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Sample records for abcd parenting young

  1. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  2. Interviewing Parents for Qualitative Research Studies: Using an ABCD Model to Manage the Sensitivities and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with complex health/palliative care needs is wide ranging. Family-centred practices place parents at the heart of the ongoing care of these children, and therefore it makes sense that their views and experiences should be central to research within the field. Despite this assertion, little guidance exists as to how best to…

  3. Improving Services to Young Parents through CETA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boochever, Stephen; And Others

    This report is addressed to Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) sponsors to familiarize them with the issues concerning adolescent pregnancy, highlight innovative approaches in working with young parents, and offer suggestions on how to reach and serve young parents with CETA. The report focuses on the problems of young parents, both…

  4. Parental Influence on Young People's Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.; Call, Vaughn R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes theory and research on parental influence on young people's career development and highlights an important implication of this relationship for career counseling. The authors discuss a seminar that helps parents help their children choose careers. (CT)

  5. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  6. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  7. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…

  8. Parenting and the Young Driver Problem

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Crash rates increase sharply at the age teenagers begin to drive and remain elevated relative to adult levels well into the twenties. Parents have important roles to play in managing the risk for teenage drivers before and after licensure. Parents can be involved in their teenagers’ driving, allowing them to test for permit and licensure, supervising practice driving, providing access to a vehicle, and setting and enforcing limits on driving privileges after licensure. However, the management practices of many parents may not be sufficient to provide safety effects. The literature indicates that the two most important decisions parents can make to reduce teenagers driving risk is to delay licensure and impose limits on high-risk driving conditions (such as driving at night and with teenage passengers) during the first year of licensure. Two intervention programs have been shown to increase parent limit setting as a means of reducing risky driving behaviors and improving driving performance among novice teenage drivers. This article describes the contexts of and opportunities for parent involvement in teenage driving and the efficacy of interventions to increase and improve parental management of young drivers. PMID:18702985

  9. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.

  10. Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a Self-Report Parenting Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…

  11. Employer supports for parents with young children.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D E

    2001-01-01

    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.

  12. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  13. Young People's and Parent's Perceptions of Managed Moves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed to increase understanding of the experiences of young people and their parents of managed moves, what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English Local Authority, where five young people and their parents were interviewed. Five superordinate themes emerged…

  14. The Role of Parental Influences on Young Adolescents' Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Briana K.; Whiston, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between specific parental behaviors and the career development of young adolescents was assessed. Regression analyses revealed that parental behaviors did relate to the career development of middle school students, after controlling for student grade level and gender. Parental behaviors tended to relate more to career…

  15. Parental Attitudes toward Sex Education for Young Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Weichen V.

    This study investigates Taiwanese parents' opinions on sex education for young children. Participants in the study included 97 randomly selected Taiwanese parents of 3 through 5-year old children at three different preschools in northern Taiwan. Results indicate that subjects' age and education influenced parental views toward sexual issues:…

  16. Looking for Solutions: Gender Differences in Relationship and Parenting Challenges Among Low-Income, Young Parents

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes. PMID:24980026

  17. Looking for solutions: gender differences in relationship and parenting challenges among low-income, young parents.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen; Hansen, Nathan; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-12-01

    The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes.

  18. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Hugh; Rodríguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals’ choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents’ ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers’ and fathers’ ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers’ and fathers’ ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes. PMID:26221951

  19. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  20. Young Children's ICT Experiences in the Home: Some Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…

  1. Parent Recognition and Responses to Developmental Concerns in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…

  2. Parents' Plans to Discuss Sexuality with Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…

  3. Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.

    In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…

  4. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This book informs parents and families of children and young adults with cancer about the most common types of cancer in the young, treatments and their side effects, and common issues that arise with a cancer diagnosis. Aspects of the disease, including characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors, are described. Treatment issues discussed…

  5. Affluent Parents of Young Children: Neglected Parent Education Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Maureen T.; Goldman, Jane; Wales, Cassandra

    1998-01-01

    Affluent mothers of preschoolers (n=85) expressed strong interest in most of the parent education topics in an extension survey. Their interests were largely similar to those of parents from other socioeconomic groups. They were more interested in changes in personal identity/role and in issues related to having partners in high power/high…

  6. PARENTING IN ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULT INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Peggy C; Johnson, Wendi L; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2016-03-01

    Most prior studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have relied on traditional indices of parental support, control or coercion to examine the nature and extent of parental influences. We explore whether parents' more general attitudes toward their child's dating and associated parenting practices are related to the young adult child's report of IPV, once traditional parent factors and other covariates are introduced. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 625), results indicate that net of other parenting dimensions and controls for child and neighborhood characteristics, parental negativity about their child's dating and related parenting practices are associated with later reports of IPV during young adulthood. Parent-child conflict and the child's own feelings of gender mistrust were considered as potential mediators. Results suggest the importance of widening the lens beyond support, control and even the parents' own use of violence to include a range of parental attitudes and behaviors that influence the child's approach to and conduct within the romantic realm.

  7. 76 FR 14099 - Proposed Collection of Information for an Evaluation of the Young Parents Demonstration Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Parents Demonstration Project (YPDP); Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA... of young parents and, ultimately their employment and earnings. DATES: Written comments must be... to test innovative strategies that can improve the skills and education of young parents...

  8. Young adults' relations with grandparents following recent parental divorce.

    PubMed

    Cooney, T M; Smith, L A

    1996-03-01

    This study employed a large survey of young adults to consider the association between recent parental divorce and intergenerational solidarity between adult grandchildren and their grandparents. The results indicate no significant association between parental divorce and young adults' reports of affective, associational, or functional solidarity in relation to either maternal or paternal grandparents. Adult grandchildren from divorced families, however, were more likely than those from intact families to initiate contacts with their grandparents on their own, and to see their paternal grandparents without their father accompanying them. We conclude that parental divorce does not influence adult grandchild-grandparent relations because, at least in part, adult grandchildren are less dependent than young children on the middle-generation parent to facilitate this relationship.

  9. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  10. PARENTING IN ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULT INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Johnson, Wendi L.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Most prior studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have relied on traditional indices of parental support, control or coercion to examine the nature and extent of parental influences. We explore whether parents’ more general attitudes toward their child’s dating and associated parenting practices are related to the young adult child’s report of IPV, once traditional parent factors and other covariates are introduced. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 625), results indicate that net of other parenting dimensions and controls for child and neighborhood characteristics, parental negativity about their child’s dating and related parenting practices are associated with later reports of IPV during young adulthood. Parent-child conflict and the child’s own feelings of gender mistrust were considered as potential mediators. Results suggest the importance of widening the lens beyond support, control and even the parents’ own use of violence to include a range of parental attitudes and behaviors that influence the child’s approach to and conduct within the romantic realm. PMID:26903688

  11. A UNIMARC Bibliographic Format Database for ABCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megnigbeto, Eustache

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: ABCD is a web-based open and free software suite for library management derived from the UNESCO CDS/ISIS software technology. The first version was launched officially in December 2009 with a MARC 21 bibliographic format database. This paper aims to detail the building of the UNIMARC bibliographic format database for ABCD.…

  12. Supporting Parents through Parent Education. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Marlene; Morales, Alex

    California's Proposition 10, the "Children and Families Act," has targeted three general areas for improvement in support of families and young children: improved family functioning, improved child development, and improved child health. Proposition 10 views parents as critical to the development of young children. Noting that parent…

  13. Mothers' Perceptions of Young Children, Parenting, and Young Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Historically, research demonstrates that mothers' attitudes and characteristics of their parenting are intertwined. More recently, mothers' perceptions of their children are becoming a new focus of interest. To further understand the relationships among mothers' perceptions of their young children, their parenting behaviors, and their ratings of…

  14. Policies to Assist Parents with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible…

  15. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  16. Enhanced Learning for Young Music Students: Involving and Motivating Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Factors that determine the rate of a child's progress on a musical instrument include the quality, quantity, and regularity of home practice. Because a young pupil sometimes lacks the skills necessary to practice independently at times, music teachers could encourage and motivate parents/guardians to participate more fully in their child's music…

  17. Young People with Cancer: A Handbook for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The book presents information for parents of children and young adults with cancer. The first section outlines aspects of the disease itself and considers characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors. Hospitalization and such treatments as chemotherapy and radiation are considered. Common health issues (including diet, dental care, bleeding, and…

  18. Parents' Perceptions of Services for Young Children with Faltering Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring the experiences of parents of young children with faltering growth and feeding difficulties. They were interviewed as part of an evaluation of two projects using a behavioural model to resolve persistent feeding problems. The 22 respondents provided valuable insights into their experiences of…

  19. Involving Parents in Teaching Social Communication Skills to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…

  20. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  1. SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement in Young Children's ESL Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Letchumanan, Krishnanveni

    2016-01-01

    Realising the clear dichotomy between schools and homes, the Malaysia government has now turned its attention to stakeholders and called for an increase involvement of parents, who are critical in transforming the education system. However, a clear line of demarcation continues to exist between the two prime educators of young children. Schools…

  2. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among…

  3. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  4. Setting Limits: Tips for Parents of Young Children. Project Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynne; And Others

    This pamphlet presents guidelines and tips for parents on setting limits for the behavior of young children. The need for limits and the goal of teaching children self-control are explained. Some general guidelines for limit setting are provided which include making the limits age-appropriate, recognizing the child's need for practice and…

  5. Early exposure to parental depression and parenting: associations with young offspring's stress physiology and oppositional behavior.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Lea R; Tolep, Marissa R; Smith, Victoria C; Rose, Suzanne

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to stress is posited to play a role in the intergenerational transmission of risk for psychopathology and other negative outcomes in the offspring of depressed parents. We tested the hypothesis that the joint, interactive effects of exposure to parental depression during early childhood and parental hostility impact the development of young children's stress physiology and early emerging behavior problems. A sample of 165 preschool-age children (81 boys, 84 girls), of whom 103 had a parent with a history of depression, was exposed to a stress-inducing laboratory task, and five salivary cortisol samples were obtained. Parents completed clinical interviews and an observational parent-child interaction task. We found that the offspring exposed to maternal depression during early childhood and whose parents displayed hostile parenting behaviors during an observational task evidenced high and increasing cortisol levels in response to a laboratory stressor. In addition, the total amount of exposure to maternal depression over the child's life exerted a dose-response effect on the positive relation between parental hostility and child observed oppositional behavior. This study underscores the importance of the early rearing environment on young children's stress physiology and early emerging behavior problems.

  6. Parenting practices and expectations among Mexican mothers with young children.

    PubMed

    Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A

    1996-12-01

    Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.

  7. Connecting, learning, leaving: supporting young parents in the community.

    PubMed

    Mills, Annie; Schmied, Virginia; Taylor, Christine; Dahlen, Hannah; Schuiringa, Wies; Hudson, Margaret E

    2012-11-01

    Providing support and parenting education through home visiting is a key early intervention strategy with young parents. Less is known about what home visitors do that makes a difference. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and experiences of professional staff working with young parents participating in a multicomponent parent support programme (home visiting and supported parenting groups) provided by a non-government organisation in a socially disadvantaged area of Sydney, Australia. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected through three focus groups conducted with the same six staff over an 18-month period. Participant descriptions of their role and experiences working with young mothers were analysed thematically. Additional data from 20 anonymised client records were analysed through content analysis. Analysis of the focus group data revealed two themes, 'Connecting' and 'Facilitating Learning'. The theme 'Connecting' reflected the development of a relationship with the young mother commencing with 'how do we engage them?', 'building trust' through to formation of a relationship described as 'they know we're not friends, they know we're workers'. The second theme, 'Facilitating Learning' was informed by the analysis of both group and client record data and comprised a number of themes around what and how mothers learnt, through to 'ending the relationship' as the mothers left the programme. The quality of a mothers' learning was dependent on the quality of the connection between herself and the staff, similarly their capacity and, or confidence to leave the programme was dependent on the relationship, 'connecting' and the learning undertaken. Role modelling through interactions with children as well as with each other was seen as the most effective way to facilitate social and parenting skill development, while formal education sessions were evaluated by the workers to be less successful than informal ones.

  8. Parental evaluations of a sex education course for young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parcel, G S; Coreil, J

    1985-01-01

    Parental evaluations of their children's participation in a school-based sex education program for young adolescents were conducted by interview using a structured questionnaire. Parents were asked questions concerning: course objectives, course content, instructional materials, expectations, perceived effectiveness, and important outcomes of the instruction. The sex education course was six weeks in length, meeting for 50 minutes daily. The program was comprehensive and did not avoid areas typically thought of as controversial. The results indicated parental support for the sex education program and the evaluation provided useful information for program revision. An examination of the findings suggest a paradox in that parents want their children to be informed about sexuality and to be able to make decisions that would avoid problems, but they are uneasy about dealing directly with sexual behavior.

  9. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls’ behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls’ disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls’ conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls’ aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular. PMID:18777132

  10. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  11. Parenting Needs as Perceived by Agency Personnel Working with Parents and Young Children in Southern Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YaeBin

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators have used different methods to collect information for a needs assessment, including advisory committees, survey questionnaires, focus groups, interviews with key informants, or a combination of the former. This article describes the use of key informant interviews (agency personnel working with parents and young children) that…

  12. Culture, Parental Conflict, Parental Marital Status, and the Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohm, Carol L.; Oishi, Shigehiro; Darlington, Janet; Diener, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Study 1 found that subjective well-being was negatively associated with marital conflict among offspring of never-divorced and remarried parents. Study 2 found that the negative association of divorce and of marital conflict with the life satisfaction of the offspring did not differ for adopted young adults. (Author/MKA)

  13. Are both parents always better than one? Parental conflict and young adult well-being.

    PubMed

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N=1,963), we examine associations between adolescent family experiences and young adult well-being across a range of indicators, including schooling, substance use, and family-related transitions. We compare children living with both biological parents, but whose parents differ in how often they argue, to children in stepfather and single-mother families, and we assess the extent to which differences can be understood in terms of family income and parenting practices. Findings suggest that parental conflict is associated with children's poorer academic achievement, increased substance use, and early family formation and dissolution. Living in single mother and stepfather families tend to be more strongly associated with our indicators of well-being, although differences between these family types and living with high conflict continuously married parents are often statistically indistinguishable. Income and parenting largely do not account for associations between adolescent family type and later life outcomes. We conclude that while children do better, on average, living with two biological married parents, the advantages of two-parent families are not shared equally by all.

  14. "My Son Is Reliable": Young Drivers' Parents' Optimism and Views on the Norms of Parental Involvement in Youth Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    The high crash rates among teenage drivers are of great concern across nations. Parents' involvement is known to help increase their young drivers' driving safety. In particular, parents can place restrictions on their son's/daughter's driving (e.g., restrict night time driving), which can enable the young driver to gain driving experience in…

  15. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  16. Mental Health Utilization Among Diverse Parenting Young Couples

    PubMed Central

    Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-01-01

    Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social–personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse’s influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272

  17. System of Attitudes in Parents of Young People Having Sensory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posokhova, Svetlana; Konovalova, Natalia; Sorokin, Victor; Demyanov, Yuri; Kolosova, Tatyana; Didenko, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify the system of attitudes in parents of young people having sensory disorders. The survey covered parents of children aged 17 and older having hearing disorders, visual disorders, and no sensory disorders. The parents' system of attitudes united the attitude of the parents to themselves, to the child and…

  18. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  19. The Chicago Parent Program: Comparing 1-Year Outcomes for African American and Latino Parents of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children’s behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598

  20. The Chicago Parent Program: comparing 1-year outcomes for African American and Latino parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities.

  1. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  2. From thought to action: young parents' reasons for participation in parenting support groups at child welfare centers.

    PubMed

    Hjelte, Jan; Sjöberg, Magdalena; Westerberg, Kristina; Hyvönen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In this article the focus is on young parents' engagement process in relation to participation in parenting support groups carried out at child welfare centers. This qualitative study focuses not only on young parents' reasons for participating or not participating in parenting support groups during different phases in their engagement process, but also on examining the circumstances that may contribute to such changes. The results show that these reasons can be divided into four categories: the staff, other participants, the social network, and practical circumstances. It also appears that these reasons change between different phases of their engagement process. Primarily three different circumstances contributed to variation in parents' reasons: difficulty in predicting the value of participation, increased closeness in relationships with staff and other parents, and the specific life phase in which young parents find themselves. The results have important implications for policy makers and practitioners in their work in formulating and updating parenting support; they also indicate what may be important to focus on in the recruitment of young parents, and also what may be crucial in regard to them completing their engagement in parent support groups.

  3. Parents in transition: Experiences of parents of young people with a liver transplant transferring to adult services.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J

    2017-02-01

    Predictors of successful transition from pediatric to adult services include ability to self-manage and engage with healthcare services. Parents have a key role in healthcare management throughout childhood and adolescence including encouraging development of self-management skills in their children. Transition to adult services can be challenging for parents and young people, yet parents' views regarding transition remain largely unexplored. Nine parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients (15.2-25.1 yr) participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using IPA. Analysis revealed three key themes: "emotional impact of transplantation," "protection vs. independence," and "ending relationships and changing roles." Parents expressed the dichotomous nature of the desire to promote independence in their child while still maintaining control and protection, and discussed how changing roles and relationships were difficult to navigate. Parents are important facilitators of young people's development of self-management skills for successful transfer to adult services. Parents should be supported to move from a "managerial" to a "supervisory" role during transition to help young people engage independently with the healthcare team. Findings support the development of interventions for parents to emphasize their role in transition and guide the transfer of self-management skills from parent to young person.

  4. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…

  5. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  6. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on…

  7. Deaf Young People with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: The Experience of Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Julie; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Sue

    2011-01-01

    A semi-structured interview format was used to explore the experiences and attitudes of twelve parents and twelve teachers of young people, aged 11-18 years, who had received sequential bilateral cochlear implants. The parents stressed the importance of involving the young person in the decision to go ahead with the second implant. Although all…

  8. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  9. Effect of ABCD transformations on beam paraxiality.

    PubMed

    Vaveliuk, Pablo; Martinez-Matos, Oscar

    2011-12-19

    The limits of the paraxial approximation for a laser beam under ABCD transformations is established through the relationship between a parameter concerning the beam paraxiality, the paraxial estimator, and the beam second-order moments. The applicability of such an estimator is extended to an optical system composed by optical elements as mirrors and lenses and sections of free space, what completes the analysis early performed for free-space propagation solely. As an example, the paraxiality of a system composed by free space and a spherical thin lens under the propagation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes is established. The results show that the the paraxial approximation fails for a certain feasible range of values of main parameters. In this sense, the paraxial estimator is an useful tool to monitor the limits of the paraxial optics theory under ABCD transformations.

  10. Improving the Parenting Skills of Young Teen Mothers in Grades 9th--12th through Parenting Classes, Training, and Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Moore, Brenda

    This paper discusses a practicum designed to address young teen mothers' lack of knowledge, experience, and skills needed to appropriately care for their infants. It documents that increased knowledge, enhanced interpersonal relationships, and augmented parenting skills made a difference in the teen mothers' approach to parenting. Parenting…

  11. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  12. Parental Perceptions of Life Context Variables for Involvement in Their Young Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…

  13. Predictors of Parental Stress in Mothers of Young Children with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipp-Siegel, Sandra; Sedey, Allison L.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2002-01-01

    A study using three domains of the short form of the Parental Stress Index examined parental stress in 184 hearing mothers of young children with hearing impairments. Mothers demonstrated significantly less parental distress than a normative, hearing group. Predictors of stress included frequency of hassles, social support, annual family income,…

  14. The Role of Parents in Young People's Education--A Critical Review of the Causal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a considerable body of research suggesting that parental involvement is linked to young people's attainment at school. It is also generally agreed that a number of factors such as parental background, attention, warmth and parenting style are associated with children's later life outcomes. However, although widely assumed on the…

  15. Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palosaari, Ulla; Aro, Hillevi

    1994-01-01

    Compared young adults who had experienced parental divorce before school age (n=134), in latency (n=129), and in adolescence (n=71). Found that 24% of boys who had experienced parental divorce in latency were depressive as compared with 9% and 6% in other groups. Among girls, depression was independent of timing of parental divorce. (Author/NB)

  16. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  17. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting on the Academic Functioning of Young Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbers, Janette E.; Cutuli, J. J.; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Vrieze, Danielle; Leibel, Cari; Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Effects of parenting quality on the academic functioning of young homeless children were examined using data from 58 children ages 4 to 7 and their parents during their stay at an emergency homeless shelter. Parenting quality, child executive function, child intellectual functioning, and risk status were assessed in the shelter,…

  18. Developing Scales to Measure Parental Mediation of Young Children's Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikken, Peter; Jansz, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    With children using digital media at ever younger ages, media-education becomes a pressing issue for parents. As there is hardly any research on how parents guide the online activities of toddlers and young children an internet-survey was held among 792 Dutch parents of children aged between 2 and 12 years. Factor analysis revealed that for the…

  19. The influence of parents' religious practices on young adults' divorce attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kapinus, Carolyn A; Pellerin, Lisa A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the intergenerational transmission of parents' religious views and divorce attitudes, paying particular attention to the effect of parent-child closeness. We use structural equation modeling to examine a national longitudinal data set containing information from 455 married individuals and their adult offspring. We find that parent religiosity influences young adults' views of divorce via two pathways: by affecting offspring's religiosity and parents' views of divorce. More religious offspring are less tolerant of divorce, but offspring who do not share their parents' religious practices are nonetheless influenced by their parents' religiously-influenced divorce attitudes. While parent religiosity has no effect on parent-child closeness, religious offspring report having been closer to their parents, suggesting that their current religious practices may affect their perceptions of the parent-child relationship.

  20. Flying the nest: a challenge for young adults with cystic fibrosis and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Boisen, Kirsten A; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Pressler, Tacjana; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Objectives As young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) grow up, they are expected to take increasing responsibility for the treatment and care of their disease. The aim of this study was to explore the disease-related challenges faced by young adults with CF and their parents, when they leave home. Materials and methods A questionnaire survey of Danish patients with CF aged 18–25 years and their parents was conducted. The questionnaires were based on focus-group interviews with young adults with CF and their parents, and addressed challenges faced in the transition phase between childhood and adulthood, including different areas of disease management in everyday life. Results Among all of the patients invited, 62% (n=58/94) of young adults and 53% (n=99/188) of their parents participated in the study. In total, 40% of the 18- to 25-year-olds were living with their parents, and the parents continued to play an active role in the daily care of their offspring’s disease. Among the young adults who had left home, both the patients and their parents reported many difficulties regarding disease management; the young adults reported difficulties in contacting social services and in affording and preparing sufficient CF-focused meals, and their parents reported difficulties in answering questions concerning social rights and CF in general, and in knowing how to give their offspring the best help, how much to interfere, and how to relinquish control of managing their offspring’s disease. Conclusion Young adults with CF who have left home have difficulties in handling the disease and their parents have difficulties in knowing how to give them the best help. There is an urgent need for holistic CF transitional care, including ensuring that young adults master the essential skills for self-management as they leave their parents. PMID:28243066

  1. Sex, Parental Incarceration, and Violence Perpetration Among a Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Muftić, Lisa R; Smith, Molly

    2015-09-21

    Limited attention has been directed at adult children with a history of parental incarceration. The goal of the current study is to expand our understanding of the gendered effects of imprisonment on the adult offspring of incarcerated parents through the exploration of violence perpetration among a sample of young adults. Congruent with problem behavior theory, it is hypothesized that young adults who have been affected by parental incarceration will report greater aversive outcomes (i.e., more risk factors and violence perpetration) than their peers without a history of parental incarceration. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that parental incarceration predicts violent perpetration even after controlling for individual and familial risk factors and demographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate statistical models utilizing self-report data from 534 college students were generated to test said hypotheses. In addition, the moderating effects of students' sex and exposure to parental incarceration on the relationship between violence perpetration and risk factors were explored through the utilization of split logistic regression models. Roughly 1 in 10 (13.3%) students surveyed had experienced parental incarceration. As expected, students affected by parental incarceration were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence than their peers not affected by parental incarceration, net individual and familial risk. Although only a small percentage of students had experienced the imprisonment of a parent, parental incarceration predicted violence perpetration in young adulthood. These findings highlight the need to explore the long-lasting effects of parental incarceration on prisoners' offspring across the life course.

  2. Parenting Young Children Today: What the Research Tells Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Ciervo, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, ZERO TO THREE commissioned Hart Research Associates to conduct a survey among parents of children from birth to 36 months old. This survey of 1,615 parents provides insight on the experiences of parents today and the factors that influence their approach to parenting. The survey also explores those on whom they rely for…

  3. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  4. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  5. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    PubMed

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  6. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex, and Sexual Risk among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including “coming out” to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14–19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group. PMID:24549462

  7. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex, and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2014-08-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.

  8. Using Behavioral Parent Training to Treat Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Young Children: A How-to Approach Using Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…

  9. Parental divorce and young adult children's romantic relationships: resolution of the divorce experience.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Scharf, M; Lumer, D; Maurer, O

    2001-10-01

    Fifty-one romantically involved young Israeli adults, whose parents were divorced, were questioned about their romantic relationship, parents' conflict, and current feelings about and reconstruction of the divorce. An integrative perception of the divorce was found to be related to fewer problems and to higher levels of friendship, enjoyment, and intimacy in the relationship. Implications for research and intervention with young adults are discussed.

  10. Increasing Preventive Health Care in Young Children through Parental Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Sarah L.

