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Sample records for abcd parenting young

  1. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  2. Promoting protective factors for young adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported significantly higher adolescent prosocial behaviors (p = 0.020), lower conduct problems (p = 0.048) and total difficulties (p = 0.041). These parents also reported lower stress associated with adolescent moodiness (p = 0.032), parent life-restriction (p < 0.001), adult-relations (p < 0.001), social isolation (p = 0.012), incompetence/guilt (p < 0.001), lower stress in the parenting domain (p < 0.001) and lower overall stress (p = 0.003) relative to the control condition following the intervention period. No other statistically significant differences were evident (p < 0.05). Results of intention-to-treat analyses were similar. Greater reliable clinically significant change was also achieved for the intervention condition. Participants reported high satisfaction with all elements of the ABCD program. Results suggest the program may assist parents of young adolescents to promote or maintain protective factors in their families. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ANZCTRN12609000194268. PMID:22677166

  3. Interviewing Parents for Qualitative Research Studies: Using an ABCD Model to Manage the Sensitivities and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with complex health/palliative care needs is wide ranging. Family-centred practices place parents at the heart of the ongoing care of these children, and therefore it makes sense that their views and experiences should be central to research within the field. Despite this assertion, little guidance exists as to how best to…

  4. Parents' Perspectives on Young Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Nicky

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for the prevention of adolescent suicide are frequently designed to identify those young people who represent a high risk in order that services and support can be effectively targeted. This study explored the experiences of parents who had lost a child through suicide. The findings suggest that the range of behaviours perceived by…

  5. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  6. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  7. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  8. Parenting and the Young Driver Problem

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Crash rates increase sharply at the age teenagers begin to drive and remain elevated relative to adult levels well into the twenties. Parents have important roles to play in managing the risk for teenage drivers before and after licensure. Parents can be involved in their teenagers’ driving, allowing them to test for permit and licensure, supervising practice driving, providing access to a vehicle, and setting and enforcing limits on driving privileges after licensure. However, the management practices of many parents may not be sufficient to provide safety effects. The literature indicates that the two most important decisions parents can make to reduce teenagers driving risk is to delay licensure and impose limits on high-risk driving conditions (such as driving at night and with teenage passengers) during the first year of licensure. Two intervention programs have been shown to increase parent limit setting as a means of reducing risky driving behaviors and improving driving performance among novice teenage drivers. This article describes the contexts of and opportunities for parent involvement in teenage driving and the efficacy of interventions to increase and improve parental management of young drivers. PMID:18702985

  9. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.

  10. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  11. Fear of Parental Death: Impact on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Crase, Dixie R.

    For adults, fear of death is universal, but young children are exposed to realities of death only infrequently and are often shielded from it by parents. Because parents realize the extent of a child's fear of losing a parent, parents sometimes take precautionary steps, such as avoiding both parents' travelling on the same airplane or designating…

  12. Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a Self-Report Parenting Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…

  13. Employer supports for parents with young children.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D E

    2001-01-01

    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices. PMID:11712457

  14. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  15. Young Adults’ Provision of Support to Middle-Aged Parents

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide support to aging parents, but researchers know little about support that young adults provide middle-aged parents. This study examined support that young adults provide parents and explanations for that support from both offspring’s and parents’ perspectives. Method. Young adults (n = 515, mean age = 22.34) and their parents (n = 364, mean age = 50.09) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support that offspring provide parents. Participants also reported parental personal problems, parental disability status, relationship quality, and support that parents provide offspring. Results. Offspring provided parents with emotional support and listening more often than other forms of support. Offspring reported providing more frequent support than parents reported receiving. We examined factors associated with support using multilevel models. Both offspring and parents reported more frequent support provided to parents when they had higher quality relationships and when parents gave more frequent support to offspring. Offspring (but not parents) reported providing more frequent support to parents when parents were disabled. Discussion. Findings are consistent with solidarity theory, which suggests that high-quality relationships may explain support. The concept of self-enhancement and generativity in middle-aged parents may explain the intergenerational differences in the association between parental disability and support. PMID:24162441

  16. Parent-Child Relations and Offending during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family…

  17. Young People's and Parent's Perceptions of Managed Moves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed to increase understanding of the experiences of young people and their parents of managed moves, what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English Local Authority, where five young people and their parents were interviewed. Five superordinate themes emerged…

  18. Parental Involvement in Young Children's Computer Use and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Katy; Li, Xiaoming; Fish, Angela; Holtrop, Teresa; Bhavnagri, Navaz P.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Butler, Sheretta; Partridge, Ty

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, young children are using computers; however, the role of the parent in facilitating this type of learning is not yet clear. This study investigates the relationship between parental involvement in computer use and cognitive development in their children. Parents of Head Start children who owned a computer (n = 136) reported on the…

  19. The Role of Parental Influences on Young Adolescents' Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Briana K.; Whiston, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between specific parental behaviors and the career development of young adolescents was assessed. Regression analyses revealed that parental behaviors did relate to the career development of middle school students, after controlling for student grade level and gender. Parental behaviors tended to relate more to career…

  20. Supporting Parents through Parent Education. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Marlene; Morales, Alex

    California's Proposition 10, the "Children and Families Act," has targeted three general areas for improvement in support of families and young children: improved family functioning, improved child development, and improved child health. Proposition 10 views parents as critical to the development of young children. Noting that parent education…

  1. Young Adults' Relations with Parents: The Influence of Recent Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Teresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined influence of recent parental divorce on contact and affective relations between 485 white young adults and their parents. Young adults from divorced families had less contact with fathers, and daughters of divorce reported less intimacy with fathers than did intact-family peers. Relations with mothers did not vary between groups.…

  2. Looking for Solutions: Gender Differences in Relationship and Parenting Challenges Among Low-Income, Young Parents

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. PMID:24980026

  3. Looking for solutions: gender differences in relationship and parenting challenges among low-income, young parents.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-12-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. PMID:24980026

  4. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Hugh; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals' choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents' ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers' and fathers' ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers' and fathers' ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes.

  5. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Hugh; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals' choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents' ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers' and fathers' ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers' and fathers' ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes. PMID:26221951

  6. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Hugh; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals’ choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents’ ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers’ and fathers’ ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers’ and fathers’ ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes. PMID:26221951

  7. Parent-Child Relations and Offending During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents and later as young adults is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N=1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults’ criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being. PMID:20865307

  8. Parent--child relations and offending during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-07-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents (mean age of 15 years), and later as young adults (mean age of 20 years), is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N = 1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults' criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being.

  9. Parents' Plans to Discuss Sexuality with Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…

  10. Young Children's ICT Experiences in the Home: Some Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…

  11. Parent Recognition and Responses to Developmental Concerns in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…

  12. Play Behaviors of Parents and Their Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to explore, communicate, and interact with others and the environment through play can be problematic for young children with disabilities, but with parental support, children can learn and interact successfully during play activities. To determine how parents engage their preschool children with disabilities in play and what behaviors…

  13. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  14. Longitudinal Relations Between Parenting and Child Adjustment in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…

  15. Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

    In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

  16. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This book informs parents and families of children and young adults with cancer about the most common types of cancer in the young, treatments and their side effects, and common issues that arise with a cancer diagnosis. Aspects of the disease, including characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors, are described. Treatment issues discussed…

  17. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  18. A UNIMARC Bibliographic Format Database for ABCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megnigbeto, Eustache

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: ABCD is a web-based open and free software suite for library management derived from the UNESCO CDS/ISIS software technology. The first version was launched officially in December 2009 with a MARC 21 bibliographic format database. This paper aims to detail the building of the UNIMARC bibliographic format database for ABCD.…

  19. Young Parents Project: a 21st-century nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Hudson, D B; Elek, S M; Westfall, J R; Grabau, A; Fleck, M O

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive pilot study was to describe the usage of the Young Parents Project, a computer network offering health information and support, to adolescent mothers. Nine midwestern adolescent mothers were provided a computer so they could access the Young Parents Project in their homes. Participants gained access to the computer network 834 times for a total of 7,046 minutes during the year of the study. Adolescent mothers read and posted 402 electronic messages to one another and 110 electronic mail messages to advanced practice nurses. The following eight themes emerged when participants' electronic messages were analyzed using content analysis: introductions, emotional support, social support systems, infant sharing, infant issues, postpartum issues, finances and education, and computer support. The adolescent mothers' evaluation of the Young Parents Project was primarily positive, and the project served as a mechanism for providing health information and social support to adolescent mothers.

  20. Mothers' Perceptions of Young Children, Parenting, and Young Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Historically, research demonstrates that mothers' attitudes and characteristics of their parenting are intertwined. More recently, mothers' perceptions of their children are becoming a new focus of interest. To further understand the relationships among mothers' perceptions of their young children, their parenting behaviors, and their ratings of…

  1. Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible…

  2. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  3. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The book presents information for parents of children and young adults with cancer. The first section outlines aspects of the disease itself and considers characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors. Hospitalization and such treatments as chemotherapy and radiation are considered. Common health issues (including diet, dental care, bleeding, and…

  4. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among…

  5. Four Field Studies of Appalachian Parents of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.; And Others

    This document contains the plans for conducting the field studies of Appalachian parents of young children which are part of the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Home-Oriented Preschool Education Program (HOPE). HOPE is an integrated approach to education for preschool and kindergarten children being developed by AEL's Marketable Preschool…

  6. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  7. Involving Parents in Teaching Social Communication Skills to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…

  8. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  9. Reciprocal Influences between Developmental Transitions and Parent-Child Relationships in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist on the effects of young adult-parent relationships on developmental status transitions into adulthood. Such transitions in turn predicted less conflicted and closer young adult-parent relationships. But systematic investigations of reciprocal effects between developmental transitions and young adult-parent relationships…

  10. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls’ behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls’ disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls’ conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls’ aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular. PMID:18777132

  11. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  12. Communication approaches to parent-child conflict: young adolescence to young adult.

    PubMed

    Riesch, Susan K; Jackson, Norma M; Chanchong, Weena

    2003-08-01

    As trusted and accessible health care providers, pediatric nurses are asked frequently for advice on the rearing of children and adolescents, particularly during developmental transitions. The parent-adolescent relationship has been characterized as a continuing renegotiation of relational qualities. Aspects of communication, such as conflicts and approaches to them, expose the re-negotiation process. The purpose of this study was to examine how communication approaches and topics of conflict in a parent child relationship evolved over 10 years. Thirty-three families with young adults as children between the ages of 22 and 26 years old responded to a survey about conflict and conflict resolution. Parents and young adults, as respondents, were asked to describe two incidents of conflict. The first incident was a conflict from the past, when the young adult was 11 to 14, and the second incident was a conflict they recently experienced. Inductive analyses were used to substantiate themes from the data. Regarding past topics of conflict, parents and young adults had no difficulty recalling incidents. The approaches to solving the past conflicts were seldom effective. Both parent and teenager were reactive, negative, confrontational, or avoidant. Occasionally, incidents that reflected thinking, planning ahead, and caring were reported. Descriptions of more recent experiences indicated less conflict and more direct and healthy communication approaches; although manipulative, negative, and intimidating tactics were present. PMID:12923735

  13. Parenting Needs as Perceived by Agency Personnel Working with Parents and Young Children in Southern Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YaeBin

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have used different methods to collect information for a needs assessment, including advisory committees, survey questionnaires, focus groups, interviews with key informants, or a combination of the former. This article describes the use of key informant interviews (agency personnel working with parents and young children) that…

  14. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  15. Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H; Reid, M Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program interventions among 99 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4-6). Mother reported significant treatment effects for appropriate and harsh discipline, use of physical punishment, and monitoring, whereas fathers reported no significant parenting changes. Independent observations revealed treatment effects for mothers' praise and coaching, mothers' critical statements, and child total deviant behaviors. Both mothers and fathers reported treatment effects for children's externalizing, hyperactivity, inattentive and oppositional behaviors, and emotion regulation and social competence. There were also significant treatment effects for children's emotion vocabulary and problem-solving ability. At school teachers reported treatment effects for externalizing behaviors and peer observations indicated improvements in treated children's social competence. PMID:21391017

  16. ARE BOTH PARENTS ALWAYS BETTER THAN ONE? PARENTAL CONFLICT AND YOUNG ADULT WELL-BEING *

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N=1,963), we examine associations between adolescent family experiences and young adult well-being across a range of indicators, including schooling, substance use, and family-related transitions. We compare children living with both biological parents, but whose parents differ in how often they argue, to children in stepfather and single-mother families, and we assess the extent to which differences can be understood in terms of family income and parenting practices. Findings suggest that parental conflict is associated with children’s poorer academic achievement, increased substance use, and early family formation and dissolution. Living in single mother and stepfather families tend to be more strongly associated with our indicators of well-being, although differences between these family types and living with high conflict continuously married parents are often statistically indistinguishable. Income and parenting largely do not account for associations between adolescent family type and later life outcomes. We conclude that while children do better, on average, living with two biological married parents, the advantages of two-parent families are not shared equally by all. PMID:20824195

  17. "My Son Is Reliable": Young Drivers' Parents' Optimism and Views on the Norms of Parental Involvement in Youth Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    The high crash rates among teenage drivers are of great concern across nations. Parents' involvement is known to help increase their young drivers' driving safety. In particular, parents can place restrictions on their son's/daughter's driving (e.g., restrict night time driving), which can enable the young driver to gain driving experience in…

  18. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  19. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples

    PubMed Central

    Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-01-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social–personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse’s influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272

  20. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272

  1. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-09-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.

  2. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  3. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  4. "Tuning into Kids": Reducing Young Children's Behavior Problems Using an Emotion Coaching Parenting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…

  5. The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1-Year Outcomes for African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children’s behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  6. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  7. Identification of novel SNPs of ABCD1, ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 genes in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) based on comprehensive resequencing and association studies with ALD phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Asheuer, Muriel; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Takano, Hiroki; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Aubourg, Patrick; Tsuji, Shoji

    2011-02-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder affecting primarily the white matter of the central nervous system occasionally accompanied by adrenal insufficiency. Despite the discovery of the causative gene, ABCD1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been established. Association studies based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by comprehensive resequencing of genes related to ABCD1 may reveal genes modifying ALD phenotypes. We analyzed 40 Japanese patients with ALD. ABCD1 and ABCD2 were analyzed using a newly developed microarray-based resequencing system. ABCD3 and ABCD4 were analyzed by direct nucleotide sequence analysis. Replication studies were conducted on an independent French ALD cohort with extreme phenotypes. All the mutations of ABCD1 were identified, and there was no correlation between the genotypes and phenotypes of ALD. SNPs identified by the comprehensive resequencing of ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 were used for association studies. There were no significant associations between these SNPs and ALD phenotypes, except for the five SNPs of ABCD4, which are in complete disequilibrium in the Japanese population. These five SNPs were significantly less frequently represented in patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) than in controls in the Japanese population (p=0.0468), whereas there were no significant differences in patients with childhood cerebral ALD (CCALD). The replication study employing these five SNPs on an independent French ALD cohort, however, showed no significant associations with CCALD or pure AMN. This study showed that ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 are less likely the disease-modifying genes, necessitating further studies to identify genes modifying ALD phenotypes.

  8. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…

  9. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  10. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  11. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  12. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  13. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  14. The Parenting of Young People: Using Newsletters to Provide Information and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Julie; Roker, Debi

    2005-01-01

    The literature shows that many parents of young people do not have enough information, advice, and support in bringing up their children. This article describes an innovative project, undertaken by the Trust for the Study of Adolescence (TSA), which evaluated the use of newsletters as a form of support for the parents of young people. Following…

  15. Effect of ABCD transformations on beam paraxiality.

    PubMed

    Vaveliuk, Pablo; Martinez-Matos, Oscar

    2011-12-19

    The limits of the paraxial approximation for a laser beam under ABCD transformations is established through the relationship between a parameter concerning the beam paraxiality, the paraxial estimator, and the beam second-order moments. The applicability of such an estimator is extended to an optical system composed by optical elements as mirrors and lenses and sections of free space, what completes the analysis early performed for free-space propagation solely. As an example, the paraxiality of a system composed by free space and a spherical thin lens under the propagation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes is established. The results show that the the paraxial approximation fails for a certain feasible range of values of main parameters. In this sense, the paraxial estimator is an useful tool to monitor the limits of the paraxial optics theory under ABCD transformations.

  16. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  17. Autoridade Brasileira de Controle de Dopagem (ABCD).

    PubMed

    Santos, Azenildo M; Bahrke, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    The creation of the ABCD and the inclusion for the first time of a provision of financial resources in the Government's General Budget Forecast, demonstrates the degree of Brazil's commitment in the fight against doping. This as we seek to know and evaluate these models of excellence to help to structure and develop our own doping control operations, always taking into account the Brazilian reality. PMID:25099312

  18. Types of Parent Verbal Responsiveness that Predict Language in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Yoder, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined short-term predictive associations between 5 different types of parent verbal responsiveness and later spoken vocabulary for 32 young children with a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Parent verbal utterances were coded from videotapes of naturalistic parent-child play sessions using…

  19. Developing Scales to Measure Parental Mediation of Young Children's Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikken, Peter; Jansz, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    With children using digital media at ever younger ages, media-education becomes a pressing issue for parents. As there is hardly any research on how parents guide the online activities of toddlers and young children an internet-survey was held among 792 Dutch parents of children aged between 2 and 12 years. Factor analysis revealed that for the…

  20. A Parent-Delivered Intervention to Teach Purchasing Skills to Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPipi-Hoy, Caroline; Jitendra, Asha

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training parents of young adults with disabilities to use constant time delay to teach their children purchasing skills in the community. The parent intervention involved target skill selection and instructional planning (e.g., identifying prompts and reinforcers), parent training on constant time…

  1. Identifying Attendance Correlates for a Teen and Young Adult Parenting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Patricia; Sundby, Mark; Merladet, John; Luxenberg, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses possible correlates of attendance at a time-limited parenting program for adolescent and young adult parents (N=161). Results revealed these positive predictors: receipt of aid to families with dependent children; endorsing goals of meeting other parents and learning how to relax; and number of children. Implications for practice are…

  2. Parental Perceptions of Life Context Variables for Involvement in Their Young Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…

  3. Genetic and Functional Analyses of the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans AfeABCD Siderophore-Independent Iron Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Eric R.; Tomaras, Andrew P.; McGillivary, Glen; Connerly, Pamela L.; Actis, Luis A.

    2005-01-01

    The Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans afeABCD iron transport system, the expression of which is controlled by iron and Fur, was identified in three different isolates. The protein products of this locus are related to bacterial ABC transporters involved in metal transport. Transformation of the Escherichia coli 1017 iron acquisition mutant with a plasmid harboring afeABCD promoted cell growth under iron-chelated conditions. However, insertion disruption of each of the afeABCD coding regions abolished this growth-relieving effect. The replacement of the parental afeA allele with the derivative afeA::EZ::TN drastically reduced the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans cells to grow under iron-chelated conditions. PMID:15908408

  4. Parenting Young Children Today: What the Research Tells Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Ciervo, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, ZERO TO THREE commissioned Hart Research Associates to conduct a survey among parents of children from birth to 36 months old. This survey of 1,615 parents provides insight on the experiences of parents today and the factors that influence their approach to parenting. The survey also explores those on whom they rely for…

  5. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  6. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    DesJardin, Jean L; Doll, Emily R; Stika, Carren J; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Johnson, Karen J; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G; Henning, Shirley C

    2014-05-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children's oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children's oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL.

  7. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  8. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  9. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex, and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2014-08-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.

  10. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex, and Sexual Risk among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including “coming out” to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14–19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group. PMID:24549462

  11. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Young Adults' Self-Concepts and Evaluations of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 123 college students to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of parents' parenting styles. Student self-concept varied directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as function of parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were rated more highly if they were perceived as warm…

  12. Using Behavioral Parent Training to Treat Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Young Children: A How-to Approach Using Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…

  13. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress. PMID:19104982

  14. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  15. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  16. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent–child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children’s oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale–4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children’s oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL. PMID:25309136

  17. Parental bond and life course transitions from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effects of life course transitions in adolescence and young adulthood (leaving the parental home, living together with a partner,entering parenthood, and becoming financially independent) on the parent-child bond are investigated. Data are presented from a three-wave study of 1,064 adolescents and young adults (aged 12-24 years at Wave 1) over a six-year period. As the youth in this study proceeded through the life course, they tended to report a closer parental bond. However, this age-related effect was counterbalanced by a tendency toward a weakened bond with parents following departure from the parental home. Results are in line with individuation theory, which contends that parent-child relationships become less close as a result of transitions leading to more autonomy.

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of mothers' beliefs about their parenting very young children.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H; Haynes, O Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers' parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% male). To conduct substantive cross-cultural comparisons of beliefs, the measurement invariance of the PSQ was first established by hierarchical multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The PSQ was essentially invariant across cultures. Italian mothers reported that they engaged in both social and didactic behaviors with their young children less frequently than U.S. mothers. Results of our study confirm that mothers in different cultures differentially value parental stimulation and its relevance for early child development.

  19. Increasing Parent Limits on Novice Young Drivers: Cognitive Mediation of the Effect of Persuasive Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.; Leaf, William A.; Preusser, David F.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes intervention effects on parent-imposed driving limits on novice young drivers at licensure. Parent-adolescent dyads (4,344) completed baseline surveys at permit and were randomly assigned to intervention or comparison groups. Intervention families received persuasive communications related to protection motivation theory…

  20. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  1. Adolescent Abortion and Mandated Parental Involvement: The Impact of Back Alley Laws on Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Susan; And Others

    This document notes that many states have passed, or are considering, laws that would mandate parental consent for, or notification of, a young woman's decision to obtain an abortion. Constructed in a question-and-answer format, the document then examines a number of issues concerned with such mandated parental involvement. It examines who is…

  2. Parent Guidance of Young Children's Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in a Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Massey, Katelyn; Kendall, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased attention to math and science education in the United States, relatively few studies have explored parent guidance of young children's mathematical and scientific reasoning in everyday activities. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of providing explicit guidance instructions on parent guidance and young…

  3. Geographical Distance from Parents and Adjustment during Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Petersen, Anne C.

