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Sample records for abcd parenting young

  1. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  2. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program: rationale and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The transition to adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for risk taking and poor health, social and academic outcomes. Parents have an important role in protecting their children from these potential harms. While the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing problem behavior has been demonstrated, it is not known if parenting programs that target families prior to the onset of significant behavioral difficulties in early adolescence (9-14 years) improve the wellbeing of adolescents and their parents. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of a parenting program for the promotion of factors known to be associated with positive adolescent outcomes, such as positive parenting practices, parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent behavior. Methods/Design One hundred and eighty parents were randomly allocated to an intervention or wait list control group. Parents in the intervention group participated in the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program, a 6-session behavioral family intervention program which also incorporates acceptance-based strategies. Participants in the Wait List control group did not receive the intervention during a six month waiting period. The study was designed to comply with recommendations of the CONSORT statement. The primary outcome measures were reduction in parent-adolescent conflict and improvements in parent-adolescent relationships. Secondary outcomes included improvements in parent psychosocial wellbeing, parenting self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness, parent-adolescent communication and adolescent behavior. Conclusions Despite the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child behavioral difficulties, very few parenting programs for preventing problems in adolescents have been described in the peer reviewed literature. This study will provide data which can be used to examine the efficacy of a universal parenting interventions

  3. Interviewing Parents for Qualitative Research Studies: Using an ABCD Model to Manage the Sensitivities and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with complex health/palliative care needs is wide ranging. Family-centred practices place parents at the heart of the ongoing care of these children, and therefore it makes sense that their views and experiences should be central to research within the field. Despite this assertion, little guidance exists as to how best to…

  4. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study

    PubMed Central

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; Hoekstra, Christine M. C. A.; Gademan, Maaike G. J.; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Twickler, Marcel T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5–6 years. Methods Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study) were collected at age 5–6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity) and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity) were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed. Results In analysis adjusted for child’s physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01), higher SBP (p<0.001) and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01). Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05). Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5) adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001). Conclusions This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5–6 years. PMID:26394362

  5. Parents' Perspectives on Young Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nicky

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for the prevention of adolescent suicide are frequently designed to identify those young people who represent a high risk in order that services and support can be effectively targeted. This study explored the experiences of parents who had lost a child through suicide. The findings suggest that the range of behaviours perceived by…

  6. Improving Services to Young Parents through CETA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boochever, Stephen; And Others

    This report is addressed to Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) sponsors to familiarize them with the issues concerning adolescent pregnancy, highlight innovative approaches in working with young parents, and offer suggestions on how to reach and serve young parents with CETA. The report focuses on the problems of young parents, both…

  7. Family and Relationship Influences on Parenting Behaviors of Young Parents

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Methods 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6-months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Results Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male’ parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than females. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents’ romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. PMID:24113495

  8. Parental Influence on Young People's Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.; Call, Vaughn R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes theory and research on parental influence on young people's career development and highlights an important implication of this relationship for career counseling. The authors discuss a seminar that helps parents help their children choose careers. (CT)

  9. Consultation for Parents of Young Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Joan S.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes private evaluation and consultation services provided to parents of young gifted children, and discusses the benefits of private consultation and the potential role of school personnel in meeting the needs of this population. (Author/JDD)

  10. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  11. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  12. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  13. Parenting and the young driver problem.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Catalano, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    Crash rates increase sharply at the age at which teenagers begin to drive and remain elevated relative to adult levels until drivers are well into their twenties. Parents have important roles to play in managing the risk for teenage drivers before and after licensure. Parents can be involved in their teenagers' driving, allowing them to test for permit and licensure, supervising practice driving, providing access to a vehicle, and setting and enforcing limits on driving privileges after licensure. However, the management practices of many parents may not be sufficient to provide safety effects. The literature indicates that the two most important decisions parents can make to reduce teenagers' driving risk are to delay licensure and impose limits on high-risk driving conditions (such as driving at night and with teenage passengers) during the first year of licensure. Two intervention programs have been shown to increase parental limit setting as a means of reducing risky driving behaviors and improving driving performance among novice teenage drivers. This article describes the contexts of and opportunities for parental involvement in teenage driving and the effectiveness of interventions to increase and improve parental management of young drivers. PMID:18702985

  14. Parenting and the Young Driver Problem

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Crash rates increase sharply at the age teenagers begin to drive and remain elevated relative to adult levels well into the twenties. Parents have important roles to play in managing the risk for teenage drivers before and after licensure. Parents can be involved in their teenagers’ driving, allowing them to test for permit and licensure, supervising practice driving, providing access to a vehicle, and setting and enforcing limits on driving privileges after licensure. However, the management practices of many parents may not be sufficient to provide safety effects. The literature indicates that the two most important decisions parents can make to reduce teenagers driving risk is to delay licensure and impose limits on high-risk driving conditions (such as driving at night and with teenage passengers) during the first year of licensure. Two intervention programs have been shown to increase parent limit setting as a means of reducing risky driving behaviors and improving driving performance among novice teenage drivers. This article describes the contexts of and opportunities for parent involvement in teenage driving and the efficacy of interventions to increase and improve parental management of young drivers. PMID:18702985

  15. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457

  16. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  17. Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a Self-Report Parenting Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…

  18. Employer supports for parents with young children.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D E

    2001-01-01

    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices. PMID:11712457

  19. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  20. Young Adults’ Provision of Support to Middle-Aged Parents

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide support to aging parents, but researchers know little about support that young adults provide middle-aged parents. This study examined support that young adults provide parents and explanations for that support from both offspring’s and parents’ perspectives. Method. Young adults (n = 515, mean age = 22.34) and their parents (n = 364, mean age = 50.09) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support that offspring provide parents. Participants also reported parental personal problems, parental disability status, relationship quality, and support that parents provide offspring. Results. Offspring provided parents with emotional support and listening more often than other forms of support. Offspring reported providing more frequent support than parents reported receiving. We examined factors associated with support using multilevel models. Both offspring and parents reported more frequent support provided to parents when they had higher quality relationships and when parents gave more frequent support to offspring. Offspring (but not parents) reported providing more frequent support to parents when parents were disabled. Discussion. Findings are consistent with solidarity theory, which suggests that high-quality relationships may explain support. The concept of self-enhancement and generativity in middle-aged parents may explain the intergenerational differences in the association between parental disability and support. PMID:24162441

  1. Young People's and Parent's Perceptions of Managed Moves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed to increase understanding of the experiences of young people and their parents of managed moves, what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English Local Authority, where five young people and their parents were interviewed. Five superordinate themes emerged…

  2. Parent-Child Relations and Offending during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family…

  3. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  4. The Role of Parental Influences on Young Adolescents' Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Briana K.; Whiston, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between specific parental behaviors and the career development of young adolescents was assessed. Regression analyses revealed that parental behaviors did relate to the career development of middle school students, after controlling for student grade level and gender. Parental behaviors tended to relate more to career…

  5. Starting Them Right, Helping Parents Prepare Young Children for Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remak, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Parent role models greatly influence the development of young children's attitudes toward physical activity and sports, and eventually their level of competence and confidence. Physical educators can work with parents to provide a healthy and inviting introduction to sports. Twelve tips for parents are included. (IAH)

  6. Home Teaching for Parents of Young Deaf Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowell, Edgar L.

    To explore and evaluate the feasibility of providing language instruction to parents of young deaf children in a home-like environment, a demonstration home was established at a clinic. Parents were invited to attend weekly meetings which were reduced to hour in length during the course of the project. Parents could bring other siblings, family…

  7. Supporting Parents through Parent Education. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Marlene; Morales, Alex

    California's Proposition 10, the "Children and Families Act," has targeted three general areas for improvement in support of families and young children: improved family functioning, improved child development, and improved child health. Proposition 10 views parents as critical to the development of young children. Noting that parent education…

  8. Young Adults' Relations with Parents: The Influence of Recent Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Teresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined influence of recent parental divorce on contact and affective relations between 485 white young adults and their parents. Young adults from divorced families had less contact with fathers, and daughters of divorce reported less intimacy with fathers than did intact-family peers. Relations with mothers did not vary between groups.…

  9. Looking for solutions: gender differences in relationship and parenting challenges among low-income, young parents.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-12-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. PMID:24980026

  10. Looking for Solutions: Gender Differences in Relationship and Parenting Challenges Among Low-Income, Young Parents

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. PMID:24980026

  11. Strengthening Homeless Parents with Young Children through Meaningful Parent Education and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children confront several barriers to developing effective parenting skills and dispositions. Perhaps the major barrier is that of the negative stereotype that many people use to label them. They also often have not had positive parent role models and in many cases have had to deal with the issues of violence. Parent…

  12. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Hugh; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals' choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents' ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers' and fathers' ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers' and fathers' ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes. PMID:26221951

  13. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Hugh; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals’ choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents’ ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers’ and fathers’ ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers’ and fathers’ ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes. PMID:26221951

  14. Parent-Child Relations and Offending During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents and later as young adults is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N=1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults’ criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being. PMID:20865307

  15. Parents' Plans to Discuss Sexuality with Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…

  16. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  17. Longitudinal Relations Between Parenting and Child Adjustment in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…

  18. Parent Recognition and Responses to Developmental Concerns in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…

  19. Young Children's ICT Experiences in the Home: Some Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…

  20. Play Behaviors of Parents and Their Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to explore, communicate, and interact with others and the environment through play can be problematic for young children with disabilities, but with parental support, children can learn and interact successfully during play activities. To determine how parents engage their preschool children with disabilities in play and what behaviors…

  1. Parents' Motivational Beliefs about Their Involvement in Young Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to assess Turkish parents' motivational beliefs, including their role activity and self-efficacy beliefs about their involvement in young children's education. The impact of demographic characteristics on these motivational beliefs was also explored. Parents' motivational beliefs about their involvement were measured by using the…

  2. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This book informs parents and families of children and young adults with cancer about the most common types of cancer in the young, treatments and their side effects, and common issues that arise with a cancer diagnosis. Aspects of the disease, including characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors, are described. Treatment issues discussed…

  3. Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

    In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

  4. Evaluating a brief parental-education program for parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, B C; Janz, P C; Fox, R A

    1998-06-01

    The effectiveness of a brief parental-education program for 40 families with very young children was studied. Families were assigned to either a parental-education or waiting-list control group. The parental-education program included information and strategies drawn from developmental and cognitive psychology and social learning theory. Analysis showed that participating parents significantly reduced their use of corporal and verbal punishment, changed their parenting attitudes, and improved their perceptions of their children's behavior in comparison to the control group. Effects were maintained at six weeks follow-up. Results supported tailoring parental-education programs to the unique needs of participants. PMID:9709516

  5. Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a Self-Report Parenting Measure

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in sample of 579 high risk families. The measure assesses the frequency of several parenting behaviors, the perception of the parenting behaviors as problematic, and the degree to which the caregiver would like to make changes in specific parenting skills. An examination of the validity of the parenting behavior items revealed three parenting scales: (1) Supporting Positive Behavior (2) Setting Limits, and (3) Proactive Parenting. Confirmatory factor analysis results corroborate the findings of the exploratory factor analysis, supporting the measurement structure of these parenting scales. Tests of convergent validity indicate the PARYC scale is a suitable measure of parenting behaviors. In addition, the self-perception of parenting behaviors as problematic predicted concurrent levels of service utilization while controlling for simultaneous child behavior problems. PMID:22876108

  6. Parenting the Young Gifted Child: Supportive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Linda G.; Snowden, Peggy L.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 46 parents of precocious children found they practiced authoritative parenting, fostered creativity, showed low levels of frustration, exerted an appropriate amount of flexible control, viewed play as a highly valuable activity, showed confidence in their ability as teachers, and acted as facilitators of the teaching/learning process.…

  7. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  8. To Our Future...and Theirs: A Handbook on Involving Young Parents in the ARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The handbook focuses on ways in which local Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC) groups can meet the needs of young parents with retarded children. The importance of recruiting young parents is stressed, and perceptions of these parents toward the ARC are considered. Local ARC units are advised about ways to find young parents in the community,…

  9. Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible…

  10. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The book presents information for parents of children and young adults with cancer. The first section outlines aspects of the disease itself and considers characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors. Hospitalization and such treatments as chemotherapy and radiation are considered. Common health issues (including diet, dental care, bleeding, and…

  11. Setting Limits: Tips for Parents of Young Children. Project Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynne; And Others

    This pamphlet presents guidelines and tips for parents on setting limits for the behavior of young children. The need for limits and the goal of teaching children self-control are explained. Some general guidelines for limit setting are provided which include making the limits age-appropriate, recognizing the child's need for practice and…

  12. Parental Death in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…

  13. How Well Do Parents Manage Young Driver Crash Risks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses strategies to guide the parents of newly licensed young drivers. Describes some of the effects of the Checkpoints program in Connecticut and Maryland on traffic citations, motor-vehicle crashes, and family management of teenage driving. (Contains 1 figure and 42 references.) (WFA)

  14. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  15. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  16. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  17. Involving Parents in Teaching Social Communication Skills to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…

  18. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among…

  19. Teaching Young Children To Resist Bias: What Parents Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman-Sparks, Louise; Gutierrez, Maria; Phillips, Carol Brunson

    Based on research indicating that children between ages 2 and 5 become aware of gender, race, ethnicity, and disabilities, this brochure attempts to assist parents in dealing with misconceptions, discomfort, fear, and rejection of differences that may develop into prejudice in their young children. The brochure argues that bias adversely…

  20. A UNIMARC Bibliographic Format Database for ABCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megnigbeto, Eustache

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: ABCD is a web-based open and free software suite for library management derived from the UNESCO CDS/ISIS software technology. The first version was launched officially in December 2009 with a MARC 21 bibliographic format database. This paper aims to detail the building of the UNIMARC bibliographic format database for ABCD.…

  1. Reciprocal Influences between Developmental Transitions and Parent-Child Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist on the effects of young adult-parent relationships on developmental status transitions into adulthood. Such transitions in turn predicted less conflicted and closer young adult-parent relationships. But systematic investigations of reciprocal effects between developmental transitions and young adult-parent relationships…

  2. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  3. 76 FR 17970 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Young Parents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... (SGA) for the Young Parents Demonstration AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... applicants in providing intensive mentoring services to low- income young parents (both mothers and...

  4. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls’ behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls’ disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls’ conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls’ aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular. PMID:18777132

  5. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  6. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  7. Parenting Needs as Perceived by Agency Personnel Working with Parents and Young Children in Southern Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YaeBin

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have used different methods to collect information for a needs assessment, including advisory committees, survey questionnaires, focus groups, interviews with key informants, or a combination of the former. This article describes the use of key informant interviews (agency personnel working with parents and young children) that…

  8. Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H; Reid, M Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program interventions among 99 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4-6). Mother reported significant treatment effects for appropriate and harsh discipline, use of physical punishment, and monitoring, whereas fathers reported no significant parenting changes. Independent observations revealed treatment effects for mothers' praise and coaching, mothers' critical statements, and child total deviant behaviors. Both mothers and fathers reported treatment effects for children's externalizing, hyperactivity, inattentive and oppositional behaviors, and emotion regulation and social competence. There were also significant treatment effects for children's emotion vocabulary and problem-solving ability. At school teachers reported treatment effects for externalizing behaviors and peer observations indicated improvements in treated children's social competence. PMID:21391017

  9. ARE BOTH PARENTS ALWAYS BETTER THAN ONE? PARENTAL CONFLICT AND YOUNG ADULT WELL-BEING *

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N=1,963), we examine associations between adolescent family experiences and young adult well-being across a range of indicators, including schooling, substance use, and family-related transitions. We compare children living with both biological parents, but whose parents differ in how often they argue, to children in stepfather and single-mother families, and we assess the extent to which differences can be understood in terms of family income and parenting practices. Findings suggest that parental conflict is associated with children’s poorer academic achievement, increased substance use, and early family formation and dissolution. Living in single mother and stepfather families tend to be more strongly associated with our indicators of well-being, although differences between these family types and living with high conflict continuously married parents are often statistically indistinguishable. Income and parenting largely do not account for associations between adolescent family type and later life outcomes. We conclude that while children do better, on average, living with two biological married parents, the advantages of two-parent families are not shared equally by all. PMID:20824195

  10. "My Son Is Reliable": Young Drivers' Parents' Optimism and Views on the Norms of Parental Involvement in Youth Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    The high crash rates among teenage drivers are of great concern across nations. Parents' involvement is known to help increase their young drivers' driving safety. In particular, parents can place restrictions on their son's/daughter's driving (e.g., restrict night time driving), which can enable the young driver to gain driving experience in…

  11. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics. PMID:24946387

  12. Effects of a preventive parenting intervention for divorced families on the intergenerational transmission of parenting attitudes in young adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Mahrer, Nicole E; Winslow, Emily; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parenting intervention for divorced mothers, led to positive parenting attitudes in young adult offspring. Data were collected from 240 mothers (G1) and offspring (G2) at ages 9-12 and again in adolescence and young adulthood. Alternative theoretical models were tested to examine mediators of NBP effects on G2 parenting attitudes. Significant interactions between condition and baseline G1 parenting indicated that NBP improved G2's parenting attitudes for those exposed to poorer G1 parenting at program entry. Effects on G2 warm attitudes were partially mediated through program effects on G1 warm parenting. The implications of improving parenting attitudes in offspring who experience parental divorce on well-being in the next generation are discussed. PMID:24916511

  13. How parents can help young visually-impaired children to communicate.

    PubMed

    Moore, V; McConachie, H

    1995-03-01

    A study of parents' strategies to communicate with their young visually-impaired children has implications for all health visitors working with young children, write Vanessa Moore and Helen McConachie. The study highlights the important role of naturally-occurring communicative exchanges between parent and young child in promoting language development. PMID:7730078

  14. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272

  15. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  16. "Tuning into Kids": Reducing Young Children's Behavior Problems Using an Emotion Coaching Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…

  17. The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1-Year Outcomes for African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children’s behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  18. The Chicago Parent Program: comparing 1-year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  19. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  20. Parenting interventions for male young offenders: A review of the evidence on what works

    PubMed Central

    Buston, K.; Parkes, A.; Thomson, H.; Wight, D.; Fenton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one in four incarcerated male young offenders in the UK is an actual or expectant father. This paper reviews evidence on the effectiveness of parenting interventions for male young offenders. We conducted systematic searches across 20 databases and consulted experts. Twelve relevant evaluations were identified: 10 from the UK, of programmes for incarcerated young offenders, and two from the US, of programmes for young parolees. None used experimental methods or included a comparison group. They suggest that participants like the courses, find them useful, and the interventions may improve knowledge about, and attitudes to, parenting. Future interventions should incorporate elements of promising parenting interventions with young fathers in the community, for example, and/or with older incarcerated parents. Young offender fathers have specific developmental, rehabilitative, and contextual needs. Future evaluations should collect longer-term behavioural parent and child outcome data and should use comparison groups and, ideally, randomization. PMID:22070988

  1. Parenting interventions for male young offenders: a review of the evidence on what works.

    PubMed

    Buston, K; Parkes, A; Thomson, H; Wight, D; Fenton, C

    2012-06-01

    Approximately one in four incarcerated male young offenders in the UK is an actual or expectant father. This paper reviews evidence on the effectiveness of parenting interventions for male young offenders. We conducted systematic searches across 20 databases and consulted experts. Twelve relevant evaluations were identified: 10 from the UK, of programmes for incarcerated young offenders, and two from the US, of programmes for young parolees. None used experimental methods or included a comparison group. They suggest that participants like the courses, find them useful, and the interventions may improve knowledge about, and attitudes to, parenting. Future interventions should incorporate elements of promising parenting interventions with young fathers in the community, for example, and/or with older incarcerated parents. Young offender fathers have specific developmental, rehabilitative, and contextual needs. Future evaluations should collect longer-term behavioural parent and child outcome data and should use comparison groups and, ideally, randomization. PMID:22070988

  2. Young Athletes Pressured by Parents May Resort to 'Doping'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Athletes Pressured by Parents May Resort to 'Doping' 'Tiger parenting' can have dire consequences, researcher contends To ... news release. "With the rise of so-called 'tiger' parenting -- where strict and demanding parents push their ...

  3. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  4. Deaf Young People with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: The Experience of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Julie; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Sue

    2011-01-01

    A semi-structured interview format was used to explore the experiences and attitudes of twelve parents and twelve teachers of young people, aged 11-18 years, who had received sequential bilateral cochlear implants. The parents stressed the importance of involving the young person in the decision to go ahead with the second implant. Although all…

  5. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  6. Parental Bond and Life Course Transitions from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effects of life course transitions in adolescence and young adulthood (leaving the parental home, living together with a partner, entering parenthood, and becoming financially independent) on the parent-child bond are investigated. Data are presented from a three-wave study of 1,064 adolescents and young adults (aged 12-24 years…

  7. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  8. The Parenting of Young People: Using Newsletters to Provide Information and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Julie; Roker, Debi

    2005-01-01

    The literature shows that many parents of young people do not have enough information, advice, and support in bringing up their children. This article describes an innovative project, undertaken by the Trust for the Study of Adolescence (TSA), which evaluated the use of newsletters as a form of support for the parents of young people. Following…

  9. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…

  10. ABCD matrix for apertured spherical waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Bernabeu, E; Alda, J

    1991-05-01

    An ABCD matrix for describing the hard aperture under a large Fresnel number is defined in this Technical Note based on Li and Wolf's formula. It is useful for analyzing focal shifts of complicated optical systems with hard apertures. PMID:20700324

  11. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems.

    PubMed

    McKinley, W G; Yura, H T; Hanson, S G

    1988-05-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system. PMID:19745889

  12. An Investigation of a Parenting Videotape Targeted to Parents of Young Children with Disabilities. Final Report, Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, David D.

