogy with electronic systems, components, and devices. Beginning with the concept of a wire, we demonstrate theoretically the ultracold boson analog of a semiconductor diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor. In a manner directly analogous to electronics, we show that it is possible to construct combinatorial logic structures from the fundamental electronic-emulating devices just described. In this sense, our proposal for atomtronic devices is a useful starting point for arrangements with more complex functionality. In addition we show that the behavior of the proposed diode should also be possible utilizing a weakly-interacting, coherent bosonic drive. After demonstrating the formal equivalence between systems comprised of bosons in optical lattices and photons in nonlinear cavity networks, we use the formalism to extend the ideas and concepts developed earlier in ultracold boson systems to nonlinear optical systems. We adapt the open quantum system theory to this new physical environment, and demonstrate theoretically how a few-photon optical diode can be realized in a coupled nonlinear cavity system. An analysis of different practical cavity quantum electrodynamics systems is presented and experimentally-viable candidates are evaluated.

  7. Design data brochure for a pyramidal optics solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This Design Data Brochure provides information on a Pyramidal Optics Solar System for solar heating and domestic hot water. The system is made up of the collecting, storage, and distribution subsystems. Contained in the brochure are such items as system description, available accessories, installation arrangements, physical data, piping and wiring diagrams, and guide specifications.

  8. Biomimetic optical system using polymer lenses with tunable focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dan; Xiang, Ke; Du, Jia-Wei; Yang, Jun-Nan; Wang, Xuan-Yin

    2014-10-01

    A biomimetic system using polymer lenses for the optical design and application is developed. The system mainly consisted of a bionic cornea lens, voice coil motor, compression ring, bionic crystalline lens, substrate, and CCD sensor. By controlling the current of the voice coil motor, we could change the motion of the compression ring to alter the curvature radius of the bionic crystalline lens, thus adjusting the focal length of the whole system. The integrated constructure of the optical system was presented, as well as the detailed description of the lens composition, material, and fabrication process. Images under different displacement loads were captured, the relationship among the curvature radius, observed back focal length, and predicted effective focal length was analyzed, and the spot diagram of the optical system was simulated using ZEMAX software. The focal length of the optical system ranged from 17.3 to 24.5 mm under a tiny displacement load from 0 to 0.14 mm. Besides, the images captured at different rotating angles presented almost identical patterns and the same image quality, which showed good robustness to the gravity. The biomimetic optical system is of interest to develop an integrated, low-cost, and stable imaging system.

  9. An advanced optical system for laser ablation propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstue, Grant; Fork, Richard; Reardon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel space-based ablation driven propulsion engine concept utilizing transmitted energy in the form of a series of ultra-short optical pulses. Key differences are generating the pulses at the transmitting spacecraft and the safe delivery of that energy to the receiving spacecraft for propulsion. By expanding the beam diameter during transmission in space, the energy can propagate at relatively low intensity and then be refocused and redistributed to create an array of ablation sites at the receiver. The ablation array strategy allows greater control over flight dynamics and eases thermal management. Research efforts for this transmission and reception of ultra-short optical pulses include: (1) optical system design; (2) electrical system requirements; (3) thermal management; (4) structured energy transmission safety. Research has also been focused on developing an optical switch concept for the multiplexing of the ultra-short pulses. This optical switch strategy implements multiple reflectors polished into a rotating momentum wheel device to combine the pulses from different laser sources. The optical system design must minimize the thermal load on any one optical element. Initial specifications and modeling for the optical system are being produced using geometrical ray-tracing software to give a better understanding of the optical requirements. In regards to safety, we have advanced the retro-reflective beam locking strategy to include look-ahead capabilities for long propagation distances. Additional applications and missions utilizing multiplexed pulse transmission are also presented. Because the research is in early development, it provides an opportunity for new and valuable advances in the area of transmitted energy for propulsion as well as encourages joint international efforts. Researchers from different countries can cooperate in order to find constructive and safe uses of ordered pulse transmission for propulsion in future space

  10. Analysis of FEL optical systems with grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C.E.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Bender, S.C.; Appert, Q.D.; Lawrence, G.; Barnard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of grazing incidence optics in resonators alleviates the problem of damage to the optical elements and permits higher powers in cavities of reasonable dimensions for a free electron laser (FEL). The design and manufacture of a grazing incidence beam expander for the Los Alamos FEL mock-up has been completed. In this paper, we describe the analysis of a bare cavity, grazing incidence optical beam expander for an FEL system. Since the existing geometrical and physical optics codes were inadequate for such an analysis, the GLAD code was modified to include global coordinates, exact conic representation, raytracing, and exact aberration features to determine the alignment sensitivities of laser resonators. A resonator cavity has been manufactured and experimentally setup in the Optical Evaluation Laboratory at Los Alamos. Calculated performance is compared with the laboratory measurements obtained so far.

  11. Glare-free optical system for fundus visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salakhutdinov, Viktor K.; Smetanin, Yuriy G.; Doroshenko, Jasser; Sivachenko, Eugene A.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes results of development of fundus-camera with non-glare optical scheme. The scheme is based on multiple lenses with a light gathering power (D/F <= 1) substantially less than one. Illumination of fundus can be provided through eye's pupil less than 3 mm. And much attention was directed to method of calculation of the no-glare optical scheme. The key idea is that geometry of optic elements of the system provides that glare in the form of ghost reflection from optical surface of one element focuses on a small-size absorbing screen located on another optical surface. Shows the possibility of implementation and the experimental results. During experiments with B/W camera we got Full HD color image of fundus having the eye's pupil diameter of 1.5 mm and illumination of fundus tissue in accordance with sanitary rules.

  12. Online damage inspection of optics for ATP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yu; Mao, Yao; Gan, Xun; Liu, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    In the Electro-Optical acquisition-tracking-pointing system (ATP), the optical components will be damaged with the several influencing factors. In this situation, the rate will increase sharply when the arrival of damage to some extent. As the complex processing techniques and long processing cycle of optical components, the damage will cause the great increase of the system development cost and cycle. Therefore, it is significant to detect the laser-induced damage in the ATP system. At present, the major research on the on-line damage detection technology of optical components is for the large optical system in the international. The relevant detection systems have complicated structures and many of components, and require enough installation space reserved, which do not apply for ATP system. To solve the problem mentioned before, This paper use a method based on machine vision to detect the damage on-line for the present ATP system. To start with, CCD and PC are used for image acquisition. Secondly, smoothing filters are used to restrain false damage points produced by noise. Then, with the shape feature included in the damage image, the OTSU Method which can define the best segmentation threshold automatically is used to achieve the goal to locate the damage regions. At last, we can supply some opinions for the lifetime of the optical components by analyzing the damage data, such as damage area, damage position. The method has the characteristics of few-detectors and simple-structures which can be installed without any changes of the original light path. With the method, experimental results show that it is stable and effective to achieve the goal of detecting the damage of optical components on-line in the ATP system.