    A health specialist serving a child care program in a metropolitan ghetto implemented a practicum to increase parent involvement with the health needs of their children. Goals were to: (1) ensure preventive and follow-up health care of children by increasing parents' use of medical resources; and (2) provide continuous education to parents in…

  11. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  12. Daily physical activity in young children and their parents: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Dewey, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in young children and about the relationship between their PA and that of their parents. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the present study (Y-Be-Active) was to examine the daily PA levels of young children and their parents, and to explore the relationship between children’s and parents’ PA. METHOD: Fifty-four children (mean age 4.3 years) and their parents (54 mothers, mean age 35.8 years; 50 fathers, mean age 38.2 years) wore accelerometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. Parents also completed questionnaires on family sociodemographics and PA habits. RESULTS: Children spent most of their time in light PA. Almost all children attained 30 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and most boys and girls attained 60 min of daily MVPA on weekdays. Only 60% of fathers and approximately one-half of mothers attained 30 min of daily MVPA on weekdays and weekend days. Children’s and fathers’ PA were correlated on weekends. Few parents (20% to 30%) participated regularly in organised PA with their child. Fathers’ involvement in PA with their children was associated with higher MVPA in children. CONCLUSIONS: Many young children and parents did not meet current Canadian recommendations for daily PA. Parental involvement in PA with their young children, particularly the involvement of fathers, appeared to promote higher levels of MVPA in young children. PMID:23450045

  13. Young adults' retrospective reports of parenting by mothers and fathers: associations with current relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Dalton, William T; Frick-Horbury, Donna; Kitzmann, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined retrospective reports of both mothers' and fathers' parenting and young adults' (N = 75) relationship quality. Multiple regression analyses showed that, as predicted, young adults' retrospective reports of the positive parenting they experienced as children were significantly related to the extent by which they currently viewed (a) others as accessible and responsive, (b) their relationships with others as meaningful and important, and (c) themselves as able to form healthy relationships. Although both mothers' and fathers' parenting related to the quality of current relationships with parents, only reports of fathers' parenting were related to the quality of current relationships with a romantic partner. Fathers' parenting was also related to views of the self as being able to form secure and close relationships. The authors address both methodological and substantive explanations for these results.

  14. Parental Support for Language Development During Joint Book Reading for Young Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; n = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; n = 45). Parent–child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions, and parent and child behaviors were coded for specific JBR behaviors using a scale developed for this study. Children’s oral language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale–4 (PLS-4). Parents of children with HL scored higher on two of the four subscales of JBR: Literacy Strategies and Teacher Techniques. Parents of children with NH utilized higher level FLTs with their children who had higher language skills. Higher level FLTs were positively related to children’s oral language abilities. Implications are discussed for professionals who work with families of very young children with HL. PMID:25309136

  15. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.

  16. A cross-cultural comparison of mothers' beliefs about their parenting very young children.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Bornstein, Marc H; Haynes, O Maurice; Rossi, Germano; Venuti, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Parental beliefs are relevant to child development because they shape parenting behaviors and help to determine and regulate child cognitive and socioemotional growth. Here we investigated cross-cultural variation in Italian and U.S. mothers' parental beliefs about their social and didactic interactions with their young children. To compare parental beliefs, the Parental Style Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered to samples of 273 Italian mothers and 279 U.S. mothers of 20-month-olds (55% male). To conduct substantive cross-cultural comparisons of beliefs, the measurement invariance of the PSQ was first established by hierarchical multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. The PSQ was essentially invariant across cultures. Italian mothers reported that they engaged in both social and didactic behaviors with their young children less frequently than U.S. mothers. Results of our study confirm that mothers in different cultures differentially value parental stimulation and its relevance for early child development.

  17. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  18. Parent Guidance of Young Children's Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in a Science Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Massey, Katelyn; Kendall, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased attention to math and science education in the United States, relatively few studies have explored parent guidance of young children's mathematical and scientific reasoning in everyday activities. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of providing explicit guidance instructions on parent guidance and young…

  19. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  20. Increasing Parent Limits on Novice Young Drivers: Cognitive Mediation of the Effect of Persuasive Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.; Leaf, William A.; Preusser, David F.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes intervention effects on parent-imposed driving limits on novice young drivers at licensure. Parent-adolescent dyads (4,344) completed baseline surveys at permit and were randomly assigned to intervention or comparison groups. Intervention families received persuasive communications related to protection motivation theory…

  1. So This is Normal Too? Teachers and Parents Working Out Developmental Issues in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Deborah

    Intended to facilitate communication between parents and child care providers through creative problem solving, this guide explains young children's normal developmental behaviors that frequently cause concern, and identifies factors parents and caregivers can control in the environment that may have an immediate positive response from a child.…

  2. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  3. Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Meyer, Lori E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Chung, Moon Y.; Halle, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a…

  4. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  5. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Reasoning about Career Choice and the Role of Parental Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregman, George; Killen, Melanie

    1999-01-01

    Examined adolescents' and young adults' evaluations of reasons for career decisions, and the role of parental influence. Found that subjects supported career choices for reasons of personal growth and rejected choices when decisions were based on interpersonal relationships or hedonism. Parental influence was judged most important when…

  6. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  7. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…

  8. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  9. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  10. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  11. Parent stress, parenting competence and family-centered support to young children with an intellectual or developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Ian; Keen, Deb; Pennell, Donna; O'Reilly, Jess; Neilands, Judy

    2009-01-01

    A family-centered approach to the support of families with a young child with an intellectual or developmental disability has been widely adopted in the last decade. While some of the foundational assumptions of family-centered theory have been tested, there remain considerable gaps in the research evidence for this approach. While parenting stress and competence have been examined in the general family support literature, these variables have received little attention in the family-centered support literature. This pilot study examined the relationship between parent stress and parenting competence and family-centered support. The results suggest that important components of family-centered practice are significantly associated with parent stress, but that a meaningful association between parenting competence and family-centered practice is yet to be demonstrated.

  12. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  13. Recollections of Being Loved: Implications of Childhood Experiences with Parents for Young Adults' Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Katherine A.; Schutte, Emily D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 young adults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote…

  14. Parenting Interventions for Male Young Offenders: A Review of the Evidence on What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, K.; Parkes, A.; Thomson, H.; Wight, D.; Fenton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one in four incarcerated male young offenders in the UK is an actual or expectant father. This paper reviews evidence on the effectiveness of parenting interventions for male young offenders. We conducted systematic searches across 20 databases and consulted experts. Twelve relevant evaluations were identified: 10 from the UK, of…

  15. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  16. Singaporean Parents' Views of Their Young Children's Access and Use of Technological Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Chan, Yvonne; Goh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Debates continue about the access young children have to technological devices, given the increasingly accessible and available technology in most developed countries. Concerns have been expressed by parents/caregivers and researchers, and questions have been raised about possible risks and benefits of these devices on young children who, in some…

  17. Sexual orientation, parental support, and health during the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Needham, Belinda L; Austin, Erika L

    2010-10-01

    Some recent studies suggest that sexual minorities may have worse health-related outcomes during adolescence because they report lower levels of family connectedness, a key protective resource. Using data from wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,153; 50.6% female; mean age = 21.8 years), this study extends prior research on adolescents to young adults. We examine whether lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults report lower levels of parental support than their heterosexual peers and whether differences in parental support help explain why LGB young adults tend to have worse health-related outcomes. We find that lesbian and bisexual women report lower levels of parental support than heterosexual women and that gay men report lower levels of parental support than bisexual and heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual women have higher odds of suicidal thoughts and recent drug use; bisexual women also have higher odds of elevated depressive symptomatology and heavy drinking. Gay men have higher odds of suicidal thoughts than heterosexual men. With the exception of heavy drinking, parental support either partially or fully mediates each of the observed associations. Even though the transition from adolescence to young adulthood is characterized by increased independence from parents, parental support remains an important correlate of health-related outcomes during this stage of life. Sexual minorities report lower levels of parental support during young adulthood, which helps explain why they have worse health-related outcomes. Interventions designed to strengthen relationships between LGB young adults and their parents could lead to a reduction in health disparities related to sexual orientation.

  18. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Young people of minority ethnic origin in England and early parenthood: views from young parents and service providers.

    PubMed

    Higginbottom, G M A; Mathers, N; Marsh, P; Kirkham, M; Owen, J M; Serrant-Green, L

    2006-08-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of early parenthood in minority ethnic communities in England. The data were collected using focus group interviews, in-depth semi-structured interviews and a telephone survey. The sample consisted of 139 participants (41 service providers, 10 grandmothers, 88 young parents). The findings map out the complexity and diversity of experience of early parenthood amongst young people of minority ethnic origin, not least the multiple attachments many experience in relation to their social groups, religious affiliations and the traditional patterns of parenting within their immediate and extended family. Both the young parents and professionals in this study constructed early parenthood in more positive terms than is currently portrayed in the contemporary policy. The findings are analysed and discussed in relation to ethnic identity, social inclusion and exclusion. We explore participants' attempts to counter negative 'deficit' models of early parenthood with reference to perspectives on youth, parenthood and contemporary strategic policy. In conclusion, we suggest an unambiguous focus on the reduction of pregnancy is not a credible message when teenage pregnancy is a social norm for a particular ethnic or cultural group. For young parents of Muslim faith in particular, teenage parenting within marriage is not necessarily considered a 'problem' or seen as a distinctive event. Most participants did not view early parenthood as a barrier to re-establishing career and educational aspirations. A wide diversity of experience amongst young parents is evidenced in the communities studied; this needs to be reflected more comprehensively both in UK policy and in support services.

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF HOMELESSNESS FOR PARENTING YOUNG CHILDREN: A PRELIMINARY REVIEW FROM A DEVELOPMENTAL ATTACHMENT PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    DAVID, DARYN H.; GELBERG, LILLIAN; SUCHMAN, NANCY E.

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been well-documented that parents and children who experience homelessness often have compromised health and well-being, few studies have examined the potential implications of homelessness on the process of parenting young children. In this review, we consider how parents of young children might function under the circumstances of homelessness. We begin with a brief overview of the psychological, social, and medical characteristics of homeless mothers and their young children. Using a developmental attachment perspective, we next briefly review the central tasks of parenting during the first 5 years of life, including emotion regulation and fostering of child autonomy, with an eye toward how homelessness may compromise a mother's ability to complete these tasks. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research that incorporate a developmental attachment perspective and other relevant viewpoints. Because of the paucity of research in this area, our review seeks to provide a heuristic framework for future research, intervention development, and policy. PMID:22685362

  1. Young adult romantic relationships: the role of parents' marital problems and relationship efficacy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Fincham, Frank D; Pasley, B Kay

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the link between parental divorce and marital conflict and young adult romantic relationships, and it tested whether offspring efficacy beliefs and conflict mediate this association. Young adults (N=358) provided data at three time points each separated by 7-week intervals. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that (a) parents' marital conflict, rather than parental divorce, was associated with offspring conflict behavior; (b) relationship efficacy mediated this association; and (c) conflict behavior, in turn, mediated the association between efficacy beliefs and the quality of offspring romantic relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the impact of parents' marital problems on romantic relationships in young adulthood. Their implications for preventive interventions and future research are also outlined.

  2. On the border: young adults with LGBQ parents navigate LGBTQ communities.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Richardson, Hannah B; Downing, Jordan B

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that participants often described their sense of belonging to the LGBTQ community as shifting over the life course. Some participants, particularly those whose parents had always been out, felt connected to the LGBTQ community as children. Of these, most maintained those connections over time. However, some increasingly deidentified with the LGBTQ community, which they sometimes attributed to their own heterosexual identification. Others, particularly those whose parents came out later in life, described a lack of connection to the LGBTQ community as children. Of these, most became increasingly identified with the community, which they often attributed to their own and their parents' increasing sense of comfort with their parents' sexuality. Heterosexual participants who sought out LGBTQ-oriented groups in young adulthood sometimes encountered resistance from these groups, whereby participants' reasons for wanting to become involved were not readily apparent or appreciated. Our findings highlight the need for practitioners to understand the complex and often changing role of the LGBTQ community in the lives of young adults with LGBQ parents.

  3. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.

  4. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PARENT-INFANT PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PARENTS WITH MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND YOUNG INFANTS.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Sleed, Michelle; Baradon, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of good-quality research investigating the outcomes of psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP). This randomized controlled trial investigated the outcomes of PIP for parents with mental health problems who also were experiencing high levels of social adversity and their young infants (<12 months). Dyads were clinically referred and randomly allocated to PIP or a control condition of standard secondary and specialist primary care treatment (n = 38 in each group). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary outcome was infant development. Secondary outcomes included parent-infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, maternal representations, maternal reflective functioning, and infant attachment. There were no differential effects over time between the groups on measures of infant development, parent-infant interaction, or maternal reflective functioning. Infant attachment classifications, measured only at the 12-month follow-up, did not differ between the groups. There were favorable outcomes over time for the PIP-treated dyads relative to the control group on several measures of maternal mental health, parenting stress, and parental representations of the baby and their relationship. The findings indicate potential benefits of parent-infant psychotherapy for improving mothers' psychological well-being and their representations of their baby and the parent-infant relationship.

  5. Transitions in young adulthood: Exploring trajectories of parent-child conflict during college.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah C; Bahrassa, Nazneen F; Syed, Moin; Lee, Richard M

    2015-07-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of parent-child conflict from the perspective of young adults during their college years. Using group-based trajectory modeling, self-report data from 3 time points were analyzed and 4 conflict trajectories emerged. The largest group of students (65%) had low, stable levels of parent-child conflict. Ten percent of the sample reported increases in parent-child conflict, and the remainder (25%) reported 1 of 2 patterns of decreasing parent-child conflict. Students with at least 1 immigrant parent were more likely to experience changes in parent-child conflict in contrast to peers with no immigrant parents. Contrary to our hypotheses, individuals in the groups in which conflict was decreasing were more likely to experience psychological distress. Results are discussed in terms of implications for the heterogeneity of conflict trajectories over time, particularly considering the contextual influence of immigrant family status.

  6. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  7. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  8. Immigrants Raising Citizens: Undocumented Parents and Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    There are now nearly four million children born in the United States who have undocumented immigrant parents. In the current debates around immigration reform, policymakers often view immigrants as an economic or labor market problem to be solved, but the issue has a very real human dimension. Immigrant parents without legal status are raising…

  9. A Sexual Learning Curriculum for Parents of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathryn F.; And Others

    The aims of this sexual learning curriculum are to increase parents' emotional and intellectual understanding of human sexuality and to improve their ability to talk about sexuality with their children. Specifically, the curriculum attempts to increase parents' awareness that (1) sexuality includes lifestyle choices, body image, gender role,…

  10. Educational Aid to Parents of Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, J. M. A.

    The paper examines educational needs of the parents of handicapped children from an international perspective. Noted are common reactions and behaviors of parents including shock, embarrassment, denial of the problem, projection of blame and suspicion, fear and anxiety, and guilt and self-reproach. The impact of the handicapped child on the family…

  11. Temperament, Relationships, and Young Children's Receptive Cooperation With Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Carlson, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied receptive cooperation--a willing, eager stance toward parents--in 15-month-old children (N=101) in broadly ranging contexts. Children's anger proneness and parents' responsiveness (both observed at 7 months) and children's attachment security (assessed in Strange Situation at 15 months) were examined as predictors of children's…

  12. The impact of self-harm by young people on parents and families: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrey, Anne E; Hughes, Nicholas D; Simkin, Sue; Locock, Louise; Stewart, Anne; Kapur, Navneet; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little research has explored the full extent of the impact of self-harm on the family. This study aimed to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on parents and family. Design and participants We used qualitative methods to explore the emotional, physical and practical effects of a young person's self-harm on their parents and family. We conducted a thematic analysis of thirty-seven semistructured narrative interviews with parents of young people who had self-harmed. Results After the discovery of self-harm, parents described initial feelings of shock, anger and disbelief. Later reactions included stress, anxiety, feelings of guilt and in some cases the onset or worsening of clinical depression. Social isolation was reported, as parents withdrew from social contact due to the perceived stigma associated with self-harm. Parents also described significant impacts on siblings, ranging from upset and stress to feelings of responsibility and worries about stigma at school. Siblings had mixed responses, but were often supportive. Practically speaking, parents found the necessity of being available to their child often conflicted with the demands of full-time work. This, along with costs of, for example, travel and private care, affected family finances. However, parents generally viewed the future as positive and hoped that with help, their child would develop better coping mechanisms. Conclusions Self-harm by young people has major impacts on parents and other family members. Clinicians and staff who work with young people who self-harm should be sensitive to these issues and offer appropriate support and guidance for families. PMID:26739734

  13. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  14. Fathering after military deployment: parenting challenges and goals of fathers of young children.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-02-01

    Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children.

  15. Sensory Processing Difficulties, Behavioral Problems, and Parental Stress in a Clinical Population of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Carina; Henninger, Erin M.; Chinitz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between sensory processing difficulties, parental stress, and behavioral problems in a clinical sample of young children with developmental and behavioral difficulties. We hypothesized that a high rate of sensory processing difficulties would be found, that there would be a high rate of comorbidity between sensory processing difficulties and behavioral problems, and that children’s sensory processing difficulties and parental stress would be highly correlated. Parents of 59 children ages two to five who attended an out-patient clinic in a low income, urban community completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Parental Stress Inventory-Short Form and the Short Sensory Profile. Children in this clinical population showed a high prevalence (55.9%) of sensory processing difficulties, a significantly higher rate than previously reported. Sensory processing deficits were correlated with behavioral difficulties and parental stress levels-suggesting that as sensory processing difficulties increase, so do behavioral difficulties and parental stress. Parents of children with sensory processing deficits had significantly higher levels of parental stress than parents of children without sensory deficits. Parenting stress levels were also clinically elevated for the cohort of children in which sensory processing difficulties and behavioral concerns co-existed. These findings suggest that treatment outcomes might improve and parental stress could be reduced if mental health clinicians were trained to identify and address sensory problems. This could result in more children being screened and treated for sensory processing difficulties and an eventual reduction in the rates of parental stress. PMID:24443636

  16. Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D; Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the underlying factor structure of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a large cohort of parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A secondary goal was to examine relationships between PSI-SF factors and autism severity, child behavior problems, and parental mental health variables that have been shown to be related to parental stress in previous research. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the three-factor structure described in the PSI-SF manual [Abidin, 1995]: parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and difficult child. Results of the CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was unacceptable when applied to the study sample. Thus, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and suggested a six-factor model as the best alternative for the PSI-SF index. Spearman's correlations revealed significant positive correlations with moderate to large effect sizes between the revised PSI-SF factors and autism severity, externalizing and internalizing child behaviors, and an index of parent mental health. The revised factors represent more narrowly defined aspects of the three original subscales of the PSI-SF and might prove to be advantageous in both research and clinical applications. Autism Res 2011,4:336-346. © 2011 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Teaching Parents of Young Children: A Curriculum in 12 Sessions [and] Parent Power Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Laura L.

    Based on the assumption that parents are increasingly aware of the high level of knowledge and skills needed to rear well-adjusted children, this parenting curriculum uses a developmental approach to help parents understand and relate appropriately to child behavior at different ages and at each stage. Part 1, "Before You Start," and the "Leader's…

  18. Effects of parental separation and divorce on very young children.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Stewart, K A; Vandell, D L; McCartney, K; Owen, M T; Booth, C

    2000-06-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were analyzed to explore effects of marital separation on children in the first 3 years of life. The sample included 73 never-married mothers and 97 separated mothers; a comparison group of 170 was conditionally randomly selected from the 2-parent families. Children in 2-parent families performed better than children in 1-parent families on assessments of cognitive and social abilities, problem behavior, attachment security, and behavior with mother. However, controlling for mothers' education and family income reduced these differences, and associations with separated-intact marital status were nonsignificant (the effect size was .01). Thus, children's psychological development was not affected by parental separation per se; it was related to mothers' income, education, ethnicity, child-rearing beliefs, depressive symptoms, and behavior.

  19. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent–child experiences while engaged with an iPadTM were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent–child dyads participated in an observation session where parent–child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21–75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child’s positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents’ perceptions of their child’s technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27242603

  20. The impact of parent-delivered intervention on parents of very young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n = 49) with community intervention (n = 49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no increase in parenting stress, whereas the Community group experienced an increase over the same 3-month period. Parental sense of competence did not differ. Number of negative life events was a significant predictor of parenting stress and sense of competence across both groups. This suggests that a parent-coaching intervention may help maintain parental adjustment directly after a child is diagnosed with ASD.

  1. An Early Social Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism and their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Ty W.; Koegel, Robert L.; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors. PMID:22527708

  2. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  3. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

  4. Associations Between Parental Attachment and Course of Depression Between Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Agerup, Tea; Lydersen, Stian; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2015-08-01

    A study of the associations of maternal, paternal and peer attachment with the course of depression from adolescence to young adulthood. In the Youth and Mental Health study 242 adolescents completed the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version for depressive disorders at age 15 and 20. Attachment was measured with the inventory for parent and peer attachment, separately for mother, father, and peers, at age 15. Multinomial logistic regression, indicated insecure attachment relationships with both parents, but not with peers, and were associated with the course of depression. Less secure attachment to mothers was associated with becoming depressed. Less secure attachment to both parents was associated with becoming well and remaining depressed. These results suggest attachment relationships with parents as potential influences on the course of depression and may provide important framework for clinical work with adolescents and young adults.

  5. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  6. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions.

  7. Parental holding and positioning to decrease IV distress in young children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Laurie A; Setlik, Jennifer; Luhman, Janet

    2007-12-01

    Young children are generally restrained in supine position for IV starts, a position that creates fear but is presumed necessary. This study randomly assigned children of ages 9 months to 4 years (N = 118) to being held upright by a parent or lying flat on an exam table for their IV procedure. Distress scores as rated by the Procedure Behavior Rating Scale were significantly lower in the upright positioning group (p = .000); parents were more satisfied with the upright position, and the upright position did not significantly alter the number of IV attempts needed. The upright position appears to be an effective way to decrease IV distress in young children.

  8. Young Adults' Recollections of Parental and Nonparental Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam; Bowden, Jessica M.; Ferrell, Melanie A.; Pavlik, Stacy F.; Robinson, Morgan N.; Schwind, Jennifer L.; Volpe, Erica K.; Williams, Laurie M.; Young, Jessica N.

    2010-01-01

    From a sample of 419 college students, 750 written recollections were obtained regarding their parental and nonparental childcare experiences. Vignettes were sorted and coded according to five emerging themes: emotional valence, play, TV, educational activities and holidays/birthdays. Several significant differences were found in remembered…

  9. Resilience in Parents of Young Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Heidi; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the adaptation of parents with children with visual impairment in South Africa. The results showed that familial values (such as attitude toward the disability, religious faith, and familial closeness) permit a process of inclusion (through the use of resources and acceptance of help) and the development of a…

  10. Parenting Young Children with and without Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used…

  11. A Bicycle Safety Education Program for Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…

  12. Parent-Child Aesthetic Shared Reading with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…

  13. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  14. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  15. Parental Status Characteristics and Self-Placement of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, William H.; Hammer, Gail

    1983-01-01

    Examines status self-placement literature. Tests Talcott Parsons's inferences that, in predicting young adults' self-placement, (1) father's occupation is more important than other status variables of the father, (2) mother's employment makes the process of self-placement less predictable, and (3) "emancipation" from family of…

  16. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  17. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  18. Is the way young people drive a reflection of the way their parents drive? An econometric study of the relation between parental risk and their children's risk.

    PubMed

    Lahatte, Agénor; Le Pape, Marie-Clémence

    2008-06-01

    This article aims to investigate parental influence on high-risk behavior by young people. Although research on the topic of perception of risk demonstrates that it is socially constructed, the role of the family in this construction has rarely been studied. Using a French national survey of more than 1,200 young drivers between the ages of 18 and 25, and their parents, we attempt to understand the transmission of risk within families. Our econometric study shows that parents influence both the practices and representations of their children. When parental norms and values are transmitted, they are by no means accepted in a wholly passive way. Indeed, the parental model is in competition with other models that originate from both inside the family (brothers and sisters) and outside it (instructors). Furthermore, parental influence decreases over time as young people become more experienced drivers and construct their own identity with regard to risk.

  19. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meechamnan, Chutima; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chotibang, Jutamas; McGrath, Barbara Burns

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' and young adolescents' perceptions of communication related to sex and HIV/AIDS. Focus group discussions and group discussion were conducted among 67 adolescents and 30 parents. For the adolescents, group discussion using participatory activities was conducted, followed by five focus group discussions. Group discussions using participatory activities were conducted among parents. Thematic analysis indicated that the adolescents received inadequate information about sex and AIDS from their parents, whom they feared as providing negative judgment, and this represented a key barrier to such discussions. Their parents, on the other hand, reported that they believed their children were still too young to learn about and engage in sexual activities. The parents perceived barriers to communication included a lack of confidence and feelings of embarrassment. Nevertheless, they also recognized their important role in their child's sexual education. Collectively, these results draw attention to the need for a culturally appropriate program to strengthen parent-child communication skills for the topics of sex and HIV/AIDS.

  20. Parental comments: Relationship with gender, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in Asian young adults.

    PubMed

    Chng, Samuel C W; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored the relationships between different categories of parental comments (negative, positive, and importance and comparison), body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating concerns in 383 young adults (69% female) in Singapore. Self-report measures of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating were completed with results indicating that females, compared to males, reported significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and negative maternal and positive paternal comments. Although the relationships found between the different categories of parental comments, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating differed by gender, negative maternal comments emerged as a consistent predictor of disordered eating for both genders. This relationship was partially mediated by body dissatisfaction. The findings highlight the role of parental influence through weight-related comments on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, and the need for further exploration of gender-specific pathways of parental influence.

  1. Perceptions of Young Adult Central Nervous System Cancer Survivors and Their Parents Regarding Career Development and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Chan, Fong; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identify barriers to career development and employment from both the survivor and parent perspective. Method: Young adult survivors (N = 43) and their parents participated in focus groups to elicit information regarding perceptions regarding career development and employment. Results: Perceptions of both the young adults and parents…

  2. The Quality of Perceived Parenting Experienced by a Group of Scottish Incarcerated Young Offenders and Its Relation to Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggam, Fiona H.; Power, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes the Parental Bonding Instrument with a group of 125 incarcerated Scottish young offenders 16-21 years old. Examines the response profiles of young participants and compares the results to normative data and demographics relating to family and penal experiences. Also investigates relationships between parenting style and levels of…

  3. Smoking in young adulthood among African Americans: Interconnected effects of supportive parenting in early adolescence, proinflammatory epitype, and young adult stress.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A

    2016-10-20

    We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.

  4. Parental Presence and Encouragement Do Not Influence Helping in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children begin helping others with simple instrumental problems from soon after their first birthdays. In previous observations of this phenomenon, both naturalistic and experimental, children's parents were in the room and could potentially have influenced their behavior. In the two current studies, we gave 24-month-old children the…

  5. Young Children at Home and in School: 212 Educational Activities for Their Parents, Teachers, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.