    This feasibility study examined the need and the appropriateness of developing a videotape targeted to parents of young children with disabilities. The study involved a review of the literature, interviews with experts and practitioners, a focus group discussion to elicit the opinions and suggestions of parents of children with disabilities,…

  13. Improving the Parenting Skills of Young Teen Mothers in Grades 9th--12th through Parenting Classes, Training, and Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Moore, Brenda

    This paper discusses a practicum designed to address young teen mothers' lack of knowledge, experience, and skills needed to appropriately care for their infants. It documents that increased knowledge, enhanced interpersonal relationships, and augmented parenting skills made a difference in the teen mothers' approach to parenting. Parenting…

  14. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  15. Parent Stress, Family Functioning and Social Support in Families of Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Lily

    This study compared parent stress, family functioning, and social support in 55 families with a developmentally handicapped child (ages 0-7) and 55 families with a nonhandicapped child. Findings indicated that a young handicapped child did induce greater stress in his parents than did a nonhandicapped child. Parents of handicapped children…

  16. Understanding Parenting Stress among Young, Low-Income, African-American, First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…

  17. Parental Perceptions of Life Context Variables for Involvement in Their Young Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…

  18. Types of Parent Verbal Responsiveness that Predict Language in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Yoder, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined short-term predictive associations between 5 different types of parent verbal responsiveness and later spoken vocabulary for 32 young children with a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Parent verbal utterances were coded from videotapes of naturalistic parent-child play sessions using…

  19. Family Emotions: Do Young Adolescents and Their Parents Experience the Same States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.; Richards, Maryse H.

    1994-01-01

    A sample of 55 young adolescents and their parents were surveyed to determine the relationship between adolescent and parent emotions. Analyses showed modest associations between adolescents and parents both in their global emotional patterns and their immediate emotions. Age and gender effects were also found. (MDM)

  20. The Role of Parents in Young People's Education--A Critical Review of the Causal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a considerable body of research suggesting that parental involvement is linked to young people's attainment at school. It is also generally agreed that a number of factors such as parental background, attention, warmth and parenting style are associated with children's later life outcomes. However, although widely assumed on the…

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting on the Academic Functioning of Young Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Vrieze, Danielle; Leibel, Cari; Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Effects of parenting quality on the academic functioning of young homeless children were examined using data from 58 children ages 4 to 7 and their parents during their stay at an emergency homeless shelter. Parenting quality, child executive function, child intellectual functioning, and risk status were assessed in the shelter,…

  2. Predictors of Parental Stress in Mothers of Young Children with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipp-Siegel, Sandra; Sedey, Allison L.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2002-01-01

    A study using three domains of the short form of the Parental Stress Index examined parental stress in 184 hearing mothers of young children with hearing impairments. Mothers demonstrated significantly less parental distress than a normative, hearing group. Predictors of stress included frequency of hassles, social support, annual family income,…

  3. Developing Scales to Measure Parental Mediation of Young Children's Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikken, Peter; Jansz, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    With children using digital media at ever younger ages, media-education becomes a pressing issue for parents. As there is hardly any research on how parents guide the online activities of toddlers and young children an internet-survey was held among 792 Dutch parents of children aged between 2 and 12 years. Factor analysis revealed that for the…

  4. Parental Values and Practices Relevant to Young Children's Social Development in Taiwan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Huntsinger, Phillip R.; Liaw, Fong-Ruey

    2000-01-01

    Compared self-reported parental values and child-rearing practices and teacher-reported and observed children's social skills among families of young children who were first-generation Chinese Americans, European Americans, or Taiwanese Chinese. All Chinese parents more strongly endorsed traditional Chinese values and exerted more parental control…

  5. "Because It's Worth It?": Education Beliefs among Young People and Their Parents in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gill; O'sullivan, Ann; Rouse, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The expansion of post?16 education in the United Kingdom makes young people more dependent, and for longer, on their parents. Generational change has been so great that parents with no history of postschool education are now expected to support children while they study. Some parents adhere to a working-class belief in self-sufficiency through…

  6. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained stable.…

  7. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  8. Autoridade Brasileira de Controle de Dopagem (ABCD).

    PubMed

    Santos, Azenildo M; Bahrke, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    The creation of the ABCD and the inclusion for the first time of a provision of financial resources in the Government's General Budget Forecast, demonstrates the degree of Brazil's commitment in the fight against doping. This as we seek to know and evaluate these models of excellence to help to structure and develop our own doping control operations, always taking into account the Brazilian reality. PMID:25099312

  9. Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children. PMID:25874123

  10. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    PubMed

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:26649858

  11. The contribution of perceived parental and familial characteristics to attitudes toward accompanied driving among young drivers.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2011-09-01

    One of the main requirements of the graduated driving licensing system in Israel is that new drivers be accompanied by an experienced driver (usually one of their parents) for the first three months after receipt of their license. The current series of studies examined the associations between young drivers' attitudes toward accompanied driving (ATAD) and their perception of their parents' driving styles and parenting modes, as well as dynamic of their family. Young drivers completed questionnaires assessing their ATAD, and either perceived parental driving style (Study 1, n=100), perceived parenting style (Study 2, n=120), or perceived family dynamic (Study 3, n=254). The results indicated significant associations between the young drivers' ATAD of tension, relatedness, avoidance, disapproval, and anxiety, and their own perceptions of the characteristic driving styles of their parents (risky, anxious, angry, and careful). They also indicated significant relationship between youngsters' ATAD and their perceptions of their parents' parenting modes (responsive, demanding, and autonomy-granting). Finally, the results indicated significant negative associations between ATAD of tension, avoidance, disapproval, and anxiety, and family cohesion and adaptability, and a positive association between these two and relatedness. The results are discussed in respect to the relationship between the parental model and the young drivers' ATAD in particular, and risk management in general, and practical implications of these results are offered. PMID:21658499

  12. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  13. Using Behavioral Parent Training to Treat Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Young Children: A How-to Approach Using Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…

  14. Genetic and Functional Analyses of the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans AfeABCD Siderophore-Independent Iron Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Eric R.; Tomaras, Andrew P.; McGillivary, Glen; Connerly, Pamela L.; Actis, Luis A.

    2005-01-01

    The Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans afeABCD iron transport system, the expression of which is controlled by iron and Fur, was identified in three different isolates. The protein products of this locus are related to bacterial ABC transporters involved in metal transport. Transformation of the Escherichia coli 1017 iron acquisition mutant with a plasmid harboring afeABCD promoted cell growth under iron-chelated conditions. However, insertion disruption of each of the afeABCD coding regions abolished this growth-relieving effect. The replacement of the parental afeA allele with the derivative afeA::EZ::TN drastically reduced the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans cells to grow under iron-chelated conditions. PMID:15908408

  15. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  16. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Young Adults' Self-Concepts and Evaluations of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 123 college students to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of parents' parenting styles. Student self-concept varied directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as function of parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were rated more highly if they were perceived as warm…

  17. Parents Promoting School Success for Young Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyfer, Victoria

    This paper is designed to help parents in laying a solid foundation of learning experiences for their child with learning disabilities. It introduces three strategies, a rationale, and examples for each strategy that may help parents promote future school success for their child with learning disabilities. The first strategy urges parents to…

  18. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  19. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting. PMID:25982928

  20. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent–child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children’s oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale–4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children’s oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL. PMID:25309136

  1. Parental Perspectives on Curriculum Priorities for their Young Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan; Girl, Tan Ai; Quah, Marilyn M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study examined Singaporean parents' views on the value of various curriculum skill areas for their young children with disabilities. Findings indicated that parents gave the highest priority for self-help functional life skills, followed by social relation skills, community-based functional life skills, and functional academic skills.…

  2. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  3. Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Meyer, Lori E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Chung, Moon Y.; Halle, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a…

  4. So This is Normal Too? Teachers and Parents Working Out Developmental Issues in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Deborah

    Intended to facilitate communication between parents and child care providers through creative problem solving, this guide explains young children's normal developmental behaviors that frequently cause concern, and identifies factors parents and caregivers can control in the environment that may have an immediate positive response from a child.…

  5. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  6. The Development of Competence in Young Children: A Function of Parenting Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jean B., II

    This position paper surveys recent study results on the variable effects of both socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on the development of competence in young children. Research results imply that certain ways that parents interact with their children are more effective than others in aiding the development of a child's social,…

  7. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  8. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  9. Geographical Distance from Parents and Adjustment during Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Petersen, Anne C.

    1996-01-01

    Examined concurrent and longitudinal factors associated with geographical distance between parents and their young adult offspring. Adolescents were interviewed and completed questionnaires several times between sixth grade and age 21. Results indicated correlations between healthy parent-child relationships and geographical distance, personal…

  10. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  11. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  12. Adolescent Abortion and Mandated Parental Involvement: The Impact of Back Alley Laws on Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Susan; And Others

    This document notes that many states have passed, or are considering, laws that would mandate parental consent for, or notification of, a young woman's decision to obtain an abortion. Constructed in a question-and-answer format, the document then examines a number of issues concerned with such mandated parental involvement. It examines who is…

  13. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  14. Parent Guidance of Young Children's Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in a Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Massey, Katelyn; Kendall, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased attention to math and science education in the United States, relatively few studies have explored parent guidance of young children's mathematical and scientific reasoning in everyday activities. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of providing explicit guidance instructions on parent guidance and young…

  15. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  16. Stressful and Satisfying Links between Young-Adult Daughters, Their Parents and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Janine A.

    The interpersonal linkages between adult children, their parents, and society are complex. In order to measure the levels of stress and satisfaction present in the relationship of young-adult daughters and their mothers, the Parent-Adult Child Relationships Inventory was administered to 163 mother-daughter pairs. The daughters were 18 to 25 years…

  17. Community-Based Book Reading Programs for Parents and Young Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Community-based volunteer programs to support children's book reading have existed in Japan for the past 70 years or so. Recently, because of the national emphasis on providing child-rearing support for families with young children, more programs are being offered to encourage parent-child shared book reading starting when children are very young.…

  18. Singaporean Parents' Views of Their Young Children's Access and Use of Technological Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Chan, Yvonne; Goh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Debates continue about the access young children have to technological devices, given the increasingly accessible and available technology in most developed countries. Concerns have been expressed by parents/caregivers and researchers, and questions have been raised about possible risks and benefits of these devices on young children who, in some…

  19. Parenting Interventions for Male Young Offenders: A Review of the Evidence on What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, K.; Parkes, A.; Thomson, H.; Wight, D.; Fenton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one in four incarcerated male young offenders in the UK is an actual or expectant father. This paper reviews evidence on the effectiveness of parenting interventions for male young offenders. We conducted systematic searches across 20 databases and consulted experts. Twelve relevant evaluations were identified: 10 from the UK, of…

  20. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  1. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  2. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents’ and young adults’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Background When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14–25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14–18-year-olds and one for 19–25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted. Results The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life. PMID:22114471

  3. Managing To Parent: Social Support, Social Capital, and Parenting Practices among Welfare-Participating Mothers with Young Children. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella

    This study investigated relationships among mothers' social support, individual attributes, social capital, and parenting practices for welfare-participating mothers with young children. Using data from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies, latent profile analysis revealed three classes of mothers, reflecting high, moderate, and…

  4. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27242603

  5. Development of mutual responsiveness between parents and their young children.

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive study of mutual responsiveness examined 102 mothers and 102 fathers interacting with their children at 7 and 15 months. Responsiveness was studied from developmental and individual differences perspectives, and assessed using macroscopic ratings and microscopic event coding. The latter captured parents' reactions to children's negative, positive, and physical bids, and children's reactions to parents' social-interactive bids, mood regulation attempts, and influence attempts. Responsiveness depended on bid type and child age, and reflected developmental changes in children, parents, and relationships. Mothers were more responsive than fathers; children were equally responsive to both parents and coherent in their responsiveness. Ratings revealed dyadic mutuality and longitudinal continuity of responsiveness. Parent-child responsiveness from 7 to 15 months was consistent with assumptions of a parent-driven process. PMID:15566371

  6. The relationship between parenting styles and young adults' self-concepts and evaluations of parents.

    PubMed

    Parish, T S; McCluskey, J J

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, 123 college students were surveyed in order to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of their parents' parenting styles. Notably, the students' self-concepts were found to vary directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as a function of their parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were found to be rated more highly if they were perceived as being warm and permissive rather than hostile and restrictive. Finally, opposite-sex parents' level of warmth also correlated with how each parent was evaluated. Some explanations for these findings are offered. PMID:1471569

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF HOMELESSNESS FOR PARENTING YOUNG CHILDREN: A PRELIMINARY REVIEW FROM A DEVELOPMENTAL ATTACHMENT PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    David, Daryn H; Gelberg, Lillian; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been well-documented that parents and children who experience homelessness often have compromised health and well-being, few studies have examined the potential implications of homelessness on the process of parenting young children. In this review, we consider how parents of young children might function under the circumstances of homelessness. We begin with a brief overview of the psychological, social, and medical characteristics of homeless mothers and their young children. Using a developmental attachment perspective, we next briefly review the central tasks of parenting during the first 5 years of life, including emotion regulation and fostering of child autonomy, with an eye toward how homelessness may compromise a mother's ability to complete these tasks. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research that incorporate a developmental attachment perspective and other relevant viewpoints. Because of the paucity of research in this area, our review seeks to provide a heuristic framework for future research, intervention development, and policy. PMID:22685362

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF HOMELESSNESS FOR PARENTING YOUNG CHILDREN: A PRELIMINARY REVIEW FROM A DEVELOPMENTAL ATTACHMENT PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    DAVID, DARYN H.; GELBERG, LILLIAN; SUCHMAN, NANCY E.

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been well-documented that parents and children who experience homelessness often have compromised health and well-being, few studies have examined the potential implications of homelessness on the process of parenting young children. In this review, we consider how parents of young children might function under the circumstances of homelessness. We begin with a brief overview of the psychological, social, and medical characteristics of homeless mothers and their young children. Using a developmental attachment perspective, we next briefly review the central tasks of parenting during the first 5 years of life, including emotion regulation and fostering of child autonomy, with an eye toward how homelessness may compromise a mother's ability to complete these tasks. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research that incorporate a developmental attachment perspective and other relevant viewpoints. Because of the paucity of research in this area, our review seeks to provide a heuristic framework for future research, intervention development, and policy. PMID:22685362

  9. Young adults' childhood experiences of support when living with a parent with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lisa; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt

    2015-12-01

    There are several concerns in relation to children living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. In such circumstances, the health-care professionals need to involve the whole family, offering help to the parents on parenting as well as support for their children. These children are often helped by participating in meetings that provide them with contact with others with similar experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate young adults' childhood experiences of support groups when living with a mentally ill parent. Seven young women were chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative descriptive method was chosen. The main category emerged as 'the influence of life outside the home because of a parent's mental illness' from the two generic categories: 'a different world' and 'an emotion-filled life'. The participants' friends did not know that their parent was ill and they 'always had to…take responsibility for what happened at home'. These young adults appreciated the support group activities they participated in during their childhood, stating that the meetings had influenced their everyday life as young adults. Despite this, they associated their everyday life with feelings of being different. This study highlights the need for support groups for children whose parents suffer from mental illness. PMID:24486816

  10. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs. PMID:25126969

  11. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PARENT-INFANT PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PARENTS WITH MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND YOUNG INFANTS.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (<12 months). Dyads were clinically referred and randomly allocated to PIP or a control condition of standard secondary and specialist primary care treatment (n = 38 in each group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome was infant development. Secondary outcomes included parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship. PMID:26939716

  12. Parents' and young people's involvement in designing a trial of ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Preston, Jenny; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-05-01

    Consulting with users is considered best practice and is highly recommended in designing new trials. As part of our feasibility work, we undertook a consultation exercise with parents, ex-patients and young people prior to designing a trial of protocol-based ventilator weaning. Our aims were to (1) ascertain views on the relevance and importance of the trial; (2) determine the important parent/patient outcome measures; and (3) ascertain views on informed consent in a cluster randomized controlled trial. We conducted audio-recorded face-to-face, telephone and focus group interviews with parents and young people. Data were content analysed to generate information to address our specific consultation objectives. The setting was the north-western region of England. A total of 16 participants were interviewed: 2 parents of paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) survivors; 1 PICU survivor; and 13 young people from the former Medicines for Children Research Network. The trial objectives were deemed important and relevant, and participants considered the most important outcome measure to be the length of time on ventilation. Parents and young people did not consider written informed consent to be a necessary requirement in the context of this trial, rather awareness of unit participation in the trial was important with the opportunity of opting out of data collection. This consultation provided useful, pragmatic insights to inform trial design. We encountered significant challenges in recruiting parents and young people for this consultation exercise, and novel recruitment methods need to be considered for future work in this field. Patient and public involvement is essential to ensure that future trials answer parent-relevant questions and have meaningful outcome measures, as well as involving parents and young people in the general development of health care services. PMID:26486094

  13. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on parents and family. Design and participants We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semistructured narrative interviews with parents of young people who had self-harmed. Results After the discovery of self-harm, parents described initial feelings of shock, anger and disbelief. Later reactions included stress, anxiety, feelings of guilt and in some cases the onset or worsening of clinical depression. Social isolation was reported, as parents withdrew from social contact due to the perceived stigma associated with self-harm. Parents also described significant impacts on siblings, ranging from upset and stress to feelings of responsibility and worries about stigma at school. Siblings had mixed responses, but were often supportive. Practically speaking, parents found the necessity of being available to their child often conflicted with the demands of full-time work. This, along with costs of, for example, travel and private care, affected family finances. However, parents generally viewed the future as positive and hoped that with help, their child would develop better coping mechanisms. Conclusions Self-harm by young people has major impacts on parents and other family members. Clinicians and staff who work with young people who self-harm should be sensitive to these issues and offer appropriate support and guidance for families. PMID:26739734

  14. Fathering after military deployment: parenting challenges and goals of fathers of young children.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-02-01

    Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children. PMID:24693602

  15. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  16. How Parents Discipline Young Children: Cultural Comparisons and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerus, Kerstin; Scarr, Sandra

    A study examined how Swedish parents discipline their 1- to 6-year-old children. Data were collected from 200 families, using two instruments which were both employed in previous studies: the EAS Temperament Survey and the Manageability Index. Other methods used included interviewing mothers about family demographics and a "parental modernity…

  17. A Sexual Learning Curriculum for Parents of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathryn F.; And Others

    The aims of this sexual learning curriculum are to increase parents' emotional and intellectual understanding of human sexuality and to improve their ability to talk about sexuality with their children. Specifically, the curriculum attempts to increase parents' awareness that (1) sexuality includes lifestyle choices, body image, gender role,…

  18. Serving Young Children Whose Parents Are Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Eleanor W.; Bakley, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the cognitive and social/emotional characteristics associated with mental retardation, the literature on parents with mental retardation, and the interaction between these characteristics in relation to child abuse and neglect. Three case studies of mentally retarded parents illustrate the range of problems and needs service…

  19. Immigrants Raising Citizens: Undocumented Parents and Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    There are now nearly four million children born in the United States who have undocumented immigrant parents. In the current debates around immigration reform, policymakers often view immigrants as an economic or labor market problem to be solved, but the issue has a very real human dimension. Immigrant parents without legal status are raising…

  20. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  1. Teaching Parents of Young Children: A Curriculum in 12 Sessions [and] Parent Power Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Laura L.

    Based on the assumption that parents are increasingly aware of the high level of knowledge and skills needed to rear well-adjusted children, this parenting curriculum uses a developmental approach to help parents understand and relate appropriately to child behavior at different ages and at each stage. Part 1, "Before You Start," and the "Leader's…

  2. Parents' Talk About Letters With Their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca; Schmidt, John; Decker, Kristina; Robins, Sarah; Levine, Susan C; Demir, Özlem E

    2015-01-01

    A literacy-related activity that occurs in children's homes-talk about letters in everyday conversations-was examined using data from 50 children who were visited every 4 months between 14 and 50 months. Parents talked about some letters, including those that are common in English words and the first letter of their children's names, especially often. Parents' focus on the child's initial was especially strong in families of higher socioeconomic status, and the extent to which parents talked about the child's initial during the later sessions of the study was related to the children's kindergarten reading skill. Conversations that included the child's initial were longer than those that did not, and parents presented a variety of information about this letter. PMID:26014495

  3. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent–child experiences while engaged with an iPadTM were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent–child dyads participated in an observation session where parent–child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21–75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child’s positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents’ perceptions of their child’s technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27242603

  4. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. PMID:26371450

  5. The impact of parent-delivered intervention on parents of very young children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n=49) with community intervention (n=49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no increase in parenting stress, whereas the Community group experienced an increase over the same 3-month period. Parental sense of competence did not differ. Number of negative life events was a significant predictor of parenting stress and sense of competence across both groups. This suggests that a parent-coaching intervention may help maintain parental adjustment directly after a child is diagnosed with ASD. PMID:23838727

  6. Associations Between Parental Attachment and Course of Depression Between Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Agerup, Tea; Lydersen, Stian; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2015-08-01

    A study of the associations of maternal, paternal and peer attachment with the course of depression from adolescence to young adulthood. In the Youth and Mental Health study 242 adolescents completed the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version for depressive disorders at age 15 and 20. Attachment was measured with the inventory for parent and peer attachment, separately for mother, father, and peers, at age 15. Multinomial logistic regression, indicated insecure attachment relationships with both parents, but not with peers, and were associated with the course of depression. Less secure attachment to mothers was associated with becoming depressed. Less secure attachment to both parents was associated with becoming well and remaining depressed. These results suggest attachment relationships with parents as potential influences on the course of depression and may provide important framework for clinical work with adolescents and young adults. PMID:25319511

  7. Parental support during young adulthood: Why does assistance decline with age?

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira; Fingerman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that financial transfers from parents to young adult children decline as children age and that age is one of the strongest predictors of support. Using data collected from young adults (ages 18 to 34) and their parents (ages 40 to 60; N=536 parent-child dyads), we explore the possibility that the relationship between age and financial support is mediated by offspring needs, acquisition of adult roles, or geographical and emotional closeness. We find that age-related declines in offspring’s needs help to explain why financial support falls with age. However, offspring age remains a robust predictor of financial support after controlling for a wide range of factors, suggesting that age norms condition support from parents to offspring. PMID:23976811

  8. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed. PMID:9760740

  9. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. PMID:20159080

  10. Parental holding and positioning to decrease IV distress in young children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Laurie A; Setlik, Jennifer; Luhman, Janet

    2007-12-01

    Young children are generally restrained in supine position for IV starts, a position that creates fear but is presumed necessary. This study randomly assigned children of ages 9 months to 4 years (N = 118) to being held upright by a parent or lying flat on an exam table for their IV procedure. Distress scores as rated by the Procedure Behavior Rating Scale were significantly lower in the upright positioning group (p = .000); parents were more satisfied with the upright position, and the upright position did not significantly alter the number of IV attempts needed. The upright position appears to be an effective way to decrease IV distress in young children. PMID:18036464

  11. The silent treatment: parents' narratives of sexuality education with young people.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Abbey; Carney, Marie; Drennan, Jonathan; Butler, Michelle; Lohan, Maria; Howlett, Etaoine

    2010-05-01

    This paper is based on research undertaken in Ireland that sought to understand how parents communicate with their children about sexuality. Forty-three parents were interviewed and data were analysed using analytical induction. Data indicated that while parents tended to pride themselves on the culture of openness to sexuality that prevailed in their home, they often described situations where very little dialogue on the subject actually transpired. However, unlike previous research on the topic that identified parent-related factors (such as ignorance or embarrassment) as the main impediments to parent-young person communication about sex, participants in our study identified the central obstacle to be a reticence on the part of the young person to engage in such dialogue. Participants described various blocking techniques apparently used by the young people, including claims to have full prior knowledge on the issue, physically absenting themselves from the situation, becoming irritated or annoyed, or ridiculing parents' educational efforts. In our analysis, we consider our findings in light of the shifting power of children historically and the new cultural aspiration of maintaining harmonious and democratic relations with one's offspring. PMID:20162477

  12. Young Adults' Recollections of Parental and Nonparental Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam; Bowden, Jessica M.; Ferrell, Melanie A.; Pavlik, Stacy F.; Robinson, Morgan N.; Schwind, Jennifer L.; Volpe, Erica K.; Williams, Laurie M.; Young, Jessica N.