    1996-01-01

    Examined concurrent and longitudinal factors associated with geographical distance between parents and their young adult offspring. Adolescents were interviewed and completed questionnaires several times between sixth grade and age 21. Results indicated correlations between healthy parent-child relationships and geographical distance, personal…

  4. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  5. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  6. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  7. Effects of Family-Oriented Intervention with Young Handicapped Children on Indicators of Parental Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tess; Algozzine, Bob

    Twenty-one families participated as members of experimental or control groups in a study which investigated the effects of family-oriented intervention on the stress level of families with young handicapped children (average age 2 years) whose impairments were primarily developmental delay or cerebral palsy. Parents completed the Parenting Stress…

  8. So This is Normal Too? Teachers and Parents Working Out Developmental Issues in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Deborah

    Intended to facilitate communication between parents and child care providers through creative problem solving, this guide explains young children's normal developmental behaviors that frequently cause concern, and identifies factors parents and caregivers can control in the environment that may have an immediate positive response from a child.…

  9. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  10. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  11. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  12. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on global…

  13. Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Meyer, Lori E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Chung, Moon Y.; Halle, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a…

  14. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  15. Singaporean Parents' Views of Their Young Children's Access and Use of Technological Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Chan, Yvonne; Goh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Debates continue about the access young children have to technological devices, given the increasingly accessible and available technology in most developed countries. Concerns have been expressed by parents/caregivers and researchers, and questions have been raised about possible risks and benefits of these devices on young children who, in some…

  16. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  17. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  18. Community-Based Book Reading Programs for Parents and Young Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Community-based volunteer programs to support children's book reading have existed in Japan for the past 70 years or so. Recently, because of the national emphasis on providing child-rearing support for families with young children, more programs are being offered to encourage parent-child shared book reading starting when children are very young.…

  19. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents’ and young adults’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Background When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14–25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14–18-year-olds and one for 19–25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted. Results The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life. PMID:22114471

  1. The relationship between parenting styles and young adults' self-concepts and evaluations of parents.

    PubMed

    Parish, T S; McCluskey, J J

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, 123 college students were surveyed in order to assess their self-concepts, evaluations of parents, and perceptions of their parents' parenting styles. Notably, the students' self-concepts were found to vary directly with perceived level of parental warmth, but did not vary as a function of their parents' level of restrictiveness. Fathers and mothers were found to be rated more highly if they were perceived as being warm and permissive rather than hostile and restrictive. Finally, opposite-sex parents' level of warmth also correlated with how each parent was evaluated. Some explanations for these findings are offered.

  2. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.

  3. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  4. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PARENT-INFANT PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PARENTS WITH MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND YOUNG INFANTS.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (<12 months). Dyads were clinically referred and randomly allocated to PIP or a control condition of standard secondary and specialist primary care treatment (n = 38 in each group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome was infant development. Secondary outcomes included parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship. PMID:26939716

  5. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PARENT-INFANT PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PARENTS WITH MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND YOUNG INFANTS.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (<12 months). Dyads were clinically referred and randomly allocated to PIP or a control condition of standard secondary and specialist primary care treatment (n = 38 in each group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome was infant development. Secondary outcomes included parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship.

  6. A Sexual Learning Curriculum for Parents of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathryn F.; And Others

    The aims of this sexual learning curriculum are to increase parents' emotional and intellectual understanding of human sexuality and to improve their ability to talk about sexuality with their children. Specifically, the curriculum attempts to increase parents' awareness that (1) sexuality includes lifestyle choices, body image, gender role,…

  7. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  8. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  9. Immigrants Raising Citizens: Undocumented Parents and Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    There are now nearly four million children born in the United States who have undocumented immigrant parents. In the current debates around immigration reform, policymakers often view immigrants as an economic or labor market problem to be solved, but the issue has a very real human dimension. Immigrant parents without legal status are raising…

  10. The Value of Children to Young and Elderly Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared elderly parents with national sample of parents in childbearing years with respect to satisfactions and dissatisfactions of having children. Both groups saw children as satisfying needs for love, companionship, fun, and stimulation. Older group was more likely than younger group to report children fulfilling economic-utility needs.…

  11. Transitions in young adulthood: Exploring trajectories of parent-child conflict during college.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah C; Bahrassa, Nazneen F; Syed, Moin; Lee, Richard M

    2015-07-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of parent-child conflict from the perspective of young adults during their college years. Using group-based trajectory modeling, self-report data from 3 time points were analyzed and 4 conflict trajectories emerged. The largest group of students (65%) had low, stable levels of parent-child conflict. Ten percent of the sample reported increases in parent-child conflict, and the remainder (25%) reported 1 of 2 patterns of decreasing parent-child conflict. Students with at least 1 immigrant parent were more likely to experience changes in parent-child conflict in contrast to peers with no immigrant parents. Contrary to our hypotheses, individuals in the groups in which conflict was decreasing were more likely to experience psychological distress. Results are discussed in terms of implications for the heterogeneity of conflict trajectories over time, particularly considering the contextual influence of immigrant family status.

  12. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on parents and family. Design and participants We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semistructured narrative interviews with parents of young people who had self-harmed. Results After the discovery of self-harm, parents described initial feelings of shock, anger and disbelief. Later reactions included stress, anxiety, feelings of guilt and in some cases the onset or worsening of clinical depression. Social isolation was reported, as parents withdrew from social contact due to the perceived stigma associated with self-harm. Parents also described significant impacts on siblings, ranging from upset and stress to feelings of responsibility and worries about stigma at school. Siblings had mixed responses, but were often supportive. Practically speaking, parents found the necessity of being available to their child often conflicted with the demands of full-time work. This, along with costs of, for example, travel and private care, affected family finances. However, parents generally viewed the future as positive and hoped that with help, their child would develop better coping mechanisms. Conclusions Self-harm by young people has major impacts on parents and other family members. Clinicians and staff who work with young people who self-harm should be sensitive to these issues and offer appropriate support and guidance for families. PMID:26739734

  13. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  14. Fathering after military deployment: parenting challenges and goals of fathers of young children.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-02-01

    Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children.

  15. Silencing of Abcd1 and Abcd2 genes sensitizes astrocytes for inflammation: implication for X-adrenoleukodystrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2009-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a metabolic disorder arising from a mutation/deletion in the ABCD1 gene, leading to a defect in the peroxisomal adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), which inhibits the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Thus, these VLCFAs accumulate. In a cerebral form of ALD (cALD), VLCFA accumulation induces neuroinflammation that leads to loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin, which ultimately shortens the lifespan. To establish a relationship between the metabolic disease and inflammatory disease induction, we document that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Abcd1 (ALDP) and Abcd2 [adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP)] genes in mice primary astrocyte cultures resulted in accumulation of VLCFA and induction of an inflammatory response characteristic of human cALD. Correction of the metabolic defect using monoenoic FAs in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced cultured astrocytes decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting a link between VLCFA accumulation and inflammation. The inflammatory response was found to be mediated by transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1, and C/EBP in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes. Although mechanisms of VLCFA-mediated induction of the inflammatory response have been investigated here in vitro, the in vivo mediators remain elusive. Our data represent the first study to suggest a direct link between the accumulation of VLCFA and the induction of inflammatory mediators. PMID:18723473

  16. Sensory Processing Difficulties, Behavioral Problems, and Parental Stress in a Clinical Population of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Carina; Henninger, Erin M.; Chinitz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sensory processing difficulties, parental stress, and behavioral problems in a clinical sample of young children with developmental and behavioral difficulties. We hypothesized that a high rate of sensory processing difficulties would be found, that there would be a high rate of comorbidity between sensory processing difficulties and behavioral problems, and that children’s sensory processing difficulties and parental stress would be highly correlated. Parents of 59 children ages two to five who attended an out-patient clinic in a low income, urban community completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Parental Stress Inventory-Short Form and the Short Sensory Profile. Children in this clinical population showed a high prevalence (55.9%) of sensory processing difficulties, a significantly higher rate than previously reported. Sensory processing deficits were correlated with behavioral difficulties and parental stress levels-suggesting that as sensory processing difficulties increase, so do behavioral difficulties and parental stress. Parents of children with sensory processing deficits had significantly higher levels of parental stress than parents of children without sensory deficits. Parenting stress levels were also clinically elevated for the cohort of children in which sensory processing difficulties and behavioral concerns co-existed. These findings suggest that treatment outcomes might improve and parental stress could be reduced if mental health clinicians were trained to identify and address sensory problems. This could result in more children being screened and treated for sensory processing difficulties and an eventual reduction in the rates of parental stress. PMID:24443636

  17. Teaching Parents of Young Children: A Curriculum in 12 Sessions [and] Parent Power Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Laura L.

    Based on the assumption that parents are increasingly aware of the high level of knowledge and skills needed to rear well-adjusted children, this parenting curriculum uses a developmental approach to help parents understand and relate appropriately to child behavior at different ages and at each stage. Part 1, "Before You Start," and the "Leader's…

  18. Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D; Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the underlying factor structure of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a large cohort of parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A secondary goal was to examine relationships between PSI-SF factors and autism severity, child behavior problems, and parental mental health variables that have been shown to be related to parental stress in previous research. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the three-factor structure described in the PSI-SF manual [Abidin, 1995]: parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and difficult child. Results of the CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was unacceptable when applied to the study sample. Thus, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and suggested a six-factor model as the best alternative for the PSI-SF index. Spearman's correlations revealed significant positive correlations with moderate to large effect sizes between the revised PSI-SF factors and autism severity, externalizing and internalizing child behaviors, and an index of parent mental health. The revised factors represent more narrowly defined aspects of the three original subscales of the PSI-SF and might prove to be advantageous in both research and clinical applications. Autism Res 2011,4:336-346. © 2011 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Introducing Sign Language Systems to Parents of Young Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Barbara Walsh

    1987-01-01

    The three major sign language systems (American Sign Language, Pidgin Sign English, and Manual English) are compared in table form. A brief description of each language highlights salient points that parents of deaf children need to understand. (DB)

  20. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent–child experiences while engaged with an iPadTM were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent–child dyads participated in an observation session where parent–child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21–75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child’s positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents’ perceptions of their child’s technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27242603

  1. The impact of parent-delivered intervention on parents of very young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n = 49) with community intervention (n = 49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no increase in parenting stress, whereas the Community group experienced an increase over the same 3-month period. Parental sense of competence did not differ. Number of negative life events was a significant predictor of parenting stress and sense of competence across both groups. This suggests that a parent-coaching intervention may help maintain parental adjustment directly after a child is diagnosed with ASD.

  2. The impact of parent-delivered intervention on parents of very young children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n=49) with community intervention (n=49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no increase in parenting stress, whereas the Community group experienced an increase over the same 3-month period. Parental sense of competence did not differ. Number of negative life events was a significant predictor of parenting stress and sense of competence across both groups. This suggests that a parent-coaching intervention may help maintain parental adjustment directly after a child is diagnosed with ASD. PMID:23838727

  3. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

  4. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  5. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors. PMID:22527708

  6. Sanctification of Parenting, Moral Socialization, and Young Children’s Conscience Development

    PubMed Central

    Volling, Brenda L.; Mahoney, Annette; Rauer, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is important to most U.S. families, but is often overlooked in research on children’s development. This study examined parental religious beliefs about the sanctification of parenting, parental disciplinary strategies, and the development of young children’s conscience in a sample of 58 two-parent families with a preschool child. Fathers were more punitive and used less induction when disciplining their children than did mothers. Maternal and paternal reports of the sanctification of parenting were positively related to positive socialization/praise and the use of induction. When mothers and fathers in the family were both using induction, children had higher scores on moral conduct. Parents’ use of positive socialization combined with a belief in the sanctification of parenting predicted children’s conscience development. PMID:21731796

  7. Parental support during young adulthood: Why does assistance decline with age?

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira; Fingerman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that financial transfers from parents to young adult children decline as children age and that age is one of the strongest predictors of support. Using data collected from young adults (ages 18 to 34) and their parents (ages 40 to 60; N=536 parent-child dyads), we explore the possibility that the relationship between age and financial support is mediated by offspring needs, acquisition of adult roles, or geographical and emotional closeness. We find that age-related declines in offspring’s needs help to explain why financial support falls with age. However, offspring age remains a robust predictor of financial support after controlling for a wide range of factors, suggesting that age norms condition support from parents to offspring. PMID:23976811

  8. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  9. Stress and the quality of life in the parents of young people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Browne, G; Bramston, P

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a study into stress and quality of life in the parents of young people with an intellectual disability. Research in this area often finds that parents suffer stress as a result of having a son or daughter with an intellectual disability. According to Glidden (1993), this has led to the mistaken perception amongst researchers and professionals in the field that these parents are maladjusted. Glidden's work with parents adopting children with an intellectual disability suggest the parenting may be a satisfying experience and suggests a research focus based on outcomes. In this study the participants, including 102 parents of young people with (44) and without (58) an intellectual disability, were mailed a stress questionnaire and quality of life questionnaire. The results of the analysis of these data demonstrate that the families with a member with a disability report significantly greater stress, they also demonstrated that as stress increases the quality of life decreases. Governments need to address this problem if current policies of integrating people with intellectual disabilities into the community are to be successful. This paper also discusses the reasons natural parents of people with disabilities are dissatisfied while adopting parents are not and suggests further research into this important topic. PMID:10067490

  10. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. PMID:20159080

  11. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions.

  12. Young patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences in paediatric oncology: Results of online focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Tates, Kiek; van Dulmen, Sandra; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Kamps, Willem A; Bensing, Jozien M

    2007-01-01

    Background Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated communication preferences of childhood cancer patients, parents, and survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Communication preferences were examined by means of online focus groups. Seven patients (aged 8–17), 11 parents, and 18 survivors (aged 8–17 at diagnosis) participated. Recruitment took place by consecutive inclusion in two Dutch university oncological wards. Questions concerned preferences regarding interpersonal relationships, information exchange and participation in decision making. Results Participants expressed detailed and multi-faceted views regarding their needs and preferences in communication in paediatric oncology. They agreed on the importance of several interpersonal and informational aspects of communication, such as honesty, support, and the need to be fully informed. Participants generally preferred a collaborative role in medical decision making. Differences in views were found regarding the desirability of the patient's presence during consultations. Patients differed in their satisfaction with their parents' role as managers of the communication. Conclusion Young patients' preferences mainly concur with current guidelines of providing them with medical information and enabling their participation in medical decision making. Still, some variation in preferences was found, which faces health care providers with the task of balancing between the sometimes conflicting preferences of young cancer patients and their parents. PMID:17996108

  13. Resilience in Parents of Young Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Heidi; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the adaptation of parents with children with visual impairment in South Africa. The results showed that familial values (such as attitude toward the disability, religious faith, and familial closeness) permit a process of inclusion (through the use of resources and acceptance of help) and the development of a…

  14. Parenting Young Children with and without Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used…

  15. Young Adults' Recollections of Parental and Nonparental Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam; Bowden, Jessica M.; Ferrell, Melanie A.; Pavlik, Stacy F.; Robinson, Morgan N.; Schwind, Jennifer L.; Volpe, Erica K.; Williams, Laurie M.; Young, Jessica N.

    2010-01-01

    From a sample of 419 college students, 750 written recollections were obtained regarding their parental and nonparental childcare experiences. Vignettes were sorted and coded according to five emerging themes: emotional valence, play, TV, educational activities and holidays/birthdays. Several significant differences were found in remembered…

  16. Psychophysiological correlates of parenting behavior in mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi; Gariepy, Jean-Louis; Barnett, Melissa; Moore, Ginger A; Calkins, Susan; Cox, Martha J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated HPA and vagal functioning as correlates of parenting in mothers of 175 six-month-old children. Salivary cortisol indexed HPA functioning and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reduction indexed vagal regulation. Positive engagement and negative intrusiveness were observed during the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm (FFSFP) reunion and a semi-structured free play episode. Mixed modeling was used to examine differences in maternal behaviors across contexts as a function of psychophysiology. Main effects of cortisol levels, as well as interactions with RSA reduction and context, predicted negative intrusiveness. Mothers with high cortisol exhibited more negative intrusiveness if they also had lower RSA reduction. Mothers were also less negatively intrusive during the FFSFP than the free play if they had lower cortisol levels. There were no associations between psychophysiological measures and positive engagement. The findings suggest: (1) that parenting behaviors are associated with maternal stress physiology; (2) considerations of single physiological systems related to parenting behaviors may be incomplete; and (3) type and context of behaviors must be considered when examining biobehavioral associations with parenting.

  17. Interactions of Teen Parents and Trained Caregivers with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Helen L.

    To extend research on adult/child interactions, attitudes and behaviors of teenage parents and trained "educarers" were compared, and the relationship between adults' and children's interactive styles was investigated. Two groups of questions were addressed: (1) Are there significant statistical differences as well as qualitative descriptive…

  18. A Bicycle Safety Education Program for Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…

  19. Parent-Child Aesthetic Shared Reading with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…

  20. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  1. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  2. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  3. Television for Very Young Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…

  4. Parental Status Characteristics and Self-Placement of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, William H.; Hammer, Gail

    1983-01-01

    Examines status self-placement literature. Tests Talcott Parsons's inferences that, in predicting young adults' self-placement, (1) father's occupation is more important than other status variables of the father, (2) mother's employment makes the process of self-placement less predictable, and (3) "emancipation" from family of orientation brings…

  5. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  6. Parent Guide to Computers and Software for the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Jennifer; Timms, Judy

    This booklet provides basic information about computers, assistive devices for computers, and computer software for young children with disabilities. Guidelines for assessing the child's readiness for computers are provided, as are tips on planning computer-related goals and incorporating computer use into the Individual Family Service Plan and…

  7. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  8. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  9. The Quality of Perceived Parenting Experienced by a Group of Scottish Incarcerated Young Offenders and Its Relation to Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggam, Fiona H.; Power, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes the Parental Bonding Instrument with a group of 125 incarcerated Scottish young offenders 16-21 years old. Examines the response profiles of young participants and compares the results to normative data and demographics relating to family and penal experiences. Also investigates relationships between parenting style and levels of…

  10. Influences on the Congruence between Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of Young Children's Social Skills and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Sawyer, Brook E.; Logan, Jessica; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Cancio, Edward; Justice, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive research base exists concerning the congruence between parents' and teachers' ratings of the behavior of typically developing young children. However, little research has been conducted regarding the degree to which parents' and teachers' behavioral ratings of young children with disabilities are congruent. Additionally, previous…

  11. [Actions of physicians, nurses, parents and friends in relationship with young diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Hentinen, M; Kyngäs, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use young diabetics descriptions of their illness, treatment and care to explain the actions of physicians, nurses, parents and friends relationship with diabetics'. The empirical data were collected by interviewing 51 diabetics of age 13-17-years. The data were processed by the method of continuous comparative analysis. The young diabetics described the actions of physicians as motivating, authoritarian, negligent and routine. By motivating they meant that, the doctors and young diabetics acted together, discussing the treatment and care and planning it together, whereas the routine and authoritarian aspects of their action referred to things that the doctors didn't discuss with the patient, and care that wasn't individual. The nurses' were described as taking notice of the young diabetics as individuals, but their actions were or intended to comply with the doctors' instructions. The individual aspect consisted of planning the care together and trying to combine it with the young persons's life. The actions of the parents were described as motivating, involving acceptance and disciplined control. Their motivating action consisted of support and a natural interest in young diabetics's life and not only in the disease. The parents who accepted the young diabetics didn't try to influence them. They accepted that the people would not necessarily care for themselves. Their disciplined control consisted of a lot of questions about care and attempts to oblige the young diabetics to care for themselves better than they do. The young diabetics described their interaction with friends, in terms of their silent support, their friends dominating their lives or their friends having no meaning for their self care. When their friends dominated their lives, the young diabetics lived according to their friends' habit, in which case the care didn't fit in with the young diabetics' life style. The silent support of the friends was typical in that

  12. A Pilot Study of Parent Training in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…

  13. Young Children at Home and in School: 212 Educational Activities for Their Parents, Teachers, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.

    This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…

  14. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  15. Supporting Parents to Reduce the Misuse of Alcohol by Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Bernadette; Snow, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The majority of parents report that they believe they have an important role in shaping adolescents' values and behaviours in relation to drinking, but they also report that they need more support in this area. Education, welfare, health, youth and other professionals have an important role in providing services to young people and/or their…

  16. Helping Parents of Young Children with Disabilities Become Consumers of Early Intervention: A Marketing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, Douglas L.; Fugate, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests the use of marketing techniques to disseminate information products to parents of young children with disabilities. A marketing plan might include the following steps: determination of market needs, market segmentation and target marketing, marketing goals and objectives, marketing strategy, marketing mix tactics, and control…

  17. Parents' Perceptions of Postschool Years for Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Margarita; Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Tobin, Romie; Lehmann, Jean P.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated parents' perceptions of the various roles they played in their adult children's lives during the post-high school years. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with 9 families of young adults with developmental disabilities. Findings indicated that families perceived the complexity of their roles as…

  18. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  19. Sustaining Parent-Young Child Relationships during and after Separation and Divorce. Or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Kyle; Pruett, Marsha Kline

    2012-01-01

    That separation and divorce frequently burden the young child emotionally and developmentally has moved from scientific to common knowledge over the past two decades. Recent cultural changes also moderate or intensify such stress and strain on the parent-child relationship: a divorce rate hovering at about 40% of all marriages, a third of all…

  20. Identifying Determinants of Young Children's Brand Awareness: Television, Parents, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we asked children to mention the brand name (brand…

  1. "Where Do Babies Come from?" Barriers to Early Sexuality Communication between Parents and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie

    2013-01-01

    "Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…

  2. Brief Report: Driving and Young Adults with ASD--Parents' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E.; Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding driving skills and individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study sought to gain a better understanding of driving and ASD by surveying parents/caregivers of adolescents/young adults with ASD who were currently attempting, or had previously attempted, to learn to drive. Respondents…

  3. Parents of Young Children with Special Needs Speak Out: Perceptions of Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Therese; Gilkerson, Linda

    1999-01-01

    This qualitative study examined perceptions of 248 parents of young children with special needs concerning the benefits, barriers, and improvements needed in current early intervention services in Illinois. Benefits cited included the technical knowledge and skills of service providers; barriers included a need for more specialized child-oriented…

  4. Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

  5. The Impact of Parent-Delivered Intervention on Parents of Very Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n = 49) with community intervention (n = 49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no…

  6. Managing communication with young people who have a potentially life threatening chronic illness: qualitative study of patients and parents

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Windridge, Kate C; Heney, David

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To examine young people's and parents' accounts of communication about cancer in childhood. Design Semistructured interviews analysed using the constant comparative method. Setting Paediatric oncology unit. Participants 13 families, comprising 19 parents (13 mothers, six fathers) and 13 patients aged 8-17 years, recruited from one paediatric oncology unit. The patients had cancer or brain tumour. Results Most parents described acting in an executive-like capacity, managing what and how their children were told about their illness, particularly at the time of diagnosis. Their accounts were shaped by concerns to manage their identity as strong and optimistic parents and to protect their child's wellbeing. The patients identified elements of their parents' role that both facilitated and constrained their communication, and while they welcomed their parents' involvement, some expressed unease with the constraining aspects of their parents' role. Some young people described feeling marginalised in consultations and pointed to difficulties they experienced in encounters with some doctors. Conclusions There are difficulties in managing communication with young people who have a chronic, life threatening illness. Health professionals need to be aware of how the social positioning of young people (relative to adults) and the executive role of parents can contribute to the marginalisation of young people and hamper the development of successful relationships between themselves and young patients. What is already known on this topicThe BMA has supported the principle of open communication with young patientsYoung people are sometimes excluded from participating in consultations and parents are reluctant to communicate openly with their seriously ill childrenWhat this study addsParents take on an executive-like role, managing what and how their children are told about their illnessesThis role both facilitates and constrains communication with young peopleSome young

  7. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed.

  8. [Perceived distributions of opinions in young generation and their parents' generation regarding sex roles].