    This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…

  6. Brief Report: Driving and Young Adults with ASD--Parents' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E.; Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    A paucity of research exists regarding driving skills and individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study sought to gain a better understanding of driving and ASD by surveying parents/caregivers of adolescents/young adults with ASD who were currently attempting, or had previously attempted, to learn to drive. Respondents…

  7. Building Positive Relationships with Parents of Young Children: A Guide to Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anita; Read, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Positive relationships between practitioners and parents are essential for young children's wellbeing, but achieving this can be difficult if there is not enough understanding about how relationships work when one person (the practitioner or teacher) has to play the professional role. Strong communication skills are fundamental to this…

  8. "Where Do Babies Come from?" Barriers to Early Sexuality Communication between Parents and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie

    2013-01-01

    "Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…

  9. Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parental divorce and early childhood development, using developmental psychopathology as an organizing framework. Because this review is unique in its focus on divorce-related issues specific to young children, limitations of existing research are noted and directions for future research are suggested. (Contains 63…

  10. Identifying Determinants of Young Children's Brand Awareness: Television, Parents, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we asked children to mention the brand name (brand…

  11. Physical Activity Engagement in Young People with Down Syndrome: Investigating Parental Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesi, Marianna; Pepi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the wide documentation of the physical/psychological benefits derived from regular physical activity (PA), high levels of inactivity are reported among people with Down syndrome. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 parents of young people with Down syndrome. Results Three facilitation themes were…

  12. Parent Behavior Antecedents, Cognitive Correlates and Multidimensionality of Locus of Control in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    A discussion of parent behavior antecedents, cognitive correlates, and the multidimensionality of locus of control in young children includes reports of several different experiments. Results indicated that development of internal control expectancies is correlated with cognitive-intellectual development. Maternal behaviors were studied through a…

  13. A Pilot Study of Parent Training in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…

  14. Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

  15. Sustaining Parent-Young Child Relationships during and after Separation and Divorce. Or Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Kyle; Pruett, Marsha Kline

    2012-01-01

    That separation and divorce frequently burden the young child emotionally and developmentally has moved from scientific to common knowledge over the past two decades. Recent cultural changes also moderate or intensify such stress and strain on the parent-child relationship: a divorce rate hovering at about 40% of all marriages, a third of all…

  16. Children's and Young Adult Literature by Latino Writers: A Guide for Librarians, Teachers, Parents, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    This guide is designed to help librarians, teachers, parents, and students learn and teach about Latinos and find appropriate reading materials by Latinos. The titles in the guide are in print and available for purchase as of the printing of this book. Most books in the guide were written for children or young adults--interest-level designations…

  17. Parenting Styles, Drug Use, and Children's Adjustment in Families of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.

    1990-01-01

    Examined childrearing practices and child adjustment in longitudinal cohort of young adults for whom detailed drug histories were available. Maternal drug use retained statistically significant unique effect on child control problems when other parental variables were entered simultaneously in multiple regression equation and was one of two…

  18. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  19. Parental Representations and Attachment Security in Young Israeli Mothers' Bird's Nest Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor; Golan, Yifat

    2016-01-01

    The Bird's Nest Drawing (BND; Kaiser, 1996) is an art-based technique developed to assess attachment security. In an attempt to expand the BND's validity, the authors explored the possible associations between parental representations and the BND's dimensions and attachment classifications in a sample of 80 young Israeli mothers. Positive…

  20. Social-Demographic, School, Neighborhood, and Parenting Influences on the Academic Achievement of Latino Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2005-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of 388 Latino young adolescents, this study identified the social-demographic characteristics, influences in the broader social environment, and parenting practices that predict youth academic achievement. Youths who were Mexican American, older, and had an English language problem had lower levels of reading and…

  1. Guiding Young Children's Behavior: Helpful Ideas for Parents & Teachers from 28 Early Childhood Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Betty, Ed.

    This collection of articles is compiled to offer parents and teachers guidelines to help navigate between a child's intentions and his or her behavior. The book consists of 43 brief chapters divided into 9 sections. Articles in section one, "Guiding Young Children's Behavior," address issues of discipline, setting limits, effective…

  2. Young Adults, Partners and Parents: Individual Agency and the Problems of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gill; O'Sullivan, Ann; Rouse, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Although young adults in the United Kingdom increasingly defer economic independence, they are still "adult" in other respects. Family and household formation often occur before economic independence is achieved. Parents have increased power to influence their adult children's early partnership behaviour, by providing or withholding…

  3. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  4. Helping Parents of Young Children with Disabilities Become Consumers of Early Intervention: A Marketing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, Douglas L.; Fugate, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests the use of marketing techniques to disseminate information products to parents of young children with disabilities. A marketing plan might include the following steps: determination of market needs, market segmentation and target marketing, marketing goals and objectives, marketing strategy, marketing mix tactics, and control…

  5. Parent-Completed Screening Test for Developmentally At-Risk Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Sang Seok

    A computer-based questionnaire was developed to help parents who have not received specialized training to determine whether their young children need further assessment for diagnosis of developmentally at-risk status. The computer automatically determines a starting point for a series of questions according to the child's chronological age. The…

  6. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed.

  7. Parenting Stressors and Young Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms: Does High Vagal Suppression Offer Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M.; Weymouth, Bridget B.

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. PMID:27979628

  8. The Impact of Parent-Delivered Intervention on Parents of Very Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n = 49) with community intervention (n = 49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no…

  9. “Life Still Isn't Fair”: Parental Differential Treatment of Young Adult Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Alexander C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Birditt, Kira S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental differential treatment has been linked to individual well-being and sibling relationship quality in childhood, adolescence, and middle adulthood, but has not been examined in young adulthood. Data were collected from 151 pairs of young adult siblings (N = 302, Mean age = 23.90, SD = 5.02). Two siblings in each family reported on treatment from mothers and fathers, depressive symptoms, and sibling relationship quality. Using multi-level modeling, analyses examined the role of favoritism and the magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers. Offspring who reported receiving less support relative to their sibling (i.e., less favored) reported more depressive symptoms. Greater amounts of differential treatment were associated with less sibling intimacy. Several associations, however, varied by parent gender, sibling gender composition, and the magnitude of differential treatment. Results suggest that favoritism and magnitude of differential treatment from both mothers and fathers are salient in young adulthood. PMID:24833808

  10. Making and Managing Places for Parents in Schools/Centers for Young Children: A Planning and Evaluation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranzoni, Patricia Smith

    It is not enough to encourage parents to be involved in schools and centers for young children through the usual spoken and written ways. By providing places for parents, schools and centers can extend invitations and dramatically demonstrate their expectations. Providing a welcoming entryway that allows three-way observation among parents,…

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for young children with anxiety disorders: Comparison of a Child + Parent condition versus a Parent Only condition.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Ford, Louise A; Wharton, Trisha A; Cobham, Vanessa E

    2009-08-01

    The present study compared the efficacy of a group-based cognitive-behavioural treatment (GCBT) delivered exclusively to parents of young anxious children (between 4 and 8 years of age) with the same intervention delivered to both children and parents, relative to a Wait-list Control condition. Parents of children in the Parent Only condition (N = 25) received 10 weekly sessions of GCBT whereas children and parents in the Parent + Child condition (N = 24) each received 10 weekly sessions of GCBT. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that both active treatment conditions were superior to the Wait-list condition (N = 11), with 55.3% of children in the Parent Only condition and 54.8% of children in the Parent + Child condition no longer meeting criteria for their principal diagnosis at post-treatment. These treatment gains were maintained in both treatment conditions at six-month and 12-month follow-up assessments. There were no significant differences between the two active conditions on other outcome measures including parental psychopathology and parenting style. However, an unexpected finding was that parenting satisfaction and to some extent parenting competence reduced significantly from pre- to post-treatment regardless of the active treatment condition. The present results suggest that GCBT delivered exclusively to parents of young anxious children may be a viable treatment alternative for improving accessibility to efficacious treatments for children with anxiety disorders and for reducing costs associated with mental health care delivery.

  12. Effects of parenting practices on sexual risk-taking among young people in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is scanty evidence regarding the impact of parenting practices on young people’s sexual risk-taking in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the extent to which such practices have enduring consequences on adolescents and young adults is little documented. This study uses repeated measures of parent–child relationships, parental monitoring, and parent–child communication about sexual matters to shed some light in these two areas. Methods The analysis is based on time-dependent retrospective data on parenting practices which were retrieved from the Cameroon Family and Health Survey (CFHS). The study sample includes 447 sexually active and unmarried individuals aged 15–24 years old. Correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regressions are used. Results Young males and females reported high levels of parental monitoring, moderate quality of parent–child relationships and low levels of parent–child communication on sexual matters. This study substantiates that the higher the quality of parent–child relationships, the lower the odds of young males having multiple sexual partners (0.63, p < 0.05), and the lower the odds of young females being sexually active (0.52, p < 0.10) or of having multiple sexual partners (0.64, p < 0.10) or of having occasional sexual partners (0.51, p < 0.05). Living with the biological father only was associated with higher odds of having multiple sexual partners (3.21, p < 0.10) and higher odds of occasional concurrent sexual partners (3.26, p < 0.10) among young males. Compared with their out-of-school counterparts, young males still enrolled in school were less likely to be sexually active in the last 12 months (0.33, p < 0.05) and less likely to have occasional concurrent sexual partners (0.57, p < 0.10), whereas young females still enrolled in school were more likely to be sexually active (2.25, p < 0.10) and less likely to use contraceptive consistently (0.36, p < 0

  13. Interaction Behaviors of Bilingual Parents With Their Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Kristelle; Rumney, Lisa; Pitt, Nicole; Barbaro, Josephine; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-03-21

    Given concerns that bilingual exposure might confuse children with disabilities-including autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-bilingual parents may restrict exposure to one language, often the community-dominant language. We investigated a potential consequence of this decision; the possibility that non-native language use might influence parental communicative behaviors during interaction with the child. We recruited 39 parent-child dyads, each with a young child with ASD (mostly boys) and parent/carer (mostly mothers). Parents were either monolingual speakers of community-dominant English (n = 20) or bilingual with English as the second language (n = 19). We confirmed our assumption that the latter group would have significantly poorer non-native English language via standardized assessment of expressive vocabulary, and ensured children were matched on age, ASD symptoms, and developmental level. We sampled parent-child interaction-including in each of bilinguals' native and non-native languages-and coded parents' amount and complexity of speech, communicative synchrony, and imitations and expansions of their child's speech. Few differences presented across bilingual parents' native versus non-native language samples, but this group showed reduced synchrony and use of expansions compared to monolinguals. Further, bilinguals' English-language knowledge was associated with self-reported comfort using this language and with two coded interaction measures. These empirical data only partially support qualitative accounts that non-native language use may influence bilingual parents' interaction behaviors with their young children. With growing rates of ASD diagnosis and increasing cultural/linguistic diversity around the world, further dedicated clinical and experimental attention to this issue is clearly warranted.

  14. Food choices of young African-American and Latino adolescents: where do parents fit in?

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie

    2006-11-01

    To gain insight into parents' perceptions of the food preferences of their young adolescents, and their negotiating and decision-making strategies around food purchasing and meals, four focus groups were held with 32 African-American parents and three focus groups with 14 Spanish-dominant, first-generation immigrant Latina mothers. Most participants were of low socioeconomic status and were single parents. Many African-American parents emphasized children's growing appetites and preferences for fast food. Many reported making weekday dinner decisions jointly with the child or allowing the child to eat a lunch-like alternative, and allowing serve-yourself meals on weekends. A few prepared traditional ethnic foods. Latina parents reported that their children liked ethnic foods and fast/junk foods. They emphasized buying foods their children wanted, making no eating restrictions, and preparing traditional ethnic dinners without alternatives. African-American and Latina parents displayed concern over whether to place restrictions on young adolescents' eating. Further research is needed on the ways in which socioeconomic inequalities compound barriers to healthful eating, with particular attention to low income and immigrant populations.

  15. Leaving A Legacy: Parental Migration and School Outcomes Among Young Children in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Asis, Maruja M.B.; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the link between parental migration and young children’s education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children’s school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers –children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962

  16. Young girls' emerging dietary restraint and disinhibition are related to parental control in child feeding.

    PubMed

    Carper, J L; Orlet Fisher, J; Birch, L L

    2000-10-01

    This research investigated the origins of dietary restraint and disinhibition in young girls by considering how parents' control in child feeding and their daughters' perceptions of these practices relate to girls' dietary restraint and disinhibition. Participants were 197 5-year-old girls (4.6-6.4 years) and their parents. Parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Girls' perceptions of parental pressure and restriction were measured using the Kid's Child Feeding Questionnaire, and their restraint and emotional and external disinhibition were measured using an age-appropriate version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine associations among parental control in feeding, daughters' perceptions of control, and daughters' dietary restraint and disinhibition. The results indicated that one-third of 5-year-olds reported moderate levels of dietary restraint, about 25% of the sample showed evidence of emotional disinhibition, and nearly 75% reported externally disinhibited eating in the presence of palatable foods. Daughters' dietary restraint and emotional disinhibition were related to their perceptions of parental pressure to eat more, while their external disinhibition was related to their perceptions of having restrictions placed on their eating. This research reveals that pressure in child feeding is associated with the emergence of dietary restraint and disinhibition among young girls, eating styles characterized by a lack of responsiveness to internal hunger and satiety cues.

  17. Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R; Crosier, Benjamin S; Fisher, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Theory and research on partnered parents suggests trade-offs between parenting and sexuality, with those trade-offs most pronounced among mothers of young children. However, little research has focused on how a growing demographic of single parents negotiates dating and sexual activity. The current study drew upon a 2012 nationally representative sample of 5,481 single Americans 21 years of age and older, of whom 4.3% were parents of a child age five or younger. Dependent variables were sexual thoughts, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners in the past year, dates during the previous three months, and whether one was actively seeking a relationship partner. Covariates included parental age, sex/gender, sexual orientation, education, and income. Using the entire sample of singles, we found no main effects of number (0, 1, 2+) of children aged five years and younger or number of children aged two years and younger on dating and sexual behavior variables. Next, using analyses restricted to single parents (n = 2,121), we found that single parents with a child aged five years or younger, adjusting for covariates, reported greater frequency of sexual activity and first dates but no differences in other outcomes compared with single parents of older children.

  18. The contribution of parents' driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen

    2014-11-01

    One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers.

  19. Parenting young children with and without Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F; Fleming, Kandace

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used a consistent, responsive style with both children, using the same degree of positive affect and warmth. Differences included using more behavior management strategies with the child with Fragile X and a conversational style of interaction with the sibling. Differences in approaches suggest the mothers adapted to the developmental differences between the children. The interview data supported these findings; mothers were aware of the changes made to accommodate the developmental differences.

  20. Parenting Young Children with and without Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Audra M.; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used a consistent, responsive style with both children, using the same degree of positive affect and warmth. Differences included using more behavior management strategies with the child with Fragile X and a conversational style of interaction with the sibling. Differences in approaches suggest the mothers adapted to the developmental differences between the children. The interview data supported these findings; mothers were aware of the changes made to accommodate the developmental differences. PMID:22716262

  1. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Cristin M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms, discussion forums, mobile devices, and video conferencing. Results are described moving from feasibility and acceptability of technology-based delivery systems to more rigorous evaluations examining their impact on parent and child outcomes. Potential exists for technology to deliver interventions to parents. Limitations are discussed including differential acceptability and elevated attrition associated with internet-only intervention delivery. PMID:27773964

  2. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Cristin M; Bierman, Karen L

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms, discussion forums, mobile devices, and video conferencing. Results are described moving from feasibility and acceptability of technology-based delivery systems to more rigorous evaluations examining their impact on parent and child outcomes. Potential exists for technology to deliver interventions to parents. Limitations are discussed including differential acceptability and elevated attrition associated with internet-only intervention delivery.

  3. Differences Between Parents of Young Versus Adult Children Seeking to Participate in Family-to-Family Psychoeducation

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Jones, Amanda; Medoff, Deborah; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parents of individuals with mental illness often play a central role in initiating and supporting their children’s treatment. This study compared psychological symptoms and experiences of parents of younger versus older consumers. Parents were seeking to participate in a family education program for relatives of individuals with mental illness. Methods Domains of caregiving and distress were assessed among parents of youths (N=56), of young adults (N=137), and of adults ≥30 (N=72) who were seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family program. Results Parents of youths endorsed greater burden, difficulties, and emotional distress than parents of young adults, who in turn endorsed greater burden, difficulties, and emotional distress than parents of older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that burden, difficulties, and emotional distress among parents seeking participation in this program may be highest when children with mental health concerns are younger and that the burdens recede as children age. PMID:24492901

  4. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  5. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M

    2015-11-26

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street.

  6. ABC Transporter Subfamily D: Distinct Differences in Behavior between ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 in Subcellular Localization, Function, and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes. On the other hand, ABCD4 is deduced to take part in the transport of vitamin B12 from lysosomes into the cytosol. It is well known that the dysfunction of ABCD1 results in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it is reported that ABCD3 and ABCD4 are responsible for hepatosplenomegaly and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. In this review, the targeting mechanism and physiological functions of the ABCD transporters are summarized along with the related disease. PMID:27766264

  7. Exploring stimulant treatment in ADHD: narratives of young adolescents and their parents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adolescents’ and their parents’ experiences with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its treatment were explored to investigate beliefs and attitudes regarding use of stimulant medication, and their influence on treatment decisions. Methods Using in-depth qualitative interviews, 12 adolescents with ADHD aged 12 – 15 years, and their parents described their experiences of ADHD and its treatment. Twenty four interviews, 12 with adolescents and 12 with their parents elicited detailed descriptions of beliefs about ADHD, attitudes about stimulant use and the circumstances surrounding treatment decisions. Verbatim transcripts were iteratively analyzed by a team of researchers following an interpretive interactionist framework. Results Young people offered three themes describing ADHD: 1) personality trait, 2) physical condition or disorder, and 3) minor issue or concern. Regarding medication use, youth described 1) benefits, 2) changes in sense of self, 3) adverse effects, and 4) desire to discontinue use. Parents’ beliefs were more homogeneous than youth beliefs, describing ADHD as a disorder requiring treatment. Most parents noted benefits from stimulant use. Themes were 1) medication as a last resort, 2) allowing the child to reach his or her potential; and 3) concerns about adverse and long-term effects. Families described how responsibility for treatment decisions is transferred from parent to adolescent over time. Conclusions Young adolescents can have different beliefs about ADHD and attitudes about medication use from their parents. These beliefs and attitudes influence treatment adherence. Incorporating input from young adolescents when making clinical decisions could potentially improve continuity of treatment for youth with ADHD. PMID:24725829

  8. Parental Support in the Development of Young Musicians: A Teacher's Perspective from a Small-Scale Study of Piano Students and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margiotta, Mimia

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of parental support and interactions on the young musicians' learning processes. In an attempt to corroborate the findings of the wider research, a case-study has been carried out comprising observations of 34 parents and 34 piano students taught by the author in three different locations (private studio,…

  9. Parenting Styles, Young Adults' Self-Concepts, and Evaluations of Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; McCluskey, James J.

    1993-01-01

    Research shows that parenting style may strongly influence children's and adolescents' development. The present study reexamined this association, using a sample of 123 midwestern college students enrolled in a human development class. Participants' self-concepts varied directly with the perceived level of warmth displayed by both their fathers…

  10. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  11. Qualitative study of young people's and parents' beliefs about childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Callery, Peter; Milnes, Linda; Verduyn, Chrissie; Couriel, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma continues to be a common childhood chronic illness managed principally in primary care. Self-management requires co-ordinated efforts of young people, carers and health professionals. Non-compliance occurs even when parents are supervising care, suggesting that decisions are made on the basis of beliefs that contrast with professional advice. Health professionals therefore need to understand the views of parents (or other carers) and patients to promote good self-management. Little attention has been given to carers' and young people's perspectives on asthma. AIM: To gain insights into the beliefs of a group of 25 young people aged nine to 16 years old and their carers about asthma and its management. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using conversational-style interviews. SETTING: Generally deprived urban areas of Greater Manchester. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 25 young people with asthma and separately with their carers. The interviews were analysed using the principles and procedures of grounded theory. RESULTS: Carers reported assessing asthma symptoms through observed effects on the child and other family members, including emotions and behaviours that disrupted family life. Young people emphasised the effect of asthma on their everyday lives and in particular the extent to which they appeared different to their peers. Some young people reported continuing symptoms and restrictions of activity that differed widely from the reports of their carers. CONCLUSION: Differences between young people's and carers' criteria for assessment suggest explanations for some 'non-compliant' behaviour. Carers' assessment of asthma severity through the absence of acute attacks is consistent with managing asthma as intermittent acute episodes. Professionals should take account of differences between young people's, carers' and professionals' perceptions of asthma. PMID:14694693

  12. Role Confusion and Disorientation in Young Adult-Parent Interaction Among Individuals With Borderline Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Brumariu, Laura E; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Hennighausen, Katherine; Holmes, Bjarne

    2015-10-01

    Borderline symptoms are thought to emerge from the interaction of temperamental factors and environmental stressors. Both parental invalidation and attachment disorganization have been hypothesized to play an etiological role. However, to date the quality of parent-child interaction has not been observed directly. In this study, 120 young adults were assessed for features of borderline personality disorder on the SCID II, for severity of childhood maltreatment on interview and self-report measures, and for disturbance in parent-child interaction during a videotaped conflict discussion task. Borderline traits, as well as suicidality/self-injury specifically, were associated with more role confusion and more disoriented behavior in interaction with the parent. Among young adults with recurrent suicidality/self-injury, 40% displayed high levels of role confusion compared to 16% of those who were not suicidal. Neither form of disturbed interaction mediated the independent effect of childhood abuse on borderline symptoms. A parent-child transactional model is proposed to account for the findings.

  13. Open Source Solutions for Libraries: ABCD vs Koha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macan, Bojan; Fernandez, Gladys Vanesa; Stojanovski, Jadranka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present an overview of the two open source (OS) integrated library systems (ILS)--Koha and ABCD (ISIS family), to compare their "next-generation library catalog" functionalities, and to give comparison of other important features available through ILS modules. Design/methodology/approach: Two open source…

  14. East Indian Families Raising ABCD Adolescents: Cultural and Generational Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Shruti S.

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…

  15. The Associations of Financial Stress and Parenting Support Factors with Alcohol Behaviors During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawry, Charles; Li, Gu; Conger, Katherine J.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and prospective associations of financial stress (financial strain, lack of financial access, public assistance) and parenting support factors (relationship quality, living at home, financial support) with young adults’ alcohol behaviors (alcohol use, heavy drinking, and problematic drinking) over a 5-year period. Analyses of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data (N = 7,159) showed that, over the study period, alcohol use and heavy drinking declined while problematic drinking increased. In addition, living at home and parental relationship quality were associated with fewer concurrent and prospective alcohol behaviors whereas financial strain and parents’ financial support were associated with more alcohol behaviors. The implications for minimizing alcohol misuse in young adults amid uncertain economic conditions are discussed. PMID:26388681

  16. Young adult sibling relations: the effects of perceived parental favoritism and narcissism.

    PubMed

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined predictors of siblings' relations in 202 young adults (aged 21-32 years), who completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Results indicate that warmth between siblings is explained by gender (with women feeling closer), perceived paternal favoritism, low levels of narcissism, and an interaction suggesting that paternal favoritism moderates the link between narcissism and sibling warmth. Conflict between siblings was explained by gender (sisters), age, parental favoritism, high levels of narcissism, extreme levels of similarity or dissimilarity between siblings, and interactions indicating that older age is a predictor of conflict between siblings among women but not among men. The impact of parental favoritism and narcissism on sibling relationships in young adulthood was discussed.

  17. Links between Adolescents’ Closeness to Adoptive Parents and Attachment Style in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Grant-Marsney, Holly A.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents’ closeness to adoptive parents (APs) predicted attachment styles in close relationships outside their family during young adulthood. In a longitudinal study of domestic infant adoptions, closeness to adoptive mother and adoptive father was assessed in 156 adolescents (M = 15.7 years). Approximately nine years later (M = 25.0 years), closeness to parents was assessed again as well as attachment style in their close relationships. Multilevel modeling was used to predict attachment style in young adulthood from the average and discrepancy of closeness to adolescents’ adoptive mothers and fathers and the change over time in closeness to APs. Less avoidant attachment style was predicted by stronger closeness to both APs during adolescence. Increased closeness to APs over time was related to less anxiety in close relationships. Higher closeness over time to either AP was related to less avoidance and anxiety in close relationships. PMID:25859067

  18. The quality of perceived parenting experienced by a group of Scottish incarcerated young offenders and its relation to psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Biggam, F H; Power, K G

    1998-04-01

    This study utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument [PBI] in a group of 125 incarcerated Scottish young offenders aged 16-21. The study examined the response profiles of young offenders and compared the results to normative data and demographics relating to family and penal experiences. Furthermore, it investigated relationships between parenting style and levels of depression, anxiety and hopelessness experienced during incarceration. Significant differences between the current sample and the normative sample were found. Stepwise regression analyses highlighted the role that parental overprotection plays in any psychological distress experienced during incarceration. The study also considered parental style and discusses the place of Parker's "optimal parenting" style in this particular population. The practical ramifications of these findings are also discussed in relation to the effects that current perceptions of the parenting role has upon the individual's own parenting behaviour.

  19. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be

  20. Predictors of parental stress in mothers of young children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pipp-Siegel, Sandra; Sedey, Allison L; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2002-01-01

    This study examined parental stress in 184 hearing mothers of young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Stress levels were measured in three domains using the short-form of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; Abidin, 1995). Mothers in this study demonstrated significantly less parental distress on the PSI than a normative, hearing group, although this difference was quite small. Differences between the hearing and hearing loss samples did not reach conventional levels of significance for the Dysfunctional Parent-Child Interactions or the Difficult Child subscales. An examination of potential predictors of maternal stress revealed that mothers who perceived their daily hassles as more intense also obtained higher stress ratings on all three subscales. Additional predictors of parental distress were frequency of hassles, social support, and annual family income. Increased stress on the Dysfunctional Parent-Child Interaction subscale was predicted by children who had disabilities in addition to hearing loss, more delayed language relative to their chronological age, and less severe degrees of hearing loss. No additional, significant predictors were obtained for the Difficult Child subscale. When all measured variables were controlled for, characteristics that did not predict maternal stress on any of the three subscales included the child's gender, ethnicity, age of identification, mode of communication used, maternal education, and months between age of identification and child age at the time of observation.