  13. Optical System Design of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    English, R E; Laumann, C W; Miller, J L; Seppala, L G

    1998-06-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser fusion facility being constructed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory (LLNL). The neodymium-doped phosphate glass pulsed laser system will produce over 3.5MJ of laser energy at a fundamental lasing wavelength of 1.053pm (1 o). The final optics assembly contains a pair of crystals (KDPKD*P) and a focusing lens to convert the light by sum-frequency-mixing to 30 (h=0,35pm) and focus 1 .SM.J onto the target. The NIF optical system is large and complex. To give some perspective the NIF building is roughly 200 meters long x 85 meters wide. There are approximately 7500 optical components in the large aperture laser system - lenses, mirrors, polarizers, laser slabs, crystals, and windows - each with a clear aperture greater than 4Ocm square. The front-end of the laser system contains more than 8000 smaller (S-l 5cm) precision laser components. In this paper we will describe the optical system configuration, layout, and general design considerations. We will explain the path of the pulse through the various subsystems. Some of the top-level optical system and sub-system design requirements will be pre

  14. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  15. Designing a fiber-optic beam delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.V. |; Leong, K.H.; Sanders, P.G.

    1997-03-01

    One of the advantages offered by visible and NIR lasers over CO and CO{sub 2} lasers is that they can be delivered through optical fibers. Fiber-optic beam delivery is ideal when the beam must be delivered along a complex path or processing requires complicated manipulation of the beam delivery optics. Harnessing the power of a high-power laser requires that knowledgeable and prudent choices be made when selecting the laser and its beam delivery system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a variety of issues important when designing a beam delivery system-data obtained with high power Nd:YAG lasers will be used as illustrative examples. (1) Multimode optical fibers are used for high-power applications. The fiber imposes, to varying degrees, a structure on the beam that is different from the laser output. Fibers degrade the beam quality, although the degree of degradation is dependent on the fiber length, diameter and type. Smaller fibers tend to produce less degradation to beam quality, but the minimum usable fiber size is limited by the quality of the laser beam, focusing optic and the numerical aperture of the fiber. (2) The performance of the beam delivery system is ultimately determined by the quality of the optics. Therefore, well-corrected optics are required to realize the best possible performance. Tests with both homogeneous and GRADIUM{trademark} lenses provide insights into evaluating the benefits offered by improvements in the output optics from gradient-index, aspheric and multi-element lens systems. Additionally, these tests illustrate the origins of variable focused spot size and position with increasing laser power. (3) The physical hardware used in the beam delivery system will have several characteristics which enhance its functionality and ease of use, in addition to facilitating the use of advanced diagnostics and monitoring techniques.

  16. Electro-Optic Computing Architectures: Volume II. Components and System Design and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the Electro - Optic Computing Architecture (EOCA) program was to develop multi-function electro - optic interfaces and optical...interconnect units to enhance the performance of parallel processor systems and form the building blocks for future electro - optic computing architectures...Specifically, three multi-function interface modules were targeted for development - an Electro - Optic Interface (EOI), an Optical Interconnection Unit

  17. CVC silicon carbide high-performance optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William F., III; Foss, Colby A., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    The demand for high performance lightweight mirrors has never been greater. The coming years will require lighter and higher performance mirrors and in greater numbers than is currently available. Applications include both ground and space based telescopes, surveillance, navigation, guidance, and tracking and control systems. For instance, the total requirement for US government sponsored systems alone is projected to be greater than 200 m2/year1. Given that the total current global production capacity is on the order of 50 m2/year1, the need and opportunity to rapidly produce high quality optics is readily apparent. Key areas of concern for all these programs are not only the mission critical optical performance metrics, but also the ability to meet the timeline for deployment. As such, any potential reduction in the long lead times for manufactured optical systems and components is critical. The associated improvements with such advancements would lead to reductions in schedule and acquisition cost, as well as increased performance. Trex"s patented CVC SiC process is capable of rapidly producing high performance SiC optics for any optical system. This paper will summarize the CVC SiC production process and the current optical performance levels, as well as future areas of work.

  18. Quantum Entanglement in Optical Lattice Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-18

    superfluidity, Physical Review A (02 2013) Yinyin Qian, Ming Gong, Chuanwei Zhang. Many-body Landau -Zener transition in cold-atom double-well...in a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate, arXiv:1111.4778v1 (11 2011) Yinyin Qian, Ming Gong, Chuanwei Zhang. Many-body Landau -Zener Transition in...PhysRevA.87.023611 5. Y. Qian, M. Gong, and C. Zhang, Many-body Landau -Zener Transition in Cold Atom Double Well Optical Lattices, Physical Review A 87

  19. A computer program to evaluate optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innes, D.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is used to evaluate a 25.4 cm X-ray telescope at a field angle of 20 minutes of arc by geometrical analysis. The object is regarded as a point source of electromagnetic radiation, and the optical surfaces are treated as boundary conditions in the solution of the electromagnetic wave propagation equation. The electric field distribution is then determined in the region of the image and the intensity distribution inferred. A comparison of wave analysis results and photographs taken through the telescope shows excellent agreement.

  20. Optical materials for space based laser systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Armagan, G.; Byvik, C. E.; Albin, S.

    1989-01-01

    The design features and performance characteristics of a sensitized holmium laser applicable to differential lidar and Doppler windshear measurements are presented, giving attention to the optimal choice of sensitizing/activating dopant ions. This development of a 2-micron region eye-safe laser, where holmium is sensitized by either hulium or erbium, has called for interionic energy transfer processes whose rate will not result in gain-switched pulses that are excessively long for atmospheric lidar and Doppler windshear detection. The application of diamond films for optical component hardening is noted.

  1. Scanning all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for 3D nonlinear optical imaging of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Leng, Yuxin; Xi, Jiefeng; Li, Xingde

    2009-01-01

    An extremely compact all-fiber-optic scanning endomicroscopy system was developed for two-photon fluorescence (TPF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of biological samples. A conventional double-clad fiber (DCF) was employed in the endomicroscope for single-mode femtosecond pulse delivery, multimode nonlinear optical signals collection and fast two-dimensional scanning. A single photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) with negative group velocity dispersion at two-photon excitation wavelength (i.e. ~810 nm) was used for pulse prechirping in replacement of a bulky grating/lens-based pulse stretcher. The combined use of DCF and PBF in the endomicroscopy system made the endomicroscope basically a plug-and-play unit. The excellent imaging ability of the extremely compact all-fiber-optic nonlinear optical endomicroscopy system was demonstrated by SHG imaging of rat tail tendon and depth-resolved TPF imaging of epithelial tissues stained with acridine orange. The preliminary results suggested the promising potential of this extremely compact all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for real-time assessment of both epithelial and stromal structures in luminal organs. PMID:19434122

  2. Identification of Ni-(L-His)₂ as a substrate for NikABCDE-dependent nickel uptake in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Peter T; Benanti, Erin L; Heil-Chapdelaine, Vanessa; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Rowe, Jessica L

    2012-10-01

    Nickel is an important cofactor for several microbial enzymes. The ATP-dependent NikABCDE transporter is one of several types of uptake pathways known to be important for nickel acquisition in microbes. The Escherichia coli NikA periplasmic binding protein is structurally homologous to the di- and oligopeptide binding proteins, DppA and OppA. This structural similarity raises interesting questions regarding the evolutionary relationships between the recognition of nickel ions and short peptides. We find that in defined minimal growth medium NikABCDE transports nickel ions in the presence of exogenously added L-histidine (L-His), but not D-histidine. Both nickel uptake in cells and nickel binding to purified NikA showed an L-His concentration dependence consistent with recognition of a Ni-(L-His)₂ complex. This discovery reveals parallels to the transport of other metal complexes, notably iron, and suggests the structural diversity of nickel transporters may arise from the need to recognize extracellular nickel complexed with different organic ligands, whether they be exogenously or endogenously produced. Further, these results suggest that experiments examining the physiology and ecology of nickel-requiring microbes should account for the possibility that the growth medium may not support nickel uptake.