    PubMed

    Hotta, M

    2000-02-01

    This study examined how people perceive the distributions of opinions about sex roles, in particular, how they saw generational differences in the opinions. Undergraduates and their parents were asked to estimate the opinion distributions in young generation as well as in their parents' generation. They were also asked to indicate their own opinions and the degree of their involvement with the issue. Main results were as follows: First, generation gaps were perceived; the respondents estimated that there would be stronger support for relatively liberal opinions in young generation than in their parents' generation, while the generation gaps were perceived in the reverse direction regarding relatively traditional opinions. Second, although this tendency was found for both sexes, it was more pronounced for female respondents. Third, fathers with higher personal involvement with the issue estimated stronger support for liberal opinions, while mothers with higher personal involvement estimated weaker support. This tendency in mothers was more salient in those who themselves supported relatively liberal opinions.

  9. "Life Still Isn't Fair": Parental Differential Treatment of Young Adult Siblings.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Alexander C; Whiteman, Shawn D; Fingerman, Karen L; Birditt, Kira S

    2013-04-01

    Parental differential treatment has been linked to individual well-being and sibling relationship quality in childhood, adolescence, and middle adulthood, but has not been examined in young adulthood. Data were collected from 151 pairs of young adult siblings (N = 302, Mean age = 23.90, SD = 5.02). Two siblings in each family reported on treatment from mothers and fathers, depressive symptoms, and sibling relationship quality. Using multi-level modeling, analyses examined the role of favoritism and the magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers. Offspring who reported receiving less support relative to their sibling (i.e., less favored) reported more depressive symptoms. Greater amounts of differential treatment were associated with less sibling intimacy. Several associations, however, varied by parent gender, sibling gender composition, and the magnitude of differential treatment. Results suggest that favoritism and magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers are salient in young adulthood. PMID:24833808

  10. “Life Still Isn't Fair”: Parental Differential Treatment of Young Adult Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Alexander C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Birditt, Kira S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental differential treatment has been linked to individual well-being and sibling relationship quality in childhood, adolescence, and middle adulthood, but has not been examined in young adulthood. Data were collected from 151 pairs of young adult siblings (N = 302, Mean age = 23.90, SD = 5.02). Two siblings in each family reported on treatment from mothers and fathers, depressive symptoms, and sibling relationship quality. Using multi-level modeling, analyses examined the role of favoritism and the magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers. Offspring who reported receiving less support relative to their sibling (i.e., less favored) reported more depressive symptoms. Greater amounts of differential treatment were associated with less sibling intimacy. Several associations, however, varied by parent gender, sibling gender composition, and the magnitude of differential treatment. Results suggest that favoritism and magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers are salient in young adulthood. PMID:24833808

  11. Young Children's Engagement and Learning Opportunities in a Cooking Activity with Parents and Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Lauren; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Parents teach their children through informal social interactions in a process known as guided participation (Rogoff, 1990). Although most research focuses on parent-child dyads, young children also learn from older siblings and parents through shared participation in daily activities. Utilizing a structured observational design, the authors…

  12. Making and Managing Places for Parents in Schools/Centers for Young Children: A Planning and Evaluation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranzoni, Patricia Smith

    It is not enough to encourage parents to be involved in schools and centers for young children through the usual spoken and written ways. By providing places for parents, schools and centers can extend invitations and dramatically demonstrate their expectations. Providing a welcoming entryway that allows three-way observation among parents,…

  13. Leaving A Legacy: Parental Migration and School Outcomes Among Young Children in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Asis, Maruja M.B.; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the link between parental migration and young children’s education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children’s school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers –children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962

  14. Food choices of young African-American and Latino adolescents: where do parents fit in?

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie

    2006-11-01

    To gain insight into parents' perceptions of the food preferences of their young adolescents, and their negotiating and decision-making strategies around food purchasing and meals, four focus groups were held with 32 African-American parents and three focus groups with 14 Spanish-dominant, first-generation immigrant Latina mothers. Most participants were of low socioeconomic status and were single parents. Many African-American parents emphasized children's growing appetites and preferences for fast food. Many reported making weekday dinner decisions jointly with the child or allowing the child to eat a lunch-like alternative, and allowing serve-yourself meals on weekends. A few prepared traditional ethnic foods. Latina parents reported that their children liked ethnic foods and fast/junk foods. They emphasized buying foods their children wanted, making no eating restrictions, and preparing traditional ethnic dinners without alternatives. African-American and Latina parents displayed concern over whether to place restrictions on young adolescents' eating. Further research is needed on the ways in which socioeconomic inequalities compound barriers to healthful eating, with particular attention to low income and immigrant populations. PMID:17081835

  15. Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children.

  16. Parenting young children with and without Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used a consistent, responsive style with both children, using the same degree of positive affect and warmth. Differences included using more behavior management strategies with the child with Fragile X and a conversational style of interaction with the sibling. Differences in approaches suggest the mothers adapted to the developmental differences between the children. The interview data supported these findings; mothers were aware of the changes made to accommodate the developmental differences.

  17. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Cristin M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms, discussion forums, mobile devices, and video conferencing. Results are described moving from feasibility and acceptability of technology-based delivery systems to more rigorous evaluations examining their impact on parent and child outcomes. Potential exists for technology to deliver interventions to parents. Limitations are discussed including differential acceptability and elevated attrition associated with internet-only intervention delivery.

  18. How parents introduce new words to young children: The influence of development and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Brandon, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    This study documents how parents weave new words into on-going interactions with children who are just beginning to speak. Dyads with typically developing toddlers and with young children with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome (n=56, 23, and 29) were observed using a Communication Play Protocol during which parents could use novel words to refer to novel objects. Parents readily introduced both labels and sound words even when their child did not respond expressively or produce the words. Results highlight both how parents act in ways that may facilitate their child's appreciation of the relation between a new word and its referent and how they subtly adjust their actions to suit their child's level of word learning and specific learning challenges.

  19. How parents introduce new words to young children: The influence of development and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Brandon, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    This study documents how parents weave new words into on-going interactions with children who are just beginning to speak. Dyads with typically developing toddlers and with young children with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome (n=56, 23, and 29) were observed using a Communication Play Protocol during which parents could use novel words to refer to novel objects. Parents readily introduced both labels and sound words even when their child did not respond expressively or produce the words. Results highlight both how parents act in ways that may facilitate their child's appreciation of the relation between a new word and its referent and how they subtly adjust their actions to suit their child's level of word learning and specific learning challenges. PMID:25863927

  20. ABC Transporter Subfamily D: Distinct Differences in Behavior between ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 in Subcellular Localization, Function, and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes. On the other hand, ABCD4 is deduced to take part in the transport of vitamin B12 from lysosomes into the cytosol. It is well known that the dysfunction of ABCD1 results in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it is reported that ABCD3 and ABCD4 are responsible for hepatosplenomegaly and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. In this review, the targeting mechanism and physiological functions of the ABCD transporters are summarized along with the related disease. PMID:27766264

  1. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents’ friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends’ positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at T1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents’ SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of under-arousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  2. Physiological reactivity moderates the association between parental directing and young adolescent friendship adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at Time [T]1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents' SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of underarousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment.

  3. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  4. Parenting Styles, Young Adults' Self-Concepts, and Evaluations of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.

    1993-01-01

    Research shows that parenting style may strongly influence children's and adolescents' development. The present study reexamined this association, using a sample of 123 midwestern college students enrolled in a human development class. Participants' self-concepts varied directly with the perceived level of warmth displayed by both their fathers…

  5. Parental Support in the Development of Young Musicians: A Teacher's Perspective from a Small-Scale Study of Piano Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margiotta, Mimia

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of parental support and interactions on the young musicians' learning processes. In an attempt to corroborate the findings of the wider research, a case-study has been carried out comprising observations of 34 parents and 34 piano students taught by the author in three different locations (private studio,…

  6. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  7. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  8. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-02-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145

  9. Six-year longitudinal predictors of posttraumatic growth in parentally bereaved adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn Y; Sandler, Irwin N; Ayers, Tim S

    Using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, we examined posttraumatic growth in a sample of 50 adolescents and young adults who had experienced parental death in childhood or adolescence. Longitudinal relations were examined between baseline measures of contextual and intraindividual factors and scores on the posttraumatic growth subscales (i.e., New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strengths, Spiritual Changes, and Appreciation of Life) six years later. Controlling for time since death, threat appraisals, active coping, avoidant coping, seeking support from parents or guardians, seeking support from other adults, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems were significant predictors of posttraumatic growth. The implications of these findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:19227001

  10. Spying or steering? Views of parents of young novice drivers on the use and ethics of driver-monitoring technologies.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit; Lotan, Tsippy

    2011-01-01

    In-vehicle technologies that document driving practices have the potential to enhance the driving safety of young drivers, but their installation depends largely on their parents' willingness and raises ethical dilemmas. This study investigated, using closed and open-ended questions, the views of 906 parents of young drivers in Israel regarding their willingness to install such a technology, and their conceptions of social norms and ethical issues associated with the technology and of factors that would encourage or discourage parents to adopt it. Most believed parents should feel morally obligated to install it. When cost was not a consideration, most said they would, and believed other parents would be willing to install the technology. Fewer (about half) expressed willingness to install it after being told about its estimated cost. Monetary cost was rated as a barrier to install it by about half. Environmental considerations were viewed as an incentive. Parents who supported the installation believed it would serve as a trigger for parent-young driver communication but those who did not thought it would erode trust in the parent-young driver relationship. Most said parents should have access to the monitoring data. Policy implications regarding issues of privacy and resources for parents are discussed.

  11. Open Source Solutions for Libraries: ABCD vs Koha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macan, Bojan; Fernandez, Gladys Vanesa; Stojanovski, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present an overview of the two open source (OS) integrated library systems (ILS)--Koha and ABCD (ISIS family), to compare their "next-generation library catalog" functionalities, and to give comparison of other important features available through ILS modules. Design/methodology/approach: Two open source…

  12. East Indian Families Raising ABCD Adolescents: Cultural and Generational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Shruti S.

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…

  13. How does violence exposure affect the psychological health and parenting of young African-American mothers?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2010-02-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.

  14. Links between Adolescents’ Closeness to Adoptive Parents and Attachment Style in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Grant-Marsney, Holly A.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents’ closeness to adoptive parents (APs) predicted attachment styles in close relationships outside their family during young adulthood. In a longitudinal study of domestic infant adoptions, closeness to adoptive mother and adoptive father was assessed in 156 adolescents (M = 15.7 years). Approximately nine years later (M = 25.0 years), closeness to parents was assessed again as well as attachment style in their close relationships. Multilevel modeling was used to predict attachment style in young adulthood from the average and discrepancy of closeness to adolescents’ adoptive mothers and fathers and the change over time in closeness to APs. Less avoidant attachment style was predicted by stronger closeness to both APs during adolescence. Increased closeness to APs over time was related to less anxiety in close relationships. Higher closeness over time to either AP was related to less avoidance and anxiety in close relationships. PMID:25859067

  15. The Associations of Financial Stress and Parenting Support Factors with Alcohol Behaviors During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawry, Charles; Li, Gu; Conger, Katherine J.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and prospective associations of financial stress (financial strain, lack of financial access, public assistance) and parenting support factors (relationship quality, living at home, financial support) with young adults’ alcohol behaviors (alcohol use, heavy drinking, and problematic drinking) over a 5-year period. Analyses of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data (N = 7,159) showed that, over the study period, alcohol use and heavy drinking declined while problematic drinking increased. In addition, living at home and parental relationship quality were associated with fewer concurrent and prospective alcohol behaviors whereas financial strain and parents’ financial support were associated with more alcohol behaviors. The implications for minimizing alcohol misuse in young adults amid uncertain economic conditions are discussed. PMID:26388681

  16. Young adult sibling relations: the effects of perceived parental favoritism and narcissism.

    PubMed

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined predictors of siblings' relations in 202 young adults (aged 21-32 years), who completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Results indicate that warmth between siblings is explained by gender (with women feeling closer), perceived paternal favoritism, low levels of narcissism, and an interaction suggesting that paternal favoritism moderates the link between narcissism and sibling warmth. Conflict between siblings was explained by gender (sisters), age, parental favoritism, high levels of narcissism, extreme levels of similarity or dissimilarity between siblings, and interactions indicating that older age is a predictor of conflict between siblings among women but not among men. The impact of parental favoritism and narcissism on sibling relationships in young adulthood was discussed. PMID:21290927

  17. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be

  18. Ready to make nice: parental socialization of young sons' and daughters' prosocial behaviors with peers.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; McShane, Kelly E; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their authoritative parenting style, attributions for children's prosocial behavior, and responses to children's prosocial behavior. Approximately 6 months later, children's more feminine and more masculine prosocial behaviors were observed during interactions with unfamiliar peers and reported on by their preschool teachers. Boys and girls did not differ in the observed and teacher-reported measures of prosocial behavior. Compared to other parents, fathers of boys were less likely to express affection or respond directly to children's prosocial behavior. Mothers' authoritative style, internal attributions for prosocial behavior, and positive responses to prosocial behavior predicted girls' displays of more feminine prosocial actions and boys' displays of more masculine prosocial actions toward peers. Relations were similar but weaker for fathers' parenting, and after accounting for mother' scores, fathers' scores accounted for unique variance in only one analysis: Teachers reported more masculine prosocial behavior in boys of fathers who discussed prosocial behavior. Overall, the results support a model of parental socialization of sex-typed prosocial behavior and indicate that mothers contribute more strongly than do fathers to both daughters' and sons' prosocial development. PMID:17936971

  19. The ferrous iron transporter FtrABCD is required for the virulence of Brucella abortus 2308 in mice.

    PubMed

    Elhassanny, Ahmed E M; Anderson, Eric S; Menscher, Evan A; Roop, R Martin

    2013-06-01

    Iron transport has been linked to the virulence of Brucella strains in both natural and experimental hosts. The genes designated BAB2_0837-0840 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence are predicted to encode a CupII-type ferrous iron transporter homologous to the FtrABCD transporter recently described in Bordetella. To study the role of the Brucella FtrABCD in iron transport, an isogenic ftrA mutant was constructed from B. abortus 2308. Compared with the parental strain, the B. abortus ftrA mutant displays a decreased capacity to use non-haem iron sources in vitro, a growth defect in a low iron medium that is enhanced at pH 6, and studies employing radiolabelled FeCl3 confirmed that FtrABCD transports ferrous iron. Transcription of the ftrA gene is induced in B. abortus 2308 in response to iron deprivation and exposure to acid pH, and similar to other Brucella iron acquisition genes that have been examined the iron-responsiveness of ftrA is dependent upon the iron response regulator Irr. The B. abortus ftrA mutant exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, supporting the proposition that ferrous iron is a critical iron source for these bacteria in the mammalian host.

  20. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  1. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  2. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  3. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  4. Parent Training for Young Children With Developmental Disabilities: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2009-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group (n = 23) received usual care, including early childhood education and related services. Results suggest that this parent training intervention was superior to usual care for young children with developmental delays or disabilities in reducing negative parent–child interactions and child behavior problems. Participants in the experimental group indicated high satisfaction with treatment. Additional research is necessary to document maintenance and generalization of treatment outcomes. PMID:18702556

  5. 76 FR 17970 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Young Parents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... applicants in providing intensive mentoring services to low- income young parents (both mothers and fathers... demonstration and pilot projects for the purpose of developing and implementing techniques and approaches,...

  6. Perceived parental care and supervision: relations with cognitive representations of future offending in a sample of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2006-04-01

    This article focuses on the relations of two dimensions of perceived child-rearing practices, care and protection, as measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument and on cognitive representations of future offending in a sample of 152 young offenders. The relations of two different models, predictive of juvenile delinquency, are explored. Parental influences are thought to represent distal factors affecting juvenile delinquency, whereas cognitive representations, formulating the decisions of young offenders, are proximally related with juvenile delinquency. The focus of the research is the young offenders'intentions to reoffend, and it was found that intentions to reoffend in the future were predicted by attitudes toward offending and perceived behavioural control of future offending, whereas parental variables were redundant in predicting behavioural intentions of reoffending. Any effects of parental variables on behavioural intentions were mediated by the young offenders' attitudes toward offending. PMID:16510889

  7. An Analysis of Classroom-Based and Parent-Focused Social-Emotional Programs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Steed, Elizabeth A.; Strain, Phillip; Dunlap, Glen; Powell, Diane; Payne, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a comprehensive and updated review of available classroom and parenting social-emotional programs for young children. The review analyzed 10 classroom curricula and 8 parenting interventions focused on social-emotional development and the research associated with each. The efficacious adoption criteria…

  8. Perspective of Parents and Caregivers on the Influence of Full-Time Day-Care Attendance on Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Drugli, May Britt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of parents and caregivers regarding young children in day care. The tiredness of children after day-care attendance was explored. In the autumn of 2009, 41 parents and 35 caregivers of children aged 1.5 years or younger living in the city of Trondheim and nearby communities were assessed using a…

  9. "Talk, Talk and More Talk": Parental Perceptions of Young Children's Information Practices Related to Their Hobbies and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriage, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article explores parental perceptions of young children's everyday life information practices related to their hobbies and interests. Method: Thirty-one parents of children between the ages of four and eight years old completed a survey about their children's hobbies and interests. Questions were related to the nature of the…

  10. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads…

  11. Initial Efficacy of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Social Communication Intervention for Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Wainer, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Project ImPACT is a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD that was developed in community settings to encourage dissemination. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was conducted across 8 preschoolers with ASD and their mothers to examine the efficacy of the model for improving parent intervention…

  12. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  13. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with…

  14. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Treatment of Separation Anxiety Disorder in Young Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Molly L.; Pincus, Donna B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that Parent-Child Interaction therapy (PCIT) works to improve the child's behavior by changing the child-parent interaction. PCIT has been effective in treating disruptive behavior in young children. This article describes a pilot study to apply PCIT to the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD). A multiple-baseline…

  15. An Exploratory Study on the Relationship between Parents' Career Interests and the Career Interests of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chi-Sum; Wong, Ping-Man; Peng, Kelly Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to investigate the potential effects of parents' career interests on young adults' career interests. Using a sample of 113 freshmen in Hong Kong, results indicated that after controlling for personality, gender, general mental abilities and emotional intelligence, some of the parents' career interests were still related…

  16. Longitudinal Study of Parents' Impact on Quality of Life of Children and Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Earlier research has distinguished five domains of Quality of life (QoL) for people with ID: material well-being, development and activity, physical well-being, social well-being, and emotional well-being. We investigated parents' perspectives on these domains and QoL for children and young adults with ID and hypothesized that parents'…

  17. Trust versus concerns—how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter

    PubMed Central

    Gottvall, Maria; Höglund, Anna T.; Larsson, Margareta; Stenhammar, Christina; Andrae, Bengt; Tydén, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background. From spring of 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against cervical cancer is offered free of charge to all girls aged 10–12 years through a school-based vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how parents reason when they accept HPV vaccination for their young daughter and also their views on HPV-related information. Methods. Individual interviews with parents (n = 27) of 11–12-year-old girls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results. Three themes emerged through the analysis: Trust versus concern, Responsibility to protect against severe disease, and Information about HPV and HPV vaccination is important. The parents expressed trust in recommendations from authorities and thought it was convenient with school-based vaccination. They believed that cervical cancer was a severe disease and felt a responsibility to protect their daughter from it. Some had certain concerns regarding side effects and vaccine safety, and wished for a dialogue with the school nurse to bridge the information gaps. Conclusions. Trust in the recommendations from authorities and a wish to protect their daughter from a severe disease outweighed concerns about side effects. A school-based vaccination programme is convenient for parents, and the school nurse has an important role in bridging information gaps. The findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized; however, it can provide a better understanding of how parents might reason when they accept the HPV vaccination for their daughter. PMID:23777602

  18. Saving Time and Money in Michigan: Peter J. Young Talks about Professional Development, Parent Communication, Funding, and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Peter J. Young, Director of Technology at Rockford Public Schools in Michigan. In the interview, Young talked about how his district has done a lot more automation to integrate its disparate systems. He also discussed how they streamline their systems, how parents and community benefit from these efforts,…

  19. Improved Speech Following Parent-Delivered Qigong Massage in Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark; Williams, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Qigong massage is an eastern form of massage that can be delivered by western parents to their children with appropriate training and support. It has been shown to improve developmental measures in young children with autism when given daily for five months. A recent trial evaluating its effect on motor development in young children with Down…

  20. Levels of Urbanization and Parental Education in Relation to the Mortality Risk of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsin-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ling; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Jia, Chun-Hua; Li, Chung-Yi; Hou, Wen-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The establishment of the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan in 1995 effectively removed the financial barrier to access health care services of Taiwanese people. This population-based cohort study aimed to determine the independent and joint effects of parental education and area urbanization on the mortality risk among children under the universal health insurance coverage in Taiwan since 1995. Methods: We linked 1,501,620 births from 1996 to 2000 to the Taiwan Death Registry to estimate the neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality rates, according to the levels of parental education and urbanization of residential areas. We used a logistic regression model that considers data clustering to estimate the independent and joint effects. Results: Lower levels of parental education and area urbanization exerted an independent effect of mortality on young children, with a stronger magnitude noted for areas with lower levels of urbanization. Children whose parents had lower levels of education and who were born in areas with lower levels of urbanization experienced the highest risk for neonatal (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.46–1.76), infant (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.48–1.70), and under-five (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.61–1.82) mortality. Conclusions: Even with universal health insurance coverage, lower levels of area urbanization and parental education still exerted independent and joint effects on mortality in young children. This finding implies the inadequate accessibility to health care resources for children from socially disadvantaged families and less urbanized areas. PMID:26184248

  1. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  2. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  3. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  4. Everyday life of young adults with intellectual disabilities: inclusionary and exclusionary processes among young adults of parents with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-06-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and family, and considered their families as a resource for their empowerment and development of resilience. The study participants' informal networks were composed of only a few individuals who, moreover, were mostly of dissimilar age and also included support professionals. The participants typically described themselves as excluded from others, an experience that was articulated most conspicuously in their narratives about the special schools they were attending. PMID:23834213

  5. The Value of ABCD2F Scoring System (ABCD2 Combined with Atrial Fibrillation) to Predict 90-Day Recurrent Brain Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mostafa; Ghasemi, Faeze; Chardoli, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background. The ABCD2 score is now identified as a useful clinical prediction rule to determine the risk for stroke in the days following brain ischemic attacks. Aim. The present study aimed to introduce a new scoring system named “ABCD2F” and compare its value with the previous ABCD2 system to predict recurrent ischemic stroke within 90 days of the initial cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Methods. 138 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of ischemic CVA or TIAs who referred to emergency ward of Rasoul-e-Akram general hospital in Tehran from September 2012 to December 2013 were eligible. By adding a new score in the presence of atrial fibrillation to ABCD2 system, the new scoring system as ABCD2F was introduced and the risk stratification was done again on this new system. Results. The area under the curve for ABCD2 was 0.434 and for ABCD2F it was 0.452 indicating low value of both systems for assessing recurrence of stroke within 90 days of primary event. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that none of the baseline factors could predict 90-day recurrent stroke. Conclusion. ABCD2 and/or atrial fibrillation are not good scoring candidates for assessing the risk of recurrent stroke within first 90 days. PMID:27642521

  6. The Value of ABCD2F Scoring System (ABCD2 Combined with Atrial Fibrillation) to Predict 90-Day Recurrent Brain Stroke.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Mostafa; Hodjati Firoozabadi, Nader; Ghasemi, Faeze; Chardoli, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background. The ABCD2 score is now identified as a useful clinical prediction rule to determine the risk for stroke in the days following brain ischemic attacks. Aim. The present study aimed to introduce a new scoring system named "ABCD2F" and compare its value with the previous ABCD2 system to predict recurrent ischemic stroke within 90 days of the initial cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Methods. 138 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of ischemic CVA or TIAs who referred to emergency ward of Rasoul-e-Akram general hospital in Tehran from September 2012 to December 2013 were eligible. By adding a new score in the presence of atrial fibrillation to ABCD2 system, the new scoring system as ABCD2F was introduced and the risk stratification was done again on this new system. Results. The area under the curve for ABCD2 was 0.434 and for ABCD2F it was 0.452 indicating low value of both systems for assessing recurrence of stroke within 90 days of primary event. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that none of the baseline factors could predict 90-day recurrent stroke. Conclusion. ABCD2 and/or atrial fibrillation are not good scoring candidates for assessing the risk of recurrent stroke within first 90 days. PMID:27642521

  7. The Value of ABCD2F Scoring System (ABCD2 Combined with Atrial Fibrillation) to Predict 90-Day Recurrent Brain Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, Mostafa; Ghasemi, Faeze; Chardoli, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background. The ABCD2 score is now identified as a useful clinical prediction rule to determine the risk for stroke in the days following brain ischemic attacks. Aim. The present study aimed to introduce a new scoring system named “ABCD2F” and compare its value with the previous ABCD2 system to predict recurrent ischemic stroke within 90 days of the initial cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Methods. 138 consecutive patients with the final diagnosis of ischemic CVA or TIAs who referred to emergency ward of Rasoul-e-Akram general hospital in Tehran from September 2012 to December 2013 were eligible. By adding a new score in the presence of atrial fibrillation to ABCD2 system, the new scoring system as ABCD2F was introduced and the risk stratification was done again on this new system. Results. The area under the curve for ABCD2 was 0.434 and for ABCD2F it was 0.452 indicating low value of both systems for assessing recurrence of stroke within 90 days of primary event. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that none of the baseline factors could predict 90-day recurrent stroke. Conclusion. ABCD2 and/or atrial fibrillation are not good scoring candidates for assessing the risk of recurrent stroke within first 90 days.