    2010-01-01

    From a sample of 419 college students, 750 written recollections were obtained regarding their parental and nonparental childcare experiences. Vignettes were sorted and coded according to five emerging themes: emotional valence, play, TV, educational activities and holidays/birthdays. Several significant differences were found in remembered…

  13. A Bicycle Safety Education Program for Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…

  14. Parent-Child Aesthetic Shared Reading with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…

  15. Development of Mutual Responsiveness Between Parents and Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive study of mutual responsiveness examined 102 mothers and 102 fathers interacting with their children at 7 and 15 months. Responsiveness was studied from developmental and individual differences perspectives, and assessed using macroscopic ratings and microscopic event coding. The latter captured parents' reactions to children's…

  16. Interactions of Teen Parents and Trained Caregivers with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Helen L.

    To extend research on adult/child interactions, attitudes and behaviors of teenage parents and trained "educarers" were compared, and the relationship between adults' and children's interactive styles was investigated. Two groups of questions were addressed: (1) Are there significant statistical differences as well as qualitative descriptive…

  17. Parenting Young Children with and without Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used…

  18. Psychophysiological correlates of parenting behavior in mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi; Gariepy, Jean-Louis; Barnett, Melissa; Moore, Ginger A; Calkins, Susan; Cox, Martha J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated HPA and vagal functioning as correlates of parenting in mothers of 175 six-month-old children. Salivary cortisol indexed HPA functioning and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reduction indexed vagal regulation. Positive engagement and negative intrusiveness were observed during the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm (FFSFP) reunion and a semi-structured free play episode. Mixed modeling was used to examine differences in maternal behaviors across contexts as a function of psychophysiology. Main effects of cortisol levels, as well as interactions with RSA reduction and context, predicted negative intrusiveness. Mothers with high cortisol exhibited more negative intrusiveness if they also had lower RSA reduction. Mothers were also less negatively intrusive during the FFSFP than the free play if they had lower cortisol levels. There were no associations between psychophysiological measures and positive engagement. The findings suggest: (1) that parenting behaviors are associated with maternal stress physiology; (2) considerations of single physiological systems related to parenting behaviors may be incomplete; and (3) type and context of behaviors must be considered when examining biobehavioral associations with parenting. PMID:19739135

  19. Resilience in Parents of Young Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Heidi; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the adaptation of parents with children with visual impairment in South Africa. The results showed that familial values (such as attitude toward the disability, religious faith, and familial closeness) permit a process of inclusion (through the use of resources and acceptance of help) and the development of a…

  20. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  1. Television for Very Young Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…

  2. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  3. Family Literacy: Support for Young Readers and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jinx Stapleton

    2004-01-01

    Most literacy experts agree that "literacy is regarded as a social practice, rather than as merely a set of decontextualized or abstract skills such as decoding symbols to sounds or finding the main idea of a passage" (Handel 1999; Barton, Hamilton, and Ivanic 2000). For example, very young children may learn to appreciate that being read to…

  4. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  5. Parent Guide to Computers and Software for the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Jennifer; Timms, Judy

    This booklet provides basic information about computers, assistive devices for computers, and computer software for young children with disabilities. Guidelines for assessing the child's readiness for computers are provided, as are tips on planning computer-related goals and incorporating computer use into the Individual Family Service Plan and…

  6. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  7. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  8. Influences on the Congruence between Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of Young Children's Social Skills and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Sawyer, Brook E.; Logan, Jessica; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Cancio, Edward; Justice, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive research base exists concerning the congruence between parents' and teachers' ratings of the behavior of typically developing young children. However, little research has been conducted regarding the degree to which parents' and teachers' behavioral ratings of young children with disabilities are congruent. Additionally, previous…

  9. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meechamnan, Chutima; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chotibang, Jutamas; McGrath, Barbara Burns

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' and young adolescents' perceptions of communication related to sex and HIV/AIDS. Focus group discussions and group discussion were conducted among 67 adolescents and 30 parents. For the adolescents, group discussion using participatory activities was conducted, followed by five focus group discussions. Group discussions using participatory activities were conducted among parents. Thematic analysis indicated that the adolescents received inadequate information about sex and AIDS from their parents, whom they feared as providing negative judgment, and this represented a key barrier to such discussions. Their parents, on the other hand, reported that they believed their children were still too young to learn about and engage in sexual activities. The parents perceived barriers to communication included a lack of confidence and feelings of embarrassment. Nevertheless, they also recognized their important role in their child's sexual education. Collectively, these results draw attention to the need for a culturally appropriate program to strengthen parent-child communication skills for the topics of sex and HIV/AIDS. PMID:23692292

  10. [ABCDE--a systematic approach to critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Thim, Troels; Krarup, Niels Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Løfgren, Bo

    2010-11-22

    This systematic approach to the immediate assessment and treatment of the critically ill or injured patient is applicable in all clinical emergencies. The aim of the ABCDE approach is to facilitate immediate life-saving treatment and thus buy time for definite diagnosis and treatment by breaking down complex clinical situations into manageable parts. Application of the ABCDE approach may improve treatment quality. PMID:21092723

  11. Supporting Parents to Reduce the Misuse of Alcohol by Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Bernadette; Snow, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The majority of parents report that they believe they have an important role in shaping adolescents' values and behaviours in relation to drinking, but they also report that they need more support in this area. Education, welfare, health, youth and other professionals have an important role in providing services to young people and/or their…

  12. Parents' Perceptions of Postschool Years for Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Margarita; Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Tobin, Romie; Lehmann, Jean P.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated parents' perceptions of the various roles they played in their adult children's lives during the post-high school years. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with 9 families of young adults with developmental disabilities. Findings indicated that families perceived the complexity of their roles as…

  13. Toys for Early Development of the Young Blind Child: A Guide for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield.

    A booklet is presented for parents of blind children. This booklet lists various toys that are useful for the child in his development and cognitive growth. Three kits of toys are presented. Each of these kits was developed for children of approximate age groups. Kit #1 is for the very young blind infants and contains toys that usually interest…

  14. Parental Coping Strategies and Strengths in Families of Young Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon Lesar

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental perceptions of coping strategies and family strengths in families of young children with disabilities (N=69). Use of social supports was highly associated with family strengths; in contrast, wishful thinking, self-blame, distancing, and self-control were negatively related to family…

  15. Children's and Young Adult Literature by Latino Writers: A Guide for Librarians, Teachers, Parents, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    This guide is designed to help librarians, teachers, parents, and students learn and teach about Latinos and find appropriate reading materials by Latinos. The titles in the guide are in print and available for purchase as of the printing of this book. Most books in the guide were written for children or young adults--interest-level designations…

  16. Parent-Implemented Interventions for Young Children with Disabilities: A Review of Fidelity Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Fettig, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze fidelity features in parent-implemented interventions for young children with disabilities. The authors conducted a review of 24 studies published in nine peer-reviewed journals. Each identified article was scored on the following categories: the participant characteristics, settings, study design,…

  17. Building Positive Relationships with Parents of Young Children: A Guide to Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anita; Read, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Positive relationships between practitioners and parents are essential for young children's wellbeing, but achieving this can be difficult if there is not enough understanding about how relationships work when one person (the practitioner or teacher) has to play the professional role. Strong communication skills are fundamental to this…

  18. Helping Parents of Young Children with Disabilities Become Consumers of Early Intervention: A Marketing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, Douglas L.; Fugate, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests the use of marketing techniques to disseminate information products to parents of young children with disabilities. A marketing plan might include the following steps: determination of market needs, market segmentation and target marketing, marketing goals and objectives, marketing strategy, marketing mix tactics, and control…

  19. Identifying Determinants of Young Children's Brand Awareness: Television, Parents, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we asked children to mention the brand name (brand…

  20. Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

  1. Guiding Young Children's Behavior: Helpful Ideas for Parents & Teachers from 28 Early Childhood Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Betty, Ed.

    This collection of articles is compiled to offer parents and teachers guidelines to help navigate between a child's intentions and his or her behavior. The book consists of 43 brief chapters divided into 9 sections. Articles in section one, "Guiding Young Children's Behavior," address issues of discipline, setting limits, effective rules, and…

  2. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  3. Sustaining Parent-Young Child Relationships during and after Separation and Divorce. Or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Kyle; Pruett, Marsha Kline

    2012-01-01

    That separation and divorce frequently burden the young child emotionally and developmentally has moved from scientific to common knowledge over the past two decades. Recent cultural changes also moderate or intensify such stress and strain on the parent-child relationship: a divorce rate hovering at about 40% of all marriages, a third of all…

  4. A Pilot Study of Parent Training in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…

  5. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  6. Young Children at Home and in School: 212 Educational Activities for Their Parents, Teachers, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.

    This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…

  7. 76 FR 14099 - Proposed Collection of Information for an Evaluation of the Young Parents Demonstration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    .... The YPDP is sponsored by ETA to test innovative strategies that can improve the skills and education... to test innovative strategies that can improve the skills and education of young parents and... provided that are specifically intended to increase an individual's education, job training and...

  8. Brief Report: Driving and Young Adults with ASD--Parents' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E.; Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding driving skills and individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study sought to gain a better understanding of driving and ASD by surveying parents/caregivers of adolescents/young adults with ASD who were currently attempting, or had previously attempted, to learn to drive. Respondents…

  9. "Where Do Babies Come from?" Barriers to Early Sexuality Communication between Parents and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie

    2013-01-01

    "Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…

  10. The emotional well-being of young people having a parent with younger onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Karen; Roberts, Chris; Kurrle, Susan; Daly, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Younger onset dementia (YOD) not only affects the person with the diagnosis but the whole family, which often includes young people. A limited body of research on this group of young people indicates that they experience varying degrees of emotional trauma. We explored the lived experiences of young people having a parent with YOD from the perspective of the social model of disability. Data were available from semi-structured interviews with 12 young people who had a parent with YOD looking at their lived experiences between 8 and 24 years. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: the emotional toll of caring, keeping the family together, grief and loss and psychological distress The social model of disability theory provides a helpful framework for these families who experience significant emotional distress, demonstrating that the disability is often socially constructed by a society, which marginalizes and excludes them. A 'whole family' approach is proposed, where the needs of young people and their parents are respected and responded to age appropriately. PMID:24784939

  11. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. PMID:25962561

  12. Young Children's Engagement and Learning Opportunities in a Cooking Activity with Parents and Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Lauren; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Parents teach their children through informal social interactions in a process known as guided participation (Rogoff, 1990). Although most research focuses on parent-child dyads, young children also learn from older siblings and parents through shared participation in daily activities. Utilizing a structured observational design, the authors…

  13. The Sequential Relationship between Parent Attentional Cues and Sustained Attention to Objects in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Nicolette Bainbridge; Yoder, Paul J.; Jarzynka, Melanie A.; Tapp, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the sequential relationship between parent attentional cues and sustained attention to objects in young children with autism during a 20 min free-play interaction session. Twenty-five parent-child dyads with a preschool child with autism participated. Results indicated that (a) parent attentional cues that maintained the…

  14. “Life Still Isn't Fair”: Parental Differential Treatment of Young Adult Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Alexander C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Birditt, Kira S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental differential treatment has been linked to individual well-being and sibling relationship quality in childhood, adolescence, and middle adulthood, but has not been examined in young adulthood. Data were collected from 151 pairs of young adult siblings (N = 302, Mean age = 23.90, SD = 5.02). Two siblings in each family reported on treatment from mothers and fathers, depressive symptoms, and sibling relationship quality. Using multi-level modeling, analyses examined the role of favoritism and the magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers. Offspring who reported receiving less support relative to their sibling (i.e., less favored) reported more depressive symptoms. Greater amounts of differential treatment were associated with less sibling intimacy. Several associations, however, varied by parent gender, sibling gender composition, and the magnitude of differential treatment. Results suggest that favoritism and magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers are salient in young adulthood. PMID:24833808

  15. The Impact of Parent-Delivered Intervention on Parents of Very Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n = 49) with community intervention (n = 49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no…

  16. Leaving A Legacy: Parental Migration and School Outcomes Among Young Children in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Asis, Maruja M.B.; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the link between parental migration and young children’s education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children’s school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers –children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962

  17. Food choices of young African-American and Latino adolescents: where do parents fit in?

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie

    2006-11-01

    To gain insight into parents' perceptions of the food preferences of their young adolescents, and their negotiating and decision-making strategies around food purchasing and meals, four focus groups were held with 32 African-American parents and three focus groups with 14 Spanish-dominant, first-generation immigrant Latina mothers. Most participants were of low socioeconomic status and were single parents. Many African-American parents emphasized children's growing appetites and preferences for fast food. Many reported making weekday dinner decisions jointly with the child or allowing the child to eat a lunch-like alternative, and allowing serve-yourself meals on weekends. A few prepared traditional ethnic foods. Latina parents reported that their children liked ethnic foods and fast/junk foods. They emphasized buying foods their children wanted, making no eating restrictions, and preparing traditional ethnic dinners without alternatives. African-American and Latina parents displayed concern over whether to place restrictions on young adolescents' eating. Further research is needed on the ways in which socioeconomic inequalities compound barriers to healthful eating, with particular attention to low income and immigrant populations. PMID:17081835

  18. Leaving A Legacy: Parental Migration and School Outcomes Among Young Children in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Asis, Maruja M B; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    This article examines the link between parental migration and young children's education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children's school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers -children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962

  19. Glycemic Control in Young Children with Diabetes: The Role of Parental Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Pulgarón, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Lee M.; Patiño-Fernandez, Anna Maria; Wile, Diana; Sanchez, Janine; Rothman, Russell L.; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective This cross sectional study examined the relationship between parental health literacy (HL), diabetes related numeracy, and parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy on glycemic control in a sample of young children with Type 1 DM. Methods Seventy primary caregivers of children (age 3–9 years) with Type 1 DM were recruited and surveyed at diabetes outpatient clinic visits. Patients’ medical histories were obtained by medical chart review. Results Parental diabetes related numeracy (r = −.52, p <.01), but not reading skills (r = −.25, p = NS) were inversely correlated with the child’s glycemic control (HbA1c). Parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy was also negatively correlated to their child’s HbA1c (r = −.47, p <.01). When numeracy and parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy were included as predictors of HbA1c, the model was significant (F = 12.93, p<.01) with both numeracy (β = − .46, p<.01) and parental perceived diabetes self-efficacy (β = − .36, p=.01) as significant predictors of HbA1c. Conclusions Data from this study highlight the importance of considering the role of parental numeracy, in health outcomes for children with Type 1 DM. Practice Implications: Practitioners should assess parental health literacy and consider intervention when needed. PMID:24091252

  20. Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children. PMID:25111019

  1. The contribution of parents' driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen

    2014-11-01

    One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers. PMID:25093539

  2. Parenting young children with and without Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used a consistent, responsive style with both children, using the same degree of positive affect and warmth. Differences included using more behavior management strategies with the child with Fragile X and a conversational style of interaction with the sibling. Differences in approaches suggest the mothers adapted to the developmental differences between the children. The interview data supported these findings; mothers were aware of the changes made to accommodate the developmental differences. PMID:22716262

  3. Readability of skin cancer prevention brochures targeting parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Slaten, D; Parrott, R; Steiner, C

    1999-06-01

    Long-term exposure to UV radiation and severe sunburns increase one's risk of experiencing malignant melanoma later in life, so parents need to be informed about how to protect children from overexposure to the sun. We attempted to determine readability of skin cancer brochures targeted toward parents of young children. SMOG and FOG readability formulas were applied to 8 brochures published by the American Cancer Society, Skin Cancer Foundation, American Academy of Dermatology, and the Anti-Cancer Council. Readability levels of the brochures ranged between the 8th and 12th grade levels. To reduce the incidence of skin cancer, sun-safe knowledge and behavior should start in childhood. Pediatricians need access to brochures written at readability levels for the average parent. Skin cancer brochures written at the eighth or ninth grade comprehension levels may allow pediatricians to educate more parents about the importance of skin cancer prevention in childhood. PMID:10365934

  4. How parents introduce new words to young children: The influence of development and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Brandon, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    This study documents how parents weave new words into on-going interactions with children who are just beginning to speak. Dyads with typically developing toddlers and with young children with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome (n=56, 23, and 29) were observed using a Communication Play Protocol during which parents could use novel words to refer to novel objects. Parents readily introduced both labels and sound words even when their child did not respond expressively or produce the words. Results highlight both how parents act in ways that may facilitate their child's appreciation of the relation between a new word and its referent and how they subtly adjust their actions to suit their child's level of word learning and specific learning challenges. PMID:25863927

  5. Parents' experiences of diagnostic processes of young children in Norwegian day-care institutions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Terese; Nilsen, Randi Dyblie

    2015-02-01

    Framed by the sociology of childhood and Foucauldian-inspired perspectives, this article is focused on parents' experiences of parent-professional encounters in diagnostic processes of young children enrolled in Norwegian early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions or schools. Based on qualitative interviews with parents, we explore how they participate and manoeuvre in encounters with professionals during processes in which their children were constructed as different in a space of normality and deviance, while also bringing their own understandings of their children to the fore. From our analysis, it appears that parents manoeuvre between complying with and adapting to, as well as negotiating and resisting the constructions put forward by the professionals. PMID:25682794

  6. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents’ friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends’ positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at T1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents’ SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of under-arousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  7. Physiological reactivity moderates the association between parental directing and young adolescent friendship adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at Time [T]1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents' SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of underarousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  8. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  9. Exploring stimulant treatment in ADHD: narratives of young adolescents and their parents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adolescents’ and their parents’ experiences with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its treatment were explored to investigate beliefs and attitudes regarding use of stimulant medication, and their influence on treatment decisions. Methods Using in-depth qualitative interviews, 12 adolescents with ADHD aged 12 – 15 years, and their parents described their experiences of ADHD and its treatment. Twenty four interviews, 12 with adolescents and 12 with their parents elicited detailed descriptions of beliefs about ADHD, attitudes about stimulant use and the circumstances surrounding treatment decisions. Verbatim transcripts were iteratively analyzed by a team of researchers following an interpretive interactionist framework. Results Young people offered three themes describing ADHD: 1) personality trait, 2) physical condition or disorder, and 3) minor issue or concern. Regarding medication use, youth described 1) benefits, 2) changes in sense of self, 3) adverse effects, and 4) desire to discontinue use. Parents’ beliefs were more homogeneous than youth beliefs, describing ADHD as a disorder requiring treatment. Most parents noted benefits from stimulant use. Themes were 1) medication as a last resort, 2) allowing the child to reach his or her potential; and 3) concerns about adverse and long-term effects. Families described how responsibility for treatment decisions is transferred from parent to adolescent over time. Conclusions Young adolescents can have different beliefs about ADHD and attitudes about medication use from their parents. These beliefs and attitudes influence treatment adherence. Incorporating input from young adolescents when making clinical decisions could potentially improve continuity of treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:24725829

  10. Parental Support in the Development of Young Musicians: A Teacher's Perspective from a Small-Scale Study of Piano Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margiotta, Mimia

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of parental support and interactions on the young musicians' learning processes. In an attempt to corroborate the findings of the wider research, a case-study has been carried out comprising observations of 34 parents and 34 piano students taught by the author in three different locations (private studio,…

  11. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  12. Parenting Styles, Young Adults' Self-Concepts, and Evaluations of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.

