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Sample records for abcg2-mediated multidrug resistance

  1. Icotinib antagonizes ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance, but not the pemetrexed resistance mediated by thymidylate synthase and ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Kathawala, Rishil J.; Robey, Robert W.; Zhang, Li; Yang, Dong-Hua; Talele, Tanaji T.; Bates, Susan E.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    ABCG2 is a potential biomarker causing multidrug resistance (MDR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this study to investigate whether Icotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, could interact with ABCG2 transporter in NSCLC. Our results showed that Icotinib reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR by antagonizing the drug efflux function of ABCG2. Icotinib stimulated the ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, demonstrating that it interacts at the drug-binding pocket. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of Icotinib at Asn629 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, Icotinib at reversal concentration did not affect the expression levels of AKT and ABCG2. Furthermore, a combination of Icotinib and topotecan exhibited significant synergistic anticancer activity against NCI-H460/MX20 tumor xenografts. However, the inhibition of transport activity of ABCG2 was insufficient to overcome pemetrexed resistance in NCI-H460/MX20 cells, which was due to the co-upregulated thymidylate synthase (TS) and ABCG2 expression. This is the first report to show that the up-regulation of TS in ABCG2-overexpressing cell line NCI-H460/MX20 may play a role of resistance to pemetrexate. Our findings suggested different possible strategies of overcoming the resistance of topotecan and pemetrexed in the NSCLC patients. PMID:24980828

  2. Icotinib antagonizes ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance, but not the pemetrexed resistance mediated by thymidylate synthase and ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Patel, Atish; Shukla, Suneet; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Kathawala, Rishil J; Robey, Robert W; Zhang, Li; Yang, Dong-Hua; Talele, Tanaji T; Bates, Susan E; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Xu, Rui-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-06-30

    ABCG2 is a potential biomarker causing multidrug resistance (MDR) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We conducted this study to investigate whether Icotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, could interact with ABCG2 transporter in NSCLC. Our results showed that Icotinib reversed ABCG2-mediated MDR by antagonizing the drug efflux function of ABCG2. Icotinib stimulated the ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, demonstrating that it interacts at the drug-binding pocket. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of Icotinib at Asn629 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, Icotinib at reversal concentration did not affect the expression levels of AKT and ABCG2. Furthermore, a combination of Icotinib and topotecan exhibited significant synergistic anticancer activity against NCI-H460/MX20 tumor xenografts. However, the inhibition of transport activity of ABCG2 was insufficient to overcome pemetrexed resistance in NCI-H460/MX20 cells, which was due to the co-upregulated thymidylate synthase (TS) and ABCG2 expression. This is the first report to show that the up-regulation of TS in ABCG2-overexpressing cell line NCI-H460/MX20 may play a role of resistance to pemetrexate. Our findings suggested different possible strategies of overcoming the resistance of topotecan and pemetrexed in the NSCLC patients.

  3. Alectinib (CH5424802) antagonizes ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Chen, Yifan; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Wang, Fang; Li, Delan; Chen, Likun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-03-17

    Alectinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we investigated the reversal effect of alectinib on multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which is the primary cause of chemotherapy failure. We provide the first evidence that alectinib increases the sensitivity of ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, alectinib increased the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates such as doxorubicin (DOX) and Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) by inhibiting the efflux function of the transporters in ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cells but not in their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, alectinib stimulated ATPase activity and competed with substrates of ABCB1 or ABCG2 and competed with [125I] iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling bound to ABCB1 or ABCG2 but neither altered the expression and localization of ABCB1 or ABCG2 nor the phosphorylation levels of AKT and ERK. Alectinib also enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and the intracellular accumulation of Rho 123 in ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia cells. These findings suggest that alectinib combined with traditional chemotherapy may be beneficial to patients with ABCB1- or ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  4. Alectinib (CH5424802) antagonizes ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Chen, Yifan; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Wang, Fang; Li, Delan; Chen, Likun; Fu, Liwu

    2017-01-01

    Alectinib, an inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we investigated the reversal effect of alectinib on multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which is the primary cause of chemotherapy failure. We provide the first evidence that alectinib increases the sensitivity of ABCB1- and ABCG2-overexpressing cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, alectinib increased the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates such as doxorubicin (DOX) and Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) by inhibiting the efflux function of the transporters in ABCB1- or ABCG2-overexpressing cells but not in their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, alectinib stimulated ATPase activity and competed with substrates of ABCB1 or ABCG2 and competed with [125I] iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling bound to ABCB1 or ABCG2 but neither altered the expression and localization of ABCB1 or ABCG2 nor the phosphorylation levels of AKT and ERK. Alectinib also enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and the intracellular accumulation of Rho 123 in ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia cells. These findings suggest that alectinib combined with traditional chemotherapy may be beneficial to patients with ABCB1- or ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:28303028

  5. Human ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) and ABCG2 mediate resistance to BI 2536, a potent and selective inhibitor of Polo-like kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Hsiao, Sung-Han; Sim, Hong-May; Luo, Shi-Yu; Tuo, Wei-Cherng; Cheng, Hsing-Wen; Li, Yan-Qing; Huang, Yang-Hui; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2013-10-01

    The overexpression of the serine/threonine specific Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) has been detected in various types of cancer, and thus has fast become an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. BI 2536 is the first selective inhibitor of Plk1 that inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting G2/M cell cycle arrest at nanomolar concentrations. Unfortunately, alike most chemotherapeutic agents, the development of acquired resistance to BI 2536 is prone to present a significant therapeutic challenge. One of the most common mechanisms for acquired resistance in cancer chemotherapy is associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Here, we discovered that overexpressing of either ABCB1 or ABCG2 is a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to BI 2536 in human cancer cells. Moreover, BI 2536 stimulates the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibits the drug substrate transport mediated by these transporters. More significantly, the reduced chemosensitivity and BI 2536-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells overexpressing either ABCB1 or ABCG2 can be significantly restored in the presence of selective inhibitor or other chemotherapeutic agents that also interact with ABCB1 and ABCG2, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors nilotinib and lapatinib. Taken together, our findings indicate that in order to circumvent ABCB1 or ABCG2-mediated acquired resistance to BI 2536, a combined regimen of BI 2536 and inhibitors or clinically active drugs that potently inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters, should be considered as a potential treatment strategy in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of ABCG2 mediated MDR in vitro and in vivo by a novel inhibitor of ABCG2 drug transport.

    PubMed

    Patel, Atish; Li, Tian-Wen; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Wang, De-Shen; Sodani, Kamlesh; Gadhia, Sanket; Kathawala, Rishil; Yang, Dong-Hua; Cheng, Changmei; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a disease whose treatment is often limited due to the development of a phenomenon known as multidrug resistance (MDR). There is an immense demand for development of novel agents that can overcome the MDR in cancer. A group of transmembrane proteins called ATP-binding cassette transporters, present ubiquitously in the human body possesses a modular architecture, contributing immensely towards the development of MDR. An analysis of structural congeners among a group of compounds led to the discovery of CCTA-1523 that could selectively reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. CCTA-1523 (5μM) sensitized the ABCG2 overexpressing cancer cells and ABCG2 transfected cells to the substrate chemotherapeutic drugs. The reversal ability of CCTA-1523 was primarily due to the inhibition of the efflux function of ABCG2; also there was no change in the protein expression or the localization of the ABCG2 in the presence of CCTA-1523. The reversal effect of CCTA-1523 was reversible. Importantly, co-administration of CCTA-1523 restored the in vivo antitumor activity of doxorubicin in ABCG2 overexpressing tumor xenografts. Taken together, our findings indicate that CCTA-1523 is a potent, selective and reversible modulator of ABCG2 that may offer therapeutic promise for multidrug- resistant malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uncaria alkaloids reverse ABCB1-mediated cancer multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bao-Yuan; Zeng, Yu; Li, Ying-Jie; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Nan; Yao, Nan; Chen, Min-Feng; Yang, Zai-Gang; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zeng, Chang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is the main cause of cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), which leads to chemotherapy failure. Uncaria alkaloids are the major active components isolated from uncaria, which is a common Chinese herbal medicine. In this study, the MDR-reversal activities of uncaria alkaloids, including rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, isocorynoxeine (Icory), hirsutine and hirsuteine, were screened; they all exhibited potent reversal efficacy when combined with doxorubicin. Among them, Icory significantly sensitized ABCB1-overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to vincristine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel, but not to the non-ABCB1 substrate cisplatin. Noteworthy, Icory selectively reversed ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cancer cells but not ABCC1- or ABCG2-mediated MDR. Further mechanistic study revealed that Icory increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in ABCB1-overexpressing cells by blocking the efflux function of ABCB1. Instead of inhibiting ABCB1 expression and localization, Icory acts as a substrate of the ABCB1 transporter by competitively binding to substrate binding sites. Collectively, these results indicated that Icory reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR by suppressing its efflux function, and it would be beneficial to increase the efficacy of these types of uncaria alkaloids and develop them to be selective ABCB1-mediated MDR-reversal agents. PMID:28534954

  8. AST1306, a potent EGFR inhibitor, antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, De-Shen; Kathawala, Rishil J; Patel, Atish; Talele, Tanaji T; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-Wu

    2014-08-01

    AST1306, an inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2, is currently in phase I of clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of AST306 on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We found that AST1306 significantly sensitized the ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-overexpressing cells to ABCG2 substrate chemotherapeutics. AST1306 significantly increased intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells by blocking ABCG2 efflux function. Moreover, AST1306 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of AST1306 to be within the transmembrane region of ABCG2. In conclusion, AST1306 could notably reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zager, Ellen M; McNerney, Ruth

    2008-01-25

    With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB) that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose that inclusion of population based statistics in

  10. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analogue plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance linked ATP binding cassette drug transporter ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin K3 (menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2, which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analogue of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We here report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). Vitamin K3 and plumbagin inhibited the binding of [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin, a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 7.3 and 22.6 micromol/L, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of the photoaffinity analogue to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of the ABCG2 transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared with the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data show for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function.

  11. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone, but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). They inhibited the binding of [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.3 and 22.6 μM, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of this photoaffinity analog to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of this transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared to the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function. PMID:18065489

  12. Multidrug-Resistant TB

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Helen; Coomans, Fons

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress (REBSP) is a little-known but potentially valuable right that can contribute to rights-based approaches to addressing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We argue that better understanding of the REBSP may help to advance legal and civil society action for health rights. While the REBSP does not provide an individual entitlement to have a new drug developed for MDR-TB, it sets up entitlements to expect a state to establish a legislative and policy framework aimed at developing scientific capacity to address the most important health issues and at disseminating the outcomes of scientific research. By making scientific findings available and accessible, people can be enabled to claim the use of science for social benefits. Inasmuch as the market fails to address neglected diseases such as MDR-TB, the REBSP provides a potential counterbalance to frame a positive obligation on states to both marshal their own resources and to coordinate the actions of multiple other actors towards this goal, including non-state actors. While the latter do not hold the same level of accountability as states, the REBSP can still enable the recognition of obligations at a level of “soft law” responsibilities. PMID:27780997

  13. ABCG2-mediated suppression of chlorin e6 accumulation and photodynamic therapy efficiency in glioblastoma cell lines can be reversed by KO143.

    PubMed

    Abdel Gaber, Sara A; Müller, Patricia; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Hüttenberger, Dirk; Wittig, Rainer; Abdel Kader, Mahmoud H; Stepp, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant brain tumors is a promising adjunct to standard treatment, especially if tumor stem cells thought to be responsible for tumor progression and therapy resistance were also susceptible to this kind of treatment. However, some photosensitizers have been reported to be substrates of ABCG2, one of the membrane transporters mediating resistance to chemotherapy. Here we investigate, whether inhibition of ABCG2 can restore sensitivity to photosensitizer chlorin e6-mediated PDT. Accumulation of chlorin e6 in wild type U87 and doxycycline-inducible U251 glioblastoma cells with or without induction of ABCG2 expression or ABCG2 inhibition by KO143 was analyzed using flow cytometry. In U251 cells, ABCG2 was inducible by doxycycline after stable transfection with a tet-on expression plasmid. Tumor sphere cultivation under low attachment conditions was used to enrich for cells with stem cell-like properties. PDT was done on monolayer cell cultures by irradiation with laser light at 665nm. Elevated levels of ABCG2 in U87 cells grown as tumor spheres or in U251 cells after ABCG2 induction led to a 6-fold lower accumulation of chlorin e6 and the light dose needed to reduce cell viability by 50% (LD50) was 2.5 to 4-fold higher. Both accumulation and PDT response can be restored by KO143, an efficient non-toxic inhibitor of ABCG2. Glioblastoma stem cells might escape phototoxic destruction by ABCG2-mediated reduction of photosensitizer accumulation. Inhibition of ABCG2 during photosensitizer accumulation and irradiation promises to restore full susceptibility of this crucial tumor cell population to photodynamic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides across the rabbit placenta barrier using a novel MDCKII in vitro model

    SciTech Connect

    Halwachs, Sandra

    In humans, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 contributes to the fetoprotective barrier function of the placenta, potentially limiting the toxicity of transporter substrates to the fetus. During testing of chemicals including pesticides, developmental toxicity studies are performed in rabbit. Despite its toxicological relevance, ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides in rabbit placenta has not been yet elucidated. We therefore generated polarized MDCK II cells expressing the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta (rbABCG2) and evaluated interaction of the efflux transporter with selected insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. The Hoechst H33342 accumulation assay indicated that 13 widely used pesticidal active substances including azoxystrobin, carbendazim,more » chlorpyrifos, chlormequat, diflufenican, dimethoate, dimethomorph, dithianon, ioxynil, methiocarb, propamocarb, rimsulfuron and toclofos-methyl may be rbABCG2 inhibitors and/or substrates. No such evidence was obtained for chlorpyrifos-methyl, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, imazalil and thiacloprid. Moreover, chlorpyrifos (CPF), dimethomorph, tolclofos-methyl and rimsulfuron showed concentration-dependent inhibition of H33342 excretion in rbABCG2-transduced MDCKII cells. To further evaluate the role of rbABCG2 in pesticide transport across the placenta barrier, we generated polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers. Confocal microscopy confirmed correct localization of rbABCG2 protein in the apical plasma membrane. In transepithelial flux studies, we showed the time-dependent preferential basolateral to apical (B > A) directed transport of [{sup 14}C] CPF across polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers which was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC). Using this novel in vitro cell culture model, we altogether showed functional secretory activity of the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta and identified several pesticides like the insecticide CPF as potential rbABCG2

  15. Apatinib (YN968D1) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yan-jun; Liang, Yong-ju; Huang, Hong-bing; Zhao, Hong-yun; Wu, Chung-Pu; Wang, Fang; Tao, Li-yang; Zhang, Chuan-zhao; Dai, Chun-Ling; Tiwari, Amit K.; Ma, Xiao-xu; Wah To, Kenneth Kin; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-wu

    2010-01-01

    Apatinib, a small-molecule multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is in phase III clinical trial for treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer in China. In this study, we determined the effect of apatinib on the interaction of specific antineoplastic compounds with P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). Our results showed that apatinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 or ABCG2 substrate drugs in KBv200, MCF-7/adr and HEK293/ABCB1 cells overexpressing ABCB1 and S1-M1-80, MCF-7/FLV1000 and HEK293/ABCG2-R2 cells overexpressing ABCG2 (wild-type). In contrast, apatinib did not alter the cytotoxicity of specific substrates in the parental cells and cells overexpressing ABCC1. Apatinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin in the multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. Furthermore, apatinib significantly inhibited the photolabeling of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 with [125I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent fashion. The ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 was significantly increased by apatinib. However, apatinib, at a concentration the produced a reversal of MDRl, did not significantly alter the expression of the ABCB1 or ABCG2 protein or mRNA levels or the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. Importantly, apatinib significantly enhanced the effect of paclitaxel against the ABCB1 resistant KBv200 cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, apatinib reverses ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by inhibiting their transport function, but not by blocking AKT or ERK1/2 pathway or downregulating ABCB1 or ABCG2 expression. Apatinib may be useful in circumventing MDR to other conventional antineoplastic drugs. PMID:20876799

  16. Multidrug resistant Fusarium keratitis.

    PubMed

    Antequera, P; Garcia-Conca, V; Martín-González, C; Ortiz-de-la-Tabla, V

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of keratitis in a female contact lens wearer, who developed a deep corneal abscess. The culture of a corneal biopsy scraping was positive for multiresistant Fusarium solani. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, requiring eye enucleation. Fusarium keratitis may progress to severe endophthalmitis. Clinical suspicion is paramount in order to start antifungal therapy without delay. Therapy is complex due to the high resistance of this organism to usual antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple molecular mechanisms for multidrug resistance transporters.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Christopher F

    2007-04-12

    The acquisition of multidrug resistance is a serious impediment to improved healthcare. Multidrug resistance is most frequently due to active transporters that pump a broad spectrum of chemically distinct, cytotoxic molecules out of cells, including antibiotics, antimalarials, herbicides and cancer chemotherapeutics in humans. The paradigm multidrug transporter, mammalian P-glycoprotein, was identified 30 years ago. Nonetheless, success in overcoming or circumventing multidrug resistance in a clinical setting has been modest. Recent structural and biochemical data for several multidrug transporters now provide mechanistic insights into how they work. Organisms have evolved several elegant solutions to ridding the cell of such cytotoxic compounds. Answers are emerging to questions such as how multispecificity for different drugs is achieved, why multidrug resistance arises so readily, and what chance there is of devising a clinical solution.

  18. Multidrug resistance in amoebiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Devendra; Sehgal, Rakesh; Chawla, Yogesh; Malla, Nancy; Mahajan, R C

    2006-08-01

    Amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba sp. a protozoan parasite, is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. The symptomatic patients are treated by specific chemotherapy. However, there are reports of treatment failure in some cases suggesting the possibility of drug resistance. The present study was therefore planned to assess the presence and expression of mRNA of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene in clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. Forty five clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. [E. histolytica (15) and E. dispar (30)] were maintained in polyxenic followed by monoxenic medium. DNA and total RNA were extracted from clinical isolates of Entamoeba sp. and from sensitive strain of E. histolytica (HM1: IMSS) and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR techniques. The 344 bp segment of E. histolytica DNA was seen by PCR using primers specific to EhPgp1 in all clinical isolates and sensitive strain of E. histolytica. Over expression of EhPgp1 was observed only in resistant mutant of E. histolytica; however, transcription of EhPgp1 was not seen in any clinical isolates and sensitive strain of E. histolytica. The findings of the present study indicate that, so far, drug resistance in clinical isolates of E. histolytica does not seem to be a major problem in this country. However, susceptibility of clinical isolates of E. histolytica against various antiamoebic drugs needs to be investigated for better management.

  19. Synthetic Analogs of Curcumin Modulate the Function of Multidrug Resistance-Linked ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Megumi; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Fukuda, Michihiro; Chufan, Eduardo E; Kudoh, Katsuyoshi; Kanehara, Keigo; Sugisawa, Norihiko; Ishida, Masaharu; Naitoh, Takeshi; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Unno, Michiaki

    2017-11-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cells is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown that curcumin, a natural product and a dietary constituent of turmeric, inhibits the function of MDR-related ABC transporters, including ABCB1, ABCC1, and especially ABCG2. However, the limited bioavailability of curcumin prevents its use for modulation of the function of these transporters in the clinical setting. In this study, we investigated the effects of 24 synthetic curcumin analogs with increased bioavailability on the transport function of ABCG2. The screening of the 24 synthetic analogs by means of flow cytometry revealed that four of the curcumin analogs (GO-Y030, GO-Y078, GO-Y168, and GO-Y172) significantly inhibited the efflux of the ABCG2 substrates, mitoxantrone and pheophorbide A, from ABCG2-overexpressing K562/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) cells. Biochemical analyses showed that GO-Y030, GO-Y078, and GO-Y172 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2 at nanomolar concentrations and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCG2 with iodoarylazidoprazosin, suggesting that these analogs interact with the substrate-binding sites of ABCG2. In addition, when used in cytotoxicity assays, GO-Y030 and GO-Y078 were found to improve the sensitivity of the anticancer drug, SN-38, in K562/BCRP cells. Taken together, these results suggest that nontoxic synthetic curcumin analogs with increased bioavailability, especially GO-Y030 and GO-Y078, inhibit the function of ABCG2 by directly interacting at the substrate-binding site. These synthetic curcumin analogs could therefore be developed as potent modulators to overcome ABCG2-mediated MDR in cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  1. Multidrug Resistance: Physiological Principles and Nanomedical Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug (MDR) resistance is a pathophysiological phenomenon employed by cancer cells which limits the prolonged and effective use of chemotherapeutic agents. MDR is primarily based on the over-expression of drug efflux pumps in the cellular membrane. Prominent examples of such efflux pumps, which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins, are Pgp (P-glycoprotein) and MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein), nowadays officially known as ABCB1 and ABCC1. Over the years, several strategies have been evaluated to overcome MDR, based not only on the use of low-molecular-weight MDR modulators, but also on the implementation of 1-100(0) nm-sized drug delivery systems. In the present manuscript, after introducing the most important physiological principles of MDR, we summarize prototypic nanomedical strategies to overcome multidrug resistance, including the use of carrier materials with intrinsic anti-MDR properties, the use of nanomedicines to modify the mode of cellular uptake, and the co-formulation of chemotherapeutic drugs together with low- and high-molecular-weight MDR inhibitors within a single drug delivery system. While certain challenges still need to be overcome before such constructs and concepts can be widely applied in the clinic, the insights obtained and the progress made strongly suggest that nanomedicine formulations hold significant potential for improving the treatment of multidrug-resistant malignancies. PMID:24120954

  2. Multidrug resistance in pediatric urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Dickson, Eric; Karlowsky, James; Doern, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common infection in the pediatric population. Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen in children, and antimicrobial resistance in this species complicates the treatment of pediatric UTIs. Despite the impact of resistance on empiric antibiotic choice, there is little data on multidrug resistance in pediatric patients. In this paper, we describe characteristics of multidrug-resistant E. coli in pediatric patients using a large national database of uropathogens antimicrobial sensitivities. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly prescribed antibiotics were performed on uropathogens isolated from children presenting to participating hospitals between 1999 and 2001. Data were analyzed separately for four pediatric age groups. Single and multidrug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were performed on all specimens. There were a total of 11,341 E. coli urine cultures from 343 infants (0-4 weeks), 1,801 toddlers (5 weeks-24 months), 6,742 preteens (2-12 years), and 2,455 teens (13-17 years). E. coli resistance to ampicillin peaked in toddlers (52.8%) but was high in preteens (52.1%), infants (50.4%), and teens (40.6%). Resistance to two or more antibiotics varied across age groups, with toddlers (27%) leading preteens (23.1%), infants (21%), and teens (15.9%). Resistance to three or more antibiotics was low in all age groups (range 3.1-5.2%). The most common co-resistance in all age groups was ampicillin/TMP-SMZ. In conclusion, less than half of all pediatric UTIs are susceptible to all commonly used antibiotics. In some age groups, there is a significant percentage of co-resistance between the two most commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin and TMP-SMZ).

  3. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Maitre, T; Aubry, A; Jarlier, V; Robert, J; Veziris, N

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) compromises global tuberculosis control. The incidence of multidrug-resistant strains (MDR) defined as resistant to the two main antituberculosis drugs, rifampicin and isoniazid, was raised in the 1990s. Ten percent of these strains have developed additional resistance to the main second-line antituberculosis drugs: fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. These strains are defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prognosis of MDR-TB and XDR-TB is poor due to limited therapeutic resources. However, many new innovations may lead to a radical change in this field. Genotypic testing is now able to detect drug resistance within a few hours. Genotypic diagnosis of rifampicin resistance is now recommended in France for each new case of TB. The currently recommended treatment for MDR-TB is long (18-24 months) and toxic. It is, however, on the verge of being replaced by a 9-month treatment. New antituberculosis drugs such as bedaquiline and delamanid should also improve the prognosis of MDR-TB and XDR-TB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Reversal of multidrug resistance by surfactants.

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, D. M.; Linsenmeyer, M. E.; Chojnowski, G.; Kriegler, A. B.; Nink, V.; Webster, L. K.; Sawyer, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    Cremophor EL, a pharmacologically inactive solubilising agent, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Using flow cytometric evaluation of equilibrium intracellular levels of daunorubicin (DNR), we found that eight other surface active agents will also reverse MDR. All the active detergents contain polyethoxylated moieties but have no similarities in their hydrophobic components. The properties of three polyethoxylated surfactants that showed the lowest toxicities, Cremophor, Tween 80 and Solutol HS15, were examined in more detail. The concentrations of Tween 80 and Solutol required to reverse DNR exclusion were 10-fold lower than for Cremophor. However while concentrations greater than or equal to 1:10(2) of the former two surfactants resulted in breakdown of cells, even 1:10 of Cremophor did not lyse cells. Studies of the effects of Cremophor on the uptake and efflux of DNR in normal and MDR cell types showed that Cremophor increases intracellular DNR primarily by locking the rapid efflux from the cells. This blockage of drug efflux may be mediated by a substantial alteration in the fluidity of cell membranes induced by Cremophor, as shown by decreased fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane probe. Consistent with these data, coinjection of adriamycin plus Cremophor into mice carrying a multidrug resistant P388 transplantable tumour significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared with adriamycin treatment alone. PMID:1637678

  5. Delamanid for multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gler, Maria Tarcela; Skripconoka, Vija; Sanchez-Garavito, Epifanio; Xiao, Heping; Cabrera-Rivero, Jose L; Vargas-Vasquez, Dante E; Gao, Mengqiu; Awad, Mohamed; Park, Seung-Kyu; Shim, Tae Sun; Suh, Gee Young; Danilovits, Manfred; Ogata, Hideo; Kurve, Anu; Chang, Joon; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Tupasi, Thelma; Koh, Won-Jung; Seaworth, Barbara; Geiter, Lawrence J; Wells, Charles D

    2012-06-07

    Delamanid (OPC-67683), a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative, is a new antituberculosis medication that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis and has shown potent in vitro and in vivo activity against drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, multinational clinical trial, we assigned 481 patients (nearly all of whom were negative for the human immunodeficiency virus) with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to receive delamanid, at a dose of 100 mg twice daily (161 patients) or 200 mg twice daily (160 patients), or placebo (160 patients) for 2 months in combination with a background drug regimen developed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Sputum cultures were assessed weekly with the use of both liquid broth and solid medium; sputum-culture conversion was defined as a series of five or more consecutive cultures that were negative for growth of M. tuberculosis. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients with sputum-culture conversion in liquid broth medium at 2 months. Among patients who received a background drug regimen plus 100 mg of delamanid twice daily, 45.4% had sputum-culture conversion in liquid broth at 2 months, as compared with 29.6% of patients who received a background drug regimen plus placebo (P=0.008). Likewise, as compared with the placebo group, the group that received the background drug regimen plus 200 mg of delamanid twice daily had a higher proportion of patients with sputum-culture conversion (41.9%, P=0.04). The findings were similar with assessment of sputum-culture conversion in solid medium. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and were evenly distributed across groups. Although no clinical events due to QT prolongation on electrocardiography were observed, QT prolongation was reported significantly more frequently in the groups that received delamanid. Delamanid was associated with an increase in sputum-culture conversion at 2

  6. Multidrug resistance in enteric and other gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    George, A M

    1996-05-15

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is a term that is used to describe mechanisms of resistance by chromosomal genes that are activated by induction or mutation caused by the stress of exposure to antibiotics in natural and clinical environments. Unlike plasmid-borne resistance genes, there is no alteration or degradation of drugs or need for genetic transfer. Exposure to a single drug leads to cross-resistance to many other structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. The only mechanism identified for multidrug resistance in bacteria is drug efflux by membrane transporters, even though many of these transporters remain to be identified. The enteric bacteria exhibit mostly complex multidrug resistance systems which are often regulated by operons or regulons. The purpose of this review is to survey molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in enteric and other Gram-negative bacteria, and to speculate on the origins and natural physiological functions of the genes involved.

  7. [Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Tritar, F; Daghfous, H; Ben Saad, S; Slim-Saidi, L

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant TB in many countries has become a major public health problem and an obstacle to effective tuberculosis control. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is most often the result of poor adherence, is a particularly dangerous form of tuberculosis because it is caused by bacilli resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs. Techniques for rapid diagnosis of resistance have greatly improved the care of patients by allowing early treatment which remains complex and costly establishment, and requires skills and resources. The treatment is not standardized but it includes in all cases attack phase with five drugs (there must be an injectable agent and a fluoroquinolone that form the basis of the regimen) for eight months and a maintenance phase (without injectable agent) with a total duration of 20 months on average. Surgery may be beneficial as long as the lesions are localized and the patient has a good cardiorespiratory function. Evolution of MDR-TB treated is less favorable than tuberculosis with germ sensitive. The cure rate varies from 60 to 75% for MDR-TB, and drops to 30 to 40% for XDR-TB. Mortality remains high, ranging from 20 to 40% even up to 70-90% in people co-infected with HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of multidrug resistant bacterial endemic.

    PubMed

    Zahar, J-R; Lesprit, P

    2014-09-01

    The fight against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB), especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, is about to be lost in our country. The emergence of new resistance mechanisms to carbapenems in these Enterobacteriaceae exposes patients to a risk of treatment failure without any other therapeutic options. This dramatic situation is paradoxical because we are well aware of the 2 major factors responsible for this situation: 1) MDRO cross-transmission, associated with a low compliance to standard precautions, especially hand hygiene, and 2) overexposure of patients to antibiotics. The implementation of a "search and isolate" policy, which was justified to control the spread of some MDRO that remained rare in the country, was not associated with a better adherence to standard precautions. The antibiotic policy and the measures implemented to control antibiotic consumptions have rarely been enforced and have shown inconsistent results. Notably, no significant decrease of antibiotic consumption has been observed. There is no excuse for these poor results, because some authors evaluating the effectiveness of programs for the control of MDRO have reported their positive effects on antimicrobial resistance without any detrimental effects. It is now urgent to deal with the 2 major factors by establishing an educational and persuasive program with quantified and opposable objectives. Firstly, we have to improve the observance of hand hygiene above 70%. Secondly, we have to define and reach a target for the reduction of antibiotic consumption both in community and in hospital settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Infection Control Implications.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Friedman, N Deborah; Marchaim, Dror

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a common iatrogenic complication of both modern life and medical care. Certain multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant Gram-negative organisms pose the biggest challenges to health care today, predominantly owing to a lack of therapeutic options. Containing the spread of these organisms is challenging, and in reality, the application of multiple control measures during an evolving outbreak makes it difficult to measure the relative impact of each measure. This article reviews the usefulness of various infection control measures in containing the spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The management of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Peghin, Maddalena; Pecori, Davide

    2016-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae are often related to the production of extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and represent an increasing global threat. Recommendations for the therapeutic management of MDR-related infections, however, are mainly derived from retrospective and nonrandomized prospective studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the challenges in the treatment of patients with infections because of MDR Enterobacteriaceae and provide an expert opinion while awaiting for more definitive data. To avoid the selection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-sparing strategies should be considered. B-lactams/b-lactamase inhibitors, mainly piperacillin-tazobactam, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 16/4mg/ml or less represents the best alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of ESBL-producing strains. Overall, combination therapy may be preferred over monotherapy for CRE. The combination of a carbapenem-containing regimen with colistin or high-dose tigecycline or aminoglycoside can be administered at high-dose prolonged infusion with therapeutic drug monitoring for the treatment of CRE with MIC for meropenem 8-16 mg/l or less. For MIC higher than 8-16 mg/l, the use of meropenem should be avoided and various combination therapies based on the in-vitro susceptibility of antimicrobials (e.g., colistin, high-dose tigecycline, fosfomycin, and aminoglycosides) should be selected. Carbapenem-sparing strategies should be used, when feasible, for ESBL infections. The majority of available nonrandomized studies highlight that combination for CRE seem to offer some therapeutic advantage over monotherapy. Strict infection control measures toward MDR Gram-negative pathogens remain necessary while awaiting for new treatment options.

  11. mar Operon Involved in Multidrug Resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, Renaud; Bollet, Claude; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Malléa, Monique; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2002-01-01

    We determined the sequence of the entire marRAB operon in Enterobacter aerogenes. It is functionally and structurally analogous to the Escherichia coli operon. The overexpression of E. aerogenes MarA induces a multidrug resistance phenotype in a susceptible strain, demonstrated by a noticeable resistance to various antibiotics, a decrease in immunodetected porins, and active efflux of norfloxacin. PMID:11897595

  12. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal

    2013-01-01

    In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia. PMID:23621911

  13. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-03-01

    In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-08-15

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Tackling Threats and Future Problems of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eva; Pieper, Dietmar Helmut

    With the advent of the antibiotic era, the overuse and inappropriate consumption and application of antibiotics have driven the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance increases the morbidity, mortality, length of hospitalization and healthcare costs. Among Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs)-producing bacteria have become a major global healthcare problem in the 21st century. The pressure to use antibiotics guarantees that the spread and prevalence of these as well as of future emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens will be a persistent phenomenon. The unfeasibility of reversing antimicrobial resistance back towards susceptibility and the critical need to treat bacterial infection in modern medicine have burdened researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new antimicrobials effective against these difficult-to-treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, it can be anticipated that antibiotic resistance will continue to develop more rapidly than new agents to treat these infections become available and a better understanding of the molecular, evolutionary and ecological mechanisms governing the spread of antibiotic resistance is needed. The only way to curb the current crisis of antimicrobial resistance will be to develop entirely novel strategies to fight these pathogens such as combining antimicrobial drugs with other agents that counteract and obstruct the antibiotic resistant mechanisms expressed by the pathogen. Furthermore, as many antibiotics are often inappropriately prescribed, a more personalized approach based on precise diagnosis tools will ensure that proper treatments can be promptly applied leading to more targeted and effective therapies. However, in more general terms, also the overall use and release of antibiotics in the environment needs to be

  16. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naman K.; Alker, Alisa P.; Sem, Rithy; Susanti, Agustina Ika; Muth, Sinuon; Maguire, Jason D.; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective. PMID:18826834

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Diana Faour; Hoffmann, Yoav; Shahar, Naama; Ocampo, Smadar; Salomon, Liora; Zonis, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, wounded and ill children from Syria have received treatment in Israel. Screening cultures indicated that multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens colonized 89 (83%) of 107 children. For 58% of MDR infections, the pathogen was similar to that identified during screening. MDR screening of these children is valuable for purposes of isolation and treatment. PMID:27618479

  18. Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Diana Faour; Hoffmann, Yoav; Shahar, Naama; Ocampo, Smadar; Salomon, Liora; Zonis, Zeev; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, wounded and ill children from Syria have received treatment in Israel. Screening cultures indicated that multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens colonized 89 (83%) of 107 children. For 58% of MDR infections, the pathogen was similar to that identified during screening. MDR screening of these children is valuable for purposes of isolation and treatment.

  19. Clonal Multidrug-Resistant Corynebacterium striatum Strains, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Campanile, Floriana; Carretto, Edoardo; Barbarini, Daniela; Grigis, Annalisa; Falcone, Marco; Goglio, Antonio; Venditti, Mario

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the clinical relevance and performed molecular characterization of 36 multidrug-resistant strains of Corynebacterium striatum. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed a single clone, possessing erm(X), tetA/B, cmxA/B, and aphA1 genes, but few related subclones. This strain is emerging as a pathogen in Italy. PMID:19116057

  20. Combination Approaches to Combat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is a global health problem that is exacerbated by the dearth of novel classes of antibiotics entering the clinic over the past 40 years. Herein we describe recent developments toward combination therapies for the treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. These efforts include antibiotic-antibiotic combinations, and the development of adjuvants that either directly target resistance mechanisms such as the inhibition of β-lactamase enzymes, or indirectly target resistance by interfering with bacterial signaling pathways such as two-component systems. We also discuss screening of libraries of previously approved drugs to identify non-obvious antimicrobial adjuvants. PMID:23333434

  1. Multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogens challenging veterinary infection control.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Tedin, Karsten; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2017-02-01

    Although the problems associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and the emergence of zoonotic and multidrug-resistant pathogens in companion animal (dogs, cats and horses) medicine have been well-known for decades, current progress with respect to practical implementation of infection control programs in veterinary clinics has been limited. Clinical outbreak events reported for methicillin-resistant Staphylooccus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Serovars indicate the necessity of infection control strategies for protecting animal patients at risk as well as veterinary personnel. The close bond between humans and their companion animals provides opportunities for exchange of microorganisms, including MDR pathogens. This particular aspect of the "One Health" idea requires more representative surveillance efforts and infection control strategies with respect to animal-species specific characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Zwolska, Zofia; Kirikae, Fumiko; Toyota, Emiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Morita, Koji; Kudo, Koichiro; Kato, Seiya; Kuratsuji, Tadatoshi; Mori, Toru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide (PZA), rpsL and rrs for streptomycin (STR), and gyrA for levofloxacin, were amplified simultaneously by PCR, and the DNA sequences were determined. It took 6.5 h to complete all procedures. Among the 138 clinical isolates tested, 55 were resistant to at least one drug. Thirty-four of 38 INH-resistant isolates (89.5%), 28 of 28 RIF-resistant isolates (100%), 15 of 18 EMB-resistant isolates (83.3%), 18 of 30 STR-resistant isolates (60%), and 17 of 17 PZA-resistant isolates (100%) had mutations related to specific drug resistance. Eighteen of these mutations had not been reported previously. These novel mutations include one in rpoB, eight in katG, one in the mabA-inhA regulatory region, two in embB, five in pncA, and one in rrs. Escherichia coli isolates expressing individually five of the eight katG mutations showed loss of catalase and INH oxidation activities, and isolates carrying any of the five pncA mutations showed no pyrazinamidase activity, indicating that these mutations are associated with INH and PZA resistance, respectively. Our sequencing-based method was also useful for testing sputa from tuberculosis patients and for screening of mutations in Mycobacterium bovis. In conclusion, our new method is useful for rapid detection of multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for identifying novel mutations in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. PMID:17108078

  3. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Multidrug evolutionary strategies to reverse antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Baym, Michael; Stone, Laura K.; Kishony, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment has two conflicting effects: the desired, immediate effect of inhibiting bacterial growth and the undesired, long-term effect of promoting the evolution of resistance. Although these contrasting outcomes seem inextricably linked, recent work has revealed several ways by which antibiotics can be combined to inhibit bacterial growth while, counterintuitively, selecting against resistant mutants. Decoupling treatment efficacy from the risk of resistance can be achieved by exploiting specific interactions between drugs, and the ways in which resistance mutations to a given drug can modulate these interactions or increase the sensitivity of the bacteria to other compounds. Although their practical application requires much further development and validation, and relies on advances in genomic diagnostics, these discoveries suggest novel paradigms that may restrict or even reverse the evolution of resistance. PMID:26722002

  5. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Human Cancer Cells by Natural Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon whereby tumors become resistant to structurally unrelated anticancer drugs. P-glycoprotein belongs to the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily of membrane transport proteins. P-glycoprotein mediates resistance to various classes of anticancer drugs including vinblastine, daunorubicin, and paclitaxel, by actively extruding the drugs from the cells. The quest for inhibitors of anticancer drug efflux transporters has uncovered natural compounds, including (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, capsaicin, and guggulsterone, as promising candidates. In this review, studies on the effects of natural compounds on P-glycoprotein and anticancer drug efflux transporters are summarized. PMID:22069634

  6. The secondary resistome of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jana, Bimal; Cain, Amy K; Doerrler, William T; Boinett, Christine J; Fookes, Maria C; Parkhill, Julian; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-02-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe lung and bloodstream infections that are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. We hypothesized that antimicrobial resistance can be reversed by targeting chromosomal non-essential genes that are not responsible for acquired resistance but essential for resistant bacteria under therapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. Conditional essentiality of individual genes to antimicrobial resistance was evaluated in an epidemic multidrug-resistant clone of K. pneumoniae (ST258). We constructed a high-density transposon mutant library of >430,000 unique Tn5 insertions and measured mutant depletion upon exposure to three clinically relevant antimicrobials (colistin, imipenem or ciprofloxacin) by Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing (TraDIS). Using this high-throughput approach, we defined three sets of chromosomal non-essential genes essential for growth during exposure to colistin (n = 35), imipenem (n = 1) or ciprofloxacin (n = 1) in addition to known resistance determinants, collectively termed the "secondary resistome". As proof of principle, we demonstrated that inactivation of a non-essential gene not previously found linked to colistin resistance (dedA) restored colistin susceptibility by reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration from 8 to 0.5 μg/ml, 4-fold below the susceptibility breakpoint (S ≤ 2 μg/ml). This finding suggests that the secondary resistome is a potential target for developing antimicrobial "helper" drugs that restore the efficacy of existing antimicrobials.

  7. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in Four Animal Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jennifer G.; Tengelsen, Leslie A.; Smith, Kirk E.; Bender, Jeff B.; Frank, Rodney K.; Grendon, John H.; Rice, Daniel H.; Thiessen, Ann Marie B.; Gilbertson, Catherine Jo; Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Barrett, Timothy J.; Besser, Thomas E.; Hancock, Dale D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 3 state health departments reported 4 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in employees, clients, and client animals from 3 companion animal veterinary clinics and 1 animal shelter. More than 45 persons and companion animals became ill. Four independent investigations resulted in the testing of 19 human samples and >200 animal samples; 18 persons and 36 animals were culture-positive for S. Typhimurium. One outbreak was due to multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium R-type ACKSSuT, while the other 3 were due to multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium R-type ACSSuT DT104. This report documents nosocomial transmission of S. Typhimurium and demonstrates that companion animal facilities may serve as foci of transmission for salmonellae between animals and humans if adequate precautions are not followed. PMID:16102313

  8. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis diagnosed by synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    van Zeller, M; Monteiro, R; Ramalho, J; Almeida, I; Duarte, R

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem worldwide. HIV co-infection is contributing to an increased incidence of the disease, particularly that caused by multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). We describe an HIV-infected patient with pleural and lymph node tuberculosis diagnosed by pleural effusion characteristics and biopsy specimens, without MT identification, that further presented with knee-joint involvement. Arthrocentesis allowed MT isolation and drug susceptibility testing, resulting in a diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and an appropriate treatment regimen. MT identification and drug susceptibility tests are very important, especially for HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Multidrug resistance: prospects for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, A; Henle, K J; Nagle, W A

    1992-01-01

    Clinical success in the treatment of tumors with chemotherapy has significantly improved over the past several years. However, treatment failures due to drug resistance of cancer cells has remained a major problem. The classical form of multiple drug resistance is perhaps also the most common type of drug resistance, and represents the overexpression of a transmembrane glycoprotein pump (P-170) that mediates the efflux of a spectrum of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. Here, we discuss recent evidence that support the concept that the total phenomenon of multiple drug resistance (MDR) involves several other mechanisms in addition to that underlying "classical" MDR. These include the action of other energy-dependent membrane efflux pumps, elevated levels of GSH for drug conjugation and detoxification to facilitate export, enhanced DNA repair facility, gene amplification and oncogene activation. The combination of mechanisms used by any particular cell line is variable and suggests that many of these mechanisms are independent. Successful reversal of drug resistance appears to require the identification of relevant operative resistance mechanisms. An example is the competitive inhibition of P-170 with verapamil, quinine and tamoxifen. A broadly successful strategy for killing drug-resistant cancer cells, however, could be based on either selective energy depletion of cancer cells or the permeabilization of tumor cells with an effective bypass of efflux pumps, since many mechanisms of drug resistance entail the energy-dependent export of toxins. The latter approach may be achieved via membrane lipid modifications or the introduction of membrane pores by biological or physical (electroporation) means.

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia fergusonii: a Case of Acute Cystitis▿

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Vincenzo; Catavitello, Chiara; Talia, Marzia; Manna, Assunta; Pompetti, Franca; Favaro, Marco; Fontana, Carla; Febbo, Fabio; Balbinot, Andrea; Di Berardino, Fabio; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Di Zacomo, Silvia; Esattore, Francesca; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We report a case in which Escherichia fergusonii, an emerging pathogen in various types of infections, was associated with cystitis in a 52-year-old woman. The offending strain was found to be multidrug resistant. Despite in vitro activity, beta-lactam treatment failed because of a lack of patient compliance with therapy. The work confirms the pathogenic potential of E. fergusonii. PMID:18256229

  11. A Salmonella nanoparticle mimic overcomes multidrug resistance in tumours.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Zhang, Yuanwei; Zhao, Liang; Rossi, Kyle; Wu, Xiang; Zou, Yekui; Castillo, Antonio; Leonard, Jack; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Han, Gang; McCormick, Beth A

    2016-07-25

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen that also selectively grows in tumours and functionally decreases P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug resistance transporter. Here we report that the Salmonella type III secretion effector, SipA, is responsible for P-gp modulation through a pathway involving caspase-3. Mimicking the ability of Salmonella to reverse multidrug resistance, we constructed a gold nanoparticle system packaged with a SipA corona, and found this bacterial mimic not only accumulates in tumours but also reduces P-gp at a SipA dose significantly lower than free SipA. Moreover, the Salmonella nanoparticle mimic suppresses tumour growth with a concomitant reduction in P-gp when used with an existing chemotherapeutic drug (that is, doxorubicin). On the basis of our finding that the SipA Salmonella effector is fundamental for functionally decreasing P-gp, we engineered a nanoparticle mimic that both overcomes multidrug resistance in cancer cells and increases tumour sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  12. Wound infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pîrvănescu, H; Bălăşoiu, M; Ciurea, M E; Bălăşoiu, A T; Mănescu, R

    2014-01-01

    Wound infections remain a public health problem, despite the progress made on improving surgical techniques and antibiotic prophylaxis application. Misuse of antibiotics to prevent bacterial infections leads to increased bacterial resistance and their dissemination. The study refers to 470 samples taken from wound infections of which only multi-drug resistant strains were selected for study, using two special culture mediums (Metistaph-2 for methicillin-resistant staphylococci and ESBLs-Agar for extended-spectrum betalactamases secreting bacteria). Sensitivity of these strains was tested using the diffusion method. Of all studied samples, a rate of 27.6 bacterial strains showed multi-drug resistance. Among them stood primarily Staphylococcus aureus; both MRSA strains and ESBL Gram negative bacteria studied showed high resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones, third generation cephalosporins and low to fourth generation cephalosporins. No vancomycin resitant nor vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated. Knowing the antibiotic resistance is very useful in antibiotic "cycling"application, avoiding this way the emergence of increased resistant strains. Celsius.

  13. Beyond multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe: a TBNET study.

    PubMed

    Günther, G; van Leth, F; Altet, N; Dedicoat, M; Duarte, R; Gualano, G; Kunst, H; Muylle, I; Spinu, V; Tiberi, S; Viiklepp, P; Lange, C

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge to TB control in Europe. We evaluated second-line drug susceptibility testing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with multidrug-resistant, pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR-TB) and XDR-TB at 23 TBNET sites in 16 European countries. Over 30% of bacilli from patients with pre-XDR-TB showed resistance to any fluoroquinolone and almost 70% to any second-line injectable drug. Respectively >90% and >80% of the XDR-TB strains tested showed phenotypic resistance to pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Resistance to prothionamide/ethionamide was high in bacilli from pre-XDR-TB patients (43%) and XDR-TB patients (49%).

  14. Natural History of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms in a New Military Medical Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    environment plays in the transmission of multidrug- resistant Gram-negative bacteria and methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRO) is increasingly...Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Klebsiella pneumoniea; and Clostridium difficile. Multidrug- resistance (MDR...target organism infection was Staphylococcus aureus (n=77), followed by E coli (56), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11

  15. Multidrug-resistant bacteria in hematology patients: emerging threats.

    PubMed

    Tatarelli, Paola; Mikulska, Malgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, particularly Gram negatives, such as Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are increasingly frequent in hematology patients. The prevalence of different resistant species varies significantly between centers. Thus, the knowledge of local epidemiology is mandatory for deciding the most appr-opriate management protocols. In the era of increasing antibiotic resistance, empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia should be individualized. A de-escalation approach is recommended in case of severe clinical presentation in patients who are at high risk for infection with a resistant strain. Targeted therapy of an MDR Gram negative usually calls for a combination treatment, although no large randomized trials exist in this setting. Infection control measures are the cornerstone of limiting the spread of MDR pathogens in hematology units.

  16. The multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) is inhibited by plant-derived cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Holland, M L; Lau, D T T; Allen, J D; Arnold, J C

    2007-11-01

    Cannabinoids are used therapeutically for the palliation of the adverse side effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. However, cannabinoids also inhibit both the activity and expression of the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein in vitro. Here we address the interaction of cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the related multidrug transporter, ABCG2. Cannabinoid inhibition of Abcg2/ABCG2 was assessed using flow cytometric analysis of substrate accumulation and ATPase activity assays. The cytotoxicity and chemosensitization by cannabinoids was determined with cell viability assays. Expression of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors was assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and cannabinoid modulation of ABCG2 expression was examined using immunoblotting. CBN, CBD and THC increased the intracellular accumulation of the Abcg2/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in an over-expressing cell line. The THC metabolite, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC was much less potent. The plant cannabinoids inhibited both basal and substrate stimulated ATPase activity of human ABCG2. Cannabinoid cytotoxicity occurred in the absence of known cannabinoid cell surface receptors, and only at concentrations higher than those required for Abcg2/ABCG2 inhibition. Sub-toxic concentrations of the cannabinoids resensitized the overexpressing cell line to the cytotoxic effect of Abcg2/ABCG2 substrates, mitoxantrone and topotecan. This occurred in the absence of any effect on ABCG2 expression. Cannabinoids are novel Abcg2/ABCG2 inhibitors, reversing the Abcg2-mediated multidrug-resistant phenotype in vitro. This finding may have implications for the co-administration of cannabinoids with pharmaceuticals that are ABCG2 substrates.

  17. The multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) is inhibited by plant-derived cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Holland, M L; Lau, D T T; Allen, J D; Arnold, J C

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cannabinoids are used therapeutically for the palliation of the adverse side effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. However, cannabinoids also inhibit both the activity and expression of the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein in vitro. Here we address the interaction of cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the related multidrug transporter, ABCG2. Experimental approach: Cannabinoid inhibition of Abcg2/ABCG2 was assessed using flow cytometric analysis of substrate accumulation and ATPase activity assays. The cytotoxicity and chemosensitization by cannabinoids was determined with cell viability assays. Expression of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors was assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and cannabinoid modulation of ABCG2 expression was examined using immunoblotting. Key results: CBN, CBD and THC increased the intracellular accumulation of the Abcg2/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in an over-expressing cell line. The THC metabolite, (−)-11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THC was much less potent. The plant cannabinoids inhibited both basal and substrate stimulated ATPase activity of human ABCG2. Cannabinoid cytotoxicity occurred in the absence of known cannabinoid cell surface receptors, and only at concentrations higher than those required for Abcg2/ABCG2 inhibition. Sub-toxic concentrations of the cannabinoids resensitized the overexpressing cell line to the cytotoxic effect of Abcg2/ABCG2 substrates, mitoxantrone and topotecan. This occurred in the absence of any effect on ABCG2 expression. Conclusions and implications: Cannabinoids are novel Abcg2/ABCG2 inhibitors, reversing the Abcg2-mediated multidrug-resistant phenotype in vitro. This finding may have implications for the co-administration of cannabinoids with pharmaceuticals that are ABCG2 substrates. PMID:17906686

  18. Chitosan as an effective inhibitor of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Costa, E M; Silva, S; Vicente, S; Veiga, M; Tavaria, F; Pintado, M M

    2017-12-15

    Over the last two decades worldwide levels of antibiotic resistance have risen leading to the appearance of multidrug resistant microorganisms. Acinetobacter baumannii is a known skin pathogen which has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks due to its capacity to colonize indwelling medical devices and natural antibiotic resistance. With chitosan being an effective antimicrobial agent against antibiotic resistant microorganisms, the aim of this work was to access its potential as an alternative to traditional antimicrobials in the management of A. baumannii growth. What the results showed was that both chitosan MW's tested were active upon A. baumannii's planktonic and sessile growth. For planktonic growth MICs and MBCs were obtained at relatively low concentrations (0.5-2mg/mL) while for sessile growth chitosan proved to be an effective inhibitor of A. baumannii's adhesion and biofilm formation. Considering these results chitosan shows a high potential for control of A. baumannii infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  20. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-09-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options.

  1. Epidemiologic analysis: Prophylaxis and multidrug-resistance in surgery.

    PubMed

    Solís-Téllez, H; Mondragón-Pinzón, E E; Ramírez-Marino, M; Espinoza-López, F R; Domínguez-Sosa, F; Rubio-Suarez, J F; Romero-Morelos, R D

    Surgical site infection is defined as an infection related to the surgical procedure in the area of manipulation occurring within the first 30 postoperative days. The diagnostic criteria include: purulent drainage, isolation of microorganisms, and signs of infection. To describe the epidemiologic characteristics and differences among the types of prophylactic regimens associated with hospital-acquired infections at the general surgery service of a tertiary care hospital. The electronic case records of patients that underwent general surgery at a tertiary care hospital within the time frame of January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 were reviewed. A convenience sample of 728 patients was established and divided into the following groups: Group 1: n=728 for the epidemiologic study; Group 2: n=638 for the evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis; and Group 3: n=50 for the evaluation of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains in the intensive care unit. The statistical analysis was carried out with the SPSS 19 program, using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test. A total of 728 procedures were performed (65.9% were elective surgeries). Three hundred twelve of the patients were males and 416 were females. Only 3.98% of the patients complied with the recommended antimicrobial prophylaxis, and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were found in the intensive care unit. A single prophylactic dose is effective, but adherence to this recommendation was not adequate. The prophylactic guidelines are not strictly adhered to in our environment. There was a significant association between the development of nosocomial infections from multidrug-resistant germs and admission to the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogenic and multidrug-resistant Escherichia fergusonii from broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Forgetta, V; Rempel, H; Malouin, F; Vaillancourt, R; Topp, E; Dewar, K; Diarra, M S

    2012-02-01

    An Escherichia spp. isolate, ECD-227, was previously identified from the broiler chicken as a phylogenetically divergent and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli possessing numerous virulence genes. In this study, whole genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis was used to further characterize this isolate. The presence of known and putative antibiotic resistance and virulence open reading frames were determined by comparison to pathogenic (E. coli O157:H7 TW14359, APEC O1:K1:H7, and UPEC UTI89) and nonpathogenic species (E. coli K-12 MG1655 and Escherichia fergusonii ATCC 35469). The assembled genome size of 4.87 Mb was sequenced to 18-fold depth of coverage and predicted to contain 4,376 open reading frames. Phylogenetic analysis of 537 open reading frames present across 110 enteric bacterial species identifies ECD-227 to be E. fergusonii. The genome of ECD-227 contains 5 plasmids showing similarity to known E. coli and Salmonella enterica plasmids. The presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were identified and localized to the chromosome and plasmids. The mutation in gyrA (S83L) involved in fluoroquinolone resistance was identified. The Salmonella-like plasmids harbor antibiotic resistance genes on a class I integron (aadA, qacEΔ-sul1, aac3-VI, and sulI) as well as numerous virulence genes (iucABCD, sitABCD, cib, traT). In addition to the genome analysis, the virulence of ECD-227 was evaluated in a 1-d-old chick model. In the virulence assay, ECD-227 was found to induce 18 to 30% mortality in 1-d-old chicks after 24 h and 48 h of infection, respectively. This study documents an avian multidrug-resistant and virulent E. fergusonii. The existence of several resistance genes to multiple classes of antibiotics indicates that infection caused by ECD-227 would be difficult to treat using antimicrobials currently available for poultry.