  1. Spanking of young children: do immigrant and U.S.-born Hispanic parents differ?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna

    2015-02-01

    Building on prior research showing fewer parenting risk behaviors and lower levels of harsh punishment among less acculturated Hispanic parents, we tested the hypothesis that foreign-born (FB; immigrant) Hispanic parents use less spanking toward children at 3 years and 5 years of age than U.S.-born Hispanic parents. We also examined whether other indicators of acculturation-endorsement of traditional gender norms and religiosity-showed any direct or indirect effects in explaining the hypothesized association. Path model analyses were conducted with a sample of Hispanic mothers (n = 1,089) and fathers (n = 650). Cross-sectional and time lagged path models controlling for a wide range of psychosocial and demographic confounds indicated that, when compared with U.S.-born Hispanic parents, FB Hispanic mothers and fathers used less spanking toward their young children. In cross-sectional analysis only, mothers' greater endorsement of traditional gender norms had small protective effects on spanking. Although fathers' endorsement of traditional gender norms was not a significant direct predictor of spanking, there was a significant indirect effect of nativity status on spanking mediated by endorsement of traditional gender norms. Religiosity showed no relation to spanking for either mothers or fathers. Immigrant status may be an important protective factor that is associated with lower levels of parenting aggression among Hispanic mothers and fathers living in the United States.

  2. Parent and partner violence in families with young children: rates, patterns, and connections.

    PubMed

    Slep, Amy M Smith; O'Leary, Susan G

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the authors assessed men's and women's partner and parent physical aggression among 453 representatively sampled families with young children. The prevalences of partner aggression and of severe parent aggression were higher than previously reported. Substantial rates of co-occurrence were found. Risk ratios and regression analyses indicated that connections between (a) husbands' and wives' partner aggression and (b) mothers' and fathers' parent aggression were especially strong. Patterns of co-occurrence pointed to the probable relative importance of family-level, in comparison with individual, predictors of aggression. Patterns of co-occurring violence are described in light of the theoretical literature. Implications for studying family violence in community samples are discussed.

  3. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  4. A pilot study of parent training in young children with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-04-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional sessions. The program was acceptable to parents as evidenced by an attendance rate of 84 % for Core sessions. Fourteen of 16 families completed the treatment. An independent clinician rated 14 of 16 subjects as much improved or very much improved at Week 24. Using last observation carried forward, the parent-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale decreased 54 % from 16.00 (SD = 9.21) to 7.38 (SD = 6.15).

  5. Child-Directed Interaction Training for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and Child Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ginn, Nicole C; Clionsky, Leah N; Eyberg, Sheila M; Warner-Metzger, Christina; Abner, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of the Child-Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) phase of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Thirty mother-child dyads with children ages 3-7 years with a diagnosis of ASD participated in this randomized controlled study. Following manualized CDIT, statistically significant and meaningful improvements in child disruptive behavior and social awareness as well as maternal distress associated with child disruptive behavior occurred. Across 8 sessions, mothers learned to provide positive attention to their children's appropriate social and play behaviors. Both child and parent changes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. A relatively brief, time-limited, and accessible intervention may be efficacious for improving child and parent behaviors in families of young children with ASD. By decreasing child disruptive behaviors, CDIT may also help to prepare children to benefit further from future interventions.

  6. The ferrous iron transporter FtrABCD is required for the virulence of Brucella abortus 2308 in mice.

    PubMed

    Elhassanny, Ahmed E M; Anderson, Eric S; Menscher, Evan A; Roop, R Martin

    2013-06-01

    Iron transport has been linked to the virulence of Brucella strains in both natural and experimental hosts. The genes designated BAB2_0837-0840 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence are predicted to encode a CupII-type ferrous iron transporter homologous to the FtrABCD transporter recently described in Bordetella. To study the role of the Brucella FtrABCD in iron transport, an isogenic ftrA mutant was constructed from B. abortus 2308. Compared with the parental strain, the B. abortus ftrA mutant displays a decreased capacity to use non-haem iron sources in vitro, a growth defect in a low iron medium that is enhanced at pH 6, and studies employing radiolabelled FeCl3 confirmed that FtrABCD transports ferrous iron. Transcription of the ftrA gene is induced in B. abortus 2308 in response to iron deprivation and exposure to acid pH, and similar to other Brucella iron acquisition genes that have been examined the iron-responsiveness of ftrA is dependent upon the iron response regulator Irr. The B. abortus ftrA mutant exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, supporting the proposition that ferrous iron is a critical iron source for these bacteria in the mammalian host.

  7. The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rosalyn D.; Luo, Feijun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between parental incarceration history and young adult physical and mental health outcomes using Wave 1 and Wave 4 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. METHODS: Dependent variables included self-reported fair/poor health and health diagnoses. The independent variable was parental incarceration history. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were run. RESULTS: Positive, significant associations were found between parental incarceration and 8 of 16 health problems (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, cholesterol, asthma, migraines, HIV/AIDS, and fair/poor health) in adjusted logistic regression models. Those who reported paternal incarceration had increased odds of 8 mental and physical health problems, whereas those who reported maternal incarceration had increased odds of depression. For paternal incarceration, with the exception of HIV/AIDS, larger associations were found for mental health (odds ratios range 1.43–1.72) as compared with physical health (odds ratios range 1.26–1.31) problems. The association between paternal incarceration and HIV/AIDs should be interpreted with caution because of the low sample prevalence of HIV/AIDs. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests exposure to parental incarceration in childhood is associated with health problems in young adulthood. Extant literature suggests underlying mechanisms that link parental incarceration history to poor outcomes in offspring may include the lack of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and exposure to violence. To prevent poor health in offspring of the incarcerated, additional studies are needed to (1) confirm the aforementioned associations and (2) assess whether adverse experiences and violence exposure in childhood mediate the relationship between parental incarceration history and offspring health problems. PMID:23509174

  8. Parenting, SES-Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of opposing indirect effects via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from age 11 to age 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health whereas elevated SES-risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genomewide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood (age 19), was associated with both SES-risk and protective parenting. Three categories of genes were identified whose methylation was associated with parenting, SES-risk, and young adult health. Methylation was a significant mediator of the impact of parenting and SES-risk on young adult health. Variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was also examined and controlled, showing that it did not account for observed effects of parenting and SES-risk on health. PMID:26822447

  9. The Relationship of Parental Warm Responsiveness and Negativity to Emerging Behavior Problems following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy; Walz, Nicolay C.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2011-01-01

    Parenting behaviors play a critical role in the child's behavioral development, particularly for children with neurological deficits. This study examined the relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to changes in behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children relative to an age-matched cohort of children with…

  10. Longitudinal Study of Parents' Impact on Quality of Life of Children and Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Jane M.; Nieboer, Anna P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Earlier research has distinguished five domains of Quality of life (QoL) for people with ID: material well-being, development and activity, physical well-being, social well-being, and emotional well-being. We investigated parents' perspectives on these domains and QoL for children and young adults with ID and hypothesized that parents'…

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Treatment of Separation Anxiety Disorder in Young Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Molly L.; Pincus, Donna B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Barlow, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that Parent-Child Interaction therapy (PCIT) works to improve the child's behavior by changing the child-parent interaction. PCIT has been effective in treating disruptive behavior in young children. This article describes a pilot study to apply PCIT to the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD). A multiple-baseline…

  12. Perspective of Parents and Caregivers on the Influence of Full-Time Day-Care Attendance on Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Drugli, May Britt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of parents and caregivers regarding young children in day care. The tiredness of children after day-care attendance was explored. In the autumn of 2009, 41 parents and 35 caregivers of children aged 1.5 years or younger living in the city of Trondheim and nearby communities were assessed using a…

  13. "Talk, Talk and More Talk": Parental Perceptions of Young Children's Information Practices Related to Their Hobbies and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriage, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article explores parental perceptions of young children's everyday life information practices related to their hobbies and interests. Method: Thirty-one parents of children between the ages of four and eight years old completed a survey about their children's hobbies and interests. Questions were related to the nature of the…

  14. An Analysis of Classroom-Based and Parent-Focused Social-Emotional Programs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Steed, Elizabeth A.; Strain, Phillip; Dunlap, Glen; Powell, Diane; Payne, Crystal J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a comprehensive and updated review of available classroom and parenting social-emotional programs for young children. The review analyzed 10 classroom curricula and 8 parenting interventions focused on social-emotional development and the research associated with each. The efficacious adoption criteria…

  15. Changes in Parental Involvement in Secondary Education: An Exploration Study Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaliotis, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research on parental involvement in children's education often makes the assumption that levels of involvement remain fixed over time. This paper highlights evidence from a longitudinal study that half of parents of young people in Year 9 reported becoming more or less involved in their child's school life over a two-year period and…

  16. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of…

  17. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads…

  18. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  19. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Postdeployment Parenting Intervention for Service Members and Their Families With Very Young Children.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Ellen R; Paris, Ruth; Emmert-Aronson, Ben; Ross, Abigail; Acker, Michelle

    2016-10-06

    Objective: Parenting through the deployment cycle presents unique stressors for military families. To date, few evidence-based and military-specific parenting programs are available to support parenting through cycles of deployment separation and reintegration, especially for National Guard/Reserve members. The purpose of this research was to test the efficacy of a parenting program developed specifically to support military families during reintegration. Method: Within 1 year of returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq, 115 service members with very young children were randomly assigned to receive either the Strong Families Strong Forces Parenting Program at baseline or after a 12-week waiting period. Using a home-based modality, service members, at-home parents, and their young child were assessed at baseline, 3 months posttreatment/wait period, and 6 months from baseline. Results: Service member parents in Strong Families evidenced greater reductions in parenting stress and mental health distress relative to those in the waitlist comparison group. Service members with more posttraumatic stress symptoms reported higher levels of perceived parental efficacy in the intervention group than service members in the comparison group. Intervention also resulted in enhanced parental reflective capacity, including increased curiosity and interest in the young child among those in the intervention group relative to comparison. Conclusion: Service member parents and their spouses demonstrated high interest in participating in a postdeployment parenting program targeting families with very young children. Findings point to the feasibility, appeal, and efficacy of Strong Families in this initial trial and suggest promise for implementation in broader military and community service systems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects on young adults (23 years) of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence using data from Britain's longitudinal National Child Development study. Found that divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on young adults' mental health; the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of…

  1. Improved Speech Following Parent-Delivered Qigong Massage in Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Schalock, Mark; Williams, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Qigong massage is an eastern form of massage that can be delivered by western parents to their children with appropriate training and support. It has been shown to improve developmental measures in young children with autism when given daily for five months. A recent trial evaluating its effect on motor development in young children with Down…

  2. Saving Time and Money in Michigan: Peter J. Young Talks about Professional Development, Parent Communication, Funding, and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Peter J. Young, Director of Technology at Rockford Public Schools in Michigan. In the interview, Young talked about how his district has done a lot more automation to integrate its disparate systems. He also discussed how they streamline their systems, how parents and community benefit from these efforts,…

  3. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile.

  4. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence.

  5. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship.

  6. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  7. Parents' Attitudes to Risk and Injury to Children and Young People on Farms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Children and young people growing up in a farm environment run a greater risk of being injured or dying in an accident than their non-farming counterparts. This study examines farming parents’ attitudes and experiences of having their children grow up on farms, one of the most dangerous work environments as their home, everyday environment and playground. Method Data were collected using two ethnological methods, a question list and interviews, with a study population of 20 parents. The data were analysed phenomenologically. Results The analysis pursued four themes: i) the most dangerous places and situations on the farm; ii) children’s tasks on the farm; iii) children as a safety risk on the farm; and iv) farm risk education for children. Conclusions Most parents know the risks on their farm, but are sometimes careless when working under stress or exhaustion. Some parents wanted more information and some wanted compulsory preventative or safety measures by manufacturers, e.g. a safety belt as standard on the extra seat in tractors. Children’s friends were described as one of the greatest risks for injury due to peer pressure. Some parents mentioned that people who grow up on farms are sometimes ‘blind’ to the dangers. Other parents seemed to overlook the risks and had their children carrying out tasks for which they were not mentally or physically equipped. Some of the tasks the children reportedly carried out on farms contravened Swedish legislation. It is thus important for farming parents to be repeatedly reminded of the risks to their children and to increase their awareness of how to prevent and eliminate risks in order to avoid accidents on the farm. The situation for farm children is highlighted in a critical discussion. PMID:27362751

  8. Association of Parental Depression with Psychiatric Course from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Formerly Depressed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Seeley, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether parental major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with course of depression and other psychopathology among formerly depressed adolescents as they enter adulthood. The sample consisted of 244 individuals (age 24) in a longitudinal study who had experienced MDD by 19. Maternal MDD was associated with MDD recurrence, chronicity, and severity, anxiety disorders, and (among sons only) lower psychosocial functioning in offspring between 19–24. Paternal MDD was associated with lower functioning. Sons of depressed fathers had elevated suicidal ideation and attempt rates in young adulthood. Recurrent paternal MDD was associated with depression recurrence in daughters but not sons. The impact of parental MDD on offspring could not be attributed to characteristics of the offspring’s depression prior to 19. PMID:16117578

  9. Adolescent Antecedents of High-Risk Driving Behavior in Young Adulthood: Substance Use and Parental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Jean T.; Waller, Patricia F.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Patil, Sujata M.

    1999-01-01

    Driver history data, in combination with previous tenth-grade questionnaire data, for 4,403 subjects were analyzed by Poisson regression models to identify the significant substance use and parental characteristics predicting subsequent high-risk driving of new drivers through age 23–24 years. Substance use (cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol) reported at age 15 was shown to be an important predictor of subsequent excess risk of serious offenses and serious crashes for both men and women. In addition, negative parental influences (permissive attitudes toward young people’s drinking; low monitoring, nurturance, family connectedness), were also demonstrated to increase the risk of serious offenses and serious crashes for both men and women.

  10. Young Adults’ Roles as Partners and Parents in a Context of Family Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Bzostek, Sharon H.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, as well as to describe how these estimates have changed across cohorts. It then draws from identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles which young adults are likely to occupy—both over their life course and at a single point in time—may influence inter- and intra-family (unit) relationships in light of current trends in family complexity. This discussion highlights four key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity, and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research to explore, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Implications for public policy are also discussed. PMID:25641975

  11. Young Adults' Roles as Partners and Parents in a Context of Family Complexity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence M; Bzostek, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    This article uses data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, as well as to describe how these estimates have changed across cohorts. It then draws from identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles which young adults are likely to occupy-both over their life course and at a single point in time-may influence inter- and intra-family (unit) relationships in light of current trends in family complexity. This discussion highlights four key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity, and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research to explore, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Implications for public policy are also discussed.

  12. Preventing rapid repeat pregnancy and promoting positive parenting among young mothers in foster care.

    PubMed

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Murray, Kantahyanee W; O'Connor, Julia M; Rushovich, Berenice R; Dixon, Desyree A; Barth, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers in foster care face considerable challenges above and beyond that of their non-foster care peers. Child welfare workers have few resources to guide them in the selection of evidence-informed programs, models, and strategies that address the unique risk factors and needs of youth in foster care who are at risk for rapid repeat pregnancy and inadequate parenting practices. Workers need knowledge of the evidence about which programs are most likely to improve key health and well-being outcomes. The article assesses the evidence-based programs identified and yields a list that reflects the best evidence for efficacy and effectiveness.

  13. Adapting parent-child interaction therapy to treat anxiety disorders in young children.

    PubMed

    Puliafico, Anthony C; Comer, Jonathan S; Pincus, Donna B

    2012-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children 7 years and younger; however, these children generally do not possess developmental skills required in cognitive behavior treatment. Recent efforts have adapted parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), originally developed for disruptive and noncompliant behavior, for young children with anxiety. This article reviews the principles underlying PCIT and the rationale for adapting it to target anxiety symptoms. The authors describe two related treatment approaches that have modified PCIT to treat anxiety: (1) Pincus and colleagues' treatment for separation anxiety, and (2) Puliafico, Comer, and Albano's CALM Program for the range of early child anxiety disorders.

  14. Resistance to Cry Intensive Sleep Intervention in Young Children: Are We Ignoring Children’s Cries or Parental Concerns?

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Etherton, Hayley; Hauck, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The majority of behavioural sleep interventions for young children (defined as 5 years of age or less) involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child’s cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties implementing and maintaining these procedures, leading to attrition, non-compliance and treatment avoidance. Yet the reasons for these methods being difficult to implement for parents have not been well understood or addressed in the literature. In fact, they are being ignored. We discuss that understanding and addressing parental concerns may enable better targeted sleep interventions. PMID:27417246

  15. Knowing What to Do and Being Able to Do It: Influences on Parent Choice and Use of Practices to Support Young People Living with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Honey, Anne; Chesterman, Sarah; Hancock, Nicola; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Hazell, Philip; Clarke, Simon

    2015-10-01

    A parent's response to a young person's mental illness can influence their recovery and wellbeing. Many parents devote considerable time and energy to supporting a young person experiencing mental illness and engage in numerous different practices to do so. Yet little is known about why parents use particular practices. This article explores this question through qualitative analysis of parent perspectives. Interviews with 32 parents of young people living with mental illness were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Findings suggest that parents' choice of and ability to carry out particular practices are shaped by: their knowledge and beliefs; their personal resources and constraints; and their social and service networks. Further, parents took active measures to optimize these influences. By understanding the complexity of their own potential influence on both knowing what to do and being able to do it, health professionals can better enable parents to support young adults experiencing mental illness.

  16. Relationships between Young Children in Full-Time Day Care and Their Caregivers: A Qualitative Study of Parental and Caregiver Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Mari Undheim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We studied the quality of caregiver-child relationships from the perspectives of parents and caregivers of young children in full-time day care. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged two years or younger (22 boys and 19 girls) in day care, and 35 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed. Parents and caregivers…

  17. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368

  18. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations.

  19. 'I'm fine doing it on my own': partnerships between young people and their parents in the management of medication for asthma and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Newbould, Jennifer; Smith, Felicity; Francis, Sally-Anne

    2008-06-01

    Recent UK policy has highlighted the importance of a young person's family in their care and the need for health professionals to work in partnership with young people and their parents. This research provides health professionals with an insight into how the responsibilities for different aspects of medicine management are shared between young people and their parents in the home. It highlights the dynamic nature of partnerships between parents and young people and the considerable role of young people in medicine management in the home, which contrasts with their more limited involvement in consultations with health care professionals. The findings are based on semi-structured interviews conducted in the participants' own homes, with 69 young people aged 8-15 years (43 young people with asthma; 26 young people with diabetes) and their parents (138 interviews in total), recruited through general practice (GP) surgeries.

  20. HIV Prevention with Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: Parents Know and Parents Matter; Is it Time to Develop Family-Based Programs for This Vulnerable Population?

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian; Donenberg, Geri

    2008-01-01

    We examined the potential for a family-based HIV prevention approach for gay and bisexually-identified young men who have sex with men (MSM). The majority of our urban, ethnically-diverse sample disclosed their sexual orientation to parents, who were generally supportive. Family connectedness significantly decreased the odds of an HIV positive status. PMID:18639797

  1. Parental attachment, premorbid personality, and mental health in young males with hyperventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bih-Ching; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Lee, Fei-Yin; Tzeng, Don-Seng; Lin, Hsuan-Yin; Lung, For-Wey

    2007-10-31

    The aim of the study was to examine the predisposing and precipitating factors in the development of hyperventilation syndrome in males during military training in Taiwan. The participants included 110 young males who visited the emergency room of a teaching hospital in southern Taiwan because of an episode of acute hyperventilation during military training. Another 53 males, who had the same military training, and who did not experience hyperventilation or any psychiatric symptoms, were recruited as the control group. The risk of hyperventilation syndrome was increased by the following factors: greater neuroticism, less extraversion, parental overprotection, and less parental caring. A final parsimonious structural equation model showed a cause-effect relationship between the direct effects of maternal overprotection and introversion and the individual's neurotic characteristics, which contributed to the individual's current mental health status and the development of hyperventilation syndrome. Military training could be a precipitating factor in the development of hyperventilation syndrome in young males. The elucidation of these factors may contribute to the understanding and treatment of hyperventilation syndrome. The determination of competing risk factors and mediating effects in males with hyperventilation syndrome should be considered in future studies.

  2. The relation between remembered parental acceptance in childhood and self-acceptance among young Turkish adults.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Behire; Rohner, Ronald P

    2016-05-11

    This study examined the relation between young adults' age and remembrances of parental acceptance in childhood, and their current self-acceptance. The study was based on a sample of 236 young adults in Turkey (139 women and 97 men). The adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire for mothers and fathers along with the Self-Acceptance subscale of the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and the Personal Information Form were used as measures. Results showed that both men and women tended to remember having been accepted in childhood by both their mothers and fathers. Women, however, reported more maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood than did men. Similarly, the level of self-acceptance was high among both men and women. However, women's self-acceptance was higher than men's. Correlational analyses showed that self-acceptance was positively related to remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance among both women and men. Results indicated that age and remembered paternal acceptance significantly predicted women's self-acceptance. Age and remembered maternal acceptance made significant and independent contributions to men's self-acceptance. Men's remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood did not make significant contribution to their self-acceptance. Finally, the relation between women's age and self-acceptance was significantly moderated by remembrances of paternal acceptance in childhood.

  3. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  4. Transferring young people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities from pediatric to adult medical care: parents' experiences and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G C B; van Staa, Anneloes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V P M; Hilberink, Sander R

    2013-06-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16-26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two percent of the young persons were still in pediatric care; 22% of the others had no care coordinator, although their health needs were the same. Parents valued the care provided by the pediatrician, and wished to see it continued. They were critical about how they had been prepared for transfer to adult care. Parents provided suggestions to improve transitional care, such as early start, information provision, and a joint consultation between pediatric and adult care.

  5. Divorce is a part of my life... resilience, survival, and vulnerability: young adults' perception of the implications of parental divorce.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Avidan, Dorit; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Greenbaum, Charles W

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study among 22 young adults (20-25 years old) whose parents divorced during their childhood was conducted in Israel, using semi-structured, in-depth, open-ended interviews. Qualitative data analysis led to identification of three profiles, aiming at a grounded theoretical conceptualization. Three core themes were identified: the centrality of the family; short- and long-term implications of parental divorce and its relations to supportive coping resources; and perspective at young adulthood. Further analysis led to typifying participants by three profiles, which represent the grounded theoretical conceptualizations: resilience, survival, and vulnerability. The most prominent difference among the profiles was the relationships between participants and their parents, and their perception of ongoing parental responsibility. A thorough discussion of the results and their implications for future research, theory development, and practice are presented.

  6. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  7. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households☆

    PubMed Central

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent–child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood. PMID:24932068

  8. "Now I Know My ABCDs": Asset-Based Community Development with School Children in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Butterfield, Alice K.; Yeneabat, Mulu; Moxley, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Asset-based community development (ABCD) is a promising practice for communities to engage in self-determination through the efforts residents invest in identifying community assets, framing and documenting the issues communities face, and taking action to advance quality of life. The ABCD literature does not report on the application of ABCD…

  9. Initial efficacy of project ImPACT: a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Wainer, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Project ImPACT is a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD that was developed in community settings to encourage dissemination. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was conducted across 8 preschoolers with ASD and their mothers to examine the efficacy of the model for improving parent intervention fidelity and child spontaneous language. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the relationship between parent fidelity and child language within session. All parents increased their use of the intervention techniques. Improvements in spontaneous use of language targets were observed for 6 of the 8 children. There was a significant association between parents' use of the intervention strategies and their child's spontaneous language use.

  10. SECURE BASE SCRIPT CONTENT EXPLAINS THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT AVOIDANCE AND EMOTION-RELATED CONSTRUCTS IN PARENTS OF YOUNG CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Jessica L; Burkhart, Margaret L; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Brody, Robin; Sbarra, David A

    2017-03-01

    The secure base script (SBS) framework is one method of assessing implicit internal working models of attachment; recently, researchers have applied this method to analyze narratives regarding relationship experiences. This study examines the associations between attachment avoidance and SBS content when parents recall a positive moment of connection between themselves and their children (relational savoring) as well as their association with parental emotion and reflective functioning (RF). Using a sample of parents (N = 155, 92% female) of young children (53% boys, Mage = 12.76 months), we found that parental attachment avoidance is inversely associated with SBS content during relational savoring, and that SBS content is an indirect effect explaining the association between attachment avoidance and postsavoring (positive and negative) emotion as well as avoidance and poststressor RF. Findings have implications for understanding attachment and parenting.

  11. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  12. Dialing for help: state telephone hotlines as vital resources for parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Booth, Meg; Brown, Treeby; Richmond-Crum, Malia

    2004-11-01

    Toll-free telephone hotlines operated by the states are increasingly being used by families to obtain reliable advice on their young children's health and well-being. Originally created for prenatal-care assistance alone, these lines now cover a wide range of early-childhood issues. But while the majority of the lines deliver high-quality information, promptly and empathetically, to their callers, there is still considerable room for improvement. For example, greater use could be made of experts in early-childhood services, and of knowledgeable parents, for speaking with callers and training other staff. The lines could also be made more easily accessible in several ways: through the national 800 number for childhood issues, via the more general 2-1-1 number for community-based services, and by means of a Web site for each line so that it could serve its audience at virtually any time of the day or night.

  13. The evolution of melanoma diagnosis: 25 years beyond the ABCDs.

    PubMed

    Rigel, Darrell S; Russak, Julie; Friedman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in lowering mortality from this cancer. Recognizing the importance of this issue 25 years ago, our group at New York University published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians the mnemonic "ABCD" to facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma. Studies have demonstrated the usefulness of this paradigm in enhancing early melanoma diagnosis as a part of clinical examinations, mass screenings, and public education programs. Approaches to melanoma diagnosis have dynamically evolved during the ensuing quarter century. In the 1990s, dermoscopy enabled the recognition of new subsurface features to differentiate between malignant and benign pigmented lesions. During the last decade, new computer-based technologies have improved diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and may result in optimizing lesion selection for biopsy and pathology review. Despite all of the advances in melanoma diagnosis, timely recognition, detection, and rapid treatment of melanoma remain critical. Although pathologic examination remains the gold standard for diagnosis, this cancer has the potential to be diagnosed through noninvasive approaches because of its cutaneous location. From the development of the ABCDs through current attempts that use complex computer algorithms and genetic markers, a clinician's ability to detect melanoma in its earliest form has been augmented. However, a "good clinical eye" is still fundamental to selecting the lesions for evaluation among the sea of those that are prevalent. As current approaches are refined and new techniques are developed, the improved ability to diagnose this cancer will hopefully enhance reaching the goal of reducing melanoma mortality.