    1993-01-01

    Research shows that parenting style may strongly influence children's and adolescents' development. The present study reexamined this association, using a sample of 123 midwestern college students enrolled in a human development class. Participants' self-concepts varied directly with the perceived level of warmth displayed by both their fathers…

  13. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-02-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145

  14. The Associations of Financial Stress and Parenting Support Factors with Alcohol Behaviors During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawry, Charles; Li, Gu; Conger, Katherine J.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and prospective associations of financial stress (financial strain, lack of financial access, public assistance) and parenting support factors (relationship quality, living at home, financial support) with young adults’ alcohol behaviors (alcohol use, heavy drinking, and problematic drinking) over a 5-year period. Analyses of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data (N = 7,159) showed that, over the study period, alcohol use and heavy drinking declined while problematic drinking increased. In addition, living at home and parental relationship quality were associated with fewer concurrent and prospective alcohol behaviors whereas financial strain and parents’ financial support were associated with more alcohol behaviors. The implications for minimizing alcohol misuse in young adults amid uncertain economic conditions are discussed. PMID:26388681

  15. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be

  16. Predicting Functional Resilience Among Young-Adult Children of Opiate-Addicted Parents

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Charles B.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study describes the adversities experienced by a sample of children of opiate-addicted parents, examines criteria for young adulthood functional resilience, and tests parent, child, and school predictors of resilience. Methods The Focus on Families (FOF) project was a randomized trial of a family-focused intervention with opiate addicts in methadone treatment and their children. Analyses were conducted on data from the children in treatment and control families during the original study (1991–1995) and a long-term follow-up interview (2005–2006). Results While all participants had an opiate-addicted parent, 70% experienced 2 or more and 20% experienced 4 or more additional types of childhood adversity. Twenty-four percent met the following three criteria for functional resilience at the time of their young-adult interview: (1) working or being enrolled in school, (2) no history of substance abuse or dependence, and (3) no adult criminal charges in the prior 5 years. The FOF intervention did not significantly predict functional resilience. Girls were approximately four times more likely to exhibit resilience than boys. Experiencing a wider range of adversities in addition to having an opiate-addicted parent did not reduce the likelihood of functional resilience. Of the 5 child, family, and school predictors tested after, only externalizing or internalizing problems in childhood were significantly associated with the likelihood of functional resilience (OR = .30, p = .04) as a young adult. Conclusions These findings suggest that early intervention with families with addicted parents to prevent and reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in their children holds the most promise of supporting resilient adaptation in early adulthood. PMID:19237115

  17. Inequalities in vaccination coverage for young females whose parents are informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Ojha, Rohit P; Brinkman, Tara M; Tota, Joseph E; Jackson, Bradford E; Singh, Karan P; Smith, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of caregiver strain and stress on preventive health service utilization among adult family members are well-established, but the effects of informal caregiving on children of caregivers are unknown. We aimed to assess whether inequalities in vaccination coverage (specifically human papillomavirus [HPV] and influenza) exist for females aged 9 to 17 years whose parents are informal caregivers (i.e., care providers for family members or others who are not functionally independent) compared with females whose parents are not informal caregivers. Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate overall and subgroup-specific HPV and influenza vaccination prevalence ratios (PRs) and corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) comparing females whose parents were informal caregivers with females whose parents were not informal caregivers. Our unweighted study populations comprised 1645 and 1279 females aged 9 to 17 years for the HPV and influenza vaccination analyses, respectively. Overall, both HPV and influenza vaccination coverage were lower among females whose parents were informal caregivers (HPV: PR = 0.72, 95% CL: 0.53, 0.97; Influenza: PR = 0.89, 95% CL: 0.66, 1.2). Our results suggest consistently lower HPV and influenza vaccination coverage for young females whose parents are informal caregivers. Our study provides new evidence about the potential implications of caregiving on the utilization of preventive health services among children of caregivers. PMID:25424955

  18. Ready to make nice: parental socialization of young sons' and daughters' prosocial behaviors with peers.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; McShane, Kelly E; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their authoritative parenting style, attributions for children's prosocial behavior, and responses to children's prosocial behavior. Approximately 6 months later, children's more feminine and more masculine prosocial behaviors were observed during interactions with unfamiliar peers and reported on by their preschool teachers. Boys and girls did not differ in the observed and teacher-reported measures of prosocial behavior. Compared to other parents, fathers of boys were less likely to express affection or respond directly to children's prosocial behavior. Mothers' authoritative style, internal attributions for prosocial behavior, and positive responses to prosocial behavior predicted girls' displays of more feminine prosocial actions and boys' displays of more masculine prosocial actions toward peers. Relations were similar but weaker for fathers' parenting, and after accounting for mother' scores, fathers' scores accounted for unique variance in only one analysis: Teachers reported more masculine prosocial behavior in boys of fathers who discussed prosocial behavior. Overall, the results support a model of parental socialization of sex-typed prosocial behavior and indicate that mothers contribute more strongly than do fathers to both daughters' and sons' prosocial development. PMID:17936971

  19. Spanking of young children: do immigrant and U.S.-born Hispanic parents differ?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna

    2015-02-01

    Building on prior research showing fewer parenting risk behaviors and lower levels of harsh punishment among less acculturated Hispanic parents, we tested the hypothesis that foreign-born (FB; immigrant) Hispanic parents use less spanking toward children at 3 years and 5 years of age than U.S.-born Hispanic parents. We also examined whether other indicators of acculturation-endorsement of traditional gender norms and religiosity-showed any direct or indirect effects in explaining the hypothesized association. Path model analyses were conducted with a sample of Hispanic mothers (n = 1,089) and fathers (n = 650). Cross-sectional and time lagged path models controlling for a wide range of psychosocial and demographic confounds indicated that, when compared with U.S.-born Hispanic parents, FB Hispanic mothers and fathers used less spanking toward their young children. In cross-sectional analysis only, mothers' greater endorsement of traditional gender norms had small protective effects on spanking. Although fathers' endorsement of traditional gender norms was not a significant direct predictor of spanking, there was a significant indirect effect of nativity status on spanking mediated by endorsement of traditional gender norms. Religiosity showed no relation to spanking for either mothers or fathers. Immigrant status may be an important protective factor that is associated with lower levels of parenting aggression among Hispanic mothers and fathers living in the United States. PMID:24923887

  20. ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

    2008-01-30

    Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

  1. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  2. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  3. Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2009-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group (n = 23) received usual care, including early childhood education and related services. Results suggest that this parent training intervention was superior to usual care for young children with developmental delays or disabilities in reducing negative parent–child interactions and child behavior problems. Participants in the experimental group indicated high satisfaction with treatment. Additional research is necessary to document maintenance and generalization of treatment outcomes. PMID:18702556

  4. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  5. Perceived parental care and supervision: relations with cognitive representations of future offending in a sample of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2006-04-01

    This article focuses on the relations of two dimensions of perceived child-rearing practices, care and protection, as measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument and on cognitive representations of future offending in a sample of 152 young offenders. The relations of two different models, predictive of juvenile delinquency, are explored. Parental influences are thought to represent distal factors affecting juvenile delinquency, whereas cognitive representations, formulating the decisions of young offenders, are proximally related with juvenile delinquency. The focus of the research is the young offenders'intentions to reoffend, and it was found that intentions to reoffend in the future were predicted by attitudes toward offending and perceived behavioural control of future offending, whereas parental variables were redundant in predicting behavioural intentions of reoffending. Any effects of parental variables on behavioural intentions were mediated by the young offenders' attitudes toward offending. PMID:16510889

  6. Depression in young adolescents: investigations using 2 and 3 factor versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Associations between parenting style and depressive symptomatology in a community sample of young adolescents (N = 2596) were investigated using self-report measures including the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Specifically, the 25-item 2-factor and 3-factor models by Parker et al. (1979), Kendler's (1996) 16-item 3-factor model, and Parker's (1983) quadrant model for the Parental Bonding Instrument were compared. Data analysis included analysis of variance and logistic regression. Reanalysis of Parker's original scale indicates that overprotection is composed of separate factors: intrusiveness (at the individual level) and restrictiveness (in the social context). All models reveal significant independent contributions from paternal care, maternal care, and maternal overprotection (2-factor) or intrusiveness (3-factor) to moderate and serious depressive symptomatology, controlling for sex and family living arrangement. Additive rather than multiplicative interactions between care and overprotection were found. Regardless of the level of parental care and affection, clinicians should note that maternal intrusiveness is strongly associated with adverse psychosocial health in young adolescents. PMID:15457107

  7. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W; Dogan, Meesha V; Philibert, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood (age 19), was associated with both SES risk and protective parenting. Three categories of genes were identified whose methylation was associated with parenting, SES risk, and young adult health. Methylation was a significant mediator of the impact of parenting and SES risk on young adult health. Variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was also examined and controlled, showing that it did not account for observed effects of parenting and SES risk on health. PMID:26822447

  8. Simple ABCD matrix treatment for transversely varying saturable gain.

    PubMed

    Grace, E J; New, G H; French, P M

    2001-11-15

    We have developed an ABCD matrix that, for the first time to our knowledge, accurately describes the transformation of a Gaussian beam by a medium with transversely varying saturable gain. In contrast with the conventional ABCD matrix, the newly developed matrix is shown to be in excellent agreement with a full beam propagation code over a wide parameter range. Accurate treatment of transversely varying saturable gain in laser resonators is important for the optimization of end-pumped lasers, particularly for efficient diode-pumped solid-state and Kerr-lens mode-locked systems. PMID:18059695

  9. Young-adult children of alcoholic parents: protective effects of positive family functioning.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Nord, J L; Blow, F C

    1992-12-01

    The occurrence of alcoholism is clustered within families, but the detrimental effect of a positive family history may vary with the degree of family impairment involved. In this study we assessed the effects of family history and family environment on alcohol misuse. From ongoing studies we recruited parents who had a child aged 18-30, 20 with a DSM-III-R alcohol dependence diagnosis, 20 without. The child then completed a multidimensional assessment. The young-adult participants included 20 men and 20 women (mean age = 24.8). Differences by family history were restricted to substance abuse behaviors. While a high level of alcohol problems occurred in both groups, those with an alcohol-dependent parent were more likely to be heavy drinkers and showed more symptoms of alcohol dependence. Overall psychological adjustment did not differ between the groups, however. Alcohol misuse measures did correlate moderately with symptoms of poor emotional health. The most important correlates of alcohol misuse measures in this study were exposure to parental alcoholism, abusive punishment, and psychological symptoms, with some separation of effects in the two subgroups. Psychological symptoms had a stronger relationship with misuse in subjects with social-drinking parents, while abuse was more associated in the group with an alcohol-dependent parent. These results confirm the importance of environmental interactions with familial risk. A biological vulnerability from an alcohol-dependent parent was not sufficient or necessary for the participants in this study to develop alcohol dependence as a young adult, although there was an increased risk. There appear to be strong protective effects of positive family relationships on the potential negative effects of a family history of alcoholism. PMID:1490082

  10. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  11. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads…

  12. Perspective of Parents and Caregivers on the Influence of Full-Time Day-Care Attendance on Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Drugli, May Britt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of parents and caregivers regarding young children in day care. The tiredness of children after day-care attendance was explored. In the autumn of 2009, 41 parents and 35 caregivers of children aged 1.5 years or younger living in the city of Trondheim and nearby communities were assessed using a…

  13. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  14. An Exploratory Study on the Relationship between Parents' Career Interests and the Career Interests of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chi-Sum; Wong, Ping-Man; Peng, Kelly Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to investigate the potential effects of parents' career interests on young adults' career interests. Using a sample of 113 freshmen in Hong Kong, results indicated that after controlling for personality, gender, general mental abilities and emotional intelligence, some of the parents' career interests were still related…

  15. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with…

  16. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Treatment of Separation Anxiety Disorder in Young Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Molly L.; Pincus, Donna B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that Parent-Child Interaction therapy (PCIT) works to improve the child's behavior by changing the child-parent interaction. PCIT has been effective in treating disruptive behavior in young children. This article describes a pilot study to apply PCIT to the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD). A multiple-baseline…

  17. Differential Relationships of Parental Perceptions to Maternal and Paternal Involvement in Play with Young High Risk and Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Marilee

    Twenty-four two-parent families of young multihandicapped children (ages 2-37 months) participated in a study comparing play behaviors of fathers and mothers, as well as the relationship to parental involvement in play of fathers' and mothers' perceptions of (1) the child, (2) the impact of the child on the family, and (3) perceived level of…

  18. An Analysis of Classroom-Based and Parent-Focused Social-Emotional Programs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Steed, Elizabeth A.; Strain, Phillip; Dunlap, Glen; Powell, Diane; Payne, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a comprehensive and updated review of available classroom and parenting social-emotional programs for young children. The review analyzed 10 classroom curricula and 8 parenting interventions focused on social-emotional development and the research associated with each. The efficacious adoption criteria…

  19. Longitudinal Study of Parents' Impact on Quality of Life of Children and Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Earlier research has distinguished five domains of Quality of life (QoL) for people with ID: material well-being, development and activity, physical well-being, social well-being, and emotional well-being. We investigated parents' perspectives on these domains and QoL for children and young adults with ID and hypothesized that parents'…

  20. Assessment of parents and young children (Children Act 1989)--a child psychotherapy point of view.

    PubMed

    Baradon, T; Sinason, V; Yabsley, S

    1999-01-01

    The criteria used by professionals in assessing child care cases are not always made explicit, partly because of the ambiguity of the terms 'vulnerability' and 'at risk'. This paper presents a child psychotherapy view of what professionals may look at in terms of the interactions between parent and young child and how these may be understood. 'Reasonable expectations' of child development and parental care are considered. In terms of the child, overall attachment and communication needs and the specific developmental phase in terms child's maturing cognitive and socio-emotional functions are emphasized. In terms of the parent, the capacity to see the baby as separate from their own internal conflicts and to reflect upon the infant's mental state are seen to be pivotal to the infant's psychological well-being. The authors discuss the unconscious re-enactment of malignant patterns from the past through the relationship with the baby, and why parents are sometimes unable to avoid this. Finally, the authors suggest that assessment of the capacity for change in vulnerable parent-infant constellations must take into account the baby's developmental timetable. PMID:9921420

  1. Improved Speech Following Parent-Delivered Qigong Massage in Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark; Williams, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Qigong massage is an eastern form of massage that can be delivered by western parents to their children with appropriate training and support. It has been shown to improve developmental measures in young children with autism when given daily for five months. A recent trial evaluating its effect on motor development in young children with Down…

  2. Saving Time and Money in Michigan: Peter J. Young Talks about Professional Development, Parent Communication, Funding, and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Peter J. Young, Director of Technology at Rockford Public Schools in Michigan. In the interview, Young talked about how his district has done a lot more automation to integrate its disparate systems. He also discussed how they streamline their systems, how parents and community benefit from these efforts,…

  3. Levels of Urbanization and Parental Education in Relation to the Mortality Risk of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsin-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Jia, Chun-Hua; Li, Chung-Yi; Hou, Wen-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The establishment of the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan in 1995 effectively removed the financial barrier to access health care services of Taiwanese people. This population-based cohort study aimed to determine the independent and joint effects of parental education and area urbanization on the mortality risk among children under the universal health insurance coverage in Taiwan since 1995. Methods: We linked 1,501,620 births from 1996 to 2000 to the Taiwan Death Registry to estimate the neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality rates, according to the levels of parental education and urbanization of residential areas. We used a logistic regression model that considers data clustering to estimate the independent and joint effects. Results: Lower levels of parental education and area urbanization exerted an independent effect of mortality on young children, with a stronger magnitude noted for areas with lower levels of urbanization. Children whose parents had lower levels of education and who were born in areas with lower levels of urbanization experienced the highest risk for neonatal (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.46–1.76), infant (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.48–1.70), and under-five (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.61–1.82) mortality. Conclusions: Even with universal health insurance coverage, lower levels of area urbanization and parental education still exerted independent and joint effects on mortality in young children. This finding implies the inadequate accessibility to health care resources for children from socially disadvantaged families and less urbanized areas. PMID:26184248

  4. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  5. East Indian Families Raising ABCD Adolescents: Cultural and Generational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Shruti S.

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…

  6. Open Source Solutions for Libraries: ABCD vs Koha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macan, Bojan; Fernandez, Gladys Vanesa; Stojanovski, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present an overview of the two open source (OS) integrated library systems (ILS)--Koha and ABCD (ISIS family), to compare their "next-generation library catalog" functionalities, and to give comparison of other important features available through ILS modules. Design/methodology/approach: Two open source…

  7. Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213

  8. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  9. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  10. Young People Whose Parents Are Separated or Divorced: A Case for Researching Their Experiences at the Intersection of Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beausang, Judith; Farrell, Ann; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Young people whose parents are separated or divorced form a significant and increasing proportion of young people who attend school. To date, empirical research with young people whose parents are separated or divorced has tended to focus on either their household context, or their school context, rather than on both contexts together.…

  11. The Impact of Parental Bipolar Affective Disorder on Adolescent Behaviour--Positive Messages to Young People, Parents, Teachers and Other Professionals Working with Children Whose Parents Suffer from Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olliver-Kneafsey, Kate; Thornton, Ev; Williamson, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The impact of parental mental health difficulties on the developing child is well evidenced and documented. In this article Kate Olliver-Kneafsey, Ev Thornton and Wendy Williamson suggest that despite the difficulties young people face when parental mental illness is a feature of family life, it is not all gloom and doom, and give some important…

  12. Parents' Attitudes to Risk and Injury to Children and Young People on Farms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Children and young people growing up in a farm environment run a greater risk of being injured or dying in an accident than their non-farming counterparts. This study examines farming parents’ attitudes and experiences of having their children grow up on farms, one of the most dangerous work environments as their home, everyday environment and playground. Method Data were collected using two ethnological methods, a question list and interviews, with a study population of 20 parents. The data were analysed phenomenologically. Results The analysis pursued four themes: i) the most dangerous places and situations on the farm; ii) children’s tasks on the farm; iii) children as a safety risk on the farm; and iv) farm risk education for children. Conclusions Most parents know the risks on their farm, but are sometimes careless when working under stress or exhaustion. Some parents wanted more information and some wanted compulsory preventative or safety measures by manufacturers, e.g. a safety belt as standard on the extra seat in tractors. Children’s friends were described as one of the greatest risks for injury due to peer pressure. Some parents mentioned that people who grow up on farms are sometimes ‘blind’ to the dangers. Other parents seemed to overlook the risks and had their children carrying out tasks for which they were not mentally or physically equipped. Some of the tasks the children reportedly carried out on farms contravened Swedish legislation. It is thus important for farming parents to be repeatedly reminded of the risks to their children and to increase their awareness of how to prevent and eliminate risks in order to avoid accidents on the farm. The situation for farm children is highlighted in a critical discussion. PMID:27362751

  13. Young Adults’ Roles as Partners and Parents in a Context of Family Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Bzostek, Sharon H.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, as well as to describe how these estimates have changed across cohorts. It then draws from identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles which young adults are likely to occupy—both over their life course and at a single point in time—may influence inter- and intra-family (unit) relationships in light of current trends in family complexity. This discussion highlights four key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity, and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research to explore, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Implications for public policy are also discussed. PMID:25641975

  14. Resistance to Cry Intensive Sleep Intervention in Young Children: Are We Ignoring Children’s Cries or Parental Concerns?

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Etherton, Hayley; Hauck, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The majority of behavioural sleep interventions for young children (defined as 5 years of age or less) involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child’s cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties implementing and maintaining these procedures, leading to attrition, non-compliance and treatment avoidance. Yet the reasons for these methods being difficult to implement for parents have not been well understood or addressed in the literature. In fact, they are being ignored. We discuss that understanding and addressing parental concerns may enable better targeted sleep interventions. PMID:27417246

  15. Relationships between Young Children in Full-Time Day Care and Their Caregivers: A Qualitative Study of Parental and Caregiver Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Mari Undheim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We studied the quality of caregiver-child relationships from the perspectives of parents and caregivers of young children in full-time day care. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged two years or younger (22 boys and 19 girls) in day care, and 35 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed. Parents and caregivers…

  16. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  17. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  18. [Anticipatory grief in adolescents and young adults coping with parental cancer].

    PubMed

    Gross, Juliane; Jantzer, Vanessa; Stute, Fridrike; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Willig, Katrin; Schuller-Roma, Bärbel; Keller, Monika; Herzog, Wolfgang; Romer, Georg; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    By the current state of research, it cannot be answered clearly how adolescents experience anticipatory grief and if and to which extent this process differs from anticipatory grief of adults. The present study will fill this gap by providing both a quantitative and a qualitative description of anticipatory grief processes. Therefore, 74 adolescents and young adults (11-21 years), whose parents have suffered from cancer, completed an adapted version of the "Trauerfragebogen" (Weiser u. Ochsmann, 2002). Additionally a subsample of n = 38 took part in a qualitative guided interview. Based on these interviews, 16 categories were formed, that were assigned to two types of stressors. Beside communication and prioritization of family, different symptoms of grief were the central category in the loss-oriented type, where fears of loss, compassion and concern were of crucial importance. Also categories of the restoration-oriented type were strongly present. Thus, it seems that young people generally manage to accept their new role in the stressful family situation and they have a series of coping mechanisms available to do so. This was also reflected in the quantitative data, were the subscale "Inner Strength" reached the highest value. In the counselling of adolescents with cancer-diseased parents, both loss-oriented and restoration-oriented processes should equally be recognized and encouraged. PMID:22950336

  19. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress. PMID:26699201

  20. Linking parenting and informal mentor processes to depressive symptoms among rural African American young adult men.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Brody, Gene H

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about the rates of depressive symptoms among rural African American men during young adulthood or the processes that predict those rates. Many rural African American men in the deep South confront difficult environments that provide minimal resources and diminishing social support to help them embark on beneficial life paths. A model of protective processes hypothesized to deter depression among this population was tested that included autonomy-promoting parenting, informal mentoring, and protective self-regulatory processes. Data from a Respondent-Driven Sampling study with 116 rural African American men age 18-21 were used to test study hypotheses. The unadjusted prevalence of clinically significant depression was 37.9%. As predicted, self-regulatory processes mediated the influence of autonomy-promoting parenting on depressive symptoms. Leaving the family home was associated negatively and educational attainment was associated positively with self-regulatory processes. Support from an informal mentor moderated the link between autonomy-promoting parenting and self-regulatory processes. Findings suggest malleable targets for intervention development with this population. PMID:20658872

  1. Path-integral derivation of the complex ABCD Huygens integral

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, E.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The Huygens integral, or Green's function, for paraxial beam propagation in a generalized lenslike medium is derived as a Feynman path integral involving a summation over real rays. This formulation provides a physically intuitive understanding of the structure of the Green's function. The path integral is evaluated by introducing in a consistent manner the notion of complex rays, and the familiar result for the Huygens integral in terms of the complex ABCD matrix of the medium is obtained.