  3. Interplay Between Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence During Disease Promoted by Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Geisinger, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals are the outcome of complex relationships between several dynamic factors, including bacterial pathogenicity, the fitness costs of resistance in the human host, and selective forces resulting from interventions such as antibiotic therapy. The emergence and fate of mutations that drive antibiotic resistance are governed by these interactions. In this review, we will examine how different forms of antibiotic resistance modulate bacterial fitness and virulence potential, thus influencing the ability of pathogens to evolve in the context of nosocomial infections. We will focus on 3 important multidrug-resistant pathogens that are notoriously problematic in hospitals: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus. An understanding of how antibiotic resistance mutations shape the pathobiology of multidrug-resistant infections has the potential to drive novel strategies that can control the development and spread of drug resistance. PMID:28375515

  4. Multidrug-resistant organisms, wounds and topical antimicrobial protection.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Philip G; Welsby, Sarah; Towers, Victoria; Booth, Rebecca; Hogarth, Andrea; Rowlands, Victoria; Joseph, Alexis; Jones, Samantha A

    2012-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are increasingly implicated in both acute and chronic wound infections. The limited therapeutic options are further compromised by the fact that wound bacteria often co-exist within a biofilm community which enhances bacterial tolerance to antibiotics. As a consequence, topical antiseptics may be an important consideration for minimising the opportunity for wound infections involving MDROs. The objective of this research was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of a silver-containing gelling fibre dressing against a variety of MDROs in free-living and biofilm states, using stringent in vitro models designed to simulate a variety of wound conditions. MDROs included Acinetobacter baumannii, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. Clostridium difficile was also included in the study because it carries many of the characteristics seen in MDROs and evidence of multidrug resistance is emerging. Sustained in vitro antimicrobial activity of the silver-containing dressing was shown against 10 MDROs in a simulated wound fluid over 7 days, and inhibitory and bactericidal effects against both free-living and biofilm phenotypes were also consistently shown in simulated colonised wound surface models. The in vitro data support consideration of the silver-containing gelling fibre dressing as part of a protocol of care in the management of wounds colonised or infected with MDROs. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  5. Repurposing ebselen for treatment of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-06-26

    Novel antimicrobials and new approaches to developing them are urgently needed. Repurposing already-approved drugs with well-characterized toxicology and pharmacology is a novel way to reduce the time, cost, and risk associated with antibiotic innovation. Ebselen, an organoselenium compound, is known to be clinically safe and has a well-known pharmacology profile. It has shown potent bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and VRSA). We demonstrated that ebselen acts through inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequently inhibited toxin production in MRSA. Additionally, ebselen was remarkably active and significantly reduced established staphylococcal biofilms. The therapeutic efficacy of ebselen was evaluated in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infections. Ebselen 1% and 2% significantly reduced the bacterial load and the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in MRSA USA300 skin lesions. Furthermore, it acts synergistically with traditional antimicrobials. This study provides evidence that ebselen has great potential for topical treatment of MRSA skin infections and lays the foundation for further analysis and development of ebselen as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections.

  6. Therapeutic options and emerging alternatives for multidrug resistant staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Magana, Maria; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Ursu, Oleg; Bologa, Cristian G; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Hamblin, Michael R; Tegos, George P

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains the single biggest challenge in infectious disease in the civilized world. Moreover, vancomycin resistance is also spreading, leading to fears of untreatable infections as were common in ancient times. Molecular microbiology and bioinformatics have revealed many of the mechanisms involved in resistance development. Mobile genetic elements, up-regulated virulence factors and multi-drug efflux pumps have been implicated. A range of approved antibiotics from the glycopeptide, lipopeptide, pleuromutilin, macrolide, oxazolidinone, lincosamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, steptogramin, and cephalosporin classes has been employed to treat MRSA infections. The upcoming pipeline of drugs for MRSA includes some new compounds from the above classes, together with fluoroquinolones, antibacterial peptide mimetics, aminomethylciclines, porphyrins, peptide deformylase inhibitors, oxadiazoles, and diaminopyrimidines. A range of non-drug alternative approaches has emerged for MRSA treatment. Bacteriophage-therapy including purified lysins has made a comeback after being discovered in the 1930s. Quorum-sensing inhibitors are under investigation. Small molecule inhibitors of multi-drug efflux pumps may potentiate existing antibiotics. The relative failure of staphylococcal vaccines is being revisited by efforts with multi-valent vaccines and improved adjuvants. Photodynamic therapy uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that can nonspecifically destroy bacteria while preserving host cells. Preparation of nanoparticles can kill bacteria themselves, as well as improve the delivery of anti-bacterial drugs. Anti-MRSA drug discovery remains an exciting field with great promise for the future.

  7. Characterization of multidrug-resistant diabetic foot ulcer enterococci.

    PubMed

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Mottola, Carla; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Cavaco-Silva, Patrícia; Tavares, Luís; Oliveira, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent chronic progressive disease with complications that include diabetic-foot ulcers. Enterococci isolated from diabetic-foot infections were identified, evaluated by macro-restriction analysis, and screened for virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance. All isolates were considered multidrug-resistant, cytolysin and gelatinase producers, and the majority also demonstrated the ability to produce biofilms. These results indicate the importance of enterococci in diabetic-foot infection development and persistence, especially regarding their biofilm-forming ability and resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in the food supply.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Marjorie E

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance, including multidrug resistance (MDR), is an increasing problem globally. MDR bacteria are frequently detected in humans and animals from both more- and less-developed countries and pose a serious concern for human health. Infections caused by MDR microbes may increase morbidity and mortality and require use of expensive drugs and prolonged hospitalization. Humans may be exposed to MDR pathogens through exposure to environments at health-care facilities and farms, livestock and companion animals, human food, and exposure to other individuals carrying MDR microbes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies drug-resistant foodborne bacteria, including Campylobacter, Salmonella Typhi, nontyphoidal salmonellae, and Shigella, as serious threats. MDR bacteria have been detected in both meat and fresh produce. Salmonellae carrying genes coding for resistance to multiple antibiotics have caused numerous foodborne MDR outbreaks. While there is some level of resistance to antimicrobials in environmental bacteria, the widespread use of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture has driven the selection of a great variety of microbes with resistance to multiple antimicrobials. MDR bacteria on meat may have originated in veterinary health-care settings or on farms where animals are given antibiotics in feed or to treat infections. Fresh produce may be contaminated by irrigation or wash water containing MDR bacteria. Livestock, fruits, and vegetables may also be contaminated by food handlers, farmers, and animal caretakers who carry MDR bacteria. All potential sources of MDR bacteria should be considered and strategies devised to reduce their presence in foods. Surveillance studies have documented increasing trends in MDR in many pathogens, although there are a few reports of the decline of certain multidrug pathogens. Better coordination of surveillance programs and strategies for controlling use of antimicrobials need to be implemented in

  9. Nanodrug delivery in reversing multidrug resistance in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kapse-Mistry, Sonali; Govender, Thirumala; Srivastava, Rohit; Yergeri, Mayur

    2014-01-01

    Different mechanisms in cancer cells become resistant to one or more chemotherapeutics is known as multidrug resistance (MDR) which hinders chemotherapy efficacy. Potential factors for MDR includes enhanced drug detoxification, decreased drug uptake, increased intracellular nucleophiles levels, enhanced repair of drug induced DNA damage, overexpression of drug transporter such as P-glycoprotein(P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1, MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Currently nanoassemblies such as polymeric/solid lipid/inorganic/metal nanoparticles, quantum dots, dendrimers, liposomes, micelles has emerged as an innovative, effective, and promising platforms for treatment of drug resistant cancer cells. Nanocarriers have potential to improve drug therapeutic index, ability for multifunctionality, divert ABC-transporter mediated drug efflux mechanism and selective targeting to tumor cells, cancer stem cells, tumor initiating cells, or cancer microenvironment. Selective nanocarrier targeting to tumor overcomes dose-limiting side effects, lack of selectivity, tissue toxicity, limited drug access to tumor tissues, high drug doses, and emergence of multiple drug resistance with conventional or combination chemotherapy. Current review highlights various nanodrug delivery systems to overcome mechanism of MDR by neutralizing, evading, or exploiting the drug efflux pumps and those independent of drug efflux pump mechanism by silencing Bcl-2 and HIF1α gene expressions by siRNA and miRNA, modulating ceramide levels and targeting NF-κB. “Theragnostics” combining a cytotoxic agent, targeting moiety, chemosensitizing agent, and diagnostic imaging aid are highlighted as effective and innovative systems for tumor localization and overcoming MDR. Physical approaches such as combination of drug with thermal/ultrasound/photodynamic therapies to overcome MDR are focused. The review focuses on newer drug delivery systems developed to overcome

  10. Cell biological mechanisms of multidrug resistance in tumors.

    PubMed

    Simon, S M; Schindler, M

    1994-04-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a generic term for the variety of strategies tumor cells use to evade the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs. MDR is characterized by a decreased sensitivity of tumor cells not only to the drug employed for chemotherapy but also to a broad spectrum of drugs with neither obvious structural homology nor common targets. This pleiotropic resistance is one of the major obstacles to the successful treatment of tumors. MDR may result from structural or functional changes at the plasma membrane or within the cytoplasm, cellular compartments, or nucleus. Molecular mechanisms of MDR are discussed in terms of modifications in detoxification and DNA repair pathways, changes in cellular sites of drug sequestration, decreases in drug-target affinity, synthesis of specific drug inhibitors within cells, altered or inappropriate targeting of proteins, and accelerated removal or secretion of drugs.

  11. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.

  12. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Vallenet, David; Barbe, Valérie; Audic, Stéphane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Poirel, Laurent; Richet, Hervé; Robert, Catherine; Mangenot, Sophie; Abergel, Chantal; Nordmann, Patrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Raoult, Didier; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a species of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria commonly found in water and soil. This organism was susceptible to most antibiotics in the 1970s. It has now become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide due to its remarkable propensity to rapidly acquire resistance determinants to a wide range of antibacterial agents. Here we use a comparative genomic approach to identify the complete repertoire of resistance genes exhibited by the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain AYE, which is epidemic in France, as well as to investigate the mechanisms of their acquisition by comparison with the fully susceptible A. baumannii strain SDF, which is associated with human body lice. The assembly of the whole shotgun genome sequences of the strains AYE and SDF gave an estimated size of 3.9 and 3.2 Mb, respectively. A. baumannii strain AYE exhibits an 86-kb genomic region termed a resistance island--the largest identified to date--in which 45 resistance genes are clustered. At the homologous location, the SDF strain exhibits a 20 kb-genomic island flanked by transposases but devoid of resistance markers. Such a switching genomic structure might be a hotspot that could explain the rapid acquisition of resistance markers under antimicrobial pressure. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses confirm that most of the resistance genes found in the A. baumannii strain AYE have been recently acquired from bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Salmonella, or Escherichia. This study also resulted in the discovery of 19 new putative resistance genes. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be a fast and efficient approach to the exhaustive identification of resistance genes in epidemic infectious agents of clinical significance.

  13. Population Genetics Study of Isoniazid Resistance Mutations and Evolution of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; Brimacombe, Michael; Bobadilla del Valle, Miriam; Cavatore, Magali; Guerrero, Marta Inírida; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Billman-Jacobe, Helen; Lavender, Caroline; Fyfe, Janet; García-García, Lourdes; León, Clara Inés; Bose, Mridula; Chaves, Fernando; Murray, Megan; Eisenach, Kathleen D.; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Cave, M. Donald; Ponce de León, Alfredo; Alland, David

    2006-01-01

    The molecular basis for isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is complex. Putative isoniazid resistance mutations have been identified in katG, ahpC, inhA, kasA, and ndh. However, small sample sizes and related potential biases in sample selection have precluded the development of statistically valid and significant population genetic analyses of clinical isoniazid resistance. We present the first large-scale analysis of 240 alleles previously associated with isoniazid resistance in a diverse set of 608 isoniazid-susceptible and 403 isoniazid-resistant clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. We detected 12 mutant alleles in isoniazid-susceptible isolates, suggesting that these alleles are not involved in isoniazid resistance. However, mutations in katG, ahpC, and inhA were strongly associated with isoniazid resistance, while kasA mutations were associated with isoniazid susceptibility. Remarkably, the distribution of isoniazid resistance-associated mutations was different in isoniazid-monoresistant isolates from that in multidrug-resistant isolates, with significantly fewer isoniazid resistance mutations in the isoniazid-monoresistant group. Mutations in katG315 were significantly more common in the multidrug-resistant isolates. Conversely, mutations in the inhA promoter were significantly more common in isoniazid-monoresistant isolates. We tested for interactions among mutations and resistance to different drugs. Mutations in katG, ahpC, and inhA were associated with rifampin resistance, but only katG315 mutations were associated with ethambutol resistance. There was also a significant inverse association between katG315 mutations and mutations in ahpC or inhA and between mutations in kasA and mutations in ahpC. Our results suggest that isoniazid resistance and the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains are complex dynamic processes that may be influenced by interactions between genes and drug-resistant phenotypes. PMID:16870753

  14. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Kamela O.; Law, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM) was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters. PMID:27025617

  15. Molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nooter, K; Stoter, G

    1996-07-01

    The occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main obstacles in the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. MDR cell lines are resistant to the so-called naturally occurring anti-cancer drugs, such as anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids and epipodophyllotoxins, but are not cross-resistant to alkylating agents, antimetabolites and cisplatin. So far, three separate forms of MDR have been characterized in more detail: classical MDR, non-Pgp MDR and atypical MDR. Although all three MDR phenotypes have much in common with respect to cross-resistance patterns, the underlying mechanisms certainly differ. Atypical MDR is associated with quantitative and qualitative alterations in topoisomerase II alpha, a nuclear enzyme that actively participates in the lethal action of cytotoxic drugs. Atypical MDR cells do not overexpress P-glycoprotein, and are unaltered in their ability to accumulate drugs. In this review we will focus on classical and non-Pgp MDR. The molecular mechanism of classical and non-Pgp MDR is transcriptional activation of membrane-bound transport proteins. These transport proteins belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems. The classical MDR phenotype is characterized by a reduced ability to accumulate drugs, due to activity of an energy-dependent uni-directional, membrane-bound, drug-efflux pump with broad substrate specificity. The classical MDR drug pump is composed of a transmembrane glycoprotein (P-glyco-protein-Pgp) with a molecular weight of 170 kD, and is, in man, encoded by the so-called multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene. Typically, non-Pgp MDR has no P-gly-coprotein expression, yet has about the same cross-resistance pattern as classical MDR. This non-Pgp MDR phenotype is caused by overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) gene, which encodes a 190 kD membrane-bound glycoprotein (MRP). MRP probably works by direct extrusion of cytotoxic drugs from the cell and/or by mediating

  16. Diverse targeted approaches to battle multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Shankaraiah, Nagula; Nekkanti, Shalini; Ommi, Ojaswitha; Lakshmi, P S Soukya

    2018-04-09

    The efficacy of successful cancer therapies is frequently hindered by the development of drug resistance in the tumor. The term 'drug resistance' is used to illustrate the decreased effectiveness of a drug in curing a disease or alleviating the symptoms of the patient. This phenomenon helps tumors to survive the damage caused by a specific drug or group of drugs. In this context, studying the mechanisms of drug resistance and applying this information to design customized treatment regimens can improve therapeutic efficacy as well as the curative outcome. Over the years, numerous multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms have been recognized and tremendous effort has been put into developing agents to address them. The integration of data emerging from the elucidation of molecular and biochemical pathways and specific tumor-associated factors has shown tremendous promise within the oncology community for improving patient outcomes. In this review, we provide an overview of the utility of these molecular and biochemical signaling processes as well as tumor-associated factors associated with MDR, for the rational selection of cancer treatment strategies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Multidrug-resistant enterococci lack CRISPR-cas.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kelli L; Gilmore, Michael S

    2010-10-12

    Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) provide bacteria and archaea with sequence-specific, acquired defense against plasmids and phage. Because mobile elements constitute up to 25% of the genome of multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci, it was of interest to examine the codistribution of CRISPR and acquired antibiotic resistance in enterococcal lineages. A database was built from 16 Enterococcus faecalis draft genome sequences to identify commonalities and polymorphisms in the location and content of CRISPR loci. With this data set, we were able to detect identities between CRISPR spacers and sequences from mobile elements, including pheromone-responsive plasmids and phage, suggesting that CRISPR regulates the flux of these elements through the E. faecalis species. Based on conserved locations of CRISPR and CRISPR-cas loci and the discovery of a new CRISPR locus with associated functional genes, CRISPR3-cas, we screened additional E. faecalis strains for CRISPR content, including isolates predating the use of antibiotics. We found a highly significant inverse correlation between the presence of a CRISPR-cas locus and acquired antibiotic resistance in E. faecalis, and examination of an additional eight E. faecium genomes yielded similar results for that species. A mechanism for CRISPR-cas loss in E. faecalis was identified. The inverse relationship between CRISPR-cas and antibiotic resistance suggests that antibiotic use inadvertently selects for enterococcal strains with compromised genome defense.

  18. Preparation of silver nanoparticles fabrics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanh, Truong Thi; Thu, Nguyen Thi; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; An, Pham Ngoc; Loan, Truong Thi Kieu; Hoa, Phan Thi

    2016-04-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/peco fabrics were prepared by immobilization of AgNPs on fabrics in which AgNPs were synthesized by γ-irradiation of the 10 mM AgNO3 chitosan solution at the dose of 17.6 kGy. The AgNPs size has been estimated to be about 11 nm from TEM image. The AgNPs content onto peco fabrics was of 143±6 mg/kg at the initial AgNPs concentration of 100 ppm. The AgNPs colloidal solution was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM image. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs/peco fabrics after 60 washings against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be over 99%. Effects of AgNPs fabics on multidrug-resistant pathogens from the clinical specimens were also tested.

  19. Leishmanicidal and reversal multidrug resistance constituents from Aeonium lindleyi.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, María L; Cortés, Fernando; Piñero, José E; Castanys, Santiago; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Jiménez, Ignacio A

    2011-01-01

    A new bicyclic diterpene with a labdane skeleton, 7-oxo-labd-8-en-15-ol ( 1), along with two known diterpenes and ten flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Aeonium lindleyi (Crassulaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and comparison with spectroscopic data reported in the literature. Labdan-8 α,15-diol (2) and labd-8(17)-en-3 β,15-diol (3) showed leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania tropica (IC (50) = 77.0 µM) and Leishmania braziliensis (IC (50) = 68.0 µM) similar to ketoconazole used as positive control. 5,3'-Dihydroxy-3,7,4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (8) and combretol (9) showed moderate activity (growth inhibition 87.3 and 73.0 %, respectively, at 50 µM) against a multidrug-resistant L. tropica line. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Molecular epidemiological survey of bacteremia by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the relevance of intrinsic resistance mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Raquel Cristina Cavalcanti; Silva, Rebecca Tavares e; Ferreira, Melina Lorraine; Gonçalves, Iara Rossi; Araújo, Bruna Fuga; de Campos, Paola Amaral; Royer, Sabrina; Batistão, Deivid William da Fonseca; Gontijo-Filho, Paulo Pinto; Ribas, Rosineide Marques

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial factors associated with bacteremia by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, including overexpression of efflux pumps, AmpC overproduction, and loss/alteration of the OprD porin in isolates that are non-Metallo-β-Lactamase producing were analyzed in a retrospective study. Molecular analyses included strain typing by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and identification of key genes via qualitative and quantitative PCR-based assays. Previous use of carbapenems and tracheostomy was independently associated with the development of bacteremia by extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. A high consumption of antimicrobials was observed, and 75.0% of the isolates contained amplicons with the blaSPM-1 and blaVIM genes. Of the 47 non-Metallo-β-Lactamase isolates, none had another type of carbapenemase. However, the isolates exhibited high rates of hyperproduction of AmpC, loss of the OprD porin (71.4%) and the presence of MexABOprM (57.1%) and MexXY (64.3%). This study suggests that in non-Metallo-β-Lactamase isolates, the association of intrinsic resistance mechanisms could contributes to the expression of multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant phenotypes. PMID:28481953

  1. Virulence properties of multidrug resistant ocular isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Talreja, Deepa; Muraleedharan, Chithra; Gunathilaka, Gayathri; Zhang, Yifan; Kaye, Keith S; Walia, Satish K; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter (A.) baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen and has been reported as a causative agent of ocular infections. The aim of this study is to identify virulence properties (biofilm formation, adhesion, invasion and cytotoxicity) and antibiotic resistance among A. baumannii isolates recovered from the eye. The Microscan Walk-Away®, an automated bacterial identification and susceptibility testing system was used to determine antibiotic resistance. Clonal relatedness was assessed by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profile analysis. Conjugation experiments were carried out to determine the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and PCR was used to confirm gene transfer. Virulence properties of the isolates were determined by biofilm formation using crystal violet and immunofluorescence staining, adherence and internalization using cultured corneal epithelial cells, and cytotoxicity by TUNEL-staining and LDH release assays. All ocular isolates (n = 12) exhibited multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype and one of the isolate (AB12) was resistant to 18 antibiotics (β-lactam, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and quinolones). The plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of multiple plasmids in each isolate and a total of 10 different profiles were observed. However, PFGE analysis was more discriminatory which revealed 12 distinct genotypes. Antibiotic resistance (tetracycline and quinolone) was transferable from the isolate AB12 to a recipient Escherichia coli J53. Ten isolates were strong biofilm producers and the remaining two (AB5 and AB7) were moderate producers. All isolates demonstrated adherence and invasive properties towards HCECs. A similar trend was observed in their ability to cause cell death and toxicity. Our results indicate that ocular isolates of A. baumannii are biofilm producers and adherent and invasive to corneal epithelium, a first step in the pathogenesis of ocular infection. In addition, they

  2. Coexpression of multidrug resistance involve proteins: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutonnat, J; Bonnefoix, T; Mousseau, M; Seigneurin, D; Ronot, X

    1998-01-01

    Cross resistance to multiple natural cytotoxic products represents a major obstacle in myeloblastic acute leukaemia (AML). Multidrug resistance (MDR) often involves overexpression of plasma membrane drug transporter P-glycoprotein (PGP) or the resistance associated protein (MRP). Recently, a protein overexpressed in a non-PGP MDR lung cancer cell line and termed lung resistance related protein (LRP) was identified. These proteins are known to be associated with a bad prognosis in AML. We have developed a triple indirect labelling analysed by flow cytometry to detect the coexpression of these proteins. Since no cell line expressing all three antigens is known, we mixed K562 cells (resistant to Adriblastine, PGP+, MRP-, LRP-) with GLC4 cells (resistant to Adriblastine, PGP-, MRP+, LRP+) to create a model system to test the method. The antibodies used were UIC2 for PGP, MRPm6 for MRP and LRP56 for LRP. They were revealed by Fab'2 coupled with Fluoresceine-isothiocyanate, Phycoerythrin or Tricolor with isotype specificity. Cells were fixed and permeabilized after PGP labelling because MRPm6 and LRP56 recognize intracellular epitopes. PGP and LRP were easily detected. MRP is expressed at relatively low levels and was more difficult to detect because in the triple labelling the non specific staining was higher than in a single labelling. Despite the increased background in the triple labelling we were able to detect coexpression of PGP, MRP, LRP by flow cytometry. This method appears to be very useful to detect coexpression of markers in AML. Such coexpression could modify the therapeutic approach with revertants.

  3. Genotyping of clinical and environmental multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium strains.

    PubMed

    Shokoohizadeh, Leili; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Ranjbar, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecium is a nosocomial pathogen and clonal complex 17 (CC17) is the main genetic subpopulation of E. faecium in hospitals worldwide. There has thus far been no report of major E. faecium clones in Iranian hospitals. The present study analyzed strains of MDR E. faecium obtained from patients and the Intensive Care Unit environments using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic features of the dominant. clones of E. faecium. PFGE and MLST analysis revealed the presence of 17and 15 different subtypes, respectively. Of these, 18 (86%) isolates belonged toCC17. Most strains in this clonal complex harbored the esp gene and exhibited resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and erythromycin. The MLST results revealed 12 new sequence types (ST) for the first time. Approximately 50% of the STs were associated with ST203. Detection of E. faecium strains belonging to CC17 on medical equipment and in clinical specimens verified the circulation of high-risk MDR clones among the patients and in hospital environments in Iran.

  4. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: challenges of a global emergence].

    PubMed

    Comolet, T

    2015-10-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis, in particular Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR-TB) is an increasing global concern and a major burden for some developing countries, especially the BRICS. It is assumed that every year roughly 350 000 new MDR-TB cases occur in the world, on average in 20.5% of TB patients that have been previously treated but also in 3.5% of persons that have never been on TB treatment before. The global distribution of cases is very heterogeneous and is now better understood thanks to a growing number of specific surveys and routine surveillance systems: incidence is much higher in southern Africa and in all countries formerly part of the USSR. Countries with weak health systems and previously inefficient TB control programs are highly vulnerable to MDR epidemics because program failures do help creating, maintaining and spreading resistances. Global response is slowly rolled out and diagnosis capacities are on the rise (mostly with genotypic methods) but adequate and successful treatment and care is still limited to a minority of global cases. From a public health perspective the MDR-TB growing epidemics will not be controlled merely by the introduction of few new antibiotics because it is also linked to patient's compliance and adequate case management supported by efficient TB program. In depth quality improvement will only be achieved after previous errors are thoroughly analyzed and boldly corrected.

  5. Human multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis infection in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Chacon, Carlos A; Martínez-Guarneros, Armando; Couvin, David; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge A; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; De-la-Cruz López, Juan J; Gomez-Bustamante, Adriana; Gonzalez-Macal, Gabriela A; Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Rastogi, Nalin; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2015-12-01

    Here, we describe the molecular characterization of six human Mycobacterium bovis clinical isolates, including three multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, collected in Mexico through the National Survey on Tuberculosis Drug Resistance (ENTB-2008), a nationally representative survey conducted during 2008-2009 in nine states with a stratified cluster sampling design. The genetic background of bovine M. bovis strains identified in three different states of Mexico was studied in parallel to assess molecular relatedness of bovine and human strains. Additionally, resistance to first and second line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs and molecular identification of mutations conferring drug resistance was also performed. All strains were characterized by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs, and analyzed using the SITVIT2 (n = 112,000 strains) and SITVITBovis (n = 25,000 strains) proprietary databases of Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe. Furthermore, data from this study (n = 55 isolates), were also compared with genotypes recorded for M. bovis from USA (n = 203), Argentina (n = 726), as well as other isolates from Mexico (independent from the present study; n = 147), to determine any evidence for genetic relatedness between circulating M. bovis strains. The results showed that all human M. bovis cases were not genetically related between them or to any bovine strain. Interestingly, a high degree of genetic variability was observed among bovine strains. Several autochthonous and presumably imported strains were identified. The emergence of drug-resistant M. bovis is an important public health problem that jeopardizes the success of TB control programs in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Acinetobacter baumannii: an important pathogen with multidrug resistance in newborns].

    PubMed

    Celik, Istemi Han; Demirel, Gamze; Tatar Aksoy, Hatice; Saygan, Sibel; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Uras, Nurdan; Oğuz, Serife Suna; Erdeve, Omer; Dilmen, Uğur

    2011-10-01

    Nosocomial sepsis agents with multidrug resistance have led to higher morbidity and mortality in premature infants in the recent years. Acinetobacter baumannii has become a leading cause of nosocomial sepsis in several neonatal intensive care units. In this study, the demographic, clinic, microbiologic characteristics and risk factors of 21 premature infants hospitalized in newborn intensive care unit between January 2010-February 2011 and developed A.baumannii infection, have been evaluated retrospectively. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Vitek 2 GN and AST-N090 using Vitek 2 Compact system (BioMerieux, France). A.baumannii was isolated from the blood samples of 10 patients, central venous catheter samples of three patients, CSF samples of two, tracheal aspirate of two and urine sample of one patient. In two patients both blood and central venous catheter samples and in one patient both blood and CSF samples revealed A.baumannii. Gestational age was between 22-30 weeks and birth weight was between 500-1320 grams (17 were < 1000 g) in 19 patients. A.baumannii caused early onset (≤ 3 days) sepsis in four, and late onset (≥ 4 days) sepsis in 17 patients. The main risk factors were detected as mechanical ventilation (n= 20, 95%), prematurity (n= 19, 91%), total parenteral nutrition (n= 17, 81%) and central catheter use (n= 14, 67%). Antibiotics with highest rates of susceptibility were gentamicin (18/21), amikacin (14/21), and colistin (10/21). Twenty (95%) isolates had multiple drug resistance. Amikacin, gentamicin, colistin and imipenem were used for treatment, however 12 infants, 8 of which due to sepsis, died. In conclusion, A.baumannii which is an important nosocomial sepsis agent with multidrug resistance, is increasing in incidence. To control Acinetobacter infections especially in low-birth weight infants, the use of invasive procedures, total parenteral nutrition and broad spectrum

  7. Antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray for analysis of multi-drug resistant isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Leski, Tomasz; Stenger, David; Vora, Gary J.; House, Brent; Nicklasson, Matilda; Pimentel, Guillermo; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Craft, David; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.; Bangurae, Umaru; Ansumana, Rashid

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections in personnel wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan has made it challenging for physicians to choose effective therapeutics in a timely fashion. To address the challenge of identifying the potential for drug resistance, we have developed the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM) to provide DNAbased analysis for over 250 resistance genes covering 12 classes of antibiotics. Over 70 drug-resistant bacteria from different geographic regions have been analyzed on ARDM, with significant differences in patterns of resistance identified: genes for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, rifampin, and macrolide-lincosamidesulfonamide drugs were more frequently identified in isolates from sources in Iraq/Afghanistan. Of particular concern was the presence of genes responsible for resistance to many of the last-resort antibiotics used to treat war traumaassociated infections.

  8. Common errors in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis management.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Ignacio; Caminero, Jose A

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as being resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, has an increasing burden and threatens TB control. Diagnosis is limited and usually delayed while treatment is long lasting, toxic and poorly effective. MDR-TB management in scarce-resource settings is demanding however it is feasible and extremely necessary. In these settings, cure rates do not usually exceed 60-70% and MDR-TB management is novel for many TB programs. In this challenging scenario, both clinical and programmatic errors are likely to occur. The majority of these errors may be prevented or alleviated with appropriate and timely training in addition to uninterrupted procurement of high-quality drugs, updated national guidelines and laws and an overall improvement in management capacities. While new tools for diagnosis and shorter and less toxic treatment are not available in developing countries, MDR-TB management will remain complex in scarce resource settings. Focusing special attention on the common errors in diagnosis, regimen design and especially treatment delivery may benefit patients and programs with current outdated tools. The present article is a compilation of typical errors repeatedly observed by the authors in a wide range of countries during technical assistant missions and trainings.

  9. Emergence and Spread of Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Tada, Tatsuya; Ohmagari, Norio; Viet Hung, Nguyen; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Gniadkowski, Marek; Shimojima, Masahiro; Kirikae, Teruo

    2017-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Although the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa is a critical problem in medical practice, the key features involved in the emergence and spread of MDR P. aeruginosa remain unknown. This study utilized whole genome sequence (WGS) analyses to define the population structure of 185 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from several countries. Of these 185 isolates, 136 were categorized into sequence type (ST) 235, one of the most common types worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates fell within seven subclades. Each subclade harbors characteristic drug resistance genes and a characteristic genetic background confined to a geographic location, suggesting that clonal expansion following antibiotic exposure is the driving force in generating the population structure of MDR P. aeruginosa. WGS analyses also showed that the substitution rate was markedly higher in ST235 MDR P. aeruginosa than in other strains. Notably, almost all ST235 isolates harbor the specific type IV secretion system and very few or none harbor the CRISPR/CAS system. These findings may help explain the mechanism underlying the emergence and spread of ST235 P. aeruginosa as the predominant MDR lineage. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Diagnosis of cancer multidrug resistance by bacterium-mediated imaging.

    PubMed

    Elkadi, Omar Anwar; Abdelbasset, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon expressed by many tumors affecting the chemotherapy efficacy, treatment decision, and the disease prognosis. Considering its great implication, non-invasive approaches are needed to identify this phenomenon in early stages of the disease. This article discusses the potential of the emerging non-invasive bacterium-mediated imaging of cancer in diagnosis of MDR. This potential is derived from the effect of cancer MDR on the pharmacokinetics of certain antibiotics, which are substrates of the MDR proteins. Since MDR proteins actively pump their substrates outside the resistant cancer cells, the elimination of the employed reporter bacteria, proliferating within MDR cancer cells, would require a larger dose of these antibiotics compared to those inside non-MDR cancer cells. These bacteria bear reporter genes that produce specific signals such as bioluminescent, fluorescent, magnetic, or radioactive signals that can be detected by non-invasive imaging modalities. Therefore, the presence, degree, and mechanism of MDR can be estimated by comparing the concentration of the employed antibiotic, required to cease these signals (reflecting the elimination of the bacteria), to a pre-determined reference. The real time imaging of MDR cancer and the early diagnosis of MDR, offered by this approach, would provide a better tool for preclinical studies of MDR, and allow a prompt choice of the most appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance-1 gene polymorphism in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Faway, Emilie; Musset, Lise; Pelleau, Stéphane; Volney, Béatrice; Casteras, Jessica; Caro, Valérie; Menard, Didier; Briolant, Sébastien; Legrand, Eric

    2016-11-08

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health problem in French Guiana. Some cases of resistance to chloroquine, the first-line treatment used against P. vivax malaria, have been described in the Brazilian Amazon region. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible dispersion of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax isolates in French Guiana. The genotype, polymorphism and copy number variation, of the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene-1 (pvmdr1) have been previously associated with modification of the susceptibility to chloroquine. The pvmdr1 gene polymorphism was evaluated by sequencing and copy number variation was assessed by real-time PCR, in P. vivax isolates obtained from 591 symptomatic patients from 1997 to 2013. The results reveal that 1.0% [95% CI 0.4-2.2] of French Guiana isolates carry the mutations Y976F and F1076L, and that the proportion of isolates with multiple copies of pvmdr1 has significantly decreased over time, from 71.3% (OR = 6.2 [95% CI 62.9-78.7], p < 0.0001) in 1997-2004 to 12.8% (OR = 0.03 [95% CI 9.4-16.9], p < 0.0001) in 2009-2013. A statistically significant relationship was found between Guf-A (harboring the single mutation T958M) and Sal-1 (wild type) alleles and pvmdr1 copy number. Few P. vivax isolates harboring chloroquine-resistant mutations in the pvmdr1 gene are circulating in French Guiana. However, the decrease in the prevalence of isolates carrying multiple copies of pvmdr1 might indicate that the P. vivax population in French Guiana is evolving towards a decreased susceptibility to chloroquine.

  12. Multidrug resistance in fungi: regulation of transporter-encoding gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sanjoy; Moye-Rowley, W. Scott

    2014-01-01

    A critical risk to the continued success of antifungal chemotherapy is the acquisition of resistance; a risk exacerbated by the few classes of effective antifungal drugs. Predictably, as the use of these drugs increases in the clinic, more resistant organisms can be isolated from patients. A particularly problematic form of drug resistance that routinely emerges in the major fungal pathogens is known as multidrug resistance. Multidrug resistance refers to the simultaneous acquisition of tolerance to a range of drugs via a limited or even single genetic change. This review will focus on recent progress in understanding pathways of multidrug resistance in fungi including those of most medical relevance. Analyses of multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided the most detailed outline of multidrug resistance in a eukaryotic microorganism. Multidrug resistant isolates of S. cerevisiae typically result from changes in the activity of a pair of related transcription factors that in turn elicit overproduction of several target genes. Chief among these is the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-encoding gene PDR5. Interestingly, in the medically important Candida species, very similar pathways are involved in acquisition of multidrug resistance. In both C. albicans and C. glabrata, changes in the activity of transcriptional activator proteins elicits overproduction of a protein closely related to S. cerevisiae Pdr5 called Cdr1. The major filamentous fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, was previously thought to acquire resistance to azole compounds (the principal antifungal drug class) via alterations in the azole drug target-encoding gene cyp51A. More recent data indicate that pathways in addition to changes in the cyp51A gene are important determinants in A. fumigatus azole resistance. We will discuss findings that suggest azole resistance in A. fumigatus and Candida species may share more mechanistic similarities than previously thought. PMID:24795641

  13. Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae failing treatment with ceftriaxone and doxycycline in France, November 2017.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Thibault; Fouere, Sebastien; Braille, Aymeric; Camelena, Francois; Agsous, Myriem; Bebear, Cecile; Kumanski, Sylvain; Lot, Florence; Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Ngangro, Ndeindo Ndeikoundam; Salmona, Maud; Schnepf, Nathalie; Timsit, Julie; Unemo, Magnus; Bercot, Beatrice

    2018-05-01

    We report a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae urogenital and pharyngeal infection with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate resistance to azithromycin in a heterosexual woman in her 20s in France. Treatment with ceftriaxone plus doxycycline failed for the pharyngeal localisation. Whole-genome sequencing of isolate F90 identified MLST 1903 , NG-MAST ST 3435 , NG-STAR 233 , and relevant resistance determinants. F90 showed phenotypic and genotypic similarities to an internationally spreading multidrug-resistant and ceftriaxone-resistant clone detected in Japan and subsequently in Australia, Canada and Denmark.

  14. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition.

    PubMed

    Morales, Eva; Cots, Francesc; Sala, Maria; Comas, Mercè; Belvis, Francesc; Riu, Marta; Salvadó, Margarita; Grau, Santiago; Horcajada, Juan P; Montero, Maria Milagro; Castells, Xavier

    2012-05-23

    We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain). All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros). In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively). P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact.

  15. Hospital costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the hospital economic costs of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. Methods A retrospective study of all hospital admissions between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006 was carried out in a 420-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Barcelona (Spain). All patients with a first positive clinical culture for P. aeruginosa more than 48 h after admission were included. Patient and hospitalization characteristics were collected from hospital and microbiology laboratory computerized records. According to antibiotic susceptibility, isolates were classified as non-resistant, resistant and multi-drug resistant. Cost estimation was based on a full-costing cost accounting system and on the criteria of clinical Activity-Based Costing methods. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models of log-transformed costs. Results Cost estimations were available for 402 nosocomial incident P. aeruginosa positive cultures. Their distribution by antibiotic susceptibility pattern was 37.1% non-resistant, 29.6% resistant and 33.3% multi-drug resistant. The total mean economic cost per admission of patients with multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa strains was higher than that for non-resistant strains (15,265 vs. 4,933 Euros). In multivariate analysis, resistant and multi-drug resistant strains were independently predictive of an increased hospital total cost in compared with non-resistant strains (the incremental increase in total hospital cost was more than 1.37-fold and 1.77-fold that for non-resistant strains, respectively). Conclusions P. aeruginosa multi-drug resistance independently predicted higher hospital costs with a more than 70% increase per admission compared with non-resistant strains. Prevention of the nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms is essential to limit the strong economic impact. PMID:22621745

  16. Bloodstream infections caused by multi-drug resistant Proteus mirabilis: Epidemiology, risk factors and impact of multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Korytny, Alexander; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Fransisc; Borer, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial co-resistance among ESBL-producing Enterobactereaceae is extremely high in Israel. Multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strains (MDR-PM), resistant to almost all antibiotic classes have been described. The aim was to determine the risk factors for bloodstream infections caused by MDR-PM and clinical outcomes. A retrospective case-control study. Adult patients with PM bacteremia during 7 years were identified retrospectively and their files reviewed for demographics, underlying diseases, Charlson Comorbidity Index, treatment and outcome. One hundred and eighty patients with PM-bloodstream infection (BSI) were included; 90 cases with MDR-PM and 90 controls with sensitive PM (S-PM). Compared to controls, cases more frequently were from nursing homes, had recurrent hospital admissions in the past year and received antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months, were bedridden and suffered from peripheral vascular disease and peptic ulcer disease (p < 0.001). Two-thirds of the MDR-PM isolates were ESBL-producers vs 4.4% of S-PM isolates (p < 0.001, OR = 47.6, 95% CI = 15.9-142.6). In-hospital crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was 37.7% vs 23.3% in those with S-PM BSI (p = 0.0359, OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.4-3.81). PM bacteremia in elderly and functionally-dependent patients is likely to be caused by nearly pan-resistant PM strains in the institution; 51.8% of the patients received inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment. The crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was significantly higher than that of patients with S-PM BSI.

  17. Bedaquiline in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: Belarus experience.

    PubMed

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Hennadz; Falzon, Dennis; Zhilevich, Liudmila; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dara, Masoud; Setkina, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations. After enrollment of patients, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and microbiological data were carefully collected at start, during treatment, and at follow-up. A total of 197 patients were enrolled: male, 140 (71%); female, 57 (29%); new TB cases, 83 (42%); previously treated, 114 (58%); extensively drug-resistant-TB (XDR-TB), 128 (65%), pre-XDR-TB (fluoroquinolone resistant), 34 (17%), pre-XDR-TB (injectables resistant), 25 (13%), and other MDR-TB cases, 10 (5%). According to the intermediate analysis, 186 patients currently are continuing with the treatment, two patients died, and nine patients were lost to follow-up. Sputum culture conversion were observed in 186 patients (94%) at 6months and one (0.5%) of these 197 patients started treatment; six patients (3%) remain sputum culture positive. The safety data were as follows: 135 patients (68%) experienced metabolism and nutrition disorders (hyperuricemia being the most common), 127 patients (64%) experienced hepatobiliary disorders (hepatic functions abnormality being the most common), 93 patients (47%) experienced electrolyte disorders (hypomagnesemia being the most common), 80 patients (41%) experienced cardiac disorders (abnormal electrocardiogram and arrhythmia being the most common), 68 patients (35%) experienced gastrointestinal system disorders (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain being the most common disorders

  18. Rational design of cancer-targeted selenium nanoparticles to antagonize multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Zeng, Lilan; Jiang, Wenting; Fu, Yuanting; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Multidrug resistance is one of the greatest challenges in cancer therapy. Herein we described the synthesis of folate (FA)-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as cancer-targeted nano-drug delivery system for ruthenium polypyridyl (RuPOP) exhibits strong fluorescence, which allows the direct imaging of the cellular trafficking of the nanosystem. This nanosystem could effectively antagonize against multidrug resistance in liver cancer. FA surface conjugation significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeNPs by FA receptor-mediated endocytosis through nystain-dependent lipid raft-mediated and clathrin-mediated pathways. The nanomaterials overcame the multidrug resistance in R-HepG2 cells through inhibition of ABC family proteins expression. Internalized nanoparticles triggered ROS overproduction and induced apoptosis by activating p53 and MAPKs pathways. Moreover, FA-SeNPs exhibited low in vivo acute toxicity, which verified the safety and application potential of FA-SeNPs as nanodrugs. This study provides an effective strategy for the design of cancer-targeted nanodrugs against multidrug resistant cancers. In the combat against hepatocellular carcinoma, multidrug resistance remains one of the obstacles to be overcome. The authors designed and synthesized folate (FA)-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with enhanced cancer-targeting capability. This system carried ruthenium polypyridyl (RuPOP), an efficient metal-based anti-cancer drug with strong fluorescence. It was shown that this combination was effective in antagonizing against multidrug resistance in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multidrug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells in Neuroblastoma and Hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Alisi, Anna; Cho, William C.; Locatelli, Franco; Fruci, Doriana

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major modalities in treating cancers. However, its effectiveness is limited by the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). Several mechanisms could explain the up-regulation of MDR genes/proteins in cancer after chemotherapy. It is known that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a role as master regulators. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate some traits of CSCs may help design efficient strategies to overcome chemoresistance. Different CSC phenotypes have been identified, including those found in some pediatric malignancies. As solid tumors in children significantly differ from those observed in adults, this review aims at providing an overview of the mechanistic relationship between MDR and CSCs in common solid tumors, and, in particular, focuses on clinical as well as experimental evidence of the relations between CSCs and MDR in neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. Finally, some novel approaches, such as concomitant targeting of multiple key transcription factors governing the stemness of CSCs, as well as nanoparticle-based approaches will also be briefly addressed. PMID:24351843

  20. Multifunctional nanoplatforms for targeted multidrug-resistant-bacteria theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xuemei; Fan, Zhen; Lu, Yuefeng; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2013-11-13

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant-bacteria (MDRB) infection poses a major burden to modern healthcare. Early detection in the bloodstream and a new strategy development for MDRB infection treatment without antibiotics are clinically significant to save millions of lives every year. To tackle the MDRB challenge, the current manuscript reports the design of "multifunctional nanoplatforms" consisting of a magnetic core-plasmonic shell nanoparticle, a methylene blue-bound aptamer, and an MDRB Salmonella DT104 specific antibody. The reported "multifunctional nanoplatform" is capable of targeted separation from a blood sample and sensing and multimodal therapeutic killing of MDRB. Experimental data using an MDRB-infected whole-blood sample show that nanoplatforms can be used for selective magnetic separation and fluorescence imaging. In vitro light-triggered photodestruction of MDRB, using combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment, shows that the multimodal treatment regime can enhance MDRB killing significantly. We discussed the possible mechanisms on combined synergistic therapy for killing MDRB. The "multifunctional nanoplatform" reported in this manuscript has great potential for the imaging and combined therapy of MDRB in clinical settings.

  1. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ze-Qi; Flavin, Michael T; Flavin, John

    2014-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, especially those caused by Gram-negative pathogens, have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats. The development of novel antibiotics to treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria has, however, stagnated over the last half century. This review provides an overview of recent R&D activities in the search for novel antibiotics against MDR Gram-negatives. It provides emphasis in three key areas. First, the article looks at new analogs of existing antibiotic molecules such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, and aminoglycoside as well as agents against novel bacterial targets such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and peptide deformylase. Second, it also examines alternative strategies to conventional approaches including cationic antimicrobial peptides, siderophores, efflux pump inhibitors, therapeutic antibodies, and renewed interest in abandoned treatments or those with limited indications. Third, the authors aim to provide an update on the current clinical development status for each drug candidate. The traditional analog approach is insufficient to meet the formidable challenge brought forth by MDR superbugs. With the disappointing results of the genomics approach for delivering novel targets and drug candidates, alternative strategies to permeate the bacterial cell membrane, enhance influx, disrupt efflux, and target specific pathogens via therapeutic antibodies are attractive and promising. Coupled with incentivized business models, governmental policies, and a clarified regulatory pathway, it is hoped that the antibiotic pipeline will be filled with an effective armamentarium to safeguard global health.

  2. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Long, Solida; Sousa, Emília; Kijjoa, Anake; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2016-07-08

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  3. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in two secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Miravet Sorribes, Luis; Arnedo Pena, Alberto; Bellido Blasco, Juan B; Romeu García, María Angeles; Gil Fortuño, María; García Sidro, Patricia; Cortés Miró, Pascual

    2016-02-01

    To describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in two schools This was a prospective, observational study of an outbreak of MDR-TB in 2 schools located in the towns of Onda and Nules, in the Spanish province of Castellon, from the moment of detection in November 2008 until November 2014, including patient follow-up and contact tracing. Five cases of MDR-TB were diagnosed. Overall attack rate was 0.9%, and among the contacts traced, 66 had latent tuberculous infection, with an infection rate of 14.4%. Molecular characterization of the 5M. tuberculosis isolates was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the IS6110 sequence. In all 5 patients, cultures were negative at 4-month follow-up, showing the efficacy of the treatment given. No recurrence has been reported to date. In the context of globalization and the increased prevalence of MDR-TB, outbreaks such as the one presented here are only to be expected. Contact tracing, strict follow-up of confirmed cases, the availability of fast diagnostic techniques to avoid treatment delay, and chemoprophylaxis, together with the molecular characterization of strains, are still essential. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The emergence and outbreak of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Meiying; Li, Xinlan; Liao, Qiaohong; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a severe public health problem in developing countries. The emergence of resistant typhoid, particularly multidrug-resistant typhoid infections, highlights the necessity of monitoring the resistance characteristics of this invasive pathogen. In this study, we report a typhoid fever outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains with an ACSSxtT pattern. Resistance genes conferring these phenotypes were harbored by a large conjugative plasmid, which increases the threat of Salmonella Typhi and thus requires close surveillance for dissemination of strains containing such genes. PMID:27329848

  5. The emergence and outbreak of multidrug-resistant typhoid fever in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meiying; Li, Xinlan; Liao, Qiaohong; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Kan, Biao

    2016-06-22

    Typhoid fever remains a severe public health problem in developing countries. The emergence of resistant typhoid, particularly multidrug-resistant typhoid infections, highlights the necessity of monitoring the resistance characteristics of this invasive pathogen. In this study, we report a typhoid fever outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains with an ACSSxtT pattern. Resistance genes conferring these phenotypes were harbored by a large conjugative plasmid, which increases the threat of Salmonella Typhi and thus requires close surveillance for dissemination of strains containing such genes.

  6. Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Brigden, Grania; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick P J; Balasegaram, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen.

  7. Treatment strategy for a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella UTI.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Erin; Heil, Emily L; Hynicka, Lauren M

    2014-01-01

    To describe the management strategy for a multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella urinary tract infection (UTI). A 69-year-old Caucasian woman with a past medical history of recurrent UTIs and a right-lung transplant presented with fever to 101.4°F, chills, malaise, and cloudy, foul-smelling urine for approximately 1 week. She was found to have a MDR Klebsiella UTI that was sensitive to tigecycline and cefepime. To further evaluate the degree of resistance Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations were requested for cefepime, amikacin, meropenem, and ertapenem. The patient received a 14-day course of amikacin, which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. One month later, the patient's UTI symptoms returned. The urine culture again grew MDR Klebsiella, sensitive only to tigecycline. Fosfomycin was initiated and resulted in limited resolution of her symptoms. Colistin was started, however, therapy was discontinued on day 5 secondary to the development of acute kidney injury. Despite the short course of therapy, the patient's symptoms resolved. The case presented lends itself well to numerous discussion items that are important to consider when determining optimal treatment for MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs). Susceptibility testing is an important tool for optimizing antibiotic therapy, however, automated systems may overestimate the susceptibility profile for a MDR GNB. Treatment strategies evaluated to treat MDR GNB, include combination therapy with a carbepenem and synergy using polymyxin. We have described the management strategy for a MDR Klebsiella UTI, the consequences of the initial management strategy, and potential strategies to manage these types of infections in future patients.

  8. Mitomycin C induces multidrug resistance in glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Hueber, Arno; Esser, Johannes M; Kociok, Norbert; Welsandt, Gerhard; Lüke, Christoph; Roters, Sigrid; Esser, Peter J

    2008-02-01

    Despite the adjuvant use of mitomycin C during trabeculectomy, failures still occur. We investigated whether cultured human Tenon fibroblasts exposed to low-dose mitomycin C developed a multidrug resistance phenotype in vitro, and whether mitomycin C treatment during previous filtration surgery induces P-glycoprotein expression in vivo. Cultured human Tenon fibroblasts treated with low-dose 0.01 nM mitomycin C for 2 weeks were subsequently treated with 0.1 to 100 microM mitomycin C in the absence or presence of 4 microM verapamil, and allowed to recover for 24 hours. Low-dose mitomycin C-treated fibroblasts were analysed for P-glycoprotein expression using flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and RT-PCR for mdr-1 mRNA. In addition, fibroblasts were treated with low dose 0.1 nM 5-fluorouracil for 2 weeks and analysed for P-glycoprotein expression using flow cytometry. Expression of P-glycoprotein was analysed in surgically removed Tenon tissue (n = 30) using immunohistochemistry. Of the 30 patients, 20 had a previous trabeculectomy, of which nine had previous adjuvant therapy with mitomycin C during trabeculectomy. Partial resistance to mitomycin C after low-dose mitomycin C pre-treatment was significantly neutralised by the addition of verapamil. Low-dose mitomycin C up-regulated P-glycoprotein expression, but not mdr-1 mRNA expression. 5-Fluorouracil did not induce P-glycoprotein expression. P-glycoprotein expression was detected in all nine patients exposed to mitomycin C during previous trabeculectomies. Only six of 21 specimens from patients not previously exposed to mitomycin C showed faint P-glycoprotein expression. The induction of P-glycoprotein by mitomycin C could explain some failures that occur after repeated use of mitomycin C during trabeculectomy. The concomitant use of verapamil or the use of 5-fluorouracil alone could increase the success rate of repeat trabeculectomies.

  9. Detection of Multi-drug Resistant Acinetobacter Lwoffii Isolated from Soil of Mink Farm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Wen, Yong Jun; Zhang, Shu Qin; Zhu, Hong Wei; Guo, Li; Wang, Feng Xue; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Hong Xia; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2016-07-01

    There were 4 Acinetobacter lwoffii obtained from soil samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains to 16 antimicrobial agents was investigated using K-B method. Three isolates showed the multi-drug resistance. The presence of resistance genes and integrons was determined using PCR. The aadA1, aac(3')-IIc, aph(3')-VII, aac(6')-Ib, sul2, cat2, floR, and tet(K) genes were detected, respectively. Three class 1 integrons were obtained. The arr-3-aacA4 and blaPSE-1 gene cassette, which cause resistance to aminoglycoside and beta-lactamase antibiotics. Our results reported the detection of multi-drug resistant and carried resistant genes Acinetobacter lwoffii from soil. The findings suggested that we should pay close attention to the prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacterial species of environment. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for overcoming multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Shi, Donghong; Zhou, Xianguang; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiang; Zeng, Zhiyong; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Jing; Wang, Jiandong; Zhang, Longjiang; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    Multidrug resistance is a major impediment for the successful chemotherapy in breast cancer. CD44 is over-expressed in multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells. CD44 monoclonal antibody exhibits anticancer potential by inhibiting proliferation and regulating P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux activity in multidrug resistant cells. Thereby, CD44 monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapeutic drug might be result in enhancing chemosensitivity and overcoming multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the CD44 monoclonal antibody functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing doxorubicin on human breast resistant cancer MCF-7 cells. The data showed that CD44-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles increased cytotoxicity and enhanced the downregulation of P-glycoprotein in comparison to CD44 antibody. Moreover, CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles provided active target, which promoted more cellular uptake of DOX in the resistant cells and more retention of DOX in tumor tissues than unengineered counterpart. Animal studies of the resistant breast cancer xenografts demonstrated that CD44-engineered drug delivery system remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited the tumor growth. Our results indicated that the CD44-engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system offers an effective approach to overcome multidrug resistance in human breast cancer.