  8. Young People Whose Parents Are Separated or Divorced: A Case for Researching Their Experiences at the Intersection of Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beausang, Judith; Farrell, Ann; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Young people whose parents are separated or divorced form a significant and increasing proportion of young people who attend school. To date, empirical research with young people whose parents are separated or divorced has tended to focus on either their household context, or their school context, rather than on both contexts together.…

  9. The Impact of Parental Bipolar Affective Disorder on Adolescent Behaviour--Positive Messages to Young People, Parents, Teachers and Other Professionals Working with Children Whose Parents Suffer from Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olliver-Kneafsey, Kate; Thornton, Ev; Williamson, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The impact of parental mental health difficulties on the developing child is well evidenced and documented. In this article Kate Olliver-Kneafsey, Ev Thornton and Wendy Williamson suggest that despite the difficulties young people face when parental mental illness is a feature of family life, it is not all gloom and doom, and give some important…

  10. Parents' Attitudes to Risk and Injury to Children and Young People on Farms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Children and young people growing up in a farm environment run a greater risk of being injured or dying in an accident than their non-farming counterparts. This study examines farming parents’ attitudes and experiences of having their children grow up on farms, one of the most dangerous work environments as their home, everyday environment and playground. Method Data were collected using two ethnological methods, a question list and interviews, with a study population of 20 parents. The data were analysed phenomenologically. Results The analysis pursued four themes: i) the most dangerous places and situations on the farm; ii) children’s tasks on the farm; iii) children as a safety risk on the farm; and iv) farm risk education for children. Conclusions Most parents know the risks on their farm, but are sometimes careless when working under stress or exhaustion. Some parents wanted more information and some wanted compulsory preventative or safety measures by manufacturers, e.g. a safety belt as standard on the extra seat in tractors. Children’s friends were described as one of the greatest risks for injury due to peer pressure. Some parents mentioned that people who grow up on farms are sometimes ‘blind’ to the dangers. Other parents seemed to overlook the risks and had their children carrying out tasks for which they were not mentally or physically equipped. Some of the tasks the children reportedly carried out on farms contravened Swedish legislation. It is thus important for farming parents to be repeatedly reminded of the risks to their children and to increase their awareness of how to prevent and eliminate risks in order to avoid accidents on the farm. The situation for farm children is highlighted in a critical discussion. PMID:27362751

  11. Parent-young people communication about sexual and reproductive health in E/Wollega zone, West Ethiopia: Implications for interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aims at examining parent-young people communication about sexual and reproductive health related topics and factors associated with it from both young people’s and parents’ perspectives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,269 young people aged 10–24 years in Nekemte town and semi urban areas, western Ethiopia. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS for windows version 16. The qualitative data was coded, and categorized in to emerging themes using the open code software version 3.4. Result About a third of young people-32.5% (32.4% of females and 32.7% males) engaged in conversation about sexual and reproductive health topics with their parents/parent figures during the last six months. In logistic regression analyses, young people who were aged 15–19 years were more likely to report parent-communication compared to the other age groups (AOR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.26-1.97). Female young people are more likely to discuss with their mothers, (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.2), sister (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.19-3.9) and female friends (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI = 7.36-18.7) while males are more likely to discuss with male friends (AOR = 17.3, 95%CI = 10-4-28.6). Educated young people were more likely to parent-communicate(AOR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.30-2.24). Fear of parent, cultural taboos attached to sex, embarrassments, and parents’ lack of knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health were found to be barriers for parent communication. Parent-communication takes place not only infrequently but also in warning, & threatening way. Conclusion Parent-young people communication about sexual health is occurring rarely in the family and bounded by certain barriers. Programmes/policies related to young people’s reproductive health should address not only individual or behavioral factors but also cultural and social factors that negatively

  12. Poor parenting and antisocial behavior among homeless young adults: links to dating violence perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Melander, Lisa A

    2012-05-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association between child maltreatment and parental warmth with dating violence perpetration and victimization through substance use and delinquency among a sample of 172 homeless males and females. Results from path analysis revealed that physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were all significant correlates of both substance use and delinquency, whereas lack of parental warmth was only associated with substance use. Neglect and substance use had direct effects on dating violence and substance use and was found to mediate the relationship between physical abuse and dating violence. Finally, females, older youth, and non-Whites had significantly higher levels of dating violence compared with their counterparts. PMID:22080581

  13. Young Adults’ Roles as Partners and Parents in a Context of Family Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Bzostek, Sharon H.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, as well as to describe how these estimates have changed across cohorts. It then draws from identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles which young adults are likely to occupy—both over their life course and at a single point in time—may influence inter- and intra-family (unit) relationships in light of current trends in family complexity. This discussion highlights four key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity, and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research to explore, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Implications for public policy are also discussed. PMID:25641975

  14. Resistance to Cry Intensive Sleep Intervention in Young Children: Are We Ignoring Children’s Cries or Parental Concerns?

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Etherton, Hayley; Hauck, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The majority of behavioural sleep interventions for young children (defined as 5 years of age or less) involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child’s cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties implementing and maintaining these procedures, leading to attrition, non-compliance and treatment avoidance. Yet the reasons for these methods being difficult to implement for parents have not been well understood or addressed in the literature. In fact, they are being ignored. We discuss that understanding and addressing parental concerns may enable better targeted sleep interventions. PMID:27417246

  15. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households.

    PubMed

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2013-10-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent-child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood.

  16. Relationships between Young Children in Full-Time Day Care and Their Caregivers: A Qualitative Study of Parental and Caregiver Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Mari Undheim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We studied the quality of caregiver-child relationships from the perspectives of parents and caregivers of young children in full-time day care. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged two years or younger (22 boys and 19 girls) in day care, and 35 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed. Parents and caregivers…

  17. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  18. Parental attachment, premorbid personality, and mental health in young males with hyperventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bih-Ching; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Lee, Fei-Yin; Tzeng, Don-Seng; Lin, Hsuan-Yin; Lung, For-Wey

    2007-10-31

    The aim of the study was to examine the predisposing and precipitating factors in the development of hyperventilation syndrome in males during military training in Taiwan. The participants included 110 young males who visited the emergency room of a teaching hospital in southern Taiwan because of an episode of acute hyperventilation during military training. Another 53 males, who had the same military training, and who did not experience hyperventilation or any psychiatric symptoms, were recruited as the control group. The risk of hyperventilation syndrome was increased by the following factors: greater neuroticism, less extraversion, parental overprotection, and less parental caring. A final parsimonious structural equation model showed a cause-effect relationship between the direct effects of maternal overprotection and introversion and the individual's neurotic characteristics, which contributed to the individual's current mental health status and the development of hyperventilation syndrome. Military training could be a precipitating factor in the development of hyperventilation syndrome in young males. The elucidation of these factors may contribute to the understanding and treatment of hyperventilation syndrome. The determination of competing risk factors and mediating effects in males with hyperventilation syndrome should be considered in future studies. PMID:17659783

  19. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. This paper explores parent-child communication about SRH in families, content, timing and reasons for their communication with their children aged 14-24 years in rural Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved eight weeks of participant observation, 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents of young people in this age group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parent-child communication about SRH happened in most families. The communication was mainly on same sex basis (mother-daughter and rarely father-son or father-daughter) and took the form of warnings, threats and physical discipline. Communication was triggered by seeing or hearing something a parent perceived negative and would not like their child to experience (such as a death attributable to HIV and unmarried young person's pregnancy). Although most young people were relaxed with their mothers than fathers, there is lack of trust as to what they can tell their parents for fear of punishment. Parents were limited as to what they could communicate about SRH because of lack of appropriate knowledge and cultural norms that restricted interactions between opposite sex. Conclusions Due to the consequences of the HIV pandemic, parents are making attempts to communicate with their children about SRH. They are however, limited by cultural barriers, and lack of appropriate

  20. The Role of Appearance in Adolescents' Experiences of Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Survey of Young People and Parents.

    PubMed

    Barke, Jenny; Coad, Jane; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition which can result in varying degrees of visible difference (disfigurement). Adolescence is a time when appearance concerns become more salient for many young people and is acknowledged as a particularly challenging time for individuals with NF1. There is currently little research into the psychosocial impact of the appearance changes associated with NF1 during this stage of life. In order to address this, surveys of young people with NF1 aged 14-24 years (n = 73), and parents of young people with NF1 (n = 55) were developed following interview studies with these groups. The surveys included the Perceived Stigma Questionnaire, Social Comfort Questionnaire, Body Esteem Scale (appearance subscale) and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Young people and parents identified appearance as central to young peoples' experience of NF1, however no significant difference was found on measures of body esteem, happiness, stigma or social comfort between those young people who reported their NF1 was noticeable to others and those who reported it was not. Findings from the parent survey indicated that their reports of greater perceived noticeability did relate to greater perceived stigma and lower levels of social comfort. Findings highlight the importance of attending to young people's concerns around appearance in general and managing the possibility of future appearance changes, rather than the current noticeability of NF1.

  1. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.

  2. Independence Giving or Autonomy Taking? Childhood Predictors of Decision-Sharing Patterns Between Young Adolescents and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Romich, Jennifer L.; Lundberg, Shelly; Tsang, Kwok Ping

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study of whether young adolescents make decisions autonomously, share decisions with their parents, or have decisions made for them by parents. Using a sample of 2,632 12-and 13-year-olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Survey we examine how childhood behavior and competence influence decision patterns in young adolescence. Individual models are used to test whether traits predict decision patterns, and sibling fixed-effects models allow us to estimate effects of child characteristics net of stable family contributions. In both individual and sibling fixed-effects models, children with higher verbal ability share more decision-making with parents. Children with greater mathematical aptitude and children who are impulsive are more likely to make decisions without consulting parents. The impulsivity effect is stronger in families with fewer resources. These results suggest that children directly and indirectly influence household decision-sharing patterns. PMID:20694171

  3. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  4. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy.

  5. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  6. Young Adults from Single versus Two-Parent Households: Attitudes toward Maternal Employment and Quality of Current Relationships with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Debi; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Chambliss, Catherine

    To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the Consequences…

  7. Maternal and Paternal Similarities and Differences in Parenting: An Examination of Mexican-American Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Ramakumar, Sri; Diaz, Abel

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the degree of parental similarity-dissimilarity across parenting dimensions operationalized in terms of: (1) one's own and one's partner's style; (2) meta-emotion belief structures; (3) behavioral strategies in reaction to children's emotions; as well as (4) parental support and responsiveness. The first four dimensions…

  8. The Family-Couple-Parenting Questionnaire: Development of a Measure for Long-Term Couples and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Carli, Lucia Leonilde; Anzelmo, Elena; Gatti, Elisa; Santona, Alessandra; Pozzi, Stefania; Gallucci, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    This work describes the construction of family-couple-parenting (FCP) questionnaire, a new measure of three aspects related to the developmental path toward parenting choices, within the perspective of the family life cycle and attachment theory. Two studies are reported. Study 1 reports the development of the FCP questionnaire and its psychometric properties. Study 2 assesses the FCP's nomological validity by investigating group differences on FCP factors and links between FCP factors and romantic attachment (experience in close relationships-revised) and recalled parental bonding (parental bonding instrument). Participants were 791 Italian participants: 405 young adults (203 students, 202 workers) and 193 couples (91 childless-by-choice, 102 parents-to-be). The results suggest that the FCP's stable psychometric structure and strong theoretical basis make FCP a useful instrument for research related to the path to parenthood.

  9. "When nothing matters, things just happen": young parenting women's reflections on caring, health, and justice.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline; Barcelos, Christie; Buchanan, David; Gubrium, Erika

    The field of public health frequently issues calls for social justice, but it is not clear that everyone agrees on what this means or how to achieve it. To assess lay citizens' views on the relationship between justice and health, we conducted individual interviews with 19 young parenting women to hear and discuss their thoughts about the causes of health disparities, ways to reduce them, and the nature of the just society. A salient theme to emerge in these interviews was the topic of "caring." This article reports on four categories identified under the theme of caring: 1) observations of apathy and indifference; 2) the effects of not caring; 3) models of caring; and 4) the pull of caring. Based on these results, the article outlines a grounded theory on the role of caring in conceptualizing health motivation.

  10. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  11. Associations of parenting styles, parental feeding practices and child characteristics with young children's fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Carine; Rovner, Alisha; Maes, Lea

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of parent and child characteristics in explaining children's fruit and vegetable intakes. In 2008, parents of preschoolers (mean age 3.5 years) from 56 schools in Belgium-Flanders completed questionnaires including a parent and child fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire, general parenting styles (laxness, overreactivity and positive interactions), specific food parenting practices (child-centered and parent-centered feeding practices) and children's characteristics (children's shyness, emotionality, stubbornness, activity, sociability, and negative reactions to food). Multiple linear regression analyses (n = 755) indicated a significant positive association between children's fruit and vegetable intake and parent's intake and a negative association with children's negative reactions to food. No general parenting style dimension or child personality characteristic explained differences in children's fruit and vegetable intakes. Child-centered feeding practices were positively related to children's fruit and vegetable intakes, while parent-centered feeding practices were negatively related to children's vegetable intakes. In order to try to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption, parents should be guided to improve their own diet and to use child-centered parenting practices and strategies known to decrease negative reactions to food.

  12. "Religious Parents... Just Want the Best for Their Kids": Young People's Perspectives on the Influence of Religious Beliefs on Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Janet; Horwath, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Challenging some of the current predominantly negative representations of the effects of religion on young people requires further research into faith and family life, particularly from the perspective of young people themselves. This article presents a preliminary report of a study of 40 young people, mostly Christians and Muslims, aged 13-15…

  13. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age.

  14. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    PubMed

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  15. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112

  16. Developmental Outcomes of Toddlers of Young Latina Mothers: Cultural, Family, and Parenting Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N.; Silberman, Stephanie G.; Wood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage = 17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers’ cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers’ display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26454205

  17. Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasyad, Ach.

    2015-01-01

    This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…

  18. Race, Parental Socioeconomic Status, and Computer Use Time outside of School among Young American Children, 1997 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Tsai, Hsin-Jen

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the role that parental socioeconomic status plays in forming the racial gap in home computer use among young school-age children. Descriptive statistics from time diary data of 6- to 11-year-olds in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, reveal that Black American children spend substantially…

  19. Parent Perceptions of Audiology and Speech-Language Services and Support for Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss are selecting cochlear implants at an increasing rate and when their children are very young. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists are typically involved in habilitation activities following implantation in an effort to increase children's access to listening…

  20. Exploring the Attitudes of Parents of Young Children with Autism Towards the TEACCH Conceptual Model: A Narrative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Natalie Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the attitudes of parents of young children with autism towards the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children Program's (TEACCH) conceptual model, known as the Culture of Autism. One primary research question guided the study: What are the attitudes of…

  1. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  2. Internet-Based Intervention Training for Parents of Young Children with Disabilities: A Promising Service-Delivery Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Daczewitz, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient early intervention (EI) services are required to serve the needs of young children with disabilities and the needs of their families. Effective EI includes family-centred practices, evidence-based interventions, parent involvement/training, and delivery in children's natural environments. Due to the challenges of providing…

  3. Divorce Is a Part of My Life . . . Resilience, Survival, and Vulnerability: Young Adults' Perception of the Implications of Parental Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldar-Avidan, Dorit; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study among 22 young adults (20-25 years old) whose parents divorced during their childhood was conducted in Israel, using semi-structured, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Qualitative data analysis led to identification of three profiles, aiming at a grounded theoretical conceptualization. Three core themes were identified: the…

  4. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  5. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  6. A Comparison of Autonomic, Behavioral, and Parent-Report Measures of Sensory Sensitivity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper R.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Aube, Daniella; Scrimgeour, Meghan; Ostholthoff, Tyler; Brickley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present research compared responses to sensory stimuli among eight young children with autism and an age- and sex-matched typically developing control group, using autonomic (heart rate/HR) and a behavioral rating scale. Parents of all participants also completed the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (SP). Results indicate that children with…

  7. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to…

  8. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  9. Supporting Parents to Facilitate Communication and Joint Attention in Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Calhoun, James; Morris, Hope; Platt, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 2 pilot studies partnering early interventionists and families in targeting social communication and joint attention abilities for young children with autism spectrum disorders. Both parent-intervention trainings involved opportunities for interventionists to partner with families. One pilot utilized "More than Words" (MTW;…

  10. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  11. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  12. Media Culture and Media Violence: Making the Television Work for Young Children, Early Childhood Educators, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of television on young children, with a special emphasis on the relationship among TV, childhood, and violence, and on developmentally appropriate television. Further, the paper provides strategies for parents and early childhood educators to use in taking control of the television. The paper is…

  13. The Meanings of Outdoor Physical Activity for Parentally Bereaved Young People in the United Kingdom: Insights from an Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joanne; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the meanings of outdoor physical activity in the natural environment for parentally-bereaved young people. It draws on data generated from a two-year ethnographic study that focused on the experiences of those involved with the Rocky Centre, a childhood bereavement service in the UK. Data was collected via…

  14. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  15. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. PMID:11437481

  16. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall.

  17. Parenting Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: Challenges, Unmet Needs, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Brown, Jennifer L; Haddad, Lisa B; Chakraborty, Rana; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-07-01

    Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings. First, the social, economic, and sexual and reproductive health challenges facing HIV-infected AYA in the United States are summarized. Next, family planning considerations, including age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to those who are perinatally infected, and contraceptive and preconception counseling are described. The impact of early childbearing on young parents is discussed and considerations are outlined during the preconception, antenatal, and postnatal periods with regard to antiretroviral medications and clinical care guidelines. The importance of transitioning AYA from pediatric or adolescent to adult-centered medical care is highlighted. Finally, a comprehensive approach is suggested that addresses not only medical needs but also emphasizes ways to mitigate the impact of social and economic factors on the health and well-being of these young parents and their children. PMID:27410495

  18. Efficacy of the Chicago parent program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Fogg, Louis; Tucker, Sharon; Mokros, Hartmut

    2009-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a 12-session parent training program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which was developed in collaboration with African American and Latino parents. Using growth curve modeling, data were analyzed from 253 parents (58.9% African American, 32.8% Latino) of 2-4 year old children enrolled in seven day care centers serving low-income families. Day care centers were matched and randomly assigned to intervention and waiting-list control conditions. At 1-year follow-up, intervention group parents used less corporal punishment and issued fewer commands with their children. Intervention children exhibited fewer behavior problems during observed play and clean-up sessions than controls. Additional group differences were observed when dose was included in the analytic model. Parents who participated in at least 50% of CPP sessions also reported greater improvements in parenting self-efficacy, more consistent discipline, greater warmth, and a decline in child behavior problems when compared to reports from controls. The implications of these results for preventive parent training with low-income African American and Latino parents and the role of intervention dose on parent-child outcomes are discussed.

  19. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  20. Attention problems and parent-rated behavior and stress in young children at risk for developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Raymond C

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize the neurobehavior of young children at risk for developmental delay and attention problems. Two hundred and eighty-one children, ages 18 to 70 months, were evaluated. All parents/guardians completed the Child Development Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½ to 5, Inventory for Client and Agency Planning, and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. All children had significant delays (developmental ratios <.70). A Mann-Whitney U test compared those with and without attention problems (T score >70). A 2-tailed P value of <.05 indicated statistical significance. Children with attention problems were more likely to have withdrawn behavior, sleep problems, and aggressive behavior. All had severe problem behaviors, and their families experienced significant stress. Attention problems and other serious problem behaviors occur frequently in young children at risk for developmental delay. Parental stress warrants prompt intervention for their children and positive supports for them.

  1. Brief report: identity processes in Filipino late adolescents and young adults: parental influences and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2014-07-01

    This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  2. Functional overlap between ABCD1 (ALD) and ABCD2 (ALDR) transporters: a therapeutic target for X-adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Aurora; Ferrer, Isidre; Camps, Carme; Metzger, Elisabeth; Hindelang, Colette; Callizot, Noëlle; Ruiz, Montse; Pàmpols, Teresa; Giròs, Marisa; Mandel, Jean Louis

    2004-12-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of function of the peroxisomal transporter ABCD1 (ALD), which results in accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in organs and serum, central demyelination and peripheral axonopathy and Addison's disease. Knockout of the ALD gene in the mouse (ALD(-)) results in an adrenomyeloneuropathy-like disease (a late onset form of X-ALD). In the present study, we demonstrate that axonal damage occurs as first pathological event in this model, followed by myelin degeneration. We show that this phenotype can be modulated through expression levels of an ALD-related gene (ALDR/ABCD2), its closest paralogue and a target of PPARalpha and SREBP transcription factors. Overexpression of ALDR in ALD(-) mice prevents both VLCFAs accumulation and the neurodegenerative features, whereas double mutants for ALD and ALDR exhibit an earlier onset and more severe disease (including signs of inflammatory reaction) when compared with ALD single mutants. Thus, our results provide direct evidence for functional redundancy/overlap between both transporters in vivo and highlight ALDR as therapeutic target for treatment of X-ALD.