  3. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  4. Designing optical disk systems into audio/video products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiandong

    2008-12-01

    Optical disk systems are still widely used in players in consumer electronics and automotive applications, although more and more audio and video contents are played from other medias such as flash memory and hard disk drive based devices. There are various architectures with the integrations of audio and video (A/V) decoders and optical disk servo components to reduced product BOM cost. Some issues are addressed for designing optical disk playing modules into an audio or video products. Servo implementation including tracking, seeking and rotating control needs to consider the characteristics of low cost mechanisms and non-ideal disks. When optical disk systems are used in portable or moving environments, the approaches from servo control side and electronic can be helpful for anti-shock. Special handlings to defect disks are important to playability.

  5. A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Meadway, Alexander; Girkin, Christopher A.; Zhang, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) is adapted to provide optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The AO-SLO function is unchanged. The system uses the same light source, scanning optics, and adaptive optics in both imaging modes. The result is a dual-modal system that can acquire retinal images in both en face and cross-section planes at the single cell level. A new spectral shaping method is developed to reduce the large sidelobes in the coherence profile of the OCT imaging when a non-ideal source is used with a minimal introduction of noise. The technique uses a combination of two existing digital techniques. The thickness and position of the traditionally named inner segment/outer segment junction are measured from individual photoreceptors. In-vivo images of healthy and diseased human retinas are demonstrated. PMID:24514529

  6. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  7. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging.

    PubMed

    Baziljevich, M; Barness, D; Sinvani, M; Perel, E; Shaulov, A; Yeshurun, Y

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  8. Extreme nonlinear optics of two-level systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tritschler, T.; Muecke, O. D.; Wegener, M.

    2003-09-01

    For Rabi frequencies comparable to, or even larger than, the transition frequency of a two-level system, the regime of extreme nonlinear optics is reached. Here, we give an overview of the radiated light intensity as a function of carrier frequency of light, transition frequency, Rabi frequency, spectrometer frequency, as well as of the shape and duration of the exciting optical pulses. The graphical representations reveal an amazing complexity and beauty of the nonlinear optical response. Analytical results within the ''square-wave approximation'' qualitatively reproduce many of the intricate features of the exact numerical calculations.

  9. Application of acousto-optic actuator applied in holographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, FuRi; Wang, Biao

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss acousto-optical scanning and deflection, and design an acousto-optical actuator for steering the laser beam in the direction of vertical and horizon. In this system a laser whose wavelength is 532 nm is used and is expanded by a cylindrical lens. This horizontal actuator produces the horizontal deflection and the spherical lens following the horizontal actuator rotates the beam to match the aperture of the vertical actuator. The cylindrical lens restores the beam to its original circular cross-section, after which the microscope optics brings it to a focus in the lithium niobate crystal in which we store information.

  10. A compact fiber optic eye diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Dubin, Stephen; Dellavecchia, Michael A.

    1995-11-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluid experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of an eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (approximately few microW) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like materials in the vitreous humor. In a clinical setting, the probe can be mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using a Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  11. A Compact Fiber Optic Eye Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Dubin, Stephen; Zigler, J. Samuel, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe development for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluids experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of the eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (approximately a few mu W) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like material in the vitreous humor. For a clinical use, the probe is mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  12. A Compact Fiber Optic Eye Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Dubin, Stephen; Dellavecchia, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluid experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of an eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (approximately few microW) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like materials in the vitreous humor. In a clinical setting, the probe can be mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using a Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Logarithmic axicon characterized by scanning optical probe system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    A scanning optical probe system is proposed to measure a logarithmic axicon (LA) with subwavelength resolution. Multiple plane intensity profiles measured by a fiber probe are interpreted by solving an optimization problem to get the phase retardation function (PRF) of the LA. Experimental results show that this approach can accurately obtain the PRF with which the optical path difference of the generated quasi-nondiffracting beam in the propagation is calculated.

  14. Applicability of Fiber Optics to Aircraft Fire Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    in aircraft, such as elevated temperatures, chemical contamination, acoustic noise, vibration, shock, altitude and reliability/maintainability...in and fan-out techniques - and their optical, mechanical, and chemical characteristics relevant to air- craft fire detection system applications...the acceptance half-angle (0NA) of optical fibers is a property of the fibers themselves (ranging from 8’ for fluorocarbon resin clad quartz fibers that

  15. Multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romańczuk, Patryk; Pietrzycki, Marcin; Źmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

    2015-09-01

    In the article the multimode tapered optical light pipe for illumination systems was investigated. Based on tree light emitting diodes at the wavelength of 460 nm (blue), 528 nm (green) and 631 nm (red) possibility of white light emission on the output surface of the tapered light pipe was submitted. Influence of optical power of LEDs on the colour coordinates (CIE-1931) has been investigated.

  16. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems - Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Pitsianis, J. R Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, "Compressive optical montage photography ," in SPIE: Photonic Devices and Algorithms for Computing VII, vol...Susstrunk, "Virtual sensor design," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol. 5301, pp. 408...pp. 10-12, 1996. (57] D. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, "Atomic

  17. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems -- Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    1758, 2000. [10] D. J. Brady, M. Feldman, N. Pitsianis, J. P. Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, “Compressive optical montage photography ,” in SPIE...Constantini and S. Susstrunk, “Virtual sensor design,” in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol...Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, “Atomic decomposition by basis pursuit

  18. Natural optical design concepts for highly miniaturized camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    1999-08-01

    Microcameras for computers, mobile phones, watches, security system and credit cards is a very promising future market. Semiconductor industry is now able to integrate light reception, signal amplification and processing in a low- power-consuming microchip of a few mm2 size. Active pixel sensors supply each pixel in an image sensor with an individually programmable functionality. Beside the electronic receptor chip, a highly miniaturized lens system is required. Compared to the progress in microelectronics, optics has not yet made a significant step. Today's microcamera lenses are usually a downscaled version of a classical lens system and rarely smaller than 3 mm X 3 mm X 3 mm. This lagging of optics is quite surprising. Biologists have systematically studied all types of natural eye sensors since the 18th Century. Mother Nature provides a variety of highly effective examples for miniaturized imaging system. Single-aperture systems are the appropriate solution if the size is a free design parameter. If the budget is tight and optics limited to size, nature prefers multiple-aperture systems, the so-called compound eyes. As compound eyes are limited in resolution and night view, a cluster of single-aperture eyes, as jumping spiders use, is probably a better solution. The recent development in micro- optics offers the chance to imitate such natural design concepts. We have investigated miniaturized imaging systems based on microlens array and natural optical design concepts. Practical limitations for system design, packaging and assembling are given. Examples for micro-optical components and imaging systems are presented.