  11. Comparison of gene expression profiles between pansensitive and multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas-Urquides, K; González-Escalante, L; Villarreal-Treviño, L; Silva-Ramírez, B; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, D J; Mojica-Espinosa, R; Rangel-Escareño, C; Uribe-Figueroa, L; Molina-Salinas, G M; Dávila-Velderrain, J; Castorena-Torres, F; Bermúdez de León, M; Said-Fernández, S

    2013-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has developed resistance to anti-tuberculosis first-line drugs. Multidrug-resistant strains complicate the control of tuberculosis and have converted it into a worldwide public health problem. Mutational studies of target genes have tried to envisage the resistance in clinical isolates; however, detection of these mutations in some cases is not sufficient to identify drug resistance, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved. Therefore, the identification of new markers of susceptibility or resistance to first-line drugs could contribute (1) to specifically diagnose the type of M. tuberculosis strain and prescribe an appropriate therapy, and (2) to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance in multidrug-resistant strains. In order to identify specific genes related to resistance in M. tuberculosis, we compared the gene expression profiles between the pansensitive H37Rv strain and a clinical CIBIN:UMF:15:99 multidrug-resistant isolate using microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that in the clinical multidrug-resistant isolate, the esxG, esxH, rpsA, esxI, and rpmI genes were upregulated, while the lipF, groES, and narG genes were downregulated. The modified genes could be involved in the mechanisms of resistance to first-line drugs in M. tuberculosis and could contribute to increased efficiency in molecular diagnosis approaches of infections with drug-resistant strains.

  12. Engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides to overcome multidrug resistance by ESKAPE pathogens.

    PubMed

    Deslouches, Berthony; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Craigo, Jodi K; Doi, Yohei; Burns, Jane L; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2015-02-01

    Multidrug resistance constitutes a threat to the medical achievements of the last 50 years. In this study, we demonstrated the abilities of two de novo engineered cationic antibiotic peptides (eCAPs), WLBU2 and WR12, to overcome resistance from 142 clinical isolates representing the most common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and to display a lower propensity to select for resistant bacteria in vitro compared to that with colistin and LL37. The results warrant an exploration of eCAPs for use in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Engineered Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides To Overcome Multidrug Resistance by ESKAPE Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Deslouches, Berthony; Steckbeck, Jonathan D.; Craigo, Jodi K.; Doi, Yohei; Burns, Jane L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance constitutes a threat to the medical achievements of the last 50 years. In this study, we demonstrated the abilities of two de novo engineered cationic antibiotic peptides (eCAPs), WLBU2 and WR12, to overcome resistance from 142 clinical isolates representing the most common multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and to display a lower propensity to select for resistant bacteria in vitro compared to that with colistin and LL37. The results warrant an exploration of eCAPs for use in clinical settings. PMID:25421473

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) PCI-24781 enhances chemotherapy induced apoptosis in multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cao; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Wood, Kirkham B; Schwab, Joseph H; Liu, Xianzhe; Mankin, Henry; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) on multi-drug resistant sarcoma cell lines has never been previously described. Four multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines treated with HDACI PCI-24781 resulted in dose-dependent accumulation of acetylated histones, p21 and PARP cleavage products. Growth of these cell lines was inhibited by PCI-24781 at IC50 of 0.43 to 2.7. When we looked for synergy of PCI-24781 with chemotherapeutic agents, we found that PCI-24781 reverses drug resistance in all four multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines and synergizes with chemotherapeutic agents to enhance caspase-3/7 activity. Expression of RAD51 (a marker for DNA double-strand break repair) was inhibited and the expression of GADD45α (a marker for growth arrest and DNA-damage) was induced by PCI-24781 in multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines. In conclusion, HDACI PCI-24781 synergizes with chemotherapeutic drugs to induce apoptosis and reverses drug resistance in multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines. PMID:21508354

  15. Research Progress in Reversal of Tumor Multi-drug Resistance via Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Cao, Hongyan; Qi, Xianghui; Li, Huikai; Ye, Peizhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Danqiao; Sun, Mingyu

    2017-11-24

    Multidrug resistance occurs when a tumor develops resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, which may include antitumor drugs with different chemical structures and mechanisms. Multidrug resistance limits the treatment effects of antitumor drugs, and is the main cause of chemotherapy failure. Multidrug resistance is caused by numerous factors including changes in ATP-binding cassette transporters, target proteins, detoxification, deoxyribonucleic acid repair, drug metabolic enzymes, and signal pathways of apoptosis. Clinical research indicates that natural products have great potential to treat tumors and reverse multidrug resistance. Natural products, which often have multiple targets, could play an important role in tumor treatment, have beneficial effects on tumor inhibition, improve symptoms, reduce radiotherapy and chemotherapy side effects, enhance immunity, and prolong survival. Because natural products often have few adverse reactions and less drug resistance, the antitumor activities of natural products have attracted extensive research. We aimed to review the basic research and clinical application of natural products in the reversal of multidrug resistance. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in veterinary medicine--emergence of an underestimated pathogen?

    PubMed

    Müller, Stefanie; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of multidrug resistant bacteria causing infections in animals has continuously been increasing. While the relevance of ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamase)-producing Enterobacteriaceae spp. and MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is unquestionable, knowledge about multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in veterinary medicine is scarce. This is a worrisome situation, as A. baumannii are isolated from veterinary clinical specimens with rising frequency. The remarkable ability of A. baumannii to develop multidrug resistance and the high risk of transmission are known in human medicine for years. Despite this, data regarding A. baumannii isolates of animal origin are missing. Due to the changing role of companion animals with closer contact between animal and owner, veterinary intensive care medicine is steadily developing. It can be assumed that the number of "high risk" patients with an enhanced risk for hospital acquired infections will be rising simultaneously. Thus, development and spread of multidrug resistant pathogens is envisioned to rise. It is possible, that A. baumannii will evolve into a veterinary nosocomial pathogen similar to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA. The lack of attention paid to A. baumannii in veterinary medicine is even more worrying, as first reports indicate a transmission between humans and animals. Essential questions regarding the role of livestock, especially as a potential source of multidrug resistant isolates, remain unanswered. This review summarizes the current knowledge on A. baumannii in veterinary medicine for the first time. It underlines the utmost significance of further investigations of A. baumannii animal isolates, particularly concerning epidemiology and resistance mechanisms.

  17. New structure–activity relationships of chalcone inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein: polyspecificity toward inhibition and critical substitutions against cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Luciana Pereira; Winter, Evelyn; Gauthier, Charlotte; Terreux, Raphaël; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise D; Mascarello, Alessandra; Nunes, Ricardo J; Yunes, Rosendo A; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania B; Macalou, Sira; Lorendeau, Doriane; Baubichon-Cortay, Hélène; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) plays a major role in cancer cell multidrug resistance, which contributes to low eifficacy of chemotherapy. Chalcones were recently found to be potent and specific inhibitors, but unfortunately display a significant cytotoxicity. A cellular screening against ABCG2-mediated mitoxantrone efflux was performed here by flow cytometry on 54 chalcone derivatives from three different series with a wide panel of substituents. The identified leads, with submicromolar IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values, showed that the previously identified 2′-OH-4′,6′-dimethoxyphenyl, as A-ring, could be efficiently replaced by a 2′-naphthyl group, or a 3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl with lower affinity. Such a structural variability indicates 3polyspecificity of the multidrug transporter for inhibitors. At least two methoxyl groups were necessary on B-ring for optimal inhibition, but substitution at positions 3, 4, and 5 induced cytotoxicity. The presence of a large O-benzyl substituent at position 4 and a 2′-naphthyl as A-ring markedly decreased the cytotoxicity, giving a high therapeutic ratio, which constitutes a critical requirement for future in-vivo assays in animal models. PMID:24109177

  18. Multidrug-resistant Strains of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, United States, 1997–19981

    PubMed Central

    Whichard, Jean; Rossiter, Shannon; Holland, Ben; Stamey, Karen; Headrick, Marcia L.; Barrett, Timothy J.; Angulo, Frederick J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, including definitive type 104 (DT104) in the United States, we reviewed data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). In 1997–1998, 25% (703) of 2,767 serotyped Salmonella isolates received at NARMS were S. Typhimurium; antimicrobial susceptibility testing and phage typing were completed for 697. Fifty-eight percent (402) were resistant to >1 antimicrobial agent. Three multidrug-resistant (>5 drugs) strains accounted for 74% (296) of all resistant isolates. Ceftriaxone resistance was present in 3% (8), and nalidixic acid resistance in 1% (4), of these multidrug-resistant strains. By phage typing, 37% (259) of S. Typhimurium isolates were DT104, 30% (209) were of undefined type and 15% (103) were untypable. Fifty percent (202) of resistant (>1 drug) isolates were DT104. Multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium isolates, particularly DT104, account for a substantial proportion of S. Typhimurium isolates; ceftriaxone resistance is exhibited by some of these strains. PMID:15200811

  19. Multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, United States, 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Whichard, Jean; Rossiter, Shannon; Holland, Ben; Stamey, Karen; Headrick, Marcia L; Barrett, Timothy J; Angulo, Frederick J

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, including definitive type 104 (DT104) in the United States, we reviewed data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). In 1997 to 1998, 703 (25%) of 2,767 serotyped Salmonella isolates received at NARMS were S. Typhimurium; antimicrobial susceptibility testing and phage typing were completed for 697. Fifty-eight percent (402) were resistant to > or = 1 antimicrobial agent. Three multidrug-resistant (> or = 5 drugs) strains accounted for (74%) 296 of all resistant isolates. Ceftriaxone resistance was present in 8 (3%), and nalidixic acid resistance in 4 (1%), of these multidrug-resistant strains. By phage typing, 259 (37%) of S. Typhimurium isolates were DT104, 209 (30%) were of undefined type and 103 (15%) were untypable. Fifty percent (202) of resistant (> or = 1 drug) isolates were DT104. Multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium isolates, particularly DT104, account for a substantial proportion of S. Typhimurium isolates; ceftriaxone resistance is exhibited by some of these strains.

  20. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  1. Multidrug-resistant malaria and the impact of mass drug administration.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Janie Anne; Takala-Harrison, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Based on the emergence and spread throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of multiple artemisinin-resistant lineages, the prevalence of multidrug resistance leading to high rates of artemisinin-based combination treatment failure in parts of the GMS, and the declining malaria burden in the region, the World Health Organization has recommended complete elimination of falciparum malaria from the GMS. Mass drug administration (MDA) is being piloted as one elimination intervention to be employed as part of this effort. However, concerns remain as to whether MDA might exacerbate the already prevalent problem of multidrug resistance in the region. In this review, we briefly discuss challenges of MDA, the use of MDA in the context of multidrug-resistant malaria, and the potential of different drug combinations and drug-based elimination strategies for mitigating the emergence and spread of resistance.

  2. Comparison of levofloxacin versus moxifloxacin for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Choi, Jae Chol; Lee, Jae Ho; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jung, Ki Hwan; Kim, Ki Uk; Choi, Sang Bong; Ryu, Yon Ju; Chan Kim, Kyung; Um, Soojung; Kwon, Yong Soo; Kim, Yee Hyung; Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Kyeongman; Hwang, Yong Il; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Young Seok; Heo, Eun Young; Lee, Juhee; Ki, Yeo Woon; Shim, Tae Sun; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2013-10-01

    Levofloxacin (LFX) and moxifloxacin (MXF) are the two most frequently recommended fluoroquinolones for treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). However, studies comparing the effectiveness of LFX and MXF among patients with MDR-TB are lacking. To compare the effectiveness of LFX and MXF in terms of culture conversion after 3 months of treatment for MDR-TB. In this prospective multicenter randomized open label trial, we randomly assigned 182 patients with MDR-TB (sensitive to LFX and MXF) to receive either LFX (750 mg/day; 90 patients) or MXF (400 mg/day; 92 patients) with a background drug regimen. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved sputum culture conversion at 3 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes were time to culture conversion and time to smear conversion, with data censored at 3 months, and the proportions of adverse drug reactions. At 3 months of treatment, 68 (88.3%) of the 77 patients in the LFX group and 67 (90.5%) of the 74 in the MXF group showed conversion to negative sputum cultures (odds ratio for LFX compared with MXF, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-2.20). Adverse drug reactions were reported in six patients (7.7%) in the LFX group and four (5.2%) in the MXF group (P = 0.75). The choice of LFX or MXF for treatment of patients with MDR-TB may not affect sputum culture conversion at 3 months of treatment. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01055145).

  3. Aggressive Regimens for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Reduce Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Molly F.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Mitnick, Carole D.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Bayona, Jaime; Chalco, Katiuska; Shin, Sonya; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Recurrent tuberculosis disease occurs within 2 years in as few as 1% and as many as 29% of individuals successfully treated for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. A better understanding of treatment-related factors associated with an elevated risk of recurrent tuberculosis after cure is urgently needed to optimize MDR tuberculosis therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults successfully treated for MDR tuberculosis in Peru. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine whether receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion from positive to negative was associated with a reduced rate of recurrent tuberculosis. Results. Among 402 patients, the median duration of follow-up was 40.5 months (interquartile range, 21.2–53.4). Receipt of an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion was associated with a lower risk of recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.96]; P = .04). A baseline diagnosis of diabetes mellitus also predicted recurrent tuberculosis (hazard ratio, 10.47 [95% confidence interval, 2.17–50.60]; P = .004). Conclusions. Individuals who received an aggressive MDR tuberculosis regimen for ≥18 months following sputum conversion experienced a lower rate of recurrence after cure. Efforts to ensure that an aggressive regimen is accessible to all patients with MDR tuberculosis, such as minimization of sequential ineffective regimens, expanded drug access, and development of new MDR tuberculosis compounds, are critical to reducing tuberculosis recurrence in this population. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be carefully managed during initial treatment and followed closely for recurrent disease. PMID:23223591

  4. Role of FKS Mutations in Candida glabrata: MIC Values, Echinocandin Resistance, and Multidrug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Cau D.; Iqbal, Naureen; Bolden, Carol B.; Kuykendall, Randall J.; Harrison, Lee H.; Farley, Monica M.; Schaffner, William; Beldavs, Zintars G.; Chiller, Tom M.; Park, Benjamin J.; Cleveland, Angela A.

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata is the second leading cause of candidemia in U.S. hospitals. Current guidelines suggest that an echinocandin be used as the primary therapy for the treatment of C. glabrata disease due to the high rate of resistance to fluconazole. Recent case reports indicate that C. glabrata resistance to echinocandins may be increasing. We performed susceptibility testing on 1,380 isolates of C. glabrata collected between 2008 and 2013 from four U.S. cities, Atlanta, Baltimore, Knoxville, and Portland. Our analysis showed that 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.6% of the isolates were resistant to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. We screened 1,032 of these isolates, including all 77 that had either a resistant or intermediate MIC value with respect to at least one echinocandin, for mutations in the hot spot regions of FKS1 and FKS2, the major mechanism of echinocandin resistance. Fifty-one isolates were identified with hot spot mutations, 16 in FKS1 and 35 in FKS2. All of the isolates with an FKS mutation except one were resistant to at least one echinocandin by susceptibility testing. Of the isolates resistant to at least one echinocandin, 36% were also resistant to fluconazole. Echinocandin resistance among U.S. C. glabrata isolates is a concern, especially in light of the fact that one-third of those isolates may be multidrug resistant. Further monitoring of U.S. C. glabrata isolates for echinocandin resistance is warranted. PMID:24890592

  5. Immunoliposomal delivery of doxorubicin can overcome multidrug resistance mechanisms in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mamot, Christoph; Ritschard, Reto; Wicki, Andreas; Küng, Willy; Schuller, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    Immunoliposomes (ILs) can be constructed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to provide efficient intracellular drug delivery in tumor cells. We hypothesized that this approach might be able to overcome drug resistance mechanisms, which remain an important obstacle to better outcomes in cancer therapy. ILs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against EGFR-overexpressing pairs of human cancer cells (HT-29 and MDA-MB-231) that either lack or feature the multidrug resistance (mdr) phenotype. In multidrug-resistant cell lines, ILs loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) produced 19-216-fold greater cytotoxicity than free DOX, whereas in nonresistant cells, immunoliposomal cytotoxicity of DOX was comparable with that of the free drug. In intracellular distribution studies, free DOX was efficiently pumped out of the multidrug-resistant tumor cells, whereas immunoliposomal DOX leads to 3.5-8 times higher accumulation of DOX in the cytoplasm and 3.5-4.9 times in the nuclei compared with the free drug. Finally, in vivo studies in the MDA-MB-231 Vb100 xenograft model confirmed the ability of anti-EGFR ILs-DOX to efficiently target multidrug-resistant cells and showed impressive antitumor effects, clearly superior to all other treatments. In conclusion, ILs provide efficient and targeted drug delivery to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells and are capable of completely reversing the multidrug-resistant phenotype of human cancer cells.

  6. Genome Sequences of Multidrug-Resistant, Colistin-Susceptible and -Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Matthew A.; Timme, Ruth; Lomonaco, Sara; Lascols, Christine; Fisher, Debra J.; Sharma, Shashi K.; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; McFarland, Melinda A.; Croley, Tim; Hammack, Thomas S.; Weigel, Linda M.; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R.; Pillai, Segaran P.; Morse, Stephen A.; Khan, Erum

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of colistin resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae represent a critical threat to global health. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of 10 MDR, colistin-susceptible and -resistant K. pneumoniae clinical isolates obtained in Pakistan between 2010 and 2013. PMID:27979956

  7. Secretome profile analysis of multidrug-resistant, monodrug-resistant and drug-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Putim, Chanyanuch; Phaonakrop, Narumon; Jaresitthikunchai, Janthima; Gamngoen, Ratikorn; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Intorasoot, Sorasak; Anukool, Usanee; Tharincharoen, Chayada Sitthidet; Phunpae, Ponrut; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2018-03-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses. In this study, culture filtrate proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains were gathered and profiled by shotgun-proteomics technique. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secreted proteome identified several proteins, of which 837, 892, 838 and 850 were found in M. tuberculosis H37Rv, isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains, respectively. These proteins have been implicated in various cellular processes, including biological adhesion, biological regulation, developmental process, immune system process localization, cellular process, cellular component organization or biogenesis, metabolic process, and response to stimulus. Analysis based on STITCH database predicted the interaction of DNA topoisomerase I, 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase, ESAT-6-like protein, putative prophage phiRv2 integrase, and 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin, suggesting putative roles in controlling the anti-tuberculosis ability. However, several proteins with no interaction with all first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs might be used as markers for mycobacterial identification.

  8. The commensal infant gut meta-mobilome as a potential reservoir for persistent multidrug resistance integrons.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Anuradha; Avershina, Ekaterina; Foley, Steven L; Ludvigsen, Jane; Storrø, Ola; Øien, Torbjørn; Johnsen, Roar; McCartney, Anne L; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M; Rudi, Knut

    2015-10-28

    Despite the accumulating knowledge on the development and establishment of the gut microbiota, its role as a reservoir for multidrug resistance is not well understood. This study investigated the prevalence and persistence patterns of an integrase gene (int1), used as a proxy for integrons (which often carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes), in the fecal microbiota of 147 mothers and their children sampled longitudinally from birth to 2 years. The study showed the int1 gene was detected in 15% of the study population, and apparently more persistent than the microbial community structure itself. We found int1 to be persistent throughout the first two years of life, as well as between mothers and their 2-year-old children. Metagenome sequencing revealed integrons in the gut meta-mobilome that were associated with plasmids and multidrug resistance. In conclusion, the persistent nature of integrons in the infant gut microbiota makes it a potential reservoir of mobile multidrug resistance.

  9. The commensal infant gut meta-mobilome as a potential reservoir for persistent multidrug resistance integrons

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Anuradha; Avershina, Ekaterina; Foley, Steven L.; Ludvigsen, Jane; Storrø, Ola; Øien, Torbjørn; Johnsen, Roar; McCartney, Anne L.; L’Abée-Lund, Trine M.; Rudi, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulating knowledge on the development and establishment of the gut microbiota, its role as a reservoir for multidrug resistance is not well understood. This study investigated the prevalence and persistence patterns of an integrase gene (int1), used as a proxy for integrons (which often carry multiple antimicrobial resistance genes), in the fecal microbiota of 147 mothers and their children sampled longitudinally from birth to 2 years. The study showed the int1 gene was detected in 15% of the study population, and apparently more persistent than the microbial community structure itself. We found int1 to be persistent throughout the first two years of life, as well as between mothers and their 2-year-old children. Metagenome sequencing revealed integrons in the gut meta-mobilome that were associated with plasmids and multidrug resistance. In conclusion, the persistent nature of integrons in the infant gut microbiota makes it a potential reservoir of mobile multidrug resistance. PMID:26507767

  10. Extra-pulmonary primary multidrug-resistant tubercular lymphadenitis in an HIV negative patient

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Saheer, S; Hassan, Ghulam; Parengal, Jabeed

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman without any history of prior antituberculosis treatment presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and a cold abscess near medial end of clavicle of 5 months duration. Pus culture and sensitivity revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. Thus she was diagnosed as a case of primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and treated with second line drugs according to culture susceptibility pattern. On completion of therapy, patent showed good clinical response. This case highlights the observation that even extra-pulmonary primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis can be successfully treated with currently available second line drugs. PMID:22605844

  11. MarA-Like Regulator of Multidrug Resistance in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Rupa A.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2006-01-01

    MarA47Yp from Yersinia pestis, showing 47% identity to Escherichia coli MarA in its N terminus, caused resistance to antibiotics and to organic solvents when expressed in both E. coli and Y. pestis. Resistance was linked to increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump. In four of five spontaneous multidrug-resistant mutants of Y. pestis independently selected by growth on tetracycline, the marA47Yp gene was overexpressed. The findings suggest that marA47Yp is a marA ortholog in Y. pestis. PMID:16940090

  12. MarA-like regulator of multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Udani, Rupa A; Levy, Stuart B

    2006-09-01

    MarA47(Yp) from Yersinia pestis, showing 47% identity to Escherichia coli MarA in its N terminus, caused resistance to antibiotics and to organic solvents when expressed in both E. coli and Y. pestis. Resistance was linked to increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump. In four of five spontaneous multidrug-resistant mutants of Y. pestis independently selected by growth on tetracycline, the marA47(Yp) gene was overexpressed. The findings suggest that marA47(Yp) is a marA ortholog in Y. pestis.

  13. Nuclear Multidrug-Resistance Related Protein 1 Contributes to Multidrug-Resistance of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Mainly via Regulating Multidrug-Resistance Protein 1: A Human Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Cells Model and Spearman's Rank Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xiaofang; Guan, Sumin; Wu, Junzheng; Liu, Yanpu

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/P-glycoprotein/ABCB1) are both membrane-bound drug transporters. In contrast to MDR1, MRP1 also transports glutathione (GSH) and drugs conjugated to GSH. Due to its extraordinary transport properties, MRP1/ABCC1 contributes to several physiological functions and pathophysiological incidents. We previously found that nuclear translocation of MRP1 contributes to multidrug-resistance (MDR) of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The present study investigated how MRP1 contributes to MDR in the nuclei of MEC cells. Methods Western blot and RT-PCR was carried out to investigate the change of multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1) in MC3/5FU cells after MRP1 was downregulated through RNA interference (RNAi). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of 127 cases of MEC tissues was scored with the expression index (EI). The EI of MDR1 and MRP1 (or nuclear MRP1) was analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Using multiple tumor tissue assays, the location of MRP1 in other tissues was checked by HIC. Luciferase reporter assays of MDR1 promoter was carried out to check the connection between MRP1 and MDR1 promoter. Results MRP1 downregulation led to a decreased MDR1 expression in MC3/5FU cells which was caused by decreased activity of MDR1 promoter. IHC study of 127 cases of MEC tissues demonstrated a strong positive correlation between nuclear MRP1 expression and MDR1 expression. Furthermore, IHC study of multiple tumor tissue array sections showed that although nuclear MRP1 widely existed in MEC tissues, it was not found in normal tissues or other tumor tissues. Conclusions Our findings indicate that nuclear MRP1 contributes to MDR mainly through regulating MDR1 expression in MEC. And the unique location of MRP1 made it an available target in identifying MEC from other tumors. PMID:24013781

  14. Effect of curcumin on human colon cancer multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-Dong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Chuang; Li, Lei; Fu, Zhong-Xue

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether curcumin reverses the multidrug resistance of human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In a vincristine-resistant cell line of human colon cancer, the cell viability of curcumin-treated cells was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Rhodamine123 efflux was evaluated to detect P-glycoprotein transporter activity, and expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 and survivin genes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In addition, xenograft mouse tumors were grown and treated with curcumin. The morphology of the xenografts was investigated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The in vivo expression of the multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein and survivin genes and proteins was observed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Curcumin was not obviously toxic to the vincristine-resistant human colon cancer cells at concentrations less than 25 μM, but the growth of cells was significantly inhibited. At concentrations greater than 25 μM, curcumin was toxic in a concentration-dependent manner. The sensitivity of cells to vincristine, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and hydroxycamptothecin was enhanced, intracellular Rhodamine123 accumulation was increased (p<0.05), and the expression of the multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein were significantly suppressed (p<0.05). The combination of curcumin and vincristine significantly inhibited xenograft growth. The expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 and survivin genes was significantly reduced in xenografts of curcumin-treated mice and mice treated with both curcumin and vincristine relative to control mice. Curcumin has strong reversal effects on the multidrug resistance of human colon carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Effect of curcumin on human colon cancer multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei-Dong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Chuang; Li, Lei

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether curcumin reverses the multidrug resistance of human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In a vincristine-resistant cell line of human colon cancer, the cell viability of curcumin-treated cells was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Rhodamine123 efflux was evaluated to detect P-glycoprotein transporter activity, and expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 and survivin genes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In addition, xenograft mouse tumors were grown and treated with curcumin. The morphology of the xenografts was investigated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The in vivo expression of the multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein and survivin genes and proteins was observed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Curcumin was not obviously toxic to the vincristine-resistant human colon cancer cells at concentrations less than 25 μM, but the growth of cells was significantly inhibited. At concentrations greater than 25 μM, curcumin was toxic in a concentration-dependent manner. The sensitivity of cells to vincristine, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and hydroxycamptothecin was enhanced, intracellular Rhodamine123 accumulation was increased (p<0.05), and the expression of the multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein were significantly suppressed (p<0.05). The combination of curcumin and vincristine significantly inhibited xenograft growth. The expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 and survivin genes was significantly reduced in xenografts of curcumin-treated mice and mice treated with both curcumin and vincristine relative to control mice. CONCLUSION: Curcumin has strong reversal effects on the multidrug resistance of human colon carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23778405

  16. Antibiotic resistance: What is so special about multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Martin; Bhattacharya, Sanjay; Christiansen, Bärbel; Gebel, Jürgen; Goroncy-Bermes, Peter; Hartemann, Philippe; Heeg, Peter; Ilschner, Carola; Kramer, Axel; Larson, Elaine; Merkens, Wolfgang; Mielke, Martin; Oltmanns, Peter; Ross, Birgit; Rotter, Manfred; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Sonntag, Hans-Günther; Trautmann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In the past years infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have dramatically increased in all parts of the world. This consensus paper is based on presentations, subsequent discussions and an appraisal of current literature by a panel of international experts invited by the Rudolf Schülke Stiftung, Hamburg. It deals with the epidemiology and the inherent properties of Gram-negative bacteria, elucidating the patterns of the spread of antibiotic resistance, highlighting reservoirs as well as transmission pathways and risk factors for infection, mortality, treatment and prevention options as well as the consequences of their prevalence in livestock. Following a global, One Health approach and based on the evaluation of the existing knowledge about these pathogens, this paper gives recommendations for prevention and infection control measures as well as proposals for various target groups to tackle the threats posed by Gram-negative bacteria and prevent the spread and emergence of new antibiotic resistances. PMID:28451516

  17. Activity of Topical Antimicrobial Agents Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens [19] Inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis by targeting the isoleucine-binding site on the isoleucyl-transfer-RNA...multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We compared two methods of determining topical antimicrobial susceptibilities. Methods: Isolates of Pseudomonas ...aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and

  18. Prevalence and multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli from community acquired infections in Lagos, Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of bacterial infections among humans. The emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR; resistance to >2 more antimicrobials) in E. coli is of great concern due to the complications encountered in its treatment in a resource constrained economy. In th...

  19. Modified live Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine, AQUAVAC-ESC, lacks multidrug resistance plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance was first discovered in Edwardsiella ictaluri in the early 1990’s, and in 2007 an E. ictaluri isolate harboring an IncA/C plasmid was recovered from a moribund channel catfish infected with the bacterium. Due to the identification of multidrug resistance plasm...

  20. Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids belonging to the IncA/C plasmid family are widely distributed among Salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug resistant Yersinia pestis isolate (IP275) from Madagascar. Here, we...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Resch, Stephen C; Salomon, Joshua A; Murray, Megan; Weinstein, Milton C

    2006-07-01

    Despite the existence of effective drug treatments, tuberculosis (TB) causes 2 million deaths annually worldwide. Effective treatment is complicated by multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) strains that respond only to second-line drugs. We projected the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of using drug susceptibility testing and second-line drugs in a lower-middle-income setting with high levels of MDR TB. We developed a dynamic state-transition model of TB. In a base case analysis, the model was calibrated to approximate the TB epidemic in Peru, a setting with a smear-positive TB incidence of 120 per 100,000 and 4.5% MDR TB among prevalent cases. Secondary analyses considered other settings. The following strategies were evaluated: first-line drugs administered under directly observed therapy (DOTS), locally standardized second-line drugs for previously treated cases (STR1), locally standardized second-line drugs for previously treated cases with test-confirmed MDR TB (STR2), comprehensive drug susceptibility testing and individualized treatment for previously treated cases (ITR1), and comprehensive drug susceptibility testing and individualized treatment for all cases (ITR2). Outcomes were costs per TB death averted and costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. We found that strategies incorporating the use of second-line drug regimens following first-line treatment failure were highly cost-effective compared to strategies using first-line drugs only. In our base case, standardized second-line treatment for confirmed MDR TB cases (STR2) had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 720 dollars per QALY (8,700 dollars per averted death) compared to DOTS. Individualized second-line drug treatment for MDR TB following first-line failure (ITR1) provided more benefit at an incremental cost of 990 dollars per QALY (12,000 dollars per averted death) compared to STR2. A more aggressive version of the individualized treatment strategy (ITR2), in which both new

  2. Induction of apoptosis and reversal of permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM by ginsenoside Rh2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Huilai; Kong, Di

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon that cancer cells develop a cross-resistant phenotype against several unrelated drugs, and permeability glycoprotein derived from the overexpression of multidrug resistance gene 1 has been taken as the most significant cause of multidrug resistance. In the present study, ginsenoside Rh2 was used to reverse permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM cell line. Effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on the apoptotic process and caspase-3 activity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cell lines were determined using flow cytometry and microplate reader. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test was conducted to assess the IC50 values of ginsenoside Rh2 and adriamycin on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cultures; Rhodamin 123 assay was used to assess the retention of permeability glycoprotein after ginsenoside Rh2 treatment; flow cytometry and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1 in drug-resistant cells and their parental cells after exposure to ginsenoside Rh2. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, except for inducing apoptosis, had the ability to reverse multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADM cell line without changing the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1. Our findings provided some valuable information for the application of ginsenoside Rh2 in cancer therapy, especially for multidrug resistance reversal in clinic.

  3. Extensive Drug Resistance Acquired During Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cegielski, J. Peter; Dalton, Tracy; Yagui, Martin; Wattanaamornkiet, Wanpen; Volchenkov, Grigory V.; Via, Laura E.; Van Der Walt, Martie; Tupasi, Thelma; Smith, Sarah E.; Odendaal, Ronel; Leimane, Vaira; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Kummik, Tiina; Kuksa, Liga; Kliiman, Kai; Kiryanova, Elena V.; Kim, HeeJin; Kim, Chang-ki; Kazennyy, Boris Y.; Jou, Ruwen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Ershova, Julia; Erokhin, Vladislav V.; Diem, Lois; Contreras, Carmen; Cho, Sang Nae; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Chen, Michael P.; Caoili, Janice Campos; Bayona, Jaime; Akksilp, Somsak; Calahuanca, Gloria Yale; Wolfgang, Melanie; Viiklepp, Piret; Vasilieva, Irina A.; Taylor, Allison; Tan, Kathrine; Suarez, Carmen; Sture, Ingrida; Somova, Tatiana; Smirnova, Tatyana G.; Sigman, Erika; Skenders, Girts; Sitti, Wanlaya; Shamputa, Isdore C.; Riekstina, Vija; Pua, Kristine Rose; Therese, M.; Perez, C.; Park, Seungkyu; Norvaisha, Inga; Nemtsova, Evgenia S.; Min, Seonyeong; Metchock, Beverly; Levina, Klavdia; Lei, Yung-Chao; Lee, Jongseok; Larionova, Elena E.; Lancaster, Joey; Jeon, Doosoo; Jave, Oswaldo; Khorosheva, Tatiana; Hwang, Soo Hee; Huang, Angela Song-En; Gler, M. Tarcela; Dravniece, Gunta; Eum, Seokyong; Demikhova, Olga V.; Degtyareva, Irina; Danilovits, Manfred; Cirula, Anda; Cho, Eunjin; Cai, Ying; Brand, Jeanette; Bonilla, Cesar; Barry, Clifton E.; Asencios, Luis; Andreevskaya, Sofia N.; Akksilp, Rattanawadee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing access to drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is crucial but could lead to increasing resistance to these same drugs. In 2000, the international Green Light Committee (GLC) initiative began to increase access while attempting to prevent acquired resistance. Methods. To assess the GLC's impact, we followed adults with pulmonary MDR tuberculosis from the start to the end of treatment with monthly sputum cultures, drug susceptibility testing, and genotyping. We compared the frequency and predictors of acquired resistance to second-line drugs (SLDs) in 9 countries that volunteered to participate, 5 countries that met GLC criteria, and 4 countries that did not apply to the GLC. Results. In total, 832 subjects were enrolled. Of those without baseline resistance to specific SLDs, 68 (8.9%) acquired extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, 79 (11.2%) acquired fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance, and 56 (7.8%) acquired resistance to second-line injectable drugs (SLIs). The relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of acquired resistance was lower at GLC-approved sites: 0.27 (.16–.47) for XDR tuberculosis, 0.28 (.17–.45) for FQ, and 0.15 (.06–.39) to 0.60 (.34–1.05) for 3 different SLIs. The risk increased as the number of potentially effective drugs decreased. Controlling for baseline drug resistance and differences between sites, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.21 (.07–.62) for acquired XDR tuberculosis and 0.23 (.09–.59) for acquired FQ resistance. Conclusions. Treatment of MDR tuberculosis involves substantial risk of acquired resistance to SLDs, increasing as baseline drug resistance increases. The risk was significantly lower in programs documented by the GLC to meet specific standards. PMID:25057101

  4. Substrate-bound structure of the E. coli multidrug resistance transporter MdfA

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Jie; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Yue; Fan, Junping; Wang, Xianping; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a serious threat to public health. Proton motive force-driven antiporters from the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) constitute a major group of multidrug-resistance transporters. Currently, no reports on crystal structures of MFS antiporters in complex with their substrates exist. The E. coli MdfA transporter is a well-studied model system for biochemical analyses of multidrug-resistance MFS antiporters. Here, we report three crystal structures of MdfA-ligand complexes at resolutions up to 2.0 Å, all in the inward-facing conformation. The substrate-binding site sits proximal to the conserved acidic residue, D34. Our mutagenesis studies support the structural observations of the substrate-binding mode and the notion that D34 responds to substrate binding by adjusting its protonation status. Taken together, our data unveil the substrate-binding mode of MFS antiporters and suggest a mechanism of transport via this group of transporters. PMID:26238402

  5. [Study on active constituents of traditional Chinese medicine reversing multidrug resistance of tumor cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Yang, L; Liu, S; Ren, L

    2001-09-01

    To screen drugs reversing multidrug resistance of tumor cells from active constituents of traditional Chinese medicine and to study the reversal action. The kill effects of the drugs on tumor cell lines in vitro were determined with MTT method. The Jin's formula was used to analyse the effect of drug combination. 5 micrograms/ml rhynchophylline, 2 micrograms/ml jatrorrhizine and 1.25 micrograms/ml indirulin could reverse multidrug resistance for vincristine on KBv200 cell line by 16.8, 5.1 and 4 fold respectively. 1.56-12.5 micrograms/ml curcumine combining with vincristine could sensitize antitumor effect both on KB and KBv200 cell lines. All rhynchophylline, jatrorrhizine and indirulin could reverse multidrug resistance for vincristine on KBv200 cell line. Curcumine combinating vincristine could sensitize antitumor effect both on kB and kBv200 cell lines.

  6. Outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanciu, G; Marogna, G; Paglietti, B; Cappuccinelli, P; Leori, G; Rappelli, P

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of infective mastitis due to Enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north Sardinia (Italy). E. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. Forty-five out of the 48 E. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). E. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all 45 multi-drug resistant strains showed an indistinguishable macrorestiction profile, indicating their clonal origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by E. faecalis.

  7. Role of FKS Mutations in Candida glabrata: MIC values, echinocandin resistance, and multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cau D; Iqbal, Naureen; Bolden, Carol B; Kuykendall, Randall J; Harrison, Lee H; Farley, Monica M; Schaffner, William; Beldavs, Zintars G; Chiller, Tom M; Park, Benjamin J; Cleveland, Angela A; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2014-08-01

    Candida glabrata is the second leading cause of candidemia in U.S. hospitals. Current guidelines suggest that an echinocandin be used as the primary therapy for the treatment of C. glabrata disease due to the high rate of resistance to fluconazole. Recent case reports indicate that C. glabrata resistance to echinocandins may be increasing. We performed susceptibility testing on 1,380 isolates of C. glabrata collected between 2008 and 2013 from four U.S. cities, Atlanta, Baltimore, Knoxville, and Portland. Our analysis showed that 3.1%, 3.3%, and 3.6% of the isolates were resistant to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. We screened 1,032 of these isolates, including all 77 that had either a resistant or intermediate MIC value with respect to at least one echinocandin, for mutations in the hot spot regions of FKS1 and FKS2, the major mechanism of echinocandin resistance. Fifty-one isolates were identified with hot spot mutations, 16 in FKS1 and 35 in FKS2. All of the isolates with an FKS mutation except one were resistant to at least one echinocandin by susceptibility testing. Of the isolates resistant to at least one echinocandin, 36% were also resistant to fluconazole. Echinocandin resistance among U.S. C. glabrata isolates is a concern, especially in light of the fact that one-third of those isolates may be multidrug resistant. Further monitoring of U.S. C. glabrata isolates for echinocandin resistance is warranted. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: Principles of management

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Nikhil; Banka, Amitabh

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is human-made problem and emerging due to poor management of TB and is a threat to control of TB. Early suspicion and diagnosis are important. Culture and drug susceptibility testing are gold standards, but newer molecular methods help in rapid diagnosis. Once diagnosed, prompt treatment should be started, preferably under direct observation. Treatment can be standardized or individualized. Conventional regimen takes up to 24 months but recently shorter regimen of up to 12 months was introduced in specific subset of MDR-TB/RR-TB patients. Management of MDR-TB/RR-TB is complicated, costlier, and challenging and is a concern for human health worldwide. It must be emphasized that optimal treatment of MDR-TB/RR-TB alone is not sufficient. Efforts must be made to ensure effective use of first- and second-line anti-TB drugs. PMID:29319042

  9. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: Principles of management.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Gupta, Nikhil; Banka, Amitabh

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)/rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is human-made problem and emerging due to poor management of TB and is a threat to control of TB. Early suspicion and diagnosis are important. Culture and drug susceptibility testing are gold standards, but newer molecular methods help in rapid diagnosis. Once diagnosed, prompt treatment should be started, preferably under direct observation. Treatment can be standardized or individualized. Conventional regimen takes up to 24 months but recently shorter regimen of up to 12 months was introduced in specific subset of MDR-TB/RR-TB patients. Management of MDR-TB/RR-TB is complicated, costlier, and challenging and is a concern for human health worldwide. It must be emphasized that optimal treatment of MDR-TB/RR-TB alone is not sufficient. Efforts must be made to ensure effective use of first- and second-line anti-TB drugs.

  10. Whole genome sequencing of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from humans and poultry in Burkina Faso

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from patients and poultry feces. Methods. Salmonella strains...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Isolated at Two Major Hospitals in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Kother; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Khan, Mohd Wasif; Purohit, Prashant; Al-Obaid, Inaam; Dhar, Rita; Al-Fouzan, Wadha

    2018-04-19

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen in global health care settings. Its dissemination and multidrug resistance pose an issue with treatment and outbreak control. Here, we present draft genome assemblies of six multidrug-resistant clinical strains of A. baumannii isolated from patients admitted to one of two major hospitals in Kuwait. Copyright © 2018 Nasser et al.

  12. Resistance pattern of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characteristics of patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Moisoiu, Adriana; Mitran, Cristina Iulia; Mitran, Mãdãlina Irina; Huhu, Mihaela Roxana; Ioghen, Octavian Costin; Gheorghe, Adelina-Silvana; Tampa, Mircea; Georgescu, Simona Roxana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major concern in the medical community. Knowledge about the drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains plays an essential role in the management of the disease. We conducted a retrospective, 3-year study (2009-2011), in an urban area. We collected data on the drug resistance for 497 M. tuberculosis strains, isolated from patients with pulmonary TB. Among the 497 strains, we identified 158 MDR strains. Eighty medical recorders of patients infected with MDR strains were available and we included those patients in the study group. Of the 497 analysed strains, 8% were resistant to a single anti-TB drug. We identified 5.2% polyresistant drug strains, the most frequent combination being INH+EMB (1.4%). Of the 158 MDR strains identified (31.8%), over 60% were resistant to all first line anti-TB drugs tested. Most of them presented resistance to STM (86.1%) and EMB (67.7%). With respect to second line anti-TB drugs resistance to KM (23.4%) was the most common, followed by OFX (8.2%). With respect to the patients with MDR-TB, a percentage of 61.2% of them had a history of anti-TB treatment. Regarding lifestyle habits, 61.2% of the patients were smokers and 18.8% were abusing alcohol. Out of 51 patients, for whom information was available regarding their occupation, only 33.3 % were employees. MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis display an increased resistance to first line anti-TB drugs. Extension of resistance to second line anti-TB drugs narrows the therapeutic options. Knowledge of MDR-TB risk factors is imperative for the correct and rapid initiation of the treatment.

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial and Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections in the Department of the Navy: Annual Report 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-19

    2013 .... 10 Table 3. Clinical Description of MDR Escherichia coli and Carbapenem- Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Burden in the DON and DOD, CY 2013...Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia coli Burden among DON Active Duty Service Members, CY 2013...17 Table 9. Clinical Description of Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia coli Burden among DON Active Duty Service

  14. [Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by Strains of Beijing Family, in Patients from Lisbon, Portugal: Preliminary Report].

    PubMed

    Maltez, Fernando; Martins, Teresa; Póvoas, Diana; Cabo, João; Peres, Helena; Antunes, Francisco; Perdigão, João; Portugal, Isabel

    2017-03-31

    Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are associated with multidrug-resistance. Although strains of the Lisboa family are the most common among multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant patients in the region, several studies have reported the presence of the Beijing family. However, the features of patients from whom they were isolated, are not yet known. Retrospective study involving 104 multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, from the same number of patients, isolated and genotyped between 1993 and 2015 in Lisbon. We assessed the prevalence of strains of both families and the epidemiologic and clinical features of those infected with Beijing family strains. Seventy-four strains (71.2%) belonged to the Lisboa family, 25 (24.0%) showed a unique genotypic pattern and five (4.8%) belonged to the Beijing family, the latter identified after 2009. Those infected with Beijing family strains were angolan (n = 1), ukrainian (n = 2) and portuguese (n = 2), mainly young-aged and, four of five immunocompetent and with no past history of tuberculosis. All had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We did not find any distinctive clinical or radiological features, neither a predominant resistance pattern. Cure rate was high (four patients). Although the number of infected patients with Beijing strains was small, it suggests an important proportion of primary tuberculosis, a potential for transmission in the community but also a better clinical outcome when compared to other reported strains, such as W-Beijing and Lisboa. Although Lisboa family strains account for most of the multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in Lisbon area, Beijing strains are transmitted in the city and might change the local characteristics of the epidemics.

  15. Worldwide Occurrence of Integrative Conjugative Element Encoding Multidrug Resistance Determinants in Epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Michel A.; Fonseca, Erica L.; Andrade, Bruno N.; Cabral, Adriana C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, there has been an increase of cholera epidemics caused by multidrug resistant strains. Particularly, the integrative and conjugative element (ICE) seems to play a major role in the emergence of multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae. This study fully characterized, by whole genome sequencing, new ICEs carried by multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1 strains from Nigeria (2010) (ICEVchNig1) and Nepal (1994) (ICEVchNep1). The gene content and gene order of these two ICEs are the same, and identical to ICEVchInd5, ICEVchBan5 and ICEVchHai1 previously identified in multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1. This ICE is characterized by dfrA1, sul2, strAB and floR antimicrobial resistance genes, and by unique gene content in HS4 and HS5 ICE regions. Screening for ICEs, in publicly available V. cholerae genomes, revealed the occurrence and widespread distribution of this ICE among V. cholerae O1. Metagenomic analysis found segments of this ICE in marine environments far from the direct influence of the cholera epidemic. Therefore, this study revealed the epidemiology of a spatio-temporal prevalent ICE in V. cholerae O1. Its occurrence and dispersion in V. cholerae O1 strains from different continents throughout more than two decades can be indicative of its role in the fitness of the current pandemic lineage. PMID:25265418

  16. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    PubMed

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect.

  17. Ribosomal mutations promote the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a multidrug environment.

    PubMed

    Gomez, James E; Kaufmann-Malaga, Benjamin B; Wivagg, Carl N; Kim, Peter B; Silvis, Melanie R; Renedo, Nikolai; Ioerger, Thomas R; Ahmad, Rushdy; Livny, Jonathan; Fishbein, Skye; Sacchettini, James C; Carr, Steven A; Hung, Deborah T

    2017-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance arising via chromosomal mutations is typically specific to a particular antibiotic or class of antibiotics. We have identified mutations in genes encoding ribosomal components in Mycobacterium smegmatis that confer resistance to several structurally and mechanistically unrelated classes of antibiotics and enhance survival following heat shock and membrane stress. These mutations affect ribosome assembly and cause large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic changes, including the downregulation of the catalase KatG, an activating enzyme required for isoniazid sensitivity, and upregulation of WhiB7, a transcription factor involved in innate antibiotic resistance. Importantly, while these ribosomal mutations have a fitness cost in antibiotic-free medium, in a multidrug environment they promote the evolution of high-level, target-based resistance. Further, suppressor mutations can then be easily acquired to restore wild-type growth. Thus, ribosomal mutations can serve as stepping-stones in an evolutionary path leading to the emergence of high-level, multidrug resistance.

  18. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-02

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Culturable Soil Antibiotic Resistome: A Community of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16–23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) resistance genes) were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family. PMID:23776501

  20. The culturable soil antibiotic resistome: a community of multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, bla NDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) resistance genes) were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family.

  1. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M M; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

  2. Polyclonal Pulmonary Tuberculosis Infections and Risk for Multidrug Resistance, Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Cynthia X.; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Calderon, Roger; Zhang, Zibiao; Galea, Jerome T.; Contreras, Carmen; Yataco, Rosa; Lecca, Leonid; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Murray, Megan B.; Cohen, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Because within-host Mycobacterium tuberculosis diversity complicates diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB), we measured diversity prevalence and associated factors among 3,098 pulmonary TB patients in Lima, Peru. The 161 patients with polyclonal infection were more likely than the 115 with clonal or the 2,822 with simple infections to have multidrug-resistant TB. PMID:29048297

  3. Intestinal decontamination of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after recurrent infections in an immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Kronman, Matthew P; Zerr, Danielle M; Qin, Xuan; Englund, Janet; Cornell, Cathy; Sanders, Jean E; Myers, Jeffrey; Rayar, Jaipreet; Berry, Jessica E; Adler, Amanda L; Weissman, Scott J

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae infections are associated with increased morbidity. We describe a 20-year-old hematopoietic cell transplantation recipient with recurrent MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, prolonged intestinal colonization, and subsequent intestinal decontamination. Further study should evaluate stool surveillance, molecular typing, and fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with intestinal MDR Enterobacteriaceae carriage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Capreomycin-induced optic neuritis in a case of multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Magazine, Rahul; Pal, Mahuya; Chogtu, Bharti; Nayak, Veena

    2010-01-01

    A patient of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was prescribed an anti-tubercular regimen containing capreomycin. Patient developed optic neuritis 3 months after starting treatment. Investigations did not reveal any specific cause for this ocular condition and on discontinuing capreomycin his vision recovered. We conclude that capreomycin is the cause of reversible optic neuritis in our case. PMID:20927254

  5. First Genome Sequence of a Mexican Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Graña-Miraglia, Lucía; Lozano, Luis; Castro-Jaimes, Semiramis; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Volkow, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Here, we present the draft genome of the first multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate, sampled from a tertiary hospital in Mexico City. This genome will provide a starting point for studying the genomic diversity of this species in Mexico. PMID:27013043

  6. Recycling antibiotics into GUMBOS: A new combination strategy to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded ß-lactam antibiotics (amp...

  7. Geraniol Restores Antibiotic Activities against Multidrug-Resistant Isolates from Gram-Negative Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Vannina; Muselli, Alain; Bernardini, Antoine François; Berti, Liliane; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Amaral, Leonard; Bolla, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of Helichrysum italicum significantly reduces the multidrug resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Combinations of the two most active fractions of the essential oil with each other or with phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide yield synergistic activity. Geraniol, a component of one fraction, significantly increased the efficacy of β-lactams, quinolones, and chloramphenicol. PMID:19258278

  8. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Inhibits Multidrug-Resistant Gut Pathogens: Preliminary Report Performed in an Immunocompromised Host.

    PubMed

    Biliński, Jarosław; Grzesiowski, Paweł; Muszyński, Jacek; Wróblewska, Marta; Mądry, Krzysztof; Robak, Katarzyna; Dzieciątkowski, Tomasz; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wiesław; Basak, Grzegorz W

    2016-06-01

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a consequence of gut dysbiosis. We describe the successful utilization of fecal microbiota transplantation to inhibit Klebsiella pneumoniae MBL(+) and Escherichia coli ESBL(+) gut colonization in the immunocompromised host as a novel tool in the battle against MDR microorganisms. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02461199.

  9. Intestinal Decontamination of Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae After Recurrent Infections in an Immunocompromised Host

    PubMed Central

    Kronman, Matthew P.; Zerr, Danielle M.; Qin, Xuan; Englund, Janet; Cornell, Cathy; Sanders, Jean E.; Myers, Jeffrey; Rayar, Jaipreet; Berry, Jessica E.; Adler, Amanda L.; Weissman, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae infections are associated with increased morbidity. We describe a 20-year-old hematopoietic cell transplantation recipient with recurrent MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, prolonged intestinal colonization, and subsequent intestinal decontamination. Further study should evaluate stool surveillance, molecular typing, and fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with intestinal MDR Enterobacteriaceae carriage. PMID:25041704

  10. Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Greater Metropolitan Mumbai: Trends over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T. K.; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Background While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. Results A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005–2007 and 27.8% in 2011–2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (p<0.05). Discussion The observed trends in TB drug-resistance patterns in Mumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within

  11. Resistance patterns among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai: trends over time.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T K; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005-2007 and 27.8% in 2011-2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (p<0.05). The observed trends in TB drug-resistance patterns in Mumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within the community.

  12. [MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS STRAINS IN THE NORTHWEST RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Vyazovaya, A A; Mokrousov, I V; Zhuravlev, V Yu; Solovieva, N S; Otten, T F; Manicheva, O A; Vishnevsky, B I; Narvskaya, O V

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the genotypic characteristics of the multidrug-resistant (MDR, i.e., resistant to at least rifampicine and isoniazid) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in 2011-2012 from tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Northwest Russia. Spoligotyping of 195 M. tuberculosis isolates identified 14 different spoligotypes and assigned isolates to the genetic families Beijing (n = 162, 83%), LAM (n = 15), H3/URAL (n = 14), as well as T, Haarlem and X. Spoligotypes SIT1 (Beijing), SIT42 (LAM) and SIT262 (H3/URAL) were the most prevalent. Irrespective to the genotype, all the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The multidrug resistance was accompanied by the resistance to ethionamide (56%), amikacin (31%), kanamycin (40%), and capreomycin (33%). The ethambutol resistance was found in 71% (n = 115) and 42% (n = 14) of the Beijing and non-Beijing strains, respectively (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis population circulating in the Northwest Russia continues to be dominated by the Beijing family strains.

  13. Antibiotic resistant airborne bacteria and their multidrug resistance pattern at University teaching referral Hospital in South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Fithamlak Bisetegen; Wadilo, Fiseha Wada; Arota, Amsalu Amache; Abraham, Yishak Leka

    2017-04-12

    Hospitals provide a reservoir of microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains in a hospital environment, particularly in developing countries is an increasing problem to infection treatment. This study aims at assessing antibiotic resistant airborne bacterial isolates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolaita Sodo university teaching and referral Hospital. Indoor air samples were collected by using passive air sampling method. Sample processing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard bacteriological techniques. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Medically important bacterial pathogens, Coagulase negative staphylococci (29.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (26.3%), Enterococci species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (16.5%), Acinetobacter species (9.5%), Escherichia coli (5.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.3%) were isolated. Antibiotic resistance rate ranging from 7.5 to 87.5% was detected for all isolates. Acinetobacter species showed a high rate of resistance for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin (78.2%) and ciprofloxacin (82.6%), 28 (38.9%) of S. aureus isolates were meticillin resistant, and 7.5% Enterococci isolates of were vancomycin resistant. 75.3% of all bacterial pathogen were multi-drug resistant. Among them, 74.6% were gram positive and 84% were gram negative. Multi-drug resistance were observed among 84.6% of P. aeruginosa, of 82.5% Enterococcii, E. coli 78.6%, S. aureus 76.6%, and Coagulase negative staphylococci of 73.6%. Indoor environment of the hospital was contaminated with airborne microbiotas, which are common cause of post-surgical site infection in the study area. Bacterial isolates were highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics with high multi-drug resistance percentage. So air quality of hospital environment, in restricted settings deserves attention, and requires long-term surveillance to protect both

  14. Multidrug and heavy metal-resistant Raoultella planticola isolated from surface water.

    PubMed

    Koc, Serkan; Kabatas, Burak; Icgen, Bulent

    2013-08-01

    A surface water isolate of Raoultella sp. having both multidrug- and multimetal-resistant ability was isolated and identified as Raoultella planticola. R. planticola displayed resistance to 15 drugs like ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, aztreonam, erythromycin, imipenem, oxacillin, pefloxacin, penicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, rifampin, sulbactam/cefoperazone, ticarsillin, ticarsillin/clavulanic acid, vancomycin, and to 11 heavy metals like aluminum, barium, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, silver, strontium, and tin. The multidrug and multi-metal-resistant R. planticola may remain present in the environment for a long time. Due to a possible health risk of these pathogenic bacteria, a need exists for an accurate assessment of their acquired resistance to multiple drugs and metals.