  3. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  4. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  5. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  6. Self- and parent assessment of mental health: disagreement on externalizing and internalizing behaviour in young refugees from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Edith

    2008-01-01

    Self- and parent assessment of mental health problems yield a limited degree of cross-informant agreement in adolescent populations. Working with data from 122 refugee children, adolescents and young adults from the Middle East, the aims of this study were to analyse levels of agreement and disagreement between self- and parent ratings of externalizing and internalizing behaviour and to identify predictors for the differences between the two sets of ratings. Parents and children were interviewed separately using structured questionnaires. Mental health was assessed using the Achenbach System of Empirically-based Assessment. Self- and parent-rated scale scores correlated moderately. The mean score differences between self- and parent-rated internalizing and externalizing behaviour were 2.0 and 2.7, p < 0.005, respectively. A larger mean difference was found among boys concerning externalizing behaviour and among girls concerning internalizing behaviour. Individual (age, and sex) family (father's health situation) and ethnic background predicted this difference. This could indicate that parent ratings and children's self-ratings are two, qualitatively different constructs and not just a result of expected inter-observer disagreement. When assessing young refugees for possible treatment, this difference needs to be understood and taken into consideration. PMID:18411865

  7. Developmental and behavior problems predict parenting stress in young children with global delay.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Raymond C

    2012-03-01

    To identify parent-reported symptoms that predict parenting stress in preschoolers with global developmental delay, 201 parents/guardians of 142 boys and 59 girls with global delay, mean age 39.1 months (range, 18 to 63 months) were studied retrospectively. Parents completed the following: (a) a semistructured interview; (b) the Child Development Inventory, (c) Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5, and the (d) Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Forty-two percent of parents described clinically significant parenting stress (≥ 85th percentile). The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form subscales Difficult Child and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interactions were elevated. Parental stress increased with higher gross motor development and decreased as social and fine-motor ratios increased. Furthermore, stress increased when parents reported higher levels on the Emotionally Reactive and Withdrawn scale scores and when parents reported Pervasive Developmental and Oppositional Defiant Problems. In mobile children with global delay, behavior problems predict parenting stress.

  8. Barriers to success in parent training for young children with developmental delay: the role of cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Graziano, Paulo A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cumulative risk was calculated as a sum of risk variables, including socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, low maternal education), family structure (single-parent household), and maternal risk characteristics (minority status, lower intelligence, and parental distress). Families with higher cumulative risk scores, especially those with three or more risks, were more likely to drop out of treatment and display diminished treatment response in child behavior and parenting skills compared with families with lower cumulative risk scores. However, only two individual risk factors (i.e., minority status and family structure) predicted dropout, and one individual risk factor (i.e., maternal education) predicted outcome. These findings suggest that it can be useful to conceptualize risk factors as having a cumulative, in addition to individual, influence on parent-training interventions for children with developmental delay and have significant implications for clinical practice. It is important for clinicians to regularly assess for risk factors, and future research should examine ways in which clinicians can improve retention and outcome of parent training in the presence of multiple risk factors.

  9. The Feasibility of a Pilot Intervention for Parents of Young Children Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; Herbert, Linda; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Wang, Jichuan; Streisand, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and indicators of preliminary efficacy of the pilot of a parent-focused, phone-based intervention to improve glycemic control and parental and child well-being in young children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Thirty mothers of young children ages 1–6 diagnosed with T1D for less than 6 months were randomized to either a phone-based intervention or physical activity education comparison program. Child HbA1c and parent report of depressive symptoms, stress, social support, and child quality of life were assessed at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results The program was feasible, as the majority of participants completed more than 80% of the intervention or comparison education sessions and reported high levels of satisfaction. Overall, there was a significant time by treatment intervention where the intervention group demonstrated improved social support and quality of life over time as compared to the comparison education group. The intervention demonstrated a trend towards moderating the association between baseline maternal depressive symptoms and prospective worsening of HbA1c. Conclusions Parents of young children newly diagnosed with T1D can be engaged in a phone-based program to provide support during this vulnerable period. PMID:27088065

  10. Knowledge and information needs of young people with epilepsy and their parents: Mixed-method systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Young people with neurological impairments such as epilepsy are known to receive less adequate services compared to young people with other long-term conditions. The time (age 13-19 years) around transition to adult services is particularly important in facilitating young people's self-care and ongoing management. There are epilepsy specific, biological and psycho-social factors that act as barriers and enablers to information exchange and nurturing of self-care practices. Review objectives were to identify what is known to be effective in delivering information to young people age 13-19 years with epilepsy and their parents, to describe their experiences of information exchange in healthcare contexts, and to identify factors influencing positive and negative healthcare communication. Methods The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information Coordinating Centre systematic mixed-method approach was adapted to locate, appraise, extract and synthesise evidence. We used Ley's cognitive hypothetical model of communication and subsequently developed a theoretical framework explaining information exchange in healthcare contexts. Results Young people and parents believed that healthcare professionals were only interested in medical management. Young people felt that discussions about their epilepsy primarily occurred between professionals and parents. Epilepsy information that young people obtained from parents or from their own efforts increased the risk of epilepsy misconceptions. Accurate epilepsy knowledge aided psychosocial adjustment. There is some evidence that interventions, when delivered in a structured psycho-educational, age appropriate way, increased young people's epilepsy knowledge, with positive trend to improving quality of life. We used mainly qualitative and mixed-method evidence to develop a theoretical framework explaining information exchange in clinical encounters. Conclusions There is a paucity of evidence reporting effective interventions

  11. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  12. Communication About Problematic Drinking Between Young Adults and their Parents: An Application of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 80% of college students drink, half of whom consume alcohol in the form of binge drinking. The current study applies Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory to examine the communication about excessive drinking that takes place between parents and their young adult children. Forty college students were asked to report on a moment or incident that led their parents to label their drinking as concerning and were then asked to report on how their parents acted towards the drinking before and after the moment of labeling. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The findings suggest that parents act with inconsistency when attempting to manage their children's drinking by enacting both reinforcing and punishing behaviors. Parents' reinforcing behaviors included drinking with their children and buying them alcohol, even after labeling the drinking as problematic. Parents' punishment behaviors included expressing concern about their children's sense of responsibility and making their children feel regretful about their drinking. Nearly 88% of the participants were able to recall the moment at which their parents labeled their drinking as problematic. Implications for using inconsistent messages in conversations about alcohol are discussed.

  13. Parental perceptions regarding healthy behaviours for preventing overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Pocock, M; Trivedi, D; Wills, W; Bunn, F; Magnusson, J

    2010-05-01

    Evidence is increasingly pointing towards the importance of early life strategies to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. This systematic review synthesizes qualitative research concerning parental perceptions regarding behaviours for preventing overweight and obesity in young children. During May and June 2008, a range of electronic databases were searched and together with lateral searching techniques 21 studies were identified for review. Data extraction and synthesis using thematic content analysis revealed six organizing and 32 finer level themes. These related to child factors, family dynamics, parenting, knowledge and beliefs, extra-familial influences and resources and environment. Themes were mapped to a socioecological model which illustrated how factors at individual, interpersonal, community, organizational and societal levels interact in complex ways to impact on parental perceptions about healthy behaviours for preventing child overweight. Although parents suggested several ideas to promote healthy child weight-related behaviours, many of their views concerned perceived barriers, some of which may be amenable to practical intervention. Furthermore, intergenerational influences on parental health beliefs and knowledge suggest that health promotion strategies may be more effective if directed at the wider family, rather than parents alone. Significantly, many parents believed strategies to promote healthy weight should start early in a child's life. PMID:19780989

  14. Could parental rules play a role in the association between short sleep and obesity in young children?

    PubMed

    Jones, Caroline H D; Pollard, Tessa M; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Ball, Helen

    2014-05-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with obesity in young children. This study develops the hypothesis that parental rules play a role in this association. Participants were 3-year-old children and their parents, recruited at nursery schools in socioeconomically deprived and non-deprived areas of a North-East England town. Parents were interviewed to assess their use of sleep, television-viewing and dietary rules, and given diaries to document their child's sleep for 4 days/5 nights. Children were measured for height, weight, waist circumference and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. One-hundred and eight families participated (84 with complete sleep data and 96 with complete body composition data). Parental rules were significantly associated together, were associated with longer night-time sleep and were more prevalent in the non-deprived-area compared with the deprived-area group. Television-viewing and dietary rules were associated with leaner body composition. Parental rules may in part confound the association between night-time sleep duration and obesity in young children, as rules cluster together across behavioural domains and are associated with both sleep duration and body composition. This hypothesis should be tested rigorously in large representative samples.

  15. Body mass index in young adults: Associations with parental body size and education in the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, K J; Liu, K; Dyer, A R; Kiefe, C I; Burke, G L; Yunis, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations of parental education, parental body size, and offspring's education with body mass index and 7-year change in body mass index were examined among participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: CARDIA is a study of coronary artery disease risk factors in 5115 Black and White persons aged 18 to 30 at baseline. Analyses of covariance were carried out with body mass index and change in body mass index as the dependent variables, and with parental education, parental body size, and participant education as the major independent variables. RESULTS: Father's body size was positively associated with participant's baseline body mass index among Black men, White men, and White women. Mother's body size was positively associated with baseline body mass index among all race-sex groups, and with change in body mass index among White women. Father's education was inversely associated with baseline body mass index among Black men and White women, and with change among White women. CONCLUSIONS: Parental education may influence body mass index and changes in young adulthood, especially among White women. Such associations may be both genetic and environmental and may be important for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:8604777

  16. An exploratory study of the relationship between parental attitudes and behaviour and young people's consumption of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Concern is growing regarding frequent and excessive misuse of alcohol by young people. The average age at which young people in Europe start to drink is twelve and a half, and during the last decade, the quantity of alcohol consumed by younger adolescents in the UK has increased. Families are known to play an important role in shaping young people's alcohol misuse, although family risk and protective factors associated with misuse in a UK context are in need of further investigation. Methods The study used a cross-sectional design, involving secondary analyses of self-completion questionnaire responses from 6,628 secondary school children (i.e. aged 11-16 years), from 12 schools within an urban location in Wales. Items relating to family functioning and perceived parental attitudes were first subjected to factor analysis. Associations of family closeness and conflict, parental monitoring and attitudes and family history of substance misuse with children's self reported alcohol consumption were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results Approximately three quarters of respondents reported having tried alcohol, most of whom had first tried alcohol aged 12 or under. Parental monitoring and family closeness were positively correlated with one another and were both associated with significantly lower levels of drinking behaviours. Family violence and conflict, more liberal parental attitudes towards substance use and towards alcohol and petty crime, and family history of substance misuse were positively correlated with one another and with higher levels of drinking behaviours. Parental monitoring was identified as the family functioning factor most consistently associated with drinking behaviour in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Significant relationships were found between young people's drinking behaviours and perceptions of risk and protective factors in the family environment. Parental monitoring was strongly associated with family closeness

  17. When Parents Know Little about What Happened: Parent-guided Conversations, Stress, and Young Children's Eyewitness Memory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shengkai; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Kelton, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how 4- to 7-year-olds' memories for a stressor were influenced by conversations with a parent who had little knowledge of the target event, and the stress children experienced before, during, and after the event. Children (N = 43) watched a mildly stressful video before talking about it with a parent. Parents were asked to focus on either the children's feelings or the content of the video itself. A researcher interviewed the children about their memory following the conversation. Behavioral and physiological measures of children's stress were collected at multiple stages. Children recalled more inaccurate information with the parent than with the interviewer. Younger age and parent insecure attachment were associated with poorer memory. Manipulation of parents' emotion orientation did not predict memory, but individual differences in the talk did, although in different ways from what would be expected from research on conversations about shared events. Less stress (according to self-reported happiness and observed negative affect) before and after, but not during, the stressor was linked with better memory. Implications for children's memory in legal settings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27041740

  18. Television and families: what do young children watch with their parents?

    PubMed

    St Peters, M; Fitch, M; Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Eakins, D J

    1991-12-01

    A sample of 271 3- and 5-year-olds and their families participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of television viewing patterns. 5 1-week diaries for all family members were collected at 6-month intervals. Programs were categorized as: (1) child informative, (2) child entertainment, (3) news and informative, (4) sports, (5) comedy, (6) drama, (7) action-adventure, and (8) variety-game. The majority of child programs were viewed without parents, while the majority of adult programs were watched with parents. Coviewing patterns of adult programs were predicted from parents' individual viewing habits, but not from the child's. Coviewing declined with age. Parental encouragement and regulation of viewing were orthogonal. Children whose parents encouraged viewing watched more child informative programming; children of restrictive parents watched less entertainment programming. Encouraging parents coviewed more than nonencouraging parents. Results support the assertion that parental viewing preferences, habits, and orientations toward television influence children's viewing, both with and without parents. PMID:1786724

  19. An exploration of the experience of attending the Kidstime programme for children with parents with enduring mental health issues: Parents' and young people's views.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Miranda; Hoffman, Jasmine; Martin, Amelia; Fagin, Leonard; Cooklin, Alan

    2015-07-01

    The Kidstime programme is an innovative attempt to address the particular needs of children and young people who have parents with mental illnesses. It comprises a monthly psycho-educational workshop involving discussions about the meaning of mental health, dramatizations of stories constructed by the children (often filmed), and concurrent parents' groups, as well as joint seminars and review sessions. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews with young people (n=6) and parents (n=5) attending the groups and interviews with former service users (n=9). Five themes emerged from the thematic analysis: initial engagement, sharing with others, learning about mental health, opportunity for fun and impact on family relationships. Areas for further development were identified including the formation of a distinct adolescent Kidstime workshop to better meet their age-specific needs, and adjustments to the system for introducing new families to established workshop groups. Given the positive experience of the groups by those attending, a rigorous evaluation of the approach is suggested.

  20. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  1. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use. PMID:27363465

  2. Parental death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults-a national cohort study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Berg, Lisa; Arat, Arzu; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that parental death influences health and mortality in bereaved offspring. To date, few studies have examined whether exposure to parental bereavement in childhood is associated with suicidality later in life. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether parental death during childhood influences self-inflicted injuries/poisoning in young adulthood. A national cohort born during 1973-1982 (N = 871,402) was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from age 18 to 31-40 years. Cox regression analyses of proportional hazards, with adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and parental psychosocial covariates, were used to test hypotheses regarding parental loss and hospital admission due to self-inflicted injuries/poisoning. Parental deaths were divided into deaths caused by (1) external causes/substance abuse and (2) natural causes. Persons who had lost a parent to an external cause/substance abuse-related death had the highest risk of being admitted to a hospital for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning; HRs 2.03 (1.67-2.46) for maternal death and 2.03 (1.84-2.25) for paternal death, after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and risk factors among surviving parents. Risks were also increased for parental death due to natural causes, but at a lower level: 1.19 (1.01-1.39) and 1.28 (1.15-1.43), respectively. Losing a father before school age was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning than was loss at an older age for both genders. Maternal loss before school age was associated with a higher risk only for men, particularly maternal death by natural causes (p < 0.01).

  3. Prevention of behavior problems in a selected population: Stepping stones triple P for parents of young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Cheri J; Kilburn, Janice; Hardin, James W

    2014-11-01

    Because young children with disabilities are at elevated risk for development of challenging behaviors, and caregivers of these children typically lack access to evidence-based parenting interventions, two randomized trials were conducted to examine the impact of an evidence-based parenting intervention, Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP), as a selective preventive intervention. Both studies targeted parents of children under two with a variety of disabilities who were enrolled in the IDEA Part C Early Intervention (EI) system in one state. SSTP was delivered in family homes. In Study One, 49 families were randomly assigned to EI services as usual, with or without SSTP; a 52% attrition rate from treatment was seen. No significant between-group differences were seen aside from a trend toward reduced symptoms of parental depression at follow-up. Intervention group children demonstrated significant decline in behavior problems from post treatment to follow-up, and there was a trend toward improved parenting style in the intervention group during this same time frame. Study Two incorporated a separate workforce intervention for EI service coordinators; 40 families on their caseloads were then randomly assigned to receive EI services as usual with or without SSTP. Attrition from treatment was limited to 20%. No differential impact was seen on child behavior; a trend was noted post-treatment on parent symptoms of depression and on the observed parent-child relationship. At 12-month follow-up, there was a trend favoring improvement in the intervention group in parenting style; statistically significant impact was also seen on the observed quality of the parent-child relationship. SSTP shows promise as a selective preventive intervention for an early intervention population. Reasons for the differential findings between the two studies are explored and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:25124695

  4. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children) which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building that might enable parents

  5. Physical activity in young children and their parents-An Early STOPP Sweden-China comparison study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elin; Mei, Hong; Xiu, Lijuan; Svensson, Viktoria; Xiong, Yueling; Marcus, Claude; Zhang, Jianduan; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding about socio-cultural differences in physical activity in children with high and low risk for obesity can help tailor intervention programs in different settings. This study aimed to compare objectively measured physical activity in two-year-olds and their parents, living in Stockholm, Sweden, and Wuhan, China. Data from Early STOPP was used. Children and parents wore an accelerometer in connection with the child's second birthday. Weekly and hourly patterns were examined. Correlation between child and parental physical activity was assessed. Data on 146 Swedish and 79 Chinese children and their parents was available. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm were significantly more active than their counterparts in Wuhan (children; 2989 (SD 702) vs. 1997 (SD 899) counts per minute (CPM), mothers 2625 (SD 752) vs. 2042 (SD 821) CPM; fathers 2233 (SD 749) vs. 1588 (SD 754) CPM). Activity levels were similar over a week for children and parents within both countries. No parental-child correlations, except for a paternal-son correlation in Stockholm, were found. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm are more active compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. Interventions to increase physical activity needs to take cultural aspects into account, also when targeting very young children. PMID:27404563

  6. Little children with big worries: addressing the needs of young, anxious children and the problem of parent engagement.

    PubMed

    Mian, Nicholas D

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety disorders in preschool-age children represent an important clinical problem due to high prevalence, substantial impairment, persistence, and associated risk for later emotional problems. Early intervention may mitigate these problems by capitalizing on a strategic developmental period. Elevated neuroplasticity, availability of screening tools, and the potential to modify parenting practices position anxiety as a good candidate for early intervention and preventive efforts. While some novel interventions show promise, the broad success of such programs will largely depend on parent engagement. Since parents are less likely to identify and seek help for anxiety problems compared to other childhood behavior problems, especially in a preventive manner, methods for understanding parents' decisions to participate and enhancing levels of engagement are central to the success of early childhood anxiety prevention and intervention. Understanding these processes is particularly important for families characterized by sociodemographic adversity, which have been underrepresented in anxiety treatment research. This review summarizes the developmental phenomenology of early emerging anxiety symptoms, the rationale for early intervention, and the current state of research on interventions for young, anxious children. The roles of parent engagement and help-seeking processes are emphasized, especially among economically disadvantaged and ethnic minority communities who are acutely at risk. Evidence-based strategies to enhance parent engagement to facilitate the development and dissemination of efficacious programs are offered.

  7. Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults' Global Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed. PMID:26160773

  8. Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults' Global Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed.

  9. Parent-of-Origin Effects of the APOB Gene on Adiposity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hochner, Hagit; Allard, Catherine; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Chen, Jinbo; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Sazdovska, Sandra; Lumley, Thomas; McKnight, Barbara; Rice, Kenneth; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Meigs, James B.; Kwok, Pui; Hivert, Marie-France; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Gomez, Felicia; Wang, Ting; van Duijn, Cornelia; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Meiner, Vardiella; Manor, Orly; Dupuis, Josée; Friedlander, Yechiel; Siscovick, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cardio-metabolic traits account for a small proportion of the traits' heritability. To date, most association studies have not considered parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Here we report investigation of POEs on adiposity and glycemic traits in young adults. The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-Up Study (JPS), comprising 1250 young adults and their mothers was used for discovery. Focusing on 18 genes identified by previous GWAS as associated with cardio-metabolic traits, we used linear regression to examine the associations of maternally- and paternally-derived offspring minor alleles with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin. We replicated and meta-analyzed JPS findings in individuals of European ancestry aged ≤50 belonging to pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study, Family Heart Study and Erasmus Rucphen Family study (total N≅4800). We considered p<2.7x10-4 statistically significant to account for multiple testing. We identified a common coding variant in the 4th exon of APOB (rs1367117) with a significant maternally-derived effect on BMI (β = 0.8; 95%CI:0.4,1.1; p = 3.1x10-5) and WC (β = 2.7; 95%CI:1.7,3.7; p = 2.1x10-7). The corresponding paternally-derived effects were non-significant (p>0.6). Suggestive maternally-derived associations of rs1367117 were observed with fasting glucose (β = 0.9; 95%CI:0.3,1.5; p = 4.0x10-3) and insulin (ln-transformed, β = 0.06; 95%CI:0.03,0.1; p = 7.4x10-4). Bioinformatic annotation for rs1367117 revealed a variety of regulatory functions in this region in liver and adipose tissues and a 50% methylation pattern in liver only, consistent with allelic-specific methylation, which may indicate tissue-specific POE. Our findings demonstrate a maternal-specific association between a common APOB variant and adiposity, an association that was not previously detected in GWAS. These results provide evidence for the role of

  10. Taiwanese Parents' Beliefs Regarding Young Children's Art Education and the Actual Art Achievements of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Pai, Tzu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The research goal is to ascertain the current beliefs of the parents of preschool children regarding art education in Taiwan. Background factors on the parents were tested to show the differences between the parents' beliefs regarding art education and the actual art achievements of the children. From there, relationships between the beliefs and…

  11. Families that Read: A Time-Diary Analysis of Young People's and Parents' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Killian

    2010-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in assisting their children to learn to read, and can act as good role models in promoting reading behaviour. While there has been a raft of research on the impact of parents as teachers, there has been little empirical analysis on the impact of parents in modelling reading. Addressing this gap in the literature…

  12. Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of an In-Home Parent Training Intervention for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Griffith, Annette K.; Casey, Kathryn J.; Ingram, Stephanie; Simpson, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Boys Town In-Home Family Program on improving child behavior and parenting skills. The three-month parenting intervention was delivered to parents in their homes. All children were referred to the program by school personnel. Of the 107 families that enrolled in the study, 79% completed the intervention.…

  13. Playing "The Ladybug Game": Parent Guidance of Young Children's Numeracy Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Ferretti, Larissa; Loving, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Parent guidance for numeracy activities and preschoolers' numeracy performance were examined in the context of playing a board game in three sessions over a two-week period. Twenty-eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a numeracy awareness group in which parents were provided with suggested numeracy activities to incorporate into the…

  14. Family Worlds: Couple Satisfaction, Parenting Style, and Mothers' and Fathers' Speech to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)

  15. Parenting Deficits of Mothers Living with HIV/AIDS who have Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of the relationships between parenting deficits and skills, along with child outcomes, in a sample of mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their 6 to 14 year old children. Sixty-two MLH (61% Latina, 26% black, 3% white, & 10% multiracial) and their well children (age 6 – 14) were recruited from the greater Los Angeles, California, region to participate in an intervention (IMAGE: Improving Mothers’ parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) designed to assist MLH with parenting and self-care skills. Constructs examined included parenting deficits, parenting skills, and child outcomes. Covariance structural modeling was used for the analyses. Covariance structural modeling confirmed the hypothesized set of construct associations. As predicted, fewer parenting deficits were associated with better parenting skills, which, in turn, were associated with better child outcomes. This study delineated further the parenting issues with which MLH struggle, providing information on the interventions needed for this population. MLH who have little confidence they can enact parenting skills and limited knowledge of basic parenting practices appear to be less likely to provide family routines consistently, monitor their children, or to engender family cohesion or a close parent-child relationship. Such parenting skills were found to be associated with child functioning. PMID:25620995

  16. Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction in Young Children: Associations with Weight and Perceived Parenting Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting style has been associated with weight-related outcomes in children, but relationships between parenting, weight, and overweight-related psychological outcomes remain largely unstudied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parenting was a moderator of the relationship between overweight and psychological…

  17. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of child rearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. Using a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers' parenting knowledge; compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and…

  18. Early Literacy and Parental Writing Mediation in Young Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Bazelet, Idit; Goldman, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    The study compared early literacy of Israeli children aged five to six years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), contrasted parental writing mediation in the two groups and tested the relations between parents' mediation characteristics and children's early literacy skills. Each of 62 parent-child dyads (32 with ADHD)…

  19. Home-Based Parental Involvement in Young Children's Education: Examining the Effects of Maternal Education across U.S. Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of maternal education and ethnicity to three dimensions of home-based parental involvement in young children's education and development: parental expectations about educational attainment, children's activities at home and outside the home, and family routines. Controlling for family background variables…

  20. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two…

  1. "Feeling Caught" as a Mediator of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Avoidance and Satisfaction with Their Parents in Divorced and Non-Divorced Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; Schrodt, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Tests the degree to which adolescents and young adults felt caught between their parents as a mediator between divorce and children's avoidance and satisfaction with them. Reveals that divorce was largely associated with avoidance and satisfaction through children's feelings of being caught, which were a function of their parents' demand-withdraw…

  2. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  3. Parents' Appraisals of the Animacy and Likability of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    Findings from a survey of parents' ratings of seven different human-like qualities of four socially interactive robots are reported. The four robots were Popchilla, Keepon, Kaspar, and CosmoBot. The participants were 96 parents and other primary caregivers of young children with disabilities 1 to 12 years of age. Results showed that Popchilla, a…

  4. A Comprehensive Guide for Caregivers in Day-Care Settings: Training Child Care Workers and Parents To Reduce the At-Risk Factor in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nettie

    Noting that millions of young American children are at-risk because they have been denied bonding and communication with a caring adult, this book serves as a call for national attention and provides a guide for developing the parenting skills needed by today's parents and child caregivers. The book contends that caregivers' qualifications must…

  5. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.