  2. Synthesis of an arbitrary ABCD system with fixed lens positions.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Martin J; Alieva, Tatiana

    2006-08-15

    On the basis of the modified Iwasawa decomposition of a lossless first-order optical system as a cascade of a lens, a magnifier, and a so-called orthosymplectic system, we show how to synthesize an arbitrary ABCD system (with two transverse coordinates) by means of lenses and predetermined sections of free space such that the lenses are located at fixed positions. PMID:16880840

  3. Role of family D ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCD) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Viktor; Souček, Pavel

    2015-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, belonging to the family D, are expressed in peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum or lysosomes. ABCD transporters play a role in transport of lipids, bile acids and vitamin B12 and associate with peroxisomal disorders. ABCD1 performs transport of coenzyme A esters of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes and a number of mutations in ABCD1 gene were linked to an X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD). The role of ABCD transporters in tumour growth has not been studied in detail, but there is some evidence that ABCDs levels differ between undifferentiated stem or tumour cells and differentiated cells suggesting a possible link to tumorigenesis. In this mini-review, we discuss the available information about the role of ABCD transporters in cancer. PMID:26517907

  4. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  5. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  6. Young Adults from Single versus Two-Parent Households: Attitudes toward Maternal Employment and Quality of Current Relationships with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Debi; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Chambliss, Catherine

    To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the Consequences…

  7. Maternal and Paternal Similarities and Differences in Parenting: An Examination of Mexican-American Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Ramakumar, Sri; Diaz, Abel

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the degree of parental similarity-dissimilarity across parenting dimensions operationalized in terms of: (1) one's own and one's partner's style; (2) meta-emotion belief structures; (3) behavioral strategies in reaction to children's emotions; as well as (4) parental support and responsiveness. The first four dimensions…

  8. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  9. A Comprehensive Literature Review of Randomized Controlled Trials for Parents of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dababnah, Sarah; Parish, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Parents raising young children with autism spectrum disorder are particularly vulnerable to stress and poor coping mechanisms. The current article describes a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials which included parents of preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. Seven interventions met the review criteria. The studies were strengthened by the use of fidelity measures and developmentally appropriate interventions. However, while all of the studies collected parent measures, none reported significant post-test improvements in parent mental health or other outcomes. Furthermore, numerous issues, such as unclear randomization strategies, small sample sizes, and poor external validity, further limited the ability to draw significant conclusions regarding the promise of the interventions. More research is needed to develop and rigorously test family-centered interventions aimed at improving both child and parent outcomes. PMID:26177069

  10. Six-Year Longitudinal Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth in Parentally Bereaved Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, we examined posttraumatic growth in a sample of 50 adolescents and young adults who had experienced parental death in childhood or adolescence. Prospective longitudinal relations over a six year period were examined between measures of demographics, youth’s intrusive grief-related thoughts, appraisals, intrapersonal coping processes, interpersonal coping processes, mental health problems and social adaptation outcomes, and the growth subscales (i.e., New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strengths, Spiritual Changes and Appreciation of Life). Controlling for youth age, time since death, and cause of death, the set of intrapersonal coping processes explained a medium amount of variance in New Possibilities and Personal Strength subscales. A medium amount of variance in New Possibilities, Personal Strength, and Relating to Others was explained by the set of interpersonal coping processes. PMID:19227001

  11. Stress, coping, and adjustment in mothers and young adolescents in single- and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Compas, B E; Williams, R A

    1990-08-01

    Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level of family income, differences in family hassles and coping strategies remained significant. The two groups did not differ on subtypes of symptoms after controlling for income, but single mothers still reported more total psychological symptoms. No differences were found between children in these two family constellations on maternal reports of emotional/behavioral problems or on children's self-reported emotional/behavioral problems, stressful events, or coping. Implications of these findings for adjustment to life in single-parent families are discussed. PMID:2075890

  12. "When nothing matters, things just happen": young parenting women's reflections on caring, health, and justice.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline; Barcelos, Christie; Buchanan, David; Gubrium, Erika

    The field of public health frequently issues calls for social justice, but it is not clear that everyone agrees on what this means or how to achieve it. To assess lay citizens' views on the relationship between justice and health, we conducted individual interviews with 19 young parenting women to hear and discuss their thoughts about the causes of health disparities, ways to reduce them, and the nature of the just society. A salient theme to emerge in these interviews was the topic of "caring." This article reports on four categories identified under the theme of caring: 1) observations of apathy and indifference; 2) the effects of not caring; 3) models of caring; and 4) the pull of caring. Based on these results, the article outlines a grounded theory on the role of caring in conceptualizing health motivation. PMID:24928606

  13. Internet-Based Intervention Training for Parents of Young Children with Disabilities: A Promising Service-Delivery Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Daczewitz, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient early intervention (EI) services are required to serve the needs of young children with disabilities and the needs of their families. Effective EI includes family-centred practices, evidence-based interventions, parent involvement/training, and delivery in children's natural environments. Due to the challenges of providing…

  14. A Comparison of Autonomic, Behavioral, and Parent-Report Measures of Sensory Sensitivity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper R.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Aube, Daniella; Scrimgeour, Meghan; Ostholthoff, Tyler; Brickley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present research compared responses to sensory stimuli among eight young children with autism and an age- and sex-matched typically developing control group, using autonomic (heart rate/HR) and a behavioral rating scale. Parents of all participants also completed the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (SP). Results indicate that children with…

  15. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  16. Exploring the Attitudes of Parents of Young Children with Autism Towards the TEACCH Conceptual Model: A Narrative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Natalie Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the attitudes of parents of young children with autism towards the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children Program's (TEACCH) conceptual model, known as the Culture of Autism. One primary research question guided the study: What are the attitudes of…

  17. Young Adults' Reactions to Gay and Lesbian Peers Who Became Suicidal Following "Coming Out" to Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cato, Jennifer, E.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2003-01-01

    A frequently cited precipitant of gay and lesbian nonfatal suicidal behavior is the turmoil associated with coming out to one's family. This study investigated young adults' attitudes toward peers who engaged in suicidal behavior after coming out and being rejected by their parents, and compared them with attitudes toward persons who had become…

  18. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  19. Test-retest reliability and comparison of children's reports with parents' reports of young children's fruit and vegetable preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of a short computerized assessment of young children's fruit (F) and vegetable (V) preferences, and to compare children's responses with their parents' responses. A paper-and-pencil F and V preference and F and V food frequency ques...

  20. Media Culture and Media Violence: Making the Television Work for Young Children, Early Childhood Educators, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of television on young children, with a special emphasis on the relationship among TV, childhood, and violence, and on developmentally appropriate television. Further, the paper provides strategies for parents and early childhood educators to use in taking control of the television. The paper is…

  1. A New Parenting-Based Group Intervention for Young Anxious Children: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; McNally, Deb; Field, Andy P.; Rust, Stewart; Laskey, Ben; Dixon, Clare; Gallagher, Bridie; Harrington, Richard; Miller, Chloe; Pemberton, Kathryn; Symes, Wendy; White, Caroline; Woodham, Adrine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite recent advances, there are still no interventions that have been developed for the specific treatment of young children who have anxiety disorders. This study examined the impact of a new, cognitive-behaviorally based parenting intervention on anxiety symptoms. Method: Families of 74 anxious children (aged 9 years or less) took…

  2. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  3. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  4. Supporting Parents to Facilitate Communication and Joint Attention in Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Calhoun, James; Morris, Hope; Platt, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 2 pilot studies partnering early interventionists and families in targeting social communication and joint attention abilities for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Both parent-intervention trainings involved opportunities for interventionists to partner with families. One pilot utilized "More than Words" (MTW;…

  5. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to…

  6. Divorce Is a Part of My Life . . . Resilience, Survival, and Vulnerability: Young Adults' Perception of the Implications of Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldar-Avidan, Dorit; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study among 22 young adults (20-25 years old) whose parents divorced during their childhood was conducted in Israel, using semi-structured, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Qualitative data analysis led to identification of three profiles, aiming at a grounded theoretical conceptualization. Three core themes were identified: the…

  7. Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasyad, Ach.

    2015-01-01

    This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…

  8. Improving Outcomes for Teen Parents and Their Young Children by Strengthening School-Based Programs. Challenges, Solutions, and Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, S. A.; Wolf, Wendy C.; Batten, Susan T.

    This policy paper addresses how to strengthen school-based efforts for adolescent parents and their children so that they can be more effective in meeting the needs and improving the outcomes of these young families. Based on the experience and lessons of a 6-year effort, the Initiative to Strengthen School-Based Programs for Adolescent Parents…

  9. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  10. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  11. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112

  12. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    PubMed

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26454205

  13. Attitudes toward sexual responsibility and parenting: an exploratory study of young urban males.

    PubMed

    Gohel, M; Diamond, J J; Chambers, C V

    1997-01-01

    The self-reported sexual and parenting behaviors and attitudes of 42 urban males aged 16-22 who had fathered a child were compared with those of 49 demographically similar young men who were not fathers when they sought medical care at a public health center. Use of a questionnaire and structured interviews established that both groups had similar levels of self-esteem and similar ages at first intercourse. Fathers were less likely than the other respondents to feel that parenthood would interfere with their future (71% vs. 92%) or to have a concrete five-year plan (57% vs. 90%). They were more likely to believe that family (62% vs. 37%) and peers (68% vs. 40%) looked favorably upon early parenthood, to have a mother who was a teenage parent (74% vs. 47%) and to state that they lacked an adequate father figure while growing up (50% vs. 18%). Fathers also reported more frequent sexual activity and less consistent contraceptive use than did the others. PMID:9429875

  14. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. PMID:11437481

  15. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-07-01

    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  16. Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with Low-Income African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2–4 year old children enrolled in 7 day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-up, intervention group parents used less corporal punishment and issued fewer commands with their children. Intervention children exhibited fewer behavior problems during observed play and clean-up sessions than controls. Additional group differences were observed when dose was included in the analytic model. Parents who participated in at least 50% of CPP sessions also reported greater improvements in parenting self-efficacy, more consistent discipline, greater warmth, and a decline in child behavior problems when compared to reports from controls. The implications of these results for preventive parent training with low-income African American and Latino parents and the role of intervention dose on parent-child outcomes are discussed. PMID:19067166

  17. Efficacy of the Chicago parent program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2-4 year old children enrolled in seven day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-up, intervention group parents used less corporal punishment and issued fewer commands with their children. Intervention children exhibited fewer behavior problems during observed play and clean-up sessions than controls. Additional group differences were observed when dose was included in the analytic model. Parents who participated in at least 50% of CPP sessions also reported greater improvements in parenting self-efficacy, more consistent discipline, greater warmth, and a decline in child behavior problems when compared to reports from controls. The implications of these results for preventive parent training with low-income African American and Latino parents and the role of intervention dose on parent-child outcomes are discussed. PMID:19067166

  18. [Hemodynamic assessment at rest and during dynamic physical exercise in young subjects with and without hypertensive parents].

    PubMed

    Seguro, C; Sau, F; Zedda, N; Mura, O; Montaldo, C; Scano, G; Arru, A; Leo, M R; Aru, A; Cherchi, A

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this research was to identify any early cardiovascular changes that may be predictive of future hypertension in young subjects with family history of hypertension. The study was conducted on 25 offspring of hypertensive parents, mean age 17 years (22 with hypertension only in 1 parent and 3 with both hypertensive parents) and 20 offspring of both normotensive parents, matched by age. Subjects were divided into children (7-13 years) and young adults (19 years on). All subjects underwent three office blood pressure measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer. On the third control, BoMed thoracic electrical bioimpedance at rest and during upright bicycle exercise was performed. Physical characteristics were similar in subjects matched by age in the two groups. Systolic blood pressure was similar in offspring of normotensives and hypertensives, both at rest and during exercise; diastolic blood pressure was greater in offspring of hypertensive parents at rest (73.1 +/- 10.5 vs 63.5 +/- 7.1 mmHg, p < 0.05), during the first minutes of exercise and during the recovery phase (p < 0.05). Moreover, at the third blood pressure measurement at rest, diastolic blood pressure decreased, with respect to the first measurement, only in children and young adult offspring of normotensive parents, while systolic blood pressure decreased in the two groups of child subjects. No differences in heart rate were observed, both at rest and during physical exercise, between offspring of normotensives and hypertensives. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance at rest and their response to decubitus changes and exercise were normal and similar in offspring of normotensive and hypertensive parents both in children and young adults. In conclusion, a different behavior of diastolic blood pressure was found in offspring of hypertensive parents compared to that of normotensive parents, both in children and

  19. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  20. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  1. Get Ready To Read! Tips for Parents of Young Children = Preparese a leer! Ideas para los padres de ninos que apenas comienzan a leer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travaline, Kathleen A.

    By encouraging, supporting, and nurturing a young child's development, parents can make their child's first learning experiences pleasant and fruitful. As the child's most important teacher, parents can help their children make a smooth transition from home to school. If parents trust their instincts, remain patient, and provide plenty of…

  2. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  3. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  4. Self- and parent assessment of mental health: disagreement on externalizing and internalizing behaviour in young refugees from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Edith

    2008-01-01

    Self- and parent assessment of mental health problems yield a limited degree of cross-informant agreement in adolescent populations. Working with data from 122 refugee children, adolescents and young adults from the Middle East, the aims of this study were to analyse levels of agreement and disagreement between self- and parent ratings of externalizing and internalizing behaviour and to identify predictors for the differences between the two sets of ratings. Parents and children were interviewed separately using structured questionnaires. Mental health was assessed using the Achenbach System of Empirically-based Assessment. Self- and parent-rated scale scores correlated moderately. The mean score differences between self- and parent-rated internalizing and externalizing behaviour were 2.0 and 2.7, p < 0.005, respectively. A larger mean difference was found among boys concerning externalizing behaviour and among girls concerning internalizing behaviour. Individual (age, and sex) family (father's health situation) and ethnic background predicted this difference. This could indicate that parent ratings and children's self-ratings are two, qualitatively different constructs and not just a result of expected inter-observer disagreement. When assessing young refugees for possible treatment, this difference needs to be understood and taken into consideration. PMID:18411865

  5. Ethnicity, income, and parenting contexts of physical punishment in a national sample of families with young children.

    PubMed

    Wissow, L S

    2001-05-01

    Nearly half of U.S. parents use physical punishment for child discipline. Although some studies relate physical punishment and later dysfunction, others suggest that its effects depend on the context in which it is used. The authors analyzed data from the Commonwealth Fund Survey of Parents With Young Children, a national sample of 2,017 parents with children younger than 3. Parents reported their use of spanking, five other disciplinary practices, and four nurturing interactions. The authors used cluster analysis to define four groups of parents with distinct patterns of discipline and nurturing. Two groups with above-average use of spanking shared a high prevalence of parent depressive symptoms and a low level of nurturing but had markedly different demographic profiles and use of nonphysical punishment. Parents who used average levels of spanking made frequent use of nonphysical disciplinary strategies and had high levels of nurturing interactions. Parents who reported below-average spanking had relatively low levels of both disciplinary and nurturing interactions. PMID:16705787

  6. Barriers to success in parent training for young children with developmental delay: the role of cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Graziano, Paulo A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cumulative risk was calculated as a sum of risk variables, including socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, low maternal education), family structure (single-parent household), and maternal risk characteristics (minority status, lower intelligence, and parental distress). Families with higher cumulative risk scores, especially those with three or more risks, were more likely to drop out of treatment and display diminished treatment response in child behavior and parenting skills compared with families with lower cumulative risk scores. However, only two individual risk factors (i.e., minority status and family structure) predicted dropout, and one individual risk factor (i.e., maternal education) predicted outcome. These findings suggest that it can be useful to conceptualize risk factors as having a cumulative, in addition to individual, influence on parent-training interventions for children with developmental delay and have significant implications for clinical practice. It is important for clinicians to regularly assess for risk factors, and future research should examine ways in which clinicians can improve retention and outcome of parent training in the presence of multiple risk factors. PMID:23188886

  7. Welcome to Our World: Parent Perceptions of Interactions Between Parents of Young Children with ASD and Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Julia B.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Thompson, James R.; Angell, Maureen E.; Heyl, Barbara S.; Crowley, E. Paula

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between parents of children with ASD and education professionals is a critical issue, due to increasing prevalence rates, increasing litigation, and legal mandates of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which require parental involvement in the education of children with disabilities. The purpose…

  8. A cross-sectional study of the environment, physical activity, and screen time among young children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop evidence-based interventions promoting healthy active lifestyles among young children and their parents, a greater understanding is needed of the correlates of physical activity and screen time in these dyads. Physical environment features within neighborhoods may have important influences on both children and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between several features of the physical environment with physical activity and screen time among 511 young children (≤5 years old) and their parents, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Methods From May to September, 2011, parents of 0–5 year old children from Kingston, Canada completed a questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child’s physical activity and screen time. Guided by a previously developed conceptual framework, several physical environment features were assessed using Geographic Information Systems including, function (walkability), safety (road speed), aesthetics (streetscape), and destination (outdoor play/activity space, recreation facilities, distance to closest park, yard at home). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships while adjusting for several socio-demographic factors. Results The only independent association observed for the physical environment features was between higher outdoor play/activity space and higher screen time levels among parents. Several associations were observed with socio-demographic variables. For physical activity, child age, child care status, and family socioeconomic status (SES) were independent correlates for children while sex was an independent correlate for parents. For screen time, child age and family SES were independent correlates for children while neighborhood SES was an independent correlate for parents. Conclusions The findings suggest that socio-demographic factors, including

  9. The Feasibility of a Pilot Intervention for Parents of Young Children Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; Herbert, Linda; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Wang, Jichuan; Streisand, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and indicators of preliminary efficacy of the pilot of a parent-focused, phone-based intervention to improve glycemic control and parental and child well-being in young children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Thirty mothers of young children ages 1–6 diagnosed with T1D for less than 6 months were randomized to either a phone-based intervention or physical activity education comparison program. Child HbA1c and parent report of depressive symptoms, stress, social support, and child quality of life were assessed at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results The program was feasible, as the majority of participants completed more than 80% of the intervention or comparison education sessions and reported high levels of satisfaction. Overall, there was a significant time by treatment intervention where the intervention group demonstrated improved social support and quality of life over time as compared to the comparison education group. The intervention demonstrated a trend towards moderating the association between baseline maternal depressive symptoms and prospective worsening of HbA1c. Conclusions Parents of young children newly diagnosed with T1D can be engaged in a phone-based program to provide support during this vulnerable period. PMID:27088065

  10. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  11. Parental perceptions regarding healthy behaviours for preventing overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Pocock, M; Trivedi, D; Wills, W; Bunn, F; Magnusson, J

    2010-05-01

    Evidence is increasingly pointing towards the importance of early life strategies to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. This systematic review synthesizes qualitative research concerning parental perceptions regarding behaviours for preventing overweight and obesity in young children. During May and June 2008, a range of electronic databases were searched and together with lateral searching techniques 21 studies were identified for review. Data extraction and synthesis using thematic content analysis revealed six organizing and 32 finer level themes. These related to child factors, family dynamics, parenting, knowledge and beliefs, extra-familial influences and resources and environment. Themes were mapped to a socioecological model which illustrated how factors at individual, interpersonal, community, organizational and societal levels interact in complex ways to impact on parental perceptions about healthy behaviours for preventing child overweight. Although parents suggested several ideas to promote healthy child weight-related behaviours, many of their views concerned perceived barriers, some of which may be amenable to practical intervention. Furthermore, intergenerational influences on parental health beliefs and knowledge suggest that health promotion strategies may be more effective if directed at the wider family, rather than parents alone. Significantly, many parents believed strategies to promote healthy weight should start early in a child's life. PMID:19780989

  12. Communication About Problematic Drinking Between Young Adults and their Parents: An Application of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 80% of college students drink, half of whom consume alcohol in the form of binge drinking. The current study applies Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory to examine the communication about excessive drinking that takes place between parents and their young adult children. Forty college students were asked to report on a moment or incident that led their parents to label their drinking as concerning and were then asked to report on how their parents acted towards the drinking before and after the moment of labeling. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The findings suggest that parents act with inconsistency when attempting to manage their children's drinking by enacting both reinforcing and punishing behaviors. Parents' reinforcing behaviors included drinking with their children and buying them alcohol, even after labeling the drinking as problematic. Parents' punishment behaviors included expressing concern about their children's sense of responsibility and making their children feel regretful about their drinking. Nearly 88% of the participants were able to recall the moment at which their parents labeled their drinking as problematic. Implications for using inconsistent messages in conversations about alcohol are discussed. PMID:26860037

  13. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cumulative risk was calculated as a sum of risk variables, including socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, low maternal education), family structure (single-parent household), and maternal risk characteristics (minority status, lower intelligence, and parental distress). Families with higher cumulative risk scores, especially those with three or more risks, were more likely to drop out of treatment and display diminished treatment response in child behavior and parenting skills compared with families with lower cumulative risk scores. However, only two individual risk factors (i.e., minority status and family structure) predicted dropout, and one individual risk factor (i.e., maternal education) predicted outcome. These findings suggest that it can be useful to conceptualize risk factors as having a cumulative, in addition to individual, influence on parent-training interventions for children with developmental delay and have significant implications for clinical practice. It is important for clinicians to regularly assess for risk factors, and future research should examine ways in which clinicians can improve retention and outcome of parent training in the presence of multiple risk factors. PMID:23188886

  14. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  15. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao Parents and Teachers Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    This collection presents advice to help parents help their children succeed in school. Information sheets are included from many sources, in English and translated into Lao by the Lao Parents and Teachers Association. The emphasis is on the elementary grades, although some of the materials are useful for parents of high school students. The…

  16. Supporting Teen Parents: A Q&A with the Young Families Committee of NOAPPP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many professionals who work with youth have adolescent parents within their clientele yet don't have the demand to create special programs for these youth. Information regarding ways to assist teen parents in the normal course of the day, without developing a teen parent program, is difficult to find. Questions about supporting teen parents were…

  17. Parenting Young Arab Children: Psychometric Properties of an Adapted Arabic Brief Version of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Abdallah; Le, Kien Trung