  19. Field and imaging properties of two orthogonally polarized Gaussian optical beams with a nonlinear parabolic graded-index rod lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yucui

    1996-04-01

    The field and imaging formulas of two orthogonally polarized Gaussian light beams through a nonlinear parabolic graded-index rod lens are derived by use of a variational approach and the ABCD law of Gaussian beam propagation. The effects of power and position of one optical beam on the field and propagation and imaging properties of the other optical beam are analyzed.

  20. Toward multi-Gbps indoor optical wireless multicasting system employing passive diffractive optics.

    PubMed

    Oh, C W; Huijskens, F M; Cao, Z; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-05-01

    This Letter presents the evaluation and demonstration of an optical free-space (FS) multicasting system for multi-Gigabits-per-second (multi-Gbps) indoor transmission. These simultaneous line-of-sight links are formed by infrared beams and are beam-steered using a passive diffraction grating. The experiment has resulted in error-free links (bit error rate <10(-9) at 2.5 Gbps on-off keying) and is scalable to support higher data rates. This system is proposed for short-range optical wireless communication and can be seamlessly integrated in in-building fiber networks.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of Fecker and Loral optical IR PWI systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorstein, M.; Hallock, J. N.; Houten, M.; Mcwilliams, I. G.

    1971-01-01

    A previous flight test of two electro-optical pilot warning indicators, using a flashing xenon strobe and silicon detectors as cooperative elements, pointed out several design deficiencies. The present laboratory evaluation program corrected these faults and calibrated the sensitivity of both systems in azimuth elevation and range. The laboratory tests were performed on an optical bench and consisted of three basic components: (1) a xenon strobe lamp whose output is monitored at the indicator detector to give pulse to pulse information on energy content at the receiver; (2) a strobe light attenuating optical system which is calibrated photometrically to provide simulated range; and (3) a positioning table on which the indicator system under study is mounted and which provides spatial location coordinates for all data points. The test results for both systems are tabulated.

  2. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, D. Gul; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  3. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  4. Design of infrared diffractive telescope imaging optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ZhouFeng; Hu, BingLiang; Yin, QinYe; Xie, YongJun; Kang, FuZeng; Wang, YanJun

    2015-10-01

    Diffractive telescope is an updated imaging technology, it differs from conventional refractive and reflective imaging system, which is based on the principle of diffraction image. It has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight telescope. However, one of the great challenges of design this optical system is that the diffractive optical element focuses on different wavelengths of light at different point in space, thereby distorting the color characteristics of image. In this paper, we designs a long-wavelength infrared diffractive telescope imaging system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the infrared optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens, achieving broadband light(from 8μm-12μm) to a common focus with 4.6° field of view. At last, the diffuse spot size and MTF function provide diffractive-limited performance.

  5. Developing system for delivery of optical radiation in medicobiological researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Taraz, Majid

    2004-06-01

    Methods of optical diagnostics and methods of photodynamic therapy are actively used in medico-biological researches. The system for delivery of optical radiation is one of the key methods in these researches. Usually these systems use flexible optical fibers with diameters from 200 to 1000 micron. Two types of systems for delivery are subdivided, first for diagnostic researches, second for therapeutic procedures. Existing diagnostic catheters, which have most widely applied in medicine, have bifurcated with diameter of the tip equal 1.8 mm. These devices, which are called fiber-optical catheters, satisfy the majority endoscopes researches. However, till now the problem of optical-diagnostics inside tissue is not soled. Especially it is important at diagnostics of a mammary gland, livers, thyroid glands tumor, tumor of a brain and some other studies connected with punctures. In these cases, it is necessary that diameter of fiber-optical catheters be less than one millimeter. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters. Also in clinical procedures such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP), cylindrical light diffusing tips are rapidly becoming a popular device for the administration of the desired light dose for the illumination of hollow organs, such as bronchus, trachea and oesophagus. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters.

  6. Subcarrier multiplexing tolerant dispersion transmission system employing optical broadband sources.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-16

    This paper presents a novel SCM optical transmission system for next-generation WDM-PONs combining broadband optical sources and a Mach-Zehnder interferometric structure. The approach leeds to transport RF signals up to 50 GHz being compatible with RoF systems since a second configuration has been proposed in order to overcome dispersion carrier suppression effect using DSB modulation. The theoretical analysis validates the potentiality of the system also considering the effects of the dispersion slope over the transmission window.

  7. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  8. Laser-optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.; Ford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-optical measurement system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in rotating component rigs and complete engines. The system is applicable to fan, compressor and turbine blade tip clearance measurements. The engine mounted probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. The measurement system consists of an optical subsystem, an electronic subsystem and a computing and graphic terminal. Bench tests and environmental tests were conducted to confirm operation at temperatures, pressures, and vibration levels typically encountered in an operating gas turbine engine.

  9. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system. [using optical coupling circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A quadrature component cancellation and measuring system comprising a detection system for detecting the quadrature component from a primary signal, including reference circuitry to define the phase of the quadrature component for detection is described. A Raysistor optical coupling control device connects an output from the detection system to a circuit driven by a signal based upon the primary signal. Combining circuitry connects the primary signal and the circuit controlled by the Raysistor device to subtract quadrature components. A known current through the optically sensitive element produces a signal defining the magnitude of the quadrature component.

  10. Optically controlled phased-array technology for space communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, Richard R.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1988-01-01

    Using MMICs in phased-array applications above 20 GHz requires complex RF and control signal distribution systems. Conventional waveguide, coaxial cable, and microstrip methods are undesirable due to their high weight, high loss, limited mechanical flexibility and large volume. An attractive alternative to these transmission media, for RF and control signal distribution in MMIC phased-array antennas, is optical fiber. Presented are potential system architectures and their associated characteristics. The status of high frequency opto-electronic components needed to realize the potential system architectures is also discussed. It is concluded that an optical fiber network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but may require higher power.

  11. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  12. Optical analysis of scanning microstereolithography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Suhas P.; Dubey, Shashikant; Gandhi, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Microstereolithography (MSL) is rapidly developing technique for micro-fabrication. Vector-by-vector scanning MSL has a potential to create true 3D micro-devices as compared to mostly planar (2D-2 1/2 D) devices fabricated by conventional MEMS techniques. Previous literature shows two different scanning methods:(1) Galvanomirror scanning, (2) Photoreactor tank scanning. Galvanomirror scanning technique has higher fabrication speed but poor resolution because of defocusing of laser spot on the resin surface. Photo-reactor tank scanning has higher resolution but produces a wavy structures and limited speed of fabrication. This paper proposes and develops an offaxis lens scanning technique for MSL and carries out optical analysis to compare its performance with the existing techniques mentioned above. The comparison clearly demonstrates improved performance with the proposed offaxis lens scanning technique.