  6. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naïve Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years; SD = 0.6), medication naïve children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis yielded two segments of parents: (1) Medication Avoidant parents constituted 70.5% of the sample whose treatment decisions were strongly influenced by a desire to avoid medication; (2) Outcome Oriented parents constituted 29.5% of the sample whose treatment decisions were most influenced by a desire for positive treatment outcomes. Parents in the Outcome Oriented segment were more stressed and depressed, had lower socioeconomic status and education, were more likely to be single parents, and had more disruptive and impaired children. Simulations predicted that parents would prefer treatments with behavior therapy over treatments with stimulant medication only. PMID:21722027

  7. Young People's Everyday Romance and Sexual Experiences in Relation to Sex-Related Conversations with Parents: A Diary Study in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia; Van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on existing research into how young people's emergent sexual development is connected to parent-child sex-related communication through avoidance vs. disclosure. Over the course of one year, a total of 21 young people (age range 12-17.5) reported in longitudinal qualitative diaries their (1) everyday sexual experiences and (2)…

  8. "Does AIDS Hurt?": Educating Young Children about AIDS. Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Villarreal, Sylvia

    This document gives parents, teachers, and others basic information and suggested guidelines for teaching children aged 10 and younger about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics concerning AIDS and young children are discussed: (1) talking with young children about AIDS; (2) things to keep in mind when talking with children,…

  9. With a Little Help from My Friends: Maternal Social Support, via Parenting, Promotes Willingness to Share in Preschoolers Born to Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about prosocial behaviours in children of young mothers. This longitudinal study involved 44 young mother (age less than 20 years at birth of first child) families and 44 older mother families, who were carefully matched for child age and gender, as well as for family structure (number of children, lone-parent status) and…

  10. Adult children of parents with young-onset dementia narrate the experiences of their youth through metaphors

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Aud; Engedal, Knut; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited research exists on the development and needs of children of parents with young-onset dementia (YOD) (<65 years old). There is scarce knowledge of how these children experience the situation of growing up with a parent with dementia. This study investigates the stories of children of persons with YOD and interprets their metaphorical expressions of their experiences as a source of understanding their situation and needs during the development and course of their parent’s dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews with 14 informants (aged 18–30 years; nine daughters, five sons) were conducted in 2014 and subsequently analyzed by the informants’ use of metaphors. Steger’s three-step method for analyzing metaphors was applied. Results The analysis identified four themes in the metaphors: the informants’ relations to the disease, to the self, to the parent, and to others. From these themes, four core metaphors were abstracted: “my parent is sliding away”; “emotional chaos”; “becoming a parent to my parent”; and “a battle”. Conclusion The study revealed that growing up with a parent with dementia has a great impact on the children’s situation and their experiences of their personal development. Children of a parent with YOD are a group with unmet needs for support. A formalized system where the children can get into contact with service providers to receive tailored information and individual follow-up needs to be established. The service providers must listen to the children’s stories, perceive how metaphors convey their experiences, and recognize their need for support for their own development. PMID:26060403

  11. ABCD2 Is a Direct Target of β-Catenin and TCF-4: Implications for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Yong; Kim, Han-Soo; Jang, Jiho; Lee, Hyunji; Lee, Jae Souk; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dongjin R.; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily D member 1 protein (ABCD1), which is referred to as the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). Induction of the ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been mentioned as a possible therapeutic option for the defective ABCD1 protein in X-ALD. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ABCD2 gene expression. Here, through in silico analysis, we found two putative TCF-4 binding elements between nucleotide positions −360 and −260 of the promoter region of the ABCD2 gene. The transcriptional activity of the ABCD2 promoter was strongly increased by ectopic expression of β-catenin and TCF-4. In addition, mutation of either or both TCF-4 binding elements by site-directed mutagenesis decreased promoter activity. This was further validated by the finding that β-catenin and the promoter of the ABCD2 gene were pulled down with a β-catenin antibody in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis revealed that β-catenin and TCF-4 increased mRNA levels of ABCD2 in both a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and primary fibroblasts from an X-ALD patient. Interestingly, we found that the levels of very long chain fatty acids were decreased by ectopic expression of ABCD2-GFP as well as β-catenin and TCF-4. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the direct regulation of ABCD2 by β-catenin and TCF-4. PMID:23437103

  12. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597

  13. Parents influence asymmetric sibling competition: experimental evidence with partially dependent young.

    PubMed

    Smiseth, Per T; Ward, Richard J S; Moore, Allen J

    2007-12-01

    Asymmetric sibling competition, which occurs when some siblings hatch as stronger competitors than others, is an important component of avian reproductive strategies. Here, we report two experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides investigating how parents might influence the outcome of asymmetric sibling competition. In this species, as in altricial birds, different-aged offspring compete for resources provided by the parents. However, unlike altricial birds, offspring depend only partially on their parents for resources, and parents adjust the brood size directly through filial cannibalism. In the first experiment, we compared the growth and survivorship of different-aged offspring when parents could and could not influence asymmetric sibling competition. In the second experiment, we recorded behavioral interactions between different-aged offspring and parents. We found that senior offspring (early-hatched) grew faster than juniors (late-hatched) when parents were present and could influence the outcome of sibling competition, whereas seniors and juniors grew at similar rates when parents were removed. Thus, seniors benefited more than did juniors when the offspring could obtain resources by begging from the female parent. There was no difference in the survivorship of seniors and juniors. We also found that seniors and juniors spent a similar amount of time feeding from female parents, but juniors spent more time begging and were less effective at begging than seniors. Interestingly, juniors spent more time begging only as long as seniors also begged, suggesting that juniors adjusted their begging effort in response to direct competition against seniors for resources provided by parents. Our study provides novel insights into the ecological significance of asymmetric sibling competition by showing that asymmetric sibling competition took place when parents were present and offspring could obtain resources by begging. In contrast, we found no

  14. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  15. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  16. Parent Training Outcomes among Young Children with Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems with or At-Risk for Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Linares, Dainelys; Blake, Clair A.; Rodriguez, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    School-aged children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt, and lack of caring behaviors) traits (CP+CU) tend to yield less benefit from traditional interventions than do their low-CU counterparts, particularly with respect to CP outcomes. To date, little is known about treatment response among young children with CP+CU, particularly those with or at risk for developmental delay. Components of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a parent training program effective at reducing CP in young children, have compelling theoretical support for addressing core deficits unique to children with CP+CU and have been used successfully with young children with developmental delay. Our first aim was to test the psychometric properties of a measure of CU traits in preschool children with and without developmental delay. Our second aim was to test whether CU traits predicted post-treatment CP after controlling for initial levels of CP. Participants were 63 families of young children (mean age = 3.87 years), with or at-risk for developmental delay, who presented with elevated CP and were treated in a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Results indicated that developmentally delayed children with high levels of CU traits, but not children at-risk for delay due to premature birth, showed significantly poorer CP outcomes following treatment with PCIT than did children scoring low on CU traits, even after controlling for initial CP severity. The implications of these findings with regard to treating and preventing severe disruptive behaviors among young children with CP+CU are discussed. PMID:24511217

  17. Is parental divorce a critical stressor for young adolescents? Grade point average as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, B; Forehand, R; Armistead, L

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown parental divorce to be associated with poor functioning of children and adolescents. Almost all of the studies attempting to delineate these effects, and to shed light on the differences between boys and girls, have limited data collection to postdivorce. This practice has left a void in the picture of divorce--specifically in the area of predivorce effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine academic functioning of young adolescents with respect to both pre- and postdivorce effects. Fifty-eight young adolescents (29 from families which subsequently divorced and 29 from families which remained intact) were studied. Results indicated that boys from subsequently divorcing homes had significantly poorer academic functioning prior to their parents' divorce than did boys whose families remained intact and girls whose parents divorced. Differentially, girls from subsequently divorcing families showed a decline in academic functioning which began prior to divorce and continued beyond the time of divorce. Possible explanations for these gender differences are explored, and the importance of examining predivorce effects is addressed.

  18. Social learning theory parenting intervention promotes attachment-based caregiving in young children: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social learning theory-based treatment promoted change in qualities of parent-child relationship derived from attachment theory. A randomized clinical trial of 174 four- to six-year-olds selected from a high-need urban area and stratified by conduct problems were assigned to a parenting program plus a reading intervention (n = 88) or nonintervention condition (n = 86). In-home observations of parent-child interactions were assessed in three tasks: (a) free play, (b) challenge task, and (c) tidy up. Parenting behavior was coded according to behavior theory using standard count measures of positive and negative parenting, and for attachment theory using measures of sensitive responding and mutuality; children's attachment narratives were also assessed. Compared to the parents in the nonintervention group, parents allocated to the intervention showed increases in the positive behavioral counts and sensitive responding; change in behavioral count measures overlapped modestly with change in attachment-based changes. There was no reliable change in children's attachment narratives associated with the intervention. The findings demonstrate that standard social learning theory-based parenting interventions can change broader aspects of parent-child relationship quality and raise clinical and conceptual questions about the distinctiveness of existing treatment models in parenting research.

  19. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  20. First aid strategies that are helpful to young people developing a mental disorder: beliefs of health professionals compared to young people and parents

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Morgan, Amy J; Wright, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about suicidal feelings. PMID:18538033

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) gene in human X-ALD fibroblasts and inhibits the proinflammatory response in Abcd1/2 silenced mouse primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-04-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation activity are the hallmark of the disease. Overexpression of ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1, thus correcting the VLCFA derangement. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 (ALDRP), and normalizing the peroxisomal β-oxidation as well as the levels of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by CAPE treatment. Importantly, CAPE upregulated Abcd2 expression and peroxisomal β-oxidation and lowered the VLCFA levels in Abcd1-deficient U87 astrocytes and B12 oligodendrocytes. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes we examined the effects of CAPE in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. CAPE treatment decreased the inflammatory response as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-κB in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. The observations indicate that CAPE corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be a potential drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans.

  2. What is the perceived nature of parental care and support for young people with cystic fibrosis as they enter adult health services?

    PubMed

    Iles, Nicola; Lowton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The majority of those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) now live to adulthood. In response to increased survival age, transition services have been developed to ensure smooth transfer from paediatric to adult specialist healthcare, although the majority of treatment and care continues to be delivered in the home. However, little is known about how young adults and staff conceptualise the nature of the parental role after young people have left paediatric care. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of parental support that is perceived to be available at this time. As part of a larger study of transitional care, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 young people with CF aged 13-24 years (32 with experience of transition and/or adult CF services) and 23 specialist healthcare professionals (14 working in adult care) across two CF centres in Southeast England. Interviews took place in young people's homes or within CF services, using a topic guide and were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four domains of perceived parental support were identified by the young people interviewed, with varying degrees of continuity into adult care: (1) Providing non-clinical practical and emotional support; (2) Acting as 'troubleshooters' in times of health-related crisis; (3) Working in partnership with offspring in ongoing disease management in the home and clinic; (4) Acting as 'protectors' of their children. Young people and service staff expressed tensions in managing parental involvement in post-paediatric consultations and the degree to which parents should be aware of their offspring's deteriorating health and social concerns. Parental anxiety and over-involvement was perceived by many young people and staff as unsupportive. We suggest that although health and social care providers are mindful of the tensions that arise for those leaving paediatric services, the place of parental support in adult care is currently contentious for these 'new

  3. ABCD1 deletion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is corrected by SAHA: implication for adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Baarine, Mauhamad; Beeson, Craig; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an inherited peroxisomal metabolic neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by mutations/deletions in the ABCD1 gene encoding peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). Metabolic dysfunction in X-ALD is characterized by the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; ≥ C22:0) in the tissues and plasma of patients. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial status following deletion of ABCD1 in B12 oligodendrocytes and U87 astrocytes. This study provides evidence that silencing of peroxisomal protein ABCD1 produces structural and functional perturbations in mitochondria. Activities of electron transport chain-related enzymes and of citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) were reduced; mitochondrial redox status was dysregulated and the mitochondrial membrane potential was disrupted following ABCD1 silencing. A greater reduction of ATP levels and citrate synthase activities was observed in oligodendrocytes as compared to astrocytes. Further, most of the mitochondrial perturbations induced by ABCD1 silencing were corrected by treating cells with SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), an HDAC inhibitor. These observations indicate a novel relationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria in cellular homeostasis and the importance of intact peroxisomes in relation to mitochondrial integrity and function in the cell types that participate in the pathobiology of X-ALD. These observations suggest SAHA as a potential therapy for X-ALD. PMID:25393703

  4. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    PubMed

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  5. Youth characteristics and contextual variables influencing physical activity in young adolescents of parents with premature coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Harrell, Joanne S; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2003-06-01

    This study examined influences on physical activity of young adolescents whose parents have premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Consistent with Bronfenbrenner's theory, the influences examined were personal characteristics of the subjects and selected contextual variables (peers, family, and community). Subjects were 113 youths, aged 11 to 14, 53% boys, 73% Caucasian, all with parents with premature CHD. Children were most likely to be active if their fathers were active, and those living in the coastal region were less likely to be active than other children. Peer influence interacted with both pubertal status and geographic region in its effect on children's activity. Children were more active when they had active peers only when the youth were midpubertal or when they were in the coastal region. Results emphasize the importance of nursing interventions to influence behaviors of these vulnerable children.

  6. Grant writing for childbirth educators: lessons learned from the resource center for young parents-to-be.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Brenda S; Broussard, Anne B

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining funding to support community-based childbirth education programs can be a challenge for childbirth educators who may have little grant-writing experience. This article was written by two nurse educators/nurse-midwives who have been involved for over 10 years with a grant-funded parenting and childbirth education program for pregnant teens. It reviews the background of the Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be, suggests grant-funding sources, and explains the building of partnerships in the community. The basic steps involved in the grant-writing process are presented as well as the importance of follow-up evaluations and reports. Grant-writing skills and the ability to forge partnerships with other community organizations can be important tools for childbirth educators and health-care professionals. PMID:21197129

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    PubMed

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior. PMID:26521948

  8. Parental education and children's respiratory and allergic symptoms in the Pollution and the Young (PATY) study.

    PubMed

    Gehring, U; Pattenden, S; Slachtova, H; Antova, T; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Fabianova, E; Fletcher, T; Galassi, C; Hoek, G; Kuzmin, S V; Luttmann-Gibson, H; Moshammer, H; Rudnai, P; Zlotkowska, R; Heinrich, J

    2006-01-01

    Inequalities in health between socio-economic groups are a major public health concern. The current authors studied associations between parental socio-economic status (SES) and children's respiratory and allergic symptoms in 13 diverse countries, including the Russian Federation, North America (Canada and the USA), and countries across Eastern and Western Europe. Data of 57,000 children aged 6-12 yrs, originating from eight cross-sectional studies, were analysed. SES was defined by parental education. Respiratory and allergic symptoms were defined by parental questionnaire reports. Multiple logistic regressions showed that low parental education was associated with a decreased risk of inhalant allergy and itchy rash in school children. Furthermore, low parental education was associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze and nocturnal dry cough. No clear association was found between parental education and prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma and bronchitis. Part of the difference between socio-economic groups with regard to their children's symptoms was explained by established risk factors, such as parental allergy, smoking during pregnancy, pet ownership, crowding, mould/moisture in the home, use of gas for cooking, and air pollution (particulate matter with a diameter of <10 microm). However, differences remained after adjusting for these variables. Children's health was associated with parental education. The association could not fully be explained by established risk factors.

  9. Temperament and Young Children with Visual Impairments: Perceptions of Anglo and Latino Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…

  10. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    A summer parent involvement project was set up in a Chicago inner city public school in a Hispanic neighborhood. The eight-session program was intended to help parents: (1) become involved with the school program by becoming comfortable with the school setting; (2) enjoy reading and writing and replicate these experiences with their children; (3)…

  11. Filial/Family Play Therapy for Single Parents of Young Children Attending Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Dee; Bratton, Sue C.; Brandt, Marielle A.

    2000-01-01

    States that many single parents are attending institutions of higher education to qualify for employment that will ensure the economic security of their families. Focuses on the use of filial/family play therapy with single parents attending community colleges as an effective intervention for improving the present and future welfare of these…

  12. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale (POPRS) with Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintre, Maxine G.; Crowley, Jeannine

    The Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale (POPRS) was originally developed with a late adolescent population to assess the extent of perceived reciprocity in adolescent-parent relations. This study examined the reliability and validity of using POPRS with younger adolescents. Subjects, 655 males and 636 females ranging in age from 13 to 18,…

  14. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  15. Teachers Helping Parents To Raise the Level of Curiosity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Methlyn

    This paper presents methods by which teachers can show parents how to use opportunities they have in everyday life to peak the interest and curiosity of their children. It establishes steps to build a workshop for teachers and day care providers, sharing tips and advice and displaying books and materials which parents can use in their homes. After…

  16. Parents and Teachers as Collaborators in Building Positive Self Concepts in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, F. Michael

    This practicum was designed to help children in an early childhood community center understand themselves and others as being unique, and having worth and dignity. It was intended that parents and teachers would develop a partnership and work in a collaborative manner on behalf of the children. Surveys of participating parents and teachers…

  17. Research with Children and Young People: The Issue of Parental (Proxy) Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the potential problems with the parental consent requirement, substantiated with examples mainly from healthcare and social research studies. This will illustrate how the parental consent requirement, instead of promoting high ethical standards, may result in some instances of children's rights and ethical considerations being…

  18. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  19. Goal orientations of young male ice hockey players and their parents.

    PubMed

    Bergin, David A; Habusta, Steven F

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the researchers investigated the relationship between parent and player dispositional goal orientations associated with playing youth hockey. The authors used the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (J. L. Duda & J. Whitehead, 1998) to measure task and ego orientation in 123 boys (10-13 years old) and 1 of their parents. Sons rated their own goal orientations for hockey and their perceptions of their parent's goal orientations. Parents rated their goal orientations for their son and their perceptions of their son's goal orientations. Mothers and fathers did not differ in their goal orientations for their son. Travel-team and nontravel-team players did not differ. For ego orientation, the son's self-ratings correlated significantly with the parent's goals for the son, but not for task orientation. Sons reported being significantly more ego-oriented than their parents desired. Sons perceived that their parents had goal orientations similar to their own. The data from this study are congruent with the assertion that parents socialize their children's goal orientations and that ego orientation may be more salient and easily communicated than task orientation. PMID:15636385

  20. Quality of Parent/Adolescent Attachment and Aggression in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…

  1. Self-Efficacy Beliefs amongst Parents of Young Children: Validation of a Self-Report Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The self-efficacy belief (SEB) concept is discussed in the context of parenting. A questionnaire, the "Echelle Globale du Sentiment de Competence Parentale" (EGSCP), assessing several domain-specific SEBs and three related cognitive constructs, was developed with 705 French-speaking parents of 3- to 7-year-old children. The EGSCP displayed good…

  2. Read It Aloud! A Parent's Guide to Sharing Books with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Monty; Haas, Laurie Joy

    By blending reading aloud, in particular "performance reading," with follow-up discussion, related activities, and plenty of wordplay, parents can prepare their children to think, communicate, and succeed in the adult world. Performance reading helps parents learn to read wordless books to relate to infants/toddlers; explore sounds of words to…

  3. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  4. Anti-Smoking Socialization Beliefs among Rural Native American and White Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses similarities and differences in anti-smoking socialization beliefs of White and Native American parents in a low-income, rural population in northeastern Oklahoma. Data are from a population-based, cross-sectional children's environmental health study in which in-home interviews were conducted with 356 parents (56.2% White,…

  5. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  6. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  7. Distinct Pathways from Parental Cultural Orientation to Young Children's Bilingual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Among immigrant families, parents are important socialization agents in transmitting cultural practices to their children, including the use of the heritage language (HL). In the current study, we examined whether parents' cultural orientation facilitates children's (N = 79; M[subscript age] = 5.11 years; 57% boys; 50% enrolled in HL schools) HL…

  8. Immigration and the interplay of parenting, preschool enrollment, and young children's academic skills.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents' support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (Ages 2 to 5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment, and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia, and did not vary by immigrants' socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems, as well as "child effects" and population diversity, in developmental research.

  9. A Home Teaching Program for Parents of Very Young Deaf Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Freeman; Horton, Kathryn B.