  14. "Religious Parents... Just Want the Best for Their Kids": Young People's Perspectives on the Influence of Religious Beliefs on Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Janet; Horwath, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Challenging some of the current predominantly negative representations of the effects of religion on young people requires further research into faith and family life, particularly from the perspective of young people themselves. This article presents a preliminary report of a study of 40 young people, mostly Christians and Muslims, aged 13-15…

  15. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age.

  16. Developmental Outcomes of Toddlers of Young Latina Mothers: Cultural, Family, and Parenting Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N.; Silberman, Stephanie G.; Wood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage = 17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers’ cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers’ display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26454205

  17. Perceived parental protection and cortisol responses among young females with borderline personality disorder and controls.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Choi-Kain, Lois; Pechtel, Pia; Bertha, Eszter; Gunderson, John

    2011-10-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with deviations in cortisol in response to interpersonal stressors. Identifying mechanisms contributing to such deviations may help to address emotional dysregulation and the increased risk of self-destructive behavior. While dysfunctional relationships to caregivers have been widely reported among individuals with BPD, their contribution to cortisol hyperresponsiveness has yet to be investigated. Fifty-one females (aged 18-24years) participated to assess the impact of BPD and the quality of protective care in mother-daughter relationships on stress responsiveness. Seventeen females with BPD and twenty females without BPD participated with their mothers in a videotaped parent-young adult conflict discussion. Fourteen non-BPD females without their mothers were assessed for cortisol levels without stress exposure. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at lab entry and 20 and 40min after the onset of the discussion. Results revealed a higher overall cortisol response in the BPD group upon lab entry. BPD participants reported less experienced protection in the mother-daughter relationship which was associated with higher cortisol levels on lab entry and higher distress at study end. Results point to the perceived quality of parental protection as likely to modulate the activity of the stress response system among BPD patients.

  18. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    PubMed

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  19. Moderators of Parent Training for Disruptive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi; Aman, Michael G; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Deng, Yanhong; Dziura, James; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-12-05

    We conducted a 6 month, randomized trial of parent training (PT) versus a parent education program (PEP) in 180 young children (158 boys, 22 girls), ages 3-7 years, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PT was superior to PEP in decreasing disruptive and noncompliant behaviors. In the current study, we assess moderators of treatment response in this trial. Thirteen clinical and demographic variables were evaluated as potential moderators of three outcome variables: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale (ABC-I), Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ), and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (CGI-I). We used an intent-to-treat model and random effects regression. Neither IQ nor ASD severity moderated outcome on the selected outcome measures. Severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety moderated outcomes on the ABC-I and HSQ. For instance, there was a 6.6 point difference on the ABC-I between high and low ADHD groups (p = .05) and a 5.3 point difference between high and low Anxiety groups (p = .04). Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms and household income moderated outcomes on the HSQ. None of the baseline variables moderated outcome on the CGI-I. That IQ and ASD symptom severity did not moderate outcome suggests that PT is likely to benefit a wide range of children with ASD and disruptive behavior.

  20. Media Culture and Media Violence: Making the Television Work for Young Children, Early Childhood Educators, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of television on young children, with a special emphasis on the relationship among TV, childhood, and violence, and on developmentally appropriate television. Further, the paper provides strategies for parents and early childhood educators to use in taking control of the television. The paper is…

  1. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  2. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  3. Exploring the Attitudes of Parents of Young Children with Autism Towards the TEACCH Conceptual Model: A Narrative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Natalie Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the attitudes of parents of young children with autism towards the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children Program's (TEACCH) conceptual model, known as the Culture of Autism. One primary research question guided the study: What are the attitudes of…

  4. Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasyad, Ach.

    2015-01-01

    This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…

  5. Parent Perceptions of Audiology and Speech-Language Services and Support for Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss are selecting cochlear implants at an increasing rate and when their children are very young. Audiologists and speech-language pathologists are typically involved in habilitation activities following implantation in an effort to increase children's access to listening…

  6. Is Parental Divorce a Critical Stressor for Young Adolescents? Grade Point Average as a Case in Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Bryan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined pre- and postdivorce effects on academic functioning of young adolescents (n=58). Boys from subsequently divorcing families had significantly poorer academic functioning prior to parents' divorce than did boys from intact families and girls from divorcing families. Girls from subsequently divorcing families showed decline in academic…

  7. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  8. Developing biographies: the experiences of children, young people and their parents of living with a long-term condition.

    PubMed

    Bray, Lucy; Kirk, Sue; Callery, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This article reports on data from a qualitative interview study that sought to understand the experiences, choices and actions of children and young people undergoing surgery for a long-term condition and that of their parents. Using the concept of biography the article examines how the biographies of children, young people and their parents can be influenced by surgery and the ongoing management of a long-term continence condition. This article challenges previous work that characterises the presence of a condition from birth as a continuous and normal part of the illness experiences of these patients. Although this may be the case in some instances, children, young people and their parents can experience diverse and changing experiences associated with ongoing condition management as well as surgery. Biographical continuity, enrichment and disruption are all relevant concepts for such patients living with a long-term continence condition. These can be influenced by their previous experiences of their condition, their expectations, and dynamics with parents, including changes associated with development and the increasing independence of young people.

  9. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  10. Internet-Based Intervention Training for Parents of Young Children with Disabilities: A Promising Service-Delivery Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Daczewitz, Marcus E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient early intervention (EI) services are required to serve the needs of young children with disabilities and the needs of their families. Effective EI includes family-centred practices, evidence-based interventions, parent involvement/training, and delivery in children's natural environments. Due to the challenges of providing…

  11. A New Parenting-Based Group Intervention for Young Anxious Children: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; McNally, Deb; Field, Andy P.; Rust, Stewart; Laskey, Ben; Dixon, Clare; Gallagher, Bridie; Harrington, Richard; Miller, Chloe; Pemberton, Kathryn; Symes, Wendy; White, Caroline; Woodham, Adrine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite recent advances, there are still no interventions that have been developed for the specific treatment of young children who have anxiety disorders. This study examined the impact of a new, cognitive-behaviorally based parenting intervention on anxiety symptoms. Method: Families of 74 anxious children (aged 9 years or less) took…

  12. Parent Involvement in Meaningful Post-School Experiences for Young Adults with IDD and Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi; Lederer, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Despite initiatives supporting young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to engage in post-secondary education and integrated employment, those with more intensive support needs are not as easily involved in these post-school experiences. In an effort to learn from positive examples, we examined parent involvement in…

  13. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  14. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  15. Test-retest reliability and comparison of children's reports with parents' reports of young children's fruit and vegetable preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of a short computerized assessment of young children's fruit (F) and vegetable (V) preferences, and to compare children's responses with their parents' responses. A paper-and-pencil F and V preference and F and V food frequency ques...

  16. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  17. Barriers to Success in Parent Training for Young Children with Developmental Delay: The Role of Cumulative Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Graziano, Paulo A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to…

  18. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall.

  19. Parents' experiences with physical and occupational therapy for their young child with cerebral palsy: a mixed studies review.

    PubMed

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, A J A; Ketelaar, M; Boeije, H; Jongmans, M J; Gorter, J W; Verheijden, J; Lindeman, E; Verschuren, O

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the experiences of parents with their child's intervention might help meet the needs of parents and, subsequently get them engaged in their child's intervention. As parents' early beliefs regarding their child's intervention has consequences for treatment participation, it is important to understand these parental perspectives. The aim of this mixed studies review was to give an overview of the experiences and related factors of parents of young children (0-5 years of age) with cerebral palsy in relation to the physical and/or occupational therapy of their child in a rehabilitation setting. The literature was searched systematically for qualitative and quantitative studies published between January 1990 and July 2011. Inclusion criteria were (1) the study population consisted of parents of children with cerebral palsy, with at least 25% of children under the age of five; (2) children had received physical and/or occupational therapy in a rehabilitation setting; and (3) the experiences of the parents with their child's therapy were addressed. Data were synthesized with the framework synthesis method resulting in a conceptual framework describing the factors that are related to the parents' experiences with their child's interventions. A total of 13 studies (eight qualitative and five quantitative) were included and evaluated. Parents expressed various aspects in context, process and outcomes when asked about their experiences with their child's intervention. They had different needs over time and needed time to build a collaborative relationship with their child's therapists. The proposed framework acknowledges the various aspects in context, process and outcomes that parents reported when asked about their experiences. Knowing this, the importance of the broader context of the child in a family should be acknowledged; realizing the impact that the demands of daily life, supports and resources provided to parents, attitudes in the community and culture

  20. Attention problems and parent-rated behavior and stress in young children at risk for developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Raymond C

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize the neurobehavior of young children at risk for developmental delay and attention problems. Two hundred and eighty-one children, ages 18 to 70 months, were evaluated. All parents/guardians completed the Child Development Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½ to 5, Inventory for Client and Agency Planning, and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. All children had significant delays (developmental ratios <.70). A Mann-Whitney U test compared those with and without attention problems (T score >70). A 2-tailed P value of <.05 indicated statistical significance. Children with attention problems were more likely to have withdrawn behavior, sleep problems, and aggressive behavior. All had severe problem behaviors, and their families experienced significant stress. Attention problems and other serious problem behaviors occur frequently in young children at risk for developmental delay. Parental stress warrants prompt intervention for their children and positive supports for them.

  1. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  2. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  3. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  4. The development of satisfaction with service-related choices for disabled young people with degenerative conditions: evidence from parents' accounts.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Jane; Beresford, Bryony

    2012-07-01

    Satisfaction with service-related choices has not received much research attention, especially beyond medical/health-related decisions. This paper reports findings from an analysis of parents' accounts of making service-related choices with, or on behalf of, a disabled son or daughter with a degenerative condition. It focuses particularly on factors and processes, which contribute to parents' satisfaction. This is particularly interesting given that sub-optimal outcomes or negative consequences are often experienced following a service-related choice being implemented. The data reported here were collected as part of a larger, longitudinal study (the Choice and Change project) of service users' experiences of choice-making, including the outcomes and consequences of those choices. Parents of disabled young people with degenerative conditions formed part of this sample. The accounts of 14 of these parents, collected over three interviews during a two and a half-year period, all of whom expressed satisfaction with the medium- to long-term outcomes of a service-related choice, were selected for specific analyses to understand what underlies satisfaction with service-related choices. Clarity of the desired outcome for the young person supported effective decision-making and led parents to feel confident that the best possible choice was being made. Evidence of desired outcomes being attained were used by parents to 'trade off' the negative consequences of a choice. These included the considerable demands placed on parents' personal, financial and practical resources to operationalise a choice, and the emotional impact incurred by significant changes such as the loss of the carer role. The passage of time was important in allowing evidence of positive outcomes to emerge, psychological or emotional adjustments to be made, and for parents to develop trust in new service providers. The findings suggest that practitioners can have an important role in both practical and

  5. Motivational Values, Parental Influences and the Experience of Discrimination among Romanian and Moroccan Young Immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Pablo; Clemente, Miguel; Uña, Octavio

    2016-11-08

    This study examines the role that motivational values play in the experience of discrimination in young immigrants in Spain and how this role is mediated by parental values. Participants in the study were 193 dyads of pre-adolescent to young adult first and second generation immigrants and one of their parents. All participants were either of Moroccan or Romanian ascent, the two largest immigrant groups in Spain. The proposed SEM model had an adequate fit, χ2(2, N = 193) = 2.272, p = .321, RMSEA = .027, CFI = .999, NFI = .994, and yielded a large R 2, both for the Moroccan group (R 2 = .79, p < .01), and the Romanian group (R 2 = .80, p < .01). It showed that the value dimension openness to change vs. conservation is positively related to their experience of discrimination (β = .35, p < .01, for Moroccans group; and β = .29, p < .001, for Romanians). This relationship was mediated by parental values and their parents' experience of discrimination. A possible explanation is that immigrants high in openness to change are likely to pursue contact with the host culture more intensely, and thus increase the probability of interactions involving discrimination. Additionally, parental values and their own experience of discrimination influences their children, making them more vulnerable to discrimination stress and more likely to perceive discrimination. While most research is focused on external or environmental variables, this study highlights the importance of value orientations and parental influences in immigrants' experience of discrimination.

  6. Developmental and behavior problems predict parenting stress in young children with global delay.

    PubMed

    Tervo, Raymond C

    2012-03-01

    To identify parent-reported symptoms that predict parenting stress in preschoolers with global developmental delay, 201 parents/guardians of 142 boys and 59 girls with global delay, mean age 39.1 months (range, 18 to 63 months) were studied retrospectively. Parents completed the following: (a) a semistructured interview; (b) the Child Development Inventory, (c) Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5, and the (d) Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Forty-two percent of parents described clinically significant parenting stress (≥ 85th percentile). The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form subscales Difficult Child and Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interactions were elevated. Parental stress increased with higher gross motor development and decreased as social and fine-motor ratios increased. Furthermore, stress increased when parents reported higher levels on the Emotionally Reactive and Withdrawn scale scores and when parents reported Pervasive Developmental and Oppositional Defiant Problems. In mobile children with global delay, behavior problems predict parenting stress.

  7. Ethnicity, income, and parenting contexts of physical punishment in a national sample of families with young children.

    PubMed

    Wissow, L S

    2001-05-01

    Nearly half of U.S. parents use physical punishment for child discipline. Although some studies relate physical punishment and later dysfunction, others suggest that its effects depend on the context in which it is used. The authors analyzed data from the Commonwealth Fund Survey of Parents With Young Children, a national sample of 2,017 parents with children younger than 3. Parents reported their use of spanking, five other disciplinary practices, and four nurturing interactions. The authors used cluster analysis to define four groups of parents with distinct patterns of discipline and nurturing. Two groups with above-average use of spanking shared a high prevalence of parent depressive symptoms and a low level of nurturing but had markedly different demographic profiles and use of nonphysical punishment. Parents who used average levels of spanking made frequent use of nonphysical disciplinary strategies and had high levels of nurturing interactions. Parents who reported below-average spanking had relatively low levels of both disciplinary and nurturing interactions.

  8. Comparing sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's friends and parents as sources of support for sexual issues.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends.

  9. Barriers to success in parent training for young children with developmental delay: the role of cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    Bagner, Daniel M; Graziano, Paulo A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cumulative risk on dropout and treatment outcome in parent training. Participants were 44 families of young children (mean age of 49.59 months) who presented with elevated externalizing behavior problems and developmental delay or borderline developmental delay. All families were offered to receive Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-based, behavioral parent-training intervention, at a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Cumulative risk was calculated as a sum of risk variables, including socioeconomic disadvantage (poverty, low maternal education), family structure (single-parent household), and maternal risk characteristics (minority status, lower intelligence, and parental distress). Families with higher cumulative risk scores, especially those with three or more risks, were more likely to drop out of treatment and display diminished treatment response in child behavior and parenting skills compared with families with lower cumulative risk scores. However, only two individual risk factors (i.e., minority status and family structure) predicted dropout, and one individual risk factor (i.e., maternal education) predicted outcome. These findings suggest that it can be useful to conceptualize risk factors as having a cumulative, in addition to individual, influence on parent-training interventions for children with developmental delay and have significant implications for clinical practice. It is important for clinicians to regularly assess for risk factors, and future research should examine ways in which clinicians can improve retention and outcome of parent training in the presence of multiple risk factors.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of the 'Incredible Years(®) parent training' to parents of young children with ADHD symptoms - a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting. Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years(®) Parent Training Program (IYPT) through a Danish early intervention clinic. Using a benchmarking approach, we compared self-report data with data from a recent efficacy study. Eight out of nine outcome measures showed comparable or higher magnitude of effect from pretest to posttest. Effects were maintained or improved across six months. The methodology of this study exemplifies a rigorous but feasible approach to assessing effectiveness when evidence-based US protocols are transferred into the existing Scandinavian service delivery. Findings suggest that IYPT can be implemented successfully as an easy-access early intervention to families of children with or at risk of ADHD.

  11. The Feasibility of a Pilot Intervention for Parents of Young Children Newly Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Eleanor Race; Herbert, Linda; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Wang, Jichuan; Streisand, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and indicators of preliminary efficacy of the pilot of a parent-focused, phone-based intervention to improve glycemic control and parental and child well-being in young children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods Thirty mothers of young children ages 1–6 diagnosed with T1D for less than 6 months were randomized to either a phone-based intervention or physical activity education comparison program. Child HbA1c and parent report of depressive symptoms, stress, social support, and child quality of life were assessed at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results The program was feasible, as the majority of participants completed more than 80% of the intervention or comparison education sessions and reported high levels of satisfaction. Overall, there was a significant time by treatment intervention where the intervention group demonstrated improved social support and quality of life over time as compared to the comparison education group. The intervention demonstrated a trend towards moderating the association between baseline maternal depressive symptoms and prospective worsening of HbA1c. Conclusions Parents of young children newly diagnosed with T1D can be engaged in a phone-based program to provide support during this vulnerable period. PMID:27088065

  12. Communication About Problematic Drinking Between Young Adults and their Parents: An Application of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 80% of college students drink, half of whom consume alcohol in the form of binge drinking. The current study applies Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory to examine the communication about excessive drinking that takes place between parents and their young adult children. Forty college students were asked to report on a moment or incident that led their parents to label their drinking as concerning and were then asked to report on how their parents acted towards the drinking before and after the moment of labeling. Interviews were transcribed and coded. The findings suggest that parents act with inconsistency when attempting to manage their children's drinking by enacting both reinforcing and punishing behaviors. Parents' reinforcing behaviors included drinking with their children and buying them alcohol, even after labeling the drinking as problematic. Parents' punishment behaviors included expressing concern about their children's sense of responsibility and making their children feel regretful about their drinking. Nearly 88% of the participants were able to recall the moment at which their parents labeled their drinking as problematic. Implications for using inconsistent messages in conversations about alcohol are discussed.

  13. Could parental rules play a role in the association between short sleep and obesity in young children?

    PubMed

    Jones, Caroline H D; Pollard, Tessa M; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Ball, Helen

    2014-05-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with obesity in young children. This study develops the hypothesis that parental rules play a role in this association. Participants were 3-year-old children and their parents, recruited at nursery schools in socioeconomically deprived and non-deprived areas of a North-East England town. Parents were interviewed to assess their use of sleep, television-viewing and dietary rules, and given diaries to document their child's sleep for 4 days/5 nights. Children were measured for height, weight, waist circumference and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. One-hundred and eight families participated (84 with complete sleep data and 96 with complete body composition data). Parental rules were significantly associated together, were associated with longer night-time sleep and were more prevalent in the non-deprived-area compared with the deprived-area group. Television-viewing and dietary rules were associated with leaner body composition. Parental rules may in part confound the association between night-time sleep duration and obesity in young children, as rules cluster together across behavioural domains and are associated with both sleep duration and body composition. This hypothesis should be tested rigorously in large representative samples.

  14. The mediating effect of parental neglect on adolescent and young adult anti-sociality: a longitudinal study of twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Lindon J; Prom, Elizabeth C; Silberg, Judy L

    2010-07-01

    The causes of correlation between parental treatment and offspring behavior are ambiguous since genetic and social factors are correlated in typical family studies. The problem is complicated by the need to characterize the effects of genes and environment on both juvenile and adult behavioral outcomes. A model is developed for the resemblance between juvenile and adult twins and their parents that allows some of these effects to be resolved. Data on childhood adversity, parental anti-social behavior, and longitudinal adult and juvenile anti-social behavior were obtained from 1,412 families of adolescent and young adult twins. A structural model is fitted that allows for the effects of genetic and social transmission of information from parents to children. Environmental effects of parents may be mediated through measured features of the home environment. Parameters were estimated by diagonal weighted least squares applied to the 33 distinct polychoric correlations between relatives and between variables within and between ages. Sub-hypotheses were tested. Results confirmed that effects of genes and environment were both highly significant. Genetic effects were large in juveniles and largely age and sex-specific. Approximately 30% of the variation due to the shared environment was due to the effect of childhood adversity. The remaining shared environmental effects are unexplained. Adversity is affected significantly by maternal anti-social behavior. The correlation between paternal ASP and adversity may be explained by antisocial fathers selecting (or creating) antisocial mothers. All significant environmental effects of parental ASP are mediated through the measure of adversity. Though transmission of ASP is both genetic and social, passive genotype-environment correlation is very small. Assortative mating for ASP has barely detectable consequence for the genetic correlation between siblings. The longitudinal study of twins and their parents makes it possible to

  15. Supporting Teen Parents: A Q&A with the Young Families Committee of NOAPPP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Researcher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many professionals who work with youth have adolescent parents within their clientele yet don't have the demand to create special programs for these youth. Information regarding ways to assist teen parents in the normal course of the day, without developing a teen parent program, is difficult to find. Questions about supporting teen parents were…

  16. Parenting Young Arab Children: Psychometric Properties of an Adapted Arabic Brief Version of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Abdallah; Le, Kien Trung

    2016-06-01

    Research has shown a connection between negative parenting practices and child conduct problems. One of the most commonly used measures to assess parenting practices is the Alabama parenting questionnaire (APQ). The current study aimed to culturally adapt and assess the psychometric properties of a short version of the APQ for use in Arabic cultures, using a sample of 251 Qatari parents of children ages 4-12. An exploratory factor analysis proposed a five-model solution that corresponds to the original proposed model in the full version of the APQ. The five constructs of the APQ correlated in the expected direction with the Conduct Problem Subscale from the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. This study provides support for the utility of the 15-item short version of the APQ in Arabic cultures. More studies are needed to validate the performance of the short version of APQ in clinical settings.

  17. An exploration of the experience of attending the Kidstime programme for children with parents with enduring mental health issues: Parents' and young people's views.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Miranda; Hoffman, Jasmine; Martin, Amelia; Fagin, Leonard; Cooklin, Alan

    2015-07-01

    The Kidstime programme is an innovative attempt to address the particular needs of children and young people who have parents with mental illnesses. It comprises a monthly psycho-educational workshop involving discussions about the meaning of mental health, dramatizations of stories constructed by the children (often filmed), and concurrent parents' groups, as well as joint seminars and review sessions. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews with young people (n=6) and parents (n=5) attending the groups and interviews with former service users (n=9). Five themes emerged from the thematic analysis: initial engagement, sharing with others, learning about mental health, opportunity for fun and impact on family relationships. Areas for further development were identified including the formation of a distinct adolescent Kidstime workshop to better meet their age-specific needs, and adjustments to the system for introducing new families to established workshop groups. Given the positive experience of the groups by those attending, a rigorous evaluation of the approach is suggested.

  18. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use.

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use.

  19. Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Guiberson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.

  20. Parental death in childhood and self-inflicted injuries in young adults-a national cohort study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Berg, Lisa; Arat, Arzu; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that parental death influences health and mortality in bereaved offspring. To date, few studies have examined whether exposure to parental bereavement in childhood is associated with suicidality later in life. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether parental death during childhood influences self-inflicted injuries/poisoning in young adulthood. A national cohort born during 1973-1982 (N = 871,402) was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from age 18 to 31-40 years. Cox regression analyses of proportional hazards, with adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and parental psychosocial covariates, were used to test hypotheses regarding parental loss and hospital admission due to self-inflicted injuries/poisoning. Parental deaths were divided into deaths caused by (1) external causes/substance abuse and (2) natural causes. Persons who had lost a parent to an external cause/substance abuse-related death had the highest risk of being admitted to a hospital for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning; HRs 2.03 (1.67-2.46) for maternal death and 2.03 (1.84-2.25) for paternal death, after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders and risk factors among surviving parents. Risks were also increased for parental death due to natural causes, but at a lower level: 1.19 (1.01-1.39) and 1.28 (1.15-1.43), respectively. Losing a father before school age was associated with a higher risk of hospital admission for a self-inflicted injury/poisoning than was loss at an older age for both genders. Maternal loss before school age was associated with a higher risk only for men, particularly maternal death by natural causes (p < 0.01).

  1. Prevention of behavior problems in a selected population: Stepping stones triple P for parents of young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Cheri J; Kilburn, Janice; Hardin, James W

    2014-11-01

    Because young children with disabilities are at elevated risk for development of challenging behaviors, and caregivers of these children typically lack access to evidence-based parenting interventions, two randomized trials were conducted to examine the impact of an evidence-based parenting intervention, Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP), as a selective preventive intervention. Both studies targeted parents of children under two with a variety of disabilities who were enrolled in the IDEA Part C Early Intervention (EI) system in one state. SSTP was delivered in family homes. In Study One, 49 families were randomly assigned to EI services as usual, with or without SSTP; a 52% attrition rate from treatment was seen. No significant between-group differences were seen aside from a trend toward reduced symptoms of parental depression at follow-up. Intervention group children demonstrated significant decline in behavior problems from post treatment to follow-up, and there was a trend toward improved parenting style in the intervention group during this same time frame. Study Two incorporated a separate workforce intervention for EI service coordinators; 40 families on their caseloads were then randomly assigned to receive EI services as usual with or without SSTP. Attrition from treatment was limited to 20%. No differential impact was seen on child behavior; a trend was noted post-treatment on parent symptoms of depression and on the observed parent-child relationship. At 12-month follow-up, there was a trend favoring improvement in the intervention group in parenting style; statistically significant impact was also seen on the observed quality of the parent-child relationship. SSTP shows promise as a selective preventive intervention for an early intervention population. Reasons for the differential findings between the two studies are explored and suggestions for future research are provided.

  2. Deducing Hybrid Performance from Parental Metabolic Profiles of Young Primary Roots of Maize by Using a Multivariate Diallel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Feher, Kristen; Lisec, Jan; Römisch-Margl, Lilla; Selbig, Joachim; Gierl, Alfons; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nikoloski, Zoran; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL). Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass), but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles). Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids. PMID:24409329

  3. Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults' Global Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed.

  4. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval. PMID:22924881

  5. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Timothy J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2012-11-01

    A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval.