  13. Space camera optical axis pointing precision measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Meng, Fanbo; Yang, Zijun; Guo, Yubo; Ye, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the space camera which on satellite optical axis pointing precision measurement, a monocular vision measurement system based on object-image conjugate is established. In this system the algorithms such as object-image conjugate vision models and point by point calibration method are applied and have been verified. First, the space camera axis controller projects a laser beam to the standard screen for simulating the space camera's optical axis. The laser beam form a target point and has been captured by monocular vision camera. Then the two-dimensional coordinates of the target points on the screen are calculated by a new vision measurement model which based on a looking-up and matching table, the table has been generated by object-image conjugate algorithm through point by point calibration. Finally, compare the calculation of coordinates offered by measurement system with the theory of coordinate offered by optical axis controller, the optical axis pointing precision can be evaluated. Experimental results indicate that the absolute precision of measurement system up to 0.15mm in 2m×2m FOV. This measurement system overcome the nonlinear distortion near the edge of the FOV and can meet the requirement of space camera's optical axis high precision measurement and evaluation.

  14. Fiber Optically Coupled Eyesafe Laser Threat Warning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-11

    WARNING SYSTEM 11 MAY 2000 MSS SPECIALTY GROUP ON INFRARED COUNTERMEASURES NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL, MONTEREY, CA PRESENTED BY: DR. AL TORRES...A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Fiber Optically Coupled Eyesafe Laser Threat Warning System Contract Number Grant Number... WARNING SYSTEM (ESLTWS) PHASE II SBIR PROGRAM • CONCEPT: - TO DEVELOP A UNIQUE AND NOVEL EYE SAFE LASER THREAT WARNING RECEIVER SYSTEM. MUST BE

  15. Updated optical read/write memory system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The fabrication of an updated block data composer and holographic storage array for a breadboard holographic read/write memory system is described. System considerations such as transform optics and controlled aberration lens design are described along with the block data composer, photoplastic recording materials, and material development.

  16. Interactive Optical Disc Systems: Part 1: Analog Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Details distinction between digital and analog data, advantages of analog storage, and optical disc use to store analog data. Configuration and potential of three levels of laser disc systems are explained. Selection of display devices for use with laser disc systems and accessing audio data are addressed. (Continued in next issue.) (EJS)

  17. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  18. Channel simulation for direct-detection optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct-detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log-normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean, or chi-square density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the channel simulator are presented.

  19. Radiant energy absorption enhancement in optical imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Reimaging system efficiently uses incident light and overcomes previous imaging detector problems. Optical system collects reflected and focal plane transmitted light and redirects it so it again impinges on focal plane in register with original image. Reimaging unabsorbed light increases light absorption and detector use probability.

  20. Channel simulation for direct detection optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean or chi-squared density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the Channel Simulator are presented.

  1. IMRT verification using a radiochromic/optical-CT dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark; Guo, Pengyi; Gluckman, Gary; Adamovics, John

    2006-12-01

    This work represents our first experiences relating to IMRT verification using a relatively new 3D dosimetry system consisting of a PRESAGETM dosimeter (Heuris Inc, Pharma LLC) and an optical-CT scanning system (OCTOPUSTM TM MGS Inc). This work builds in a step-wise manner on prior work in our lab.

  2. Design of multiplexed fiber optic chemical sensing system using clad-removable optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Chang-Yong; Dhital, Dipesh; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Park, Gyuhae; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2012-02-01

    To prevent possible threats to public safety and economic loss from chemical leakage accidents, novel chemical sensing techniques for regular monitoring and leakage detection have been developed for various fields. We propose a fiber optic liquid chemical sensor (FOCS) system using specialty optical fibers and an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), and is based on the leaky wave mode sensing principle. OTDR enables simple multiplexing where individual sensor nodes along the fiber length could be interrogated by a common OTDR. The sensor node in the optical fiber is prepared by removing the desired length of a protective layer using mechanical stripping and chemical etching techniques. A novel laser stripping technique with superior capability to fabricate quasi-distributed dense sensor nodes is devised as well. The FOCS system is further analyzed to characterize the sensor response behavior in relation to the sensor node length and possible environmental and chemical temperature effect. Under the condition satisfying the leaky wave mode principle and within the minimum acceptable refractive index (RI) range by the system, this FOCS system could monitor numerous liquid chemicals with variable refractive indices and has been tested with positive results. In addition, the system shows the possibility for multi-point detection and is further expanded into a hybrid technique capable of estimating the refractive index range of the detected chemical.

  3. Performance of a MEMS-base Adaptive Optics Optical Coherency Tomography System

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J; Zadwadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Opkpodu, S; Werner, J S

    2008-01-16

    We have demonstrated that a microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror can be flattened to < 1 nm RMS within controllable spatial frequencies over a 9.2-mm aperture making it a viable option for high-contrast adaptive optics systems (also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics). The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Consistent flattening, required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. An error budget for MEMS closed loop performance will summarize MEMS characterization.

  4. Validity of ray trace based performance predictions of optical systems with diffractive optical elements (DOE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seesselberg, Markus; Kleemann, Bernd H.; Ruoff, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Color aberrations in broadband imaging optics can be effectively corrected for by use of diffractive optical elements (DOE) such as kinoforms. Typically, the DOE groove width increases with wavelength range and is in the range of several ten to several hundreds of micrometers. Since the footprint diameter of a light bundle originating from a single object point at the diffractive surface is often in the range of millimeters, the number of grooves crossed by this light bundle can be small. In addition, the groove width varies and the grooves are curved. For DOE optimization and prediction of optical performance, optical design software is widely used being based on the ray trace formula, i. e. the law of refraction including DOEs. This ray trace formula relies on two assumptions. First, the footprint diameter of a light beam at the diffractive surface is assumed to be large compared to the groove width. Second, the local grating approximation is used saying that at the footprint area the groove width is constant and the grooves are straight lines. In realistic optical systems, these assumptions are often violated. Thus, the reliability of optical performance predictions such as MTF is in question. In the present paper, the authors re-examine the limits of the ray trace equation. The effect of a finite footprint diameter at the diffractive surface is investigated as well as variations of the groove width. Also, the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a light bundle after crossing a grating with a finite number of grooves is calculated.

  5. Adaptive Optics System Design and Operation at Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, S. S.; Max, C. E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H. D.; Brase, J. M.; Friedman, H. W.; Gavel, D. T.; Salmon, J. T.; Waltjen, K. E.