    A demonstration home provided a parent oriented program and audiologic management for 94 deaf preschoolers (mean age 2 years 4 months). Each child underwent a trial period with different hearing aids before permanent recommendation was made. Parents were present at these clinic sessions; they also received instruction in how to encourage auditory…

  10. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  11. Parent Perceptions of Pragmatic Skills in Teens and Young Adults Using AAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senner, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of social skills is critical in the successful academic inclusion and competitive employment of individuals with disabilities. Parent involvement in identification of social skills targets for intervention is a valuable first step in the intervention process. A total of 21 parents completed the Pragmatics Profile from the "Clinical…

  12. One-year follow-up of combined parent and child intervention for young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions. Four- to 6-year-olds with ADHD (n = 49, 73% male) participated in 6 months of treatment using the IY parent and child interventions. Immediate posttreatment results indicated improvements in parenting, children's externalizing and attention problems, and social contact at school. At 1-year follow up, 22 of 27 variables that showed significant posttreatment effects demonstrated maintenance to 1-year follow up. Children with higher ODD symptoms at baseline showed more improvement in oppositionality and total behavior problems, and their mothers showed more improvement on harsh discipline scores. Approximately 70 to 75% of children were reported by their parents and teachers to fall below clinical cutoffs on measures of externalizing symptoms at the 1-year follow up (compared to 50% at baseline), and more than 50% fell below clinical cutoffs on measures of hyperactivity and inattentiveness (all were in the clinical range at baseline). Children with ADHD who were treated with the IY parent and child treatment programs showed maintenance of treatment effects 1 year after treatment.

  13. One-year follow-up of combined parent and child intervention for young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions. Four- to 6-year-olds with ADHD (n = 49, 73% male) participated in 6 months of treatment using the IY parent and child interventions. Immediate posttreatment results indicated improvements in parenting, children's externalizing and attention problems, and social contact at school. At 1-year follow up, 22 of 27 variables that showed significant posttreatment effects demonstrated maintenance to 1-year follow up. Children with higher ODD symptoms at baseline showed more improvement in oppositionality and total behavior problems, and their mothers showed more improvement on harsh discipline scores. Approximately 70 to 75% of children were reported by their parents and teachers to fall below clinical cutoffs on measures of externalizing symptoms at the 1-year follow up (compared to 50% at baseline), and more than 50% fell below clinical cutoffs on measures of hyperactivity and inattentiveness (all were in the clinical range at baseline). Children with ADHD who were treated with the IY parent and child treatment programs showed maintenance of treatment effects 1 year after treatment. PMID:23020199

  14. Making sense of autism: Progressive engagement with science among parents of young, recently diagnosed autistic children.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth

    2014-07-01

    This exploratory study examines the significance of science to parents whose children were recently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. It asks: (I) In what manner did science emerge in parents' concerns and resources as they attempted to understand and advocate for their children? (2) Did some parents engage with science in a qualitatively deeper or more intense manner? Using longitudinal data from interviews and a novel data collection strategy called engagement mapping, it shows that parents asked questions and used resources that were strongly associated with science, but these were vastly outnumbered by "near-science" concerns and resources that mingled meanings from science and daily life. Several parents in the study wove together concerns and resources in an iterative pattern referred to here as progressive engagement with science.

  15. Effects of parental comments on body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in young adults: a sociocultural model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2009-06-01

    This study examined a sociocultural model of the influence of parental comments on body shape and eating concerns among males and females. Questionnaires were completed by 338 undergraduates. Participants reported levels of perceived parental comments, internalization of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimia. Results revealed that, regardless of gender, internalization and appearance comparison only partially mediated the relationship between parental comments and the outcome variables. The final model for females explained a larger proportion of the variability in body shape and eating concerns than in males, with positive and negative parental comments directly related to body dissatisfaction and through it to eating outcomes. In males, only negative comments were directly related to body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the role of parental influences in sociocultural models of the development of body dissatisfaction and eating concerns, and the gender-specific patterns of sociocultural influence.

  16. Effect of the Adapted NASA Mission X International Child Fitness Program on Young Children and their Parents in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa; Reeves, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. Childhood obesity is global public health concern including in South Korea where 16.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls are overweight or obese in 2011. Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed for prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity prevention programs for young children may have a greater intervention effect than in older children. The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating by tapping into their excitement for training like an astronaut. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of the adapted NASA MX intervention in promoting PA in young children and in improving parents' related perspectives.

  17. The Role of Parents and Partners in the Pregnancy Behaviors of Young Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy among young Latinas demands attention. These teens have higher birthrates than other teen populations. Seven focus groups (N = 40) were conducted with Latinas to explore how relationships between young Latinas and their mothers, fathers, and male partners contribute to teen pregnancy. ATLAS/ti (a qualitative data analysis software…

  18. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  19. Immigration and the Interplay of Parenting, Preschool Enrollment, and Young Children's Academic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  20. Comparison of Dental Esthetic Perceptions of Young Adolescents and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Methods As part of the Iowa Fluoride Study, 550 adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with the adolescents’ dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between fluorosis and non-fluorosis subjects was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher’s Exact tests. Results Excluding subjects with orthodontic treatment, 376 adolescents were included and 26% of them had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about the tooth color (45%) and alignment (35%). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (P<0.001) and color (P=0.048) and more concerned about tooth shape (P=0.002) than were their parents. Fluorosis status (yes/no) was not significantly associated with adolescents’ satisfaction or areas of concern (p>0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P=0.014) and color (P<0.001) than other parents. The number of maxillary anterior zones exhibiting fluorosis was negatively associated with both adolescent (P=0.03) and parent (P=0.002) satisfaction. Conclusion Adolescents generally had less satisfaction with dental appearance and color and they were more concerned with tooth shape than parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. PMID:22364682

  1. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  2. Disorganized attachment representation and atypical parenting in young school age children with externalizing disorder.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan; Stanley, Charlie; Peters, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationship of child attachment representation, psychopathology, and maternal atypical parenting in a high risk sample. Sixty-one consecutive clinical referrals with externalizing disorder aged 4 - 9 years were assessed for attachment representations measured with Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST), atypical parental expressed emotion (EE), maternal mood, and parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour. Disorganized attachment representations were found in 58% of cases, independent of ADHD symptoms. Pervasive disorganization was associated with very high maternal EE. Attachment status, maternal depression, and ADHD diagnosis were independently associated with parent-rated child behaviour problems; teacher ratings were associated with child's age and ADHD status. Disorganized attachment shows a high prevalence and independent associations with attention deficit symptomatology and maternal EE.

  3. Adolescents' communication with parents on sexual topics: a study of young people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsieh-Hua; Wu, Chyi-In

    2006-02-01

    Communication between parents and adolescents about adolescents' sexual behavior has been studied. However, the types of issues on which adolescents are willing to communicate with their parents have been scarcely discussed. A survey was conducted among a random sample of 1,204 junior high school students in Taipei. The survey probed into adolescents' communication with their parents as related to sex, including physical development, sexuality, choice of partner, frequency of dating, whom to date, and intimacy during dating. Analysis showed that physical development was the topic most often discussed. Talking about dating was discussed less than the other three topics. Moreover, girls were more likely to communicate with their parents than boys about all six issues.

  4. Asperger syndrome in adolescent and young adult males. Interview, self- and parent assessment of social, emotional, and cognitive problems.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS diagnosed in childhood were approached for the assessment using the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), (personal and parent interview), the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). About 75% of the targeted group participated. The ASDI results came out significantly different at personal vs parent interviews in several key domains. In contrast, the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, showed no significant differences across the individuals with AS and their parents in the scoring of cognitive/social and emotional/adaptive skills. The BDI proved to be an adequate screening instrument for depression in that it correctly identified the vast majority of cases with clinical depression in the AS group. The DEX results suggested an executive function deficit problem profile in males with AS as severe as that reported in groups of individuals with traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia. Interviews (personal and collateral), and self-rating and parent-rating questionnaires all have a role in the comprehensive diagnostic process in AS and other autism spectrum disorders, and could be used as adjuncts when evaluating whether or not individuals meeting diagnostic symptom criteria for the condition have sufficient problems in daily life to warrant a clinical diagnosis of AS.

  5. E-health and health care behaviour of parents of young children: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van der Gugten, Anne C.; de Leeuw, Rob J. R. J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Kars, Marijke C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Internet plays a huge role in providing information about health care problems. However, it is unknown how parents use and perceive the internet as a source of information and how this influences health care utilisation when it comes to common complaints in infants. The objective was to evaluate the perception parents have on the role of internet in providing health care information on common symptoms in infants and its effects on health care utilisation. Design A qualitative design was chosen. Setting and subjects Parents were recruited from a population-based birth-cohort and selected purposefully. Main outcome measures Semi-structured interviews were used to receive information of parentsʼ ideas. Thematic coding and constant comparison were used for interview transcript analysis. Results Ten parents were interviewed. Parents felt anxious and responsible when their child displayed common symptoms, and appeared to be in need of information. They tried to obtain information from relatives, but more so from the internet, because of its accessibility. Nevertheless, information found on the internet had several limitations, evoked new doubts and insecurity and although parents compared information from multiple sources, only the physician was able to take away the insecurity. The internet did not interfere in the decision to consult the physician. Conclusions Parents need information about their childrenʼs symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts and insecurities and internet information did not play a role in parental decision making. Information gathered online may complement the information from physicians, rather than replace it. Key pointsInternet plays an increasing role in providing health care information but it is unknown how this influences health care utilisation.Our study suggests that:Parents need information about their children’s symptoms and the internet is a

  6. Test of a Cultural Framework of Parenting With Latino Families of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Esther J.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective. PMID:22686147

  7. Test of a cultural framework of parenting with Latino families of young children.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective.

  8. Change in Parenting Democracy during the Transition to Adolescence: The Roles of Young Adolescents’ Noncompliance and Mothers’ Perceived Influence

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Rebecca A.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study assessed the direct relation between young adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and mothers’ democratic childrearing practices as well as the potential mediating role of mothers’ perceived influence during the transition to adolescence. Design Three years of self-reported adolescent noncompliance, perceived influence, and parenting democracy were gathered from 166 mothers and their firstborn children (55% female), ages 9 – 11 years at time 1. Results Longitudinal path analysis indicated a total effect between adolescents’ regulated noncompliance and higher maternal democracy. In addition, the total effect was mediated by mothers’ perceived influence, such that adolescents’ regulated noncompliance at time 1 was associated with greater perceptions of influence at time 2, which, in turn, was associated with greater maternal democracy at time 3. Conclusions Mothers with young adolescents who resist in a relatively mature, regulated manner tend to have more positive perceptions of their influence on their emerging adolescents’ behavior. In turn, mothers expecting to maintain their influence despite normative adolescent resistance are more likely to use democratic parenting strategies, granting their adolescents more input in decisions. PMID:22844228

  9. Belief-level markers of physical activity among young adult couples: comparisons across couples without children and new parents.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Benoit, Cecilia; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of regular moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) are well established, yet young adults, particularly parents, often show declines in MVPA and may represent a critical population for intervention. Theory-based correlates used to guide future interventions are scant in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine theory of planned behaviour (TPB) belief-level constructs as correlates of directly assessed MVPA across cohorts of couples without children and with their first child over the initial 12 months. Participants were 238 adults (102 not expecting a child, 136 expecting first child) who completed baseline demographics, belief measures of the TPB and seven-day accelerometry, followed by assessments at 6 and 12 months. Results showed select medium-sized belief-PA correlations with sex and cohort interactions. Overall, women had larger affect-based behavioural belief associations with MVPA than men (e.g. PA relieves stress), and among new parents, mothers showed larger associations with control over MVPA than fathers. Mothers also had larger associations between control beliefs and MVPA compared to women without children (e.g. domestic duties, bad weather). Extremely high means and low variability on the behavioural beliefs show limited room for possible changes in intervention while control beliefs had low means suggesting room for change. Interventions targeting control among new mothers may be paramount for increasing MVPA, yet the TPB yielded less insight into the targets for promoting MVPA among young men. PMID:24894608

  10. The Role of Parenting in Affecting the Behavior and Adaptive Functioning of Young Children of HIV-Infected Mothers in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers’ psychological functioning, parenting, and children’s behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent–child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent–child dysfunction are associated with children’s behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768

  11. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  12. The influence of authoritative parenting during adolescence on depressive symptoms in young adulthood: examining the mediating roles of self-development and peer support.

    PubMed

    Liem, Joan H; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara

    2010-01-01

    A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between authoritative parenting during adolescence (T1) and depressive symptoms during young adulthood (T3). T2 sense of self as worthy and efficacious and depressive symptoms, but not peer support, fully mediated the effect of authoritative parenting on T3 depressive symptoms. The authors discuss the importance of parenting for healthy, emerging adult self-development and the continuing influence of parenting styles during adolescence on young adult depressive symptoms.

  13. The risk of divorce as a barrier to marriage among parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Waller, Maureen R; Peters, H Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families Study, we examine how unmarried parents' risk of divorce influences their decision to marry. Regression results show that unmarried parents with a high predicted probability of marital dissolution (based on estimates of marital dissolution for a sample of initially married mothers with similar characteristics) had significantly lower odds of marriage to the father of their child even after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics expected to influence marriage transitions. The dissolution propensity we examine also includes a measure of the local divorce climate. As such, our results provide support for the argument that high rates of divorce in the population have led to a fear of divorce among unmarried parents which reduces their probability of marriage.

  14. Experiences of parenting young people with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chell, Neil

    2006-05-01

    Asperger syndrome only became recognised as a distinct diagnostic category in more recent versions of ICD 10 (WHO 1992) and DSM IV (APA 1994). Whilst a great deal of work has taken place since this time, there has been little research directed at understanding the experiences of families raising children with this diagnosis (Blacher 2003). This focus group study involved engaging directly with parents of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome in order to understand something of their experiences with particular reference to what has or might be helpful. The aim of the study is to identify parent's perspectives and insights in order to inform service development.

  15. Attachment, parental bonding and borderline personality disorder features in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Angela D; Waudby, Carol J; Trull, Timothy J

    2002-04-01

    The relations between parental bonding and attachment constructs and borderline personality disorder features were examined in a sample of 393 18-year-old participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that parental bonding and attachment scores (especially insecure attachment, anxious or ambivalent attachment, and a perception of a relative lack of caring from one's mother) were uniquely associated with borderline features beyond what could be accounted for by gender, childhood adversity experiences, Axis I disorder, and nonborderline Axis II symptoms. Although relatively modest, these relations suggest that bonding and attachment constructs might be considered in comprehensive etiological models of borderline personality disorder.

  16. Fast protein evolution and germ line expression of a Drosophila parental gene and its young retroposed paralog.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Esther; Bai, Yongsheng; Motiwale, Mansi

    2006-11-01

    This is the first detailed study of the evolution, phylogenetic distribution, and transcription of one young retroposed gene, CG13732, and its parental gene CG15645, whose functions are unknown. CG13732 is a recognizable retroposed copy of CG15645 retaining the signals of this process. We name the parental gene Cervantes and the retrogene Quijote. To determine when this duplication occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of Quijote, we employed polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and the available information on sequenced Drosophila genomes. Interestingly, these analyses revealed that Quijote is present only in 4 species of Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana) and that retroposed copies of Cervantes have also originated in the lineages leading to Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila erecta independently in the 3 instances. We name the new retrogene in the D. yakuba lineage Rocinante and the new retrogene in the D. erecta lineage Sancho. In this work, we present data on Quijote and its parental gene Cervantes. Polymorphism analysis of the derived gene and divergence data for both parental and derived genes were used to determine that both genes likely produce functional proteins and that they are changing at a fast rate (KA/KS approximately 0.38). The negative value of H of Fay and Wu in the non-African sample reveals an excess of derived variants at high frequency. This could be explained either by positive selection in the region or by demographic effects. The comparative expression pattern shows that both genes express in the same adult tissues (male and female germ line) in D. melanogaster. Quijote is also expressed in male and female in D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. We argue that the fast rate of evolution of these genes could be related to their putative germ line function and are further studying the independent recruitment of Cervantes-derived retrogenes in

  17. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat. PMID:27137382

  18. Varying uses of the ABCD2 scoring system in primary and secondary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Duncan; Cohn, Simon R; Mavaddat, Nahal; Virdee, Satnam K; Lasserson, Daniel; Milner, Siobhan; Giles, Matthew; McManus, Richard; Mant, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the usage of the ABCD2 risk stratification score by general practitioners (GPs) and hospital staff during the referral of patients with suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting Nine general practices and two hospital sites in England (Birmingham and Cambridge). Participants Nine GPs and nine hospital staff (two consultants, four nurses, two ultrasonographers and one administrator). Results In both sites, clinicians used a referral proforma based around the ABCD2 scoring system for a range of purposes including self-education, to assist emphasising urgency to the patient, as a referral pathway facilitator and as a diagnostic tool. Negative views of its role included potential medicolegal threats, that it was a barrier to appropriate care, and led to misdiagnoses. Despite having differing uses by different clinicians, the ABCD2 proforma was the central means of interprofessional communication in TIA referrals across both sites. Conclusions Understanding how prediction rules are used in practice is key to determining their impact on processes of care and clinical outcomes. In practice, GPs and their colleagues use the ABCD2 score in subtly different ways and it functions as a ‘boundary object’ by both accommodating these multiple purposes, yet still successfully aiding communication between them. PMID:23194953

  19. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  20. Parent-Implemented Mand Training: Acquisition of Framed Manding in a Young Boy with Partial Hemispherectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-implemented mand training on the acquisition of framed manding in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone partial hemispherectomy. Framed manding became the predominant mand form when and only when the intervention was implemented with each preferred toy, but minimal generalization to untrained toys …

  1. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking. PMID:24019558

  2. Young Children's Understanding of a Biological Basis for Parent-Offspring Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Results of two experiments indicated that preschoolers expected adopted babies to share physical properties, but not preferences with their biological parents; and recognized that a baby who looks like and lives with a woman but who grew inside another woman's body is not the first woman's baby. (BC)

  3. Help seeking by parents in military families on behalf of their young children.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Allison E Flittner; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Willerton, Elaine; Cardin, Jean-François; Topp, David; Mustillo, Sarah; Lester, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, many children have experienced a parental deployment, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Research in the general population has shown that while many services are available for families with children experiencing problems, the rate of service utilization is low. This study examined help-seeking processes in military families in relation to children's problems. We collected data on emotional and behavioral problems from a sample of military parents with children ranging in age from zero to 10 years. While prevalence of children with problems was similar to prior research, results in this study suggested that military parents were alert to problems. Although military parents' help-seeking processes were similar to those documented in civilian studies in many respects, we did not find a significant gender difference in the recognition of problems. Furthermore, we found that children's experiences of deployment were related to use of services. Families who used services most often relied on primary care providers. These findings suggest military families are mindful of the possibility of their children having problems. In addition, many families utilize civilian services. Therefore, it is important to ensure that front-line civilian providers fully understand the context of military family issues. PMID:26213792

  4. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    PubMed

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs.

  5. Young Men's Perceived Quality of Parenting Based on Familial History of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Megan J.; Cacciola, John S.; Alterman, Arthur I.; McKay, James R.; Cook, Terry J.

    1997-01-01

    Gave Parental Bonding Inventories (PBI) to 173 males and analyzed scores based on the participants' familial risk for alcoholism. Results indicate that fathers of the high familial risk participants were rated by sons as being significantly less caring than the fathers of low familial risk participants. Other findings are reported. (RJM)

  6. An Exploratory Study of Young Persons' Attachment Styles and Perceived Reasons for Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tavi R.; Ehrenberg, Marion F.

    1998-01-01

    Explored relationship between undergraduate students' perceptions of the reasons for their parents' divorces and their own feelings of security in romantic relationships. Found that 73% described insecure attachment styles. Perceived reasons for divorce involving expressions of overt anger, involvement of children, and extramarital affairs were…

  7. Reaching Out to Help Low Income Parents Foster Their Young Children's Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Derek

    A study examined the effectiveness of the West Heidelberg (Australia) Early Literacy Project (WHELP), which helps low income and working class parents develop the literacy skills of their 4-year-old children by, among other things, reading regularly to them. The project developed through three phases with three different methods of delivering…

  8. The effects of relationship focused intervention on Korean parents and their young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Mee; Mahoney, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of Relationship Focused Intervention (RFI) on a sample of Korean mothers and their preschool-aged children with disabilities. Subjects were 18 mothers of children with developmental problems (ages 3-8 years). Ten of these mothers were assigned to an RFI Treatment group and eight to a No RFI Control group. The RFI was adopted from the Family/Child Curriculum (Mahoney, G. (1999; Family/Child Curriculum: A relationship focused approach to parent education/early intervention. Tallmadge, OH: Family Child Learning Center). This intervention focused on teaching mothers to use responsive interactive strategies through a process of modeling, coaching, role-playing and video feedback. It was implemented with parents during weekly group and individual intervention sessions that were conducted over three months period. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention assessments of parent-child interaction indicated that RFI was effective at encouraging parents to become more responsive, affective and achievement oriented with their children. These changes in mothers' interactional style were associated with an 18% increase in children's interactive behaviors. Regression analyses indicated that increases in children's behavior were associated positively with maternal responsiveness and negatively with maternal achievement orientation. Results from this study are discussed in terms of (a) implementing RFI with Korean mothers and (b) the mechanisms by which RFI promotes children's development. PMID:15590243

  9. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  10. Involving Parents of Young Children in Science, Math and Literacy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a collaborative parent-involvement project for inner-city Hispanic primary students sponsored by the Chicago Community Trust. A university professor, two graduate assistants, the principal, and the school community representative designed a summer program featuring hospitality and support activities, free books, and hands-on science and…

  11. Perceived Dimensions of Parenting and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau, Jean-Francois; Martin, Jodi; Freynet, Nathalie; Poirier, Alexane Ali; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Family experiences are influential in the development of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aimed to identify specific dimensions underlying early parent-child relationships in association with NSSI. It was hypothesized that all relationship dimensions would be related with NSSI, with some dimensions being stronger predictors when…

  12. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  13. Parental Relationship Quality and Masculine Gender-Role Strain in Young Men: Mediating Effects of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that experiences with attachment to and psychological separation from parents predict men's reports of masculine gender-role stress and conflict. This article extends the literature by examining possible variations in these links that may be accounted for by men's core personality characteristics. The author hypothesizes…

  14. Supporting Parents of Young Children with Severe Disabilities: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Parents of children with severe disabilities face many challenges. They must adjust to the changes in family dynamics, educational decisions, and the long-term implications of the severity of the disability. This action research project provides a detailed look into the lives of four families of children with severe disabilities. The parent…

  15. Parents' Experiences of Home-Based Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Corinna F.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has documented the benefits to children with autism of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), little has focused on the impact of EIBI on families. Using a semi-structured format, we interviewed 53 parents whose children had received 2 years of EIBI to obtain detailed first person accounts of the perceived benefits…

  16. Help seeking by parents in military families on behalf of their young children.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Allison E Flittner; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Willerton, Elaine; Cardin, Jean-François; Topp, David; Mustillo, Sarah; Lester, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, many children have experienced a parental deployment, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Research in the general population has shown that while many services are available for families with children experiencing problems, the rate of service utilization is low. This study examined help-seeking processes in military families in relation to children's problems. We collected data on emotional and behavioral problems from a sample of military parents with children ranging in age from zero to 10 years. While prevalence of children with problems was similar to prior research, results in this study suggested that military parents were alert to problems. Although military parents' help-seeking processes were similar to those documented in civilian studies in many respects, we did not find a significant gender difference in the recognition of problems. Furthermore, we found that children's experiences of deployment were related to use of services. Families who used services most often relied on primary care providers. These findings suggest military families are mindful of the possibility of their children having problems. In addition, many families utilize civilian services. Therefore, it is important to ensure that front-line civilian providers fully understand the context of military family issues.