  6. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) for Parental Assessment of Adolescent Problematic Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report (“Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire,” PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent–adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ2/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use. PMID:27363465

  7. Structured social relationships: a review of volunteer home visiting programs for parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Fiona; Grace, Rebekah; Tredoux, Jaimie; Kemp, Lynn

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aims of the present paper were to: (1) review the research literature that contributes to an understanding of the role of volunteer home visiting programs in supporting the health and well being of families with young children; and (2) propose a conceptual model outlining service pathways for families in need of additional support. Methods An integrative literature review method was used, with a mix of electronic and manual search methods for the period January 1980-January 2014. Forty-five studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria for review and were coded according to themes developed a priori. Results There is little formal research that has examined the effectiveness of volunteer home visiting programs for supporting family health and well being. The available research suggests that volunteer home visiting programs provide socioemotional support through structured social relationships; however, there is limited empirical evidence to explicate the factors that contribute to these outcomes. Conclusion In recognition of the importance of peer support for new parents, the not-for-profit sector has been involved in providing volunteer home visiting services to families for decades. However, the body of research to support this work is characterised by methodological limitations, and rigorous evidence is limited. What is clear anecdotally and qualitatively from the existing research is that parents who are in need of additional support value engagement with a community volunteer. These structured social relationships appear to fulfil a service need within the community, helping build bridges to support social networks, and thus complementing professional services and relationships. Overall, structured social relationships in the form of volunteer home visiting programs appear to provide an important pathway to support family health and well being. Findings from the existing research are mixed and often characterised by methodological

  8. Parenting Deficits of Mothers Living with HIV/AIDS who have Young Children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Herbeck, Diane M

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of the relationships between parenting deficits and skills, along with child outcomes, in a sample of mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their 6 to 14 year old children. Sixty-two MLH (61% Latina, 26% black, 3% white, & 10% multiracial) and their well children (age 6 - 14) were recruited from the greater Los Angeles, California, region to participate in an intervention (IMAGE: Improving Mothers' parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) designed to assist MLH with parenting and self-care skills. Constructs examined included parenting deficits, parenting skills, and child outcomes. Covariance structural modeling was used for the analyses. Covariance structural modeling confirmed the hypothesized set of construct associations. As predicted, fewer parenting deficits were associated with better parenting skills, which, in turn, were associated with better child outcomes. This study delineated further the parenting issues with which MLH struggle, providing information on the interventions needed for this population. MLH who have little confidence they can enact parenting skills and limited knowledge of basic parenting practices appear to be less likely to provide family routines consistently, monitor their children, or to engender family cohesion or a close parent-child relationship. Such parenting skills were found to be associated with child functioning.

  9. Talking about Writing: What We Can Learn from Conversations between Parents and Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In six analyses using the Child Language Data Exchange System known as CHILDES, we explored whether and how parents and their 1.5- to 5-year-old children talk about writing. Parent speech might include information about the similarity between print and speech and about the difference between writing and drawing. Parents could convey similarity…

  10. Parents' Perceptions of Professional Support for the Emergent Literacy of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla

    2009-01-01

    This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…

  11. Early Literacy and Parental Writing Mediation in Young Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Bazelet, Idit; Goldman, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    The study compared early literacy of Israeli children aged five to six years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), contrasted parental writing mediation in the two groups and tested the relations between parents' mediation characteristics and children's early literacy skills. Each of 62 parent-child dyads (32 with ADHD)…

  12. Utilization and Evaluation of Parents as Tutors of Young Black Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.; And Others

    The panel presentation includes three papers describing the development and implementation of two parent oriented intervention programs currently serving low income Black families in Kansas City, Kansas. Both programs are home based and utilize trained community paraprofessionals as parent trainers. One program trains parents of preschool…

  13. Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction in Young Children: Associations with Weight and Perceived Parenting Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting style has been associated with weight-related outcomes in children, but relationships between parenting, weight, and overweight-related psychological outcomes remain largely unstudied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parenting was a moderator of the relationship between overweight and psychological…

  14. Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of an In-Home Parent Training Intervention for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Griffith, Annette K.; Casey, Kathryn J.; Ingram, Stephanie; Simpson, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Boys Town In-Home Family Program on improving child behavior and parenting skills. The three-month parenting intervention was delivered to parents in their homes. All children were referred to the program by school personnel. Of the 107 families that enrolled in the study, 79% completed the intervention.…

  15. Families that Read: A Time-Diary Analysis of Young People's and Parents' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Killian

    2010-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in assisting their children to learn to read, and can act as good role models in promoting reading behaviour. While there has been a raft of research on the impact of parents as teachers, there has been little empirical analysis on the impact of parents in modelling reading. Addressing this gap in the literature…

  16. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of child rearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. Using a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers' parenting knowledge; compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and…

  17. Taiwanese Parents' Beliefs Regarding Young Children's Art Education and the Actual Art Achievements of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Pai, Tzu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The research goal is to ascertain the current beliefs of the parents of preschool children regarding art education in Taiwan. Background factors on the parents were tested to show the differences between the parents' beliefs regarding art education and the actual art achievements of the children. From there, relationships between the beliefs and…

  18. Playing "The Ladybug Game": Parent Guidance of Young Children's Numeracy Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Ferretti, Larissa; Loving, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Parent guidance for numeracy activities and preschoolers' numeracy performance were examined in the context of playing a board game in three sessions over a two-week period. Twenty-eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a numeracy awareness group in which parents were provided with suggested numeracy activities to incorporate into the…

  19. Parent Stress, Parenting Competence and Family-Centered Support to Young Children with an Intellectual or Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Keen, Deb; Pennell, Donna; O'Reilly, Jess; Neilands, Judy

    2009-01-01

    A family-centered approach to the support of families with a young child with an intellectual or developmental disability has been widely adopted in the last decade. While some of the foundational assumptions of family-centered theory have been tested, there remain considerable gaps in the research evidence for this approach. While parenting…

  20. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  1. The Role of Online Social Support in Supporting and Educating Parents of Young Children With Special Health Care Needs in the United States: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Staten, Lisa K; Rodgers, Rylin Christine; Denne, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Background When parents of young children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receive their child’s diagnosis, they encounter information they may not understand, emotions they may not know how to cope with, and questions about their child’s immediate and long-term future that frequently lack answers. The challenge of health care providers is how to prepare parents for caring for their CSHCN, for coping with any resulting challenges, and for accessing the systems and services that can assist them. Objective The purpose of this work was to review evidence of the information and support needs of parents of young CSHCN and to determine whether online social support can serve as an avenue for learning and empowerment for these parents. Methods A scoping review identified the challenges, coping mechanisms, and support needs among parents of CSHCN, and the reach and effectiveness of digital technologies with these families and health care providers. We also conducted interviews with professionals serving parents of CSHCN. Results The literature review and interviews suggested that parents best learn the information they need, and cope with the emotional challenges of raising a CSHCN, with support from other parents of CSHCN, and that young parents in recent years have most often been finding this parent-to-parent support through digital media, particularly social media, consistent with the theory of online social support. Evidence also shows that social media, particularly Facebook, is used by nearly all women aged 18-29 years across racial and socioeconomic lines in the United States. Conclusions Parents of young CSHCN experience significant stress but gain understanding, receive support, and develop the ability to care for and be advocates for their child through parent-to-parent emotional and informational social support. Online social support is most effective with young adults of childbearing age, with social media and apps being the most useful within the

  2. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  3. Parents' Appraisals of the Animacy and Likability of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    Findings from a survey of parents' ratings of seven different human-like qualities of four socially interactive robots are reported. The four robots were Popchilla, Keepon, Kaspar, and CosmoBot. The participants were 96 parents and other primary caregivers of young children with disabilities 1 to 12 years of age. Results showed that Popchilla, a…

  4. "Feeling Caught" as a Mediator of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Avoidance and Satisfaction with Their Parents in Divorced and Non-Divorced Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; Schrodt, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Tests the degree to which adolescents and young adults felt caught between their parents as a mediator between divorce and children's avoidance and satisfaction with them. Reveals that divorce was largely associated with avoidance and satisfaction through children's feelings of being caught, which were a function of their parents' demand-withdraw…

  5. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.

  6. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naïve Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years; SD = 0.6), medication naïve children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis yielded two segments of parents: (1) Medication Avoidant parents constituted 70.5% of the sample whose treatment decisions were strongly influenced by a desire to avoid medication; (2) Outcome Oriented parents constituted 29.5% of the sample whose treatment decisions were most influenced by a desire for positive treatment outcomes. Parents in the Outcome Oriented segment were more stressed and depressed, had lower socioeconomic status and education, were more likely to be single parents, and had more disruptive and impaired children. Simulations predicted that parents would prefer treatments with behavior therapy over treatments with stimulant medication only. PMID:21722027

  7. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2013-06-01

    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women.

  8. Young People's Everyday Romance and Sexual Experiences in Relation to Sex-Related Conversations with Parents: A Diary Study in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia; Van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on existing research into how young people's emergent sexual development is connected to parent-child sex-related communication through avoidance vs. disclosure. Over the course of one year, a total of 21 young people (age range 12-17.5) reported in longitudinal qualitative diaries their (1) everyday sexual experiences and (2)…

  9. With a Little Help from My Friends: Maternal Social Support, via Parenting, Promotes Willingness to Share in Preschoolers Born to Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about prosocial behaviours in children of young mothers. This longitudinal study involved 44 young mother (age less than 20 years at birth of first child) families and 44 older mother families, who were carefully matched for child age and gender, as well as for family structure (number of children, lone-parent status) and…

  10. Adult children of parents with young-onset dementia narrate the experiences of their youth through metaphors

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Aud; Engedal, Knut; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited research exists on the development and needs of children of parents with young-onset dementia (YOD) (<65 years old). There is scarce knowledge of how these children experience the situation of growing up with a parent with dementia. This study investigates the stories of children of persons with YOD and interprets their metaphorical expressions of their experiences as a source of understanding their situation and needs during the development and course of their parent’s dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews with 14 informants (aged 18–30 years; nine daughters, five sons) were conducted in 2014 and subsequently analyzed by the informants’ use of metaphors. Steger’s three-step method for analyzing metaphors was applied. Results The analysis identified four themes in the metaphors: the informants’ relations to the disease, to the self, to the parent, and to others. From these themes, four core metaphors were abstracted: “my parent is sliding away”; “emotional chaos”; “becoming a parent to my parent”; and “a battle”. Conclusion The study revealed that growing up with a parent with dementia has a great impact on the children’s situation and their experiences of their personal development. Children of a parent with YOD are a group with unmet needs for support. A formalized system where the children can get into contact with service providers to receive tailored information and individual follow-up needs to be established. The service providers must listen to the children’s stories, perceive how metaphors convey their experiences, and recognize their need for support for their own development. PMID:26060403

  11. The Effects of Continuities in Parent and Peer Aggression on Relational Intimate Partner Violence in the Transition to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Holfeld, Brett; Temple, Jeffery R

    2017-04-01

    Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10 years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18 years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10 years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.

  12. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597

  13. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  14. Higher levels of protective parenting are associated with better young adult health: exploration of mediation through epigenetic influences on pro-inflammatory processes

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Dogan, Meeshanthini V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediated either by effects on methylation of a key inflammatory factor, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or else by association with a pro-inflammatory shift in the distribution of mononuclear blood cells. Supporting expectations, in a sample of 398 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from age 11 to age 19, parenting at ages 11–13 was associated with youth reports of better health at age 19. We found that parenting was associated with changes in TNF methylation as well as with changes in cell-type composition. However, whereas methylation of TNF was a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health, variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was not a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health. The current research suggests the potential value of examining the health-related effects of parenting in late childhood and early adolescence. Further examination of protection against pro-inflammatory tendencies conferred by parenting appears warranted. PMID:26074840

  15. Is parental divorce a critical stressor for young adolescents? Grade point average as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, B; Forehand, R; Armistead, L

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown parental divorce to be associated with poor functioning of children and adolescents. Almost all of the studies attempting to delineate these effects, and to shed light on the differences between boys and girls, have limited data collection to postdivorce. This practice has left a void in the picture of divorce--specifically in the area of predivorce effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine academic functioning of young adolescents with respect to both pre- and postdivorce effects. Fifty-eight young adolescents (29 from families which subsequently divorced and 29 from families which remained intact) were studied. Results indicated that boys from subsequently divorcing homes had significantly poorer academic functioning prior to their parents' divorce than did boys whose families remained intact and girls whose parents divorced. Differentially, girls from subsequently divorcing families showed a decline in academic functioning which began prior to divorce and continued beyond the time of divorce. Possible explanations for these gender differences are explored, and the importance of examining predivorce effects is addressed.

  16. The effect of a parent-implemented imitation intervention on spontaneous imitation skills in young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Gergans, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in their ability to spontaneously imitate the play actions and descriptive gestures of others. Reciprocal imitation training (RIT) is a naturalistic imitation intervention designed to teach spontaneous imitation skills during play. This study assessed the effectiveness of parent-implemented RIT using a multiple-baseline design across three young children with autism and their mothers. After an initial baseline, mothers were taught to implement RIT techniques with their child twice a week for 10 weeks in a clinic setting. Two mothers were taught to use RIT to teach object imitation. The third mother was taught to use RIT to target both object and gesture imitation in a multiple-baseline design across behaviors. Generalization was assessed in the families' homes at the end of treatment and a 1-month follow-up. Parents learned to use the intervention strategies and their children exhibited increases in spontaneous imitation. These findings replicate the results from previous studies, indicating that RIT is effective for teaching imitation skills to young children with autism in a naturalistic setting and extend the findings to parents.

  17. The Role of Parenting Stress in Young Children’s Mental Health Functioning After Exposure to Family Violence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Campbell, Christina A.; Ferguson, Monette; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the associations of young children’s exposure to family violence events, parenting stress, and children’s mental health functioning. Caregivers provided data for 188 children ages 3 to 5 years attending Head Start programming. Caregivers reported 75% of children had experienced at least 1 type of trauma event, and 27% of children had experienced a family violence event. Child mental health functioning was significantly associated with family violence exposure after controlling for children’s age, gender, household income, and other trauma exposure (β = .14, p = .033). Stress in the parenting role partially mediated the relationship between family violence exposure and young children’s mental health functioning (β = .12, p = .015, 95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.21]). Interventions for young children exposed to family violence should address the needs of the child, as well as the caregiver while also building healthy parent–child relationships to facilitate positive outcomes in children faced with trauma. PMID:24038613

  18. Positive Parenting and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Their Association With School Behavior Problems in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julia E; Frick, Paul J

    2016-12-12

    The current study tested the associations of both positive (i.e., warm and responsive) and negative (i.e., harsh and inconsistent) aspects of parenting with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. Caregivers and teachers of 92 ethnically diverse (33% African American) kindergarten students (61% female) were recruited to complete a series of survey measures. Students' average age was 6.2 (SD = 0.42) years. Parent report of positive parenting practices, but not negative parenting practices, was associated with teacher report of conduct problems. Further, positive parenting interacted with CU traits in their association with conduct problems. Parental use of positive reinforcement was more strongly negatively related to conduct problems for youth with high levels of CU traits, whereas parent-child cooperation was positively related to conduct problems only for youth with low levels of CU traits. Finally, only parental warmth was negatively correlated with CU traits after controlling for level of conduct problems. Results were generally not moderated by the child's gender or ethnicity. These findings highlight the importance of positive parenting practices for understanding CU traits and as potential targets in clinical interventions to treat children who show elevated levels of these traits.

  19. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  20. Risk, Resource, Redemption? The Parenting and Custodial Experiences of Young Offender Fathers.

    PubMed

    Ladlow, Linzi; Neale, Bren

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on an ESRC funded qualitative longitudinal study of young fatherhood, this article explores the experiences of young offender fathers, the complex intersection of offender and fatherhood pathways for young men and the impact of professional support and tailored intervention programmes on these processes. The article challenges the axiom of young offender fathers as inherently 'risky', and suggests the utility of a dynamic, life course approach to criminal policy and practice that recognises the fluidity of their life journeys, and brings ideas of redemption more centrally into the picture.

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    PubMed

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  2. Providing Parents with Young Children's Performance Feedback Information: Effects on Vocabulary and Pre-Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnachetam, Amanda Alexandria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of performance feedback information on parenting practices that contribute to development of vocabulary and pre-literacy skills. Fifty-one dyads of parents and their pre-school aged children were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Group one received full treatment including a workshop and feedback.…

  3. Parent Directiveness in Free Play with Young Children with Physical Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Moskal, Lisa; Hoffmann, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Children with disabilities are reported to experience a high degree of directive parent interaction compared to typically developing children because of poor communicative or task skills. This study examines relationships between parent behaviors (directiveness and contingency) and child skills (language and motor) for children with physical or…

  4. Parents' Self-Reported Behaviors Related to Health and Safety of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlotte M.; Reichert, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestrian safety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…

  5. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  6. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  7. A Home Teaching Program for Parents of Very Young Deaf Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Freeman; Horton, Kathryn B.

    A demonstration home provided a parent oriented program and audiologic management for 94 deaf preschoolers (mean age 2 years 4 months). Each child underwent a trial period with different hearing aids before permanent recommendation was made. Parents were present at these clinic sessions; they also received instruction in how to encourage auditory…

  8. Teachers Helping Parents To Raise the Level of Curiosity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Methlyn

    This paper presents methods by which teachers can show parents how to use opportunities they have in everyday life to peak the interest and curiosity of their children. It establishes steps to build a workshop for teachers and day care providers, sharing tips and advice and displaying books and materials which parents can use in their homes. After…

  9. Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

  10. The Relation between Parenting Transitions and Adjustment in Young Adolescents: A Multisample Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the effects of and relationship between the number of parenting transitions (divorce, remarriage) and adjustment in three samples of adolescent girls and boys not identified as being at risk for problems. Found qualified evidence of a negative linear relationship between the number of parenting transitions experienced and child…

  11. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  12. Parent Perceptions of Pragmatic Skills in Teens and Young Adults Using AAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senner, Jill E.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of social skills is critical in the successful academic inclusion and competitive employment of individuals with disabilities. Parent involvement in identification of social skills targets for intervention is a valuable first step in the intervention process. A total of 21 parents completed the Pragmatics Profile from the "Clinical…

  13. Distinct Pathways from Parental Cultural Orientation to Young Children's Bilingual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kim M.; Park, Heejung; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Among immigrant families, parents are important socialization agents in transmitting cultural practices to their children, including the use of the heritage language (HL). In the current study, we examined whether parents' cultural orientation facilitates children's (N = 79; M[subscript age] = 5.11 years; 57% boys; 50% enrolled in HL schools) HL…

  14. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  15. The Effects of Therapeutic Storytelling and Behavioral Parent Training on Noncompliant Behavior in Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Laura T.; Cook, J. William; Silverman, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of therapeutic storytelling and behavioral parent training in treating four clinic-referred, noncomplaint males. In condition I, one therapeutic storytelling session was followed by one behavioral parent training session. In condition II, the sequence was reversed. Results indicate that both treatments decreased frequency and…

  16. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  17. Anti-Smoking Socialization Beliefs among Rural Native American and White Parents of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses similarities and differences in anti-smoking socialization beliefs of White and Native American parents in a low-income, rural population in northeastern Oklahoma. Data are from a population-based, cross-sectional children's environmental health study in which in-home interviews were conducted with 356 parents (56.2% White,…

  18. Predictive and Concurrent Validity of Parent Concern about Young Children at Risk for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Christine Reiner; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents' concerns about their children's development were examined prospectively at 14, 24, and 36 months for 89 younger siblings of a child with autism. Parent reported concern was high at all ages (40-75%) and was higher at 24 and 36 months in children with ASD than non-ASD outcomes (p less than 0.05). Communication concerns were reported most…

  19. Attitudes about internet support groups among adolescents and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 and their parents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci; Wolters, Pamela L; Baldwin, Andrea; Roderick, Marie Claire; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Gillespie, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte

    2014-10-01

    Youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have multiple, complex symptoms associated with physical, social-emotional, and cognitive difficulties. In addition, caring for a child with NF1 can be extremely challenging for parents. Since research with other chronic illness populations suggests that social support, including internet support groups (ISGs), can be beneficial, this survey study aimed to determine the attitudes and preferences of adolescents and young adults with NF1 and parents of a child with NF1 regarding ISGs. Thirty patients and 30 caregivers completed a 24-item survey about ISGs. Many patients and parents are not aware of any ISGs for NF1, but are interested in using one in the future for a variety of reasons, including to get answers to their questions about NF1, to find out about research studies, and to discuss problems and concerns about NF1. Specific concerns of interest include physical, social-emotional, and cognitive aspects of NF1. ISGs have potential as a social support intervention within the NF1 community. ISGs for the NF1 population should include patients with NF1 (or parents of children with NF1) as well as a health professional, and both chat rooms and discussion boards likely would be well-received.

  20. Pilot study of a parent training program for young children with autism: the PLAY Project Home Consultation program.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Richard; Necheles, Jonathan; Ferch, Courtney; Bruckman, David

    2007-05-01

    The PLAY Project Home Consultation (PPHC) program trains parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders using the DIR/Floortime model of Stanley Greenspan MD. Sixty-eight children completed the 8-12 month program. Parents were encouraged to deliver 15 hours per week of 1:1 interaction. Pre/post ratings of videotapes by blind raters using the Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS) showed significant increases (p parents in the FEAS subscale scores at either pre-or post-intervention and all parents scored at levels suggesting they would be effective in working with their children. Overall satisfaction with PPHC was 90 percent. Average cost of intervention was $2500/ year. Despite important limitations, this pilot study of The PLAY Project Home Consulting model suggests that the model has potential to be a cost-effective intervention for young children with autism.

  1. Listening to children: gaining a perspective of the experiences of poverty and social exclusion from children and young people of single-parent families.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janet; Crawford, Karin; Taylor, Francesca

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the experiences and views of children and young people of single-parent families, as findings from a European Union-funded research project undertaken in England, Greece and Cyprus. The objectives of the research project were to investigate how children and young people of single-parent families understand and experience their worlds as members of these families: whether and to what extent they experience poverty and social exclusion and how they cope with the challenges that this confronts them with. Methodology was replicated in each of the countries; however, this paper draws on the English experiences. Semistructured interviews (40) and focus groups (four) were undertaken with children of single parents. In addition, focus groups were undertaken with children of two-parent families (four), focus groups with single parents, focus groups with two-parent families (four) and individual interviews with key professionals. Detailed discussion guides were followed, with open-ended questions to allow participants to express their feelings and ideas in their own words. The research sample included children from single-parent and two-parent families, aged 6 years to 16 years, balanced in terms of age, gender and geographical location. Findings demonstrate the children's and young people's understanding of the impact of poverty and social exclusion on their family life and their everyday experiences. The positive benefits of being in a single-parent family are highlighted, with 'time poverty' raised as a significant issue. Children and young people are aware of their poverty and how it influences exclusion from friendships, play, leisure and community activities. Policy needs to take account of the systematic reality of children's experiences; alliances with adults that support meaningful involvement and participation by children and young people will make a significant contribution to this.

  2. Making sense of autism: Progressive engagement with science among parents of young, recently diagnosed autistic children.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth

    2014-07-01

    This exploratory study examines the significance of science to parents whose children were recently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. It asks: (I) In what manner did science emerge in parents' concerns and resources as they attempted to understand and advocate for their children? (2) Did some parents engage with science in a qualitatively deeper or more intense manner? Using longitudinal data from interviews and a novel data collection strategy called engagement mapping, it shows that parents asked questions and used resources that were strongly associated with science, but these were vastly outnumbered by "near-science" concerns and resources that mingled meanings from science and daily life. Several parents in the study wove together concerns and resources in an iterative pattern referred to here as progressive engagement with science.

  3. Parenting beliefs and behaviors in northern and southern groups of Italian mothers of young infants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, M H; Cote, L R; Venuti, P

    2001-12-01

    Similarities and differences in northern and southern Italian mothers' social and didactic parenting beliefs and behaviors, and relations between their beliefs and behaviors, are reported. Both groups of mothers reported that they engaged more in social than didactic interactions with their infants, whereas in actuality both groups engaged in didactic behaviors with their infants for longer periods of time than they engaged in social behaviors. In addition, northern mothers engaged in more social interactions with their infants than did southern mothers. No correlations between beliefs and behaviors emerged in either group. These data speak to issues of intracultural variation and cross-cultural similarities in family psychology and parenting, belief-behavior relations in parenting, and the importance of methodology (parental report or observation) in the study of parenting and family functioning.

  4. Effect of the Adapted NASA Mission X International Child Fitness Program on Young Children and their Parents in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa; Reeves, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. Childhood obesity is global public health concern including in South Korea where 16.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls are overweight or obese in 2011. Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed for prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity prevention programs for young children may have a greater intervention effect than in older children. The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating by tapping into their excitement for training like an astronaut. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of the adapted NASA MX intervention in promoting PA in young children and in improving parents' related perspectives.

  5. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  6. The Role of Parents and Partners in the Pregnancy Behaviors of Young Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy among young Latinas demands attention. These teens have higher birthrates than other teen populations. Seven focus groups (N = 40) were conducted with Latinas to explore how relationships between young Latinas and their mothers, fathers, and male partners contribute to teen pregnancy. ATLAS/ti (a qualitative data analysis software…

  7. Parental feeding style, energy intake and weight status in young Scottish children.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Colette; Jackson, Diane M; Kelly, Louise A; Reilly, John J

    2006-12-01

    Parental feeding style, as measured by the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), may be an important influence on child feeding behaviour and weight status in early to mid childhood, but more evidence on parental feeding style is required from samples outside the USA. We aimed to use the CFQ in a sample of 117 Scottish children (boys n 53, girls n 64 mean age 4.6 (SD 0.5) years) to: characterise gender differences and changes over time (in forty of the 117 children studied over 2 years); test associations between parental feeding style, free-living energy intake (measured over 3 days using the multiple pass 24-h recall), and weight status (BMI SD score). No dimensions of parental feeding style changed significantly over 2 years in the longitudinal study (P>0.05 in all cases). No aspects of parental feeding style as measured by the CFQ differed significantly between the sexes (P>0.05 in all cases). Parental perceptions of child weight status were generally significantly positively correlated with child weight status as measured by the BMI SD score. In this sample and setting, measures of parental control over child feeding were generally not associated with child energy intake or weight status.