    1993-12-01

    An adaptive optics system developed for the 40 inch Nickel and 120 inch Shane telescopes at Lick Observatory is described. The adaptive optics system design is based on a 69 actuator continuous-surface deformable mirror and a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with a commercial intensified CCD fast-framing camera. The system has been tested at the Cassegrain focus of the 40 inch Nickel telescope where the subaperture diameter is 12 cm. The subaperture slope and mirror control calculations are performed on a four processor single board computer controlled by a Unix workstation. This configuration is capable of up to 1 KHz frame rates. The optical configuration of the system and its interface to the telescope is described. Details of the control system design, operation, and user interface are given. Initial test results emphasizing control system operations of this adaptive optics system using natural reference stars on the 40 inch Nickel telescope are presented. The initial test results are compared to predictions from analyses and simulations. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  6. Concepts for fast acquisition in optical communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Brandon L.; Giggenbach, Dirk; Epple, Bernhard

    2006-09-01

    As free-space laser communications systems proliferate due to improved technology and transmission techniques, optical communication networks comprised of ground stations, aircraft, high altitude platforms, and satellites become an attainable goal. An important consideration for optical networks is the ability of optical communication terminals (OCT) to quickly locate one another and align their laser beams to initiate the acquisition sequence. This paper investigates promising low-cost technologies and novel approaches that will facilitate the targeting and acquisition tasks between counter terminals. Specifically, two critical technology areas are investigated: position determination (which includes location and attitude determination) and inter-terminal communications. A feasibility study identified multiple-antenna global navigation satellite system (GNSS) systems and GNSS-aided inertial systems as possible position determination solutions. Personal satellite communication systems (e.g. Iridium or Inmarsat), third generation cellular technology (IMT-2000/UMTS), and a relatively new air traffic surveillance technology called Autonomous Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) were identified as possible inter-terminal communication solutions. A GNSS-aided inertial system and an ADS-B system were integrated into an OCT to demonstrate their utility in a typical optical communication scenario. Testing showed that these technologies have high potential in future OCTs, although improvements can be made to both to increase tracking accuracy.

  7. Distributed optically integrated manufacture system based on CORBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Ming; Jiang, Jian-chun; Liu, Xing-fa; Hu, Rui-fei

    2007-12-01

    Focused on the shortcoming and insufficiency of reconfigurable manufacture system (RMS) for optical manufacturing in control layer and interface of manufacturing execution systems (MES) and control layer, the difference of MES-plan layer interface and that of MES-control layer is discussed, and an architecture of distributed optically integrated manufacture executing system based on fieldbus/Ethernet network and common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is presented. In this solution, the optical manufacture equipments are connected by fieldbus network, a gateway is used for the communication of fieldbus manufacture equipment and MES in the workshop, and CORBA services which provide a general interface for communication of heterogeneous fieldbus manufacture equipment of workshop are realized on the gateway. Then all specifics of heterogeneous fieldbus manufacture equipments are concealed, which show as virtual equipment and can be accessed in a simple and unified way. So the control layer is composed of virtual equipment and easy to be reconfigured. Similarly workshop management function components are modeled and encapsulated by CORBA interface, and MES could be integrated to RMS expediently. The optical integrated manufacture system presented is proved with good ability of flexible, reconfigurable, opening and high feasibility, and met the reconfigurable requirement of distributed optical manufacturing workshop preferably.

  8. HiPEP Ion Optics System Evaluation Using Gridlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willliams, John D.; Farnell, Cody C.; Laufer, D. Mark; Martinez, Rafael A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental measurements are presented for sub-scale ion optics systems comprised of 7 and 19 aperture pairs with geometrical features that are similar to the HiPEP ion optics system. Effects of hole diameter and grid-to-grid spacing are presented as functions of applied voltage and beamlet current. Recommendations are made for the beamlet current range where the ion optics system can be safely operated without experiencing direct impingement of high energy ions on the accelerator grid surface. Measurements are also presented of the accelerator grid voltage where beam plasma electrons backstream through the ion optics system. Results of numerical simulations obtained with the ffx code are compared to both the impingement limit and backstreaming measurements. An emphasis is placed on identifying differences between measurements and simulation predictions to highlight areas where more research is needed. Relatively large effects are observed in simulations when the discharge chamber plasma properties and ion optics geometry are varied. Parameters investigated using simulations include the applied voltages, grid spacing, hole-to-hole spacing, doubles-to-singles ratio, plasma potential, and electron temperature; and estimates are provided for the sensitivity of impingement limits on these parameters.

  9. An optically remote powered subsea video monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Fat Kit; Stewart, Brian; McStay, Danny

    2012-06-01

    The drive for Ocean pollution prevention requires a significant increase in the extent and type of monitoring of subsea hydrocarbon production equipment. Sensors, instrumentation, control electronics, data logging and transmission units comprising such monitoring systems will all require to be powered. Conventionally electrical powering is supplied by standard subsea electrical cabling. The ability to visualise the assets being monitored and any changes or faults in the equipment is advantageous to an overall monitoring system. However the effective use of video cameras, particularly if the transmission of real time high resolution video is desired, requires a high data rate and low loss communication capability. This can be challenging for heavy and costly electrical cables over extended distances. For this reason optical fibre is often adopted as the communication channel. Using optical fibre cables for both communications and power delivery can also reduce the cost of cabling. In this paper we report a prototype optically remote powered subsea video monitoring system that provides an alternative approach to powering subsea video cameras. The source power is transmitted to the subsea module through optical fibre with an optical-to-electrical converter located in the module. To facilitate intelligent power management in the subsea module, a supercapacitor based intermediate energy storage is installed. Feasibility of the system will be demonstrated. This will include energy charging and camera operation times.

  10. The pupils and optical systems of gecko eyes.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lina S V; Lundström, Linda; Kelber, Almut; Kröger, Ronald H H; Unsbo, Peter

    2009-03-30

    The nocturnal helmet gecko, Tarentola chazaliae, discriminates colors in dim moonlight when humans are color blind. The sensitivity of the helmet gecko eye has been calculated to be 350 times higher than human cone vision at the color vision threshold. The optics and the large cones of the gecko are important reasons why they can use color vision at low light intensities. Using photorefractometry and an adapted laboratory Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor of high resolution, we also show that the optical system of the helmet gecko has distinct concentric zones of different refractive powers, a so-called multifocal optical system. The intraspecific variation is large but in most of the individuals studied the zones differed by 15 diopters. This is of the same magnitude as needed to focus light of the wavelength range to which gecko photoreceptors are most sensitive. We compare the optical system of the helmet gecko to that of the diurnal day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis grandis. The optical system of the day gecko shows no signs of distinct concentric zones and is thereby monofocal.

  11. Design of optical systems for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    On the basis of long-term experience of LOMO PLC in creating large optical systems for ground and space telescopes, with diameter of primary mirror from 1 to 6 meters, the following issues should be considered: principles of constructing optical systems for space telescopes and selecting their optimum design in respect of dimensions/mass and performance criteria; ensuring the fulfillment of image quality requirements in the process of manufacturing optical systems for controlling ground telescope elements in operating conditions; providing automatic adjustment of telescope secondary mirror, automatic focusing, interferometric control of image quality by means of stellar interferometer with radial shift and internal control with Gartman's test. Description of space telescope equipped with primary mirror of diameter 1.5 m, manufactured in LOMO PLC, is given.