  17. Acculturation Attitudes among Young Immigrants as a Function of Perceived Parental Attitudes toward Cultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland

    1995-01-01

    Investigated acculturation attitudes among Third World immigrants in a culturally homogeneous society. Responses of adolescents 10 through 17 years of age (n=568) indicated that integration and separation were the 2 preferred forms of acculturation. Perceived parental attitudes accounted for about 20% of the variation of the adolescents' mode of…

  18. How To Choose a Public School: A Guide for Parents of Young NYC School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukess, Laura F.

    This pamphlet guides New York City parents through the basic steps in choosing a public school for their children. Every child 6 years of age or older in New York City must attend school, and children may be enrolled in kindergarten the year they turn 5. A limited number of preschool spaces are available. Legal residency is not a requirement for…

  19. Physical Activity in Young Children: A Systematic Review of Parental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jessica; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dwyer, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the strength of associations of the key parental factors measured in studies examining early childhood physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature, using databases PsychINFO, Medline, Academic Search Complete, PSYCHinfo, and CINHAL, published between January 1986 and…

  20. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  1. Paranoid Thinking, Quality of Relationships with Parents, and Social Outcomes among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.; Kwong, Wing Yee

    2011-01-01

    Research based on clinical samples suggests that poor-quality relationships with parents are associated with paranoid disorders; however, no research has investigated such relations within nonclinical populations. Undergraduate students (N = 179) completed self-reports of paranoid thinking, quality of relationships with mothers and fathers,…

  2. Music Play Zone II: Deepening Parental Empowerment as Music Guides for Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2012-01-01

    With the intent of facilitating musical development of children enrolled in early childhood music courses, the purpose of this research was to describe the ongoing use of an online social networking site by parents of preschool children. Six families attended a 45-min early childhood music class each week for 10 weeks and responded to assignments…

  3. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    PubMed

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

  4. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  5. Predicting Young Children's Externalizing Problems: Interactions among Effortful Control, Parenting, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karreman, Annemiek; van Tuijl, Cathy; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dekovi, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between observed temperamental effortful control and observed parenting in the prediction of externalizing problems. Child gender effects on these relations were examined. The relations were examined concurrently when the child was 3 years old and longitudinally at 4.5 years. The sample included 89 two-parent…

  6. 76 FR 14099 - Proposed Collection of Information for an Evaluation of the Young Parents Demonstration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... implementing one of the following two bump-up interventions: Mentoring Models--Intensive professional staff mentoring specifically for education, employment, and training; and specifically for pregnant and parenting... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms...

  7. Food Shopping Behaviors and Food Use by Well-Educated Young Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassler, Eunice; Newell, G. Kathleen

    1982-01-01

    Investigated relationships between food shopping behavior and food patterns in two-parent families having at least one preschool-age child. Cost, family preferences, and nutritive value were the most important factors influencing food choices. However, neither costs nor nutritive value considerations appeared very important with respect to food…

  8. Dual Career Families and the Parental Roles They Assume with Their Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jump, Teresa L.

    A microsociological study of the dual-career family focused on the extent to which career mothers and fathers share child care responsibilities. Dependent variables included the amount of time dual-career parents spend in child care and the number of caregiving tasks they share; independent variables were the employment-related determinants of…

  9. A Shared Reading Intervention with Parents to Enhance Young Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…

  10. A Calendar of Activities for Parents of Handicapped Students, 1983-1984. Developmentally Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.

    These activities for handicapped preschool children in the Washington, D.C. school district can be used by all parents interested in developing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format offers daily activities ranging from brief discussions and exercises to day-long family excursions. Each month's activities cover…

  11. Contingent Interactions between Parents and Young Children with Severe Expressive Communication Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Grabast, Jodi; Burgers Jerke, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Parents and their children with severe expressive impairments may have limited successful communicative exchanges due to each partner's difficulty in recognizing and responding to communicative behaviors of the other. This study examined the communicative functions and modes of communication that received contingent responses in 20 dyads of…

  12. Inclusive Approaches to Parent Engagement for Young English Language Learners and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Reyes, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have argued for collaborative parent involvement programs for minority students and English language learners' (ELLs) families to improve their academic success. Despite the trend toward collaboration, students' home languages and culture continue to be seen as a liability in the learning process; this sentiment has created a backlash…

  13. Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; Culp, Anne M.; Culp, Rex; Scheib, Carrie; Owen, Kelly; Tilley, Angela; Murphy, Molly; Parkman, Lauren; Coleman, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by…

  14. Advice for Parents: Recommendations for Home Literacy Activities Based upon Studies of Young Successful Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    Two research studies hold promise of assisting educators in developing appropriate recommendations for helping parents help their children learn to read and write. Dolores Durkin studied children who entered school already knowing how to read. She followed the students for several years and found that the early readers maintained or extended their…

  15. School: The Normalizing Factor for Children with Childhood Leukemia. Perspectives of Young Survivors and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nanci A.; Fulmer, Deborah L.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    A study of 8 children (ages 5-7) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia found returning to school was a major milestone and that school serves as the mechanism by which young survivors approach the process of living each day. Attendance obstacles are discussed, along with guidelines for maintaining school as a priority. (Contains references.) (CR)

  16. What's up? What Young Teens and Parents Want from Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczak, Mary S.; Dworkin, Jodi; Skuza, Jennifer; Beyer, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with young teens offered many complex and often idiosyncratic reasons why they did or did not participate in structured activities (for example: personality, interest, attitudes about time use, personal and family life circumstances). However, there also exist common threads that should give one pause regarding the current wisdom on how…

  17. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Anne V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…

  18. Nurturing Young Gifted English Language Learners: A Survival Guide for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    For many young gifted English Language Learners (ELLs), going to an American school is like a trip to Mars. Everything and everyone looks strange. Many ELLs feel unsure of their abilities when they discover that their proficiency in English can sometimes hinder achievement. They wonder what the other kids think of their speech, their accents,…

  19. Transition Satisfaction and Family Well Being among Parents of Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The transition from high school to adulthood is a critical life stage that entails many changes, especially for youth with severe intellectual disability. The transition period may be especially stressful for the families of these young adults, who often experience a sudden change, or decrease, in services. However, little research has examined…

  20. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  1. Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of Ambiguity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, David M.; And Others

    The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld…

  2. An Early Social Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ty W.; Koegel, Robert L.; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized…

  3. Televison Literacy: Making the T.V. Work for Young Children, Parents and Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    Television plays a dominant role in our society; however, television on its own is neither bad nor good. It offers children benefits such as education and entertainment, but television can impact negatively on young lives by detracting children from other activities such as physical and dramatic play. The effect of television on children's…

  4. Parenting Stress of Mothers and Fathers of Young Children with Cognitive Delays in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, J.; Nhan, N. V.; Crittenden, K. S.; Hong, H. T. D.; Flory, M.; Ladinsky, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This research examined the effects of child and family variables on stress experienced by mothers and fathers of young children with cognitive delays in Vietnam. Methods: The mothers (n=106) and fathers (n=93) whose children (age range= 3-6 years) were identified as having cognitive delays participated in the interview survey. The…

  5. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  6. ABCD2 score and BNP level in patients with TIA and cerebral stroke.

    PubMed

    Mortezabeigi, H R; Taghizadeh, A; Talebi, M; Amini, K; Goldust, M

    2013-11-01

    Scoring systems have been designed to help physicians in early prediction of cerebral stroke following Transitional Ischemic Attack (TIA). ABCD2 system is one of these scoring systems. Considering increase of brain natriuretic peptide following cerebral ischemic stroke, BNP level may be associated with incidence of ischemic stroke following TIA. The present study evaluates ABCD2 score, BNP level in patients with TIA and incidence of cerebral stroke. This cross sectional-analytical study evaluated 78 patients with TIA. ABCD2 score was calculated for all patients based on some criteria including age, blood pressure, clinical manifestations (speech/motor disorder), symptoms duration and diabetes. BNP level was measured at the reference laboratory when the patient referred to the treatment center. The patients were followed up for 6 months considering incidence of cerebral stroke and TIA. Mean age of the patients was 66.53 +/- 13.08 years and the sample was consisted of 62.8% male and 37.2% female patients. Mean BNP level and mean ABCD2 score was 611.31 +/- 125.61 and 4.61 +/- 10.99 in all patients, respectively. During follow-up period, TIA recurrence and cerebral stroke were, respectively seen in 11.5 and 3.8% of cases. Mortality was reported in 5.1% of the patients. BNP was significantly higher in cases with recursive TIA (p = 0.03). But, there was not any difference considering ABCD2 score (p = 0.38). BNP is capable of predicting TIA recurrence following first TIA and it can be used in this case. PMID:24511754

  7. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  8. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  9. Perceived Social Competence and Loneliness Among Young Children with ASD: Child, Parent and Teacher Reports.

    PubMed

    Zeedyk, Sasha M; Cohen, Shana R; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Perceived loneliness and social competence were assessed for 127 children with ASD without comorbid ID, 4-7 years old, through child self-report. Using an abbreviated version of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ; Cassidy and Asher in Child Dev 63:250-365, 1992), the majority of children reported friendships, yet a considerable proportion also reported social difficulties. Factor analysis of the abbreviated LSDQ identified three factors, which were significantly associated with parent- and teacher-reported variables. Regression analyses revealed parent-reported social skills deficits and teacher-reported conflict in the student-teacher relationship to be associated with child-reported loneliness. Implications for practice are discussed.

  10. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  11. A Comparison of Maternal Parenting Style Attitudes of Grandmothers and Mothers of Young Children in Taiwan: Development of a New Measure of Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tsung-Wen

    Noting that previous study of child rearing patterns among Chinese parents has ignored the importance of the instrument measuring parenting style, this study used an instrument incorporating Chinese concepts of parenting and based on well-established parenting concepts to examine differences in the child rearing attitudes of mothers and…

  12. Parent-implemented mand training: acquisition of framed manding in a young boy with partial hemispherectomy.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsson, Einar T

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-implemented mand training on the acquisition of framed manding in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone partial hemispherectomy. Framed manding became the predominant mand form when and only when the intervention was implemented with each preferred toy, but minimal generalization to untrained toys nevertheless occurred. A pure mand test suggested that manding was controlled by the relevant motivating operation. PMID:21541111

  13. Influences of Parent and Child Negative Emotionality on Young Children’s Everyday Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems. PMID:22390707

  14. Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Psychometrics and Associations With Child and Parent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Stephanie L.; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Mirenda, Pat; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    Objective The factor structure and validity of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; Crist & Napier-Phillips, 2001) were examined in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the original BPFAS five-factor model, the fit of each latent variable, and a rival one-factor model. None of the models was adequate, thus a categorical exploratory factor analysis (CEFA) was conducted. Correlations were used to examine relations between the BPFAS and concurrent variables of interest. Results The CEFA identified an acceptable three-factor model. Correlational analyses indicated that feeding problems were positively related to parent-reported autism symptoms, behavior problems, sleep problems, and parenting stress, but largely unrelated to performance-based indices of autism symptom severity, language, and cognitive abilities, as well as child age. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the use of the identified BPFAS three-factor model for samples of young children with ASD. PMID:25725217

  15. Self-esteem of young adults experiencing interparental violence and child physical maltreatment: parental and peer relationships as mediators.

    PubMed

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a national probability sample of 1,924 college students in Taiwan. Research results demonstrated that experiencing both interparental violence and physical maltreatment during childhood have long-term and detrimental impact on adult self-esteem. This impact was statistically independent of other potential confounding factors. Moreover, participants experiencing dual violence during childhood reported lower self-esteem than those experiencing only one type of family violence or none at all. Male participants who experienced dual violence reported lower self-esteem than female participants who experienced dual violence. Further analyses revealed that parental and peer relationship qualities mediated the joint impact of interparental violence and physical maltreatment on adult self-esteem.

  16. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  17. A Cross-Ethnic Study of Adolescents' Depressed Mood and the Erosion of Parental and Peer Warmth during the Transition to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, William Y.; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study investigated the effects of adolescents' depressed mood on perceived parental and peer warmth during the transition to young adulthood. We hypothesized that ethnicity would moderate such effects. As part of a larger study, 511 adolescents (154 European, 205 Hispanic, and 152 Asian Americans) participated in this…

  18. The Confidence and Competence in Information and Communication Technologies of Practitioners, Parents and Young Children in the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Dahl, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A review of evidence on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the early years was commissioned by the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency. Views of practitioners, parents and children were obtained and practitioner ICT audits completed. Most young children grow up in media-rich digital environments in…

  19. Parent PDD Behavior Inventory Profiles of Young Children Classified According to Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative variations in score profiles from the parent version of the PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) were examined in young Autism and PDD-NOS groups defined by ADOS-G and ADI-R criteria, relative to a not spectrum (NS) group of similar age. Both the Autism and the PDD-NOS group profiles markedly differed from the NS group. The most sensitive…

  20. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Early Intervention Programs for Young Children with Autism: Centre-Based with Parent Program and Home-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline; Williams, Katrina; Carter, Mark; Evans, David; Parmenter, Trevor; Silove, Natalie; Clark, Trevor; Warren, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill…

  1. Parents' Judgments of the Acceptability and Importance of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…

  2. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Language and Thought in Young Anglo-, Black-, and Mexican-American Children of Low Social Status Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomon, John W.; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to make a cross-cultural study of the abilities of Anglo-, Black-, and Mexican-American young children of low status parents to process a given set of language and thought universals. The 27 subjects (nine subjects in each ethnic group) were divided into three subgroups according to age-grade levels, 5, 6, and…

  3. "In the Driver's Seat": Parent Perceptions of Choice in a Participant-Directed Medicaid Waiver Program for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Maria T.; Leutz, Walter N.; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated families' experience of choice within a participant-directed Medicaid waiver program for young children with autism. Fourteen parents or grandparents participated in in-depth interviews about their experience of choosing personnel, directing in-home services, and managing the $25,000 annual allocation. Key findings…

  4. Do sack lunches provided by parents meet the nutritional needs of young children who attend child care?

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Robert-Gray, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in Texas state regulations of child-care foodservice have resulted in more centers halting meal and snack preparation and requiring parents to provide food from home for their children. In the spring of 2006, sack lunches prepared at home for children attending licensed child-care centers were evaluated based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) standards. The study included 3- to 5-year-old children attending full-time child-care centers that required parents to provide lunches. Lunch contents were observed and recorded for 3 consecutive days. A 3-day mean nutrient content was used to determine whether the lunches provided a minimum of 33% of the DRI. The following nutrients were evaluated: energy, carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc, and sodium. Food items were summarized and compared with CACFP standards. More than 50% of the 3-day means provided less than 33% of the DRIs for energy (n=58), carbohydrate (n=59), vitamin A (n=58), calcium (n=49), iron (n=44), and zinc (n=38). Seventy-one of the 74 children (96%) received less than 33% of the DRI for dietary fiber, yet the mean amount of sodium in observed lunches was 114% of the DRI. The observed lunches did not meet the CACFP standards for servings of fruits and vegetables for 157 (71%) or for servings of milk in 178 (80%). Sack lunches sent from home may not regularly provide adequate nutrients for the growth and development of young children. Nutrition education should be provided to parents to ensure that sack lunches sent from home meet children's nutritional needs. PMID:19103336

  5. Parental perceptions and practices of emergent literacy development in young children with Down syndrome: the development of intervention guidelines.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Cherié; Kritzinger, Alta

    2008-01-01

    Key findings of emergent literacy research conclude that emergent literacy experiences correlate with later reading success and that emergent literacy intervention for children with special needs is essential. As a group with special needs, children with Down syndrome require emergent literacy intervention. They may attain functional literacy skills and their language development determines their reading ability. Speech-language therapists have an important role to play in emergent literacy programme development in South Africa. As a first step towards programme development and emergent literacy intervention goal selection, the aim of this study was to determine the applicability of a self-administered questionnaire to describe parental perceptions and practices regarding the emergent literacy development of their young children with Down syndrome. A quantitative research approach was used within a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Fifteen literate parents, with preschool children with Down syndrome aged between two and five years were selected as participants. Data were collected via email and/or facsimile. The results showed that all participants valued emergent literacy development. They appeared to have knowledge about book-reading but not about the broad spectrum of emergent literacy experiences to which they might expose their children. Participants were actively promoting emergent literacy development of their children, but they had certain needs that could potentially be addressed by speech-language therapists working in early communication intervention. The questionnaire proved to be applicable, but changes are required for application with illiterate parents and those with low literacy skills. Based on the results a framework with guidelines for emergent literacy goal selection is provided. PMID:19485068

  6. Managing children's risk of injury in the home: does parental teaching about home safety reduce young children's hazard interactions?

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; McArthur, Brae Anne; Bell, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Past research confirms that parents extend much effort to teach their young children about safety, but little is known about this process. The present study examined mothers' use of teaching as a strategy to manage young children's risk of home injury and how this impacts children's hazard interactions. Mothers of three-year-olds completed an in-home room-by-room interview in which they identified injury hazards that concern them, reported on use of teaching to manage risk of injury from these hazards, rated children's understanding of these safety issues and compliance with behavioral guidelines regarding these safety issues, and reported on children's recent interactions with these hazards. They also completed questionnaire measures of how difficult the child is to manage and the child's typical level of risk taking. Results revealed that children's understanding of safety impacted both their compliance and hazard interactions, moderating the impact of risk taking on compliance and also the impact of children's difficult-to-manage score on hazard interactions. These findings demonstrate that teaching strategies need to effectively enhance children's understanding of the safety issue in order to reduce children's risk of hazard interactions.

  7. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P <.001. Gain-framing was associated with increased odds of self-efficacy for both behaviors (burn: AOR = 1.77 and smoke: AOR = 1.77). Messages that show positive outcomes combined with scripted parental mediation appear most effective in communicating safety behaviors, but the overall effectiveness of video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced. PMID:23877137

  8. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P <.001. Gain-framing was associated with increased odds of self-efficacy for both behaviors (burn: AOR = 1.77 and smoke: AOR = 1.77). Messages that show positive outcomes combined with scripted parental mediation appear most effective in communicating safety behaviors, but the overall effectiveness of video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  9. Effective process or dangerous precipice: qualitative comparative embedded case study with young people with epilepsy and their parents during transition from children’s to adult services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services is known to be challenging. Some young people partially or completely disengage from contact with services, thereby risking their health and wellbeing. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review that showed current epilepsy transition models enabling information exchange and developing self-care skills were not working well. We used synthesised evidence to develop a theoretical framework to inform this qualitative study. The aim was to address a critical research gap by exploring communication, information needs, and experiences of knowledge exchange in clinical settings by young people and their parents, during transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services. Method Qualitative comparative embedded Case study with 2 'transition’ cases (epilepsy services) in two hospitals. Fifty-eight participants: 30 young people (13–19 years) and 28 parents were interviewed in-depth (individual or focus group). Clinical documents/guidelines were collated. 'Framework’ thematic analysis was used. The theoretical framework was tested using themes, pattern matching and replication logic. Theory-based evaluation methods were used to understand how and why different models of service delivery worked. Results A joint epilepsy clinic for young people 14–17 years coordinated by children’s and adult services was more likely to influence young people’s behaviour by facilitating more positive engagement with adult healthcare professionals and retention of epilepsy-related self-care information. Critical success factors were continuity of care, on-going and consistent age-appropriate and person centred communication and repeated information exchange. Three young people who experienced a single handover clinic disengaged from services. Psychosocial care was generally inadequate and healthcare professionals lacked awareness of memory impairment. Parents lacked knowledge, skills and support to enable their

  10. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  11. Parent programs for latino families with young children: social, cultural, and linguistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Cycyk, Lauren M; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2015-05-01

    It is likely that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) will be called upon to serve the growing numbers of children under age 5 from Latino families. Families are considered central to implementing language facilitation strategies at this age. These strategies must be both culturally informed and also focus on naturally occurring experiences in children's homes. However, few existing early intervention programs are specific to the cultural values and language learning experiences of young Latino children. This article reviews the current knowledge base on the early language learning experiences of these children and provides SLPs implementing family programs with suggestions on adapting family-centered language facilitation techniques to this population.

  12. Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-06-01

    A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed.

  13. Feasibility of teaching motivational interviewing to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Smeerdijk, Maarten; Keet, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; Barrowclough, Christine; Linszen, Don; Schippers, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of providing motivational interviewing (MI) training to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use. The training was offered in a mental health care setting as part of a family motivational intervention (FMI). Ninety-seven parents were randomly assigned to either FMI or routine family support (RFS). To obtain a measure of parent's MI skills at baseline and 3 months after they completed FMI, their role-play interactions with an actor portraying their child were coded. The coding method had satisfactory inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. At follow-up, parents in FMI showed significantly greater adherence to (p=.03) and competence in (p=.04) MI than parents in RFS. Parents in FMI also demonstrated significantly greater increases in expressing empathy (p=.01). These results demonstrate that FMI is a feasible method for increasing MI skills in parents. Additional research is needed to better understand the unique application of MI to parent-child interactions.

  14. Use of a Precious Resource: Parental Decision Making About Using Autologous Umbilical Cord Blood in Studies Involving Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Schatz, Desmond A.; Haller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess parental decision making and experiences in an autologous umbilical cord blood infusion study in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Surveys were completed with 22 parents of children with T1D who received infusion and 22 parents who declined infusion. Results Parents who stored umbilical cord blood were middle-aged, highly-educated, Caucasian, married, and privately insured. Parents of children who did not receive infusion declined because they did not want to deplete their cord blood supply. Parents of children who decided to have their children participate in the infusion study were similar on approaches to storing cord blood and attitudes about research as compared to parents who declined to have their children participate in the infusion. Parents of children who received infusion were positive about their experiences and held expectations that infusion would lead to a T1D cure. Conclusions The manner in which cord blood is stored needs to be considered so that participation in future studies does not risk depletion of the cord blood supply. In addition, it appears that the process of storing umbilical cord blood leads to restricted demographic characteristics of eligible participants, which may impact recruitment in clinical trials. These results are relevant to designing future cord blood studies in T1D and other non-malignant diseases. PMID:21530680

  15. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  16. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S.

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) Conclusions: A home smoking ban

  17. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  18. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Upregulates Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation and Inhibits Apoptotic Cell Death in Abcd1-Deficient Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Pujol, Aurora; Baarine, Mauhamad; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1) and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) (1 and 3) in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2) proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid) leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD. PMID:23923017

  19. "Someone's Been Sleeping in My Bed!" Parental Satisfaction Associated with Solitary and Parent-Child Co-Sleeping in Israeli Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollberg, Daphna; Shalev, Orly; Chen, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The study examined differences in parental satisfaction associated with solitary and parent-child co-sleeping in a sample (N = 61) of Israeli families with children ranging in age from 12 to 48 months (M = 28.04, SD = 10.71). Questionnaire data regarding the family sleeping arrangement, parental satisfaction with the sleeping arrangement, child…

  20. Effects on Parental Mental Health of an Education and Skills Training Program for Parents of Young Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; MacKinnon, Andrew; King, Neville; Rinehart, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of a parent education and behavior management intervention (PEBM) on the mental health and adjustment of parents with preschool children with autism. Method: A randomized, group-comparison design involving a parent education and counseling intervention to control for nonspecific therapist effects and a control…