  8. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van der Bruggen, Corine O; Brechman-Toussaint, Margaret L; Thissen, Michèl A P; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivered exclusively to parents of 26 children with anxiety symptoms ages 4-7 years. The intervention consisted of four 2-hour group sessions of four to six parents (couples). These group sessions were followed by four individual telephone sessions, once per week across a 4-week period. The pre- and postintervention assessment involved measures of multiple constructs of child anxiety (anxiety symptoms, children's fears, behavioral inhibition, and internalizing symptoms) from multiple informants (parents, children, and teachers). Parents also reported parenting strategies they were likely to use to manage their children's anxiety pre- and postintervention. Results indicated a significant decrease in child anxiety and behavioral inhibition as reported by parents and teachers. Furthermore, mothers reported significant increases in their use of positive reinforcement, and modeling and reassurance, and a significant decrease in their use of reinforcement of dependency directly after treatment. Taken together, parent-directed CBT appears to be an effective approach for treating children ages 4-7 years with anxiety symptoms. Limitations of the current research are discussed.

  9. Immigration and the Interplay of Parenting, Preschool Enrollment, and Young Children's Academic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  10. Comparison of Dental Esthetic Perceptions of Young Adolescents and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Kavand, Golnaz; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Warren, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare dental esthetic perceptions of adolescents at age 13 with those of parents and to assess associations with dental fluorosis. Methods As part of the Iowa Fluoride Study, 550 adolescents aged 13 underwent dental examinations for fluorosis on maxillary anterior teeth using the Fluorosis Risk Index. Adolescents and parents completed questionnaires concerning satisfaction with the adolescents’ dental appearance. McNemar and Bowker tests of symmetry were used for comparisons of esthetics ratings between parents and adolescents. Comparison of satisfaction between fluorosis and non-fluorosis subjects was made using Cochran-Armitage Trend and Fisher’s Exact tests. Results Excluding subjects with orthodontic treatment, 376 adolescents were included and 26% of them had definitive fluorosis, mostly at a mild level. Fifteen percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with dental appearance, and concerns were mainly about the tooth color (45%) and alignment (35%). Adolescents were less satisfied with overall dental appearance (P<0.001) and color (P=0.048) and more concerned about tooth shape (P=0.002) than were their parents. Fluorosis status (yes/no) was not significantly associated with adolescents’ satisfaction or areas of concern (p>0.05). Parents of subjects with fluorosis were more dissatisfied with dental appearance (P=0.014) and color (P<0.001) than other parents. The number of maxillary anterior zones exhibiting fluorosis was negatively associated with both adolescent (P=0.03) and parent (P=0.002) satisfaction. Conclusion Adolescents generally had less satisfaction with dental appearance and color and they were more concerned with tooth shape than parents. For both parents and adolescents, decreased satisfaction was associated with the number of zones with definitive fluorosis. PMID:22364682

  11. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  12. A mathematical analysis of the ABCD criteria for diagnosing malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Kwon, Kiwoon

    2017-03-01

    The medical community currently employs the ABCD (asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter of the lesion) criteria in the early diagnosis of a malignant melanoma. Although many image segmentation and classification methods are used to analyze the ABCD criteria, it is rare to see a study containing mathematical justification of the parameters that are used to quantify the ABCD criteria. In this paper, we suggest new parameters to assess asymmetry, border irregularity, and color variegation, and explain the mathematical meaning of the parameters. The suggested parameters are then tested with 24 skin samples. The parameters suggested for the 24 skin samples are displayed in three-dimensional coordinates and are compared to those presented in other studies (Ercal et al 1994 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41 837–45, Cheerla and Frazier 2014 Int. J. Innovative Res. Sci., Eng. Technol. 3 9164–83) in terms of Pearson correlation coefficient and classification accuracy in determining the malignancy of the lesions.

  13. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946…

  14. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  15. Asperger syndrome in adolescent and young adult males. Interview, self- and parent assessment of social, emotional, and cognitive problems.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS diagnosed in childhood were approached for the assessment using the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), (personal and parent interview), the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). About 75% of the targeted group participated. The ASDI results came out significantly different at personal vs parent interviews in several key domains. In contrast, the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, showed no significant differences across the individuals with AS and their parents in the scoring of cognitive/social and emotional/adaptive skills. The BDI proved to be an adequate screening instrument for depression in that it correctly identified the vast majority of cases with clinical depression in the AS group. The DEX results suggested an executive function deficit problem profile in males with AS as severe as that reported in groups of individuals with traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia. Interviews (personal and collateral), and self-rating and parent-rating questionnaires all have a role in the comprehensive diagnostic process in AS and other autism spectrum disorders, and could be used as adjuncts when evaluating whether or not individuals meeting diagnostic symptom criteria for the condition have sufficient problems in daily life to warrant a clinical diagnosis of AS.

  16. Type 1 diabetes in very young children: a model of parent and child influences on management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jessica S; Kozikowski, Chelsea; Lee, Joyce M; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in very young children (YC-T1D) is increasing globally. Managing YC-T1D is challenging from both a medical and psychosocial perspective during this vulnerable developmental period when complete dependence upon parental caretaking is normative and child behavior is unpredictable. The consequences of suboptimal glycemic control during this age range are substantial since these children will have T1D for many years and they are prone to adverse neuropsychological sequelae. Poor adaptation to T1D during these early years may engender a persistent trajectory of negative outcomes that can be very resistant to change. The empirical research on the YC-T1D population (age <6 yr) has indicated multiple mechanisms through which parent characteristics, parent coping skills, and child characteristics interact to yield a pattern of T1D management behaviors that affect T1D outcomes. However, this research has not yet led to a well-conceived conceptual model for identifying and understanding these mechanisms or for specifying research gaps and future research directions. The aim of this review is to propose such a conceptual model linking parent characteristics, parent coping, and child characteristics to T1D management behaviors and outcomes. This article reviews the literature focusing on research pertinent to YC-T1D and elements of our proposed model, identifies and discusses gaps in the literature, offers directions for future research, and considers a range of possible interventions targeting the unique needs of this special population.

  17. E-health and health care behaviour of parents of young children: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van der Gugten, Anne C.; de Leeuw, Rob J. R. J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Kars, Marijke C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Internet plays a huge role in providing information about health care problems. However, it is unknown how parents use and perceive the internet as a source of information and how this influences health care utilisation when it comes to common complaints in infants. The objective was to evaluate the perception parents have on the role of internet in providing health care information on common symptoms in infants and its effects on health care utilisation. Design A qualitative design was chosen. Setting and subjects Parents were recruited from a population-based birth-cohort and selected purposefully. Main outcome measures Semi-structured interviews were used to receive information of parentsʼ ideas. Thematic coding and constant comparison were used for interview transcript analysis. Results Ten parents were interviewed. Parents felt anxious and responsible when their child displayed common symptoms, and appeared to be in need of information. They tried to obtain information from relatives, but more so from the internet, because of its accessibility. Nevertheless, information found on the internet had several limitations, evoked new doubts and insecurity and although parents compared information from multiple sources, only the physician was able to take away the insecurity. The internet did not interfere in the decision to consult the physician. Conclusions Parents need information about their childrenʼs symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts and insecurities and internet information did not play a role in parental decision making. Information gathered online may complement the information from physicians, rather than replace it. Key pointsInternet plays an increasing role in providing health care information but it is unknown how this influences health care utilisation.Our study suggests that:Parents need information about their children’s symptoms and the internet is a

  18. Test of a cultural framework of parenting with Latino families of young children.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective.

  19. Decision-making around moving on from full-time education: the roles and experiences of parents of disabled young people with degenerative conditions.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Jane; Beresford, Bryony

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the decision-making processes that take place within families when a disabled young person is moving on from full-time education and, particularly, parents' roles and experiences. This paper reports the analysis of data collected from a subsample of parents (representing seventeen families) participating in the Choice and Change Project who had discussed choices associated with their child leaving full-time education. (The Choice and Change Project is a longitudinal, qualitative study of choice-making by four different groups of service users including disabled young people with degenerative conditions and their parents.) The data were collected from parents during up to three semi-structured interviews conducted over a thirty-month period. Descriptive theories of decision-making informed the analysis. Parents differed in the extent to which they were actively involved in making choices about the 'destination' of their child after leaving full-time education. To some extent, the ability of the young person to make choices themselves influenced this. Parents who were assuming responsibility for making choices stressed the importance of having relevant information and felt professionals had a key role to play in supporting access to information. Parents used a number of criteria to guide their choice-making, including distance from home, perceived quality of the environment and staff and the young person's responses to the setting. Much of the information needed to make a choice required a visit to all the possible options. Ensuring such visits were positive and useful experiences for themselves and their child could be very difficult; support to achieve these visits was highly valued but not routinely provided. The study also highlights the lack of recognition given to the significant amount of work that many parents undertake to ensure that a choice is realised, and also to the emotional journey parents take when making or assisting in such

  20. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.

  1. Parenting attitudes and behaviors of low-income single mothers with young children.

    PubMed

    Sachs, B; Pietrukowicz, M; Hall, L A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parenting attitudes and behaviors of low-income single mothers with preschool-aged children. As part of a longitudinal study of the health of single-mother families, 44 unstructured and semistructured interviews were conducted over a 1-year period with a subsample of nine mothers. The mothers modelled desired behaviors and values, but held unrealistic expectations for child behaviors. They viewed their parenting responsibilities as overwhelming. The mothers perceived their children as unappreciative of the efforts required to maintain the family unit. Discipline was often punitive and directed toward aversive behaviors with a single child as the scapegoat for parenting frustrations. Implications for interventions are addressed.

  2. Examining longer-term effects of parental death in adolescents and young adults: Evidence from the national longitudinal survey of adolescent to adult health.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, William; Rosen, Zohn; Joiner, Thomas; Silva, Caroline; Mueller, Anna S

    2017-03-01

    Using longitudinal data spanning a 7-year period, we investigated the behavioral and psycho-social effects resulting from a parent's death during early childhood or teenage years on adolescent and early adulthood functioning. Findings confirmed previous work demonstrating various behavioral problems and social-psychological adjustment deficits during adolescence. Results suggested that most detrimental adjustment behaviors among parentally bereaved youth fade as they entered into young adulthood. Yet, premature school withdrawals and diminished interests in college attendance at Wave 1 left many of these young adults with diminished academic accomplishments, lingering economic disadvantages and for females a hesitancy to marry as their lives progressed into adulthood.

  3. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  4. The Diagnostic Interview of Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children: psychometric properties in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; de la Osa, Núria; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep Maria; Reich, Wendy

    2011-11-30

    There is a need for reliable and well-validated diagnostic measures for studying psychopathology in preschool and young children. The goal is to study the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children (DICA-PPYC) in the general population. A sample of 852 Spanish school children, aged 3 to 7 years, were randomly selected and screened for a double phase design. A total of 251 families were interviewed with the DICA-PPYC and 244 participated in a test-retest design. Different measures of psychopathology and functional impairment were also administered. Test-retest agreement with a mean interval of 8.8 days ranged from excellent to slight (kappa from 1 to 0.39) for DSM-IV-TR and from good to fair (kappa from 0.77 to 0.49) for Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age diagnoses. Attenuation between test and retest was not significant for the prevalence of diagnoses, although it was significant for the number of externalising and total symptoms in the interview. The diagnoses converged moderately with the CBCL and Dominic scores. The presence of diagnoses in the DICA-PPYC significantly differentiated preschoolers and young children who had used mental health services, were more impaired, and presented more severe psychopathology measured by dimensional scales. The DICA-PPYC is a reliable and valid semi-structured interview schedule for preschool and young children, and can serve to advance the knowledge and mental health care of this population.

  5. Teaching How to Write Instructional Objectives to Pre-Service Language Teachers through the ABCD Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the ABCD model as a way to train teachers of English to write clear and specific objectives. It is stated here that most of the instructional objectives written by pre-service teachers are inadequately formulated. With this in mind, pre-service teachers (n = 46) were trained in writing instructional objectives…

  6. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  7. Comparison of dermatoscopic ABCD rule and risk stratification in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lorentzen, H; Weismann, K; Kenet, R O; Secher, L; Larsen, F G

    2000-01-01

    For didactic and documentation purposes the dermatoscopic ABCD rule and the dermatoscopic risk stratification have been proposed. The aim of this investigation was to compare the ability of the 2 methods to separate patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma from individuals with other pigmented skin lesions. Three dermatologists, experienced users of dermatoscopy, assessed macroscopic clinical and dermatoscopic slides from 258 patients referred to the skin cancer outpatient clinic by the ABCD rule and risk stratification methods. Diagnostic performance of the 2 methods was compared by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. When all pigmented skin lesions were compared, there was a trend for the observers to perform better using risk stratification. When only lesions with a well-defined pigment network were included, the diagnostic performance of the risk stratification method was superior to the dermatoscopic ABCD rule (areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve median 0.93 vs. 0.80, p<0.004) for all observers. The agreement between the 2 methods was moderate to substantial (kappa coefficient 0.53-0.62). More melanomas were identified when the rules were combined. The dermatoscopic ABCD rule has been accepted as a standard for identifying melanomas with the dermatoscope, but should be considered secondary to pigment network analysis.

  8. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat. PMID:27137382

  9. Tuning In: Parents of Young Children Speak up about What They Think, Know, and Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Nightingale, Marisa O.

    2016-01-01

    So much more is known now than a generation ago about how and when brain architecture is built and how deeply it is influenced by early experiences. We know for certain now that the way adult caregivers, parents in particular, interact with children during the first 5 years can actually shape their brain architecture for life--for better and for…

  10. Music Play Zone II: Deepening Parental Empowerment as Music Guides for Their Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2012-01-01

    With the intent of facilitating musical development of children enrolled in early childhood music courses, the purpose of this research was to describe the ongoing use of an online social networking site by parents of preschool children. Six families attended a 45-min early childhood music class each week for 10 weeks and responded to assignments…

  11. Food Shopping Behaviors and Food Use by Well-Educated Young Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassler, Eunice; Newell, G. Kathleen

    1982-01-01

    Investigated relationships between food shopping behavior and food patterns in two-parent families having at least one preschool-age child. Cost, family preferences, and nutritive value were the most important factors influencing food choices. However, neither costs nor nutritive value considerations appeared very important with respect to food…

  12. How and Why Do Parents Choose Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Their Young Child with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzanakaki, Pagona; Grindle, Corinna; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, J. Carl; Kovshoff, Hanna; Remington, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Although the evidence of effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for children with autism is growing, very little is known about the process parents go through in deciding to implement such a program. We interviewed 30 mothers whose children had been on an EIBI program to investigate more systematically how and why they…

  13. Physical Activity in Young Children: A Systematic Review of Parental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jessica; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dwyer, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the strength of associations of the key parental factors measured in studies examining early childhood physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature, using databases PsychINFO, Medline, Academic Search Complete, PSYCHinfo, and CINHAL, published between January 1986 and…

  14. Keys to Disciplining Your Young Child: From Infant to Toddler. Barron's Parenting Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Eleanor; Siegel, Linda

    Close parent-child relationships begin with an early, effective approach to everyday discipline problems. This book focuses on children from infancy to age five and discusses practical ways to handle common discipline problems using an approach of identifying the problem and providing a goal behavior. Thirty eight chapters address the following…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Young Persons' Attachment Styles and Perceived Reasons for Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tavi R.; Ehrenberg, Marion F.

    1998-01-01

    Explored relationship between undergraduate students' perceptions of the reasons for their parents' divorces and their own feelings of security in romantic relationships. Found that 73% described insecure attachment styles. Perceived reasons for divorce involving expressions of overt anger, involvement of children, and extramarital affairs were…

  16. A Calendar of Activities for Parents of Handicapped Students, 1983-1984. Developmentally Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.

    These activities for handicapped preschool children in the Washington, D.C. school district can be used by all parents interested in developing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format offers daily activities ranging from brief discussions and exercises to day-long family excursions. Each month's activities cover…

  17. Mothers' Parenting and Young Economically Disadvantaged Children's Relational and Overt Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; Culp, Anne M.; Culp, Rex; Scheib, Carrie; Owen, Kelly; Tilley, Angela; Murphy, Molly; Parkman, Lauren; Coleman, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    We examined links between mothers' parenting and children's relational bullying and overt bullying in a sample of children attending a Head Start program. Mothers completed surveys and face-to-face interviews. Head Start teachers completed assessments on children. Results indicated that a small percentage of children in the sample was rated by…

  18. Perceived Dimensions of Parenting and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau, Jean-Francois; Martin, Jodi; Freynet, Nathalie; Poirier, Alexane Ali; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Family experiences are influential in the development of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aimed to identify specific dimensions underlying early parent-child relationships in association with NSSI. It was hypothesized that all relationship dimensions would be related with NSSI, with some dimensions being stronger predictors when…

  19. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  20. Young Women's Phenomenological Sense of Father and Parental Marital Relationship and Their Relation to Paternal Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Susan

    The meaning fathers have in the lives of women as they are growing up was investigated. Women's perceptions of their fathers on several factors were measured to determine how these perceptions differed with father loss, cause and time of loss, perception of parental marital relationships, and presence of an older brother. Questionnaires were…

  1. Supporting Positive Parenting for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The PACT Therapeutic Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping…

  2. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking.

  3. Parental Relationship Quality and Masculine Gender-Role Strain in Young Men: Mediating Effects of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that experiences with attachment to and psychological separation from parents predict men's reports of masculine gender-role stress and conflict. This article extends the literature by examining possible variations in these links that may be accounted for by men's core personality characteristics. The author hypothesizes…

  4. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    PubMed

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs.

  5. Help seeking by parents in military families on behalf of their young children.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Allison E Flittner; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Willerton, Elaine; Cardin, Jean-François; Topp, David; Mustillo, Sarah; Lester, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, many children have experienced a parental deployment, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Research in the general population has shown that while many services are available for families with children experiencing problems, the rate of service utilization is low. This study examined help-seeking processes in military families in relation to children's problems. We collected data on emotional and behavioral problems from a sample of military parents with children ranging in age from zero to 10 years. While prevalence of children with problems was similar to prior research, results in this study suggested that military parents were alert to problems. Although military parents' help-seeking processes were similar to those documented in civilian studies in many respects, we did not find a significant gender difference in the recognition of problems. Furthermore, we found that children's experiences of deployment were related to use of services. Families who used services most often relied on primary care providers. These findings suggest military families are mindful of the possibility of their children having problems. In addition, many families utilize civilian services. Therefore, it is important to ensure that front-line civilian providers fully understand the context of military family issues.

  6. Assessing the Child Development Information Needed by Adolescent Parents with Very Young Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann S.

    In order to study teenaged mothers' knowledge, expectations, and attitudes regarding parenthood, their support systems for coping with pregnancy and parenthood, and how these factors influence their actual parenting ability in interactions with their babies, ninety-eight female teenagers from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds were interviewed…

  7. Young Children's Understanding of a Biological Basis for Parent-Offspring Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Results of two experiments indicated that preschoolers expected adopted babies to share physical properties, but not preferences with their biological parents; and recognized that a baby who looks like and lives with a woman but who grew inside another woman's body is not the first woman's baby. (BC)

  8. Supporting Parents of Young Children with Severe Disabilities: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Parents of children with severe disabilities face many challenges. They must adjust to the changes in family dynamics, educational decisions, and the long-term implications of the severity of the disability. This action research project provides a detailed look into the lives of four families of children with severe disabilities. The parent…

  9. Parents' Goals, Knowledge, Practices, and Needs Regarding Music Education for Their Young Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youm, Hyun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore South Korean parents' understanding of and desires for music education for their children. Following a constructivist paradigm and qualitative research methodology, data collection involved in-depth interviews, observations, written questionnaires, family music materials, and the researcher's journals. The…

  10. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  11. Intellectual Ability in Young Men Separated Temporarily from Their Parents in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka; Osmond, Clive; Forsen, Tom; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of early life stress (ELS) on intellectual ability in 2,725 20-year-old male participants, of whom 321 were separated temporarily (mean 1.7 years) from both their parents during World War II, at an average age of 4.3 years. Intellectual ability was tested when entering compulsory military service. The separated men had…

  12. A Shared Reading Intervention with Parents to Enhance Young Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…

  13. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  14. Reaction to Diagnosis and Parenting Styles among Mothers of Young Children with ASDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachtel, Karen; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    When a child is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) parents often experience a range of difficult feelings, which typically are not addressed in child-focused interventions. This study examined the relationship between a mother's acceptance of and sense of resolution regarding her child's diagnosis of an ASD and maternal interaction…

  15. Parent-Implemented Mand Training: Acquisition of Framed Manding in a Young Boy with Partial Hemispherectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-implemented mand training on the acquisition of framed manding in a 4-year-old boy who had undergone partial hemispherectomy. Framed manding became the predominant mand form when and only when the intervention was implemented with each preferred toy, but minimal generalization to untrained toys …

  16. Paranoid Thinking, Quality of Relationships with Parents, and Social Outcomes among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.; Kwong, Wing Yee

    2011-01-01

    Research based on clinical samples suggests that poor-quality relationships with parents are associated with paranoid disorders; however, no research has investigated such relations within nonclinical populations. Undergraduate students (N = 179) completed self-reports of paranoid thinking, quality of relationships with mothers and fathers,…

  17. Parents' Experiences of Home-Based Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Corinna F.; Kovshoff, Hanna; Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has documented the benefits to children with autism of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), little has focused on the impact of EIBI on families. Using a semi-structured format, we interviewed 53 parents whose children had received 2 years of EIBI to obtain detailed first person accounts of the perceived benefits…

  18. Cognitive Development among Young Children in Ecuador: The Roles of Wealth, Health, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between early cognitive development, socioeconomic status (SES), child health, and parenting quality in a developing country. We use a sample of more than 3,000 predominantly poor preschool-aged children from Ecuador, and analyze determinants of their scores on a widely used test of language ability. We find that…

  19. Mothers, Fathers, and Toddlers: Parental Psychosocial Functioning as a Context for Young Children's Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Bordeleau, Stéphanie; Carrier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective relations between parental psychosocial functioning and toddlers' sleep consolidation. Investigators met with 85 families 3 times, when children were 15 months (Time 1 [T1]), 18 months (T2), and 2 years of age (T3). Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires pertaining to their parenting…

  20. How To Choose a Public School: A Guide for Parents of Young NYC School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukess, Laura F.

    This pamphlet guides New York City parents through the basic steps in choosing a public school for their children. Every child 6 years of age or older in New York City must attend school, and children may be enrolled in kindergarten the year they turn 5. A limited number of preschool spaces are available. Legal residency is not a requirement for…

  1. Classroom-to-Home Connections: Young Children's Experiences with a Technology-Based Parent Involvement Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Cromer, Heidi; Weigel, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: DVD classroom newsletters are one proposed technology tool to promote classroom-to-home connections. The present study explored the experiences of prekindergarten children from predominantly Spanish-speaking homes with bilingual (English and Spanish) DVD classroom newsletters. On average, parents reported that children watched…

  2. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Anne V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2,…

  3. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls.

  4. School: The Normalizing Factor for Children with Childhood Leukemia. Perspectives of Young Survivors and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nanci A.; Fulmer, Deborah L.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    A study of 8 children (ages 5-7) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia found returning to school was a major milestone and that school serves as the mechanism by which young survivors approach the process of living each day. Attendance obstacles are discussed, along with guidelines for maintaining school as a priority. (Contains references.) (CR)

  5. Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Young Adult Male Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mednick, Birgitte; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between divorce and young adult male crime, controlling for two factors; socioeconomic status and paternal criminality. The subjects were drawn from the subject pool of a Danish longitudinal study. The initial significant effects of divorce disappeared when the controlling factors were introduced through…

  6. Angry Young Men: How Parents, Teachers, and Counselors Can Help "Bad Boys" Become Good Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Aaron

    This book examines conceivable links between young male criminality and physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; lack of mentoring by older males; the inculcation of shame by adults; child poverty and neglect; social and political disenfranchisement; inappropriate, inadequate, and ineffectual education; spiritual impoverishment; father absence; lack…

  7. What's up? What Young Teens and Parents Want from Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczak, Mary S.; Dworkin, Jodi; Skuza, Jennifer; Beyer, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with young teens offered many complex and often idiosyncratic reasons why they did or did not participate in structured activities (for example: personality, interest, attitudes about time use, personal and family life circumstances). However, there also exist common threads that should give one pause regarding the current wisdom on how…

  8. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  9. Clinical Consensus Strategies for Interpersonal Problems between Young Adults and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Burckell, Lisa A.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Research that identifies areas of agreement among expert therapists can complement findings from clinical trials by highlighting common practices as well as innovations. The present study accessed consensus among expert therapists on the effectiveness of clinical strategies for treating young adults experiencing interpersonal problems…

  10. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  11. Behavioral Manifestations and Parental Correlates of Intolerance of Ambiguity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, David M.; And Others

    The phenomenon of intolerance of ambiguity in young children was investigated in this longitudinal study. Personality data for the total of 120 children in the study were obtained from: (1) descriptions of the children at both 3 and 4 years of age by their teachers, using the California Child Q-set; (2) the children's performance on the Lowenfeld…

  12. The "Dismal Science" -- Economics. Creative Challenges for Young People, Their Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Norman L.

    This document presents a variety of creative activities for young people to help them not only understand some of the principles of economics but, further, enjoy the study of economics. The book, while not a comprehensive or in-depth view of the science of economics, comprises a quick survey of some important aspects of understanding the system.…

  13. Nurturing Young Gifted English Language Learners: A Survival Guide for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    For many young gifted English Language Learners (ELLs), going to an American school is like a trip to Mars. Everything and everyone looks strange. Many ELLs feel unsure of their abilities when they discover that their proficiency in English can sometimes hinder achievement. They wonder what the other kids think of their speech, their accents,…

  14. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  15. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  16. "In the driver's seat": Parent perceptions of choice in a participant-directed medicaid waiver program for young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Maria T; Leutz, Walter N; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated families' experience of choice within a participant-directed Medicaid waiver program for young children with autism. Fourteen parents or grandparents participated in in-depth interviews about their experience of choosing personnel, directing in-home services, and managing the $25,000 annual allocation. Key findings included families' preference to hire providers with whom they have a prior relationship, parent empowerment and differences of opinion about parents as teachers. Professionals implementing participant directed service models could benefit from understanding the strong value parents' placed on the personalities and interpersonal skills of providers. Parents' descriptions of directing rather than merely accepting autism services revealed increased confidence in their ability to choose and manage the multiple components of their children's HCBS autism waiver program.