    2016-06-01

    Research has shown a connection between negative parenting practices and child conduct problems. One of the most commonly used measures to assess parenting practices is the Alabama parenting questionnaire (APQ). The current study aimed to culturally adapt and assess the psychometric properties of a short version of the APQ for use in Arabic cultures, using a sample of 251 Qatari parents of children ages 4-12. An exploratory factor analysis proposed a five-model solution that corresponds to the original proposed model in the full version of the APQ. The five constructs of the APQ correlated in the expected direction with the Conduct Problem Subscale from the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. This study provides support for the utility of the 15-item short version of the APQ in Arabic cultures. More studies are needed to validate the performance of the short version of APQ in clinical settings. PMID:26323582

  18. Television and families: what do young children watch with their parents?

    PubMed

    St Peters, M; Fitch, M; Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Eakins, D J

    1991-12-01

    A sample of 271 3- and 5-year-olds and their families participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of television viewing patterns. 5 1-week diaries for all family members were collected at 6-month intervals. Programs were categorized as: (1) child informative, (2) child entertainment, (3) news and informative, (4) sports, (5) comedy, (6) drama, (7) action-adventure, and (8) variety-game. The majority of child programs were viewed without parents, while the majority of adult programs were watched with parents. Coviewing patterns of adult programs were predicted from parents' individual viewing habits, but not from the child's. Coviewing declined with age. Parental encouragement and regulation of viewing were orthogonal. Children whose parents encouraged viewing watched more child informative programming; children of restrictive parents watched less entertainment programming. Encouraging parents coviewed more than nonencouraging parents. Results support the assertion that parental viewing preferences, habits, and orientations toward television influence children's viewing, both with and without parents. PMID:1786724

  19. When Parents Know Little about What Happened: Parent-guided Conversations, Stress, and Young Children's Eyewitness Memory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengkai; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Kelton, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how 4- to 7-year-olds' memories for a stressor were influenced by conversations with a parent who had little knowledge of the target event, and the stress children experienced before, during, and after the event. Children (N = 43) watched a mildly stressful video before talking about it with a parent. Parents were asked to focus on either the children's feelings or the content of the video itself. A researcher interviewed the children about their memory following the conversation. Behavioral and physiological measures of children's stress were collected at multiple stages. Children recalled more inaccurate information with the parent than with the interviewer. Younger age and parent insecure attachment were associated with poorer memory. Manipulation of parents' emotion orientation did not predict memory, but individual differences in the talk did, although in different ways from what would be expected from research on conversations about shared events. Less stress (according to self-reported happiness and observed negative affect) before and after, but not during, the stressor was linked with better memory. Implications for children's memory in legal settings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27041740

  20. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use. PMID:27363465

  1. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented. PMID:20840027

  2. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children) which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building that might enable parents

  3. Physical activity in young children and their parents-An Early STOPP Sweden-China comparison study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elin; Mei, Hong; Xiu, Lijuan; Svensson, Viktoria; Xiong, Yueling; Marcus, Claude; Zhang, Jianduan; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding about socio-cultural differences in physical activity in children with high and low risk for obesity can help tailor intervention programs in different settings. This study aimed to compare objectively measured physical activity in two-year-olds and their parents, living in Stockholm, Sweden, and Wuhan, China. Data from Early STOPP was used. Children and parents wore an accelerometer in connection with the child's second birthday. Weekly and hourly patterns were examined. Correlation between child and parental physical activity was assessed. Data on 146 Swedish and 79 Chinese children and their parents was available. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm were significantly more active than their counterparts in Wuhan (children; 2989 (SD 702) vs. 1997 (SD 899) counts per minute (CPM), mothers 2625 (SD 752) vs. 2042 (SD 821) CPM; fathers 2233 (SD 749) vs. 1588 (SD 754) CPM). Activity levels were similar over a week for children and parents within both countries. No parental-child correlations, except for a paternal-son correlation in Stockholm, were found. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm are more active compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. Interventions to increase physical activity needs to take cultural aspects into account, also when targeting very young children. PMID:27404563

  4. Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults' Global Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed. PMID:26160773

  5. Brief Report: Early Lexical Comprehension in Young Children with ASD: Comparing Eye-Gaze Methodology and Parent Report.

    PubMed

    Venker, Courtney E; Haebig, Eileen; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Lexical comprehension is commonly measured by parent report, but it may be difficult for parents of children with ASD to accurately judge their child's comprehension. We compared parent report to an eye-gaze measure of lexical comprehension in which participants observed pairs of images on a screen, along with accompanying speech that named one of the two images. Twenty-two toddlers with ASD participated. Trials were included if the target word was reported as unknown. Children spent significantly more time looking at the target after it was named than before (d = 0.66). These results provide evidence that eye-gaze measures can reveal emerging lexical knowledge in young children with ASD that may otherwise be overlooked. PMID:26883646

  6. Parent-of-Origin Effects of the APOB Gene on Adiposity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hochner, Hagit; Allard, Catherine; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Chen, Jinbo; Sitlani, Colleen M; Sazdovska, Sandra; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Meigs, James B; Kwok, Pui; Hivert, Marie-France; Borecki, Ingrid B; Gomez, Felicia; Wang, Ting; van Duijn, Cornelia; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Meiner, Vardiella; Manor, Orly; Dupuis, Josée; Friedlander, Yechiel; Siscovick, David S

    2015-10-01

    Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cardio-metabolic traits account for a small proportion of the traits' heritability. To date, most association studies have not considered parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Here we report investigation of POEs on adiposity and glycemic traits in young adults. The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study (JPS), comprising 1250 young adults and their mothers was used for discovery. Focusing on 18 genes identified by previous GWAS as associated with cardio-metabolic traits, we used linear regression to examine the associations of maternally- and paternally-derived offspring minor alleles with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin. We replicated and meta-analyzed JPS findings in individuals of European ancestry aged ≤50 belonging to pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study, Family Heart Study and Erasmus Rucphen Family study (total N≅4800). We considered p<2.7x10-4 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. We identified a common coding variant in the 4th exon of APOB (rs1367117) with a significant maternally-derived effect on BMI (β = 0.8; 95%CI:0.4,1.1; p = 3.1x10-5) and WC (β = 2.7; 95%CI:1.7,3.7; p = 2.1x10-7). The corresponding paternally-derived effects were non-significant (p>0.6). Suggestive maternally-derived associations of rs1367117 were observed with fasting glucose (β = 0.9; 95%CI:0.3,1.5; p = 4.0x10-3) and insulin (ln-transformed, β = 0.06; 95%CI:0.03,0.1; p = 7.4x10-4). Bioinformatic annotation for rs1367117 revealed a variety of regulatory functions in this region in liver and adipose tissues and a 50% methylation pattern in liver only, consistent with allelic-specific methylation, which may indicate tissue-specific POE. Our findings demonstrate a maternal-specific association between a common APOB variant and adiposity, an association that was not previously detected in GWAS. These results provide evidence for the role of

  7. Parent-of-Origin Effects of the APOB Gene on Adiposity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hochner, Hagit; Allard, Catherine; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Chen, Jinbo; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Sazdovska, Sandra; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Meigs, James B.; Kwok, Pui; Hivert, Marie-France; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Gomez, Felicia; Wang, Ting; van Duijn, Cornelia; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Meiner, Vardiella; Manor, Orly; Dupuis, Josée; Friedlander, Yechiel; Siscovick, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cardio-metabolic traits account for a small proportion of the traits' heritability. To date, most association studies have not considered parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Here we report investigation of POEs on adiposity and glycemic traits in young adults. The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study (JPS), comprising 1250 young adults and their mothers was used for discovery. Focusing on 18 genes identified by previous GWAS as associated with cardio-metabolic traits, we used linear regression to examine the associations of maternally- and paternally-derived offspring minor alleles with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin. We replicated and meta-analyzed JPS findings in individuals of European ancestry aged ≤50 belonging to pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study, Family Heart Study and Erasmus Rucphen Family study (total N≅4800). We considered p<2.7x10-4 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. We identified a common coding variant in the 4th exon of APOB (rs1367117) with a significant maternally-derived effect on BMI (β = 0.8; 95%CI:0.4,1.1; p = 3.1x10-5) and WC (β = 2.7; 95%CI:1.7,3.7; p = 2.1x10-7). The corresponding paternally-derived effects were non-significant (p>0.6). Suggestive maternally-derived associations of rs1367117 were observed with fasting glucose (β = 0.9; 95%CI:0.3,1.5; p = 4.0x10-3) and insulin (ln-transformed, β = 0.06; 95%CI:0.03,0.1; p = 7.4x10-4). Bioinformatic annotation for rs1367117 revealed a variety of regulatory functions in this region in liver and adipose tissues and a 50% methylation pattern in liver only, consistent with allelic-specific methylation, which may indicate tissue-specific POE. Our findings demonstrate a maternal-specific association between a common APOB variant and adiposity, an association that was not previously detected in GWAS. These results provide evidence for the role of

  8. Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction in Young Children: Associations with Weight and Perceived Parenting Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting style has been associated with weight-related outcomes in children, but relationships between parenting, weight, and overweight-related psychological outcomes remain largely unstudied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parenting was a moderator of the relationship between overweight and psychological…

  9. Parenting Deficits of Mothers Living with HIV/AIDS who have Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of the relationships between parenting deficits and skills, along with child outcomes, in a sample of mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their 6 to 14 year old children. Sixty-two MLH (61% Latina, 26% black, 3% white, & 10% multiracial) and their well children (age 6 – 14) were recruited from the greater Los Angeles, California, region to participate in an intervention (IMAGE: Improving Mothers’ parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) designed to assist MLH with parenting and self-care skills. Constructs examined included parenting deficits, parenting skills, and child outcomes. Covariance structural modeling was used for the analyses. Covariance structural modeling confirmed the hypothesized set of construct associations. As predicted, fewer parenting deficits were associated with better parenting skills, which, in turn, were associated with better child outcomes. This study delineated further the parenting issues with which MLH struggle, providing information on the interventions needed for this population. MLH who have little confidence they can enact parenting skills and limited knowledge of basic parenting practices appear to be less likely to provide family routines consistently, monitor their children, or to engender family cohesion or a close parent-child relationship. Such parenting skills were found to be associated with child functioning. PMID:25620995

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of an In-Home Parent Training Intervention for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Griffith, Annette K.; Casey, Kathryn J.; Ingram, Stephanie; Simpson, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Boys Town In-Home Family Program on improving child behavior and parenting skills. The three-month parenting intervention was delivered to parents in their homes. All children were referred to the program by school personnel. Of the 107 families that enrolled in the study, 79% completed the intervention.…

  11. Examining multiple parenting behaviors on young children’s dietary fat consumption

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noé C.; Lee, Nanette V.L.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the association between parenting and children’s dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included: parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Baseline data from the MOVE/me Muevo project, a recreation site-based obesity prevention and control intervention trial. Participants Five hundred and forty-one parents of children between the ages of five and eight years old and living in San Diego County. Main Outcome Measure(s) Children’s fat consumption based on parent-report of a short food frequency questionnaire. Analysis A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. In exploratory analyses, a step-wise backward elimination approach was used. Results Children’s fat consumption was positively associated with parent household rules (P<.01), and negatively associated with parent modeling of rules (P<.01). Conclusions and Implications Controlling parenting behaviors such as rule setting is associated with more frequent fat consumption, whereas role modeling healthy behaviors is associated with less frequent fat consumption. Changing parenting behaviors with regards to how they feed their children are logical avenues for improving eating behaviors. (177) PMID:22591580

  12. Playing "The Ladybug Game": Parent Guidance of Young Children's Numeracy Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Ferretti, Larissa; Loving, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Parent guidance for numeracy activities and preschoolers' numeracy performance were examined in the context of playing a board game in three sessions over a two-week period. Twenty-eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a numeracy awareness group in which parents were provided with suggested numeracy activities to incorporate into the…

  13. Family Worlds: Couple Satisfaction, Parenting Style, and Mothers' and Fathers' Speech to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)

  14. Taiwanese Parents' Beliefs Regarding Young Children's Art Education and the Actual Art Achievements of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Pai, Tzu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The research goal is to ascertain the current beliefs of the parents of preschool children regarding art education in Taiwan. Background factors on the parents were tested to show the differences between the parents' beliefs regarding art education and the actual art achievements of the children. From there, relationships between the beliefs and…

  15. Early Literacy and Parental Writing Mediation in Young Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Bazelet, Idit; Goldman, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    The study compared early literacy of Israeli children aged five to six years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), contrasted parental writing mediation in the two groups and tested the relations between parents' mediation characteristics and children's early literacy skills. Each of 62 parent-child dyads (32 with ADHD)…

  16. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of child rearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. Using a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers' parenting knowledge; compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and…

  17. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  18. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markun, Patricia Maloney, Ed.

    This document contains 11 articles which are concerned with the education and development of people who are, or will be, parents. The term "parenting" is used to emphasize the need to help fathers and mothers to deal effectively with their own children. Also, the term reflects the growing awareness that child rearing is the function of many…

  19. For a Better LYFE. A Study of the LYFE-"Living for the Young Family through Education"-School Service's Program for Teenaged Parents and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    The Living for the Young Family through Education (LYFE) program is a school-based daycare and support program for adolescent parents and their children in the New York City Public Schools. Infants receive daycare services in the LYFE nursery, usually located in the high school. Parents receive social services provided by a social worker and…

  20. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  1. A Comprehensive Guide for Caregivers in Day-Care Settings: Training Child Care Workers and Parents To Reduce the At-Risk Factor in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nettie

    Noting that millions of young American children are at-risk because they have been denied bonding and communication with a caring adult, this book serves as a call for national attention and provides a guide for developing the parenting skills needed by today's parents and child caregivers. The book contends that caregivers' qualifications must…

  2. "Feeling Caught" as a Mediator of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Avoidance and Satisfaction with Their Parents in Divorced and Non-Divorced Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; Schrodt, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Tests the degree to which adolescents and young adults felt caught between their parents as a mediator between divorce and children's avoidance and satisfaction with them. Reveals that divorce was largely associated with avoidance and satisfaction through children's feelings of being caught, which were a function of their parents' demand-withdraw…

  3. Home-Based Parental Involvement in Young Children's Education: Examining the Effects of Maternal Education across U.S. Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of maternal education and ethnicity to three dimensions of home-based parental involvement in young children's education and development: parental expectations about educational attainment, children's activities at home and outside the home, and family routines. Controlling for family background variables…

  4. Promoting the Social and Communicative Behavior of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Parent-Implemented Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Yu, SeonYeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the literature on parent-implemented interventions aimed at promoting and enhancing the social and communicative behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Twelve parent-implemented intervention studies that were conducted, at least in part, in home environments and were published…

  5. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two…

  6. Parents' Appraisals of the Animacy and Likability of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    Findings from a survey of parents' ratings of seven different human-like qualities of four socially interactive robots are reported. The four robots were Popchilla, Keepon, Kaspar, and CosmoBot. The participants were 96 parents and other primary caregivers of young children with disabilities 1 to 12 years of age. Results showed that Popchilla, a…

  7. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768

  8. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2013-06-01

    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women. PMID:23564429

  9. With a Little Help from My Friends: Maternal Social Support, via Parenting, Promotes Willingness to Share in Preschoolers Born to Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about prosocial behaviours in children of young mothers. This longitudinal study involved 44 young mother (age less than 20 years at birth of first child) families and 44 older mother families, who were carefully matched for child age and gender, as well as for family structure (number of children, lone-parent status) and…

  10. "Does AIDS Hurt?": Educating Young Children about AIDS. Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Villarreal, Sylvia

    This document gives parents, teachers, and others basic information and suggested guidelines for teaching children aged 10 and younger about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics concerning AIDS and young children are discussed: (1) talking with young children about AIDS; (2) things to keep in mind when talking with children,…

  11. Adult children of parents with young-onset dementia narrate the experiences of their youth through metaphors

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Aud; Engedal, Knut; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited research exists on the development and needs of children of parents with young-onset dementia (YOD) (<65 years old). There is scarce knowledge of how these children experience the situation of growing up with a parent with dementia. This study investigates the stories of children of persons with YOD and interprets their metaphorical expressions of their experiences as a source of understanding their situation and needs during the development and course of their parent’s dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews with 14 informants (aged 18–30 years; nine daughters, five sons) were conducted in 2014 and subsequently analyzed by the informants’ use of metaphors. Steger’s three-step method for analyzing metaphors was applied. Results The analysis identified four themes in the metaphors: the informants’ relations to the disease, to the self, to the parent, and to others. From these themes, four core metaphors were abstracted: “my parent is sliding away”; “emotional chaos”; “becoming a parent to my parent”; and “a battle”. Conclusion The study revealed that growing up with a parent with dementia has a great impact on the children’s situation and their experiences of their personal development. Children of a parent with YOD are a group with unmet needs for support. A formalized system where the children can get into contact with service providers to receive tailored information and individual follow-up needs to be established. The service providers must listen to the children’s stories, perceive how metaphors convey their experiences, and recognize their need for support for their own development. PMID:26060403

  12. Gaussian Beam Propagation in a Kerr Type Metamaterial Medium Using ABCD Matrix Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, A.; Naseri, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a split step ABCD matrix method is suggested to investigate Gaussian beam propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial medium. This method is based on dividing the medium interval into subsequent steps. Meanwhile, Gaussian beam profile in every step is obtained by finding the ABCD matrix of that particular step, and is used to find the ABCD matrix of the next step. Results of the suggested matrix method have been compared with the results of numerical split-step Fourier method for a Kerr medium, which indicates a good agreement. Then, we use the ABCD matrix to investigate Gaussian beams propagation in a Kerr type metamaterial, which is also in agreement with pervious results by other methods.

  13. On the interference of two Gaussian beams and their ABCD matrix representation.

    PubMed

    Arain, Muzammil A; Mueller, Guido

    2009-10-12

    Gaussian beam propagation is well described by the q-parameter and the ABCD matrices. A variety of ABCD matrices are available that represent commonly occurring scenarios/components in optics. One important phenomenon that has not been studied in detail is the interference of two optical beams with different q-parameters undergoing interference. In this paper, we describe the effect of interference of two Gaussian beams. We derive an ABCD matrix for the addition of two beams that takes into account both the amplitude and phase difference between two beams. This ABCD matrix will help greatly in determining the propagation of beams inside complex interferometers and finding the solutions for the coupled cavity Eigenmodes. PMID:20372655

  14. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  15. Higher levels of protective parenting are associated with better young adult health: exploration of mediation through epigenetic influences on pro-inflammatory processes

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Dogan, Meeshanthini V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediated either by effects on methylation of a key inflammatory factor, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or else by association with a pro-inflammatory shift in the distribution of mononuclear blood cells. Supporting expectations, in a sample of 398 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from age 11 to age 19, parenting at ages 11–13 was associated with youth reports of better health at age 19. We found that parenting was associated with changes in TNF methylation as well as with changes in cell-type composition. However, whereas methylation of TNF was a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health, variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was not a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health. The current research suggests the potential value of examining the health-related effects of parenting in late childhood and early adolescence. Further examination of protection against pro-inflammatory tendencies conferred by parenting appears warranted. PMID:26074840

  16. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597

  17. Marital Quality Spillover and Young Children's Adjustment: Evidence for Dyadic and Triadic Parenting as Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Catherine B; Meyers, Kathryn M; Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C Emily

    2015-01-01

    Research has evidenced support for the spillover model, which posits that parents' marital functioning influences child adjustment by eroding parenting and coparenting in dyadic (mother-child and father-child) and triadic (mother-father-child) contexts. However, prior work has not simultaneously investigated dyadic and triadic parenting as mechanisms of spillover. Furthermore, although evidence indicates that the marital system affects child adjustment by influencing parents' behavior, research has not explored whether child behaviors in parent-child interactions also serve as mechanisms. To address these gaps, we examined the spillover model using observational measures of parent and child behavior in parent-child dyadic interactions as well as coparenting in triadic interactions. We also explored parent and child gender differences in spillover effects. Participants were families with children 3 to 6 years of age (n=149; 62% Caucasian). Findings indicated that marital functioning influences child adjustment by disrupting parent-child interactions in dyadic and triadic contexts, although results differed by child/parent gender and outcome examined. First, children's responsiveness to their mothers emerged as a significant mechanism of spillover effects for boys' internalizing and girls' externalizing behavior. Second, for girls and boys, marital functioning was indirectly related to children's internalizing and externalizing behavior through reductions in coparenting warmth. Finally, there was little evidence that parent gender moderated the indirect effect of dyadic parenting, except that child responsiveness to mothers (vs. to fathers) was more strongly related to child adjustment. These findings underscore the need for interventions targeting dyadic and triadic parent-child interactions in the face of marital distress. PMID:24819587

  18. Parents influence asymmetric sibling competition: experimental evidence with partially dependent young.

    PubMed

    Smiseth, Per T; Ward, Richard J S; Moore, Allen J

    2007-12-01

    Asymmetric sibling competition, which occurs when some siblings hatch as stronger competitors than others, is an important component of avian reproductive strategies. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides investigating how parents might influence the outcome of asymmetric sibling competition. In this species, as in altricial birds, different-aged offspring compete for resources provided by the parents. However, unlike altricial birds, offspring depend only partially on their parents for resources, and parents adjust the brood size directly through filial cannibalism. In the first experiment, we compared the growth and survivorship of different-aged offspring when parents could and could not influence asymmetric sibling competition. In the second experiment, we recorded behavioral interactions between different-aged offspring and parents. We found that senior offspring (early-hatched) grew faster than juniors (late-hatched) when parents were present and could influence the outcome of sibling competition, whereas seniors and juniors grew at similar rates when parents were removed. Thus, seniors benefited more than did juniors when the offspring could obtain resources by begging from the female parent. There was no difference in the survivorship of seniors and juniors. We also found that seniors and juniors spent a similar amount of time feeding from female parents, but juniors spent more time begging and were less effective at begging than seniors. Interestingly, juniors spent more time begging only as long as seniors also begged, suggesting that juniors adjusted their begging effort in response to direct competition against seniors for resources provided by parents. Our study provides novel insights into the ecological significance of asymmetric sibling competition by showing that asymmetric sibling competition took place when parents were present and offspring could obtain resources by begging. In contrast, we found no

  19. Parent Training Outcomes among Young Children with Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems with or At-Risk for Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Linares, Dainelys; Blake, Clair A.; Rodriguez, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    School-aged children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt, and lack of caring behaviors) traits (CP+CU) tend to yield less benefit from traditional interventions than do their low-CU counterparts, particularly with respect to CP outcomes. To date, little is known about treatment response among young children with CP+CU, particularly those with or at risk for developmental delay. Components of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a parent training program effective at reducing CP in young children, have compelling theoretical support for addressing core deficits unique to children with CP+CU and have been used successfully with young children with developmental delay. Our first aim was to test the psychometric properties of a measure of CU traits in preschool children with and without developmental delay. Our second aim was to test whether CU traits predicted post-treatment CP after controlling for initial levels of CP. Participants were 63 families of young children (mean age = 3.87 years), with or at-risk for developmental delay, who presented with elevated CP and were treated in a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Results indicated that developmentally delayed children with high levels of CU traits, but not children at-risk for delay due to premature birth, showed significantly poorer CP outcomes following treatment with PCIT than did children scoring low on CU traits, even after controlling for initial CP severity. The implications of these findings with regard to treating and preventing severe disruptive behaviors among young children with CP+CU are discussed. PMID:24511217

  20. Supportive relationships within ongoing families: cross-lagged effects between components of support and adjustment in parents and young adult children.