  15. Multidrug-resistant organisms in military wounds from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Jason H; Murray, Clinton K; Manring, M M

    2008-06-01

    Mortality from battlefield wounds has historically declined, thanks to better surgical management, faster transport of casualties, and improved antibiotics. Today, one of the major challenges facing U.S. military caregivers is the presence of multidrug-resistant organisms in orthopaedic extremity wounds. The most frequently identified resistant strains of bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics may be an important factor in building resistant strains. Acinetobacter infections appear to hospital-acquired and not from an initial colonization of the injury. More research is required to give military physicians the tools they require to reduce the infection rate and defeat multidrug-resistant organisms.

  16. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  17. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates are resistant to antibiotics that influence their swimming and swarming motility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Motile bacteria utilize one or more strategies for movement, such as darting, gliding, sliding, swarming, swimming, and twitching. The ability to move is considered a virulence factor in many pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella encodes acquired factors t...

  18. Diverse and abundant multi-drug resistant E. coli in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpour, Aziz; Ho, Wing Sze; Chew, Li-Lee; Bong, Chui Wei; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai-Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2015-01-01

    E.coli, an important vector distributing antimicrobial resistance in the environment, was found to be multi-drug resistant, abundant, and genetically diverse in the Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia. One-third (34%) of the estuarine E. coli was multi-drug resistant. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was observed for aminoglycosides (83%) and beta-lactams (37%). Phylogenetic groups A and B1, being the most predominant E. coli, demonstrated the highest antibiotic resistant level and prevalence of integrons (integron I, 21%; integron II, 3%). Detection of phylogenetic group B23 downstream of fishing villages indicates human fecal contamination as a source of E. coli pollution. Enteroaggregative E. coli (1%) were also detected immediately downstream of the fishing village. The results indicated multi-drug resistance among E. coli circulating in Matang estuaries, which could be reflective of anthropogenic activities and aggravated by bacterial and antibiotic discharges from village lack of a sewerage system, aquaculture farms and upstream animal husbandry. PMID:26483759

  19. Influx of multidrug-resistant organisms by country-to-country transfer of patients.

    PubMed

    Mutters, Nico T; Günther, Frank; Sander, Anja; Mischnik, Alexander; Frank, Uwe

    2015-10-28

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are a worldwide problem. International migration and travel facilitate the spread of MDRO. Therefore the goal of our study was to assess the risk of influx of MDRO from patients transferred to one of Central Europe's largest hospitals from abroad. A mono-centre study was conducted. All patients transferred from other countries were screened; additional data was collected on comorbidities, etc. Presence of carbapenemases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives was confirmed by PCR. The association between length of stay, being colonized and/or infected by a MDRO, country of origin, diagnosis and other factors was assessed by binomial regression analyses. From 2012 to 2013, one fifth of all patients were colonized with MDRO (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [4.1 %], Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci [2.9 %], multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives [12.8 %] and extensively drug-resistant Gram-negatives [3.4 %]). The Gram-negatives carried a variety of carbapenemases including OXA, VIM, KPC and NDM. The length of stay was significantly prolonged by 77.2 % in patients colonized with a MDRO, compared to those not colonized (p<0.0001). Country-to-Country transfer of patients to European hospitals represents a high risk of introduction of MDRO and infection control specialists should endorse containment and screening measures.

  20. Dental plaque bacteria with reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine are multidrug resistant.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Seers, Christine Ann; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Reynolds, Eric Charles

    2016-09-15

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is used in oral care products to help control dental plaque. In this study dental plaque bacteria were grown on media containing 2 μg/ml chlorhexidine gluconate to screen for bacteria with reduced CHX susceptibility. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined using the disc diffusion method. The isolates were variably resistant to multiple drugs including ampicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. Two species, Chryseobacterium culicis and Chryseobacterium indologenes were able to grow planktonically and form biofilms in the presence of 32 μg/ml CHX. In the CHX and multidrug resistant C. indologenes we demonstrated a 19-fold up-regulation of expression of the HlyD-like periplasmic adaptor protein of a tripartite efflux pump upon exposure to 16 μg/ml CHX suggesting that multidrug resistance may be mediated by this system. Exposure of biofilms of these resistant species to undiluted commercial CHX mouthwash for intervals from 5 to 60 s indicated that the mouthwash was unlikely to eliminate them from dental plaque in vivo. The study highlights the requirement for increased vigilance of the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria in dental plaque and raises a potential risk of long-term use of oral care products containing antimicrobial agents for the control of dental plaque.

  1. Forthcoming therapeutic perspectives for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G; Rossolini, G M

    2009-03-01

    Multidrug resistance in Gram-positive pathogens emerged as a major therapeutic challenge over two decades ago. The worldwide spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and other resistant Gram-positive pathogens had a major impact on antibiotic policies, and prompted the discovery and development of new antibiotics to combat difficult-to-treat infections caused by such pathogens. Several new antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens have recently been introduced into clinical practice, and the antibiotic pipeline contains additional anti-Gram-positive drugs at an advanced stage of development, including new glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin), new anti-MRSA beta-lactams (ceftobiprole), and new diaminopyrimidines (iclaprim). This article provides a brief overview of these upcoming agents, partially based on the material presented at the ESCMID Conference entitled 'Fighting infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positives' (Venice, Italy, 29-31 May 2008) and on the most recent literature.

  2. Directly observed treatment, short-course strategy and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: are any modifications required?

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, I.; Rigouts, L.; Van Deun, A.; Portaels, F.

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) should be defined as tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin because these drugs are the cornerstone of short-course chemotherapy, and combined isoniazid and rifampicin resistance requires prolonged treatment with second-line agents. Short-course chemotherapy is a key ingredient in the tuberculosis control strategy known as directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). For populations in which multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is endemic, the outcome of the standard short-course chemotherapy regimen remains uncertain. Unacceptable failure rates have been reported and resistance to additional agents may be induced. As a consequence there have been calls for well-functioning DOTS programmes to provide additional services in areas with high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These "DOTS-plus for MDRTB programmes" may need to modify all five elements of the DOTS strategy: the treatment may need to be individualized rather than standardized; laboratory services may need to provide facilities for on-site culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing; reliable supplies of a wide range of expensive second-line agents would have to be supplied; operational studies would be required to determine the indications for and format of the expanded programmes; financial and technical support from international organizations and Western governments would be needed in addition to that obtained from local governments. PMID:10743297

  3. Multidrug Resistance among New Tuberculosis Cases: Detecting Local Variation through Lot Quality-Assurance Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Lynn Hedt, Bethany; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Viet Nhung, Nguyen; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Background Current methodology for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper investigates the utility of applying lot quality-assurance sampling to identify geographic heterogeneity in the proportion of new cases with multidrug resistance. Methods We simulated the performance of lot quality-assurance sampling by applying these classification-based approaches to data collected in the most recent TB drug-resistance surveys in Ukraine, Vietnam, and Tanzania. We explored three classification systems—two-way static, three-way static, and three-way truncated sequential sampling—at two sets of thresholds: low MDR TB = 2%, high MDR TB = 10%, and low MDR TB = 5%, high MDR TB = 20%. Results The lot quality-assurance sampling systems identified local variability in the prevalence of multidrug resistance in both high-resistance (Ukraine) and low-resistance settings (Vietnam). In Tanzania, prevalence was uniformly low, and the lot quality-assurance sampling approach did not reveal variability. The three-way classification systems provide additional information, but sample sizes may not be obtainable in some settings. New rapid drug-sensitivity testing methods may allow truncated sequential sampling designs and early stopping within static designs, producing even greater efficiency gains. Conclusions Lot quality-assurance sampling study designs may offer an efficient approach for collecting critical information on local variability in the burden of multidrug-resistant TB. Before this methodology is adopted, programs must determine appropriate classification thresholds, the most useful classification system, and appropriate weighting if unbiased national estimates are also desired. PMID:22249242

  4. Multidrug resistance among new tuberculosis cases: detecting local variation through lot quality-assurance sampling.

    PubMed

    Hedt, Bethany Lynn; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-03-01

    Current methodology for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper investigates the utility of applying lot quality-assurance sampling to identify geographic heterogeneity in the proportion of new cases with multidrug resistance. We simulated the performance of lot quality-assurance sampling by applying these classification-based approaches to data collected in the most recent TB drug-resistance surveys in Ukraine, Vietnam, and Tanzania. We explored 3 classification systems- two-way static, three-way static, and three-way truncated sequential sampling-at 2 sets of thresholds: low MDR TB = 2%, high MDR TB = 10%, and low MDR TB = 5%, high MDR TB = 20%. The lot quality-assurance sampling systems identified local variability in the prevalence of multidrug resistance in both high-resistance (Ukraine) and low-resistance settings (Vietnam). In Tanzania, prevalence was uniformly low, and the lot quality-assurance sampling approach did not reveal variability. The three-way classification systems provide additional information, but sample sizes may not be obtainable in some settings. New rapid drug-sensitivity testing methods may allow truncated sequential sampling designs and early stopping within static designs, producing even greater efficiency gains. Lot quality-assurance sampling study designs may offer an efficient approach for collecting critical information on local variability in the burden of multidrug-resistant TB. Before this methodology is adopted, programs must determine appropriate classification thresholds, the most useful classification system, and appropriate weighting if unbiased national estimates are also desired.

  5. The Impact of Cell Density and Mutations in a Model of Multidrug Resistance in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Greene, James; Lavi, Orit; Gottesman, Michael M.; Levy, Doron

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a mathematical framework for describing multidrug resistance in cancer. To reflect the complexity of the underlying interplay between cancer cells and the therapeutic agent, we assume that the resistance level is a continuous parameter. Our model is written as a system of integro-differential equations that are parametrized by the resistance level. This model incorporates the cell-density and mutation dependence. Analysis and simulations of the model demonstrate how the dynamics evolves to a selection of one or more traits corresponding to different levels of resistance. The emerging limit distribution with nonzero variance is the desirable modeling outcome as it represents tumor heterogeneity. PMID:24553772

  6. High Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Class 1 Integrons, and Genotypes of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Beef Carcasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Ke, Se-Chin; Li, Chia-Ru; Wu, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lai, Chih-Ho; Wu, Xin-Xia; Wu, Lii-Tzu

    2017-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli can contaminate food meat during processing and cause human infection. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the antimicrobial resistance were conducted for 45 multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates from 208 samples of beef carcasses. The mechanisms of resistance were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods, and the clonal relationship among isolates was evaluated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Different variants of bla, tet, flo, dfrA, and aadA genes were detected in most of the strains resistant to β-lactam, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, and aminoglycosides, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli was found in 42.2% of the 45 E. coli isolates and the most commonly detected ESBL genotypes were CTX-M group 1 and 9. Class 1 integrons with nine different arrangements of gene cassettes were present in 28 of 45 E. coli isolates. Twenty-nine PFGE groups and 24 MLST types were identified in their clonal structure. This study revealed that E. coli isolates from beef contained high diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons, and genotypes. These results highlighted the role of beef meat as a potential source for multidrug-resistant E. coli strains and the need for controlling beef safety.

  7. Multidrug resistance in parasites: ABC transporters, P-glycoproteins and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Jones, P M; George, A M

    2005-04-30

    Parasitic diseases, caused by protozoa, helminths and arthropods, rank among the most important problems in human and veterinary medicine, and in agriculture, leading to debilitating sicknesses and loss of life. In the absence of vaccines and with the general failure of vector eradication programs, drugs are the main line of defence, but the newest drugs are being tracked by the emergence of resistance in parasites, sharing ominous parallels with multidrug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Any of a number of mechanisms will elicit a drug resistance phenotype in parasites, including: active efflux, reduced uptake, target modification, drug modification, drug sequestration, by-pass shunting, or substrate competition. The role of ABC transporters in parasitic multidrug resistance mechanisms is being subjected to more scrutiny, due in part to the established roles of certain ABC transporters in human diseases, and also to an increasing portfolio of ABC transporters from parasite genome sequencing projects. For example, over 100 ABC transporters have been identified in the Escherichia coli genome, but to date only about 65 in all parasitic genomes. Long established laboratory investigations are now being assisted by molecular biology, bioinformatics, and computational modelling, and it is in these areas that the role of ABC transporters in parasitic multidrug resistance mechanisms may be defined and put in perspective with that of other proteins. We discuss ABC transporters in parasites, and conclude with an example of molecular modelling that identifies a new interaction between the structural domains of a parasite P-glycoprotein.

  8. Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB). 10.4 million new TB cases will appear in 2015 worldwide. There were an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015, and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Multidrug- resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB) are major public health concerns worldwide. 480.000 new cases of MDR-TB will appear in 2015 and an additional 100,000 people with rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) who were also newly eligible for MDR-TB treatment. Their association with HIV infection has contributed to the slowing down of TB incidence decline over the last two decades, therefore representing one important barrier to reach TB elimination. Patients infected with MDR-TB require more expensive treatment regimens than drug-susceptible TB, with poor treatment.Patients with multidrug- resistant tuberculosis do not receive rifampin; drug interactions risk is markedly reduced. However, overlapping toxicities may limit options for co-treatment of HIV and multidrug- resistant tuberculosis.

  9. Genetic diversity of drug and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Munro-Rojas, Daniela; Fernandez-Morales, Esdras; Zarrabal-Meza, José; Martínez-Cazares, Ma. Teresa; Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Fuentes-Domínguez, Javier; Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael; González-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the most important contributors of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latin America; however, knowledge of the genetic diversity of drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates is limited. Methods In this study, the genetic structure of 112 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from the southeastern Mexico was determined by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs. Findings The results show eight major lineages, the most of which was T1 (24%), followed by LAM (16%) and H (15%). A total of 29 (25%) isolates were identified as orphan. The most abundant SITs were SIT53/T1 and SIT42/LAM9 with 10 isolates each and SIT50/H3 with eight isolates. Fifty-two spoligotype patterns, twenty-seven clusters and ten clonal complexes were observed, demonstrating an important genetic diversity of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis isolates in circulation and transmission level of these aggravated forms of tuberculosis. Being defined as orphan or as part of an orphan cluster, was a risk factor for multidrug resistant-tuberculosis (OR 2.5, IC 1.05–5.86 and OR 3.3, IC 1–11.03, respectively). Multiple correspondence analyses showed association of some clusters and SITs with specific geographical locations. Conclusions Our study provides one of the most detailed description of the genetic structure of drug and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains in southeast Mexico, establishing for the first time a baseline of the genotypes observed in resistant isolates circulating, however further studies are required to better elucidate the genetic structure of tuberculosis in region and the factors that could be participating in their dispersion. PMID:29543819

  10. Resistance patterns of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an ICU of a tertiary care hospital, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Janahiraman, Sivakami; Aziz, Muhammad Nazri; Hoo, Fan Kee; P’ng, Hon Shen; Boo, Yang Liang; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds & Objective: Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem worldwide in hospitals. The main contributing factors are exposures to broad-spectrum antimicrobials and cross-infections. Understanding the extent and type of antimicrobial use in tertiary care hospitals will aid in developing national antimicrobial stewardship priorities. Methods: In this study, we have analyzed the antimicrobial agents’ usage for acquisition of multidrug resistant using retrospective, cross-sectional, single-centre study in a multidisciplinary ICU at tertiary care hospital. Results: Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) was isolated in various specimens from 662 patients. From these, 136 patients who were diagnosed with Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by ACB were included into the study. In our study, MDR strain accounts for 51% of all VAP cases caused by ACB. The development of ACB VAP were 10.5 + 6.4 days for MDR strains compared to susceptible organism (7.8 + 4.5 days) and had significantly longer ICU stay. Conclusion: The study concludes that prudent use of antimicrobial agents is important to reduce acquisition of MDR ACB. PMID:26870101

  11. An oligonucleotide microarray to characterize multidrug resistant plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteria plasmids are fragments of extra-chromosomal double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that can contain a variety of genes beneficial to the host organism like antibiotic drug resistance. Many of the Enterobacteriaceae carry multiple drug resistance (MDR) genes on large plasmids of replic...

  12. Growing Problem of Multidrug-Resistant Enteric Pathogens in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Aboderin, Oladiipo A.; Byarugaba, Denis K.; Ojo, Kayode K.; Opintan, Japheth A.

    2007-01-01

    Control of fecal–orally transmitted pathogens is inadequate in many developing countries, in particular, in sub-Saharan Africa. Acquired resistance to antimicrobial drugs is becoming more prevalent among Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella enteritidis, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and other pathogens in this region. The poor, who experience most of the infections caused by these organisms, bear the brunt of extended illness and exacerbated proportion of deaths brought about by resistance. Improved antimicrobial drug stewardship is an often cited, but inadequately implemented, intervention for resistance control. Resistance containment also requires improvements in infectious disease control, access to and quality assurance of antimicrobial agents, as well as diagnostic facilities. Structural improvements along these lines will also enhance disease prevention and control as well as rational antimicrobial drug use. Additionally, more research is needed to identify low-cost, high-impact interventions for resistance control. PMID:18217545

  13. Indolcarboxamide is a preclinical candidate for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Srinivasa P S; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Kondreddi, Ravinder R; Herve, Maxime; Camacho, Luis R; Bifani, Pablo; Kalapala, Sarath K; Jiricek, Jan; Ma, Ng L; Tan, Bee H; Ng, Seow H; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Ravindran, Sindhu; Seah, Peck G; Thayalan, Pamela; Lim, Siao H; Lee, Boon H; Goh, Anne; Barnes, Whitney S; Chen, Zhong; Gagaring, Kerstin; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Pethe, Kevin; Kuhen, Kelli; Walker, John; Feng, Gu; Babu, Sreehari; Zhang, Lijun; Blasco, Francesca; Beer, David; Weaver, Margaret; Dartois, Veronique; Glynne, Richard; Dick, Thomas; Smith, Paul W; Diagana, Thierry T; Manjunatha, Ujjini H

    2013-12-04

    New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified and characterized the indolcarboxamides as a new class of antitubercular bactericidal agent. Genetic and lipid profiling studies identified the likely molecular target of indolcarboxamides as MmpL3, a transporter of trehalose monomycolate that is essential for mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Two lead candidates, NITD-304 and NITD-349, showed potent activity against both drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Mtb. Promising pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds after oral dosing in several species enabled further evaluation for efficacy and safety. NITD-304 and NITD-349 were efficacious in treating both acute and chronic Mtb infections in mouse efficacy models. Furthermore, dosing of NITD-304 and NITD-349 for 2 weeks in exploratory rat toxicology studies revealed a promising safety margin. Finally, neither compound inhibited the activity of major cytochrome P-450 enzymes or the hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) channel. These results suggest that NITD-304 and NITD-349 should undergo further development as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant TB.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain A026, a Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Isolate Carrying Tn2010

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhihai; Zhou, Wenqing; Yao, Kaihu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Yonghong

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary cause of bacterial infection in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. pneumoniae strain A026, which is a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24336372

  15. Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage phiEap-2 infecting multidrug resistant Enterobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erna; Wei, Xiao; Ma, Yanyan; Yin, Zhe; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ruixiang; Yang, Huiying; Jiang, Aimin; Yang, Wenhui; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Xiangna

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes (Enterobacteriaceae) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes hospital-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. Recently, multidrug-resistant E. aerogenes have been a public health problem. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, bacteriophage phiEap-2 was isolated from sewage and its genome was sequenced because of its ability to lyse the multidrug-resistant clinical E. aerogenes strain 3-SP. Morphological observations suggested that the phage belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Comparative genome analysis revealed that phage phiEap-2 is related to the Salmonella phage FSL SP-031 (KC139518). All of the structural gene products (except capsid protein) encoded by phiEap-2 had orthologous gene products in FSL SP-031 and Serratia phage Eta (KC460990). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of phiEap-2 and major findings from the genomic analysis. Knowledge of this phage might be helpful for developing therapeutic strategies against E. aerogenes. PMID:27320081

  16. Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage phiEap-2 infecting multidrug resistant Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Erna; Wei, Xiao; Ma, Yanyan; Yin, Zhe; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ruixiang; Yang, Huiying; Jiang, Aimin; Yang, Wenhui; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Xiangna

    2016-06-20

    Enterobacter aerogenes (Enterobacteriaceae) is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes hospital-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections. Recently, multidrug-resistant E. aerogenes have been a public health problem. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, bacteriophage phiEap-2 was isolated from sewage and its genome was sequenced because of its ability to lyse the multidrug-resistant clinical E. aerogenes strain 3-SP. Morphological observations suggested that the phage belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Comparative genome analysis revealed that phage phiEap-2 is related to the Salmonella phage FSL SP-031 (KC139518). All of the structural gene products (except capsid protein) encoded by phiEap-2 had orthologous gene products in FSL SP-031 and Serratia phage Eta (KC460990). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of phiEap-2 and major findings from the genomic analysis. Knowledge of this phage might be helpful for developing therapeutic strategies against E. aerogenes.

  17. Targeting multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1): past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cole, Susan P C

    2014-01-01

    The human ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), encoded by ABCC1, was initially identified because of its ability to confer multidrug resistance in lung cancer cells. It is now established that MRP1 plays a role in protecting certain tissues from xenobiotic insults and that it mediates the cellular efflux of the proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotriene C4 as well as a vast array of other endo- and xenobiotic organic anions. Many of these are glutathione (GSH) or glucuronide conjugates, the products of Phase II drug metabolism. MRP1 also plays a role in the cellular efflux of the reduced and oxidized forms of GSH and thus contributes to the many physiological and pathophysiological processes influenced by these small peptides, including oxidative stress. In this review, the pharmacological and physiological aspects of MRP1 are considered in the context of the current status and future prospects of pharmacological and genetic modulation of MRP1 activity.

  18. The prevalence and clinical features of multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi infections in Baluchistan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mirza, S H; Beeching, N J; Hart, C A

    1995-10-01

    Between January and July 1994, a prospective study of bacteraemia in 692 patients with fever without localizing signs was undertaken at the Quetta Military Hospital in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 76 (11%) of the patients; 62 had S. typhi and 14 had S. paratyphi A. Significantly more isolations of S. typhi were made in the hot dry months of May and June than in the earlier months. Although multi-drug resistance (to chloramphenicol ampicillin and cotrimoxazole) was detected in 43 (69%) of the S. typhi isolates, it was not found in any of the S. paratyphi A. Defervescence of patients with chloramphenicol-sensitive S. typhi took 7-10 days of chloramphenicol therapy. In contrast, most (91%) of the patients infected with multi-drug resistant S. typhi who were treated with fluoroquinolones achieved defervescence in 1-3 days; the remainder took 4-6 days.

  19. Understanding institutional stakeholders’ perspectives on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism at the end of life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Heckel, Maria; Herbst, Franziska A; Adelhardt, Thomas; Tiedtke, Johanna M; Sturm, Alexander; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Background Information lacks about institutional stakeholders’ perspectives on management approaches of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in end-of-life situations. The term “institutional stakeholder” includes persons in leading positions with responsibility in hospitals’ multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management. They have great influence on how strategies on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approaches in institutions of the public health system are designed. This study targeted institutional stakeholders’ individual perspectives on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism colonization or infection and isolation measures at the end of life. Methods Between March and December 2014, institutional stakeholders of two study centers, a German palliative care unit and a geriatric ward, were queried in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed qualitatively with the aid of the software MAXQDA for qualitative data analysis using principles of Grounded Theory. In addition, two external stakeholders were interviewed to enrich data. Results Key issues addressed by institutional stakeholders (N=18) were the relevance of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in palliative and geriatric care, contradictions between hygiene principles and patients’ and family caregivers’ needs and divergence from standards, frame conditions, and reflections on standardization of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism end-of-life care procedures. Results show that institutional stakeholders face a dilemma between their responsibility in protecting third persons and ensuring patients’ quality of life. Until further empirical evidence establishes a clear multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approach in end-of-life care, stakeholders suggest a case-based approach. Conclusion The institutional stakeholders’ perspectives and their suggestion of a case-based approach advance the development

  20. Understanding institutional stakeholders' perspectives on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism at the end of life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Heckel, Maria; Herbst, Franziska A; Adelhardt, Thomas; Tiedtke, Johanna M; Sturm, Alexander; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Information lacks about institutional stakeholders' perspectives on management approaches of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in end-of-life situations. The term "institutional stakeholder" includes persons in leading positions with responsibility in hospitals' multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management. They have great influence on how strategies on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approaches in institutions of the public health system are designed. This study targeted institutional stakeholders' individual perspectives on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism colonization or infection and isolation measures at the end of life. Between March and December 2014, institutional stakeholders of two study centers, a German palliative care unit and a geriatric ward, were queried in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed qualitatively with the aid of the software MAXQDA for qualitative data analysis using principles of Grounded Theory. In addition, two external stakeholders were interviewed to enrich data. Key issues addressed by institutional stakeholders (N=18) were the relevance of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in palliative and geriatric care, contradictions between hygiene principles and patients' and family caregivers' needs and divergence from standards, frame conditions, and reflections on standardization of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism end-of-life care procedures. Results show that institutional stakeholders face a dilemma between their responsibility in protecting third persons and ensuring patients' quality of life. Until further empirical evidence establishes a clear multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approach in end-of-life care, stakeholders suggest a case-based approach. The institutional stakeholders' perspectives and their suggestion of a case-based approach advance the development process of a patient-, family-, staff-, and institutional

  1. Spread of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli harboring integron via swine farm waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ji; Binn-Kim; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP. The largest decrease in E. coli load was observed during the anaerobic digestion step (from 4.86 to 2.89log CFU/mL). Isolates resistant to β-lactam antibiotics were efficiently removed after a series of treatment steps, whereas the proportions of isolates resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics and multidrug-resistant strains were maintained across treatments. The occurrence of integron-positive strains was not significantly different at the various sampling sites (43.4-70%; p>0.05). Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 17.9% harbored the integron-associated gene cassettes aadA2, aadA12, aadA22, and dfrA15. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a class 1 integron containing the aadA12 gene cassette from a swine farm and the presence of a class 1 integron containing dfrA15 in E. coli. This suggests that novel antibiotic-resistance gene cassette arrays could be generated in swine farm WWTPs. Moreover, 75% of integron-positive strains were categorized as multidrug resistant, whereas only 15.4% of integron-negative strains were multidrug resistant (p<0.05), indicating that integrons may be responsible for mediating resistance in WWTPs. With regard to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant, integron-positive E. coli recovered from the final effluent, our results highlighted the potential risks associated with wastewater discharge from swine farm WWTPs in terms of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the aquatic

  2. Multifunctional magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia to overcome multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanyan; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Baoan; Cheng, Jian; Cai, Xiaohui; Liu, Ran; Xia, Guohua; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jiahua; Gao, Chong; Wang, Jun; Bao, Wen; Wang, Lei; Tian, Liang; Song, Huihui; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance in cancer is a major obstacle for clinical therapeutics, and is the reason for 90% of treatment failures. This study investigated the efficiency of novel multifunctional Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNP) combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia for overcoming multidrug resistance in an in vivo model of leukemia. Methods Nude mice with tumor xenografts were randomly divided into a control group, and the treatment groups were allocated to receive daunorubicin, 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet) and daunorubicin, Fe3O4-MNP, and Fe3O4-MNP coloaded with daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine (Fe3O4-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet), with hyperthermia in an alternating magnetic field. We investigated tumor volume and pathology, as well as P-glycoprotein, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expression to elucidate the effect of multimodal treatment on overcoming multidrug resistance. Results Fe3O4-MNP played a role in increasing tumor temperature during hyperthermia. Tumors became significantly smaller, and apoptosis of cells was observed in both the Fe3O4-MNP and Fe3O4-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet groups, especially in the Fe3O4-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet group, while tumor volumes in the other groups had increased after treatment for 12 days. Furthermore, Fe3O4-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet with hyperthermia noticeably decreased P-glycoprotein and Bcl-2 expression, and markedly increased Bax and caspase-3 expression. Conclusion Fe3O4-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet with hyperthermia may be a potential approach for reversal of multidrug resistance in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:22619560

  3. Multifunctional magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia to overcome multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanyan; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Baoan; Cheng, Jian; Cai, Xiaohui; Liu, Ran; Xia, Guohua; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jiahua; Gao, Chong; Wang, Jun; Bao, Wen; Wang, Lei; Tian, Liang; Song, Huihui; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer is a major obstacle for clinical therapeutics, and is the reason for 90% of treatment failures. This study investigated the efficiency of novel multifunctional Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)-MNP) combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia for overcoming multidrug resistance in an in vivo model of leukemia. Nude mice with tumor xenografts were randomly divided into a control group, and the treatment groups were allocated to receive daunorubicin, 5-bromotetrandrine (5-BrTet) and daunorubicin, Fe(3)O(4)-MNP, and Fe(3)O(4)-MNP coloaded with daunorubicin and 5-bromotetrandrine (Fe(3)O(4)-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet), with hyperthermia in an alternating magnetic field. We investigated tumor volume and pathology, as well as P-glycoprotein, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expression to elucidate the effect of multimodal treatment on overcoming multidrug resistance. Fe(3)O(4)-MNP played a role in increasing tumor temperature during hyperthermia. Tumors became significantly smaller, and apoptosis of cells was observed in both the Fe(3)O(4)-MNP and Fe(3)O(4)-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet groups, especially in the Fe(3)O(4)-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet group, while tumor volumes in the other groups had increased after treatment for 12 days. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4)-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet with hyperthermia noticeably decreased P-glycoprotein and Bcl-2 expression, and markedly increased Bax and caspase-3 expression. Fe(3)O(4)-MNP-DNR-5-BrTet with hyperthermia may be a potential approach for reversal of multidrug resistance in the treatment of leukemia.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii▿

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tze-Peng; Ledesma, Kimberly R.; Chang, Kai-Tai; Hou, Jing-Guo; Kwa, Andrea L.; Nikolaou, Michael; Quinn, John P.; Prince, Randall A.; Tam, Vincent H.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections poses a therapeutic challenge to clinicians; combination therapy is often the only viable option for multidrug-resistant infections. A quantitative method was developed to assess the combined killing abilities of antimicrobial agents. Time-kill studies (TKS) were performed using a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii with escalating concentrations of cefepime (0 to 512 mg/liter), amikacin (0 to 256 mg/liter), and levofloxacin (0 to 64 mg/liter). The bacterial burden data in single and combined (two of the three agents with clinically achievable concentrations in serum) TKS at 24 h were mathematically modeled to provide an objective basis for comparing various antimicrobial agent combinations. Synergy and antagonism were defined as interaction indices of <1 and >1, respectively. A hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) simulating various clinical (fluctuating concentrations over time) dosing exposures was used to selectively validate our quantitative assessment of the combined killing effect. Model fits in all single-agent TKS were satisfactory (r2 > 0.97). An enhanced combined overall killing effect was seen in the cefepime-amikacin combination (interactive index, 0.698; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.675 to 0.722) and the cefepime-levofloxacin combination (interactive index, 0.929; 95% CI, 0.903 to 0.956), but no significant difference in the combined overall killing effect for the levofloxacin-amikacin combination was observed (interactive index, 0.994; 95% CI, 0.982 to 1.005). These assessments were consistent with observations in HFIM validation studies. Our method could be used to objectively rank the combined killing activities of two antimicrobial agents when used together against a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate. It may offer better insights into the effectiveness of various antimicrobial combinations and warrants further investigations. PMID:18505848

  5. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Murielle; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Holt, Kathryn Elizabeth; Lepillet, Elodie; Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Collard, Jean-Marc; Bercion, Raymond; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Le Hello, Simon; Dougan, Gordon; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    We identified 3 lineages among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates in the Gulf of Guinea region in Africa during the 2000s. However, the MDR H58 haplotype, which predominates in southern Asia and Kenya, was not identified. MDR quinolone-susceptible isolates contained a 190-kb incHI1 pST2 plasmid or a 50-kb incN pST3 plasmid. PMID:25811307

  6. Incorporation of antibiotics effective against multidrug resistant pathogens into PMMA for cranio maxillofacial implants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-12

    duties. Title 17 USC §105 provides that ‘copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the US Government.’ Title 17 USC §101...chromatography HPLC High performance liquid chromatography ISO International standardization organization M Minocycline MDR Multidrug resistant...used for the past few decades as topical otic and ophthalmic treatments. Literature available for the individual colistin-, polymyxin B-, and

  7. Green Tea Catechin-Based Complex Micelles Combined with Doxorubicin to Overcome Cardiotoxicity and Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tangjian; Liu, Jinjian; Ren, Jie; Huang, Fan; Ou, Hanlin; Ding, Yuxun; Zhang, Yumin; Ma, Rujiang; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment has been demonstrated to cause some side effects on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of the tumor cells, which greatly limits therapeutic efficacy. To address these limitations and achieve better therapeutic efficacy, combination therapy based on nanoparticle platforms provides a promising approach through delivering different agents simultaneously to the same destination with synergistic effect. In this study, a novel green tea catechin-based polyion complex (PIC) micelle loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was constructed through electrostatic interaction and phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lysine-co-lysine-phenylboronic acid) (PEG-PLys/PBA) and EGCG. DOX was co-loaded in the PIC micelles through π-π stacking interaction with EGCG. The phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction endowed the PIC micelles with high stability under physiological condition. Moreover, acid cleavability of phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction in the micelle core has significant benefits for delivering EGCG and DOX to same destination with synergistic effects. In addition, benefiting from the oxygen free radicals scavenging activity of EGCG, combination therapy with EGCG and DOX in the micelle core could protect the cardiomyocytes from DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity according to the histopathologic analysis of hearts. Attributed to modulation of EGCG on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, this kind of PIC micelles could effectively reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These results suggested that EGCG based PIC micelles could effectively overcome DOX induced cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance.

  8. Reducing the price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis through the Global Drug Facility.

    PubMed

    Lunte, Kaspars; Cordier-Lassalle, Thierry; Keravec, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Many countries have limited experience of securing the best prices for drugs and have little negotiating power. This is particularly true for the complex, lengthy and expensive regimens used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The Stop TB Partnership's Global Drug Facility is dedicated to improving worldwide access to antituberculosis medicines and diagnostic techniques that meet international quality standards. The Global Drug Facility is able to secure price reductions through competitive tendering among prequalified drug manufacturers and by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes. Consolidating the market in this way increases the incentives for suppliers of quality-assured medicines. In 2013 the Global Drug Facility reduced the price of the second-line drugs it supplies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the overall cost of the longest and most expensive treatment regimen for a patient decreased by 26% - from 7890 United States dollars (US$) in 2011 to US$ 5822 in 2013. The price of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis supplied by the Global Drug Facility was reduced by consolidating orders to achieve large purchase volumes, by international, competitive bidding and by the existence of donor-funded medicine stockpiles. The rise in the number of suppliers of internationally quality-assured drugs was also important. The savings achieved from lower drug costs could be used to increase the number of patients on high-quality treatment.

  9. Green Tea Catechin-Based Complex Micelles Combined with Doxorubicin to Overcome Cardiotoxicity and Multidrug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tangjian; Liu, Jinjian; Ren, Jie; Huang, Fan; Ou, Hanlin; Ding, Yuxun; Zhang, Yumin; Ma, Rujiang; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment has been demonstrated to cause some side effects on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of the tumor cells, which greatly limits therapeutic efficacy. To address these limitations and achieve better therapeutic efficacy, combination therapy based on nanoparticle platforms provides a promising approach through delivering different agents simultaneously to the same destination with synergistic effect. In this study, a novel green tea catechin-based polyion complex (PIC) micelle loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was constructed through electrostatic interaction and phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lysine-co-lysine-phenylboronic acid) (PEG-PLys/PBA) and EGCG. DOX was co-loaded in the PIC micelles through π-π stacking interaction with EGCG. The phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction endowed the PIC micelles with high stability under physiological condition. Moreover, acid cleavability of phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction in the micelle core has significant benefits for delivering EGCG and DOX to same destination with synergistic effects. In addition, benefiting from the oxygen free radicals scavenging activity of EGCG, combination therapy with EGCG and DOX in the micelle core could protect the cardiomyocytes from DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity according to the histopathologic analysis of hearts. Attributed to modulation of EGCG on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, this kind of PIC micelles could effectively reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These results suggested that EGCG based PIC micelles could effectively overcome DOX induced cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance. PMID:27375779

  10. Inhibition of multidrug resistant Listeria monocytogenes by peptides isolated from combinatorial phage display libraries.

    PubMed

    Flachbartova, Z; Pulzova, L; Bencurova, E; Potocnakova, L; Comor, L; Bednarikova, Z; Bhide, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize novel antimicrobial peptides from peptide phage library with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant Listeria monocytogenes. Combinatorial phage-display library was used to affinity select peptides binding to the cell surface of multidrug resistant L. monocytogenes. After several rounds of affinity selection followed by sequencing, three peptides were revealed as the most promising candidates. Peptide L2 exhibited features common to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and was rich in Asp, His and Lys residues. Peptide L3 (NSWIQAPDTKSI), like peptide L2, inhibited bacterial growth in vitro, without any hemolytic or cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells. L1 peptide showed no inhibitory effect on Listeria. Structurally, peptides L2 and L3 formed random coils composed of α-helix and β-sheet units. Peptides L2 and L3 exhibited antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes with no haemolytic or toxic effects. Both peptides identified in this study have the potential to be beneficial in human and veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-p-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in detransformed rat cells selected for resistance to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    PubMed

    Weber, J M; Sircar, S; Horvath, J; Dion, P

    1989-11-01

    Three independent variants (G2, G4, G5), resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), an anticancer drug, have been isolated by single step selection from an adenovirus-transformed rat brain cell line (1). These variants display selective cross-resistance to several natural product drugs of dissimilar structure and action. Multidrug resistance has recently been shown to be caused by overexpression of the membrane-associated p-glycoprotein, most often caused by amplification of the mdr gene. Several types of experiments were conducted to determine whether the observed drug resistance in our cell lines could be due to changes at the mdr locus. The following results were obtained: (a) the mdr locus was not amplified; (b) transcription of the mdr gene and p-glycoprotein synthesis were not increased; (c) multidrug resistance cell lines, which carry an amplified mdr locus, were not cross-resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone); (d) verapamil did not reverse the resistance of G cells or mdr cells to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), nor that of G cells to vincristine; and (e) methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) resistance was recessive and depended on a block to drug uptake, as opposed to mdr cells which are dominant and express increased drug efflux. The results obtained suggest that the drug resistance in the G2, G4, and G5 cells was atypical and may be due to a mechanism distinct from that mediated by the mdr locus.

  12. Carbapenem Susceptibility and Multidrug-Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shawky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious concern for antimicrobial therapy, as the common isolates exhibit variable grades of resistance, involving beta-lactamase enzymes, beside native defense mechanisms. Objectives The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of Metallo-β- Lactamases (MBL) and Amp C harboring P. aeruginosa isolates from Suez Canal university hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. Methods A total of 147 P. aeruginosa isolates, recovered from 311 patients during a 10-month period, were collected between May 2013 and February 2014; the isolates were collected from urine, wound and sputum. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by agar dilution methods was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem and imipenem. Identification of P. aeruginosa was confirmed using API 20NE. Metallo-β- Lactamases and Amp C were detected based on different phenotypic methods. Results Overall, 26.5% of P. aeruginosa isolates (39/147) were carbapenem resistant isolates. Furthermore, 64.1% (25/39) were MBL producers, these isolates were screened by the combined disc and disc diffusion methods to determine the ability of MBL production. Both MBL and Amp C harbored P. aeruginosa isolates were 28% (7/25). Sixty-four percent of P. aeruginosa isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (16/25). The sensitivity toward polymyxin, imipenem, norfloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and gentamicin was 99%, 91%, 88%, 82% and 78%, respectively. The resistance rate towards cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam and meropenem was 98.6%, 86%, 71.4%, 34% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Multidrug resistance was significantly associated with MBL production in P. aeruginosa. Early detection of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and hospital antibiotic policy prescription helps proper antimicrobial therapy and avoidance of dissemination of these multidrug resistance isolates. PMID:28138370

  13. Carbapenem Susceptibility and Multidrug-Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shawky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa

    2016-11-01

    Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious concern for antimicrobial therapy, as the common isolates exhibit variable grades of resistance, involving beta-lactamase enzymes, beside native defense mechanisms. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of Metallo-β- Lactamases (MBL) and Amp C harboring P. aeruginosa isolates from Suez Canal university hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 147 P. aeruginosa isolates, recovered from 311 patients during a 10-month period, were collected between May 2013 and February 2014; the isolates were collected from urine, wound and sputum. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined by agar dilution methods was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem and imipenem. Identification of P. aeruginosa was confirmed using API 20NE. Metallo-β- Lactamases and Amp C were detected based on different phenotypic methods. Overall, 26.5% of P. aeruginosa isolates (39/147) were carbapenem resistant isolates. Furthermore, 64.1% (25/39) were MBL producers, these isolates were screened by the combined disc and disc diffusion methods to determine the ability of MBL production. Both MBL and Amp C harbored P. aeruginosa isolates were 28% (7/25). Sixty-four percent of P. aeruginosa isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) (16/25). The sensitivity toward polymyxin, imipenem, norfloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and gentamicin was 99%, 91%, 88%, 82% and 78%, respectively. The resistance rate towards cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam and meropenem was 98.6%, 86%, 71.4%, 34% and 30%, respectively. Multidrug resistance was significantly associated with MBL production in P. aeruginosa . Early detection of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and hospital antibiotic policy prescription helps proper antimicrobial therapy and avoidance of dissemination of these multidrug resistance isolates.

  14. Rifampicin treatment of canine pyoderma due to multidrug-resistant meticillin-resistant staphylococci: a retrospective study of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    De Lucia, Michela; Bardagi, Mar; Fabbri, Elisabetta; Ferreira, Diana; Ferrer, Lluis; Scarampella, Fabia; Zanna, Giordana; Fondati, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Rifampicin has received increased interest in veterinary dermatology because of its activity against multidrug-resistant meticillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). There is limited knowledge about the efficacy and safety of rifampicin in dogs. To provide information on response to treatment and adverse effects in dogs treated with rifampicin for multidrug-resistant MRS pyoderma. Thirty two dogs treated with rifampicin for rifampicin-susceptible multidrug-resistant MRS pyoderma. Retrospective review of medical records, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) serum activity levels and total bilirubin concentrations, obtained before and throughout the treatment, was performed. Oral rifampicin as sole systemic antimicrobial therapy (median dose 5 mg/kg twice daily) was effective in 71.88% of cases. Topical antimicrobials were used in most cases. Median duration of rifampicin treatment was five weeks for superficial pyoderma and four weeks for deep pyoderma. Gastrointestinal signs were reported in 15% of treated dogs. Statistically significant increases of ALT (P = 0.045) and ALP (P = 0.0002) values after 3-4 weeks of treatment was observed. The median increase was equal to 0.3 and ×1.5 the upper limit of the reference ranges for ALT and ALP, respectively. Oral rifampicin combined with topical antimicrobials can be considered an effective therapeutic option for canine superficial and deep pyoderma caused by rifampicin-susceptible multidrug-resistant MRS. Liver enzyme induction might be the most important cause of ALT and ALP increase associated with rifampicin therapy in dogs. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (MRP1) mediated vincristine resistance: effects of N-acetylcysteine and Buthionine Sulfoximine

    PubMed Central

    Akan, Ilhan; Akan, Selma; Akca, Hakan; Savas, Burhan; Ozben, Tomris

    2005-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) decreases cellular drug accumulation. The exact mechanism of MRP1 involved multidrug resistance has not been clarified yet, though glutathione (GSH) is likely to have a role for the resistance to occur. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a pro-glutathione drug. DL-Buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) is an inhibitor of GSH synthesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of NAC and BSO on MRP1-mediated vincristine resistance in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) and its MRP1 transfected 293MRP cells. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding whole MRP1 gene. Both cells were incubated with vincristine in the presence or absence of NAC and/or BSO. The viability of both cells was determined under different incubation conditions. GSH, Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured in the cell extracts obtained from both cells incubated with different drugs. Results N-acetylcysteine increased the resistance of both cells against vincristine and BSO decreased NAC-enhanced MRP1-mediated vincristine resistance, indicating that induction of MRP1-mediated vincristine resistance depends on GSH. Vincristine decreased cellular GSH concentration and increased GPx activity. Glutathione S-Transferase activity was decreased by NAC. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that NAC and BSO have opposite effects in MRP1 mediated vincristine resistance and BSO seems a promising chemotherapy improving agent in MRP1 overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:16042792

  16. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Valinsky, Lea; Weinberger, Miriam; Guy, Sara; Jaffe, Joseph; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Raisfeld, Abraham; Agmon, Vered; Nissan, Israel

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether rapid emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in Israel resulted from an increase in different biotypes or spread of 1 clone, we characterized 87 serovar Infantis isolates on the genotypic and phenotypic levels. The emerging strain comprised 1 genetic clone with a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and a common antimicrobial drug resistance pattern. PMID:21029536

  17. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, Israel.

    PubMed

    Gal-Mor, Ohad; Valinsky, Lea; Weinberger, Miriam; Guy, Sara; Jaffe, Joseph; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Raisfeld, Abraham; Agmon, Vered; Nissan, Israel

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether rapid emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in Israel resulted from an increase in different biotypes or spread of 1 clone, we characterized 87 serovar Infantis isolates on the genotypic and phenotypic levels. The emerging strain comprised 1 genetic clone with a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and a common antimicrobial drug resistance pattern.

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the era of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2012-06-01

    The prophylactic use of antibiotics can only be justified when clinical benefits on relevant patient outcomes, such as morbidity or mortality, cost-effectiveness, and absence of immediate emergence of antibiotic resistance have been unequivocally demonstrated. In some intensive care unit (ICU) patients, antibiotic prophylaxis is used as part of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD). Recent trials in ICUs with low levels of antibiotic resistance strongly suggest that both regimens reduce the incidence of ICU-acquired infections and improve patient survival. Naturally, the unique microbial ecology of such settings reduce generalizability of results. Therefore, the routine use of SOD and SDD remains highly controversial, especially in ICUs with higher levels of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, convincing evidence is still missing on several important aspects related to efficacy and safety. Despite numerous trials, effects of SDD and SOD on antibiotic resistance during and after decolonization treatment have still been insufficiently investigated, and existing results are contradicting. Furthermore, the effects of both regimens on the non-culturable part of the intestinal flora remain unknown. Finally, cost-effectiveness has not been thoroughly investigated, and prices of the antimicrobial agents that have been used have increased dramatically in recent years. In this review, important knowledge gaps that so far prevent the widespread use of SDD and SOD will be addressed.

  19. From multidrug-resistant to extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Lisbon, Portugal: the stepwise mode of resistance acquisition.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, João; Macedo, Rita; Silva, Carla; Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Jordao, Luisa; Portugal, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The development and transmission of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a serious threat to the effective control of TB in several countries. Here, in an attempt to further elucidate the dynamics of the acquisition of resistance to second-line drugs and investigate an eventual role for eis promoter mutations in aminoglycoside resistance, we have studied a set of multidrug-resistant (MDR)/XDR-TB isolates circulating in Lisbon, Portugal. Forty-four MDR-TB or XDR-TB isolates were genotyped and screened for mutations in genes associated with second-line drug resistance, namely tlyA, gyrA, rrs and eis. The most prevalent mutations found in each gene were Ins755GT in tlyA, A1401G in rrs, G-10A in eis and S91P in gyrA. Additionally, two genetic clusters were found in this study: Lisboa3 and Q1. The characteristic mutational profile found among recent XDR-TB circulating in Lisbon was also found in MDR-TB strains isolated in the 1990s. Also investigated was the resistance level conferred by eis G-10A mutations, revealing that eis G-10A mutations may result in amikacin resistance undetectable by widely used phenotypic assays. The analysis of the distribution of the mutations found by genetic clustering showed that in the Q1 cluster, two mutations, gyrA D94A and rrs A1401G, were enough to ensure development of XDR-TB from an MDR strain. Moreover, in the Lisboa3 cluster it was possible to elaborate a model in which the development of low-level kanamycin resistance was at the origin of the emergence of XDR-TB strains that can be discriminated by tlyA mutations.

  20. Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis Among Young Korean Soldiers in a Communal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Min, Kyung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) among young soldiers in the Korean military, which has a strict tuberculosis control program. All patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis during their service at the Armed Forces Capital Hospital from January 2001 to December 2006 were enrolled in the study. Drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 18 patients (12.2%) and multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis was isolated from 12 patients (8.1%). Previous treatment of tuberculosis and the presence of a cavity on the patient's chest computed tomography scan were associated with MDR TB; military rank, smoking habits, and positive acid-fast bacilli smears were not associated with MDR TB. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, previous treatment of tuberculosis was a significant independent risk factor for MDR TB (odds ratio 6.12, 95% confidence interval 1.53-24.46). The prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis among young soldiers in the Korean military was moderately high and the majority of resistant cases were found in patients who had undergone previous treatment of tuberculosis. Based on our results, we suggest that relapsed tuberculosis cases within communal settings should be cautiously managed until the drug susceptibility tests report is completed, even if previous treatment results were satisfactory. PMID:19654938

  1. Inhibiting fungal multidrug resistance by disrupting an activator-Mediator interaction.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Joy L; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Vale-Silva, Luis A; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sohn, Yoo-Jin; Ji, Fei; Gelev, Vladimir; Sanglard, Dominique; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Mukherjee, Goutam; Bhyravabhotla, Jayaram; Buhrlage, Sara J; Gray, Nathanael S; Wagner, Gerhard; Näär, Anders M; Arthanari, Haribabu

    2016-02-25

    Eukaryotic transcription activators stimulate the expression of specific sets of target genes through recruitment of co-activators such as the RNA polymerase II-interacting Mediator complex. Aberrant function of transcription activators has been implicated in several diseases. However, therapeutic targeting efforts have been hampered by a lack of detailed molecular knowledge of the mechanisms of gene activation by disease-associated transcription activators. We previously identified an activator-targeted three-helix bundle KIX domain in the human MED15 Mediator subunit that is structurally conserved in Gal11/Med15 Mediator subunits in fungi. The Gal11/Med15 KIX domain engages pleiotropic drug resistance transcription factor (Pdr1) orthologues, which are key regulators of the multidrug resistance pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the clinically important human pathogen Candida glabrata. The prevalence of C. glabrata is rising, partly owing to its low intrinsic susceptibility to azoles, the most widely used antifungal agent. Drug-resistant clinical isolates of C. glabrata most commonly contain point mutations in Pdr1 that render it constitutively active, suggesting that this transcriptional activation pathway represents a linchpin in C. glabrata multidrug resistance. Here we perform sequential biochemical and in vivo high-throughput screens to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the interaction of the C. glabrata Pdr1 activation domain with the C. glabrata Gal11A KIX domain. The lead compound (iKIX1) inhibits Pdr1-dependent gene activation and re-sensitizes drug-resistant C. glabrata to azole antifungals in vitro and in animal models for disseminated and urinary tract C. glabrata infection. Determining the NMR structure of the C. glabrata Gal11A KIX domain provides a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of Pdr1 gene activation and multidrug resistance inhibition by iKIX1. We have demonstrated the feasibility of small-molecule targeting of a

  2. Genome evolution and plasticity of Serratia marcescens, an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Nagaya, Yutaka; Pradel, Elizabeth; Ooka, Tadasuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Katsura, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Ken; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Parkhill, Julian; Sebaihia, Mohamed; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Gotoh, Naomasa; Thomson, Nicholas R; Ewbank, Jonathan J; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause an array of infections, most notably of the urinary tract and bloodstream. Naturally, it is found in many environmental niches, and is capable of infecting plants and animals. The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains producing extended-spectrum or metallo beta-lactamases now pose a threat to public health worldwide. Here we report the complete genome sequences of two carefully selected S. marcescens strains, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate (strain SM39) and an insect isolate (strain Db11). Our comparative analyses reveal the core genome of S. marcescens and define the potential metabolic capacity, virulence, and multidrug resistance of this species. We show a remarkable intraspecies genetic diversity, both at the sequence level and with regards genome flexibility, which may reflect the diversity of niches inhabited by members of this species. A broader analysis with other Serratia species identifies a set of approximately 3,000 genes that characterize the genus. Within this apparent genetic diversity, we identified many genes implicated in the high virulence potential and antibiotic resistance of SM39, including the metallo beta-lactamase and multiple other drug resistance determinants carried on plasmid pSMC1. We further show that pSMC1 is most closely related to plasmids circulating in Pseudomonas species. Our data will provide a valuable basis for future studies on S. marcescens and new insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie the emergence of pathogens highly resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Genome Evolution and Plasticity of Serratia marcescens, an Important Multidrug-Resistant Nosocomial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Nagaya, Yutaka; Pradel, Elizabeth; Ooka, Tadasuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Katsura, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Ken; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Parkhill, Julian; Sebaihia, Mohamed; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Gotoh, Naomasa; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Ewbank, Jonathan J.; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause an array of infections, most notably of the urinary tract and bloodstream. Naturally, it is found in many environmental niches, and is capable of infecting plants and animals. The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains producing extended-spectrum or metallo beta-lactamases now pose a threat to public health worldwide. Here we report the complete genome sequences of two carefully selected S. marcescens strains, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate (strain SM39) and an insect isolate (strain Db11). Our comparative analyses reveal the core genome of S. marcescens and define the potential metabolic capacity, virulence, and multidrug resistance of this species. We show a remarkable intraspecies genetic diversity, both at the sequence level and with regards genome flexibility, which may reflect the diversity of niches inhabited by members of this species. A broader analysis with other Serratia species identifies a set of approximately 3,000 genes that characterize the genus. Within this apparent genetic diversity, we identified many genes implicated in the high virulence potential and antibiotic resistance of SM39, including the metallo beta-lactamase and multiple other drug resistance determinants carried on plasmid pSMC1. We further show that pSMC1 is most closely related to plasmids circulating in Pseudomonas species. Our data will provide a valuable basis for future studies on S. marcescens and new insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie the emergence of pathogens highly resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. PMID:25070509

  4. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in Asia: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Paterson, David L

    2015-05-01

    Escherichia coli has become multiresistant by way of production of a variety of β-lactamases. The prevalence of CTX-M-producing E. coli has reached 60-79% in certain parts of Asia. The acquisition of CTX-M plasmids by E. coli sequence type 131, a successful clone of E. coli, has caused further dissemination of CTX-M-producing E. coli. The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing E. coli, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing E. coli has been increasing in Asia. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase and NDM have now been found in E. coli sequence type 131. The occurrence of NDM-producing E. coli is a major concern particularly in the Indian subcontinent, but now elsewhere in Asia as well. There are multiple reasons why antibiotic resistance in E. coli in Asia has reached such extreme levels. Approaches beyond antibiotic therapy, such as prevention of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic stewardship and protecting natural microbiome, are strategies to avoid further spread of antibiotic resistance.