  12. Design of a variable-focal-length optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, D.; Shannon, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements to place an entire optical system with a variable focal length ranging from 20 to 200 cm within a overall length somewhat less than 100 cm placed severe restrictions on the design of a zoom lens suitable for use on a comet explorer. The requirements of a wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns produced even greater limitations on the possibilities for a design that included a catadioptric (using mirrors and glass) front and followed by a zooming refractive portion. Capabilities available commercial zoom lenses as well as patents of optical systems are reviewed. Preliminary designs of the refractive optics zoom lens and the catadioptric system are presented and evaluated. Of the two, the latter probably has the best chance of success, so long as the shortest focal lengths are not really needed.

  13. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  14. Note: optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-01

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  15. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-15

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  16. Synchronization using pulsed edge tracking in optical PPM communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R.

    1972-01-01

    A pulse position modulated (PPM) optical communication system using narrow pulses of light for data transmission requires accurate time synchronization between transmitter and receiver. The presence of signal energy in the form of optical pulses suggests the use of a pulse edge tracking method of maintaining the necessary timing. The edge tracking operation in a binary PPM system is examined, taking into account the quantum nature of the optical transmissions. Consideration is given first to pure synchronization using a periodic pulsed intensity, then extended to the case where position modulation is present and auxiliary bit decisioning is needed to aid the tracking operation. Performance analysis is made in terms of timing error and its associated statistics. Timing error variances are shown as a function of system signal to noise ratio.

  17. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis. PMID:20210424

  18. Applying of digital signal processing to optical equisignal zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraev, Anton A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Gusarov, Vadim F.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we are trying to assess the application of array detectors and digital information processing to the system with the optical equisignal zone as a new method of evaluating of optical equisignal zone position. Peculiarities of optical equisignal zone formation are described. The algorithm of evaluation of optical equisignal zone position is applied to processing on the array detector. This algorithm enables to evaluate as lateral displacement as turning angles of the receiver relative to the projector. Interrelation of parameters of the projector and the receiver is considered. According to described principles an experimental set was made and then characterized. The accuracy of position evaluation of the equisignal zone is shown dependent of the size of the equivalent entrance pupil at processing.

  19. Optimal flushing agents for integrated optical and acoustic imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawen; Minami, Hataka; Steward, Earl; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Robertson, Claire; Shung, Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of integrated optical and acoustic intravascular imaging systems have been developed and hold great promise for accurately diagnosing vulnerable plaques and guiding atherosclerosis treatment. However, in any intravascular environment, the vascular lumen is filled with blood, a high-scattering source for optical and high-frequency ultrasound signals. Blood must be flushed away to provide clearer images. To our knowledge, no research has been performed to find the ideal flushing agent for combined optical and acoustic imaging techniques. We selected three solutions as potential flushing agents for their image-enhancing effects: mannitol, dextran, and iohexol. Testing of these flushing agents was performed in a closed-loop circulation model and in vivo on rabbits. We found that a high concentration of dextran was the most useful for simultaneous intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography imaging.

  20. Optimal flushing agents for integrated optical and acoustic imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiawen; Minami, Hataka; Steward, Earl; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Robertson, Claire; Shung, Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of integrated optical and acoustic intravascular imaging systems have been developed and hold great promise for accurately diagnosing vulnerable plaques and guiding atherosclerosis treatment. However, in any intravascular environment, the vascular lumen is filled with blood, a high-scattering source for optical and high-frequency ultrasound signals. Blood must be flushed away to provide clearer images. To our knowledge, no research has been performed to find the ideal flushing agent for combined optical and acoustic imaging techniques. We selected three solutions as potential flushing agents for their image-enhancing effects: mannitol, dextran, and iohexol. Testing of these flushing agents was performed in a closed-loop circulation model and in vivo on rabbits. We found that a high concentration of dextran was the most useful for simultaneous intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography imaging.

  1. Closed-loop active optical system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    A control system, based on a real-time lateral shear interferometer has been developed for use in control during thermal tests and static error compensation experiments. The minicomputer which controls the interferometer and provides its service functions also controls the active system, thereby giving flexibility to the algorithm. The minicomputer system contains 288 K bytes of memory and 15 M bytes of disk storage. The interferometer system employed is composed of the measuring head and its support electronics, a video display on which wavefront contour maps are generated, and a DECwriter operator console. The versatility provided by the use of a general purpose interferometer system allows for interactive control of the closed-loop process. Various arithmetic capabilities such as the addition of wavefronts, division by a constant, and fitting of wavefront data with Zernike polynomials, allow for measurements to be averaged and for removal of alignment errors before correction is performed.

  2. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    SciTech Connect

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R.; Conn, R.; Bohorfoush, A.

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  3. MACAO-VLTI adaptive optics systems performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Donaldson, Rob; Dupuy, Christophe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Hubin, Norbert N.; Ivanescu, Liviu; Kasper, Markus E.; Oberti, Sylvain; Paufique, Jerome; Rossi, Silvio; Silber, Armin; Delabre, Bernhard; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Gigan, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    In April and August "03 two MACAO-VLTI curvature AO systems were installed on the VLT telescopes unit 2 and 3 in Paranal (Chile). These are 60 element systems using a 150mm bimorph deformable mirror and 60 APD"s as WFS detectors. Valuable integration & commissioning experience has been gained during these 2 missions. Several tests have been performed in order to evaluate system performance on the sky. The systems have proven to be extremely robust, performing in a stable fashion in extreme seeing condition (seeing up to 3"). Strehl ratio of 0.65 and residual tilt smaller than 10 mas have been obtained on the sky in 0.8" seeing condition. Weak guide source performance is also excellent with a strehl of 0.26 on a V~16 magnitude star. Several functionalities have been successfully tested including: chopping, off-axis guiding, atmospheric refraction compensation etc. The AO system can be used in a totally automatic fashion with a small overhead: the AO loop can be closed on the target less than 60 sec after star acquisition by the telescope. It includes reading the seeing value given by the site monitor, evaluate the guide star magnitude (cycling through neutral density filters) setting the close-loop AO parameters (system gain and vibrating membrane mirror stroke) including calculation of the command-matrix. The last 2 systems will be installed in August "04 and in the course of 2005.

  4. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  5. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  6. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  7. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  8. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  9. Heterodyne interrogation system for TDM interferometric fiber optic sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Gaosheng; Xu, Tuanwei; Li, Fang

    2015-04-01

    We proposed an interrogation system for time sequenced fiber optic sensors array based on the heterodyne detection and orthogonal demodulation techniques, where the sensors array is a kind of interferometric fiber optic sensors. The techniques are theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated with recovering the sinusoid wave and triangle wave applied to the sensors. The system has a phase resolution about 1×10-4 rad/√Hz, the amplitude consistency and linearity of the demodulated results are 95.275% and 98.379%, respectively with single frequency event applied to the sensors.

  10. Systems Issues In Terrestrial Fiber Optic Link Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, James L.; Lewin, Barry R.; Lee, T. Frank S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews fiber optic system reliability issues from three different viewpoints - availability, operating environment, and evolving technologies. Present availability objectives for interoffice links and for the distribution loop must be re-examined for applications such as the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH), and analog services. The hostile operating environments of emerging applications (such as FTTH) must be carefully considered in system design as well as reliability assessments. Finally, evolving technologies might require the development of new reliability testing strategies.