    PubMed

    Lanz, M; Tagliabue, S

    2014-12-01

    Italy is the first country in which the phenomenon of cohabitation of parents and young adult children was examined. From the earliest studies, it seemed clear that the transition to adulthood occurs within the family of origin: indeed, the successful outcome of this transition depends on the quality of family relationships. Using the Social Relations Model, this study examines the importance of the components of support within family relationships during the transition of young adults from university to job contexts (Kenny & La Voie, 1984). The cross-lagged influence among the components of perceived support and the adjustment of family members has also been investigated. Findings show that family components of support are significant for perception in both parents and young adults. Furthermore, cross-lagged models reveal different results for parents than for young adults. Discussion of results regarding the transition to adulthood and family theory is provided. PMID:25154544

  1. First aid strategies that are helpful to young people developing a mental disorder: beliefs of health professionals compared to young people and parents

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Morgan, Amy J; Wright, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about suicidal feelings. PMID:18538033

  2. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  3. Grant writing for childbirth educators: lessons learned from the resource center for young parents-to-be.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Brenda S; Broussard, Anne B

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining funding to support community-based childbirth education programs can be a challenge for childbirth educators who may have little grant-writing experience. This article was written by two nurse educators/nurse-midwives who have been involved for over 10 years with a grant-funded parenting and childbirth education program for pregnant teens. It reviews the background of the Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be, suggests grant-funding sources, and explains the building of partnerships in the community. The basic steps involved in the grant-writing process are presented as well as the importance of follow-up evaluations and reports. Grant-writing skills and the ability to forge partnerships with other community organizations can be important tools for childbirth educators and health-care professionals. PMID:21197129

  4. Grant Writing for Childbirth Educators: Lessons Learned From the Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Brenda S.; Broussard, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining funding to support community-based childbirth education programs can be a challenge for childbirth educators who may have little grant-writing experience. This article was written by two nurse educators/nurse-midwives who have been involved for over 10 years with a grant-funded parenting and childbirth education program for pregnant teens. It reviews the background of the Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be, suggests grant-funding sources, and explains the building of partnerships in the community. The basic steps involved in the grant-writing process are presented as well as the importance of follow-up evaluations and reports. Grant-writing skills and the ability to forge partnerships with other community organizations can be important tools for childbirth educators and health-care professionals. PMID:21197129

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    PubMed

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior. PMID:26521948

  6. A Home Teaching Program for Parents of Very Young Deaf Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Freeman; Horton, Kathryn B.

    A demonstration home provided a parent oriented program and audiologic management for 94 deaf preschoolers (mean age 2 years 4 months). Each child underwent a trial period with different hearing aids before permanent recommendation was made. Parents were present at these clinic sessions; they also received instruction in how to encourage auditory…

  7. Anti-Smoking Socialization Beliefs among Rural Native American and White Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses similarities and differences in anti-smoking socialization beliefs of White and Native American parents in a low-income, rural population in northeastern Oklahoma. Data are from a population-based, cross-sectional children's environmental health study in which in-home interviews were conducted with 356 parents (56.2% White,…

  8. PARENTAL INFLUENCES ON YOUNG GIRLS' FRUIT AND VEGETABLE, MICRONUTRIENT, AND FAT INTAKES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate parents' fruit and vegetable intake and their use of pressure to eat in child feeding as predictors of their 5-year-old daughters' fruit and vegetable, micronutrient, and fat intakes. Data were obtained from 191 non-Hispanic white families with 5-year-old girls. Parent data included repo...

  9. Parent Directiveness in Free Play with Young Children with Physical Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Moskal, Lisa; Hoffmann, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Children with disabilities are reported to experience a high degree of directive parent interaction compared to typically developing children because of poor communicative or task skills. This study examines relationships between parent behaviors (directiveness and contingency) and child skills (language and motor) for children with physical or…

  10. Children's Representation of Parental Figures in Young Physically Abused and Non-Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio-Quintin, Ercilia; Couture, Germain

    This study examined differences between maltreated and non-maltreated children in their perception of parental figures and explored differential perceptions of maternal and paternal figures. Using the Test for Detection of Parental Violence (TDPV), 22 maltreated 4- to 7-year-olds referred by Youth Protection Services were compared to 22…

  11. The Relation between Parenting Transitions and Adjustment in Young Adolescents: A Multisample Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the effects of and relationship between the number of parenting transitions (divorce, remarriage) and adjustment in three samples of adolescent girls and boys not identified as being at risk for problems. Found qualified evidence of a negative linear relationship between the number of parenting transitions experienced and child…

  12. Resilience and the Course of Daily Parenting Stress in Families of Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, E. D.; Crnic, K. A.; Blacher, J.; Baker, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting stresses have consistently been found to be higher in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID); yet, some families are able to be resilient and thrive in the face of these challenges. Despite the considerable research on stress in families of ID, there is still little known about the stability and compensatory…

  13. Read It Aloud! A Parent's Guide to Sharing Books with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Monty; Haas, Laurie Joy

    By blending reading aloud, in particular "performance reading," with follow-up discussion, related activities, and plenty of wordplay, parents can prepare their children to think, communicate, and succeed in the adult world. Performance reading helps parents learn to read wordless books to relate to infants/toddlers; explore sounds of words to…

  14. Parental Efficacy and the Development of Social Competence in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Hassell, Tammy

    This study examined the relation of two aspects of parental efficacy (locus of control and interpersonal support) to the social competence of 62 children aged 2 to 5 years in a preschool setting. The following assessment instruments were used: Schaefer's (1979) Locus of Control Inventory to measure parental locus of control; Paul's Home Support…

  15. Parenting of Young Children by Fathers in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert A.; Solis-Camara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    Explores the role of culture in parenting by comparing the expectations and parenting practices of fathers in Mexico and in the United States. Shows that Mexican and U.S. fathers did not differ significantly. Notes that in both cultures fathers from lower socioeconomic families were less nurturing and used more discipline. (DSK)

  16. Goal orientations of young male ice hockey players and their parents.

    PubMed

    Bergin, David A; Habusta, Steven F

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the researchers investigated the relationship between parent and player dispositional goal orientations associated with playing youth hockey. The authors used the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (J. L. Duda & J. Whitehead, 1998) to measure task and ego orientation in 123 boys (10-13 years old) and 1 of their parents. Sons rated their own goal orientations for hockey and their perceptions of their parent's goal orientations. Parents rated their goal orientations for their son and their perceptions of their son's goal orientations. Mothers and fathers did not differ in their goal orientations for their son. Travel-team and nontravel-team players did not differ. For ego orientation, the son's self-ratings correlated significantly with the parent's goals for the son, but not for task orientation. Sons reported being significantly more ego-oriented than their parents desired. Sons perceived that their parents had goal orientations similar to their own. The data from this study are congruent with the assertion that parents socialize their children's goal orientations and that ego orientation may be more salient and easily communicated than task orientation. PMID:15636385

  17. Distinct Pathways from Parental Cultural Orientation to Young Children's Bilingual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Among immigrant families, parents are important socialization agents in transmitting cultural practices to their children, including the use of the heritage language (HL). In the current study, we examined whether parents' cultural orientation facilitates children's (N = 79; M[subscript age] = 5.11 years; 57% boys; 50% enrolled in HL schools) HL…

  18. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  19. Enduring Links: Parents' Expectations and Their Young Adult Children's Gender-Typed Occupational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Janis E.; Chhin, Christina S.; Bleeker, Martha M.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine (1) the relation between parents' gender-typed occupational expectations for their children at age 15 and their children's own reports of occupational expectations at age 17; (2) the long-term relations between parents' gender-typed occupational expectations for their children at age 17 and their…

  20. Immigration and the interplay of parenting, preschool enrollment, and young children's academic skills.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents' support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (Ages 2 to 5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment, and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia, and did not vary by immigrants' socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems, as well as "child effects" and population diversity, in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  1. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  2. Research with Children and Young People: The Issue of Parental (Proxy) Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the potential problems with the parental consent requirement, substantiated with examples mainly from healthcare and social research studies. This will illustrate how the parental consent requirement, instead of promoting high ethical standards, may result in some instances of children's rights and ethical considerations being…

  3. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale (POPRS) with Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Crowley, Jeannine

    The Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale (POPRS) was originally developed with a late adolescent population to assess the extent of perceived reciprocity in adolescent-parent relations. This study examined the reliability and validity of using POPRS with younger adolescents. Subjects, 655 males and 636 females ranging in age from 13 to 18,…

  5. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  6. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  7. Parent Perceptions of Pragmatic Skills in Teens and Young Adults Using AAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senner, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of social skills is critical in the successful academic inclusion and competitive employment of individuals with disabilities. Parent involvement in identification of social skills targets for intervention is a valuable first step in the intervention process. A total of 21 parents completed the Pragmatics Profile from the "Clinical…

  8. Teachers Helping Parents To Raise the Level of Curiosity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Methlyn

    This paper presents methods by which teachers can show parents how to use opportunities they have in everyday life to peak the interest and curiosity of their children. It establishes steps to build a workshop for teachers and day care providers, sharing tips and advice and displaying books and materials which parents can use in their homes. After…

  9. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    A summer parent involvement project was set up in a Chicago inner city public school in a Hispanic neighborhood. The eight-session program was intended to help parents: (1) become involved with the school program by becoming comfortable with the school setting; (2) enjoy reading and writing and replicate these experiences with their children; (3)…

  10. Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2008-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group…

  11. Predictive and Concurrent Validity of Parent Concern about Young Children at Risk for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Christine Reiner; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents' concerns about their children's development were examined prospectively at 14, 24, and 36 months for 89 younger siblings of a child with autism. Parent reported concern was high at all ages (40-75%) and was higher at 24 and 36 months in children with ASD than non-ASD outcomes (p less than 0.05). Communication concerns were reported most…

  12. Parents' Perspectives: An Evaluation of Case Management Interventions in Home Visiting Programs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    In home visiting programs for children younger than age three, home visitors work with parents to enhance the child's environment. This study examined how the home visitor-parent relationship, amount of contact, and level of need affected the intensity of case management interventions received. Researchers interviewed 90 mothers to measure the…

  13. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  14. Predictors of Parenting Stress among Vietnamese Mothers of Young Children with and without Cognitive Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study examined whether Vietnamese mothers of children with cognitive delay experienced more parenting stress compared to mothers of children without delay, and the factors that contribute to the parenting stress. Method: The study sample included 225 mothers of children with and without cognitive delays from Hue City in Vietnam.…

  15. The Effects of Therapeutic Storytelling and Behavioral Parent Training on Noncompliant Behavior in Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Laura T.; Cook, J. William; Silverman, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of therapeutic storytelling and behavioral parent training in treating four clinic-referred, noncomplaint males. In condition I, one therapeutic storytelling session was followed by one behavioral parent training session. In condition II, the sequence was reversed. Results indicate that both treatments decreased frequency and…

  16. Self-Efficacy Beliefs amongst Parents of Young Children: Validation of a Self-Report Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The self-efficacy belief (SEB) concept is discussed in the context of parenting. A questionnaire, the "Echelle Globale du Sentiment de Competence Parentale" (EGSCP), assessing several domain-specific SEBs and three related cognitive constructs, was developed with 705 French-speaking parents of 3- to 7-year-old children. The EGSCP displayed good…

  17. Filial/Family Play Therapy for Single Parents of Young Children Attending Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Dee; Bratton, Sue C.; Brandt, Marielle A.

    2000-01-01

    States that many single parents are attending institutions of higher education to qualify for employment that will ensure the economic security of their families. Focuses on the use of filial/family play therapy with single parents attending community colleges as an effective intervention for improving the present and future welfare of these…

  18. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  19. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  20. Effect of the Adapted NASA Mission X International Child Fitness Program on Young Children and their Parents in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa; Reeves, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. Childhood obesity is global public health concern including in South Korea where 16.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls are overweight or obese in 2011. Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed for prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity prevention programs for young children may have a greater intervention effect than in older children. The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating by tapping into their excitement for training like an astronaut. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of the adapted NASA MX intervention in promoting PA in young children and in improving parents' related perspectives.

  1. Effects of parental comments on body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in young adults: a sociocultural model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2009-06-01

    This study examined a sociocultural model of the influence of parental comments on body shape and eating concerns among males and females. Questionnaires were completed by 338 undergraduates. Participants reported levels of perceived parental comments, internalization of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimia. Results revealed that, regardless of gender, internalization and appearance comparison only partially mediated the relationship between parental comments and the outcome variables. The final model for females explained a larger proportion of the variability in body shape and eating concerns than in males, with positive and negative parental comments directly related to body dissatisfaction and through it to eating outcomes. In males, only negative comments were directly related to body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the role of parental influences in sociocultural models of the development of body dissatisfaction and eating concerns, and the gender-specific patterns of sociocultural influence. PMID:19464242

  2. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  3. The Role of Parents and Partners in the Pregnancy Behaviors of Young Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy among young Latinas demands attention. These teens have higher birthrates than other teen populations. Seven focus groups (N = 40) were conducted with Latinas to explore how relationships between young Latinas and their mothers, fathers, and male partners contribute to teen pregnancy. ATLAS/ti (a qualitative data analysis software…

  4. Immigration and the Interplay of Parenting, Preschool Enrollment, and Young Children's Academic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  5. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  6. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

  7. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  8. Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2006-12-01

    Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

  9. Predictive and concurrent validity of parent concern about young children at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christine Reiner; Landa, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Parents' concerns about their children's development were examined prospectively at 14, 24, and 36 months for 89 younger siblings of a child with autism. Parent reported concern was high at all ages (40-75%) and was higher at 24 and 36 months in children with ASD than non-ASD outcomes (p < .05). Communication concerns were reported most frequently. Parent concern compared to impairment classification based on concurrent standardized tests provided better specificity than sensitivity, and was better for communication than social functioning. Parent communication concern (but not social concern) at 24 months and 36 months predicted ASD versus non-ASD outcome; however, children's impairment on standardized tests yielded greater predictive value at all ages (p < .001). Close monitoring of this at risk group is warranted. PMID:21584850

  10. 'He's got his father's bias': Parental influence on weight bias in young children.

    PubMed

    Spiel, Emma C; Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Damiano, Stephanie R; Gregg, Karen J; McLean, Siân A

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to explore the role of parents in the transmission of stereotypical body size attitudes and awareness of weight loss strategies to preschool children. Participants were 279 3-year-old children and their parents, who provided data at baseline and 1 year later. Parents completed self-report body size attitude and dieting measures. Child weight bias and awareness of weight loss strategies were assessed through interview. Over time, negative associations with large bodies and awareness of weight loss strategies increased. Fathers' attitudes prospectively predicted boys' weight bias and awareness of weight loss strategies. Among girls, parental attitudes were less predictive. Findings confirm the importance of fathers in the development of boys' body attitudes and inform prevention programmes. PMID:26666696

  11. Parental modelling, media equipment and screen-viewing among young children: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Lucas, Patricia J; Turner, Katrina M; Bentley, Georgina F; Goodred, Joanna K; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Fox, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether parental screen-viewing, parental attitudes or access to media equipment were associated with the screen-viewing of 6-year-old to 8-year-old children. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Online survey. Main outcome Parental report of the number of hours per weekday that they and, separately, their 6-year-old to 8-year-old child spent watching TV, using a games console, a smart-phone and multiscreen viewing. Parental screen-viewing, parental attitudes and pieces of media equipment were exposures. Results Over 75% of the parents and 62% of the children spent more than 2 h/weekday watching TV. Over two-thirds of the parents and almost 40% of the children spent more than an hour per day multiscreen viewing. The mean number of pieces of media equipment in the home was 5.9 items, with 1.3 items in the child's bedroom. Children who had parents who spent more than 2 h/day watching TV were over 7.8 times more likely to exceed the 2 h threshold. Girls and boys who had a parent who spent an hour or more multiscreen viewing were 34 times more likely to also spend more than an hour per day multiscreen viewing. Media equipment in the child's bedroom was associated with higher TV viewing, computer time and multiscreen viewing. Each increment in the parental agreement that watching TV was relaxing for their child was associated with a 49% increase in the likelihood that the child spent more than 2 h/day watching TV. Conclusions Children who have parents who engage in high levels of screen-viewing are more likely to engage in high levels of screen-viewing. Access to media equipment, particularly in the child's bedroom, was associated with higher levels of screen-viewing. Family-based strategies to reduce screen-viewing and limit media equipment access may be important ways to reduce child screen-viewing. PMID:23619088

  12. E-health and health care behaviour of parents of young children: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van der Gugten, Anne C.; de Leeuw, Rob J. R. J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Kars, Marijke C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Internet plays a huge role in providing information about health care problems. However, it is unknown how parents use and perceive the internet as a source of information and how this influences health care utilisation when it comes to common complaints in infants. The objective was to evaluate the perception parents have on the role of internet in providing health care information on common symptoms in infants and its effects on health care utilisation. Design A qualitative design was chosen. Setting and subjects Parents were recruited from a population-based birth-cohort and selected purposefully. Main outcome measures Semi-structured interviews were used to receive information of parentsʼ ideas. Thematic coding and constant comparison were used for interview transcript analysis. Results Ten parents were interviewed. Parents felt anxious and responsible when their child displayed common symptoms, and appeared to be in need of information. They tried to obtain information from relatives, but more so from the internet, because of its accessibility. Nevertheless, information found on the internet had several limitations, evoked new doubts and insecurity and although parents compared information from multiple sources, only the physician was able to take away the insecurity. The internet did not interfere in the decision to consult the physician. Conclusions Parents need information about their childrenʼs symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts and insecurities and internet information did not play a role in parental decision making. Information gathered online may complement the information from physicians, rather than replace it. Key pointsInternet plays an increasing role in providing health care information but it is unknown how this influences health care utilisation.Our study suggests that:Parents need information about their children’s symptoms and the internet is a

  13. Parental history of hypertension is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber in young girls.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Baur, Louise A; Hardy, Louise L; Wang, Jie Jin; Teber, Erdahl; Wong, Tien Y; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to assess the associations between parental history of hypertension and indicators of cardiovascular risk (retinal vessel diameter, presence of obesity, and elevated blood pressure) in prepubertal children. There were 1739 (77.7% of those eligible) 6-year-old students (863 girls and 876 boys) who were examined from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions, including whether they have/had hypertension. Retinal images were taken with a digital fundus camera, and retinal vessel caliber was quantified using computer software. Anthropometric (height, weight, percentage of body fat, and body mass index) and blood pressure measures were collected. There were 160 children (9.2%) with a positive parental history of hypertension (either biological mother and/or father). Children with a positive versus negative parental history of hypertension had significantly higher body mass index (16.8 versus 16.5 kg/m(2); P=0.04) and systolic blood pressure (101.3 versus 99.8 mm Hg; P=0.01). Girls with positive versus negative parental history of hypertension had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (≈3.1 mm Hg; P=0.01) and narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (≈4.3 μm; P=0.0004). Positive parental history of hypertension was not associated with mean retinal vascular caliber among boys. We show that a positive parental history of hypertension in healthy prepubertal girls, but not boys, is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar vessels, likely conveying a predisposition to develop hypertension later in life. These findings may indicate the need for cardiovascular disease prevention measures starting early in life among offspring of hypertensive parents. PMID:21768527

  14. Change in Parenting Democracy during the Transition to Adolescence: The Roles of Young Adolescents’ Noncompliance and Mothers’ Perceived Influence

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Rebecca A.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study assessed the direct relation between young adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and mothers’ democratic childrearing practices as well as the potential mediating role of mothers’ perceived influence during the transition to adolescence. Design Three years of self-reported adolescent noncompliance, perceived influence, and parenting democracy were gathered from 166 mothers and their firstborn children (55% female), ages 9 – 11 years at time 1. Results Longitudinal path analysis indicated a total effect between adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and higher maternal democracy. In addition, the total effect was mediated by mothers’ perceived influence, such that adolescents’ regulated noncompliance at time 1 was associated with greater perceptions of influence at time 2, which, in turn, was associated with greater maternal democracy at time 3. Conclusions Mothers with young adolescents who resist in a relatively mature, regulated manner tend to have more positive perceptions of their influence on their emerging adolescents’ behavior. In turn, mothers expecting to maintain their influence despite normative adolescent resistance are more likely to use democratic parenting strategies, granting their adolescents more input in decisions. PMID:22844228

  15. Test of a Cultural Framework of Parenting With Latino Families of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Esther J.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective. PMID:22686147

  16. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  17. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  18. The influence of authoritative parenting during adolescence on depressive symptoms in young adulthood: examining the mediating roles of self-development and peer support.