  5. Bioengineering approaches to study multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Fallica, Brian; Makin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cancer cells to become resistant to chemotherapeutic agents is a major challenge for the treatment of malignant tumors. Several strategies have emerged to attempt to inhibit chemoresistance, but the fact remains that resistance is a problem for every effective anticancer drug. The first part of this review will focus on the mechanisms of chemoresistance. It is important to understand the environmental cues, transport limitations and the cellular signaling pathways associated with chemoresistance before we can hope to effectively combat it. The second part of this review focuses on the work that needs to be done moving forward. Specifically, this section focuses on the necessity of translational research and interdisciplinary directives. It is critical that the expertise of oncologists, biologists, and engineers be brought together to attempt to tackle the problem. This discussion is from an engineering perspective, as the dialogue between engineers and other cancer researchers is the most challenging due to non-overlapping background knowledge. Chemoresistance is a complex and devastating process, meaning that we urgently need sophisticated methods to study the process of how cells become resistant. PMID:21387035

  6. Studies on tridecaptin B(1), a lipopeptide with activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stephen A; Lohans, Christopher T; van Belkum, Marco J; Bels, Manon A; Vederas, John C

    2015-06-07

    Previously other groups had reported that Paenibacillus polymyxa NRRL B-30507 produces SRCAM 37, a type IIA bacteriocin with antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni. Genome sequencing and isolation of antimicrobial compounds from this P. polymyxa strain show that the antimicrobial activity is due to polymyxins and tridecaptin B1. The complete structural assignment, synthesis, and antimicrobial profile of tridecaptin B1 is reported, as well as the putative gene cluster responsible for its biosynthesis. This peptide displays strong activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a finding that is timely to the current problem of antibiotic resistance.

  7. Evaluation of the Bactericidal Activity of Plazomicin and Comparators against Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, M; Hall, D; Shinabarger, D; Serio, A W; Krause, K M; Marra, A; Pillar, C

    2018-06-04

    The next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin, in development for infections due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, was evaluated alongside comparators for bactericidal activity in minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill (TK) assays against MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolates with characterized aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance mechanisms. Overall, plazomicin and colistin were the most potent, with plazomicin demonstrating an MBC 50/90 of 0.5/4 μg/mL and sustained 3-log 10 kill against MDR Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. Copyright © 2018 Thwaites et al.

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India: an attempt to link biosocial determinants.

    PubMed

    Atre, Sachin R; Mistry, Nerges F

    2005-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a possible threat to global tuberculosis control efforts in recent years. It is a challenge not only from a public health point of view but also in the context of global economy, especially in the absence of treatment for MDR-TB at national-level programs in developing countries. Biological accounts are insufficient to understand the emergence and dynamics of drug resistance. This article focuses essentially on the need for a holistic perspective, linking biosocial determinants that would probably lead to better insights into MDR-TB control strategies.

  9. Identification of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolates that have an antibiotic-induced invasion phenotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella is an important food safety issue in humans and animals. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has reported that 27.3% of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates in humans were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics...

  10. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  11. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  12. The demise of multidrug-resistant HIV-1: the national time trend in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vercauteren, Jurgen; Theys, Kristof; Carvalho, Ana Patricia; Valadas, Emília; Duque, Luis Miguel; Teófilo, Eugénio; Faria, Telo; Faria, Domitília; Vera, José; Aguas, Maria João; Peres, Susana; Mansinho, Kamal; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Despite a decreasing mortality and morbidity in treated HIV-1 patients, highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) can still fail due to the development of drug resistance. Especially, multidrug-resistant viruses pose a threat to efficient therapy. We studied the changing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) over time in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in Portugal. We used data of 8065 HIV-1-infected patients followed from July 2001 up to April 2012 in 22 hospitals located in Portugal. MDR at a specific date of sampling was defined as no more than one fully active drug (excluding integrase and entry inhibitors) at that time authorized by the Portuguese National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED), as interpreted with the Rega algorithm version 8.0.2. A generalized linear mixed model was used to study the time trend of the prevalence of MDR. We observed a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of MDR over the last decade, from 6.9% (95% CI: 5.7-8.4) in 2001-03, 6.0% (95% CI: 4.9-7.2) in 2003-05, 3.7% (95% CI: 2.8-4.8) in 2005-07 and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1-2.2) in 2007-09 down to 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3-0.9) in 2009-12 [OR=0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.86); P<0.001]. In July 2011 the last new case of MDR was seen. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 is decreasing over time in Portugal, reflecting the increasing efficiency of HAART and the availability of new drugs. Therefore, in designing a new drug, safety and practical aspects, e.g. less toxicity and ease of use, may need more attention than focusing mainly on efficacy against resistant strains.

  13. Jatrophane diterpenoids from Euphorbia sororia as potent modulators against P-glycoprotein-based multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Gao, Jie; Rozimamat, Rushangul; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2018-02-25

    Five new (1-5) and ten known (6-15) jatrophane diterpenoids were isolated from the fructus of Euphorbia sororia and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Cytotoxicity and anti-multidrug resistance effects of these jatrophane diterpenoids were evaluated in multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells with an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Eight compounds (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 15) showed promising chemoreversal abilities compared to verapamil (VRP). The most potent compound, Euphosorophane A (1), possessed many advantages, including (1) high potency (EC 50  = 92.68 ± 18.28 nM) in reversing P-gp-mediated resistance to doxorubicin (DOX), low cytotoxicity, and a high therapeutic index, (2) potency in reversing resistance to other cytotoxic agents associated with MDR, and (3) inhibition of P-gp-mediated Rhodamine123 (Rh123) efflux function in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results of the Western blot analysis indicated that the multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal induced by 1 was not due to the inhibiton of P-gp expression. Compound 1 stimulated P-gp-ATPase activity and caused the dose-dependent inhibition of DOX transport activity. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots implied that 1 was a competitive inhibitor to DOX in the binding site of P-gp with a Ki of 0.49-0.50 μM. Our data suggested that 1 had a high binding affinity toward the DOX recognition site of P-gp. This resulted in inhibiting DOX transport, increasing intracellular DOX concentration, and finally resensitizing MCF-7/ADR to DOX. In addition, we discussed some added contents in the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of jatrophane diterpenoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. in poultry of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Shuvro Prokash; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M Anwar

    2013-05-01

    Poultry and poultry products are major contributors of zoonotic pathogens. Limited data are available on Enterobacter spp. as a potent zoonotic pathogen in poultry. The present study is a first endeavor on the emergence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic Enterobacter spp. and its prevalence arising from poultry in Bangladesh. Cloacal swabs from poultry samples of five different farms at Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh were collected and from 106 isolates, 18 presumptive Enterobacter spp. were obtained. Antibiogram using 19 used antibiotics belonging to 15 major groups revealed that all of the 18 isolates were completely resistant to penicillin and rifampicin, but differed in their drug resistance pattern against ampicillin (94.4%), clindamycin (94.4%), erythromycin (94.4%), vancomycin (88.9%), sulfonamides (72.2%), imipenem (66.6%), streptomycin (55.6%), nitrofurantoin (33.3%), doxycycline (33.3%), tetracyclines (33.3%), cefepime (11.1%), and gentamicin (5.6%). All Enterobacter spp. were found to be plasmid free, implying that multidrug-resistant properties are chromosomal borne. The vanA and sulI were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 17 and 13 isolates, respectively. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA distributed the 18 multidrug-resistant Enterobacter spp. into three genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the representatives of the three genotypes using partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (approximately 900 bp) showed that the genotypically diverse groups belonged to Enterobacter hormaechei, E. cloacae, and E. cancerogenus, respectively. The clinical significance of the close relative Enterobacter spp. is indicative of their zoonotic potential. Therefore, urgent intervention is required to limit the emergence and spread of these bacteria in poultry feed as well as prudent use of antibiotics among poultry farmers in Bangladesh.

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections: New Compounds, Novel Antimicrobial Therapies?

    PubMed

    van Harten, Roel M; Willems, Rob J L; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-06-01

    Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium and E. faecalis. These new antibacterial agents include teixobactin (targeting lipid II and lipid III), lipopeptides derived from nisin (targeting lipid II), dimeric vancomycin analogues (targeting lipid II), sortase transpeptidase inhibitors (targeting the sortase enzyme), alanine racemase inhibitors, lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibitors (targeting LtaS), various oxazolidinones (targeting the bacterial ribosome), and tarocins (interfering with teichoic acid biosynthesis). The targets of these novel compounds and mode of action make them very promising for further antimicrobial drug development and future treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Here we review current knowledge of the most favorable anti-enterococcal compounds along with their implicated modes of action and efficacy in animal models to project their possible future use in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae from Indian leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Mallika; Singh, Itu; Turankar, Ravindra P; Ahuja, Madhvi; Pathak, Vinay; Sengupta, Utpal; Das, Loretta; Kumar, Archana; Darlong, Joydeepa; Nathan, Rajeev; Maseey, Asha

    2018-03-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms for any infectious disease is a public health concern. Global efforts to control leprosy by intensive chemotherapy have led to a significant decrease in the number of registered patients. Currently recommended control measures for treating leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) were designed to prevent the spread of dapsone-resistant Mycobacterium leprae strains. Here we report the identification of MDR M. leprae from relapse leprosy patients from endemic regions in India. Resistance profiles to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin of the isolated strains were confirmed by identification of mutations in genes previously shown to be associated with resistance to each drug. Between 2009-2016, slit-skin smear samples were collected from 239 relapse and 11 new leprosy cases from hospitals of The Leprosy Mission across India. DNA was extracted from the samples and was analysed by PCR targeting the rpoB, folP and gyrA genes associated with resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin, respectively, in M. leprae. M. leprae Thai-53 (wild-type) and Zensho-4 (MDR) were used as reference strains. Fifteen strains showed representative mutations in at least two resistance genes. Two strains showed mutations in all three genes responsible for drug resistance. Seven, seven and one strain, respectively, showed mutations in genes responsible for rifampicin and dapsone resistance, for dapsone and ofloxacin resistance and for rifampicin and ofloxacin resistance. This study showed the emergence of MDR M. leprae in MDT-treated leprosy patients from endemic regions of India. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elshayeb, Ayman A; Ahmed, Abdelazim A; El Siddig, Marmar A; El Hussien, Adil A

    2017-11-14

    Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax - b). Minimum bactericidal concentration's predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n e x ) and the predictive coefficient R 2  > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of community-acquired agents causing outbreaks.

  18. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  19. Carrier flies of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli as potential dissemination agent in dairy farm environment.

    PubMed

    Alves, Taila Dos Santos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Leite, Domingos da Silva

    2018-08-15

    The life cycle of synanthropic flies and their behavior, allows them to serve as mechanical vectors of several pathogens. Given that flies can carry multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, this study aimed to investigate the spread of genes of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from flies collected in two dairy farms in Brazil. Besides antimicrobial resistance determinants, the presence of virulence genes related to bovine colibacillosis was also assessed. Of 94 flies collected, Musca domestica was the most frequently found in the two farms. We isolated 198 E. coli strains (farm A=135 and farm B=63), and >30% were MDR E. coli. We found an association between bla TEM and phenotypical resistance to ampicillin, or chloramphenicol, or tetracycline; and bla CTX-M and resistance to cefoperazone. A high frequency (86%) of phylogenetic group B1 among MDR strains and the lack of association between multidrug resistance and virulence factors suggest that antimicrobial resistance possibly is associated with the commensal bacteria. Clonal relatedness of MDR E. coli performed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis showed wide genomic diversity. Different flies can carry clones, but with distinct antimicrobial resistance pattern. Sanger sequencing showed that the same class 1 integron arrangement is displayed by apparently unrelated strains, carried by different flies. Our conjugation results indicate class 1 integron transfer associated with tetracycline resistance. We report for the first time, in Brazil, that MDR E. coli is carried by flies in the milking environment. Therefore, flies can act as carriers for MDR strains and contribute to dissemination routes of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in a teaching hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, Nicholas; Govinden, Usha; Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Essack, Sabiha Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system. Patient information was retrieved from the hospital data. Of the 200 isolates, consisting of K. pneumoniae , A. baumannii , P. aeruginosa , Enterobacter spp. , E. coli , Yersinia spp. , Proteus mirabilis , Pasteurella spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Salmomella enterica , Vibrio spp. , Citrobacter koseri , Pantoea spp. , Serratia spp. , Providencia rettgeri Burkholderia cepacia , Aeromonas spp. , Cadecea lapagei and Sphingomonas paucimobilis , 101 (50.5%) and 99 (49.5%) recovered from male and female patients respectively The largest proportion of patients were from age-group ≥60 years (24.5%) followed by < 10 years (24.0%) and least 10-19 years (9.5%) with a mean patient age of 35.95 ± 27.11 (0.2-91) years. The decreasing order of specimen source was urine 97 (48.5%), wound swabs 47 (23.5%), sputum 22 (11.0%) bronchial lavage, nasal and pleural swabs 1 (0.50%). Urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 34.5% of patients, sepsis in 14.5%, wound infections (surgical and chronic wounds) in 11.0%, pulmonary tuberculosis in 9.0% and appendicitis, bacteremia and cystitis in 0.50%. The isolates showed high resistance to ampicillin (94.4%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (84.5%), cefuroxime (79.0%) and cefotaxime (71.3%) but low resistance to ertapenem (1.5%), meropenem (3%) and amikacin (11%). The average multi-drug resistance was 89.5%, and ranged from 53.8% in Enterobacter spp. to 100.0% in

  1. Multidrug resistance characterization in multicellular tumour spheroids from two human lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Fuentes, Jorge Morales

    2015-01-01

    Most of the knowledge about the mechanisms of multidrug resistance in lung cancer has been achieved through the use of cell lines isolated from tumours cultivated either in suspensions of isolated cells or in monolayers and following exposition to different cytostatic agents. However, tumour cell lines growing as multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) frequently develop multicellular resistance in a drug-independent form. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional differences between two human NSCLC cell lines (INER-37 and INER-51) grown as traditional monolayer cultures versus as MTS. After 72 hours treatment with anticancer drugs, chemosensitivity in monolayers and tumour spheroids cultures was assessed using MTT assay. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the mRNAs of multidrug resistance-related genes. The expression of P-gp was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and cell cycle profiles were analyzed using FACS. The results indicate that when grown as MTS each lung cancer cell line had different morphologies as well as and abrogation of cell proliferation with decrease of the G2/M phase. Also, MTS acquired multicellular resistance to several chemotherapeutic agents in only a few days of culture which were accomplished by significant changes in the expression of MDR-related genes. Overall, the MTS culture changed the cellular response to drugs nevertheless each of the cell lines studied seems to implement different mechanisms to acquire multicellular resistance.

  2. Detection of VIM-2-, IMP-1- and NDM-1-producing multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Liew, Siew Mun; Rajasekaram, Ganeswrei; Puthucheary, Savithri D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2018-02-09

    The increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa along with the discovery of novel metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is of concern. In this study, the isolation of Malaysian MBL-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strains was investigated. Fifty-three P. aeruginosa clinical strains were isolated from different patients in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, Malaysia in 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem and meropenem were determined by Etest. The carbapenem-resistant strains were screened for MBL production by IMP-EDTA double disk synergy test (DDST), MBL imipenem/imipenem-inhibitor (IP/IPI) Etest and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Three (5.7%) clinical strains were identified as MBL producers. Multidrug resistance was observed in the three strains, and two were resistant to all the antimicrobials tested. Sequencing analysis confirmed the three strains to harbour carbapenemase genes: one with bla IMP-1 , one with bla VIM-2 and the other with bla NDM-1 genes. These multidrug resistant strains were identified as sequence type (ST) 235 and ST308. None of the bla IMP-1 and bla NDM-1 genes have been reported in Malaysian P. aeruginosa. The emergence of imipenemase 1 (IMP-1)- and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing P. aeruginosa in Malaysia maybe travel-associated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Genomic Definition of Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bialek-Davenet, Suzanne; Criscuolo, Alexis; Ailloud, Florent; Passet, Virginie; Jones, Louis; Delannoy-Vieillard, Anne-Sophie; Garin, Benoit; Le Hello, Simon; Arlet, Guillaume; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Decré, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are emerging, but the clonal groups (CGs) corresponding to these high-risk strains have remained imprecisely defined. We aimed to identify K. pneumoniae CGs on the basis of genome-wide sequence variation and to provide a simple bioinformatics tool to extract virulence and resistance gene data from genomic data. We sequenced 48 K. pneumoniae isolates, mostly of serotypes K1 and K2, and compared the genomes with 119 publicly available genomes. A total of 694 highly conserved genes were included in a core-genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, and cluster analysis of the data enabled precise definition of globally distributed hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant CGs. In addition, we created a freely accessible database, BIGSdb-Kp, to enable rapid extraction of medically and epidemiologically relevant information from genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae. Although drug-resistant and virulent K. pneumoniae populations were largely nonoverlapping, isolates with combined virulence and resistance features were detected. PMID:25341126

  4. Reversal effect of a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl plagiochin E on multidrug resistance in adriamycin-resistant K562/A02 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Qiu; Qu, Xian-Jun; Liao, Yong-Xiang; Xie, Chun-Feng; Cheng, Yan-Na; Li, Song; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2008-04-14

    Plagiochin E is a new macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound isolated from Marchantia polymorpha. In the previous studies, we reported that when combined with fluconazole, plagiochin E had synergetic effects against the resistant strain of Candida albicans. Herein, we examined the reversal effect of plagiochin E on multidrug resistance in adriamycin-induced resistant K562/A02 cells and the parental K562 cells. Its cytotoxicity and reversal effects on multidrug resistance were assessed by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Apoptosis percentage of cells was obtained from Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propridium iodide (PI) double-staining. The effects of plagiochin E on P-glycoprotein activity were evaluated by measuring rhodamine 123 (Rh123)-associated mean fluorescence intensity and P-glycoprotein expression on the basis of the flow cytometric technology, respectively. The results showed that plagiochin E ranging from 2 to 12 mug/ml had little cytotoxicity against K562/A02 cells. When combined with adriamycin, it significantly promoted the sensitivity of K562/A02 cells toward adriamycin through increasing intracellular accumulation of adriamycin in a dose-dependent manner. Further study demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of plagiochin E on P-glycoprotein activity was the major cause of increased stagnation of adriamycin inside K562/A02 cells, indicating that plagiochin E, as a new class of mutidrug resistance inhibitor, may effectively reverse the multidrug resistance in K562/A02 cells via inhibiting expression and drug-transport function of P-glycoprotein.

  5. Tris-EDTA significantly enhances antibiotic efficacy against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Laura M; McEwan, Neil A; Nuttall, Tim

    2013-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly complicates chronic bacterial otitis in dogs. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-tromethamine (Tris-EDTA) on the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of marbofloxacin and gentamicin for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from cases of canine otitis. Eleven isolates were identified as multidrug resistant on disc diffusion; 10 were resistant to marbofloxacin and two were resistant to gentamicin. Isolates were incubated for 90 min with each antibiotic alone and in combination with Tris-EDTA at concentrations of 0.075 μg/mL to 5 mg/mL for marbofloxacin, 0.001 μg/mL to 10 mg/mL for gentamicin and 17.8:4.7 to 0.14:0.04 mg/mL for Tris-EDTA. Positive and negative controls were included. Aliquots of each antibiotic and/or Tris-EDTA concentration were subsequently transferred to sheep blood agar to determine the MBCs, and tryptone soy broth was added to the remaining suspensions to determine the MICs. Tris-EDTA alone was bacteriostatic but not bactericidal at any concentration. The addition of Tris-EDTA significantly reduced the median MBC (from 625 to 468.8 μg/mL; P < 0.001) and MIC (from 29.3 to 2.4 μg/mL; P = 0.008) of marbofloxacin, and the median MBC (from 625 to 39.1 μg/mL) and MIC (from 19.5 to 1.2 μg/mL) of gentamicin (both P < 0.001). Tris-EDTA significantly reduced the MBCs and MICs of marbofloxacin and gentamicin for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in vitro. This may be of use to clinicians managing these infections in dogs. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Autophagy and Transporter-Based Multi-Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyank; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Degenhardt, Kurt; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    All the therapeutic strategies for treating cancers aim at killing the cancer cells via apoptosis (programmed cell death type I). Defective apoptosis endow tumor cells with survival. The cell can respond to such defects with autophagy. Autophagy is a cellular process by which cytoplasmic material is either degraded to maintain homeostasis or recycled for energy and nutrients in starvation. A plethora of evidence has shown that the role of autophagy in tumors is complex. A lot of effort is needed to underline the functional status of autophagy in tumor progression and treatment, and elucidate how to tweak autophagy to treat cancer. Furthermore, during the treatment of cancer, the limitation for the cure rate and survival is the phenomenon of multi drug resistance (MDR). The development of MDR is an intricate process that could be regulated by drug transporters, enzymes, anti-apoptotic genes or DNA repair mechanisms. Reports have shown that autophagy has a dual role in MDR. Furthermore, it has been reported that activation of a death pathway may overcome MDR, thus pointing the importance of other death pathways to regulate tumor cell progression and growth. Therefore, in this review we will discuss the role of autophagy in MDR tumors and a possible link amongst these phenomena. PMID:24710490

  7. [Adjuvant surgical resection for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A review].

    PubMed

    Mordant, P; Henry, B; Morel, S; Robert, J; Veziris, N; Le Dû, D; Frechet-Jachym, M; Similowski, T; Caumes, É; Riquet, M; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F

    2014-06-01

    The frequency of multi and extensively drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) is increasing worldwide, with major issues related to treatment modalities and outcome. In this setting, the exact benefits associated with surgical resection are still unknown. We performed a literature review to determine the indications, morbidity, mortality and bacteriological success associated with the surgical management of MDR/XDR-TB patients. Altogether, 177 publications dealing with surgical resection and MDR/XDR-TB have been analyzed, including 35 surgical series and 24 cohort studies summarized in one meta-analysis. The surgical series reported success rates from 47% to 100%, complication rates from 0 to 29%, and mortality rates from 0 to 8%. The published meta-analysis reported a statistically significant association between surgical resection and treatment success (OR 2.24, IC95% 1.68-2.97). However, all these studies were associated with selection bias. International consensual guidelines included a multidisciplinary assessment in a reference centre, a personalized and prolonged antibiotic treatment and a medico-surgical discussion on a case-to-case basis. These guidelines are now applied for the management of patients with MDR/XDR-TB in our centre. Further studies are required to avoid further increase in the burden of MDR/XDR-TB and to establish the optimal timing of medical and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide re-sequencing of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae Airaku-3.

    PubMed

    Singh, P; Benjak, A; Carat, S; Kai, M; Busso, P; Avanzi, C; Paniz-Mondolfi, A; Peter, C; Harshman, K; Rougemont, J; Matsuoka, M; Cole, S T

    2014-10-01

    Genotyping and molecular characterization of drug resistance mechanisms in Mycobacterium leprae enables disease transmission and drug resistance trends to be monitored. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of Airaku-3, a multidrug-resistant strain with an unknown mechanism of resistance to rifampicin. We identified 12 unique non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including two in the transporter-encoding ctpC and ctpI genes. In addition, two SNPs were found that improve the resolution of SNP-based genotyping, particularly for Venezuelan and South East Asian strains of M. leprae. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Synergistic antimicrobial therapy using nanoparticles and antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Akash; Saleh, Neveen M.; Das, Riddha; Landis, Ryan F.; Bigdeli, Arafeh; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Rosa Campos, Alexandre; Pomeroy, Kenneth; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a serious global burden of mortality, causing thousands of deaths each year. Antibiotic treatment of resistant infections further contributes to the rapidly increasing number of antibiotic-resistant species and strains. Synthetic macromolecules such as nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit broad-spectrum activity against MDR species, however lack of specificity towards bacteria relative to their mammalian hosts limits their widespread therapeutic application. Here, we demonstrate synergistic antimicrobial therapy using hydrophobically functionalized NPs and fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treatment of MDR bacterial strains. An 8-16-fold decrease in antibiotic dosage is achieved in presence of engineered NPs to combat MDR strains. This strategy demonstrates the potential of using NPs to ‘revive’ antibiotics that have been rendered ineffective due to the development of resistance by pathogenic bacteria.

  10. [Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the city of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Misombo-Kalabela, André; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Ze, Emmanuel Afane; Diangs, Kimpanga; Panda, Tshapenda; Kebela, Ilunga; Fueza, Serge Bisuta; Magazani, Nzanzu; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the city of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This was a case control study. The cases included all TB patients notified as resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid in Kinshasa from January 2012 to June 2013. The controls included TB patients treated during the same period as the cases and declared cured at the end of treatment. For this study, we obtained ethical clearance. The sample consisted of 213 participants, 132 men (62%) and 81 women (38%). The median age was 31 years (16-73 years). Factors associated with significant (p< 0,05) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were the non-observance of the hours of taking drugs (0R = 111) (80% cases, 4% controls), the failure of treatment (0R = 20 (76% cases, 13% controls); the concept of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the family (0R = 6.4) (28% cases, 6% controls); a lack of knowledge of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (0R = 3.2) (31% cases, 59% controls); a stay in prison (0R = 7.6) (10% cases, 1% controls) and the interruption of treatment (0R = 6.1) (59% cases, 19% controls). The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis can be avoided by the installation of suitable diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5) using the broth macrodilution method. Results: The tested essential oils produced variable antibacterial effect, while Chamomile blue oil demonstrated no antibacterial activity. Origanum, Thyme, and Basil oils were ineffective on P. aeruginosa isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 0.12% to 1.50% (v/v) for tea tree oil, 0.25-4% (v/v) for origanum and thyme oil, 0.50% to >4% for basil oil and >4% for chamomile blue oil. Compared to literature data on reference strains, the reported MIC values were different by 2SD, denoting less successful antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant isolates. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils are influenced by the strain origin (wild, reference, drug sensitive, or resistant) and it should be taken into consideration whenever investigating the plants’ potential for developing new antimicrobials. PMID:27366345

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5) using the broth macrodilution method. The tested essential oils produced variable antibacterial effect, while Chamomile blue oil demonstrated no antibacterial activity. Origanum, Thyme, and Basil oils were ineffective on P. aeruginosa isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 0.12% to 1.50% (v/v) for tea tree oil, 0.25-4% (v/v) for origanum and thyme oil, 0.50% to >4% for basil oil and >4% for chamomile blue oil. Compared to literature data on reference strains, the reported MIC values were different by 2SD, denoting less successful antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant isolates. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils are influenced by the strain origin (wild, reference, drug sensitive, or resistant) and it should be taken into consideration whenever investigating the plants' potential for developing new antimicrobials.

  13. Screening dietary flavonoids for the reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohana, S; Ganesan, M; Agilan, B; Karthikeyan, R; Srithar, G; Beaulah Mary, R; Ananthakrishnan, D; Velmurugan, D; Rajendra Prasad, N; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) serves as a therapeutic target for the development of inhibitors to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Although various approaches of virtual screening procedures have been practiced so far to develop first three generations of P-gp inhibitors, their toxicity and drug interaction profiles are still a matter of concern. To address the above important problem of developing safe and effective P-gp inhibitors, we have made systematic computational and experimental studies on the interaction of natural phytochemicals with human P-gp. Molecular docking and QSAR studies were carried out for 40 dietary phytochemicals in the drug-binding site of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of P-gp. Dietary flavonoids exhibit better interactions with homology modeled human P-gp. Based on the computational analysis, selected flavonoids were tested for their inhibitory potential against P-gp transport function in drug resistant cell lines using calcein-AM and rhodamine 123 efflux assays. It has been found that quercetin and rutin were the highly desirable flavonoids for the inhibition of P-gp transport function and significantly reduced resistance in cytotoxicity assay to paclitaxel in P-gp overexpressing MDR cell lines. Hence, quercetin and rutin may be considered as potential chemosensitizing agents to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer. PMID:27216424

  14. Screening dietary flavonoids for the reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohana, S; Ganesan, M; Agilan, B; Karthikeyan, R; Srithar, G; Beaulah Mary, R; Ananthakrishnan, D; Velmurugan, D; Rajendra Prasad, N; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-07-19

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) serves as a therapeutic target for the development of inhibitors to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Although various screening procedures have been practiced so far to develop first three generations of P-gp inhibitors, their toxicity and drug interaction profiles are still a matter of concern. To address the above important problem of developing safe and effective P-gp inhibitors, we have made systematic computational and experimental studies on the interaction of natural phytochemicals with human P-gp. Molecular docking and QSAR studies were carried out for 40 dietary phytochemicals in the drug-binding site of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of P-gp. Dietary flavonoids exhibit better interactions with homology modeled human P-gp. Based on the computational analysis, selected flavonoids were tested for their inhibitory potential against P-gp transport function in drug resistant cell lines using calcein-AM and rhodamine 123 efflux assays. It has been found that quercetin and rutin were the highly desirable flavonoids for the inhibition of P-gp transport function and they significantly reduced resistance in cytotoxicity assays to paclitaxel in P-gp overexpressing MDR cell lines. Hence, quercetin and rutin may be considered as potential chemosensitizing agents to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer.

  15. Python Cathelicidin CATHPb1 Protects against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcal Infections by Antimicrobial-Immunomodulatory Duality.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shasha; Qiao, Xue; Feng, Lan; Shi, Nannan; Wang, Hui; Yang, Huaixin; Guo, Zhilai; Wang, Mengke; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2018-03-08

    Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA (methicillin-resistant) and VRSA (vancomycin-resistant), causes serious healthcare-associated infections, even sepsis and death. Here, we identified six novel cathelicidins (CATHPb1-6) from Python bivittatu, and CATHPb1 displayed the best in vitro pharmacological and toxicological profile. We further show that CATHPb1 exhibited evident protection in mice MRSA/VRSA infection models, given either 24 h before or 4 h after infection. The protection was all effective through different administration routes, but was blocked by in vivo depletion of monocyte/macrophages or neutrophils. CATHPb1 can rapidly and massively modulate macrophages/monocytes and neutrophils trafficking to the infection site, and potentiate their bactericidal functions. Meanwhile, CATHPb1 remarkably augmented neutrophil-mediated bacteria killing by facilitating neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and preventing its degradation. Acting through MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, CATHPb1 selectively enhanced the levels of chemokines while reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines without undesirable toxicities. The much improved serum half-life and stabilities confer CATHPb1 an excellent prospect to become a novel therapeutic agent against multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections.

  16. Expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) genes in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D C; Zittoun, R; Marie, J P

    1995-10-01

    The frequency, prognostic value and interrelation of MRP and MDR1 gene expressions were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 91 cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), of which 51 were newly diagnosed, 21 were relapsed, and 19 were refractory patients. As compared with normal bone marrow cells and peripheral granulocytes, an overexpression of MRP gene was found in 24% (22 of 91) cases of de novo AML. The incidence of MRP gene overexpression tended to be higher in relapsed patients than in newly diagnosed patients (38 vs 18%, P = 0.063). In 52 evaluable newly diagnosed and relapsed patients treated with MDR-related drugs, both MRP and MDR1 gene overexpressions correlated to a higher rate of emergence of clinical drug resistance (83 vs 22%, P = 0.005; and 67 vs 24%, P = 0.045, respectively). A positive correlation was found between MRP and MDR1 gene overexpressions (R = 0.53, P < 0.001). Analysis of 46 evaluable MDR1-negative cases revealed a trend for higher resistant disease rate in MRP-positive patients as compared with MRP-negative patients (100 vs 20%, P = 0.053). These data suggest that MRP, like MDR1, may have an important negative impact on the outcome of chemotherapy, and that there may be a common mechanism of induction for the overexpression of these two genes.

  17. Identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Albert isolates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Folster, Jason P; Campbell, Davina; Grass, Julian; Brown, Allison C; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Joseph, Lavin A; Plumblee, Jodie R; Walker, Carrie; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Although most Salmonella infections are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment of invasive salmonellosis is critical. The primary antimicrobial treatment options include fluoroquinolones or extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and resistance to these antimicrobial drugs may complicate treatment. At present, S. enterica is composed of more than 2,600 unique serotypes, which vary greatly in geographic prevalence, ecological niche, and the ability to cause human disease, and it is important to understand and mitigate the source of human infection, particularly when antimicrobial resistance is found. In this study, we identified and characterized 19 S. enterica serotype Albert isolates collected from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States during 2005 to 2013. All five isolates from nonhuman sources were obtained from turkeys or ground turkey, and epidemiologic data suggest poultry consumption or live-poultry exposure as the probable source of infection. S. enterica serotype Albert also appears to be geographically localized to the midwestern United States. All 19 isolates displayed multidrug resistance, including decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Turkeys are a likely source of multidrug-resistant S. enterica serotype Albert, and circulation of resistance plasmids, as opposed to the expansion of a single resistant strain, is playing a role. More work is needed to understand why these resistance plasmids spread and how their presence and the serotype they reside in contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Airborne Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Amy; Rule, Ana; Gibson, Kristen; Buckley, Timothy; Schwab, Kellogg

    2005-01-01

    The use of nontherapeutic levels of antibiotics in swine production can select for antibiotic resistance in commensal and pathogenic bacteria in swine. As a result, retail pork products, as well as surface and groundwaters contaminated with swine waste, have been shown to be sources of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, it is unclear whether the air within swine operations also serves as a source of exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. To investigate this issue, we sampled the air within a concentrated swine feeding operation with an all-glass impinger. Samples were analyzed using a method for the isolation of Enterococcus. A total of 137 presumptive Enterococcus isolates were identified to species level using standard biochemical tests and analyzed for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin using the agar dilution method. Thirty-four percent of the isolates were confirmed as Enterococcus, 32% were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 33% were identified as viridans group streptococci. Regardless of bacterial species, 98% of the isolates expressed high-level resistance to at least two antibiotics commonly used in swine production. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin, an antibiotic that has never been approved for use in livestock in the United States. In conclusion, high-level multidrug-resistant Enterococcus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and viridans group streptococci were detected in the air of a concentrated swine feeding operation. These findings suggest that the inhalation of air from these facilities may serve as an exposure pathway for the transfer of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens from swine to humans. PMID:15687049

  19. Cytotoxicity of South-African medicinal plants towards sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Meyer, Marion; Hussein, Ahmed; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Traditional medicine plays a major role for primary health care worldwide. Cancer belongs to the leading disease burden in industrialized and developing countries. Successful cancer therapy is hampered by the development of resistance towards established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of 29 extracts from 26 medicinal plants of South-Africa against leukemia cell lines, most of which are used traditionally to treat cancer and related symptoms. We have investigated the plant extracts for their cytotoxic activity towards drug-sensitive parental CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000 by means of the resazurin assay. A panel of 60 NCI tumor cell lines have been investigated for correlations between selected phytochemicals from medicinal plants and the expression of resistance-conferring genes (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes). Seven extracts inhibited both cell lines (Acokanthera oppositifolia, Hypoestes aristata, Laurus nobilis, Leonotis leonurus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus ciliates, Salvia apiana). CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited a low degree of cross-resistance (3.35-fold) towards the L. leonurus extract, while no cross-resistance was observed to other plant extracts, although CEM/ADR5000 cells were highly resistant to clinically established drugs. The log10IC50 values for two out of 14 selected phytochemicals from these plants (acovenoside A and ouabain) of 60 tumor cell lines were correlated to the expression of ABC-transporters (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCC1, ABCG2), oncogenes (EGFR, RAS) and tumor suppressors (TP53). Sensitivity or resistance of the cell lines were not statistically associated with the expression of these genes, indicating that multidrug-resistant, refractory tumors expressing these genes may still respond to acovenoside A and ouabain. The bioactivity of South African medicinal plants may represent a basis for the development

  20. Glycyrrhiza glabra HPLC fractions: identification of Aldehydo Isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin having activity against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hazir; Khan, Ilyas; Hussain, Anwar; Shahat, Abdelaaty Abdelaziz; Tawab, Abdul; Qasim, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad; Al-Said, Mansour S; Ullah, Riaz; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-05-02

    Medicinal plants have been founded as traditional herbal medicine worldwide. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and volatile oil. The present investigation analyzed the High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethanol and Hexane) against multidrug resistant human bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All the fractions showed antibacterial activity, were subjected to LC MS/MS analysis for identification of bioactive compounds. Among total HPLC fractions of G. glabra (n = 20), three HPLC fractions showed potential activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates. Fraction 1 (F1) of aqueous extracts, showed activity against A. baumannii (15 ± 0.5 mm). F4 from hexane extract of G. glabra showed activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.2 mm). However, F2 from ethanol extract exhibited activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.3 mm). These active fractions were further processed by LC MS/MS analysis for the identification of compounds. Ellagic acid was identified in the F1 of aqueous extract while 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone was present in F4 of hexane extract. Similarly, Liquirtigenin was identified in F2 of ethanol. Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts HPLC fractions showed anti-MDR activity. Three bioactive compounds were identified in the study. 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin were for the first time reported in G. glabra. Further characterization of the identified compounds will be helpful for possible therapeutic uses against infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  1. The Serum Resistome of a Globally Disseminated Multidrug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Clone

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M.; Sarkar, Sohinee; Lukowski, Samuel W.; Allsopp, Luke P.; Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Achard, Maud E. S.; Totsika, Makrina; Marshall, Vikki M.; Upton, Mathew; Beatson, Scott A.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with antibiotic resistance; however, this phenotype alone is unlikely to explain its dominance amongst multidrug resistant uropathogens circulating worldwide in hospitals and the community. Thus, a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the fitness of E. coli ST131 is required. In this study, we employed hyper-saturated transposon mutagenesis in combination with multiplexed transposon directed insertion-site sequencing to define the essential genes required for in vitro growth and the serum resistome (i.e. genes required for resistance to human serum) of E. coli EC958, a representative of the predominant E. coli ST131 clonal lineage. We identified 315 essential genes in E. coli EC958, 231 (73%) of which were also essential in E. coli K-12. The serum resistome comprised 56 genes, the majority of which encode membrane proteins or factors involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Targeted mutagenesis confirmed a role in serum resistance for 46 (82%) of these genes. The murein lipoprotein Lpp, along with two lipid A-core biosynthesis enzymes WaaP and WaaG, were most strongly associated with serum resistance. While LPS was the main resistance mechanism defined for E. coli EC958 in serum, the enterobacterial common antigen and colanic acid also impacted on this phenotype. Our analysis also identified a novel function for two genes, hyxA and hyxR, as minor regulators of O-antigen chain length. This study offers novel insight into the genetic make-up of E. coli ST131, and provides a framework for future research on E. coli and other Gram-negative pathogens to define their essential gene repertoire and to dissect the molecular mechanisms that enable them to survive in the bloodstream and cause disease. PMID

  2. The serum resistome of a globally disseminated multidrug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli clone.

    PubMed

    Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Sarkar, Sohinee; Lukowski, Samuel W; Allsopp, Luke P; Gomes Moriel, Danilo; Achard, Maud E S; Totsika, Makrina; Marshall, Vikki M; Upton, Mathew; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with antibiotic resistance; however, this phenotype alone is unlikely to explain its dominance amongst multidrug resistant uropathogens circulating worldwide in hospitals and the community. Thus, a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the fitness of E. coli ST131 is required. In this study, we employed hyper-saturated transposon mutagenesis in combination with multiplexed transposon directed insertion-site sequencing to define the essential genes required for in vitro growth and the serum resistome (i.e. genes required for resistance to human serum) of E. coli EC958, a representative of the predominant E. coli ST131 clonal lineage. We identified 315 essential genes in E. coli EC958, 231 (73%) of which were also essential in E. coli K-12. The serum resistome comprised 56 genes, the majority of which encode membrane proteins or factors involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Targeted mutagenesis confirmed a role in serum resistance for 46 (82%) of these genes. The murein lipoprotein Lpp, along with two lipid A-core biosynthesis enzymes WaaP and WaaG, were most strongly associated with serum resistance. While LPS was the main resistance mechanism defined for E. coli EC958 in serum, the enterobacterial common antigen and colanic acid also impacted on this phenotype. Our analysis also identified a novel function for two genes, hyxA and hyxR, as minor regulators of O-antigen chain length. This study offers novel insight into the genetic make-up of E. coli ST131, and provides a framework for future research on E. coli and other Gram-negative pathogens to define their essential gene repertoire and to dissect the molecular mechanisms that enable them to survive in the bloodstream and cause disease.

  3. Laser thermal ablation of multidrug-resistant bacteria using functionalized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Lucian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mocan, Teodora; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Matea, Cristian T; Gonciar, Diana; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Iancu, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The issue of multidrug resistance (MDR) has become an increasing threat to public health. One alternative strategy against MDR bacteria would be to construct therapeutic vectors capable of physically damaging these microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles hold great promise for the development of such therapeutic agents, since the nanoparticles exhibit impressive properties, of which the most important is the ability to convert light into heat. This property has scientific significance since is exploited to develop nano-photothermal vectors to destroy bacteria at a molecular level. The present paper summarizes the latest advancements in the field of nanotargeted laser hyperthermia of MDR bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles. PMID:28356741

  4. Antimicrobial activity of octenidine against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Marin, R; Aires-de-Sousa, M; Nordmann, P; Kieffer, N; Poirel, L

    2017-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MR) Gram-negative (GN) pathogens pose a major and growing threat for healthcare systems, as therapy of infections is often limited due to the lack of available systemic antibiotics. Well-tolerated antiseptics, such as octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT), may be a very useful tool in infection control to reduce the dissemination of MRGN. This study aimed to investigate the bactericidal activity of OCT against international epidemic clones of MRGN. A set of five different species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was studied to prove OCT efficacy without organic load, under "clean conditions" (0.3 g/L albumin) and under "dirty conditions" (3 g/L albumin + 3 mL/L defibrinated sheep blood), according to an official test norm (EN13727). We used five clonally unrelated isolates per species, including a susceptible wild-type strain, and four MRGN isolates, corresponding to either the 3MRGN or 4MRGN definition of multidrug resistance. A contact time of 1 min was fully effective for all isolates by using different OCT concentrations (0.01% and 0.05%), with a bacterial reduction factor of >5 log 10 systematically observed. Growth kinetics were determined with two different wild-type strains (A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae), proving a time-dependent efficacy of OCT. These results highlight that OCT may be extremely useful to eradicate emerging highly resistant Gram-negative pathogens associated with nosocomial infections.

  5. Tetracycline improved the efficiency of other antimicrobials against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mawabo, Isabelle K; Noumedem, Jaurès A K; Kuiate, Jules R; Kuete, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diseases with antimicrobials constituted a great achievement in the history of medicine. Unfortunately, the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria to all classes of antimicrobials limited their efficacy. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of combinations of antibiotics on multi-drug resistant Gram-negative (MDRGN) bacteria. A liquid micro-broth dilution method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 10 different classes of antimicrobials on 20 bacterial strains belonging to six different species. The antimicrobials were associated with phenylalanine β-naphthylamide (PAβN), an efflux pump inhibitor, and with other antimicrobials at their sub-inhibitory concentrations. The effectiveness of each combination was monitored using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Most of the antimicrobials tested showed low antibacterial activity with a MIC value of 128 mg/L on a majority of the bacterial strains, justifying their multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. Synergistic effects were mostly observed (FIC≤0.5) when ampicillin (AMP), cloxacillin (CLX), erythromycin (ERY), chloramphenicol (CHL), kanamycin (KAN) and streptomycin (STR) were combined with tetracycline (TET) at the sub-inhibitory concentration of MIC/5 or MIC/10. The results of the present work suggest that the association of several antimicrobials with TET could improve the fight against MDRGN bacterial species. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Multidrug resistant tuberculosis among health personnel in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Bakayoko, A S; Ahui, B J M; Nguessan, R; Kone, A; Kone, Z; Daix, A T; Badoum, G; Adou, G; Kouakou, O A; Kouakou, J; Coulibaly, G; Domoua, K; Aka-Danguy, E

    2016-04-01

    Multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) of health workers raises the question of hospital-borne transmission of infection. We report 4 cases of MDR-TB confirmed at the health workers over a period of 8 years (January, 2005 to December 2012), in the 2 services of pulmonology from Abidjan to Côte d'Ivoire). It was about young grown-up patients (aged between 28 and 39 years), all HIV negatives, in a no-win situation of antituberculosis treatment (3 patients/4). The most concerned staffs were the male nurses (2/4). Two agents worked in general hospital and the only one in a pulmonology department at the time of the diagnosis. The tuberculosis was of lung seat with bilateral radiographic hurt (3/4) and multiples excavations (4/4). The case index, when it was identified (2/2), was a family case. Among 3 agents who benefited from a second line treatment, 1 died further to an extensive drug resistance and 2 are declared to be cured. The fourth died before the beginning of the treatment. These cases of cure were in touch with a premature care. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis at the health workers could have a negative impact on the antituberculosis fight imposing rigorous measures of infection control and better implication of the occupational medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma membrane microorganization of LR73 multidrug-resistant cells revealed by FCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Pascale; Jaffiol, Rodolphe; Cailler, Aurélie; Morjani, Hamid; Jeannesson, Pierre; Deturche, Régis

    2011-03-01

    Tumoral cells could present a multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic treatments. This drug resistance would be associated to biomechanisms occurring at the plasma membrane level, involving modification of membrane fluidity, drug permeability, presence of microdomains (rafts, caveolae...), and membrane proteins overexpression such as Pglycoprotein. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is the relevant method to investigate locally the fluidity of biological membranes through the lateral diffusion of a fluorescent membrane probe. Thus, we use FCS to monitor the plasma membrane local organization of LR73 carcinoma cells and three derived multidrug-resistant cancer cells lines. Measurements were conducted at the single cell level, which enabled us to get a detailed overview of the plasma membrane microviscosity distribution of each cell line studied. Moreover, we propose 2D diffusion simulation based on a Monte Carlo model to investigate the membrane organisation in terms of microdomains. This simulation allows us to relate the differences in the fluidity distributions with microorganization changes in plasma membrane of MDR cells.

  8. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant acute postoperative endophthalmitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Shailaja S; Undrakonda, Vivekanand; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Parmar, Prachi Vikramsinh

    2014-04-01

    To report the clinical features, management, and outcome of 7 cases of culture-proven multidrug-resistant Enterobacter postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Medical records of 7 cases of acute postoperative endophthalmitis after uneventful cataract surgery were reviewed. Details regarding age, gender, visual acuity and clinical features at presentation, microbiological profile, treatment interventions, and visual acuity and clinical features at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months follow-up were collected. All patients reported decreased visual acuity and pain as presenting symptoms. All patients were resistant to intravitreal antibiotics such as vancomycin (1 mg/0.1 mL) and ceftazidime (2.25 mg/0.1 mL). Culture of aqueous and vitreous sample was positive for Enterobacter aerogenes and sensitive to co-trimoxazole, cefoperazone-sulbactam, imipenem-meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactem. Two patients with panophthalmitis and no perception of light underwent evisceration. Three patients had visual acuity of ≥6/24 at the final follow-up. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacter acute postoperative endophthalmitis has a poor prognosis if not intercepted early.

  9. [Potential antimicrobial drug interactions in clinical practice: consequences of polypharmacy and multidrug resistance].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Múgica, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Polypharmacy is a growing problem nowadays, which can increase the risk of potential drug interactions, and result in a loss of effectiveness. This is particularly relevant to the anti-infective therapy, especially when infection is produced by resistant bacteria, because therapeutic options are limited and interactions can cause treatment failure. All antimicrobial prescriptions were retrospectively reviewed during a week in the Pharmacy Department, in order to detect potential drug-interactions and analysing their clinical significance. A total of 314 antimicrobial prescriptions from 151 patients were checked. There was at least one potential interaction detected in 40% of patients, being more frequent and severe in those infected with multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Drugs most commonly involved were quinolones, azoles, linezolid and vancomycin. Potential drug interactions with antimicrobial agents are a frequent problem that can result in a loss of effectiveness. This is why they should be detected and avoided when possible, in order to optimize antimicrobial therapy, especially in case of multidrug resistant infections.

  10. Bioprospecting marine actinomycetes for multidrug-resistant pathogen control from Rameswaram coastal area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Wahaab, Femina; Subramaniam, Kalidass

    2018-01-01

    A potent Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 was isolated for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 131 actinomycetes were isolated from the Rameswaram coastal region, Tamil Nadu, India. Among 131 actinomycetes, maximum number of actinomycetes (55%) isolated at the distance of 3-6 m from seashore. Out of 131 actinomycetes, 85% of the actinomycetes exhibited different degree of antagonistic activity against test pathogens. The antagonistic activity evaluated using actinomycetes direct culture filtrate and culture filtrate extracts. Among these culture filtrate, extracts had supreme antagonistic activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and the solvent ethyl acetate was the best for extracting secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. In HPTLC analysis, the presence of macrolides, terpenoids, and quinolones was identified in RAM25C4 extract. In GC-MS analysis, various potent compounds such as phenolic compound-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, alkaloid compound-1H, 5H, pyrrolo (1' 2':3, 4) imidazo, and quinolone compound-1,4-benzenediol, 2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) were identified in the ethyl acetate extract of RAM25C4. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence of RAM25C4 isolate was deposited in NCBI with name Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 and accession number KM513543.

  11. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) analogues chemosensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to clinical anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junhua; Wang, Xu; Liu, Peng; Deng, Rongxin; Lei, Min; Chen, Wantao; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-15

    Novel 20(S)-protopanoxadiol (PPD) analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the chemosensitizing activity against a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line (KBvcr) overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that aromatic substituted aliphatic amine at the 24-positions (groups V) effectively and significantly sensitized P-gp overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to anticancer drugs, such as docetaxel (DOC), vincristine (VCR), and adriamycin (ADM). PPD derivatives 12 and 18 showed 1.3-2.6 times more effective reversal ability than verapamil (VER) for DOC and VCR. Importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed by the active PPD analogues (5μM) against both non-MDR and MDR cells, suggesting that PPD analogues serve as novel lead compounds toward a potent and safe resistance modulator. Moreover, a preliminary mechanism study demonstrated that the chemosensitizing activity of PPD analogues results from inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressed in MDR cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanomedicine to Deal With Cancer Cell Biology in Multi-Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Tekchandani, Pawan; Kurmi, Balak Das; Paliwal, Shivani Rai

    2017-01-01

    Today Cancer still remains a major cause of mortality and death worldwide, in humans. Chemotherapy, a key treatment strategy in cancer, has significant hurdles such as the occurrence of chemoresistance in cancer, which is inherent unresponsiveness or acquired upon exposure to chemotherapeutics. The resistance of cancer cells to an antineoplastic agent accompanied to other chemotherapeutic drugs with different structures and mechanisms of action called multi-drug resistance (MDR) plays an important role in the failure of chemo- therapeutics. MDR is primarily based on the overexpression of drug efflux pumps in the cellular membrane, which belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins, are P-gp (P-glycoprotein) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Over the years, various strategies have been evaluated to overcome MDR, based not only on the use of MDR modulators but also on the implementation an innovative approach and advanced nanosized drug delivery systems. Nanomedicine is an emerging tool of chemotherapy that focuses on alternative drug delivery for improvement of the treatment efficacy and reducing side effects to normal tissues. This review aims to focus on the details biology, reversal strategies option with the limitation of MDR and various advantages of the present medical science nanotechnology with intracellular delivery aspects for overcoming the significant potential for improving the treatment of MDR malignancies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Detection and characterisation of multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) in human mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Roundhill, E A; Burchill, S A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overexpression of plasma membrane multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) can lead to multidrug resistance. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of mitochondrial MRP-1 in untreated human normal and cancer cells and tissues. Methods: MRP-1 expression and subcellular localisation in normal and cancer cells and tissues was examined by differential centrifugation and western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Viable mitochondria were isolated and MRP-1 efflux activity measured using the calcein-AM functional assay. MRP-1 expression was increased using retroviral infection and specific overexpression confirmed by RNA array. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V-propidium iodide labelling of cells. Results: MRP-1 was detected in the mitochondria of cancer and normal cells and tissues. The efflux activity of mitochondrial MRP-1 was more efficient (55–64%) than that of plasma membrane MRP-1 (11–22% P<0.001). Induced MRP-1 expression resulted in a preferential increase in mitochondrial MRP-1, suggesting selective targeting to this organelle. Treatment with a non-lethal concentration of doxorubicin (0.85 n, 8 h) increased mitochondrial and plasma membrane MRP-1, increasing resistance to MRP-1 substrates. For the first time, we have identified MRP-1 with efflux activity in human mitochondria. Conclusion: Mitochondrial MRP-1 may be an exciting new therapeutic target where historically MRP-1 inhibitor strategies have limited clinical success. PMID:22353810

  14. Detection and characterisation of multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) in human mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Roundhill, E A; Burchill, S A

    2012-03-13

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1) can lead to multidrug resistance. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of mitochondrial MRP-1 in untreated human normal and cancer cells and tissues. MRP-1 expression and subcellular localisation in normal and cancer cells and tissues was examined by differential centrifugation and western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Viable mitochondria were isolated and MRP-1 efflux activity measured using the calcein-AM functional assay. MRP-1 expression was increased using retroviral infection and specific overexpression confirmed by RNA array. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V-propidium iodide labelling of cells. MRP-1 was detected in the mitochondria of cancer and normal cells and tissues. The efflux activity of mitochondrial MRP-1 was more efficient (55-64%) than that of plasma membrane MRP-1 (11-22%; P<0.001). Induced MRP-1 expression resulted in a preferential increase in mitochondrial MRP-1, suggesting selective targeting to this organelle. Treatment with a non-lethal concentration of doxorubicin (0.85 nM, 8 h) increased mitochondrial and plasma membrane MRP-1, increasing resistance to MRP-1 substrates. For the first time, we have identified MRP-1 with efflux activity in human mitochondria. Mitochondrial MRP-1 may be an exciting new therapeutic target where historically MRP-1 inhibitor strategies have limited clinical success.

  15. Tetracycline can induce the expression of invasion factors in multidrug-resistant Salmonella during early-log phase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella continues to be an important health and safety concern in both humans and animals worldwide. Because the response of drug resistant bacteria exposed to antibiotics can affect a variety of cellular processes, such as motility, attachment, and in...

  16. Mixture model to assess the extent of cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Kauermann, Göran; Sagel, Ulrich; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2009-08-01

    Creation of a mixture model based on Poisson processes for assessment of the extent of cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens in the hospital. We propose a 2-component mixture of Poisson processes to describe the time series of detected cases of colonization. The first component describes the admission process of patients with colonization, and the second describes the cross-transmission. The data set used to illustrate the method consists of the routinely collected records for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii over a period of 3 years in a German tertiary care hospital. For MRSA and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, cross-transmission was estimated to be responsible for more than 80% of cases; for imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, cross-transmission was estimated to be responsible for 59% of cases. For new cases observed within a window of less than 28 days for MRSA and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii or 40 days for imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, there was a 50% or greater probability that the cause was cross-transmission. The proposed method offers a solution to assessing of the extent of cross-transmission, which can be of clinical use. The method can be applied using freely available software (the package FlexMix in R) and it requires relatively little data.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae Isolate from a Clinical Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, Egon A.; Morris, Andrew R.; Krapp, Fiorella

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate ofKlebsiella quasipneumoniaesubsp.similipneumoniae, KP_Z4175. This strain, isolated as part of a hospital infection-control screening program, is resistant to multiple β-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  18. Global Introduction of New Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Drugs—Balancing Regulation with Urgent Patient Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    New treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are urgently needed. Two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, have recently been released, and several new drugs and treatment regimens are in the pipeline. Misuse of TB drugs is a principal cause of drug resistance. As new drugs and regimens reach the market, the need to make them available to patients must be balanced with regulation of their use so that resistance to the new drugs can be prevented. To foster the rational use of new drugs, we propose 1) expanding/strengthening the capacity for drug susceptibility testing, beginning with countries with a high TB burden; 2) regulating prescribing practices by banning over-the-counter sale of TB drugs and enacting an accreditation system whereby providers must be certified to prescribe new drugs; and 3) decentralizing MDR TB care in rural communities by employing trained community health workers, using promising mobile technologies, and enlisting the aid of civil society organizations. PMID:26889711

  19. Reversion of the P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of cancer cells by FK-506 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jachez, B; Boesch, D; Grassberger, M A; Loor, F

    1993-04-01

    FK-506 is a resistance-modulating agent (RMA) for tumor cells whose multidrug resistance (MDR) involves a P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated anti-cancer drug efflux. The family of FK-506 relatives and derivatives includes analogs which display a whole range of chemosensitizing strengths, from no detectable RMA activity to a complete reversion of the MDR phenotype. Similarly, FK-506 analogs display a whole range of immunosuppressive activities, including inactive ones. FK-506 was compared for RMA activity with 11 FK-506 analogs which were at least 20-fold less active than FK-506 for the inhibition of the bi-directional mixed lymphocyte reaction displayed the whole range of RMA activity. One such strong RMA derivative of FK-506 (SDZ 280-629) was further shown able to restore completely daunomycin retention by highly resistant MDR P388 tumor cells.