  17. Perceived Social Competence and Loneliness Among Young Children with ASD: Child, Parent and Teacher Reports.

    PubMed

    Zeedyk, Sasha M; Cohen, Shana R; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Perceived loneliness and social competence were assessed for 127 children with ASD without comorbid ID, 4-7 years old, through child self-report. Using an abbreviated version of the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ; Cassidy and Asher in Child Dev 63:250-365, 1992), the majority of children reported friendships, yet a considerable proportion also reported social difficulties. Factor analysis of the abbreviated LSDQ identified three factors, which were significantly associated with parent- and teacher-reported variables. Regression analyses revealed parent-reported social skills deficits and teacher-reported conflict in the student-teacher relationship to be associated with child-reported loneliness. Implications for practice are discussed.

  18. Parents' experiences of home-based applied behavior analysis programs for young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Grindle, Corinna F; Kovshoff, Hanna; Hastings, Richard P; Remington, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has documented the benefits to children with autism of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), little has focused on the impact of EIBI on families. Using a semi-structured format, we interviewed 53 parents whose children had received 2 years of EIBI to obtain detailed first person accounts of the perceived benefits and pitfalls of running a home program, and the impact of EIBI on family life and support systems. In general, parents were positive about EIBI, its benefits for them, their child, and the broader family. Interviews also, however, revealed some of the more challenging aspects of managing home-based EIBI. The implications of these findings for more supportive interventions for families on home programs are discussed.

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays: Implications for Parental Mental Health and Child Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems;…

  20. A Comparison of Maternal Parenting Style Attitudes of Grandmothers and Mothers of Young Children in Taiwan: Development of a New Measure of Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tsung-Wen

    Noting that previous study of child rearing patterns among Chinese parents has ignored the importance of the instrument measuring parenting style, this study used an instrument incorporating Chinese concepts of parenting and based on well-established parenting concepts to examine differences in the child rearing attitudes of mothers and…

  1. Child welfare services involvement among the children of young parents in foster care.

    PubMed

    Dworsky, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  2. Influences of Parent and Child Negative Emotionality on Young Children’s Everyday Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems. PMID:22390707

  3. Pediatricians' role in supporting parents as they care for infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Joshua

    2011-08-01

    Primary care pediatric health care clinicians can integrate basic principles and strategies of the field of infant mental health within the time constraints of their current practice, while advocating for additional resources to support the expansion of the preventive potential afforded by new scientific advances in this field. Infant mental health is a relatively young field with the potential to reduce human suffering and health care costs associated with early-onset developmental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. This will depend not only on primary care pediatric diagnostic acumen, but also on related investments in health care preventive screenings and interventions, training and infrastructure, as well as community supports. The health and development of infants, young children, and families emerge from the interactions of a wide range of factors-including health, education, and economic policy, as well as attributes of local communities and the larger physical environment-and impact economics and security at national and global levels.

  4. Young parents' relationship characteristics, shared sexual behaviors, perception of partner risks, and dyadic influences.

    PubMed

    Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Lesser, Janna; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Evelyn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G

    2009-01-01

    Rising rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners' behaviors and personal history. Higher concordance was found for relationship characteristics and partners' personal history (e.g., incarceration) than on shared sexual behaviors. Most males and females stated that they were monogamous; however, those whose partners reported concurrency were unaware of this. Many were unaware of their partners' HIV testing status. Relationship quality was higher when females accurately perceived their partners' self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Length of the relationship did not influence concordance. Findings support the need for HIV prevention programs to promote open discussion about condom use and HIV testing within sexual partnerships.

  5. Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Psychometrics and Associations With Child and Parent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Stephanie L.; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Mirenda, Pat; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    Objective The factor structure and validity of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; Crist & Napier-Phillips, 2001) were examined in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the original BPFAS five-factor model, the fit of each latent variable, and a rival one-factor model. None of the models was adequate, thus a categorical exploratory factor analysis (CEFA) was conducted. Correlations were used to examine relations between the BPFAS and concurrent variables of interest. Results The CEFA identified an acceptable three-factor model. Correlational analyses indicated that feeding problems were positively related to parent-reported autism symptoms, behavior problems, sleep problems, and parenting stress, but largely unrelated to performance-based indices of autism symptom severity, language, and cognitive abilities, as well as child age. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the use of the identified BPFAS three-factor model for samples of young children with ASD. PMID:25725217

  6. Parents' Judgments of the Acceptability and Importance of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…

  7. "In the Driver's Seat": Parent Perceptions of Choice in a Participant-Directed Medicaid Waiver Program for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Maria T.; Leutz, Walter N.; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated families' experience of choice within a participant-directed Medicaid waiver program for young children with autism. Fourteen parents or grandparents participated in in-depth interviews about their experience of choosing personnel, directing in-home services, and managing the $25,000 annual allocation. Key findings…

  8. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  9. A Cross-Ethnic Study of Adolescents' Depressed Mood and the Erosion of Parental and Peer Warmth during the Transition to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, William Y.; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study investigated the effects of adolescents' depressed mood on perceived parental and peer warmth during the transition to young adulthood. We hypothesized that ethnicity would moderate such effects. As part of a larger study, 511 adolescents (154 European, 205 Hispanic, and 152 Asian Americans) participated in this…

  10. Different but the Same? Exploring the Experiences of Young People Caring for a Parent with an Alcohol or Other Drug Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore; Tim; McArthur; Morag; Noble-Carr, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Although children of parents with an alcohol or other drug (AOD) issue appear to assume a range of caring responsibilities within their families they have, until recently, been excluded from the growing body of young-carer research, policy and practice. This is problematic, as this group may experience greater levels of social exclusion whilst…

  11. The Confidence and Competence in Information and Communication Technologies of Practitioners, Parents and Young Children in the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Dahl, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A review of evidence on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the early years was commissioned by the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency. Views of practitioners, parents and children were obtained and practitioner ICT audits completed. Most young children grow up in media-rich digital environments in…

  12. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Early Intervention Programs for Young Children with Autism: Centre-Based with Parent Program and Home-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline; Williams, Katrina; Carter, Mark; Evans, David; Parmenter, Trevor; Silove, Natalie; Clark, Trevor; Warren, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill…

  13. The Language Use Inventory for Young Children: A Parent-Report Measure of Pragmatic Language Development for 18- to 47-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the internal reliability and discriminative validity of the Language Use Inventory for Young Children (LUI; D. K. O'Neill, 2002), a newly developed parent-report measure designed to assess pragmatic language development in 18-47-month-olds. Method: To examine internal reliability, the LUI was completed by mail by 177…

  14. Young adults' reactions to gay and lesbian peers who became suicidal following "coming out" to their parents.

    PubMed

    Cato, Jennifer E; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2003-01-01

    Rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior among gay and lesbian youth surpass those recorded among their heterosexual peers. A frequently cited precipitant of gay and lesbian nonfatal suicidal behavior is the turmoil associated with coming out to one's family. This study investigated young adults' attitudes toward peers who engaged in suicidal behavior after coming out and being rejected by their parents, and compared them with attitudes toward persons who had become suicidal in response to other stressors (a physical illness, a relationship loss, or an academic failure). Our goal was to explore whether young persons hold beliefs that may encourage lesbian and gay suicidal behavior. We found that gays and lesbians who engaged in suicidal behavior following coming out were not viewed in particularly forgiving or empathic ways, as was the case for persons who became suicidal following an incurable illness. All suicidal persons were perceived as relatively feminine. At the same time, suicidal males were rated as more masculine if they engaged in suicidal behavior because of an academic failure or a physical illness, while suicidal females were viewed as more masculine only if their suicidal behavior followed an academic failure. Finally, we found that both respondent sex and respondent gender-identity influenced evaluations of suicidal persons. Building on these findings, future research should explore attitudes toward the permissibility of a suicidal decision by lesbian and gay persons.

  15. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P <.001. Gain-framing was associated with increased odds of self-efficacy for both behaviors (burn: AOR = 1.77 and smoke: AOR = 1.77). Messages that show positive outcomes combined with scripted parental mediation appear most effective in communicating safety behaviors, but the overall effectiveness of video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  16. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  17. Effective process or dangerous precipice: qualitative comparative embedded case study with young people with epilepsy and their parents during transition from children’s to adult services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services is known to be challenging. Some young people partially or completely disengage from contact with services, thereby risking their health and wellbeing. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review that showed current epilepsy transition models enabling information exchange and developing self-care skills were not working well. We used synthesised evidence to develop a theoretical framework to inform this qualitative study. The aim was to address a critical research gap by exploring communication, information needs, and experiences of knowledge exchange in clinical settings by young people and their parents, during transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services. Method Qualitative comparative embedded Case study with 2 'transition’ cases (epilepsy services) in two hospitals. Fifty-eight participants: 30 young people (13–19 years) and 28 parents were interviewed in-depth (individual or focus group). Clinical documents/guidelines were collated. 'Framework’ thematic analysis was used. The theoretical framework was tested using themes, pattern matching and replication logic. Theory-based evaluation methods were used to understand how and why different models of service delivery worked. Results A joint epilepsy clinic for young people 14–17 years coordinated by children’s and adult services was more likely to influence young people’s behaviour by facilitating more positive engagement with adult healthcare professionals and retention of epilepsy-related self-care information. Critical success factors were continuity of care, on-going and consistent age-appropriate and person centred communication and repeated information exchange. Three young people who experienced a single handover clinic disengaged from services. Psychosocial care was generally inadequate and healthcare professionals lacked awareness of memory impairment. Parents lacked knowledge, skills and support to enable their

  18. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  19. Parent programs for latino families with young children: social, cultural, and linguistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Cycyk, Lauren M; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2015-05-01

    It is likely that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) will be called upon to serve the growing numbers of children under age 5 from Latino families. Families are considered central to implementing language facilitation strategies at this age. These strategies must be both culturally informed and also focus on naturally occurring experiences in children's homes. However, few existing early intervention programs are specific to the cultural values and language learning experiences of young Latino children. This article reviews the current knowledge base on the early language learning experiences of these children and provides SLPs implementing family programs with suggestions on adapting family-centered language facilitation techniques to this population.

  20. Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-06-01

    A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed.

  1. Feasibility of teaching motivational interviewing to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Smeerdijk, Maarten; Keet, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; Barrowclough, Christine; Linszen, Don; Schippers, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of providing motivational interviewing (MI) training to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use. The training was offered in a mental health care setting as part of a family motivational intervention (FMI). Ninety-seven parents were randomly assigned to either FMI or routine family support (RFS). To obtain a measure of parent's MI skills at baseline and 3 months after they completed FMI, their role-play interactions with an actor portraying their child were coded. The coding method had satisfactory inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. At follow-up, parents in FMI showed significantly greater adherence to (p=.03) and competence in (p=.04) MI than parents in RFS. Parents in FMI also demonstrated significantly greater increases in expressing empathy (p=.01). These results demonstrate that FMI is a feasible method for increasing MI skills in parents. Additional research is needed to better understand the unique application of MI to parent-child interactions.

  2. On the association of young star clusters and their parental clouds: a statistical fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetem, A.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Fernandes, B.; Santos-Silva, T.

    2014-10-01

    We present a study of 21 young star clusters aiming to characterize their association to dense clouds. The structure of the clouds was evaluated by means of the Q statistical fractal analysis, designed to compare their geometric structure with the spatial distribution of the cluster members. The sample was selected from the study by Santos-Silva and Gregorio-Hetem (2012, A&A, 547, A107) that evaluated the radial density profile of the stellar superficial distribution of the young clusters. The fractal dimension and other statistical parameters of most of the sample indicate that there is a good cloud-cluster correlation, when compared to other works based on an artificial distribution of points (Lomax et al. 2011, MNRAS, 412, 627). As presented in a previous work (Fernandes et al. 2012, A&A, 541, A95 ), the cluster NGC 6530 is the only object of our sample that presents anomalous statistical behaviour. The fractal analysis shows that this cluster has a centrally concentrated distribution of stars that differs from the substructures found in the density distribution of the cloud projected in the A_{V} map, suggesting that the original cloud geometry was changed by the cluster formation.

  3. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  4. Reaction to diagnosis and parenting styles among mothers of young children with ASDs.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Karen; Carter, Alice S

    2008-09-01

    When a child is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) parents often experience a range of difficult feelings, which typically are not addressed in child-focused interventions. This study examined the relationship between a mother's acceptance of and sense of resolution regarding her child's diagnosis of an ASD and maternal interaction style, controlling for child competence, autism symptoms and maternal depression. Participants included 63 children with an ASD between 20 and 50 months of age and their mothers. Mothers who were more emotionally resolved were rated as higher in Cognitive Engagement and Supportive Engagement in play interactions, reflecting greater verbal and nonverbal scaffolding to enhance the child's play and attention to activities and greater reciprocity and mutual enjoyment. This study highlights the importance of considering a mother's resolution about her child's diagnosis, suggesting that maternal emotions and cognitions associated with the diagnosis may be potential targets for intervention.

  5. Parental perceptions of the impacts the built environment has on young children׳s health: a qualitative examination and lay assessment amongst residents in four Scottish communities.

    PubMed

    Teedon, Paul; Gillespie, Morag; Lindsay, Kate; Baker, Keith

    2014-07-01

    The built environment is important for children׳s health and development. Qualitative research in four communities in Scotland explored with groups of parents of young children their lay perceptions of their local environment with specific reference to its impact upon their children׳s health. Valuing most strong supportive communities; good quality public spaces and social housing, parents׳ key concerns included anti-social behaviour, incivility and a range of locally-specific concerns. As knowledgeable key gatekeepers to children׳s use of home environments and public spaces, parent׳s qualitative lay input is important for the development of children׳s effective use of outdoor spaces and the built environment over the long term.

  6. "Someone's Been Sleeping in My Bed!" Parental Satisfaction Associated with Solitary and Parent-Child Co-Sleeping in Israeli Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollberg, Daphna; Shalev, Orly; Chen, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The study examined differences in parental satisfaction associated with solitary and parent-child co-sleeping in a sample (N = 61) of Israeli families with children ranging in age from 12 to 48 months (M = 28.04, SD = 10.71). Questionnaire data regarding the family sleeping arrangement, parental satisfaction with the sleeping arrangement, child…

  7. Tuning In: Parents of Young Children Speak up about What They Think, Know and Need. ZERO TO THREE National Parent Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three, 2016

    2016-01-01

    ZERO TO THREE, in partnership with the Bezos Family Foundation, conducted a comprehensive research effort, including a series of in-home discussions and a large national parent survey with a diverse range of parents of children from birth to 5. Our findings provide brand new insights about the challenges parents face, what they do and do not…

  8. Effects on Parental Mental Health of an Education and Skills Training Program for Parents of Young Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; MacKinnon, Andrew; King, Neville; Rinehart, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of a parent education and behavior management intervention (PEBM) on the mental health and adjustment of parents with preschool children with autism. Method: A randomized, group-comparison design involving a parent education and counseling intervention to control for nonspecific therapist effects and a control…

  9. ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhan; Liu, Liren; Xu, Rongwei; Luan, Zhu

    2005-08-10

    We report the formulation of an ABCD matrix for reflection and refraction of Gaussian light beams at the surface of a parabola of revolution that separate media of different refractive indices based on optical phase matching. The equations for the spot sizes and wave-front radii of the beams are also obtained by using theABCD matrix. With these matrices, we can more conveniently design and evaluate some special optical systems, including these kinds of elements.

  10. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  11. Generalized Stokes parameters of a stochastic electromagnetic beam propagating through a paraxial ABCD optical system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingbin; Zhao, Daomu

    2008-08-01

    On the basis of the generalized diffraction integral formula for an ABCD optical system in the spatial domain, a propagation law for the generalized Stokes parameters of a stochastic electromagnetic beam passing through an ABCD optical system is obtained. We describe the Stokes parameters of the source as linear combinations of the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix, and study the changes in the spectral degree of polarization and in the state of the polarization ellipse of a stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam propagating through a gradient-index fiber with the help of generalized Stokes parameters and the cross-spectral density matrix. The medium has significant effect on the change of the spectral degree of polarization. However, when the correlation coefficients of the source satisfy the relation delta(xx)=delta(yy)=delta(xy)=delta(yx), the medium does not influence the spectral degree of polarization.

  12. Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome: report of an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Yamagata, Takanori; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Itoh, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hironaka, Mitsugu; Honda, Ayako; Momoi, Mariko Y; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome (CADDS) is a contiguous deletion syndrome involving the ABCD1 and DXS1357E/BAP31 genes on Xq28. Although ABCD1 is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), its phenotype differs from that of CADDS, which manifests with many features of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), including severe growth and developmental retardation, liver dysfunction, cholestasis and early infantile death. We report here the fourth case of CADDS, in which a boy had dysmorphic features, including a flat orbital edge, hypoplastic nose, micrognathia, inguinal hernia, micropenis, cryptorchidism and club feet, all of which are shared by ZS. The patient achieved no developmental milestones and died of pneumonia at 8 months. Biochemical studies demonstrated abnormal metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, which was higher than that seen in X-ALD. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot showed the absence of ALD protein (ALDP) despite the presence of other peroxisomal proteins. Pathological studies disclosed a small brain with hypomyelination and secondary hypoxic-ischemic changes. Neuronal heterotopia in the white matter and leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia indicated a neuronal migration disorder. The liver showed fibrosis and cholestasis. The thymus and adrenal glands were hypoplastic. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis suggested that the deletion was a genomic rearrangement in the 90-kb span starting in DXS1357E/BACP31 exon 4 and included ABCD1, PLXNB3, SRPK3, IDH3G and SSR4, ending in PDZD4 exon 8. Thus, the absence of ALDP, when combined with defects in the B-cell antigen receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) and other factors, severely affects VLCFA metabolism on peroxisomal functions and produces ZS-like pathology.

  13. A qualitative study of perceptions of determinants of disease burden among young patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents in South India

    PubMed Central

    Verloo, Henk; Meenakumari, Mohan; Abraham, Elizabeth Jean; Malarvizhi, Gnanam

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a leading threat to public health in India. A huge prevalence of type 1 diabetes among young patients is documented in literature; India is one of the countries with the highest number of new cases per year (10,900), of which 3–4 million face poverty along with diabetes. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of determinants of the disease burden among young patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Methods In June 2014, perceptions were collected from eleven young patients and five available parents using the critical incident technique. Results Disease burdens associated with the management of type 1 diabetes can vary significantly according to the different social and economic determinants facing each household. Determinants associated with good practices in the management of childhood type 1 diabetes included socioeconomic status, unawareness of health complications, and beliefs about nutrition. Coping strategies applied via lifestyle changes included monitoring glycemia and regular checkups by diabetologists. A general lack of awareness about type 1 diabetes in Indian society, stigmatization, and limited access and systematic barriers to the delivery of optimal health care were all perceived to be factors hindering the successful management of chronic type 1 diabetes by young patients and their parents. Conclusion Stigmatization, a lack of therapeutic adherence, and the financial strains placed on families, particularly on poor ones, are critical. More emphasis must be put on the prevention of acute and long-term complications and education. PMID:27274298

  14. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities—Parental and young adult perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole

    2017-01-01

    Background Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18–24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. Results The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country’s cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and

  15. Harsh Parenting As a Potential Mediator of the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Disruptive Behavior in Families With Young Children.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Henry, David; Kestler, Jacqueline; Nieto, Ricardo; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2016-07-01

    Young children living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are often also exposed to harsh parenting. Both forms of violence increase children's risk for clinically significant disruptive behavior, which can place them on a developmental trajectory associated with serious psychological impairment later in life. Although it is hypothesized that IPV behaviors may spillover into harsh parenting, and thereby influence risk for disruptive behavior, relatively little is known about these processes in families with young children. The current study examines the overlap of the quality and frequency of psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting, and tests whether harsh parenting mediates the relationship between IPV and child disruptive behavior in a diverse cross-sectional sample of 81 children ages 4 to 6 years. Results suggest that mothers reporting a greater occurrence of psychologically aggressive IPV (e.g., yelling, name-calling) more often engage in psychological and physical aggression toward their children (odds ratios [ORs] = 4.6-9.9). Mothers reporting a greater occurrence of IPV in the form of physical assault more often engage in mild to more severe forms of physical punishment with potential harm to the child (ORs = 3.8-5.0). Psychological and physical forms of IPV and harsh parenting all significantly correlated with maternal reports of child disruptive behavior (r = .29-.40). Psychological harsh parenting partially mediated the association between psychological IPV and child disruptive behavior. However, a significant direct effect of psychological IPV on preschool children's disruptive behavior remained. Implications for child welfare policy and practice and intervention, including the need for increased awareness of the negative impact of psychological IPV on young children, are discussed.

  16. Parent report of mealtime behaviors in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: implications for better assessment of dietary adherence problems in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Patton, Susana R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Powers, Scott W

    2006-06-01

    Parents of children with a chronic illness that has a nutrition treatment component often report mealtime behavior problems. Although research suggests that parents of young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) perceive more mealtime behavior problems than parents of controls, no study has examined the pattern of mealtime behaviors reported by parents of children with T1DM. We examined parents' perceptions of mealtime behaviors of children with T1DM using the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS). We hypothesized that parents of young children with T1DM would describe similar mealtime problems as has been found in families of children with clinical feeding problems. Data from 85 families of children with T1DM (mean = 5 +/- 1.5 years) were used. Factor analysis for children with T1DM identified a 6-factor solution. Four factors (child refusal, picky eater, stalling, food texture) were similar to factors identified in children with clinical feeding problems. Two unique factors, reflecting strict dietary requirements and intense disruptive behavior, were identified for children with T1DM. Consistent with our hypothesis, we conclude that patterns of mealtime behaviors appear similar for children with T1DM and children with clinical feeding problems. However, for young children with T1DM, unique problems exist, related to a strict feeding schedule consistent with the diabetes diet. Within routine diabetes care, the BPFAS is a valid and clinically useful tool to assess dietary adherence and mealtime behaviors in children. Monitoring via the BPFAS can identify families in need of behavioral interventions to improve mealtime functioning.

  17. Cortisol covariation within parents of young children: Moderation by relationship aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Adam, Emma K; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Guardino, Christine M; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2015-12-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al., 2013; Saxbe and Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples' physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women's diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners' cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples' relationship functioning and physical health.

  18. Stress and coping among children of alcoholic parents through the young adult transition.

    PubMed

    Hussong, Andrea M; Chassin, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design to examine the development of coping styles over adolescence, continuity in these coping styles from adolescence to adulthood, the impact of coping on adult stress and substance misuse, the ability of coping to buffer effects of stress on substance use, and differences in coping between at-risk youth (i.e., children of alcoholics [COAs]) and their peers. A sample of 340 adolescents completed four assessments over ages 11-23. We used latent trajectory models to examine interindividual and intraindividual change in coping over time. Evidence for both change and continuity in the development of coping from adolescence to adulthood was found, although adolescent coping had limited impact on stress and substance use in adulthood. Support was also found for complex stress-buffering and stress-exacerbating effects of coping on the relations between major life events and adult drug use and between stress associated with the new roles of adulthood and heavy alcohol use. Implications of these findings for development and adjustment in the transition to adulthood are discussed.

  19. Prospective validation of the ABCD2 score for patients in the emergency department with transient ischemic attack

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jeffrey J.; Sharma, Mukul; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.; Sutherland, Jane; Symington, Cheryl; Worster, Andrew; Émond, Marcel; Stotts, Grant; Jin, Albert Y.; Oczkowski, Weislaw J.; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Murray, Heather E.; MacKey, Ariane; Verreault, Steve; Wells, George A.; Stiell, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ABCD2 score (Age, Blood pressure, Clinical features, Duration of symptoms and Diabetes) is used to identify patients having a transient ischemic attack who are at high risk for imminent stroke. However, despite its widespread implementation, the ABCD2 score has not yet been prospectively validated. We assessed the accuracy of the ABCD2 score for predicting stroke at 7 (primary outcome) and 90 days. Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled adults from eight Canadian emergency departments who had received a diagnosis of transient ischemic attack. Physicians completed data forms with the ABCD2 score before disposition. The outcome criterion, stroke, was established by a treating neurologist or by an Adjudication Committee. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity for predicting stroke 7 and 90 days after visiting the emergency department using the original “high-risk” cutpoint of an ABCD2 score of more than 5, and the American Heart Association recommendation of a score of more than 2. Results: We enrolled 2056 patients (mean age 68.0 yr, 1046 (50.9%) women) who had a rate of stroke of 1.8% at 7 days and 3.2% at 90 days. An ABCD2 score of more than 5 had a sensitivity of 31.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.1–47.5) for stroke at 7 days and 29.2% (95% CI 19.6–41.2) for stroke at 90 days. An ABCD2 score of more than 2 resulted in sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI 82.7–98.5) for stroke at 7 days with a specificity of 12.5% (95% CI 11.2–14.1). The accuracy of the ABCD2 score as calculated by either the enrolling physician (area under the curve 0.56; 95% CI 0.47–0.65) or the coordinating centre (area under the curve 0.65; 95% CI 0.57–0.73) was poor. Interpretation: This multicentre prospective study involving patients in emergency departments with transient ischemic attack found the ABCD2 score to be inaccurate, at any cut-point, as a predictor of imminent stroke. Furthermore, the ABCD2 score of more than 2 that is recommended by

  20. Maternal distress influences young children's family representations through maternal view of child behavior and parent-child interactions.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon Soo; Popp, Jill; Robinson, JoAnn

    2014-02-01

    Distress of a parent is a key influence on the quality of the child's experience in the family. We hypothesized that maternal distress would spill over into more negative views of their children's behaviors and less emotional availability in their relationships. Further, we investigated whether these cumulative experiences contributed to children's emerging narratives about mothers and family life. In this longitudinal study, mothers of young twin children reported their distress on three occasions in relation to: self, the marital relationship, and the family climate. Mothers also reported on their children's externalizing behavior problems. Mother-child interaction was observed focusing on maternal sensitivity and child responsivity. Children responded to story stem beginnings about challenging situations in the family and their narratives were scored for family conflict and cohesion themes. Actor-partner interdependence model methods of dyadic data analysis accounted for the inclusion of both twins in the analysis. Results from structural equation models supported the hypothesized cumulative experience of maternal distress on children's family life representations for both family conflict and family cohesion. A family environment in which children are exposed to persistent maternal distress early in life may have cumulative effects, influencing how mothers interact with and view their children's behavior at later developmental stages. Moreover, exposure to repeated distress for longer periods of time may contribute to an intergenerational continuity of distress for the child that may become rooted in negative affective bias in their own view of family relationships.