  11. Demodulation System for Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Dynamic Pressure Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Adamovsky, Grigory; Floyd, Bertram

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optic Bragg gratings have been used for years to measure quasi-static phenomena. In aircraft engine applications there is a need to measure dynamic signals such as variable pressures. In order to monitor these pressures a detection system with broad dynamic range is needed. This paper describes an interferometric demodulator that was developed and optimized for this particular application. The signal to noise ratio was maximized through temporal coherence analysis. The demodulator was incorporated in a laboratory system that simulates conditions to be measured. Several pressure sensor configurations incorporating a fiber optic Bragg grating were also explored. The results of the experiments are reported in this paper.

  12. Signal processing for an optical wide band data transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B. T.

    1987-07-01

    The signal processing for an optical wide band transmission system using gallium arsenide (GaAs) digital integrated circuits and optical fibers has been investigated. Multiplexing, coding, synchronization, demultiplexing, and error checking at 780 Mbit/s data rates are described. Data storage in memory for linking to a computer is also considered. The design uses available GaAs and silicon components. The reliability of GaAs components is discussed as well as the layout and thermal considerations required for a high speed system.

  13. Design of high-capacity fiber-optic transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhi Ming

    2001-08-01

    We study the design of fiber-optic transport systems and the behavior of fiber amplifiers/lasers with the aim of achieving higher capacities with larger amplifier spacing. Solitons are natural candidates for transmitting short pulses for high-capacity fiber-optic networks because of its innate ability to use two of fiber's main defects, fiber dispersion and fiber nonlinearity to balance each other. In order for solitons to retain its dynamic nature, amplifiers must be placed periodically to restore powers to compensate for fiber loss. Variational analysis is used to study the long-term stability of a periodical- amplifier system. A new regime of operation is identified which allows the use of a much longer amplifier spacing. If optical fibers are the blood vessels of an optical communication system, then the optical amplifier based on erbium-doped fiber is the heart. Optical communication systems can avoid the use of costly electrical regenerators to maintain system performance by being able to optically amplify the weakened signals. The length of amplifier spacing is largely determined by the gain excursion experienced by the solitons. We propose, model, and demonstrate a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier which can drastically reduce the amount of gain excursion experienced by the solitons, therefore allowing a much longer amplifier spacing and superior stability. Dispersion management techniques have become extremely valuable tools in the design of fiber-optic communication systems. We have studied in depth the advantage of different arnplification schemes (lumped and distributed) for various dispersion compensation techniques. We measure the system performance through the Q factor to evaluate the added advantage of effective noise figure and smaller gain excursion. An erbium-doped fiber laser has been constructed and characterized in an effort to develop a test bed to study transmission systems. The presence of mode-partition noise in an erbium

  14. A suggested 12-m telescope optical system configuration for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2016-08-01

    This is an optical/infrared telescope. It is a general purpose telescope. A segmented primary mirror is adopted with diameter 12 m and f-ratio 1.6. This telescope has prime focus, Cassegrain, Nasmyth and coudé systems. The prime focus system has a 1.5° field-of-view corrector with excellent image quality. It will be used for multi-object fibre spectroscopic observation and CCD photography. In this 12-m telescope, all systems except the prime focus system share the same secondary mirror; the Nasmyth and coudé systems are formed by adding relay mirrors; and the method of moving a secondary mirror is used to enhance image quality. All these features originate from the innovative optical system of the Chinese 2.16-m telescope. At the Cassegrain focus, a dark object spectrograph, for example, can be installed without any corrector; and in case a field of view is needed, a corrector may be added. Both the Nasmyth and coudé systems have exceptionally excellent image quality and the exchange between them occurs very conveniently. Many instruments in visible and infrared wavebands, some with an adaptive optics system, will be installed at the Nasmyth platform. Coudé system will be used for interferometry and for those instruments which require high stability. This configuration has a nearly full range of systems but it is not complex, and it can even be adopted by 20-40-m class telescopes.

  15. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  16. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  17. Optical communication system performance with tracking error induced signal fading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.; Premo, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    System performance is determined for an optical communication system using noncoherent detection in the presence of tracking error induced signal fading assuming (1) binary on-off modulation (OOK) with both fixed and adaptive threshold receivers, and (2) binary polarization modulation (BPM). BPM is shown to maintain its inherent 2- to 3-dB advantage over OOK when adaptive thresholding is used, and to have a substantially greater advantage when the OOK system is restricted to a fixed decision threshold.

  18. Optical Limiting in a Single Mode Waveguide System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    systems are of great value to both the military and the telecommunications industry because of their ability to protect sensitive equipment from...limiters”. Such systems are of great value to both the military and the telecommunications industry because of their ability to protect sensitive...telecommunication industry , have lead to an increased interest in the properties of optical waveguide systems. One particularly interesting property that can

  19. Simplifying numerical ray tracing for characterization of optical systems.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Speiser, Daniel I; Johnsen, Sönke

    2014-07-20

    Ray tracing, a computational method for tracing the trajectories of rays of light through matter, is often used to characterize mechanical or biological visual systems with aberrations that are larger than the effect of diffraction inherent in the system. For example, ray tracing may be used to calculate geometric point spread functions (PSFs), which describe the image of a point source after it passes through an optical system. Calculating a geometric PSF is useful because it gives an estimate of the detail and quality of the image formed by a given optical system. However, when using ray tracing to calculate a PSF, the accuracy of the estimated PSF directly depends on the number of discrete rays used in the calculation; higher accuracies may require more computational power. Furthermore, adding optical components to a modeled system will increase its complexity and require critical modifications so that the model will describe the system correctly, sometimes necessitating a completely new model. Here, we address these challenges by developing a method that represents rays of light as a continuous function that depends on the light's initial direction. By utilizing Chebyshev approximations (via the chebfun toolbox in MATLAB) for the implementation of this method, we greatly simplified the calculations for the location and direction of the rays. This method provides high precision and fast calculation speeds that allow the characterization of any symmetrical optical system (with a centered point source) in an analytical-like manner. Next, we demonstrate our methods by showing how they can easily calculate PSFs for complicated optical systems that contain multiple refractive and/or reflective interfaces.

  20. A REPORT ON ABCD ACTIVITIES SEPTEMBER, 1963 - AUGUST, 1964. TO THE FORD FOUNDATION AND THE PRESIDENT'S COMMITTEE ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND YOUTH CRIME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Action for Boston Community Development, Inc., MA.

    DURING THE PERIOD UNDER REVIEW, ABCD WAS ENGAGED IN PROGRAM ELABORATION AND IMPLEMENTATION, ESPECIALLY IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE BOSTON YOUTH OPPORTUNITIES PROJECT. IT HAS ATTEMPTED TO MOVE FROM HOPES AND IDEAS TO TANGIBLE OPERATIONS, TO INSURE THAT CHANGE TAKES PLACE AND TO DESIGN PROGRAMS WITH SUFFICIENT CLARITY SO THAT THEIR USEFULNESS CAN BE…