  20. High prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Djibouti: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Boyer-Cazajous, Géraldine; Martinaud, Christophe; Déhan, Céline; Hassan, Mohammed Osman; Gaas, Yassin; Chenilleau-Vidal, Marie-Caroline; Soler, Charles

    2014-02-13

    The Republic of Djibouti is an African country that exhibits one of the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among new cases. We studied retrospectively every tuberculosis case diagnosed over a 12-month period in patients hospitalized at the French Military Hospital of Bouffard. During this period, 1,274 samples from 675 patients were tested. We isolated 266 mycobacteria corresponding to 180 cases of tuberculosis. Thirty-three were fully susceptible and 57% met the tuberculosis criteria, with 46% primary resistance. No extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis was found. Our results highlight a major concern about the situation in this part of the world.

  1. Biofilms and antibiotic susceptibility of multidrug-resistant bacteria from wild animals.

    PubMed

    Dias, Carla; Borges, Anabela; Oliveira, Diana; Martinez-Murcia, Antonio; Saavedra, Maria José; Simões, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The "One Health" concept recognizes that human health and animal health are interdependent and bound to the health of the ecosystem in which they (co)exist. This interconnection favors the transmission of bacteria and other infectious agents as well as the flow of genetic elements containing antibiotic resistance genes. This problem is worsened when pathogenic bacteria have the ability to establish as biofilms. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics and behaviour of microorganisms in both planktonic and biofilms states from the most diverse environmental niches to mitigate the emergence and dissemination of resistance. The purpose of this work was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of four bacteria ( Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas fluorescens and Shewanella putrefaciens ) isolated from wild animals and their ability to form biofilms. The effect of two antibiotics, imipenem (IPM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), on biofilm removal was also assessed. Screening of resistance genetic determinants was performed by PCR. Biofilm tests were performed by a modified microtiter plate method. Bacterial surface hydrophobicity was determined by sessile drop contact angles. The susceptibility profile classified the bacteria as multidrug-resistant. Three genes coding for β-lactamases were detected in K. pneumoniae (TEM, SHV, OXA-aer) and one in P. fluorescens (OXA-aer). K. pneumoniae was the microorganism that carried more β-lactamase genes and it was the most proficient biofilm producer, while P. fluorescens demonstrated the highest adhesion ability. Antibiotics at their MIC, 5 × MIC and 10 × MIC were ineffective in total biofilm removal. The highest biomass reductions were found with IPM (54% at 10 × MIC) against K. pneumoniae biofilms and with CIP (40% at 10 × MIC) against P. fluorescens biofilms. The results highlight wildlife as important host reservoirs and vectors for the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria and genetic

  2. Biofilms and antibiotic susceptibility of multidrug-resistant bacteria from wild animals

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Carla; Borges, Anabela; Oliveira, Diana; Martinez-Murcia, Antonio; Saavedra, Maria José

    2018-01-01

    Background The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health and animal health are interdependent and bound to the health of the ecosystem in which they (co)exist. This interconnection favors the transmission of bacteria and other infectious agents as well as the flow of genetic elements containing antibiotic resistance genes. This problem is worsened when pathogenic bacteria have the ability to establish as biofilms. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics and behaviour of microorganisms in both planktonic and biofilms states from the most diverse environmental niches to mitigate the emergence and dissemination of resistance. Methods The purpose of this work was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of four bacteria (Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Shewanella putrefaciens) isolated from wild animals and their ability to form biofilms. The effect of two antibiotics, imipenem (IPM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP), on biofilm removal was also assessed. Screening of resistance genetic determinants was performed by PCR. Biofilm tests were performed by a modified microtiter plate method. Bacterial surface hydrophobicity was determined by sessile drop contact angles. Results The susceptibility profile classified the bacteria as multidrug-resistant. Three genes coding for β-lactamases were detected in K. pneumoniae (TEM, SHV, OXA-aer) and one in P. fluorescens (OXA-aer). K. pneumoniae was the microorganism that carried more β-lactamase genes and it was the most proficient biofilm producer, while P. fluorescens demonstrated the highest adhesion ability. Antibiotics at their MIC, 5 × MIC and 10 × MIC were ineffective in total biofilm removal. The highest biomass reductions were found with IPM (54% at 10 × MIC) against K. pneumoniae biofilms and with CIP (40% at 10 × MIC) against P. fluorescens biofilms. Discussion The results highlight wildlife as important host reservoirs and vectors for the spread of

  3. Enhancement of antibiotic activity by efflux inhibitors against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tatiane; Machado, Diana; Couto, Isabel; Maschmann, Raquel; Ramos, Daniela; von Groll, Andrea; Rossetti, Maria L.; Silva, Pedro A.; Viveiros, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistant tuberculosis continues to increase and new approaches for its treatment are necessary. The identification of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates presenting efflux as part of their resistant phenotype has a major impact in tuberculosis treatment. In this work, we used a checkerboard procedure combined with the tetrazolium microplate-based assay (TEMA) to study single combinations between antituberculosis drugs and efflux inhibitors (EIs) against multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates using the fully susceptible strain H37Rv as reference. Efflux activity was studied on a real-time basis by a fluorometric method that uses ethidium bromide as efflux substrate. Quantification of efflux pump genes mRNA transcriptional levels were performed by RT-qPCR. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) indicated synergistic activity for the interactions between isoniazid, rifampicin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and ethidium bromide plus the EIs verapamil, thioridazine and chlorpromazine. The FICs ranged from 0.25, indicating a four-fold reduction on the MICs, to 0.015, 64-fold reduction. The detection of active efflux by real-time fluorometry showed that all strains presented intrinsic efflux activity that contributes to the overall resistance which can be inhibited in the presence of the EIs. The quantification of the mRNA levels of the most important efflux pump genes on these strains shows that they are intrinsically predisposed to expel toxic compounds as the exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were not necessary to increase the pump mRNA levels when compared with the non-exposed counterpart. The results obtained in this study confirm that the intrinsic efflux activity contributes to the overall resistance in multidrug resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and that the inhibition of efflux pumps by the EIs can enhance the clinical effect of antibiotics that are their substrates. PMID:25972842

  4. LL-37-Derived Peptides Eradicate Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Thermally Wounded Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    de Breij, Anna; Chan, Heelam; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Burn wound infections are often difficult to treat due to the presence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilms. Currently, mupirocin is used to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from colonized persons; however, mupirocin resistance is also emerging. Since we consider antimicrobial peptides to be promising candidates for the development of novel anti-infective agents, we studied the antibacterial activities of a set of synthetic peptides against different strains of S. aureus, including mupirocin-resistant MRSA strains. The peptides were derived from P60.4Ac, a peptide based on the human cathelicidin LL-37. The results showed that peptide 10 (P10) was the only peptide more efficient than P60.4Ac, which is better than LL-37, in killing MRSA strain LUH14616. All three peptides displayed good antibiofilm activities. However, both P10 and P60.4Ac were more efficient than LL-37 in eliminating biofilm-associated bacteria. No toxic effects of these three peptides on human epidermal models were detected, as observed morphologically and by staining for mitochondrial activity. In addition, P60.4Ac and P10, but not LL-37, eradicated MRSA LUH14616 and the mupirocin-resistant MRSA strain LUH15051 from thermally wounded human skin equivalents (HSE). Interestingly, P60.4Ac and P10, but not mupirocin, eradicated LUH15051 from the HSEs. None of the peptides affected the excretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) by thermally wounded HSEs upon MRSA exposure. In conclusion, the synthetic peptides P60.4Ac and P10 appear to be attractive candidates for the development of novel local therapies to treat patients with burn wounds infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24841266

  5. Multidrug-resistant organisms in neonatal sepsis in two tertiary neonatal ICUs, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hesham A; Mohamed, Maha H; Badran, Nabil F; Mohsen, Manal; Abd-Elrhman, Al-Sayed A

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains a serious problem in any neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Bacterial organisms have developed increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Because not enough data are available from Egypt, the aim of the present study was to determine the causative bacteria and the level of their resistance to commonly used antibiotics in tertiary NICUs in Cairo, Egypt. A 3.5-year retrospective study was carried out at NICUs of the Children's Hospital of Ain Shams University and that of El-Hussein Hospital, Al-Azhar University, Egypt. Records of neonates were reviewed. All neonates with culture-proven sepsis were included in the study. Almost one-third of the admitted neonates (33.4%) were diagnosed as having neonatal sepsis, 32.25% of them culture-proven. Early/late onset sepsis was found in 35.4 and 64.6%, respectively. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria was found in 68 to 25.6%. Fungal infection was detected in 9% of the isolates. Escherichia coli was the main pathogen isolated in both early-onset sepsis (41.2%) and late-onset sepsis (24.5%). Overall, 77% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (60% of gram-positive bacteria and 83.4% of gram-negative bacteria). Nearly 80% (79%) of mortality was caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed high resistance against commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. There is an alarming increase in antibiotic resistance to the commonly used antibiotics. Continuous surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility is needed to ensure proper empirical therapy. Improvement of infection control practices, avoidance of irrational use of antibiotics, and revision of the protocols are mandatory in the prevention of neonatal sepsis.

  6. Simple Method for Markerless Gene Deletion in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Je Chul; Kim, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    The traditional markerless gene deletion technique based on overlap extension PCR has been used for generating gene deletions in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the construction of new vectors containing a suitable antibiotic resistance cassette for the selection of A. baumannii merodiploids. Moreover, the availability of restriction sites and the selection of recombinant bacteria harboring the desired chimeric plasmid are limited, making the construction of a chimeric plasmid more difficult. We describe a rapid and easy cloning method for markerless gene deletion in A. baumannii, which has no limitation in the availability of restriction sites and allows for easy selection of the clones carrying the desired chimeric plasmid. Notably, it is not necessary to construct new vectors in our method. This method utilizes direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments, in which upstream and downstream regions of the target gene are fused with an antibiotic resistance cassette via overlap extension PCR and are inserted into a blunt-end suicide vector developed for blunt-end cloning. Importantly, the antibiotic resistance cassette is placed outside the downstream region in order to enable easy selection of the recombinants carrying the desired plasmid, to eliminate the antibiotic resistance cassette via homologous recombination, and to avoid the necessity of constructing new vectors. This strategy was successfully applied to functional analysis of the genes associated with iron acquisition by A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and to ompA gene deletion in other A. baumannii strains. Consequently, the proposed method is invaluable for markerless gene deletion in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:25746991

  7. Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pallecchi, Lucia; Benedetti, Marta; Fernandez, Connie; Vallejos, Yolanda; Guzman, Elisa; Villagran, Ana Liz; Mantella, Antonia; Lucchetti, Chiara; Bartalesi, Filippo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bechini, Angela; Gamboa, Herlan; Rodríguez, Hugo; Falkenberg, Torkel; Kronvall, Göran; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Paradisi, Franco; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol (70%). Lower resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (35%), kanamycin (28%), gentamicin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (18%); resistance to ceftriaxone and amikacin was uncommon (<0.5%). In a random sample of 1,080 resistant E. coli isolates, 90% exhibited a multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. The 2 most common MDR phenotypes (ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/chloramphenicol) could be transferred en bloc in conjugation experiments. The most common acquired resistance genes were blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), drfA8, sul1, sul2, and catI. These findings underscore the magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance in low-resource settings and the urgent need for surveillance and control of this phenomenon. PMID:16707045

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1~5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered. PMID:23820161

  9. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ershova, Julia; Vlasova, Natalia; Nikishova, Elena; Tarasova, Irina; Eliseev, Platon; Maryandyshev, Andrey O.; Shemyakin, Igor G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Cegielski, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005–2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received <3 effective drugs than among patients who received >3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs. PMID:25988954

  10. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Li, Zhan; Li, Xiaolu; Tian, Yaomei; Fan, Yingzi; Yu, Chaoheng; Zhou, Bailing; Liu, Yi; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT)-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001) and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin) on clinical bacterial strains ( Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii , and Escherichia coli ). The AZT-resistance genes ( ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA , and msrA ) were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L). When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7-AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus strain synergistically affected by DP7-AZT showed no noteworthy morphological changes, suggesting that a molecular-level mechanism plays an important role in the synergistic action of DP7-AZT. AMP DP7 plus the antibiotic AZT or VAN is more effective, especially against highly antibiotic-resistant strains.

  11. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  12. Can Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles Be Applied to the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Travis W; Pass, Steven E; Brouse, Sara D; Hall, Ronald G

    2011-02-01

    To discuss treatment options that can be used for treatment of Acinetobac/erinfections. A MEDLINE search (1966-November 2010) was conducted to identify English-language literature on pharmacotherapy of Acinetobacter and the bibliographies of pertinent articles. Programs and abstracts from infectious diseases meetings were also searched. Search terms included Acinetobacter, multidrug resistance, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, nosocomial pneumonia, carbapenems, polymyxins, sulbactam, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, tigecycline, rifampin, and fluoroquinolones. All articles were critically evaluated and all pertinent information was included in this review. Multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter, defined as resistance to 3 or more antimicrobial classes, has increased over the past decade. The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter is also increasing, leading to an increased use of dose optimization techniques and/or alternative antimicrobials, which is driven by local susceptibility patterns. However, Acinetobacter infections that are resistant to all commercially available antibiotics have been reported. General principles are available to guide dose optimization of aminoglycosides, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and tigecycline for infections due to gram-negative pathogens. Unfortunately, data specific to patients with Acinetobacter infections are limited. Recent pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic information has shed light on colistin dosing. The dilemma with colistin is its concentration-dependent killing, which makes once-daily dosing seem like an attractive option, but its short postantibiotic effect limits a clinician's ability to extend the dosing interval. Localized delivery of antimicrobials is also an attractive option due to the ability to increase drug concentration at the infection site while minimizing systemic adverse events, but more data are needed regarding this approach. Increased reliance on dosage optimization

  13. Inhibition of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: time for a change of strategy?

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Richard; Luk, Frederick; Bebawy, Mary

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key player in the multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer. The protein confers resistance by mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of an astonishing array of anticancer drugs. Its broad specificity has been the subject of numerous attempts to inhibit the protein and restore the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The general strategy has been to develop compounds that either compete with anticancer drugs for transport or act as direct inhibitors of P-gp. Despite considerable in vitro success, there are no compounds currently available to "block" P-gp-mediated resistance in the clinic. The failure may be attributed to toxicity, adverse drug interaction, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. This review provides a description of several alternative approaches to overcome the activity of P-gp in drug-resistant cells. These include 1) drugs that specifically target resistant cells, 2) novel nanotechnologies to provide high-dose, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, 3) compounds that interfere with nongenomic transfer of resistance, and 4) approaches to reduce the expression of P-gp within tumors. Such approaches have been developed through the pursuit of greater understanding of resistance mediators such as P-gp, and they show considerable potential for further application.

  14. Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the malachite green decolourisation assay

    PubMed Central

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Uzun, Meltem

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates allows for earlier and more effective treatment of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the malachite green decolourisation assay (MGDA) in detecting isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. Fifty M. tuberculosis isolates, including 19 multidrug-resistant, eight INH-resistant and 23 INH and RIF-susceptible samples, were tested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and agreement of the assay for INH were 92.5%, 91.3%, 92.5%, 91.3% and 92%, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and agreement of the assay for RIF were 94.7%, 100%, 100%, 96.8% and 98%, respectively. There was a major discrepancy in the tests of two isolates, as they were sensitive to INH by the MGDA test, but resistant by the reference method. There was a minor discrepancy in the tests of two additional isolates, as they were sensitive to INH by the reference method, but resistant by the MGDA test. The drug susceptibility test results were obtained within eight-nine days. In conclusion, the MGDA test is a reliable and accurate method for the rapid detection of INH and RIF resistance compared with the reference method and the MGDA test additionally requires less time to obtain results. PMID:24402143

  15. Multidrug Resistance Acinetobacter Bacteremia Secondary to Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Risk Factors and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Borer, Abraham; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Frenkel, Amit; Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Rosenzweig, Vsevolod; Zlotnik, Alexander; Klein, Moti

    2017-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant (MDR), gram-negative bacterium commonly implicated in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with VAP often subsequently develop A baumannii bacteremia, which may significantly worsen outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of 129 ICU patients spanning 6 years with MDR A baumannii VAP; 46 (35%) of these patients had concomitant MDR A baumannii bacteremia. The ICU mortality rate was higher in patients with VAP having A baumannii bacteremia compared to nonbacteremic patients (32.4% vs 9.6% respectively, P < .005). Age >65 years, an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score higher than 20, a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score higher than 7 on the day of bacteremia, and the presence of comorbid disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and chronic renal failure) were found to be independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in this population. Multidrug resistant A baumannii was not an independent risk factor for mortality. Although the presence of comorbid diseases (COPD and chronic renal failure) and severity of disease (APACHE > 20 and SOFA >7) were found to be independent risk factors for ICU mortality, MDR A baumannii bacteremia was not an independent risk factor for mortality in our critically ill population.

  16. T cell-based tracking of multidrug resistant tuberculosis infection after brief exposure.

    PubMed

    Richeldi, Luca; Ewer, Katie; Losi, Monica; Bergamini, Barbara M; Roversi, Pietro; Deeks, Jonathan; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Lalvani, Ajit

    2004-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology indicates significant transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after casual contact with infectious tuberculosis cases. We investigated M. tuberculosis transmission after brief exposure using a T cell-based assay, the enzyme-linked-immunospot (ELISPOT) for IFN-gamma. After childbirth, a mother was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Forty-one neonates and 47 adults were present during her admission on the maternity unit; 11 weeks later, all underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and ELISPOT. We correlated test results with markers of exposure to the index case. The participants, who were asymptomatic and predominantly had no prior tuberculosis exposure, had 6.05 hours mean exposure (range: 0-65 hours) to the index case. Seventeen individuals, including two newborns, were ELISPOT-positive, and ELISPOT results correlated significantly with three of four predefined measures of tuberculosis exposure. For each hour sharing room air with the index case, the odds of a positive ELISPOT result increased by 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.003). Only four adults were TST-positive and TST results did not correlate with exposure. Thus, ELISPOT, but not TST, suggested quite extensive nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis after brief exposure. These results help to explain the apparent importance of casual contact for tuberculosis transmission, and may have implications for prevention.

  17. Development of hydroxyapatite-chitosan gel sunscreen combating clinical multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, Reda; Ali, Sameh S.; El-Shetehy, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The several harmful effects on infected human skin resulting from exposure to the sun's UV radiation generate an interest in the development of a multifunctional hydroxyapatite-chitosan (HAp-chitosan) gel that works as an antibacterial sunscreen agent for skin care. In this work, HAp-chitosan gel was synthesized via coprecipitation method by dissolving chitosan in phosphoric acid and adding HAp. The characteristics of HAp-chitosan composite were investigated by conventional techniques, such as XRD, FTIR, and SEM techniques, while its sunscreen property was investigated by UV-spectroscopy. In addition to the influence of the gel on bacterial cell morphology, the antibacterial activity of HAp-chitosan gel against clinical multidrug resistant skin pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied. The results revealed the formation of HAp-chitosan gel having nanosized particles, which confers protection against UV-radiation. The antibacterial activity records showed that chitosan-HAp gel exhibits a significant effect on the growth and ultrastructure of multi-drug resistant bacterial activities. Therefore, the chitosan-HAp gel is promising for skin health care as an antibacterial sunscreen.

  18. Multidrug Resistance Proteins (MRPs/ABCCs) in Cancer Chemotherapy and Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Tiwari, Amit K.

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a superfamily of membrane proteins that are best known for their ability to transport a wide variety of exogenous and endogenous substances across membranes against a concentration gradient via ATP hydrolysis. There are seven subfamilies of human ABC transporters, one of the largest being the ‘C’ subfamily (gene symbol ABCC). Nine ABCC subfamily members, the so-called Multidrug Resistance Proteins (MRPs) 1-9, have been implicated in mediating multidrug resistance in tumor cells to varying degrees as the efflux extrude chemotherapeutic compounds (or their metabolites) from malignant cells. Some of the MRPs are also known to either influence drug disposition in normal tissues or modulate the elimination of drugs (or their metabolites) via hepatobiliary or renal excretory pathways. In addition, the cellular efflux of physiologically important organic anions such as leukotriene C4 and cAMP is mediated by one or more of the MRPs. Finally, mutations in several MRPs are associated with human genetic disorders. In this review article, the current biochemical and physiological knowledge of MRP1-MRP9 in cancer chemotherapy and human genetic disease is summarized. The mutations in MRP2/ABCC2 leading to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (Dubin-Johnson syndrome) and in MRP6/ABCC6 leading to the connective tissue disorder Pseudoxanthoma elasticum are also discussed. PMID:21740521

  19. A Potato cDNA Encoding a Homologue of Mammalian Multidrug Resistant P-Glycoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    A homologue of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene was obtained while screening a potato stolon tip cDNA expression library with S-15-labeled calmodulin. The mammalian MDR gene codes for a membrane-bound P-glycoprotein (170-180 kDa) which imparts multidrug resistance to cancerous cells. The potato cDNA (PMDR1) codes for a polypeptide of 1313 amino acid residues (ca. 144 kDa) and its structural features are very similar to the MDR P-glycoprotein. The N-terminal half of the PMDR1-encoded protein shares striking homology with its C-terminal half, and each half contains a conserved ATP-binding site and six putative transmembrane domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that potato has one or two MDR-like genes. PMDR1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in all organs studied with higher expression in the stem and stolon tip. The PMDR1 expression was highest during tuber initiation and decreased during tuber development.

  20. Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Douglas S; Eamsila, Chirapa; Sasiprapha, Theerayuth; Sangkharomya, Suebpong; Khaewsathien, Pradith; Supakalin, Panpaka; Tang, Douglas B; Jarasrumgsichol, Phongsak; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Edstein, Michael D; Rieckmann, Karl H; Brewer, Thomas G

    2004-10-15

    We assessed monthly doses of tafenoquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 205 Thai soldiers received either a loading dose of tafenoquine 400 mg (base) daily for 3 days, followed by single monthly 400-mg doses (n = 104), or placebo (n = 101), for up to 5 consecutive months. In volunteers completing follow-up (96 tafenoquine and 91 placebo recipients), there were 22 P. vivax, 8 P. falciparum, and 1 mixed infection. All infections except 1 P. vivax occurred in placebo recipients, giving tafenoquine a protective efficacy of 97% for all malaria (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%), 96% for P. vivax malaria (95% CI, 76%-99%), and 100% for P. falciparum malaria (95% CI, 60%-100%). Monthly tafenoquine was safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in preventing P. vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in Thai soldiers during 6 months of prophylaxis. Copyright 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America

  1. Multidrug-resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from wild birds in a veterinary hospital.

    PubMed

    Borges, C A; Beraldo, L G; Maluta, R P; Cardozo, M V; Barboza, K B; Guastalli, E A L; Kariyawasam, S; DebRoy, C; Ávila, F A

    2017-02-01

    Wild birds are carriers of Escherichia coli. However, little is known about their role as reservoirs for extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). In this work we investigated E. coli strains carrying virulence genes related to human and animal ExPEC isolated from free-living wild birds treated in a veterinary hospital. Multidrug resistance was found in 47.4% of the strains, but none of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Not only the virulence genes, but also the serogroups (e.g. O1 and O2) detected in the isolates of E. coli have already been implicated in human and bird diseases. The sequence types detected were also found in wild, companion and food animals, environmental and human clinical isolates in different countries. Furthermore, from the 19 isolates, 17 (89.5%) showed a degree of pathogenicity on an in vivo infection model. The isolates showed high heterogeneity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicating that E. coli from these birds are clonally diverse. Overall, the results showed that wild birds can be reservoirs and/or vectors of highly pathogenic and multidrug-resistant E. coli that have the potential to cause disease in humans and poultry.

  2. Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug resistance gene, mrp-4, in gut granule differentiation.

    PubMed

    Currie, Erin; King, Brian; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Schroeder, Lena K; Kershner, Aaron M; Hermann, Greg J

    2007-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are lysosome-related organelles with birefringent contents. mrp-4, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to mammalian multidrug resistance proteins, functions in the formation of gut granule birefringence. mrp-4(-) embryos show a delayed appearance of birefringent material in the gut granule but otherwise appear to form gut granules properly. mrp-4(+) activity is required for the extracellular mislocalization of birefringent material, body-length retraction, and NaCl sensitivity, phenotypes associated with defective gut granule biogenesis exhibited by embryos lacking the activity of GLO-1/Rab38, a putative GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor GLO-4, and the AP-3 complex. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-4 localizes to the gut granule membrane, consistent with it playing a direct role in the transport of molecules that compose and/or facilitate the formation of birefringent crystals within the gut granule. However, MRP-4 is also present in oocytes and early embryos, and our genetic analyses indicate that its site of action in the formation of birefringent material may not be limited to just the gut granule in embryos. In a search for genes that function similarly to mrp-4(+), we identified WHT-2, another ABC transporter that acts in parallel to MRP-4 for the formation of birefringent material in the gut granule.

  3. Control of metazoan heme homeostasis by a conserved multidrug resistance protein

    PubMed Central

    Korolnek, Tamara; Zhang, Jianbing; Beardsley, Simon; Scheffer, George L; Hamza, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence predict that specific pathways must exist in metazoans for the escorted movement of heme, an essential but cytotoxic iron-containing organic ring, within and between cells and tissues, but these pathways remain obscure. In Caenorhabditis elegans, embryonic development is inextricably dependent on both maternally-derived heme and environmentally-acquired heme. Here, we show that the multidrug resistance protein, MRP-5/ABCC5, likely acts as a heme exporter and targeted depletion of mrp-5 in the intestine causes embryonic lethality. Transient knockdown of mrp5 in zebrafish leads to morphological defects and failure to hemoglobinize red blood cells. MRP5 resides on the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments and regulates export of cytosolic heme. Together, our genetic studies in worms, yeast, zebrafish, and mammalian cells identify a conserved, physiological role for a multidrug resistance protein in regulating systemic heme homeostasis. We envision other MRP family members may play similar unanticipated physiological roles in animal development. PMID:24836561

  4. The demise of multidrug-resistant HIV-1: the national time trend in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vercauteren, Jurgen; Theys, Kristof; Carvalho, Ana Patricia; Valadas, Emília; Duque, Luis Miguel; Teófilo, Eugénio; Faria, Telo; Faria, Domitília; Vera, José; Águas, Maria João; Peres, Susana; Mansinho, Kamal; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge; Mansinho, Kamal; Cláudia Miranda, Ana; Aldir, Isabel; Ventura, Fernando; Nina, Jaime; Borges, Fernando; Valadas, Emília; Doroana, Manuela; Antunes, Francisco; João Aleixo, Maria; João Águas, Maria; Botas, Júlio; Branco, Teresa; Vera, José; Vaz Pinto, Inês; Poças, José; Sá, Joana; Duque, Luis; Diniz, António; Mineiro, Ana; Gomes, Flora; Santos, Carlos; Faria, Domitília; Fonseca, Paula; Proença, Paula; Tavares, Luís; Guerreiro, Cristina; Narciso, Jorge; Faria, Telo; Teófilo, Eugénio; Pinheiro, Sofia; Germano, Isabel; Caixas, Umbelina; Faria, Nancy; Paula Reis, Ana; Bentes Jesus, Margarida; Amaro, Graça; Roxo, Fausto; Abreu, Ricardo; Neves, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Despite a decreasing mortality and morbidity in treated HIV-1 patients, highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) can still fail due to the development of drug resistance. Especially, multidrug-resistant viruses pose a threat to efficient therapy. We studied the changing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) over time in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in Portugal. Patients and methods We used data of 8065 HIV-1-infected patients followed from July 2001 up to April 2012 in 22 hospitals located in Portugal. MDR at a specific date of sampling was defined as no more than one fully active drug (excluding integrase and entry inhibitors) at that time authorized by the Portuguese National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED), as interpreted with the Rega algorithm version 8.0.2. A generalized linear mixed model was used to study the time trend of the prevalence of MDR. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of MDR over the last decade, from 6.9% (95% CI: 5.7–8.4) in 2001–03, 6.0% (95% CI: 4.9–7.2) in 2003–05, 3.7% (95% CI: 2.8–4.8) in 2005–07 and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) in 2007–09 down to 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3–0.9) in 2009–12 [OR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75–0.86); P < 0.001]. In July 2011 the last new case of MDR was seen. Conclusions The prevalence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 is decreasing over time in Portugal, reflecting the increasing efficiency of HAART and the availability of new drugs. Therefore, in designing a new drug, safety and practical aspects, e.g. less toxicity and ease of use, may need more attention than focusing mainly on efficacy against resistant strains. PMID:23228933

  5. Public health surveillance of multidrug-resistant clones of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Europe: a genomic survey.

    PubMed

    Harris, Simon R; Cole, Michelle J; Spiteri, Gianfranco; Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Golparian, Daniel; Jacobsson, Susanne; Goater, Richard; Abudahab, Khalil; Yeats, Corin A; Bercot, Beatrice; Borrego, Maria José; Crowley, Brendan; Stefanelli, Paola; Tripodo, Francesco; Abad, Raquel; Aanensen, David M; Unemo, Magnus

    2018-05-15

    Traditional methods for molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are suboptimal. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers ideal resolution to describe population dynamics and to predict and infer transmission of antimicrobial resistance, and can enhance infection control through linkage with epidemiological data. We used WGS, in conjunction with linked epidemiological and phenotypic data, to describe the gonococcal population in 20 European countries. We aimed to detail changes in phenotypic antimicrobial resistance levels (and the reasons for these changes) and strain distribution (with a focus on antimicrobial resistance strains in risk groups), and to predict antimicrobial resistance from WGS data. We carried out an observational study, in which we sequenced isolates taken from patients with gonorrhoea from the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme in 20 countries from September to November, 2013. We also developed a web platform that we used for automated antimicrobial resistance prediction, molecular typing (N gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing [NG-MAST] and multilocus sequence typing), and phylogenetic clustering in conjunction with epidemiological and phenotypic data. The multidrug-resistant NG-MAST genogroup G1407 was predominant and accounted for the most cephalosporin resistance, but the prevalence of this genogroup decreased from 248 (23%) of 1066 isolates in a previous study from 2009-10 to 174 (17%) of 1054 isolates in this survey in 2013. This genogroup previously showed an association with men who have sex with men, but changed to an association with heterosexual people (odds ratio=4·29). WGS provided substantially improved resolution and accuracy over NG-MAST and multilocus sequence typing, predicted antimicrobial resistance relatively well, and identified discrepant isolates, mixed infections or contaminants, and multidrug-resistant clades linked to risk groups. To our knowledge, we provide the first use of joint

  6. MRP1 and glucosylceramide are coordinately over expressed and enriched in rafts during multidrug resistance acquisition in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klappe, Karin; Hinrichs, John W J; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Sietsma, Hannie; Kok, Jan Willem

    2004-07-01

    Previously we have described a novel multidrug-resistant cell line, HT29(col), which displayed over expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and an altered sphingolipid composition, including enhanced levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer; Kok JW, Veldman RJ, Klappe K, Koning H, Filipeanu C, Muller M. Int J Cancer 2000;87:172-8). In our study, long-term screening revealed that, during colchicine-induced acquisition of multidrug resistance in a new HT29(col) cell line, increases in GlcCer occurred concomitantly with upregulation of MRP1 expression. Both MRP1 and GlcCer were found enriched in Lubrol-insoluble membrane domains. The expression of MRP1 and GlcCer were tightly correlated, as indicated also by a reversal of both at the later stage of colchicine consolidation. Resistance to colchicine was determined by MRP1, while glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) did not contribute: 1). Resistance was fully inhibited by MK571. 2). GCS expression and activity were not upregulated in HT29(col) cells. 3). Inhibition of GCS did not affect MRP1-mediated efflux function or sensitivity to colchicine. Instead, overall sphingolipid metabolism was upregulated through an increased rate of ceramide biosynthesis. In conclusion, upregulation of MRP1 occurs in concert with upregulation of GlcCer during multidrug-resistance acquisition, and both are enriched in rafts. The increased GlcCer pool does not directly modulate MRP1 function and cell survival. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A-P; Srinivasan, A; Carey, R B; Carmeli, Y; Falagas, M E; Giske, C G; Harbarth, S; Hindler, J F; Kahlmeter, G; Olsson-Liljequist, B; Paterson, D L; Rice, L B; Stelling, J; Struelens, M J; Vatopoulos, A; Weber, J T; Monnet, D L

    2012-03-01

    Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to create a standardized international terminology with which to describe acquired resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae (other than Salmonella and Shigella), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., all bacteria often responsible for healthcare-associated infections and prone to multidrug resistance. Epidemiologically significant antimicrobial categories were constructed for each bacterium. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created using documents and breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories, XDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories) and PDR was defined as non-susceptibility to all agents in all antimicrobial categories. To ensure correct application of these definitions, bacterial isolates should be tested against all or nearly all of the antimicrobial agents within the antimicrobial categories and selective reporting and suppression of results should be avoided. © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. No claim to original US government works.

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with a history of nontuberculous Mycobacteriosis: a brief report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kozo; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Okumura, Masao; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Yoshimori, Kozo; Ogata, Hideo; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Gemma, Akihiko; Kudoh, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    We herein report two cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients with a history of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis (PNTM). A 50-year-old man was diagnosed with MDR-TB five years after receiving treatment for pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection. In the second patient, a 72-year-old woman, the diagnosis of PNTM was confirmed twice with two bronchial washings; she was diagnosed with MDR-TB 29 months after presenting with PNTM. It is highly possible that these two patients were already infected with tuberculosis (TB) at the time of PNTM diagnosis and acquired resistance to anti-TB drugs as a result of undergoing treatment for PNTM.

  9. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  10. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak among US-bound Hmong refugees, Thailand, 2005.

    PubMed

    Oeltmann, John E; Varma, Jay K; Ortega, Luis; Liu, Yecai; O'Rourke, Thomas; Cano, Maria; Harrington, Theresa; Toney, Sean; Jones, Warren; Karuchit, Samart; Diem, Lois; Rienthong, Dhanida; Tappero, Jordan W; Ijaz, Kashef; Maloney, Susan A

    2008-11-01

    In January 2005, tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), was reported among Hmong refugees who were living in or had recently immigrated to the United States from a camp in Thailand. We investigated TB and drug resistance, enhanced TB screenings, and expanded treatment capacity in the camp. In February 2005, 272 patients with TB (24 MDR TB) remained in the camp. Among 17 MDR TB patients interviewed, 13 were found to be linked socially. Of 23 MDR TB isolates genotyped, 20 were similar according to 3 molecular typing methods. Before enhanced screening was implemented, 46 TB cases (6 MDR TB) were diagnosed in the United States among 9,455 resettled refugees. After enhanced screening had begun, only 4 TB cases (1 MDR TB), were found among 5,705 resettled refugees. An MDR TB outbreak among US-bound refugees led to importation of disease; enhanced pre-immigration TB screening and treatment decreased subsequent importation.

  11. From Nano to Micro: using nanotechnology to combat microorganisms and their multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Natan, Michal; Banin, Ehud

    2017-05-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistance and increasing prevalence of biofilm-associated infections is driving demand for new means to treat bacterial infection. Nanotechnology provides an innovative platform for addressing this challenge, with potential to manage even infections involving multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The current review summarizes recent progress over the last 2 years in the field of antibacterial nanodrugs, and describes their unique properties, mode of action and activity against MDR bacteria and biofilms. Biocompatibility and commercialization are also discussed. As opposed to the more common division of nanoparticles (NPs) into organic- and inorganic-based materials, this review classifies NPs into two functional categories. The first includes NPs exhibiting intrinsic antibacterial properties and the second is devoted to NPs serving as a cargo for delivering antibacterial agents. Antibacterial nanomaterials used to decorate medical devices and implants are reviewed here as well. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Associated with Mechanically Separated Chicken at a Correctional Facility.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda L; Murphree, Rendi; Ingram, L Amanda; Garman, Katie; Solomon, Deborah; Coffey, Eric; Walker, Deborah; Rogers, Marsha; Marder, Ellyn; Bottomley, Marie; Woron, Amy; Thomas, Linda; Roberts, Sheri; Hardin, Henrietta; Arjmandi, Parvin; Green, Alice; Simmons, Latoya; Cornell, Allyson; Dunn, John

    2015-12-01

    We describe multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with mechanically separated chicken (MSC) served at a county correctional facility. Twenty-three inmates met the case definition. All reported diarrhea, 19 (83%) reported fever, 16 (70%) reported vomiting, 4 (17%) had fever ≥103°F, and 3 (13%) were hospitalized. A case-control study found no single food item significantly associated with illness. Salmonella Heidelberg with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was isolated from nine stool specimens; two isolates displayed resistance to a total of five drug classes, including the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone. MDR Salmonella Heidelberg might have contributed to the severity of illness. Salmonella Heidelberg indistinguishable from the outbreak subtype was isolated from unopened MSC. The environmental health assessment identified cross-contamination through poor food-handling practices as a possible contributing factor. Proper hand-washing techniques and safe food-handling practices were reviewed with the kitchen supervisor.

  13. [Cluster of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in a school of the district of Ica, Peru].

    PubMed

    Torres, Julio; Sardón, Victoria; Soto, Mirtha G; Anicama, Rolado; Arroyo-Hernández, Hugo; Munayco, César V

    2011-01-01

    We describe the evolution and features of a cluster of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) cases that occurred in 2001, in a school located in a sub-urban area of the district of Ica, Peru. We identified 15 students related before becoming infected with tuberculosis. The mean age of the cluster was 15 years. A total of 12 students were MDR-TB cases and 7 were drug-resistant to 5 first-line drugs (RHEZS). Five out of the 15 cases received at least 3 different anti-tuberculosis treatment schemes. The average treatment duration was 37 months (minimum 21 and maximum 59 months). A total of 13 cases recovered and 2 died. This study describes a cluster of MDR -TB cases in an educational facility, which due to the epidemiological link and time presentation, is probably an outbreak of MDR TB with a satisfactory outcome after prolonged treatment.

  14. The multidrug-resistant tuberculosis challenge to public health efforts to control tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Villarino, M E; Geiter, L J; Simone, P M

    1992-01-01

    After years of steady decline, there has been an unprecedented resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States and outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The authors assess the nature, epidemiology, and implications of MDR-TB; provide suggestions for preventing drug resistance among patients with drug-susceptible TB; and offer recommendations for managing patients with MDR-TB. They outline the National Action Plan to Combat MDR-TB. Close collaboration among medical practitioners and staff members of TB control programs is needed to ensure the most effective management of patients with TB and their contacts. This collaboration is one of the most important steps for successful control of MDR-TB. PMID:1454973

  15. Bacillus subtilis from Soybean Food Shows Antimicrobial Activity for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by Affecting the adeS Gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieshan; Su, Jianrong

    2016-12-28

    Exploring novel antibiotics is necessary for multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Because the probiotics in soybean food have antimicrobial activities, we investigated their effects on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . Nineteen multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains were clinifcally isolated as an experimental group and 11 multidrug-sensitive strains as controls. The growth rates of all bacteria were determined by using the analysis for xCELLigence Real-Time Cell. The combination of antibiotics showed synergistic effects on the strains in the control group but no effect on the strains in the experimental group. Efflux pump gene adeS was absent in all the strains from the control group, whereas it exists in all the strains from the experimental group. Furthermore, all the strains lost multidrug resistance when an adeS inhibitor was used. One strain of probiotics isolated from soybean food showed high antimicrobial activity for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii . The isolated strain belongs to Bacillus subtilis according to 16S RNA analysis. Furthermore, E. coli showed multidrug resistance when it was transformed with the adeS gene from A. baumannii whereas the resistant bacteria could be inhibited completely by isolated Bacillus subtilis . Thus, probiotics from soybean food provide potential antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  16. In vitro antibacterial activity of rifampicin in combination with imipenem, meropenem and doripenem against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Chang-Pan; Wang, Nai-Yu; Shih, Shou-Chuan

    2016-08-24

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as one of the most important healthcare-associated pathogens. Colistin is regarded as the last-resort antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but is associated with high rates of acute kidney injury. The aim of this in vitro study is to search for an alternative treatment to colistin for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. Multidrug and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were collected between January 2009 and December 2012 at MacKay Memorial Hospital. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for various antibiotic combinations. Carbapenemase-producing genes including bla VIM, other β-lactamase genes and porin mutations were screened by PCR and sequencing. The efficacy of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem) with or without rifampicin was correlated with the type of porin mutation (frameshift mutation, premature stop codon mutation) in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates without carbapenemase-producing genes. Of the 71 multidrug-resistant clinical P. aeruginosa isolates, only six harboured the bla VIM gene. Imipenem, meropenem and doripenem were significantly more effective (reduced fold-change of MICs) when combined with rifampicin in bla VIM-negative isolates, especially in isolates with porin frameshift mutation. Imipenem + rifampicin combination has a low MIC against multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, especially in isolates with porin frameshift mutation. The imipenem + rifampicin combination may provide an alternative treatment to colistin for multidrug -resistant P. aeruginosa infections, especially for patients with renal insufficiency.

  17. LPA or GeneXpert in the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mindru, Roxana; Spinu, Victor; Popescu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Facing a constant increase of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), there is large need for routine use of new diagnostic tests, based on molecular techniques that allow both a rapid diagnosis for TB complex and rapid identification of resistance mutations. The resistances are due to genetic factors: accumulation of changes within the genome structure, acquisition or loss of genes, spontaneous mutations in chromosomal genes, and changes that induce selection of resistant strains during a suboptimal treatment. The bacteriology laboratory plays a crucial role in the making of the diagnosis, monitoring and preventing TB transmission. World Health Organization offers consistent recommendations in favour of use of Xpert MTB/RIF, GeneXpert platform, as initial diagnostic test in adults and children suspected of TB, because it can simultaneously determine the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Rifampicin resistance, which is a surrogate marker of MDR strains. The very high sensibility and specificity, also in the smear negative samples, as well as the short time needed for the results, make Xpert MTB/RIF a valuable tool in the fight against TB. Other recommended tests are: LPA, which identifies M. Tuberculosis complex, the Rifancim and Isoniazid resistance; MTBDR plus or, for second line anti-TB drugs, the MTBDRsl.

  18. Gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: multidrug-resistant TB as an emerging global public health crisis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rahul; Shukla, Priyanka; Huang, Wei; Hu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. TB poses formidable challenges to the global health at the public health and scientific level by acquiring gene mutation into anti TB drugs specially rifampin and isoniazid which leads resistant to drug regime and treatment forms. Our tools to combat MDR (multidrug resistant) TB are dangerously out of date and ineffective. Besides new tools (TB drugs, vaccines, diagnostics), we also need new strategies to identify key Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host interaction. It is all equally important that we build up high quality clinical trial capacity and bio banks for TB biomarkers identification. But most important is global commitment at all levels to roll back TB before it expose us again. Rapid development of drug resistance caused by M. tuberculosis has lead to measure resistance accurately and easily. This knowledge will certainly help us to understand how to prevent the occurrence of drug resistance as well as identifying genes associated with new drug resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of multidrug resistant organisms on the outcome of diabetic foot infection.

    PubMed

    Saltoglu, Nese; Ergonul, Onder; Tulek, Necla; Yemisen, Mucahit; Kadanali, Ayten; Karagoz, Gul; Batirel, Ayse; Ak, Oznur; Sonmezer, Cagla; Eraksoy, Haluk; Cagatay, Atahan; Surme, Serkan; Nemli, Salih A; Demirdal, Tuna; Coskun, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Ceran, Nurgul; Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Sengoz, Gonul; Aslan, Turan; Akkoyunlu, Yasemin; Oncul, Oral; Ay, Hakan; Mulazımoglu, Lutfiye; Erturk, Buket; Yilmaz, Fatma; Yoruk, Gulsen; Uzun, Nuray; Simsek, Funda; Yildirmak, Taner; Yaşar, Kadriye Kart; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Küçükardali, Yasar; Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz; Ozgunes, Nail; Sargın, Fatma

    2018-05-01

    We described the clinical outcomes of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms. We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge. In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) were male, median age was 62 (19-90). Severe infection was diagnosed in 85 (11%) patients. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 291(36.8%) patients. 536 microorganisms were isolated, the most common microorganisms were S. aureus (20%), P. aeruginosa (19%) and E. coli (12%). Methicillin resistance (MR) rate among Staphylococcus aureus isolates was 31%. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected in 21% of P. aeruginosa isolates. ESBL (+) Gram negative bacteria (GNB) was detected in 38% of E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. Sixty three patients (8%) were re-hospitalized. Of the 791 patiens, 127 (16%) had major amputation, and 24 (3%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors for fatality were; dialysis (OR: 8.3, CI: 1.82-38.15, p=0.006), isolation of Klebsiella spp. (OR:7.7, CI: 1.24-47.96, p=0.028), and chronic heart failure (OR: 3, CI: 1.01-9.04, p=0.05). MR Staphylococcus was detected in 21% of the rehospitalized patients, as the most common microorganism (p<0.001). Among rehospitalized patients, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus infections was detected as the most common agent, and Klebsiella spp. infections were found to be significantly associated with fatality. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Knockdown of long non‑coding RNA PVT1 reverses multidrug resistance in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Heng; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Yao, Xue-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the primary causes of chemotherapy failure in colorectal cancer (CRC), and extensive biological studies into MDR are required. The non‑coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been demonstrated to be associated with low survival rates in patients with CRC. However, whether PVT1 serves a critical function in the MDR of CRC remains to be determined. To determine the association between PVT1 expression and 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU) resistance in CRC, the expression levels of PVT1 mRNA in 5‑FU‑resistant CRC tissues and cell lines (HCT‑8/5‑FU and HCT‑116/5‑FU) were assessed by a reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and apoptosis rates were assessed via flow cytometry. In the present study, PVT1 mRNA was highly expressed in 5‑FU‑resistant CRC tissues and cell lines. HCT‑8/5‑FU and HCT‑116/5‑FU cells transfected with small interfering RNA PVT1 and treated with 5‑FU exhibited higher apoptotic rates and lower survival rates. By contrast, overexpression of PVT1 in HCT‑8 and HCT‑116 cells transfected with lentiviral vector‑PVT1‑green fluorescent protein and treated with 5‑FU exhibited lower apoptosis rates and higher survival rates. RT‑qPCR and western blotting demonstrated that the overexpression of PVT1 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of multidrug resistance‑associated protein 1, P‑glycoprotein, serine/threonine‑protein kinase mTOR and apoptosis regulator Bcl2. The present study indicates that PVT1 overexpression may promote MDR in CRC cells, and suggested that inhibition of PVT1 expression may be an effective therapeutic strategy for reversing MDR in CRC.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Uropathogenic E. Coli Isolates from Jordanian Patients.

    PubMed

    Nairoukh, Yacoub R; Mahafzah, Azmi M; Irshaid, Amal; Shehabi, Asem A

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multi-drug resistant uropathogenic E. coli strains is an increasing problem to empirical treatment of urinary tract infections in many countries. This study investigated the magnitude of this problem in Jordan. A total of 262 E. coli isolates were recovered from urine samples of Jordanian patients which were suspected to have urinary tract infections (UTIs). All isolates were primarily identified by routine biochemical tests and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc diffusion method. Fifty representative Multidrug Resistance (MDR) E. coli isolates to 3 or more antibiotic classes were tested for the presence of resistance genes of blaCTX-M- 1, 9 and 15, carbapenemase ( blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-48 ), fluoroquinolones mutated genes ( parC and gyrA ) and clone of ST131 type using PCR methods. A total of 150/262 (57.3%) of E. coli isolates were MDR. Urine samples of hospitalized patients showed significantly more MDR isolates than outpatients. Fifty representative MDR E. coli isolates indicated the following molecular characteristics: All were positive for mutated parC gene and gyrA and for ST131 clone, and 78% were positive for genes of CTX-M-15 , 76% for CTX-M-I and for 8% CTX-M-9 , respectively. Additionally, all 50 MDR E. coli isolates were negative for carbapenemase genes ( blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-48 ), except of one isolate was positive for blaKPC-2 . This study indicates alarming high rates recovery of MDR uropathogenic E. coli from Jordanian patients associated with high rates of positive ST131 clone, fluoroquinolone resistant and important types of blaCTX-M.

  2. Alkanna tinctoria leaves extracts: a prospective remedy against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Qasim, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar; Azizllah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Khan, Zakir; Anees, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad

    2015-04-23

    Plants are rich source of chemical compounds that are used to accomplish biological activity. Indigenously crude extracts of plants are widely used as herbal medicine for the treatment of infections by people of different ethnic groups. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the biological potential of Alkanna tinctoria leaves extract from district Charsadda, Pakistan against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Anti-multi-drug resistant bacterial activity of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and hexane extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves were evaluated by well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of different extracts were determined. Moreover qualitative phytochemicals screening of the studied extracts was performed. All four selected bacteria including A. baumannii, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were categorized as multi-drug resistant (MDR) as they were found to be resistant to 13, 10, 19 and 22 antibiotics belonging to different groups respectively. All the four extract showed potential activity against S. aureus as compare to positive control antibiotic (Imipenem). Similarly among the four extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves, aqueous extract showed best activity against A. baumannii (10±03 mm), P. aeruginosa (12±0.5 mm), and S. aureus (14±0.5 mm) as compare to Imipenem. The MICs and MBCs results also showed quantitative concentration of plant extracts to inhibit or kill MDR bacteria. When phytochemicals analysis was performed it was observed that aqueous and ethanol extracts showed phytochemicals with large number as well as volume, especially Alkaloides, Flavonoides and Charbohydrates. The undertaken study demonstrated that all the four extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against MDR isolates. Finding from the

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium var. 5- Strain Isolated from Chicken Breast.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Allard, Marc W; Korlach, Jonas; Roberts, Richard J; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; McDermott, Patrick F; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-12-19

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of salmonellosis. Here, we report a closed genome sequence, including sequences of 3 plasmids, of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium var. 5- CFSAN001921 (National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System [NARMS] strain ID N30688), which was isolated from chicken breast meat and shows resistance to 10 different antimicrobials. Whole-genome and plasmid sequence analyses of this isolate will help enhance our understanding of this pathogenic multidrug-resistant serovar.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium var. 5− Strain Isolated from Chicken Breast

    PubMed Central

    Muruvanda, Tim; Allard, Marc W.; Korlach, Jonas; Roberts, Richard J.; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; McDermott, Patrick F.; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; Zhao, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of salmonellosis. Here, we report a closed genome sequence, including sequences of 3 plasmids, of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium var. 5− CFSAN001921 (National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System [NARMS] strain ID N30688), which was isolated from chicken breast meat and shows resistance to 10 different antimicrobials. Whole-genome and plasmid sequence analyses of this isolate will help enhance our understanding of this pathogenic multidrug-resistant serovar. PMID:24356834

  5. Rifampicin Resistance and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Detection Using Xpert MTB/RIF in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Pan, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui

    2018-06-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) can simultaneously detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA and rifampicin (RFP) resistance and can rapidly determine RFP resistance and predict multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In this study, we analyzed clinical examination results of a hospital specializing in TB treatment in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and examined the use of traditional culture and drug-sensitive test (DST) results as a gold standard to assess the diagnosis value of the Xpert MTB/RIF test in RFP resistance and MDR-TB. A total of 2,910 specimens were received in the Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, for Xpert MTB/RIF testing between December 2013 and December 2014. After the results were reviewed by exclusion criteria, 1,066 Xpert test results were eligible for our study. We then compared the Xpert test results with sputum acid-fast bacilli staining, cultures, and DST results. In total, Xpert correctly identified 96.71% (147/152) RFP-resistant TB and 98.25% (898/914) RFP-sensitive TB specimens. Of the 147 RFP-resistant TB specimens detected by Xpert, 122 MDR-TB (82.99%) were identified by traditional culture and DST techniques. Xpert can simultaneously detect MTB and RFP resistance with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus, Xpert testing aids in saving a considerable amount of time in the diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB.

  6. Treatment Practices, Outcomes, and Costs of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States, 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Jennifer; Seaworth, Barbara; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Armstrong, Lori; Mase, Sundari; Salcedo, Katya; Oh, Peter; Graviss, Edward A.; Colson, Paul W.; Armitige, Lisa; Revuelta, Manuel; Sheeran, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    To describe factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR), including extensively-drug-resistant (XDR), tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, we abstracted inpatient, laboratory, and public health clinic records of a sample of MDR TB patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from California, New York City, and Texas during 2005–2007. At initial diagnosis, MDR TB was detected in 94% of 130 MDR TB patients and XDR TB in 80% of 5 XDR TB patients. Mutually exclusive resistance was 4% XDR, 17% pre-XDR, 24% total first-line resistance, 43% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-plus-other resistance, and 13% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-only resistance. Nearly three-quarters of patients were hospitalized, 78% completed treatment, and 9% died during treatment. Direct costs, mostly covered by the public sector, averaged $134,000 per MDR TB and $430,000 per XDR TB patient; in comparison, estimated cost per non-MDR TB patient is $17,000. Drug resistance was extensive, care was complex, treatment completion rates were high, and treatment was expensive. PMID:24751166

  7. Genomic analysis of globally diverse Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains provides insights into the emergence and spread of multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Manson, Abigail L; Cohen, Keira A; Abeel, Thomas; Desjardins, Christopher A; Armstrong, Derek T; Barry, Clifton E; Brand, Jeannette; Chapman, Sinéad B; Cho, Sang-Nae; Gabrielian, Andrei; Gomez, James; Jodals, Andreea M; Joloba, Moses; Jureen, Pontus; Lee, Jong Seok; Malinga, Lesibana; Maiga, Mamoudou; Nordenberg, Dale; Noroc, Ecaterina; Romancenco, Elena; Salazar, Alex; Ssengooba, Willy; Velayati, A A; Winglee, Kathryn; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Via, Laura E; Cassell, Gail H; Dorman, Susan E; Ellner, Jerrold; Farnia, Parissa; Galagan, James E; Rosenthal, Alex; Crudu, Valeriu; Homorodean, Daniela; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Narayanan, Sujatha; Pym, Alexander S; Skrahina, Alena; Swaminathan, Soumya; Van der Walt, Martie; Alland, David; Bishai, William R; Cohen, Ted; Hoffner, Sven; Birren, Bruce W; Earl, Ashlee M

    2017-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), caused by drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an increasingly serious problem worldwide. Here we examined a data set of whole-genome sequences from 5,310 M. tuberculosis isolates from five continents. Despite the great diversity of these isolates with respect to geographical point of isolation, genetic background and drug resistance, the patterns for the emergence of drug resistance were conserved globally. We have identified harbinger mutations that often precede multidrug resistance. In particular, the katG mutation encoding p.Ser315Thr, which confers resistance to isoniazid, overwhelmingly arose before mutations that conferred rifampicin resistance across all of the lineages, geographical regions and time periods. Therefore, molecular diagnostics that include markers for rifampicin resistance alone will be insufficient to identify pre-MDR strains. Incorporating knowledge of polymorphisms that occur before the emergence of multidrug resistance, particularly katG p.Ser315Thr, into molecular diagnostics should enable targeted treatment of patients with pre-MDR-TB to prevent further development of MDR-TB.