    PubMed

    Liem, Joan H; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara

    2010-01-01

    A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between authoritative parenting during adolescence (T1) and depressive symptoms during young adulthood (T3). T2 sense of self as worthy and efficacious and depressive symptoms, but not peer support, fully mediated the effect of authoritative parenting on T3 depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the importance of parenting for healthy, emerging adult self-development and the continuing influence of parenting styles during adolescence on young adult depressive symptoms. PMID:20333896

  19. Parenting attitudes and behaviors of low-income single mothers with young children.

    PubMed

    Sachs, B; Pietrukowicz, M; Hall, L A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parenting attitudes and behaviors of low-income single mothers with preschool-aged children. As part of a longitudinal study of the health of single-mother families, 44 unstructured and semistructured interviews were conducted over a 1-year period with a subsample of nine mothers. The mothers modelled desired behaviors and values, but held unrealistic expectations for child behaviors. They viewed their parenting responsibilities as overwhelming. The mothers perceived their children as unappreciative of the efforts required to maintain the family unit. Discipline was often punitive and directed toward aversive behaviors with a single child as the scapegoat for parenting frustrations. Implications for interventions are addressed. PMID:9103774

  20. Psycho-social outcome of parents and young children after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, J E; Hulson, B; Trompeter, R S

    1998-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to assess whether renal transplantation in children under the age of 6 years has an effect on the child's later behaviour and eating and whether this outcome is related to differences in the levels of stress and coping skills shown by the parents. In this small sample of 14 children aged under 8 years, renal transplantation in the pre-school age range did not have any marked adverse effect on the children's emotional or behavioural state. The children's severe eating problems dramatically improved after transplant. Long-term, early tube-feeding does not impair the development of normal feeding patterns in these children. Parental stress levels were not elevated in the post-transplant period and parents tended to use passive coping strategies to manage the chronic illness in their child. PMID:9468781

  1. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  2. Cutting a Long Story Short? The Clinical Relevance of Asking Parents, Nurses, and Young Children Themselves to Identify Children's Mental Health Problems by One or Two Questions

    PubMed Central

    Joukamaa, Matti; Tamminen, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. Assessing young children's mental health is a crucial and challenging task. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of asking parents, nurses, and young children themselves to identify children's mental health problems by only one or two questions. Methods. In regular health check-ups of 4- to 9-year-old children (n = 2682), parents and public health nurses assessed by one question whether the child had any emotional or behavioral difficulties. The child completed a self-evaluation enquiry on his/her emotional well-being. A stratified proportion of the participating parents were invited to a diagnostic interview. Results. Sensitivities were fairly good for the parents' (68%), nurses' (65%), and their combined (79%) one-question screens. Difficulties identified by parents and nurses were major risks (OR 10–14) for any child psychiatric disorders (P < 0.001). The child's self-evaluation was related to 2-fold to 3-fold risks (P < 0.05) for any psychiatric diagnosis, for any emotional diagnosis, and for negative situational factors. Conclusion. The one-question screen for parents and public health nurses together quite adequately identified the young children with mental health problems. The child's self-evaluation provided relevant and complementary information on his/her mental health and especially emotional problems. PMID:25614880

  3. The Diagnostic Interview of Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children: psychometric properties in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; de la Osa, Núria; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep Maria; Reich, Wendy

    2011-11-30

    There is a need for reliable and well-validated diagnostic measures for studying psychopathology in preschool and young children. The goal is to study the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children (DICA-PPYC) in the general population. A sample of 852 Spanish school children, aged 3 to 7 years, were randomly selected and screened for a double phase design. A total of 251 families were interviewed with the DICA-PPYC and 244 participated in a test-retest design. Different measures of psychopathology and functional impairment were also administered. Test-retest agreement with a mean interval of 8.8 days ranged from excellent to slight (kappa from 1 to 0.39) for DSM-IV-TR and from good to fair (kappa from 0.77 to 0.49) for Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age diagnoses. Attenuation between test and retest was not significant for the prevalence of diagnoses, although it was significant for the number of externalising and total symptoms in the interview. The diagnoses converged moderately with the CBCL and Dominic scores. The presence of diagnoses in the DICA-PPYC significantly differentiated preschoolers and young children who had used mental health services, were more impaired, and presented more severe psychopathology measured by dimensional scales. The DICA-PPYC is a reliable and valid semi-structured interview schedule for preschool and young children, and can serve to advance the knowledge and mental health care of this population. PMID:21620481

  4. Parent-Implemented Mand Training: Acquisition of Framed Manding in a Young Boy with Partial Hemispherectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-implemented mand training on the acquisition of framed manding in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone partial hemispherectomy. Framed manding became the predominant mand form when and only when the intervention was implemented with each preferred toy, but minimal generalization to untrained toys …

  5. Intellectual Ability in Young Men Separated Temporarily from Their Parents in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka; Osmond, Clive; Forsen, Tom; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of early life stress (ELS) on intellectual ability in 2,725 20-year-old male participants, of whom 321 were separated temporarily (mean 1.7 years) from both their parents during World War II, at an average age of 4.3 years. Intellectual ability was tested when entering compulsory military service. The separated men had…

  6. Help seeking by parents in military families on behalf of their young children.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Allison E Flittner; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Willerton, Elaine; Cardin, Jean-François; Topp, David; Mustillo, Sarah; Lester, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, many children have experienced a parental deployment, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Research in the general population has shown that while many services are available for families with children experiencing problems, the rate of service utilization is low. This study examined help-seeking processes in military families in relation to children's problems. We collected data on emotional and behavioral problems from a sample of military parents with children ranging in age from zero to 10 years. While prevalence of children with problems was similar to prior research, results in this study suggested that military parents were alert to problems. Although military parents' help-seeking processes were similar to those documented in civilian studies in many respects, we did not find a significant gender difference in the recognition of problems. Furthermore, we found that children's experiences of deployment were related to use of services. Families who used services most often relied on primary care providers. These findings suggest military families are mindful of the possibility of their children having problems. In addition, many families utilize civilian services. Therefore, it is important to ensure that front-line civilian providers fully understand the context of military family issues. PMID:26213792

  7. Inclusive Approaches to Parent Engagement for Young English Language Learners and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Reyes, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have argued for collaborative parent involvement programs for minority students and English language learners' (ELLs) families to improve their academic success. Despite the trend toward collaboration, students' home languages and culture continue to be seen as a liability in the learning process; this sentiment has created a backlash…

  8. Young Women's Phenomenological Sense of Father and Parental Marital Relationship and Their Relation to Paternal Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Susan

    The meaning fathers have in the lives of women as they are growing up was investigated. Women's perceptions of their fathers on several factors were measured to determine how these perceptions differed with father loss, cause and time of loss, perception of parental marital relationships, and presence of an older brother. Questionnaires were…

  9. Acculturation Attitudes among Young Immigrants as a Function of Perceived Parental Attitudes toward Cultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    1995-01-01

    Investigated acculturation attitudes among Third World immigrants in a culturally homogeneous society. Responses of adolescents 10 through 17 years of age (n=568) indicated that integration and separation were the 2 preferred forms of acculturation. Perceived parental attitudes accounted for about 20% of the variation of the adolescents' mode of…

  10. The effects of relationship focused intervention on Korean parents and their young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Mee; Mahoney, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of Relationship Focused Intervention (RFI) on a sample of Korean mothers and their preschool-aged children with disabilities. Subjects were 18 mothers of children with developmental problems (ages 3-8 years). Ten of these mothers were assigned to an RFI Treatment group and eight to a No RFI Control group. The RFI was adopted from the Family/Child Curriculum (Mahoney, G. (1999; Family/Child Curriculum: A relationship focused approach to parent education/early intervention. Tallmadge, OH: Family Child Learning Center). This intervention focused on teaching mothers to use responsive interactive strategies through a process of modeling, coaching, role-playing and video feedback. It was implemented with parents during weekly group and individual intervention sessions that were conducted over three months period. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention assessments of parent-child interaction indicated that RFI was effective at encouraging parents to become more responsive, affective and achievement oriented with their children. These changes in mothers' interactional style were associated with an 18% increase in children's interactive behaviors. Regression analyses indicated that increases in children's behavior were associated positively with maternal responsiveness and negatively with maternal achievement orientation. Results from this study are discussed in terms of (a) implementing RFI with Korean mothers and (b) the mechanisms by which RFI promotes children's development. PMID:15590243

  11. Advice for Parents: Recommendations for Home Literacy Activities Based upon Studies of Young Successful Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    Two research studies hold promise of assisting educators in developing appropriate recommendations for helping parents help their children learn to read and write. Dolores Durkin studied children who entered school already knowing how to read. She followed the students for several years and found that the early readers maintained or extended their…

  12. Food Shopping Behaviors and Food Use by Well-Educated Young Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassler, Eunice; Newell, G. Kathleen

    1982-01-01

    Investigated relationships between food shopping behavior and food patterns in two-parent families having at least one preschool-age child. Cost, family preferences, and nutritive value were the most important factors influencing food choices. However, neither costs nor nutritive value considerations appeared very important with respect to food…

  13. Supporting Positive Parenting for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The PACT Therapeutic Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping…

  14. From External Regulation to Self-Regulation: Early Parenting Precursors of Young Children's Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Whipple, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with proposals emphasizing the role of early experience in infant brain development, this study investigated the prospective links between quality of parent-infant interactions and subsequent child executive functioning (EF), including working memory, impulse control, and set shifting. Maternal sensitivity, mind-mindedness and autonomy…

  15. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  16. Materials for Sex Equality Education for Use by Teachers, Parents, and Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Organization for Women, Champaign, IL. Greater Champaign Area Chapter.

    These materials were compiled to help provide a better education for all children by increasing parents' and teachers' awareness of sexism and by providing new ideas and programs for helping people to overcome sex-role stereotyping in the schools. Included in the packet are: (1) a questionnaire designed to provoke thought before the beginning of a…

  17. Physical Activity in Young Children: A Systematic Review of Parental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jessica; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dwyer, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the strength of associations of the key parental factors measured in studies examining early childhood physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature, using databases PsychINFO, Medline, Academic Search Complete, PSYCHinfo, and CINHAL, published between January 1986 and…

  18. Intergenerational Correlates of Daily Coping Behavior in Single-Parent Mothers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Olson, Sheryl L.

    This study examined the relationship between mothers' recollections of those who cared for them during their childhood and mothers' ability to cope with the daily stress of being a single parent living in poverty. Subjects were 52 low-income, single mothers of preschool-age children. Mothers' recollections of caregiving were assessed by means of a…

  19. A Calendar of Activities for Parents of Handicapped Students, 1983-1984. Developmentally Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.

    These activities for handicapped preschool children in the Washington, D.C. school district can be used by all parents interested in developing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format offers daily activities ranging from brief discussions and exercises to day-long family excursions. Each month's activities cover…

  20. Keys to Disciplining Your Young Child: From Infant to Toddler. Barron's Parenting Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Eleanor; Siegel, Linda

    Close parent-child relationships begin with an early, effective approach to everyday discipline problems. This book focuses on children from infancy to age five and discusses practical ways to handle common discipline problems using an approach of identifying the problem and providing a goal behavior. Thirty eight chapters address the following…

  1. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking. PMID:24019558

  2. Parents' Experiences of Home-Based Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Corinna F.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has documented the benefits to children with autism of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), little has focused on the impact of EIBI on families. Using a semi-structured format, we interviewed 53 parents whose children had received 2 years of EIBI to obtain detailed first person accounts of the perceived benefits…

  3. Music Play Zone II: Deepening Parental Empowerment as Music Guides for Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2012-01-01

    With the intent of facilitating musical development of children enrolled in early childhood music courses, the purpose of this research was to describe the ongoing use of an online social networking site by parents of preschool children. Six families attended a 45-min early childhood music class each week for 10 weeks and responded to assignments…

  4. A Shared Reading Intervention with Parents to Enhance Young Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…

  5. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    PubMed

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

  6. Contingent Interactions between Parents and Young Children with Severe Expressive Communication Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Grabast, Jodi; Burgers Jerke, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Parents and their children with severe expressive impairments may have limited successful communicative exchanges due to each partner's difficulty in recognizing and responding to communicative behaviors of the other. This study examined the communicative functions and modes of communication that received contingent responses in 20 dyads of…

  7. Predicting Young Children's Externalizing Problems: Interactions among Effortful Control, Parenting, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karreman, Annemiek; van Tuijl, Cathy; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dekovi, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between observed temperamental effortful control and observed parenting in the prediction of externalizing problems. Child gender effects on these relations were examined. The relations were examined concurrently when the child was 3 years old and longitudinally at 4.5 years. The sample included 89 two-parent…

  8. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a collaborative parent-involvement project for inner-city Hispanic primary students sponsored by the Chicago Community Trust. A university professor, two graduate assistants, the principal, and the school community representative designed a summer program featuring hospitality and support activities, free books, and hands-on science and…

  9. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  10. Reaching Out to Help Low Income Parents Foster Their Young Children's Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Derek

    A study examined the effectiveness of the West Heidelberg (Australia) Early Literacy Project (WHELP), which helps low income and working class parents develop the literacy skills of their 4-year-old children by, among other things, reading regularly to them. The project developed through three phases with three different methods of delivering…

  11. We were all young once: an intragenomic perspective on parent-offspring conflict.

    PubMed

    Bossan, Benjamin; Hammerstein, Peter; Koehncke, Arnulf

    2013-03-01

    Parent-offspring conflict (POC) describes the evolutionary conflict between offspring and their parents over parental resource allocation. Offspring are expected to demand more resources than their parents are willing to supply because these offspring are more related to their own than to their siblings' offspring. Kin selection acts to limit these divergent interests. Our model departs from previous models by describing POC as an intragenomic conflict between genes determining life-history traits during infancy or parenthood. We explain why a direct fitness approach that measures the total fitness effect during exactly one generation is required to correctly assess POC in interbrood rivalry. We find that incorrect assumptions in previous models led to an overestimation of the scope of POC. Moreover, we show why the degree of monogamy is more important for POC than previously thought. Overall, we demonstrate that a life-history-centred intragenomic approach is necessary to correctly interpret POCs. We further discuss how our work relates to the current debate about the usefulness of inclusive fitness theory. PMID:23303542

  12. Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; Culp, Anne M.; Culp, Rex; Scheib, Carrie; Owen, Kelly; Tilley, Angela; Murphy, Molly; Parkman, Lauren; Coleman, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by…

  13. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  14. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  15. Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Young Children: A Comparison of Teachers and Parents as Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of a personal safety program with 172 preschoolers found that participants demonstrated greater knowledge about sexual abuse and higher levels of personal safety skills than controls, that children taught by their parents recognized inappropriate-touch requests better than children taught by teachers, and that children taught at both…

  16. Paranoid Thinking, Quality of Relationships with Parents, and Social Outcomes among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.; Kwong, Wing Yee

    2011-01-01

    Research based on clinical samples suggests that poor-quality relationships with parents are associated with paranoid disorders; however, no research has investigated such relations within nonclinical populations. Undergraduate students (N = 179) completed self-reports of paranoid thinking, quality of relationships with mothers and fathers,…

  17. Identifying parents' perceptions about physical activity: a qualitative exploration of salient behavioural, normative and control beliefs among mothers and fathers of young children.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M

    2010-11-01

    Drawing on the belief-based framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study employs qualitative methodology involving individual and group interviews to examine the beliefs associated with regular physical activity performance among parents of young children (N = 40). The data were analysed using thematic content analysis. A range of advantages (e.g. improves parenting practices), disadvantages (e.g. interferes with commitments), barriers (e.g. time), and facilitators (e.g. social support) to performing physical activity are identified. Normative pressures are also identified as affecting parents' activity behaviour. These identified beliefs can be used to inform interventions to challenge inactivity among this at-risk group. PMID:20472605

  18. School: The Normalizing Factor for Children with Childhood Leukemia. Perspectives of Young Survivors and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nanci A.; Fulmer, Deborah L.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    A study of 8 children (ages 5-7) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia found returning to school was a major milestone and that school serves as the mechanism by which young survivors approach the process of living each day. Attendance obstacles are discussed, along with guidelines for maintaining school as a priority. (Contains references.) (CR)

  19. Angry Young Men: How Parents, Teachers, and Counselors Can Help "Bad Boys" Become Good Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Aaron

    This book examines conceivable links between young male criminality and physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; lack of mentoring by older males; the inculcation of shame by adults; child poverty and neglect; social and political disenfranchisement; inappropriate, inadequate, and ineffectual education; spiritual impoverishment; father absence; lack…

  20. Televison Literacy: Making the T.V. Work for Young Children, Parents and Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    Television plays a dominant role in our society; however, television on its own is neither bad nor good. It offers children benefits such as education and entertainment, but television can impact negatively on young lives by detracting children from other activities such as physical and dramatic play. The effect of television on children's…

  1. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  2. Clinical Consensus Strategies for Interpersonal Problems between Young Adults and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Burckell, Lisa A.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Research that identifies areas of agreement among expert therapists can complement findings from clinical trials by highlighting common practices as well as innovations. The present study accessed consensus among expert therapists on the effectiveness of clinical strategies for treating young adults experiencing interpersonal problems…

  3. Nurturing Young Gifted English Language Learners: A Survival Guide for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    For many young gifted English Language Learners (ELLs), going to an American school is like a trip to Mars. Everything and everyone looks strange. Many ELLs feel unsure of their abilities when they discover that their proficiency in English can sometimes hinder achievement. They wonder what the other kids think of their speech, their accents,…

  4. Parenting Young Children: Comparison of a Psychoeducational Program in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis-Camara, Pedro R.; Fox, Robert A.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2000-01-01

    Compared the cross-cultural effectiveness of a 10-hour psychoeducational program with 82 Mexican and 63 American mothers of very young children. Found that both groups significantly increased their expectations and use of nurturing strategies and reduced their use of verbal and corporal punishment following the program. Reported child behavior…

  5. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  6. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Anne V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…

  7. What's up? What Young Teens and Parents Want from Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczak, Mary S.; Dworkin, Jodi; Skuza, Jennifer; Beyer, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with young teens offered many complex and often idiosyncratic reasons why they did or did not participate in structured activities (for example: personality, interest, attitudes about time use, personal and family life circumstances). However, there also exist common threads that should give one pause regarding the current wisdom on how…

  8. Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of Ambiguity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, David M.; And Others

    The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld…

  9. An Early Social Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ty W.; Koegel, Robert L.; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized…

  10. Transition Satisfaction and Family Well Being among Parents of Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The transition from high school to adulthood is a critical life stage that entails many changes, especially for youth with severe intellectual disability. The transition period may be especially stressful for the families of these young adults, who often experience a sudden change, or decrease, in services. However, little research has examined…

  11. Generalized optical ABCD theorem and its application to the diffraction integral calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chaoying; Tan, Weihan; Guo, Qizhi

    2004-11-01

    We generalize the transfer matrix ABCD theorem for paraxial rays of the optical system to skew rays propagated off axis, whether or not the system possesses rotational symmetry. Furthermore, we apply the generalized ABCD theorem to evaluate the diffraction integral matrix elements A-D expressed in terms of the angle eikonal T, with the primary aberrations included. Finally, analysis and numerical calculation are given for propagation of a light beam through the optical system in the case in which spherical aberration and coma are present. PMID:15535373

  12. Complex ABCD transformations for optical ring cavities with losses and gain

    SciTech Connect

    Kudashov, V N; Radin, A M; Plachenov, A B

    1999-04-30

    Complex ABCD field transformations are investigated for inhomogeneous optical ring cavities with losses and gain. It is shown that the sets of eigenfunctions, corresponding to counterpropagating waves, are really biorthogonal: the functions in each of these sets are really orthogonal relative to one another, and have a complex weighting factor independent of the mode number. Bidirectional and unidirectional stability conditions are formulated for such cavities. These conditions are qualitatively different from those for loss-free cavities. A simple algorithm is proposed for the evaluation of the ABCD matrix for a medium with an arbitrary longitudinal inhomogeneity along the beam. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. ABCD matrix of the human lens gradient-index profile: applicability of the calculation methods.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Antonio

    2008-01-10

    The applicability of different approximate methods proposed to determine the paraxial properties of the gradient-index (GRIN) distribution resembling that of the human lens, by means of the system ABCD matrix, is tested. Thus, the parabolic-ray-path approximation has been extended to provide the ABCD matrix of a slab lens comprised of a rotationally GRIN medium. The results show that this method has good numerical stability, and it is also the easiest one in determining the Gaussian constants of the human lens GRIN profile. PMID:18188201

  14. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  15. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  16. A Comparison of Maternal Parenting Style Attitudes of Grandmothers and Mothers of Young Children in Taiwan: Development of a New Measure of Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tsung-Wen

    Noting that previous study of child rearing patterns among Chinese parents has ignored the importance of the instrument measuring parenting style, this study used an instrument incorporating Chinese concepts of parenting and based on well-established parenting concepts to examine differences in the child rearing attitudes of mothers and…

  17. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  18. Treating chronic food refusal in young children: home-based parent training.

    PubMed Central

    Werle, M A; Murphy, T B; Budd, K S

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of behavioral parent training program on parent and child feeding-related behaviors in the home. We trained mothers to initiate regular offerings of previously rejected (target) foods and to provide contingent attention (i.e., specific prompts, positive reinforcement) to increase their child's acceptance of nonpreferred foods. For 1 subject, we also directed training at increasing self-eating. Results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across 3 mother-child dyads demonstrated that, with training, all mothers increased offerings of target foods and use of specific prompts, and 2 mothers increased levels of positive attention. In turn, children increased their acceptance of target foods and self-eating, thus demonstrating the functional effects of parent training on in-home meal times. Temporary increases in food refusals occurred when treatment was initiated but declined as treatment continued. We discuss the results in terms of the potential benefits and limitations of a home-based treatment model. PMID:8307827

  19. Influences of Parent and Child Negative Emotionality on Young Children’s Everyday Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems. PMID:22390707

  20. Different but the Same? Exploring the Experiences of Young People Caring for a Parent with an Alcohol or Other Drug Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore; Tim; McArthur; Morag; Noble-Carr, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Although children of parents with an alcohol or other drug (AOD) issue appear to assume a range of caring responsibilities within their families they have, until recently, been excluded from the growing body of young-carer research, policy and practice. This is problematic, as this group may experience greater levels of social exclusion whilst…