  8. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis – from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. RESULTS In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24–14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81–8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98–7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15–8.99). CONCLUSIONS The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. PMID:28489185

  9. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Ajay; Nakajima, Chie; Fukushima, Yukari; Suzuki, Haruka; Pandey, Basu Dev; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that Nepal is one of the first countries globally to introduce multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) case management, the number of MDR-TB cases is continuing to rise in Nepal. Rapid molecular tests applicable in this setting to identify resistant organisms would be an effective tool in reversing this trend. To develop such tools, information about the frequency and distribution of mutations that are associated with phenotypic drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in rpoB and katG genes and the inhA promoter region in 158 M. tuberculosis isolates (109 phenotypically MDR and 49 non-MDR isolates collected in Nepal) by DNA sequencing. Mutations affecting the 81-bp rifampin (RIF) resistance-determining region (RRDR) of rpoB were identified in 106 of 109 (97.3%) RIF-resistant isolates. Codons 531, 526, and 516 were the most commonly affected, at percentages of 58.7, 15.6, and 15.6%, respectively. Of 113 isoniazid (INH)-resistant isolates, 99 (87.6%) had mutations in the katG gene, with Ser315Thr being the most prevalent (81.4%) substitution. Mutations in the inhA promoter region were detected in 14 (12.4%) INH-resistant isolates. The results from this study provide an overview of the current situation of RIF and INH resistance in M. tuberculosis in Nepal and can serve as a basis for developing or improving rapid molecular tests to monitor drug-resistant strains in this country.

  10. Genotyping and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijian; Lu, Jie; Liu, Min; Wang, Yufeng; Qu, Geping; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Jichun; Pang, Yu; Liu, Changting; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the population structure of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis strains and distribution of resistance-associated nucleotide alteration among the different genotype MDR strains in China. The genotypes of 376 MDR strain were analyzed by 15-loci MIRU-VNTR and RD105 deletion-targeted multiplex PCR (DTM-PCR) method. In addition, all the MDR isolates were sequenced for genetic mutations conferring rifampicin (rpoB) and isonizid resistance (katG, inhA and oxyR-ahpC). Among the 376 MDR isolates, 261 (69.4%) belonged to Beijing genotype, including 177 modern Beijing strains (67.8%) and 84 ancient Beijing (32.2%) strains. The percentages of streptomycin-resistant, kanamycin-resistant, pre-XDR and XDR TB in modern Beijing genotype were significantly lower than ancient genotype (P < 0.05). The Beijing MDR strains had significantly higher proportions of ofloxacin-resistant and pre-XDR isolates than non-Beijing strains (P < 0.01). In addition, the clustering rate of modern Beijing strains was significantly higher than that of ancient Beijing strains (46.3% vs. 11.9%, P < 0.01). 94.7% and 79.3% of MDR isolates harbored genetic mutations conferring rifampicin and isonizid resistance, respectively, and the most prevalent mutation was located in codon rpoB531 and katG315. In addition, the rpoB531 and katG mutation were more frequently observed among Beijing genotype strains than non-Beijing strains, while non-Beijing genotype showed stronger association with isolates lacking mutation in rifampicin resistance determination region (P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that ancient Beijing MDR strains were associated with drug resistance, while modern Beijing MDR strains were more likely to be clustered. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  12. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a product of globalization.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, P M

    2015-04-01

    Global trade and mobility of people has increased rapidly over the last 20 years. This has had profound consequences for the evolution and the movement of antibiotic resistance genes. There is increasing exposure of populations all around the world to resistant bacteria arising in the emerging economies. Arguably the most important development of the last two decades in the field of antibiotic resistance is the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M group. A consequence of the very high rates of ESBL production among Enterobacteriaceae in Asian countries is that there is a substantial use of carbapenem antibiotics, resulting in the emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to carbapenems. This article reviews the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, focuses on three particular carbapenemases--imipenem carbapenemases, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase--and highlights the importance of control of antibiotic use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy in the era of multidrug-resistant human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pogue, J M; Kaye, K S; Cohen, D A; Marchaim, D

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has brought a significant rise in antimicrobial resistance, and the ESKAPE pathogens have become a significant threat to public health. Three epidemiological features that negatively impact patients, which are consistently seen with the ESKAPE pathogens, are the following: 1) there has been a rise in incidence of these organisms as causative human pathogens, 2) there has been a significant increase in antimicrobial resistance in these bacterial species, and 3) the infections caused by these resistant strains are associated with worse outcomes when compared with infections caused by their susceptible counterparts. Significant delays in time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy of up to 5 days have been reported in infections due to these organisms and this is the strongest predictor of mortality with ESKAPE pathogens, particular in critically ill patients, where every hour delay has an incremental survival disadvantage for patients. Strategies to decrease these delays are urgently needed. Although routine broad-spectrum empiric coverage for these organisms would ideally limit this delay, agents with activity against these organisms are sometimes less effective, have significant toxicity risk, and their use can result in the development of resistance. Therefore, strategies to optimize therapy, although limiting unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, are urgently needed. This review will discuss potential strategies to optimize empiric therapy in the age of multi-drug resistance, the limitations of these strategies, and will discuss future directions and opportunities. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot Screening to Determine Antimicrobial Synergies in a Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Strain Library

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Chulmin; Chun, Hye-Sun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    With the rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections, there has been increasing interest in combinations of ≥2 antimicrobial agents with synergistic effects. We established an MDR bacterial strain library to screen for in vitro antimicrobial synergy by using a broth microdilution checkerboard method and high-throughput luciferase-based bacterial cell viability assay. In total, 39 MDR bacterial strains, including 23 carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, 9 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, and 7 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, were used to screen for potential antimicrobial synergies. Synergies were more frequently identified with combinations of imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in the library. To verify this finding, we tested 34 A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to both imipenem and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole by the checkerboard method. The imipenem plus trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole combination showed synergy in the treatment of 21 (62%) of the clinical isolates. The results indicate that pilot screening for antimicrobial synergy in the MDR bacterial strain library could be valuable in the selection of combination therapeutic regimens to treat MDR bacterial infections. Further studies are warranted to determine whether this screening system can be useful to screen for the combined effects of conventional antimicrobials and new-generation antimicrobials or nonantimicrobials. PMID:26974861

  15. Cloacael Carriage and Multidrug Resistance Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Poultry Farms, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shecho, Mude; Muktar, Yimer

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of E. coli O157:H7 isolates and estimate the level of the pathogen. A total of 194 cloacae swab samples were collected randomly in two poultry farms. Standard cultural, biochemical, and serological (latex agglutination) methods were used to isolate E. coli O157:H7. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method. Out of 194 cloacae samples examined, 13.4% (n = 26) were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7. The finding indicated differences in E. coli O157:H7 infection among the different risk factors. Chicken from Adele Poultry Farm showed higher E. coli O157:H7 infection (OR = 3.89) than Haramaya University poultry farm and young birds had more infection (OR = 4.62) than adult birds. Of the total 14 antimicrobials included in the panel of study, the susceptibility results were varied with 96.15% and 0% E. coli O157:H7 isolates expressing resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, spectinomycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Multidrug resistance to more than two antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (92.30%) of the isolates. The study showed high presence of antimicrobial resistant isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Further study is required to better understand the ecology and evolution of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:28349121

  16. Cloacael Carriage and Multidrug Resistance Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Poultry Farms, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shecho, Mude; Thomas, Naod; Kemal, Jelalu; Muktar, Yimer

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of E. coli O157:H7 isolates and estimate the level of the pathogen. A total of 194 cloacae swab samples were collected randomly in two poultry farms. Standard cultural, biochemical, and serological (latex agglutination) methods were used to isolate E. coli O157:H7. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disc diffusion method. Out of 194 cloacae samples examined, 13.4% ( n = 26) were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7. The finding indicated differences in E. coli O157:H7 infection among the different risk factors. Chicken from Adele Poultry Farm showed higher E. coli O157:H7 infection (OR = 3.89) than Haramaya University poultry farm and young birds had more infection (OR = 4.62) than adult birds. Of the total 14 antimicrobials included in the panel of study, the susceptibility results were varied with 96.15% and 0% E. coli O157:H7 isolates expressing resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, spectinomycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Multidrug resistance to more than two antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (92.30%) of the isolates. The study showed high presence of antimicrobial resistant isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Further study is required to better understand the ecology and evolution of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  17. Pathogens of Bovine Respiratory Disease in North American Feedlots Conferring Multidrug Resistance via Integrative Conjugative Elements

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hendrick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. PMID:24478472

  18. Pathogens of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlots conferring multidrug resistance via integrative conjugative elements.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Booker, Calvin W; Hendrick, Steve; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD.

  19. Incidence of multidrug resistant Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from Ponnani, South India.

    PubMed

    Reyhanath, Pilakka Veettil; Kutty, Ranjeet

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been reported from Ponnani earlier, however incidence of multidrug resistant strains have been encountered recently in clinical laboratories. The source for such strains and their presence in this major fish landing centre has been investigated. Antibiotic sensitivity tests on isolates of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from three different substrates were conducted following disc diffusion method. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus (cfu/ml) were relatively high in sediment samples (7.67 ± 2.08), compared to shrimp (5.33 ±1.53) and water samples (3.67 ± 1.15). V. parahaemolyticus isolated from water showed relatively higher antibiotic resistance pattern compared to other two groups. The highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was recorded against cephalothin and nitrofurantonine; the lowest was against tobramycin, piperacillin and amikacin. Maximum multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains were encountered from water samples followed by shrimps. Results emerging from the present study clearly showed that Ponnani has a fairly good population of antibiotic resistant strains of V. parahaemolyticus. The present study provides an insight on the microbial population of V. parahaemolyticus in Ponnani harbour and warrants the need to develop control measures to reduce incidences of post-harvest contamination of seafood.

  20. ABCC3 as a marker for multidrug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanbin; Lu, Hailing; Yan, An; Yang, Yanmei; Meng, Qingwei; Sun, Lichun; Pang, Hui; Li, Chunhong; Dong, Xiaoqun; Cai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) contributes to the failure of chemotherapy and high mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aim to identify MDR genes that predict tumor response to chemotherapy. 199 NSCLC fresh tissue samples were tested for chemosensitivity by MTT assay. cDNA microarray was done with 5 samples with highest resistance and 6 samples with highest sensitivity. Expression of ABCC3 mRNA and protein was detected by real-time PCR and immunohistochemisty, respectively. The association between gene expression and overall survival (OS) was examined using Cox proportional hazard regression. 44 genes were upregulated and 168 downregulated in the chemotherapy-resistant group. ABCC3 was one of the most up-regulated genes in the resistant group. ABCC3-positive expression correlated with lymph node involvement, advanced TNM stage, more malignant histological type, multiple-resistance to anti-cancer drugs, and reduced OS. ABCC3 expression may serve as a marker for MDR and predictor for poor clinical outcome of NSCLC. PMID:24176985

  1. Transferability of antimicrobial resistance from multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle in the USA to E. coli and Salmonella Newport recipients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate conjugative transfer of cephalosporin resistance among (n=100) strains of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (MDRE) to Salmonella Newport and E. coli DH5-alpha recipients. To accomplish this, phenotypic and genotypic profiles were determined for MDRE, ...

  2. Modulation of human multidrug-resistance MDR-1 gene by natural curcuminoids

    PubMed Central

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Buddhasukh, Duang

    2004-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in patient's tumor cells resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is related to the overexpression of a membrane protein, P-glycoprotein (Pgp-170), thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. A variety of studies have tried to find MDR modulators which increase drug accumulation in cancer cells. Methods In this study, natural curcuminoids, pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), were compared for their potential ability to modulate the human MDR-1 gene expression in multidrug resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line, KB-V1 by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Results Western blot analysis and RT-PCR showed that all the three curcuminoids inhibited MDR-1 gene expression, and bisdemethoxycurcumin produced maximum effect. In additional studies we found that commercial grade curcuminoid (approximately 77% curcumin, 17% demethoxycurcumin and 3% bisdemthoxycurcumin) decreased MDR-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and had about the same potent inhibitory effect on MDR-1 gene expression as our natural curcuminoid mixtures. Conclusion These results indicate that bisdemethoxycurcumin is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric for modulation of MDR-1 gene. Treatment of drug resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with a decreased MDR-1 gene product, a P-glycoprotein, on the cell plasma membrane. Although many drugs that prevent the P-glycoprotein function have been reported, this report describes the inhibition of MDR-1 expression by a phytochemical. The modulation of MDR-1 expression may be an attractive target for new chemosensitizing agents. PMID:15090070

  3. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luísa C S; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii poses a tremendous challenge to traditional antibiotic therapy. Due to the crucial role of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, we investigated iron metabolism as a possible target for anti-A. baumannii chemotherapy using gallium as an iron mimetic. Due to chemical similarity, gallium competes with iron for binding to several redox enzymes, thereby interfering with a number of essential biological reactions. We found that Ga(NO(3))(3), the active component of an FDA-approved drug (Ganite), inhibits the growth of a collection of 58 A. baumannii strains in both chemically defined medium and human serum, at concentrations ranging from 2 to 80 μM and from 4 to 64 μM, respectively. Ga(NO(3))(3) delayed the entry of A. baumannii into the exponential phase and drastically reduced bacterial growth rates. Ga(NO(3))(3) activity was strongly dependent on iron availability in the culture medium, though the mechanism of growth inhibition was independent of dysregulation of gene expression controlled by the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Ga(NO(3))(3) also protected Galleria mellonella larvae from lethal A. baumannii infection, with survival rates of ≥75%. At therapeutic concentrations for humans (28 μM plasma levels), Ga(NO(3))(3) inhibited the growth in human serum of 76% of the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates tested by ≥90%, raising expectations on the therapeutic potential of gallium for the treatment of A. baumannii bloodstream infections. Ga(NO(3))(3) also showed strong synergism with colistin, suggesting that a colistin-gallium combination holds promise as a last-resort therapy for infections caused by pan-resistant A. baumannii.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activities of Gallium Nitrate against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Luísa C. S.; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii poses a tremendous challenge to traditional antibiotic therapy. Due to the crucial role of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, we investigated iron metabolism as a possible target for anti-A. baumannii chemotherapy using gallium as an iron mimetic. Due to chemical similarity, gallium competes with iron for binding to several redox enzymes, thereby interfering with a number of essential biological reactions. We found that Ga(NO3)3, the active component of an FDA-approved drug (Ganite), inhibits the growth of a collection of 58 A. baumannii strains in both chemically defined medium and human serum, at concentrations ranging from 2 to 80 μM and from 4 to 64 μM, respectively. Ga(NO3)3 delayed the entry of A. baumannii into the exponential phase and drastically reduced bacterial growth rates. Ga(NO3)3 activity was strongly dependent on iron availability in the culture medium, though the mechanism of growth inhibition was independent of dysregulation of gene expression controlled by the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Ga(NO3)3 also protected Galleria mellonella larvae from lethal A. baumannii infection, with survival rates of ≥75%. At therapeutic concentrations for humans (28 μM plasma levels), Ga(NO3)3 inhibited the growth in human serum of 76% of the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates tested by ≥90%, raising expectations on the therapeutic potential of gallium for the treatment of A. baumannii bloodstream infections. Ga(NO3)3 also showed strong synergism with colistin, suggesting that a colistin-gallium combination holds promise as a last-resort therapy for infections caused by pan-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:22964249

  5. Virtual screening of ABCC1 transporter nucleotidebinding domains as a therapeutic target in multidrug resistant cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rungsardthong, Kanin; Mares- Sámano, Sergio; Penny, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    ABCC1 is a member of the ATP-binding Cassette super family of transporters, actively effluxes xenobiotics from cells. Clinically, ABCC1 expression is linked to cancer multidrug resistance. Substrate efflux is energised by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and inhibition of these events may help combat drug resistance. The aim of this study is to identify potential inhibitors of ABCC1 through virtual screening of National Cancer Institute (NCI) compounds. A threedimensional model of ABCC1 NBD2 was generated using MODELLER whilst the X-ray crystal structure of ABCC1 NBD1 was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. A pharmacophore hypothesis was generated based on flavonoids known to bind at the NBDs using PHASE, and used to screen the NCI database. GLIDE was employed in molecular docking studies for all hit compounds identified by pharmacophore screening. The best potential inhibitors were identified as compounds possessing predicted binding affinities greater than ATP. Approximately 5% (13/265) of the hit compounds possessed lower docking scores than ATP in ABCC1 NBD1 (NSC93033, NSC662377, NSC319661, NSC333748, NSC683893, NSC226639, NSC94231, NSC55979, NSC169121, NSC166574, NSC73380, NSC127738, NSC115534), whereas approximately 7% (7/104) of docked NCI compounds were predicted to possess lower docking scores than ATP in ABCC1 NBD2 (NSC91789, NSC529483, NSC211168, NSC318214, NSC116519, NSC372332, NSC526974). Analyses of docking orientations revealed P-loop residues of each NBD and the aromatic amino acids Trp653 (NBD1) and Tyr1302 (NBD2) were key in interacting with high-affinity compounds. On the basis of docked orientation and docking score the compounds identified may be potential inhibitors of ABCC1 and require further pharmacological analysis. Abbreviations ABC - ATP-binding cassette, DHS - dehydrosilybin, MDR - multidrug resistance, NBD - nucleotide-binding domain, PDB - protein data bank. PMID:23144549

  6. [Clinical observation of apatinib mesylate for the treatment of multi-drug resistant advanced breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Lü, H M; Zhang, M W; Niu, L M; Zeng, H A; Yan, M

    2018-04-24

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy and adverse outcomes of apatinib mesylate for the treatment of multi-drug resistant advanced breast cancer. Methods: A total of 24 patients with multi-drug-resistant advanced breast cancer who underwent apatinib mesylate treatment were retrospectively analyzed at the Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Breast Cancer of Henan Cancer Hospital. Patients were reviewed every 4 weeks after initial treatment and then every 8 weeks after stable disease. Objective response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) , toxicity and adverse outcomes of apatinib mesylate treatment were evaluated by imaging examinations. Results: Totally, 24 patients received apatinib mesylate at a dose of 500 mg QD. Out of the 24 patients treated, complete remission (CR) occurred in none of the patients, partial remission (PR) in 10 cases, stable disease (SD) in 10 cases, progressive disease (PD) in 4 cases, and drug with drawal in 2 cases due to adverse outcomes. Treatment with apatinib mesylate resulted in an ORR of 41.7% (10/24), disease control rate (DCR) of 83.3%, PFS of 4.7 months, and OS of 8.0 months. Adverse outcomes included proteinuria, high blood pressure, fatigue, hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), hyperbilirubinemia, leukopenia, hair/skin pigmentation decreased. Most of the adverse events were tolerable and can be controlled after symptomatic management. Conclusions: Single-agent apatinib mesylate demonstrated the good short-term efficacy for multi-drug resistant advanced breast cancer in patients who previously underwent multiple line treatment failures. Adverse effects were controllable after symptomatic management. Treatment with apatinib mesylate maybe a viable option when other treatment modalities failed.

  7. Efflux Pump Gene Expression in Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Zhao, Li-li; Zhao, Xiuqin; Lu, Jianxin; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) are the two most effective drugs in tuberculosis therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance to these two drugs is essential to quickly diagnose multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nine clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to only INH and RIF and 10 clinical pan-sensitive isolates were included to evaluate the expression of 20 putative drug efflux pump genes and sequence mutations in rpoB (RIF), katG (INH), the inhA promoter (INH), and oxyR-ahpC (INH). Nine and three MDR isolates were induced to overexpress efflux pump genes by INH and RIF, respectively. Eight and two efflux pump genes were induced to overexpress by INH and RIF in MDR isolates, respectively. drrA, drrB, efpA, jefA (Rv2459), mmr, Rv0849, Rv1634, and Rv1250 were overexpressed under INH or RIF stress. Most efflux pump genes were overexpressed under INH stress in a MDR isolates that carried the wild-type katG, inhA, and oxyR-ahpC associated with INH resistance than in those that carried mutations. The expression levels of 11 genes (efpA, Rv0849, Rv1250, P55 (Rv1410c), Rv1634, Rv2994, stp, Rv2459, pstB, drrA, and drrB) without drug inducement were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in nine MDR isolates than in 10 pan-sensitive isolates. In conclusion, efflux pumps may play an important role in INH acquired resistance in MDR M. tuberculosis, especially in those strains having no mutations in genes associated with INH resistance; basal expression levels of some efflux pump genes are higher in MDR isolates than in pan-sensitive isolates and the basal expressional differences may be helpful to diagnose and treat resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25695504

  8. Dual Agent Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in a Multidrug-Resistant Breast Tumor Eenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zheng, Xue-Lian; Fang, Dai-Long; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jin-Kun; Li, Hui-Li; Xu, Bei; Lei, Yi; Ren, Ke; Song, Xiang-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant breast cancers have limited and ineffective clinical treatment options. This study aimed to develop PLGA nanoparticles containing a synergistic combination of vincristine and verapamil to achieve less toxicity and enhanced efficacy on multidrug-resistant breast cancers. The 1:250 molar ratio of VCR/VRP showed strong synergism with the reversal index of approximately 130 in the multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells compared to drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells. The lyophilized nanoparticles could get dispersed quickly with the similar size distribution, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency to the pre-lyophilized nanoparticles suspension, and maintain the synergistic in vitro release ratio of drugs. The co-encapsulated nanoparticle formulation had lower toxicity than free vincristine/verapamil combinations according to the acute-toxicity test. Furthermore, the most effective tumor growth inhibition in the MCF-7/ADR human breast tumor xenograft was observed in the co-delivery nanoparticle formulation group in comparison with saline control, free vincristine, free vincristine/verapamil combinations and single-drug nanoparticle combinations. All the data demonstrated that PLGANPs simultaneously loaded with chemotherapeutic drug and chemosensitizer might be one of the most potential formulations in the treatment of multidrug-resistant breast cancer in clinic. PMID:24552875

  9. [The role of CCLINs in the event of an epidemic of multi-drug and highly resistant bacteria].

    PubMed

    Landriu, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    The management of epidemics of multi-drug and highly resistant bacteria must be based on a structured organisation. Within each region it requires the expertise of centres for the interregional coordination of nosocomial infection control (CCLINs) and their regional branches of nosocomial infection control (Arlin) which support hospitals in reporting these types of epidemics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Multidrug-resistant bacteria infection control: study of compliance with isolation precautions in a Paris university hospital.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Trecan, G M; Delamare, N; Tcherny-Lessenot, S; Lamory, J; Baudin, F; de Prittwitz, M; Salmon-Ceron, D

    2001-02-01

    Isolation practices in a university hospital were analyzed for 137 patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Isolation was ordered in writing by physicians for 40% and instituted by nurses for 60%; 74% were isolated. Compliance depended on physician ordering in writing (odds ratio, 36.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-274.9). Nurses complied best with hand washing.

  11. Chlortetracycline and florfenicol induce expression of genes associated with pathogenicity in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a serious public health threat as infections caused by these strains are more difficult and expensive to treat. Livestock serve as a reservoir for MDR Salmonella, and the antibiotics chlortetracycline an...

  12. Fecal Microbiota Transfer for Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negatives: A Clinical Success Combined With Microbiological Failure.

    PubMed

    Stalenhoef, Janneke E; Terveer, Elisabeth M; Knetsch, Cornelis W; Van't Hof, Peter J; Vlasveld, Imro N; Keller, Josbert J; Visser, Leo G; Kuijper, Eduard J

    2017-01-01

    Combined fecal microbiota transfer and antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences of urinary tract infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , but it failed to eradicate intestinal colonization with MDR Escherichia coli . Based on microbiota analysis, failure was not associated with distinct diminished microbiota diversity.

  13. Intravenous immunoglobulin enhances the killing activity and autophagy of neutrophils isolated from immunocompromised patients against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hidemasa; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Naoko; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Takeshi; Shiga, Shuichi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Kondo, Tadakazu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Adachi, Souichi

    2015-08-14

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is periodically administered to immunocompromised patients together with antimicrobial agents. The evidence that supports the effectiveness of IVIG is mostly based on data from randomized clinical trials; the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. A recent study revealed that killing of multidrug-resistant bacteria and drug-sensitive strains by neutrophils isolated from healthy donors is enhanced by an IVIG preparation. However, the effectiveness of IVIG in immunocompromised patients remains unclear. The present study found that IVIG increased both killing activity and O2(-) release by neutrophils isolated from six patients receiving immune-suppressive drugs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); these neutrophils killed both multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Moreover, IVIG increased the autophagy of the neutrophils, which is known to play an important role in innate immunity. These results suggest that IVIG promotes both the killing activity and autophagy of neutrophils isolated from immunocompromised patients against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces generalized transducing phage in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella, a leading cause of U.S. foodborne disease and food-related deaths, often asymptomatically colonizes food-producing animals. In fact, >50% of U.S. swine production facilities test positive for Salmonella. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 NCTC13348 c...

  15. High-level fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli overproduce multidrug efflux protein AcrA.

    PubMed

    Mazzariol, A; Tokue, Y; Kanegawa, T M; Cornaglia, G; Nikaido, H

    2000-12-01

    Immunoblotting with antibody against AcrA, an obligatory component of the AcrAB multidrug efflux system, showed that this protein was overexpressed by >/=170% in 9 of 10 clinical isolates of Esherichia coli with high-level ciprofloxacin resistance (MICs, >/=32 microg/ml) but not in any of the 15 isolates for which the MIC was

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Isolates of Enterococcus faecium Sequence Type 117, a Globally Disseminated Multidrug-Resistant Clone

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Lanza, Val F.; Manrique, Marina; Pareja, Eduardo; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Tobes, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant sequence type 117 (ST117) Enterococcus faecium has been reported in several European countries. ST117 has been detected in Spanish hospitals as one of the main causes of bloodstream infections. We analyzed genome variations of ST117 strains isolated in Madrid and describe the first ST117 closed genome sequences. PMID:28360174

  17. Preclinical study shows drug has extreme potency against multidrug-resistant HIV variants | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR investigators and colleagues have developed an anti-HIV drug, GRL-142, which at low concentrations block the replication of various wild-type and multidrug-resistant HIV strains. The drug also reaches high concentrations in a rat’s brain, suggesting it may prevent HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Read more…

  18. Draft genome sequence analysis of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated in 2013 from humans and chickens in Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of nine multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from humans (n=6) and chicken carcass (n=3) from Lagos, Nigeria in 2013. Multiple extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes were identified in these isolates. ...

  19. Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causing Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: A Genetic-Based Chronicle of Evolving Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Domitrovic, T Nicholas; Hujer, Andrea M; Perez, Federico; Marshall, Steven H; Hujer, Kristine M; Woc-Colburn, Laila E; Parta, Mark; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Successful treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is thwarted by the emergence of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation on prosthetic devices. Our aims were to decipher the molecular basis of resistance in a unique case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by MDR P. aeruginosa . Methods.  Five sequential MDR P. aeruginosa blood isolates collected during a 7-month period were recovered from a patient suffering from PVE previously exposed to β-lactam antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of several classes of antibiotics were used to indicate clinical resistance characteristics; relatedness of the isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing and repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. Amplification and sequencing of regulatory and resistance genes was performed. Results.  All isolates belonged to ST 298, possessed bla PDC-16 , and were resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. In the course of therapy, we observed a >2-fold increase in cephalosporin resistance (4 µg/mL to >16 µg/mL). Sequencing of the AmpC regulator, amp R, revealed a D135N point mutation in cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Common carbapenemase genes were not identified. All isolates demonstrated a premature stop codon at amino acid 79 of the outer membrane protein OprD and mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyr A and par C. Point mutations in nal C, an efflux pump regulator, were also observed. Conclusions.  In this analysis, we chart the molecular evolution of β-lactam resistance in a case of PVE. We show that mutations in regulatory genes controlling efflux and cephalosporinase production contributed to the MDR phenotype.

  20. Characterization of Four Multidrug Resistance Plasmids Captured from the Sediments of an Urban Coastal Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Botts, Ryan T.; Apffel, Brooke A.; Walters, C. J.; Davidson, Kelly E.; Echols, Ryan S.; Geiger, Michael R.; Guzman, Victoria L.; Haase, Victoria S.; Montana, Michal A.; La Chat, Chip A.; Mielke, Jenna A.; Mullen, Kelly L.; Virtue, Cierra C.; Brown, Celeste J.; Top, Eva M.; Cummings, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Self-transmissible and mobilizable plasmids contribute to the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria by enabling the horizontal transfer of acquired antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to capture and characterize self-transmissible and mobilizable resistance plasmids from a coastal wetland impacted by urban stormwater runoff and human wastewater during the rainy season. Four plasmids were captured, two self-transmissible and two mobilizable, using both mating and enrichment approaches. Plasmid genomes, sequenced with either Illumina or PacBio platforms, revealed representatives of incompatibility groups IncP-6, IncR, IncN3, and IncF. The plasmids ranged in size from 36 to 144 kb and encoded known resistance genes for most of the major classes of antibiotics used to treat Gram-negative infections (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and amphenicols). The mobilizable IncP-6 plasmid pLNU-11 was discovered in a strain of Citrobacter freundii enriched from the wetland sediments with tetracycline and nalidixic acid, and encodes a novel AmpC-like β-lactamase (blaWDC-1), which shares less than 62% amino acid sequence identity with the PDC class of β-lactamases found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although the IncR plasmid pTRE-1611 was captured by mating wetland bacteria with P. putida KT2440 as recipient, it was found to be mobilizable rather than self-transmissible. Two self-transmissible multidrug-resistance plasmids were also captured: the small (48 kb) IncN3 plasmid pTRE-131 was captured by mating wetland bacteria with Escherichia coli HY842 where it is seemed to be maintained at nearly 240 copies per cell, while the large (144 kb) IncF plasmid pTRE-2011, which was isolated from a cefotaxime-resistant environmental strain of E. coli ST744, exists at just a single copy per cell. Furthermore, pTRE-2011 bears the globally epidemic blaCTX-M-55 extended-spectrum β-lactamase downstream of ISEcp1. Our

  1. High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Swaziland, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Dlamini, Themba; Ascorra, Alexandra; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Tefera, Zerihun Demissie; Calain, Philippe; de la Tour, Roberto; Jochims, Frauke; Richter, Elvira; Bonnet, Maryline

    2012-01-01

    In Africa, although emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) represents a serious threat in countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic, most countries lack drug-resistant TB data. This finding was particularly true in the Kingdom of Swaziland, which has the world’s highest HIV and TB prevalences. Therefore, we conducted a national survey in 2009–2010 to measure prevalence of drug-resistant TB. Of 988 patients screened, 420 new case-patients and 420 previously treated case-patients met the study criteria. Among culture-positive patients, 15.3% new case-patients and 49.5% previously treated case-patients harbored drug-resistant strains. MDR TB prevalence was 7.7% and 33.8% among new case-patients and previously treated case-patients, respectively. HIV infection and past TB treatment were independently associated with MDR TB. The findings assert the need for wide-scale intervention in resource-limited contexts such as Swaziland, where diagnostic and treatment facilities and health personnel are lacking. PMID:22260950

  2. Investigational drugs for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avery, Lindsay M; Nicolau, David P

    2018-04-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are associated with significant mortality and costs. New drugs in development to combat these difficult-to-treat infections primarily target carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. Areas covered: The authors summarize in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies, as well as available clinical trial findings, for new agents in development for treatment of infection caused by MDR-GNB. Information regarding dosage regimens utilized in clinical trials and key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations are provided if available. A summary of recently approved agents, delafloxacin and meropenem/vaborbactam, is also included. Expert opinion: The development of multiple novel agents to fight MDR-GNB is promising to help save the lives of patients who acquire infection, and judicious use of these agents is imperative once they come to market to prevent the development of resistance. The other component paramount to this field of research is implementation of effective infection control policies and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carrier screening protocols to mitigate the worldwide spread of MDR-GNB. Further investigation of anti-infective synergistic combinations will also be important, as well as support for economic research to reveal the true cost-benefit of utilization of the new agents discussed herein.

  3. Actinomycetes of Orthosipon stamineus rhizosphere as producer of antibacterial compound against multidrug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rante, H.; Yulianty, R.; Usmar; Djide, N.; Subehan; Burhamzah, R.; Prasad, M. B.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing case of antibiotic resistence has become an important problem to be faced in treating the infection diseases. The diversities of microbia, especially actinomycetes bacteria which originated from rizosphere soil of medicinal plant, has opened a chance for discovering the metabolites which can be used in solving the antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria problems. The aim of this research was to isolate the actinobacteria originated from medicinal plant rizosphere of Orthosipon stamineus as the producer of anti-multidrug resistances bacteria compounds. Three isolates of actinomycetes has been isolated from Orthosipon stamineus rhizosphere named KC3-1, KC3-2 and KC3-3. One isolate (KC3-3) showed big activity in inhibiting the test microbes by antagonistic test of actinomycetes isolates against Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli antibiotic resistant bacteria. Furthermore, the KC3-3 isolate was fermented in Starch Nitrate Broth (SNB) medium for 14 days. The supernatant and the biomass of the fermentation yield were separated. The supernatant were extracted using ethyl acetate as the solvent and the biomass were extracted using methanol. The antibacterial activity test of ethyl acetate and methanol extract revealed that the extracts can inhibit the bacteria test up to 5% concentration. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts can inhibit the bacteria test up to 5% concentration.

  4. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 transports methoxychlor and protects the seminiferous epithelium from injury.

    PubMed

    Tribull, Tiffany E; Bruner, Richard H; Bain, Lisa J

    2003-04-30

    We examined the ability of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) to transport pesticides, as this transporter mediates the cellular efflux of a variety of xenobiotics, typically as glucuronide, sulfate, or glutathione conjugates. NIH3T3 cells stably expressing MRP1 were 3.37-fold more resistant to the toxicity of fenitrothion, 3.12-fold more resistant to chlorpropham, and 2.5-fold more resistant to methoxychlor, a pesticide with estrogenic and anti-androgenic metabolites. The cells expressing MRP1 also eliminated methoxychlor two times more rapidly than their mock-transfected counterparts. We then examined whether mrp1 expression could alter the toxicity of methoxychlor in vivo using male FVB/mrp1 knockout mice (FVB/mrp1-/-). Both control and knockout mice were fed 25 mg/kg methoxychlor in honey for 39 days, and its effects on testicular morphology were examined. Methoxychlor treatment did not significantly affect testicular morphology in the FVB mice, but markedly reduced the number of developing spermatocytes in the FVB/mrp1-/- mice. These results suggest that MRPI may play a role in protecting the seminiferous tubules from methoxychlor-induced damage.

  5. Folate-mediated mitochondrial targeting with doxorubicin-polyrotaxane nanoparticles overcomes multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fengjiao; Sun, Mingna; Du, Lingran; Peng, Wei; Li, Qiuli; Feng, Yinghong; Zhou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs is a significant obstacle and a fundamental cause of therapeutic failure in cancer therapy. Functional doxorubicin (DOX) nanoparticles for targeted delivery of the classical cytotoxic anticancer drug DOX to tumor cells, using folate-terminated polyrotaxanes along with dequalinium, have been developed and proven to overcome this resistance due to specific molecular features, including a size of approximately 101 nm, a zeta potential of 3.25 mV and drug-loading content of 18%. Compared with free DOX, DOX hydrochloride, DOX nanoparticles, and targeted DOX nanoparticles, the functional DOX nanoparticles exhibited the strongest anticancer efficacy in vitro and in the drug-resistant MCF-7/ Adr (DOX) xenograft tumor model. More specifically, the nanoparticles significantly increased the intracellular uptake of DOX, selectively accumulating in mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum after treatment, with release of cytochrome C as a result. Furthermore, the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade was activated by the functional DOX nanoparticles through upregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bid and suppression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, thereby enhancing apoptosis by acting on the mitochondrial signaling pathways. In conclusion, functional DOX nanoparticles may provide a strategy for increasing the solubility of DOX and overcoming multidrug-resistant cancers. PMID:25605018

  6. High clustering rates of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Panama

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide and in the American region. Although multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a threat to TB control in Panama, few studies have focused in typing MDR-TB strains. The aim of our study was to characterize MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates using PCR-based genetic markers. Methods From 2002 to 2004, a total of 231 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from TB cases country-wide were screened for antibiotic resistance, and MDR-TB isolates were further genotyped by double repetitive element PCR (DRE-PCR), (GTG)5-PCR and spoligotyping. Results A total of 37 isolates (0.85%) were resistant to both isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). Among these 37 isolates, only two (5.4%) were resistant to all five drugs tested. Dual genotyping using DRE-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates revealed eight clusters comprising 82.9% of the MDR-TB strain collection, and six isolates (17.1%) showed unique fingerprints. The spoligotyping of MDR-TB clinical isolates identified 68% as members of the 42 (LAM9) family genotype. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis is highly clustered in Panama’s metropolitan area corresponding to Panama City and Colon City, and our study reveals the genotype distribution across the country. PMID:24053690

  7. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Giovanna; Maggini, Valentina; Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Sassoli, Chiara; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Chiellini, Carolina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Bogani, Patrizia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Campana, Silvia; Ravenni, Novella; Dolce, Daniela; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections.

  8. Evolution and Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Martin, Veronique; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Using whole-genome phylogenetic analysis, we placed these in the context of previously sequenced K. pneumoniae populations from geographically diverse countries and identified their virulence and drug resistance determinants. Our results demonstrate that United Kingdom and Ireland MDR isolates are a highly diverse population drawn from across the global phylogenetic tree of K. pneumoniae and represent multiple recent international introductions that are mainly from Europe but in some cases from more distant countries. In addition, we identified novel genetic determinants underlying resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclines, indicating that both increased virulence and resistance have emerged independently multiple times throughout the population. Our data show that MDR K. pneumoniae isolates in the United Kingdom and Ireland have multiple distinct origins and appear to be part of a globally circulating K. pneumoniae population. PMID:28223459

  9. Antimicrobial peptides as potential anti-biofilm agents against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pooi Yin; Khanum, Ramona

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity. AMPs have exhibited broad-spectrum activity against many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including drug-resistant strains, and fungi. In addition, AMPs also showed synergy with classical antibiotics, neutralize toxins and are active in animal models. In this review, the important mechanisms of action and potential of AMPs in the eradication of biofilm formation in multidrug-resistant pathogen, with the goal of designing novel antimicrobial therapeutics, are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Challenges and Strategies for Prevention of Multidrug-Resistant Organism Transmission in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Dumyati, Ghinwa; Stone, Nimalie D; Nace, David A; Crnich, Christopher J; Jump, Robin L P

    2017-04-01

    Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents. A small number of studies provide evidence that specifically address these challenges. Their outcomes support a paradigm shift that moves infection prevention and control practices away from a pathogen-specific approach and toward one that focuses on resident risk factors.

  11. Biomimetic RNA-silencing nanocomplexes: overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Dingbin; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Fu; Niu, Gang; Yang, Min; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-10

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an RNA-dependent gene silencing approach controlled by an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Herein, we present a synthetic RISC-mimic nanocomplex, which can actively cleave its target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. With high enzymatic stability and efficient self-delivery to target cells, the designed nanocomplex can selectively and potently induce gene silencing without cytokine activation. These nanocomplexes, which target multidrug resistance, are not only able to bypass the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, due to their nano-size effect, but also effectively suppress Pgp expression, thus resulting in successful restoration of drug sensitivity of OVCAR8/ADR cells to Pgp-transportable cytotoxic agents. This nanocomplex approach has the potential for both functional genomics and cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Serum vitamin d level and susceptibility to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among household contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlina, N.; Sinaga, B. Y. M.; Siagian, P.; Mutiara, E.

    2018-03-01

    Low levels of vitamin D is a predisposing factor for Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Family members in contact with the patient are also at risk of infection. Currently, there is no study that compares vitamin D levels between MDR-TB patients and household contact. This study aims to identify the association between level vitamin D within MDR-TB occurrence. This was a case-control study, with the number of samples in each group (MDR-TB) patients and household contactswere40 people. Each member of each group was checked for vitamin D levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Statistical analysis was by using Chi-Square analysis using SPSS. Mean levels of vitamin D in MDR-TB patients were 32.21, household contact 31.7. There was anosignificant association between vitamin D levels and MDR-TB occurrence (p=1.0).No significant associationbetween vitamin D level with theMDR-TB occurrence.

  13. Rapid and Accurate Molecular Identification of the Emerging Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen Candida auris

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanan; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Berrio, Indira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial and invasive infections associated with high mortality. C. auris is commonly misidentified as several different yeast species by commercially available phenotypic identification platforms. Thus, there is an urgent need for a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper, we present fast, robust, easy-to-perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays to identify C. auris and related species: Candida duobushaemulonii, Candida haemulonii, and Candida lusitaniae. Targeting rDNA region nucleotide sequences, primers specific for C. auris only or C. auris and related species were designed. A panel of 140 clinical fungal isolates was used in both PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The identification results from the assays were 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. These molecular assays overcome the deficiencies of existing phenotypic tests to identify C. auris and related species. PMID:28539346

  14. Clonal multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum within a nosocomial environment, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baio, Paulo Victor Pereira; Mota, Higor Franceschi; Freitas, Andréa D'avila; Gomes, Débora Leandro Rama; Ramos, Juliana Nunes; Sant'Anna, Lincoln Oliveira; Souza, Mônica Cristina; Camello, Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Hirata, Raphael; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism with the ability to produce outbreaks of nosocomial infections. Here, we document a nosocomial outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) C. striatum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. C. striatum identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing. Fifteen C. striatum strains were isolated from adults (half of whom were 50 years of age and older). C. striatum was mostly isolated in pure culture from tracheal aspirates of patients undergoing endotracheal intubation procedures. The analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated the presence of four PFGE profiles, including two related clones of MDR strains (PFGE I and II). The data demonstrated the predominance of PFGE type I, comprising 11 MDR isolates that were mostly isolated from intensive care units and surgical wards. A potential causal link between death and MDR C. striatum (PFGE types I and II) infection was observed in five cases. PMID:23440110

  15. Thiocarbamates from Moringa oleifera Seeds Bioactive against Virulent and Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio Species

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Hofer, Ernesto; Mafezoli, Jair; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    Prospect of antibacterial agents may provide an alternative therapy for diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of Moringa oleifera seed extracts against 100 vibrios isolated from the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts at low (MOS-E) and hot (MOS-ES) temperature are shown to be bioactive against 92% and 90% of the strains, respectively. The most efficient Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) levels of MOS-E and MOS-ES against a high percentage of strains were 32 µg mL−1. Bioguided screening of bioactive compounds showed that the ethyl acetate fraction from both extracts was the only one that showed antibacterial activity. Vibriocidal substances, niazirine and niazimicine, were isolated from the aforementioned fraction through chromatographic fractionation. PMID:28770224

  16. Rapid and Accurate Molecular Identification of the Emerging Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen Candida auris.

    PubMed

    Kordalewska, Milena; Zhao, Yanan; Lockhart, Shawn R; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Berrio, Indira; Perlin, David S

    2017-08-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial and invasive infections associated with high mortality. C. auris is commonly misidentified as several different yeast species by commercially available phenotypic identification platforms. Thus, there is an urgent need for a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper, we present fast, robust, easy-to-perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays to identify C. auris and related species: Candida duobushaemulonii , Candida haemulonii , and Candida lusitaniae Targeting rDNA region nucleotide sequences, primers specific for C. auris only or C. auris and related species were designed. A panel of 140 clinical fungal isolates was used in both PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The identification results from the assays were 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. These molecular assays overcome the deficiencies of existing phenotypic tests to identify C. auris and related species. Copyright © 2017 Kordalewska et al.

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii and C. auris, Tel Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Berman, Judith; Novikov, Ana; Bash, Edna; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Zakin, Shiri; Maor, Yasmin; Tarabia, Jalal; Schechner, Vered; Adler, Amos; Finn, Talya

    2017-02-01

    Candida auris and C. haemulonii are closely related, multidrug-resistant emerging fungal pathogens that are not readily distinguishable with phenotypic assays. We studied C. auris and C. haemulonii clinical isolates from 2 hospitals in central Israel. C. auris was isolated in 5 patients with nosocomial bloodstream infection, and C. haemulonii was found as a colonizer of leg wounds at a peripheral vascular disease clinic. Liberal use of topical miconazole and close contact among patients were implicated in C. haemulonii transmission. C. auris exhibited higher thermotolerance, virulence in a mouse infection model, and ATP-dependent drug efflux activity than C. haemulonii. Comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences found that C. auris strains from Israel were phylogenetically distinct from isolates from East Asia, South Africa and Kuwait, whereas C. haemulonii strains from different countries were closely interrelated. Our findings highlight the pathogenicity of C. auris and underscore the need to limit its spread.

  18. Multidrug resistant bacteria are sensitive to Euphorbia prostrata and six others Cameroonian medicinal plants extracts.

    PubMed

    Voukeng, Igor K; Beng, Veronique P; Kuete, Victor

    2017-07-25

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are responsible for therapeutic failure and there is an urgent need for novels compounds efficient on them. Eleven methanol extracts from seven Cameroonian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial activity using broth micro-dilution method against 36 MDR bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Euphorbia prostrata extract was found active against all the 36 tested bacteria including Gram-negative phenotypes over-expressing efflux pumps such as P. aeruginosa PA124, E. aerogenes CM64 and E. coli AG102. E. prostrata had minimal inhibitory concentrations values between 128 and 256 µg/mL on 55.55% of the studied microorganisms. Other plants extract displayed selective antibacterial activity. Results obtained in this study highlight the antibacterial potential of the tested plants and the possible use of E. prostrata to combat bacterial infections including MDR phenotypes.

  19. Programmatic management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: models from three countries.

    PubMed

    Furin, J; Bayona, J; Becerra, M; Farmer, P; Golubkov, A; Hurtado, R; Joseph, J K; Keshavjee, S; Ponomarenko, O; Rich, M; Shin, S

    2011-10-01

    Although multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major global health problem, there is a gap in programmatic treatment implementation. This study describes MDR-TB treatment models in three countries--Peru, Russia and Lesotho-- using qualitative data collected over a 13-year period. A program analysis is presented for each country focusing on baseline medical care, initial implementation and program evolution. A pattern analysis revealed six overarching themes common to all three programs: 1) importance of baseline assessments, 2) early identification of key collaborators, 3) identification of initial locus of care, 4) minimization of patient-incurred costs, 5) targeted interventions for vulnerable populations and 6) importance of technical assistance and funding. Site commonalities and differences in each of these areas were analyzed. It is recommended that all programs providing MDR-TB treatment address these six areas during program development and implementation.

  20. Fighting infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G

    2009-03-01

    Growing bacterial resistance in Gram-positive pathogens means that what were once effective and inexpensive treatments for infections caused by these bacteria are now being seriously questioned, including penicillin and macrolides for use against pneumococcal infections and-in hospitals-oxacillin for use against staphylococcal infections. As a whole, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive pathogens are rapidly becoming an urgent and sometimes unmanageable clinical problem. Nevertheless, and despite decades of research into the effects of antibiotics, the actual risk posed to human health by antibiotic resistance has been poorly defined; the lack of reliable data concerning the outcomes resulting from antimicrobial resistance stems, in part, from problems with study designs and the methods used in resistence determination. Surprisingly little is known, too, about the actual effectiveness of the many types of intervention aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance. New antibiotics active against MDR Gram-positive pathogens have been recently introduced into clinical practice, and the antibiotic pipeline contains additional compounds at an advanced stage of development, including new glycopeptides, new anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) beta-lactams, and new diaminopyrimidines. Many novel antimicrobial agents are likely to be niche products, endowed with narrow antibacterial spectra and/or targeted at specific clinical problems. Therefore, an important educational goal will be to change the current, long-lasting attitudes of both physicians and customers towards broad-spectrum and multipurpose compounds. Scientific societies, such as the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), must play a leading role in this process.

  1. Biofilm formation and multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. from wild animals.

    PubMed

    Dias, Carla; Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria José; Simões, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The 'One Health' concept recognises that the health of humans, animals and the environment are interconnected. Therefore, knowledge on the behaviour of micro-organisms from the most diverse environmental niches is important to prevent the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Wild animals are known to carry antimicrobial-resistant micro-organisms with potential public health impact. However, no data are available on the behaviour of sessile bacteria from wild animals, although antimicrobial resistance is amplified in biofilms. This study characterised the ciprofloxacin susceptibility and the adhesion and biofilm formation abilities of 14 distinct Aeromonas spp. (8 Aeromonas salmonicida, 3 Aeromonas eucrenophila, 2 Aeromonas bestiarum and 1 Aeromonas veronii) isolated from wild animals and already characterised as resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. The ciprofloxacin MIC was determined according to CLSI guidelines. A biofilm formation assay was performed by a modified microtitre plate method. Bacterial surface hydrophobicity was assessed by sessile drop contact angle measurement. All Aeromonas spp. strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 6-60μg/mL) and had hydrophilic surfaces (range 2-37mJ/m 2 ). These strains were able to adhere and form biofilms with distinct magnitudes. Biofilm exposure to 10×MIC of ciprofloxacin only caused low to moderate biofilm removal. This study shows that the strains tested are of potential public health concern and emphasises that wild animals are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant strains. In fact, Aeromonas spp. are consistently considered opportunistic pathogens. Moreover, bacterial ability to form biofilms increases antimicrobial resistance and the propensity to cause persistent infections. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible impact of the standardized Category IV regimen on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, Zarir F; Mullerpattan, Jai Bharat; Shah, Kushal D; Rodrigues, Camilla S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB program involves a standard regimen with a 6-month intensive phase and an 18-month continuation phase. However, the local drug resistance patterns in high MDR regions such as Mumbai may not be adequately reflected in the design of the regimen for that particular area. The study was carried out at a private Tertiary Level Hospital in Mumbai in a mycobacteriology laboratory equipped to perform the second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST). We attempted to analyze the impact of prescribing the standardized Category IV regimen to all patients receiving a DST at our mycobacteriology laboratory. All samples confirmed to be MDR-TB and tested for the second-line drugs at Hinduja Hospital's Mycobacteriology Laboratory in the year 2012 were analyzed. A total of 1539 samples were analyzed. Of these, 464 (30.14%) were MDR-TB, 867 (56.33%) were MDR with fluoroquinolone resistance, and 198 (12.8%) were extensively drug-resistant TB. The average number of susceptible drugs per sample was 3.07 ± 1.29 (assuming 100% cycloserine susceptibility). Taking 4 effective drugs to be the cut or an effective regimen, the number of patients receiving 4 or more effective drugs from the standardized directly observed treatment, short-course plus regimen would be 516 (33.5%) while 66.5% of cases would receive 3 or less effective drugs. Our study shows that a high proportion of patients will have resistance to a number of the first- and second-line drugs. Local epidemiology must be factored in to avoid amplification of resistance.

  3. Possible impact of the standardized Category IV regimen on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Udwadia, Zarir F; Mullerpattan, Jai Bharat; Shah, Kushal D; Rodrigues, Camilla S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB program involves a standard regimen with a 6-month intensive phase and an 18-month continuation phase. However, the local drug resistance patterns in high MDR regions such as Mumbai may not be adequately reflected in the design of the regimen for that particular area. Setting: The study was carried out at a private Tertiary Level Hospital in Mumbai in a mycobacteriology laboratory equipped to perform the second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST). Objective: We attempted to analyze the impact of prescribing the standardized Category IV regimen to all patients receiving a DST at our mycobacteriology laboratory. Materials and Methods: All samples confirmed to be MDR-TB and tested for the second-line drugs at Hinduja Hospital's Mycobacteriology Laboratory in the year 2012 were analyzed. Results: A total of 1539 samples were analyzed. Of these, 464 (30.14%) were MDR-TB, 867 (56.33%) were MDR with fluoroquinolone resistance, and 198 (12.8%) were extensively drug-resistant TB. The average number of susceptible drugs per sample was 3.07 ± 1.29 (assuming 100% cycloserine susceptibility). Taking 4 effective drugs to be the cut or an effective regimen, the number of patients receiving 4 or more effective drugs from the standardized directly observed treatment, short-course plus regimen would be 516 (33.5%) while 66.5% of cases would receive 3 or less effective drugs. Conclusion: Our study shows that a high proportion of patients will have resistance to a number of the first- and second-line drugs. Local epidemiology must be factored in to avoid amplification of resistance. PMID:27185987

  4. ATP- and glutathione-dependent transport of chemotherapeutic drugs by the multidrug resistance protein MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Renes, Johan; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Nienhuis, Edith F; Jansen, Peter L M; Müller, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the ability of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) to transport different cationic substrates in comparison with MDR1-P-glycoprotein (MDR1). Transport studies were performed with isolated membrane vesicles from in vitro selected multidrug resistant cell lines overexpressing MDR1 (A2780AD) or MRP1 (GLC4/Adr) and a MRP1-transfected cell line (S1(MRP)). As substrates we used 3H-labelled derivatives of the hydrophilic monoquaternary cation N-(4′,4′-azo-n-pentyl)-21-deoxy-ajmalinium (APDA), the basic drug vincristine and the more hydrophobic basic drug daunorubicin. All three are known MDR1-substrates. MRP1 did not mediate transport of these substrates per se. In the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH), there was an ATP-dependent uptake of vincristine and daunorubicin, but not of APDA, into GLC4/Adr and S1(MRP) membrane vesicles which could be inhibited by the MRP1-inhibitor MK571. ATP- and GSH-dependent transport of daunorubicin and vincristine into GLC4/Adr membrane vesicles was inhibited by the MRP1-specific monoclonal antibody QCRL-3. MRP1-mediated daunorubicin transport rates were dependent on the concentration of GSH and were maximal at concentrations ⩾10 mM. The apparent KM value for GSH was 2.7 mM. Transport of daunorubicin in the presence of 10 mM GSH was inhibited by MK571 with an IC50 of 0.4 μM. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that MRP1 transports vincristine and daunorubicin in an ATP- and GSH-dependent manner. APDA is not a substrate for MRP1. PMID:10188979

  5. Cost of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Ae; Choi, Yong-Jun; Cho, Young-Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2006-11-01

    Costs associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are higher than those associated with drug-susceptible TB because of the higher prices of second-line anti-TB drugs, the prolonged duration of treatment, greater productivity loss and higher mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of treatment for MDR-TB according to the treatment strategy and prognosis in South Korea. We estimated the direct (medical and non-medical) and indirect cost for the treatment of MDR-TB according to the treatment strategies and prognosis: in medically treated, surgically treated and deceased patients groups. The same analyses were undertaken for drug-susceptible TB for comparison. The patients with MDR-TB or drug-susceptible TB were randomly selected from the TB cohort of Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Direct costs per person were US$4000 (US$2527-4841) in the medically treated group, US$17,457 (US$10,133-26,418) in the surgically treated group and US$33,362 (US$25 386-40 338) in the deceased group. Total costs per person were US$15,856 (US$10,752-38,421), US$47,159 (US$20,587-77,622) and US$478,357 (US$257,377-777,778), respectively. For the patients with drug-susceptible TB, the total cost ranged from US$1680 to US$7637 (median US$2166). The cost for the treatment of MDR-TB is seven to 22 times that of managing the drug-susceptible TB in South Korea. Considering the high cost, transmissibility and considerable fatality of MDR-TB, there is a need to provide specific separate funding for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  6. Reduction of virulence factor pyocyanin production in multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Katsuhiro; Fujimura, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Gomi, Kazunori; Iida, Yasuhiro; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Akira

    2013-02-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa have become a worldwide problem. Pyocyanin, a representative pigment produced by P. aeruginosa, is the major virulence factor of this organismThe aim of this study was to investigate the pyocyanin-producing ability of MBL-producing MDR P. aeruginosa. A total of 50 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, including 20 MDR strains, were collected at 18 general hospitals in Japan. The chromaticity and luminosity produced by pyocyanin in each isolate were measured. The quantity of pyocyanin and the expression of the phzM and phzS genes coding a pyocyanin synthesis enzyme were measured. MDR strains showed a bright yellow-green, while non-MDR strains tended to show a dark blue-green. The quantities of pyocyanin in MBL-producing strains and non-producing strains were 0.015 ± 0.002 and 0.41 ± 0.10 μg, respectively. The expression of the phzM and phzS genes in the MDR strains was 11 and 14 %, respectively, of the expression in the non-MDR strains. When the MBL gene was transduced into P. aeruginosa and it acquired multidrug resistance, it was shown that the pyocyanin-producing ability decreased. The pathogenicity of MBL-producing MDR P. aeruginosa may be lower than that of non-MDR strains. These MBL-producing MDR strains may be less pathogenic than non-MDR strains. This may explain why MDR-P. aeruginosa is unlikely to cause infection but, rather, causes subclinical colonization only.

  7. Association of interleukins genes polymorphisms with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Ukrainian population.

    PubMed

    Butov, Dmytro O; Kuzhko, Mykhaylo M; Makeeva, Natalia I; Butova, Tetyana S; Stepanenko, Hanna L; Dudnyk, Andrii B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a significant health problem in some parts of the world. Three major cytokines involved in TB immunopathogenesis include IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. The susceptibility to MDR TB may be genetically determined. The aim of the study was to assess the association of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 gene polymorphisms with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Ukrainian population. We observed 140 patients suffering from infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) and 30 apparently healthy subjects. The patients were assigned to two groups whether they suffer or do not suffer from pulmonary MDR TB. Interleukin gene (IL) polymorphisms, particularly T330G polymorphism in the IL-2 gene, C589T polymorphism in the IL-4 gene and G1082A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene were studied through polymerase chain reaction. Circulating levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in venous blood were estimated using ELISA. Prior to treatment, patients with PT showed significant increase of IL-2 levels and decrease of IL-4 and IL-10 levels compared to apparently healthy subjects. Circulating IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly decreased whilst serum IL-2 level was significantly increased in patients with MDR TB compared to non-MDR TB. Low IL-4 and IL-10 secretion and considerable IL-2 alterations were shown to be significantly associated with mutations of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes affecting C589T polymorphism in the IL-4 gene, G1082A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene and T330G polymorphism in the IL-2 gene in patients with PT. Heterozygous genotype and mutations homozygous genotypes gene in polymorphisms determining specified cytokines' production is a PT risk factor and may lead to disease progression into chronic phase. Heterozygous genotype of aforementioned cytokine genetic polymorphisms was significantly the most frequent in patients with MDR TB.

  8. Converging risk factors but no association between HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    van den Hof, S; Tursynbayeva, A; Abildaev, T; Adenov, M; Pak, S; Bekembayeva, G; Ismailov, S

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is a country with a low HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) burden, but a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe the epidemiology of multidrug resistance and HIV among TB patients, using the 2007-2011 national electronic TB register. HIV test results were available for 97.2% of TB patients. HIV prevalence among TB patients increased from 0.6% in 2007 to 1.5% in 2011. Overall, 41.6% of patients had a positive smear at diagnosis, 38.6% a positive culture and 51.7% either a positive smear or culture. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 92.7% of culture-positive cases. Socio-economic factors independently associated with both HIV and MDR-TB were urban residency, drug use, homelessness and a history of incarceration. In adjusted analysis, HIV positivity was not associated with MDR-TB (OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.86-1.2). Overall, among TB patients with DST and HIV test results available, 65.0% were positive for neither HIV nor MDR-TB, 33.5% only for MDR-TB, 0.9% only for HIV and 0.6% for both HIV and MDR-TB. Among injection drug users, 12.5% were positive for HIV and MDR-TB. We showed increasing HIV prevalence among TB patients in Kazakhstan. HIV was not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB, but risk factors were largely overlapping and we did identify subgroups at particular risk of HIV-MDR-TB co-infection, notably drug users. Enhanced efforts are necessary to provide care to these socially vulnerable populations.

  9. Protective Effect of a Synbiotic against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Akira; Yuki, Norikatsu; Kaji, Rumi; Takahashi, Takuya; Nomoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BbY) to protect against infection, as well as the potentiation of BbY activity by the synbiotic combination of BbY and prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The study employed a mouse model of lethal intestinal multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAb) infection. The endogenous intestinal microbiota was disrupted by the administration of multiple antibiotics, causing the loss of endogenous Bifidobacterium. Oral infection of these mice with MDRAb resulted in marked growth of this organism. Additional treatment of the infected mice with a sublethal dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induced systemic invasion by MDRAb and subsequent animal death. The continuous oral administration of BbY increased the survival rate and inhibited the intestinal growth and invasion by MDRAb in the infection model. Disruptions of the intestinal environment and barrier function in the infected mice were attenuated by BbY. Protection against the MDRAb infection was markedly potentiated by a synbiotic combination of BbY and GOS, although GOS by itself did not provide protection. Negative correlations were observed between intestinal MDRAb and BbY counts or acetic acid levels; positive correlations were observed between acetic acid levels and intestinal epithelium expression of tight-junction-related genes. These results demonstrated that the probiotic and synbiotic markedly potentiated protection against fatal intestinal infection caused by a multidrug-resistant bacterium. Probiotics and synbiotics are presumed to provide protection by compensation for the disrupted indigenous populations, thereby maintaining the intestinal environments and barrier functions otherwise targeted during opportunistic infection by MDRAb. PMID:26953197

  10. The Incidence of Amikacin Ototoxicity in Multidrug-ResistantTuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Abtahi, Bahareh; Gholami, Kheirollah; Safari Moghadam, Behzad; Tabarsi, Payam; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2011-01-01

    Amikacin has been shown to irreversibly suppressCochlear activity.The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of amikacinototoxicity in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients and riskfactors associated withthis ototoxicity.In this cross-sectional study, 41 patientswith multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were included.All patients received fixed dose of intravenous amikacin(500 mg/day) and anti-TB medications for six months. Baseline Pure-Tone Audiometry (PTA) was performed on all patients,before and during the drug treatment with the frequency range between 250 Hz and 8000 Hz. Patients were closely observed for the occurrence of symptomatic ototoxicity using a questionnaire .To find an association between the incidence of cochlear damage and patients’ demographics, all patients’ data were recorded. A total of 29 patients suffered from hearing loss (70.1%) (Male: n = 18; Female: n = 20).Using logistic regression, the incidence ofamikacinototoxicity was higher in men than in women. There was a negative correlation between the duration of the amikacin treatment and the difference in hearing thresholds(r = -0.34, p = 0.03). The mean of hearing threshold was significantly increased before and after the amikacin treatment((23.68 ± 19.26 vs. 38.93 ± 22.80) (p < 0.0001)). The incidence of hearing loss was remarkable in MDR-TB patients treating with amikacin. However, risk factors’ determination and monitoring of audiometric result variations could haveinfluenced the incidence of the amikacin ototoxicity. PMID:24250429

  11. Impact of DOTS compared with DOTS-plus on multidrug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis deaths: decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Timothy R; Lehmann, Harold P; Frieden, Thomas R

    2003-03-15

    This study sought to determine the impact of the World Health Organization's directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) compared with that of DOTS-plus on tuberculosis deaths, mainly in the developing world. Decision analysis with Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov decision tree. People with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Analyses modelled different levels of programme effectiveness of DOTS and DOTS-plus, and high (10%) and intermediate (3%) proportions of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis, while accounting for exogenous reinfection. The cumulative number of tuberculosis deaths per 100 000 population over 10 years. The model predicted that under DOTS, 276 people would die from tuberculosis (24 multidrug resistant and 252 not multidrug resistant) over 10 years under optimal implementation in an area with 3% primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Optimal implementation of DOTS-plus would result in four (1.5%) fewer deaths. If implementation of DOTS-plus were to result in a decrease of just 5% in the effectiveness of DOTS, 16% more people would die with tuberculosis than under DOTS alone. In an area with 10% primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis, 10% fewer deaths would occur under optimal DOTS-plus than under optimal DOTS, but 16% more deaths would occur if implementation of DOTS-plus were to result in a 5% decrease in the effectiveness of DOTS CONCLUSIONS: Under optimal implementation, fewer tuberculosis deaths would occur under DOTS-plus than under DOTS. If, however, implementation of DOTS-plus were associated with even minimal decreases in the effectiveness of treatment, substantially more patients would die than under DOTS.

  12. Infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis in a combined immunocompromised patient: an autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Natsuko; Ito, Makoto; Kuramae, Hitoshi; Inukai, Tomomi; Sakai, Akiyoshi; Okugawa, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    An autopsy case of infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis was described in a patient with a combination of factors that compromised immune status, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, post-splenectomy state, prolonged steroid treatment, and IgA deficiency. The isolated S. mitis strain from blood culture was broadly resistant to penicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenem, macrolides, and fluoroquinolone. Recurrent episodes of bacterial infections and therapeutic use of several antibiotics may underlie the development of multidrug resistance for S. mitis. Because clinically isolated S. mitis strains from chronically immunocompromised patients have become resistant to a wide spectrum of antibiotics, appropriate antibiotic regimens should be selected when treating invasive S. mitis infections in these compromised patients.

  13. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant...potent antimalarial activity (2, 3). Despite having a rapid mecha- nism of action, artemisinin resistance eventually emerged and was first detected

  14. In vitro activity of Tedizolid phosphate against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jin Yang; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, So Hyun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; So, Thomas Man-Kit; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a second-generation oxazolidinone prodrug that is potential activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant streptococci, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The in vitro activity of tedizolid and other comparator agents against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pneumococci from various Asian countries were evaluated. Of the S. pneumoniae clinical pneumonia isolates collected during 2008 and 2009 from 8 Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, and Sri Lanka), 104 isolates of MDR pneumococci were included in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 18 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution method. Tedizolid was highly active against pneumococci. All isolates tested were inhibited at a tedizolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of ≤0.25μg/ml (ranged from ≤0.03μg/ml to 0.25μg/ml). The MIC50 and MIC90 of tedizolid against MDR pneumococci were both 0.12μg/ml, while MIC50 and MIC90 of linezolid were 0.5μg/ml and 1μg/ml, respectively. In addition, tedizolid maintained the activity against S. pneumoniae regardless of the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype of the isolates. The activity of tedizolid was excellent against all types of MDR pneumococci, exhibiting and maintaining at least 4-fold-greater potency compared to linezolid, regardless of resistance phenotypes to other commonly utilized agents. Tedizolid has the potential to be an agent to treat infections caused by MDR pneumococci in the Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enterococcus faecium ST17 from Coastal Marine Sediment Carrying Transferable Multidrug Resistance Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Morroni, Gianluca; Di Cesare, Andrea; Di Sante, Laura; Brenciani, Andrea; Vignaroli, Carla; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Sabatino, Raffaella; Rossi, Luigia; Magnani, Mauro; Biavasco, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium 17i48, sequence type 17, from marine sediment, carrying erm(B), tet(M), and tet(L) genes, was analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance plasmids and for the ability to transfer resistance genes. The strain was found to harbor the replicon type (repA) of pRE25, pRUM, pHTβ, and the axe-txe toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. In mating experiments, tet(M) and tet(L) were cotransferred with the repA pRE25 , whereas erm(B) was consistently cotransferred with the axe-txe and repA pRUM , suggesting that tetracycline and erythromycin resistance genes were carried on different elements both transferable by conjugation, likely via pHTβ-mediated mobilization. Hybridization and PCR mapping demonstrated that tet(M) and tet(L) were located in tandem on a pDO1-like plasmid that also carried the repA pRE25 , whereas erm(B) was carried by a pRUM-like plasmid. Sequencing of the latter plasmid showed a high nucleotide identity with pRUM and the presence of cat, aadE, sat4, and a complete aphA resistance genes. These findings show that the genetic features of E. faecium 17i48 are consistent with a hospital-adapted clone and suggest that antibiotic resistance may spread in the environment, also in the absence of antibiotic pressure, due to TA system plasmid maintenance.

  16. Rapid diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis using a molecular-based diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Simons, S O; van der Laan, T; Mulder, A; van Ingen, J; Rigouts, L; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Boeree, M J; van Soolingen, D

    2014-10-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid and accurate diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). No diagnostic algorithm has been validated in this population. We hypothesized that pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis can accurately identify patients with pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB. We identified from the Dutch national database (2007-11) patients with a positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture containing a mutation in the rpoB gene. In these cases, we prospectively sequenced the pncA gene. Results from the rpoB and pncA mutation analysis (pncA added to rpoB) were compared with phenotypic susceptibility testing results to rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (reference standard) using the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube 960 system. We included 83 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates containing rpoB mutations in the primary analysis. Rifampicin resistance was seen in 72 isolates (87%), isoniazid resistance in 73 isolates (88%) and MDR-TB in 65 isolates (78%). Phenotypic reference testing identified pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB in 31 isolates (48%). Sensitivity of pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis for detecting pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB was 96.8%, the specificity was 94.2%, the positive predictive value was 90.9%, the negative predictive value was 98.0%, the positive likelihood was 16.8 and the negative likelihood was 0.03. In conclusion, pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB can be accurately detected using pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis. We propose to include pncA sequencing in every isolate with an rpoB mutation, allowing for stratification of MDR-TB treatment according to pyrazinamide susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Multidrug resistance reversal and apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cells by some flavonoids present in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Olga; Wiśniewski, Jerzy; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Paprocka, Maria; Duś, Danuta; Duarte, Noélia; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Michalak, Krystyna

    2012-11-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells constitutes one of the main reasons for chemotherapy failure. The search for nontoxic modulators that reduce MDR is a task of great importance. An ability to enhance apoptosis of resistant cells would also be beneficial. In the present study, the MDR reversal and apoptosis-inducing potency of three flavonoids produced by Citrus plants, namely, naringenin (1a), aromadendrin (2), and tangeretin (3), and the methylated naringenin derivatives (1b, 1c), have been studied in sensitive (LoVo) and multidrug-resistant (LoVo/Dx) human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity of methoxylated flavonoids was higher as compared to hydroxylated analogues. Only 3 turned out to inhibit P-glycoprotein, as demonstrated by a rhodamine 123 accumulation assay. It also increased doxorubicin accumulation in LoVo/Dx cells and enabled doxorubicin to enter cellular nuclei. In addition, 3 was found to be an effective MDR modulator in resistant cells by sensitizing them to doxorubicin. Tangeretin-induced caspase-3 activation and elevated surface phosphatidylserine exposure demonstrated its apoptosis-inducing activity in LoVo/Dx cells, while the other flavonoids evaluated were not active. Additionally, 3 was more toxic to resistant rather than to sensitive cancer cells. Its apoptosis-inducing activity was also higher in LoVo/Dx than in LoVo cells. It was concluded that the activity of 3 against multidrug-resistant cancer cells may be enhanced by its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  18. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in patients with pneumonia coming from the community.

    PubMed

    Sibila, Oriol; Rodrigo-Troyano, Ana; Shindo, Yuichiro; Aliberti, Stefano; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2016-05-01

    Identification of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens at initial diagnosis is essential for the appropriate selection of empiric treatment of patients with pneumonia coming from the community. The term Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia (HCAP) is controversial for this purpose. Our goal is to summarize and interpret the data addressing the association of MDR pathogens and community-onset pneumonia. Most recent clinical studies conclude that HCAP risk factor does not accurately identify resistant pathogens. Several risk factors related to MDR pathogens, including new ones that were not included in the original HCAP definition, have been described and different risk scores have been proposed. The present review focuses on the most recent literature assessing the importance of different risk factors for MDR pathogens in patients with pneumonia coming from the community. These included generally MDR risk factors, specific risk factors related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and clinical scoring systems develop to assess the MDR risk factors and its application in clinical practice. Different MDR risk factors and prediction scores have been recently developed. However, further research is needed in order to help clinicians in distinguishing between different MDR pathogens causing pneumonia.

  19. Tangeretin, a citrus pentamethoxyflavone, antagonizes ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibiting its transport function.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sen-Ling; Yuan, Zhong-Wen; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Wen-Zhe; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhong-Qiu; Xie, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and tumor metastasis are the main causes of chemotherapeutic treatment failure and mortality in cancer patients. In this study, at achievable nontoxic plasma concentrations, citrus flavonoid tangeretin has been shown to reverse ABCB1-mediated cancer resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents effectively. Co-treatment of cells with tangeretin and paclitaxel activated apoptosis as well as arrested cell cycle at G2/M-phase. Tangeretin profoundly inhibited the ABCB1 transporter activity since it significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, and flutax-2 in A2780/T cells and decreased the efflux of ABCB1 substrates in Caco2 cells without altering the expression of ABCB1. Moreover, it stimulated the ATPase activity and inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating a direct interaction with the transporter. The molecular docking results indicated a favorable binding of tangeretin with the transmemberane region site 1 of homology modeled ABCB1 transporter. The overall results demonstrated that tangeretin could sensitize ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells to chemotherapeutical agents by directly inhibiting ABCB1 transporter function, which encouraged further animal and clinical studies in the treatment of resistant cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Priorities in the prevention and control of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S; Dancer, S J; Humphreys, H

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDE) are a major public health threat due to international spread and few options for treatment. Furthermore, unlike meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MDE encompass several genera and multiple resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases, which complicate detection in the routine diagnostic laboratory. Current measures to contain spread in many hospitals are somewhat ad hoc as there are no formal national or international guidelines. We sought to establish what should be the priorities for the prevention and control of MDE and what is feasible for implementation. We also identify areas for further research. We reviewed the published literature and other sources e.g. national agencies, for measures and interventions used to control MDE. Certain categories of at risk patients should be screened, especially in critical care areas, using appropriate laboratory methods. Standard and contact precautions are essential and hand hygiene compliance requires continued emphasis and high compliance levels. As MDE may persist on environmental surfaces for weeks, environmental decontamination could also be an effective control intervention. There are limited options for decolonisation with inadequate studies to date and antibiotic stewardship within and outside the hospital remains important. As there is a clear deficit in the evidence base to infor guidance on prevention and control, research in key areas, such as rapid detection, is urgently required. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of highly virulent multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated from a large cholera outbreak in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Feglo, Patrick Kwame; Sewurah, Miriam

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the virulent factors of Vibrio cholerae which caused an unprecedented large cholera outbreak in Ghana in 2014 and progressed into 2015, affected 28,975 people with 243 deaths. The V. cholerae isolates were identified to be the classical V. cholerae 01 biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, responsible for the large cholera outbreak in Ghana. These El Tor strains bear CtxAB and Tcp virulent genes, making the strains highly virulent. The strains also bear SXT transmissible element coding their resistance to antibiotics, causing high proportions of the strains to be multidrug resistant, with resistant proportions of 95, 90 and 75% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and ceftriaxone respectively. PFGE patterns indicated that the isolates clustered together with the same pattern and showed clusters similar to strains circulating in DR Congo, Cameroun, Ivory Coast and Togo. The strains carried virulence genes which facilitated the disease causation and spread. This is the first time these virulent genes were determined on the Ghanaian Vibrio strains.

  2. Phylogenetic study of metallo-β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from burn patients.

    PubMed

    Jena, Jayanti; Debata, Nagen Kumar; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2015-12-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the clonal relationship using enterobacteriaceae repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) among metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from burn victims and their susceptibility to commonly used anti-pseudomonal agents. In the present study 94 non-duplicate P. aeruginosa strains from the wound samples of burn patients were included. Identification of the isolates was done by biochemical methods and antibiotic sensitivity was done by disc diffusion method following CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute) guidelines. By using imipenem (IPM)-EDTA disk diffusion/double disc synergy method carbapenem resistant organisms were tested for MBL. To define the clonal relationship ERIC-PCR was used. Of the 94 isolates, 18 (19.14%) were found resistant to IPM and MBL production was shown 11 (11.70%) by the IPM-EDTA disc diffusion method. From dendrogram of the ERIC-PCR profile four major clusters were obtained (A, B, C and D). Cluster B contained the majority of the isolates (6 strains 1, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11). This study using ERIC-PCR of randomly collected isolates exhibits high genetic diversity which rules out cross contamination frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying multidrug resistant tuberculosis transmission hotspots using routinely collected data12

    PubMed Central

    Manjourides, Justin; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Shin, Sonya; Jeffery, Caroline; Contreras, Carmen; Cruz, Janeth Santa; Jave, Oswaldo; Yagui, Martin; Asencios, Luis; Pagano, Marcello; Cohen, Ted

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In most countries with large drug resistant tuberculosis epidemics, only those cases that are at highest risk of having MDRTB receive a drug sensitivity test (DST) at the time of diagnosis. Because of this prioritized testing, identification of MDRTB transmission hotspots in communities where TB cases do not receive DST is challenging, as any observed aggregation of MDRTB may reflect systematic differences in how testing is distributed in communities. We introduce a new disease mapping method, which estimates this missing information through probability–weighted locations, to identify geographic areas of increased risk of MDRTB transmission. We apply this method to routinely collected data from two districts in Lima, Peru over three consecutive years. This method identifies an area in the eastern part of Lima where previously untreated cases have increased risk of MDRTB. This may indicate an area of increased transmission of drug resistant disease, a finding that may otherwise have been missed by routine analysis of programmatic data. The risk of MDR among retreatment cases is also highest in these probable transmission hotspots, though a high level of MDR among retreatment cases is present throughout the study area. Identifying potential multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) transmission hotspots may allow for targeted investigation and deployment of resources. PMID:22401962

  4. The Growing Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Infections in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Thomas M.; Satlin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged neutropenia and chemotherapy-induced mucositis render patients with hematologic malignancies highly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteremia. Unfortunately, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly encountered globally, and current guidelines for empirical antibiotic coverage in these patients may not adequately treat these bacteria. This expansion of resistance, coupled with traditional culturing techniques requiring 2-4 days for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility results, have grave implications for these immunocompromised hosts. This review characterizes the epidemiology, risk factors, resistance mechanisms, recommended treatments, and outcomes of the MDR Gram-negative bacteria that commonly cause infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. We also examine infection prevention strategies in hematology patients, such as infection control practices, antimicrobial stewardship, and targeted decolonization. Finally, we assess strategies to improve outcomes of infected patients, including gastrointestinal screening to guide empirical antibiotic therapy, new rapid diagnostic tools for expeditious identification of MDR pathogens, and use of two new antimicrobial agents, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. PMID:27339405

  5. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  6. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Helen E.; Ciobanu, Anisoara; Plesca, Valeriu; Crudu, Valeriu; Galusca, Irina; Soltan, Viorel; Cohen, Ted

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting The Republic of Moldova, Eastern Europe, 2007–2010. Moldova has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of TB patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Objective To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. Design A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. Results 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors (i.e. homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis) and health-related factors (i.e. HIV-coinfection, greater lung pathology, and increasing TB drug resistance). TB treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova and the default risk was highest in the month following the hospitalized treatment phase (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Conclusions Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce the default risk. PMID:23407226

  7. High diversity of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Central Asian Strain isolates in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shah, Yogendra; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Thapa, Jeewan; Poudel, Ajay; Diab, Hassan Mahmoud; Pandey, Basu Dev; Solo, Eddie S; Isoda, Norikazu; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Chie

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) poses a major public health problem in Nepal. Although it has been reported as one of the dominant genotypes of MTB in Nepal, little information on the Central Asian Strain (CAS) family is available, especially isolates related to multidrug resistance (MDR) cases. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic and epidemiological characteristics of MDR CAS isolates in Nepal. A total of 145 MDR CAS isolates collected in Nepal from 2008 to 2013 were characterized by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis, and drug resistance-associated gene sequencing. Spoligotyping analysis showed CAS1_Delhi SIT26 as predominant (60/145, 41.4%). However, by combining spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing, it was possible to successfully discriminate all 145 isolates into 116 different types including 18 clusters with 47 isolates (clustering rate 32.4%). About a half of these clustered isolates shared the same genetic and geographical characteristics with other isolates in each cluster, and some of them shared rare point mutations in rpoB that are thought to be associated with rifampicin resistance. Although the data obtained show little evidence that large outbreaks of MDR-TB caused by the CAS family have occurred in Nepal, they strongly suggest several MDR-MTB transmission cases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Lethal neonatal meningoencephalitis caused by multi-drug resistant, highly virulent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Dufendach, Kevin R; Wellons, John C; Kuba, Maria G; Nickols, Hilary H; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G; Wynn, James L

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal meningitis is a rare but devastating condition. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria represent a substantial global health risk. This study reports on an aggressive case of lethal neonatal meningitis due to a MDR Escherichia coli (serotype O75:H5:K1). Serotyping, MDR pattern and phylogenetic typing revealed that this strain is an emergent and highly virulent neonatal meningitis E. coli isolate. The isolate was resistant to both ampicillin and gentamicin; antibiotics currently used for empiric neonatal sepsis treatment. The strain was also positive for multiple virulence genes including K1 capsule, fimbrial adhesion fimH, siderophore receptors iroN, fyuA and iutA, secreted autotransporter toxin sat, membrane associated proteases ompA and ompT, type II polysaccharide synthesis genes (kpsMTII) and pathogenicity-associated island (PAI)-associated malX gene. The presence of highly-virulent MDR organisms isolated in neonates underscores the need to implement rapid drug resistance diagnostic methods and should prompt consideration of alternate empiric therapy in neonates with Gram negative meningitis.

  9. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria.

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic profile of clinical and animal multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Montes de Oca, S; Talavera-Rojas, M; Soriano-Vargas, E; Barba-León, J; Vázquez-Navarrete, J; Acosta-Dibarrat, J; Salgado-Miranda, C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a phenotypic and genotypic profile of Salmonella enterica including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from food-producing animals and clinical isolates, as well as their genetic relatedness in two different States of Mexico (Jalisco and State of Mexico). A total of 243 isolates were evaluated in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and related genes through a disk diffusion method and PCR respectively; we found 16 MDR isolates, all of them harbouring the bla CMY gene but not qnr genes, these isolates represent less than 10% of the collection. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a higher genotypic similitude within isolates of State of Mexico than Jalisco. A low percentage of Salmonella isolates were resistant to relevant antibiotics in human health, nevertheless, the AMR and involved genes were similar despite the different serovars and origin of the isolates. This investigation provided an insight of the current status of AMR of Salmonella isolates in two States of Mexico and pinpoint the genes involved in AMR and their epidemiological relationship, the information could help to determine an adequate therapy in human and veterinary medicine. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Relevance of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stefani, S; Campana, S; Cariani, L; Carnovale, V; Colombo, C; Lleo, M M; Iula, V D; Minicucci, L; Morelli, P; Pizzamiglio, G; Taccetti, G

    2017-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important issue for physicians who take care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we review the latest research on how P. aeruginosa infection causes lung function to decline and how several factors contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa strains and influence the course of the infection course. However, many aspects of the practical management of patients with CF infected with MDR P. aeruginosa are still to be established. Less is known about the exact role of susceptibility testing in clinical strategies for dealing with resistant infections, and there is an urgent need to find a tool to assist in choosing the best therapeutic strategy for MDR P. aeruginosa infection. One current perception is that the selection of antibiotic therapy according to antibiogram results is an important component of the decision-making process, but other patient factors, such as previous infection history and antibiotic courses, also need to be evaluated. On the basis of the known issues and the best current data on respiratory infections caused by MDR P. aeruginosa, this review provides practical suggestions to optimize the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with CF who are infected with these pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Concentrations of Thioridazine Kill Intracellular Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Bettencourt, Rosário; Almeida, Josefina; Martins, Marta; Kristiansen, Jette E.; Molnar, Joseph; Amaral, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    The phenothiazines chlorpromazine (CPZ) and thioridazine (TZ) have equal in vitro activities against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These compounds have not been used as anti-M. tuberculosis agents because their in vitro activities take place at concentrations which are beyond those that are clinically achievable. In addition, chronic administration of CPZ produces frequent severe side effects. Because CPZ has been shown to enhance the killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis at concentrations in the medium that are clinically relevant, we have investigated whether TZ, a phenothiazine whose negative side effects are less frequent and serious than those associated with CPZ, kills M. tuberculosis organisms that have been phagocytosed by human macrophages, which have nominal killing activities against these bacteria. Both CPZ and TZ killed intracellular antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant M. tuberculosis organisms when they were used at concentrations in the medium well below those present in the plasma of patients treated with these agents. These concentrations in vitro were not toxic to the macrophage, nor did they affect in vitro cellular immune processes. TZ thus appears to be a serious candidate for the management of a freshly diagnosed infection of pulmonary tuberculosis or as an adjunct to conventional antituberculosis therapy if the patient originates from an area known to have a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. Nevertheless, we must await the outcomes of clinical trials to determine whether TZ itself may be safely and effectively used as an antituberculosis agent. PMID:12604522

  13. Predation Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Pathogens and Their Corresponding Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Ye, Jianzhong; Hou, Yuanbo; Chen, Huale; Cao, Jianming; Zhou, Tieli

    2017-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predation efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensive drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative pathogens and their corresponding biofilms. In this study, we examined the ability of B. bacteriovorus to prey on MDR and XDR gram-negative clinical bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Results showed that B. bacteriovorus was able to prey on all planktonic cultures, among which the most efficient predation was observed for drug-resistant E. coli, with a 3.11 log10 reduction in viability. Furthermore, B. bacteriovorus demonstrated promising efficacy in preventing biofilm formation and dispersing the established biofilm. Reductions in biofilm formation of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii co-cultured with B. bacteriovorus were 65.2%, 37.1%, 44.7%, and 36.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, the established biofilms of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii were significantly reduced by 83.4%, 81.8%, 83.1%, and 79.9%, respectively. A visual analysis supported by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the role of B. bacteriovorus in removing the established biofilms. This study highlights the potential use of B. bacteriovorus as a biological control agent with the capability to prey on MDR/XDR gram-negative pathogens and eradicate biofilms.

  14. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    PubMed Central

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  15. Management of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the intensive care unit: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Maraolo, Alberto Enrico; Cascella, Marco; Corcione, Silvia; Cuomo, Arturo; Nappa, Salvatore; Borgia, Guglielmo; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Gentile, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most important causes of healthcare-related infections among Gram-negative bacteria. The best therapeutic approach is controversial, especially for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains as well as in the setting of most severe patients, such as in the intensive care unit (ICU). Areas covered: This article addresses several points. First, the main microbiological aspects of PA, focusing on its wide array of resistance mechanisms. Second, risk factors and the worse outcome linked to MDR-PA infection. Third, the pharmacological peculiarity of ICU patients, that makes the choice of a proper antimicrobial therapy difficult. Eventually, the current therapeutic options against MDR-PA are reviewed, taking into account the main variables that drive antimicrobial optimization in critically ill patients. Literature search was carried out using Pubmed and Web of Science. Expert commentary: Methodologically rigorous studies are urgently needed to clarify crucial aspects of the treatment against MDR-PA, namely monotherapy versus combination therapy in empiric and targeted settings. In the meanwhile, useful options are represented by newly approved drugs, such as ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. In critically ill patients, at least as empirical approach, a combination therapy is a prudent choice when a MDR-PA strain is suspected.

  16. National Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to a Single Poultry Company

    PubMed Central

    Gieraltowski, Laura; Higa, Jeffrey; Peralta, Vi; Green, Alice; Schwensohn, Colin; Rosen, Hilary; Libby, Tanya; Kissler, Bonnie; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Booth, Hillary; Kimura, Akiko; Grass, Julian; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie; Williams, Ian; Wise, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Importance This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. Objective To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. Design Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures. Setting United States. Outbreak period was March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014 Patients A case was defined as illness in a person infected with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Heidelberg with 1 of 7 outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI patterns with illness onset from March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A total of 634 case-patients were identified through passive surveillance; 200/528 (38%) were hospitalized, none died. Results Interviews were conducted with 435 case-patients: 371 (85%) reported eating any chicken in the 7 days before becoming ill. Of 273 case-patients interviewed with a focused questionnaire, 201 (74%) reported eating chicken prepared at home. Among case-patients with available brand information, 152 (87%) of 175 patients reported consuming Company A brand chicken. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 69 clinical isolates collected from case-patients; 67% were drug resistant, including 24 isolates (35%) that were multidrug resistant. The source of Company A brand chicken consumed by case-patients was traced back to 3 California production establishments from which 6 of 7 outbreak strains were isolated. Conclusions Epidemiologic, laboratory, traceback, and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health and regulatory officials indicated that consumption of Company A chicken

  17. National Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to a Single Poultry Company.

    PubMed

    Gieraltowski, Laura; Higa, Jeffrey; Peralta, Vi; Green, Alice; Schwensohn, Colin; Rosen, Hilary; Libby, Tanya; Kissler, Bonnie; Marsden-Haug, Nicola; Booth, Hillary; Kimura, Akiko; Grass, Julian; Bicknese, Amelia; Tolar, Beth; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie; Williams, Ian; Wise, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis demonstrated the complexity of investigating outbreaks linked to poultry products. The outbreak also highlighted the importance of efforts to strengthen food safety policies related to Salmonella in chicken parts and has implications for future changes within the poultry industry. To investigate a large multistate outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections. Epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of patients infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and traceback of possible food exposures. United States. Outbreak period was March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A case was defined as illness in a person infected with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Heidelberg with 1 of 7 outbreak pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI patterns with illness onset from March 1, 2013 through July 11, 2014. A total of 634 case-patients were identified through passive surveillance; 200/528 (38%) were hospitalized, none died. Interviews were conducted with 435 case-patients: 371 (85%) reported eating any chicken in the 7 days before becoming ill. Of 273 case-patients interviewed with a focused questionnaire, 201 (74%) reported eating chicken prepared at home. Among case-patients with available brand information, 152 (87%) of 175 patients reported consuming Company A brand chicken. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed on 69 clinical isolates collected from case-patients; 67% were drug resistant, including 24 isolates (35%) that were multidrug resistant. The source of Company A brand chicken consumed by case-patients was traced back to 3 California production establishments from which 6 of 7 outbreak strains were isolated. Epidemiologic, laboratory, traceback, and environmental investigations conducted by local, state, and federal public health and regulatory officials indicated that consumption of Company A chicken was the cause of this outbreak. The outbreak involved multiple

  18. Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Gilman, Robert H.; Martin, Laura; Soto, Esther; Castro, Beatriz; Lopez, Sonia; Coronel, Jorge; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Lopez, Virginia; San Miguel, Angela; Quispe, Neyda; Asencios, Luis; Dye, Christopher; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients. Methods and Findings This 3-y (2010–2013) prospective cohort household follow-up study in South Lima and Callao, Peru, measured the incidence of tuberculosis disease among 1,055 household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases and 2,362 household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index cases. A total of 35/1,055 (3.3%) household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases developed tuberculosis disease, while 114/2,362 (4.8%) household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index patients developed tuberculosis disease. The total follow-up time for drug-susceptible tuberculosis contacts was 2,620 person-years, while the total follow-up time for MDRTB contacts was 1,425 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression to adjust for confounding variables including contact HIV status, contact age, socio-economic status, and index case sputum smear grade, the hazard ratio for tuberculosis disease among MDRTB household contacts was found to be half that for drug-susceptible contacts (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.90, p = 0.017). The inference of transmission in this study was limited by the lack of genotyping data for household contacts. Capturing incident disease only among household contacts may also limit the extrapolation of these findings to the community setting. Conclusions The low relative fitness of MDRTB estimated by this study improves the chances of controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, fitter

  19. Antibacterial activity of Limonium brasiliense (Baicuru) against multidrug-resistant bacteria using a statistical mixture design.

    PubMed

    Blainski, Andressa; Gionco, Barbara; Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Galdino; Scarminio, Ieda S; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P; Mello, João C P

    2017-02-23

    Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) is commonly known as "baicuru" or "guaicuru" and preparations of its dried rhizomes have been popularly used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and menstrual disorder, and as an antiseptic in genito-urinary infections. This study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains using statistical mixture design. The statistical design of four components (water, methanol, acetone, and ethanol) produced 15 different extracts and also a confirmatory experiment, which was performed using water:acetone (3:7, v/v). The crude extracts and their ethyl-acetate fractions were tested against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae, all of which have been implicated in hospital and community-acquired infections. The dry residue, total polyphenol, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin contents of the extracts were also tested and statistical analysis was applied in order to define the fit models to predict the result of each parameter for any mixture of components. The principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses (PCA and HCA) of chromatographic data, as well as mass spectrometry (MS) analysis were performanced to determine the main compounds present in the extracts. The Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to inhibition of bacterial growth, in special the ethyl-acetate fraction of ternary extracts from water:acetone:ethanol and methanol:acetone:ethanol against, respectively, VREfm (MIC=19µg/mL) and MRSA (MIC=39µg/mL). On the other hand, moderate activity of the ethyl-acetate fractions from primary (except water), secondary and ternary extracts (MIC=625µg/mL) was noted against KPC. The quadratic and special cubic models were significant for polyphenols and gallocatechin contents, respectively. Fit models to dry

  20. Horizontal gene transfer and antibiotic resistance plasmids in multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens pose serious public health concerns and increase the burden of disease treatment. Antibiotic resistance genes can reside on the bacterial chromosome or on other self-replicating DNA molecules such as plasmids. The resistance genes/DNA can be transferred int...

  1. Two Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Bacteroides fragilis Carry a Novel Metronidazole Resistance nim Gene (nimJ)

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Hsi, Justin; Meggersee, Rosemary; Abratt, Valerie; Wexler, Hannah M.

    2013-01-01

    Two multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis clinical isolates contain and express a novel nim gene, nimJ, that is not recognized by the “universal” nim primers and can confer increased resistance to metronidazole when introduced into a susceptible strain on a multicopy plasmid. HMW615, an appendiceal isolate, contains at least two copies of nimJ on its genome, while HMW616, an isolate from a patient with sepsis, contains one genomic copy of nimJ. B. fragilis NimJ is phylogenetically closer to Prevotella baroniae NimI and Clostridium botulinum NimA than to the other known Bacteroides Nim proteins. The predicted protein structure of NimJ, based on fold recognition analysis, is consistent with the crystal structures derived for known Nim proteins, and specific amino acid residues important for substrate binding in the active site are conserved. This study demonstrates that the “universal” nim primers will not detect all nim genes with the ability to confer metronidazole resistance, but nimJ alone cannot account for the very high metronidazole MICs of these resistant clinical isolates. PMID:23716049

  2. Double-Serine Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations Advance Major International Clones and Lineages of Various Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fuzi, Miklos; Szabo, Dora; Csercsik, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The major international sequence types/lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and ESBL-producing E. coli were demonstrated to have been advanced by favorable fitness balance associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. The paper shows that favorable fitness in the major STs/lineages of these pathogens was principally attained by the capacity of evolving mutations in the fluoroquinolone-binding serine residues of both the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. The available information on fitness balance incurred by individual and various combinations of mutations in the enzymes is reviewed in multiple species. Moreover, strong circumstantial evidence is presented that major STs/lineages of other multi-drug resistant bacteria, primarily vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), emerged by a similar mechanism. The reason(s) why the major ST/lineage strains of various pathogens proved more adept at evolving favorable mutations than most isolates of the same species remains to be elucidated.

  3. Double-Serine Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations Advance Major International Clones and Lineages of Various Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fuzi, Miklos; Szabo, Dora; Csercsik, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The major international sequence types/lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and ESBL-producing E. coli were demonstrated to have been advanced by favorable fitness balance associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. The paper shows that favorable fitness in the major STs/lineages of these pathogens was principally attained by the capacity of evolving mutations in the fluoroquinolone-binding serine residues of both the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. The available information on fitness balance incurred by individual and various combinations of mutations in the enzymes is reviewed in multiple species. Moreover, strong circumstantial evidence is presented that major STs/lineages of other multi-drug resistant bacteria, primarily vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), emerged by a similar mechanism. The reason(s) why the major ST/lineage strains of various pathogens proved more adept at evolving favorable mutations than most isolates of the same species remains to be elucidated. PMID:29250038

  4. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of biofilms formed by clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Fang, Yanyan; Dai, Tianhong

    2018-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health. It is estimated that at least 23,000 people die each year in the USA as a direct result of antibiotic-resistant infections. In addition, many antibiotic-resistant microorganisms develop biofilms, surface-associated microbial communities that are extremely resistant to antibiotics and the immune system. A light-based approach, antimicrobial blue light (aBL), has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the involvement of exogenous photosensitizers. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of this non-antibiotic approach against biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were grown either in 96-well microtiter plates for 24 h or in a CDC biofilm reactor for 48 h, and then exposed to aBL at 405 nm emitted from a light-emitting diode (LED). We demonstrated that, for the biofilms grown in the CDC biofilm reactor, approximately 1.88 log10 CFU reduction was achieved in A. baumannii, 2.78 log10 CFU in E. coli and 3.18 log10 CFU in P. aeruginosa after 162 J/cm2 , 576 J/cm2 and 500 J/cm2 aBL were delivered, respectively. For the biofilms formed in the 96-well microtiter plates, 5.67 and 2.46 log10 CFU reduction was observed in P. aeruginosa and C. albicans polymicrobial biofilm after an exposure of 216 J/cm2 . In conclusion, aBL is potentially an alternative non-antibiotic approach against MDR biofilm-related infections. Future studies are warranted to investigate other important MDR microorganisms, the mechanism of action of aBL, and aBL efficacy in vivo.

  5. Doxorubicin loaded iron oxide nanoparticles overcome multidrug resistance in cancer in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Wang, Freddy Y.; Fang, Chen; Mok, Hyejung; Wang, Kui; Silber, John R.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is characterized by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that actively pump a broad class of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs out of cancer cells. MDR is a major mechanism of treatment resistance in a variety of human tumors, and clinically applicable strategies to circumvent MDR remain to be characterized. Here we describe the fabrication and characterization of a drug-loaded iron oxide nanoparticle designed to circumvent MDR. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic commonly used in cancer chemotherapy and substrate for ABC-mediated drug efflux, was covalently bound to polyethylenimine via a pH sensitive hydrazone linkage and conjugated to an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with amine terminated polyethylene glycol. Drug loading, physiochemical properties and pH lability of the DOX-hydrazone linkage were evaluated in vitro. Nanoparticle uptake, retention, and dose-dependent effects on viability were compared in wild-type and DOX-resistant ABC transporter over-expressing rat glioma C6 cells. We found that DOX release from nanoparticles was greatest at acidic pH, indicative of cleavage of the hydrazone linkage. DOX-conjugated nanoparticles were readily taken up by wild-type and drug-resistant cells. In contrast to free drug, DOX-conjugated nanoparticles persisted in drug-resistant cells, indicating that they were not subject to drug efflux. Greater retention of DOX-conjugated nanoparticles was accompanied by reduction of viability relative to cells treated with free drug. Our results suggest that DOX-conjugated nanoparticles could improve the efficacy of chemotherapy by circumventing MDR. PMID:21277920

  6. Use of generalized ordered logistic regression for the analysis of multidrug resistance data.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Scott, H Morgan

    2015-10-01

    Statistical analysis of antimicrobial resistance data largely focuses on individual antimicrobial's binary outcome (susceptible or resistant). However, bacteria are becoming increasingly multidrug resistant (MDR). Statistical analysis of MDR data is mostly descriptive often with tabular or graphical presentations. Here we report the applicability of generalized ordinal logistic regression model for the analysis of MDR data. A total of 1,152 Escherichia coli, isolated from the feces of weaned pigs experimentally supplemented with chlortetracycline (CTC) and copper, were tested for susceptibilities against 15 antimicrobials and were binary classified into resistant or susceptible. The 15 antimicrobial agents tested were grouped into eight different antimicrobial classes. We defined MDR as the number of antimicrobial classes to which E. coli isolates were resistant ranging from 0 to 8. Proportionality of the odds assumption of the ordinal logistic regression model was violated only for the effect of treatment period (pre-treatment, during-treatment and post-treatment); but not for the effect of CTC or copper supplementation. Subsequently, a partially constrained generalized ordinal logistic model was built that allows for the effect of treatment period to vary while constraining the effects of treatment (CTC and copper supplementation) to be constant across the levels of MDR classes. Copper (Proportional Odds Ratio [Prop OR]=1.03; 95% CI=0.73-1.47) and CTC (Prop OR=1.1; 95% CI=0.78-1.56) supplementation were not significantly associated with the level of MDR adjusted for the effect of treatment period. MDR generally declined over the trial period. In conclusion, generalized ordered logistic regression can be used for the analysis of ordinal data such as MDR data when the proportionality assumptions for ordered logistic regression are violated. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Predictors of poor treatment outcomes in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Javaid, A; Ullah, I; Masud, H; Basit, A; Ahmad, W; Butt, Z A; Qasim, M

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to determine the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for poor treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. A retrospective cohort study including all patients with MDR-TB who sought care at the MDR-TB unit in Peshawar was conducted between January 2012 and April 2014. Patients were followed until an outcome of TB treatment was recorded as successful (cured or completed) or unsuccessful. Binary logistic regression was used to identify predictors of poor outcome, i.e. unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Overall, 535 patients were included. The proportion of female subjects was relatively higher (n = 300, 56.1%) than male subjects. The mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 30.37 (14.09) years. Of 535 patients for whom treatment outcomes were available, 402 (75.1%) were cured, 4 (0.7%) completed therapy, 34 (6.4%) had disease that failed to respond to therapy, 93 (17.4%) died and two (0.4%) defaulted; in total, 129 (24.1%) had an unsuccessful outcome. We found three significant predictors of unsuccessful treatment during multivariate logistic regression: being married (odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 4.66), resistance to second-line drugs (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.61, 4.21) and presence of extensively drug-resistant TB (OR = 7.82, 95% CI 2.90, 21.07). Approximately 75% of the treatment success rate set by the Global Plan to Stop TB was achieved. Resistance to second-line drugs and presence of extensively drug-resistant TB are the main risk factors for poor treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lisbon, Portugal: a molecular epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, João; Macedo, Rita; João, Inês; Fernandes, Elisabete; Brum, Laura; Portugal, Isabel

    2008-06-01

    Portugal has the fourth highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in the European Union (EU). Thirty-nine percent of all cases originate in Lisbon Health Region. Portugal also presents high levels of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (1.5%, primary rate and 2.4%, in retreatment cases). In the present study we have characterized 58 MDR-TB clinical isolates by: (i) determining the resistance profile to first- and second-line drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis; (ii) genotyping all isolates by MIRU-VNTR; (iii) analyzing mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and ethambutol, in katG, mabA-inhA, rpoB, rpsL, rrs, and pncA genes. We have therefore established the prevalence of the most common mutations associated with drug resistance in the Lisbon Health Region: C-15T in mabA-inhA for isoniazid; S531L in rpoB for rifampicin; K43R in rpsL for streptomycin; and V125G in pncA for pyrazinamide. By genotyping all isolates and combining with the mutational results, we were able to assess the isolates' genetic relatedness and determine possible transmission events. Strains belonging to family Lisboa, characterized several years ago, are still responsible for the majority of the MDR-TB. Even more alarming is the high prevalence of extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) among the MDR-TB isolates, which was found to be 53%. The TB status in Portugal therefore requires urgent attention to contain the strains continuously responsible for MDR-TB and now, XDR-TB.

  9. Contribution of efflux to colistin heteroresistance in a multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Machado, Diana; Antunes, Jéssica; Simões, Ana; Perdigão, João; Couto, Isabel; McCusker, Matthew; Martins, Marta; Portugal, Isabel; Pacheco, Teresa; Batista, Judite; Toscano, Cristina; Viveiros, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying colistin heteroresistance in Acinetobacter baumannii are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of efflux in colistin-heteroresistant populations of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii clinical isolate. Three colistin-resistant A. baumannii strain variants isolated from the same clinical sample were studied for the presence of heteroresistance to colistin by drug susceptibility testing, genotyping and drug resistance target mutation analysis. The existence of active efflux was studied by synergism assays with efflux inhibitors, real-time efflux activity measurements and analysis of the mRNA transcriptional levels of selected efflux pump genes in response to colistin. All of the strain variants belong to the ST218, clonal complex 92, international clonal lineage II. Different colistin susceptibility levels were observed among the three strain variants, indicating that colistin-heteroresistant subpopulations were being selected upon exposure to colistin. No mutations were found in the genes lpxACD and pmrAB, which are associated with colistin resistance. The results showed the existence of synergistic interactions between efflux inhibitors and colistin and ethidium bromide. Real-time efflux assays demonstrated that the three strain variants had increased efflux activity that could be inhibited in the presence of the inhibitors. The efflux pump genes adeB, adeJ, adeG, craA, amvA, abeS and abeM were found to be overexpressed in the strain variants in response to colistin exposure. This study shows that efflux activity contributes to colistin heteroresistance in an MDR A. baumannii clinical isolate. The use of efflux inhibitors as adjuvants of the therapy can resensitize A. baumannii to colistin and prevent the emergence of drug resistance.

  10. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: The problem and some priorities in controlling it.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and even more severe forms of drug resistance, cause significant problems and costs for national TB control programs and constitutes an increasing public health concern globally. In parts of the former Soviet Union, the prevalence of MDR-TB is as high as 50% and one third of all newly detected TB patients are infected with MDR strains. Such strains transmit and certain MDR-TB clones constitute an important part of the problem, especially in high MDR-TB burden areas. There are several actions that should be given priority to control this situation. A first important step is timely detection of all patients infected with resistant strains, which makes possible prompt change of standard TB chemotherapy to more effective combinations of drugs. This is important both from the public health and clinical perspectives, since it renders the individual patient noninfectious and subsequently cured. Early detection of MDR-TB also allows infection control to be focused where it is most needed. Strengthened infection control measures are crucial for limiting the ongoing spread of resistant TB in hospitals and elsewhere. In addition, a sustainable drug supply must be ensured to guarantee that all patients are initiated on effective treatment and can avoid interruptions due to drug shortages. An extra focus should be put on vulnerable cases, such as immunosuppressed individuals, prisoners, drug addicts, and migrants, in whom TB is generally more frequent and difficult to control than in the normal population. Finally, political support is needed to ensure necessary infrastructures, human and financial resources to effectively control drug resistant TB. Copyright © 2016.

  11. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant E. faecalis Strains from Pigs of Local Origin by ADSRRS-Fingerprinting and MALDI -TOF MS; Evaluation of the Compatibility of Methods Employed for Multidrug Resistance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Zięba, Przemysław; Gnat, Sebastian; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Adaszek, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize multidrug resistant E. faecalis strains from pigs of local origin and to analyse the relationship between resistance and genotypic and proteomic profiles by amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS). From the total pool of Enterococcus spp. isolated from 90 pigs, we selected 36 multidrug resistant E. faecalis strains, which represented three different phenotypic resistance profiles. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline, macrolides, phenicols, and lincomycin and high-level resistance to aminoglycosides were confirmed by the occurrence of at least one corresponding resistance gene in each strain. Based on the analysis of the genotypic and phenotypic resistance of the strains tested, five distinct resistance profiles were generated. As a complement of this analysis, profiles of virulence genes were determined and these profiles corresponded to the phenotypic resistance profiles. The demonstration of resistance to a wide panel of antimicrobials by the strains tested in this study indicates the need of typing to determine the spread of resistance also at the local level. It seems that in the case of E. faecalis, type and scope of resistance strongly determines the genotypic pattern obtained with the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method. The ADSRRS-fingerprinting analysis showed consistency of the genetic profiles with the resistance profiles, while analysis of data with the use of the MALDI- TOF MS method did not demonstrate direct reproduction of the clustering pattern obtained with this method. Our observations were confirmed by statistical analysis (Simpson’s index of diversity, Rand and Wallace coefficients). Even though the MALDI -TOF MS method showed slightly higher discrimination power than ADSRRS-fingerprinting, only the latter method allowed reproduction of the clustering pattern of

  12. Novel antimicrobial peptide CPF-C1 analogs with superior stabilities and activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junqiu; Zhao, Qian; Li, Sisi; Yan, Zhibin; Li, Jing; Li, Yao; Mou, Lingyun; Zhang, Bangzhi; Yang, Wenle; Miao, Xiaokang; Jiang, Xianxing; Wang, Rui

    2017-11-01

    As numerous clinical isolates are resistant to most conventional antibiotics, infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with a higher death rate. Antimicrobial peptides show great potential as new antibiotics. However, a major obstacle to the development of these peptides as useful drugs is their low stability. To overcome the problem of the natural antimicrobial peptide CPF-C1, we designed and synthesized a series of analogs. Our results indicated that by introducing lysine, which could increase the number of positive charges, and by introducing tryptophan, which could increase the hydrophobicity, we could improve the antimicrobial activity of the peptides against multidrug-resistant strains. The introduction of d-amino acids significantly improved stability. Certain analogs demonstrated antibiofilm activities. In mechanistic studies, the analogs eradicated bacteria not just by interrupting the bacterial membranes, but also by linking to DNA, which was not impacted by known mechanisms of resistance. In a mouse model, certain analogs were able to significantly reduce the bacterial load. Among the analogs, CPF-9 was notable due to its greater antimicrobial potency in vitro and in vivo and its superior stability, lower hemolytic activity, and higher antibiofilm activity. This analog is a potential antibiotic candidate for treating infections induced by multidrug-resistant bacteria. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Temporal Fluctuation of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Typhi Haplotypes in the Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tran Thuy; Duy, Pham Thanh; La, Tran Thi Phi; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Campbell, James I.; Manh, Bui Huu; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina) assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005. Principal Findings The population of S. Typhi circulating during the study was highly clonal, with 91% of isolates belonging to a single clonal complex of the S. Typhi H58 haplogroup. The patterns of disease were consistent with the presence of an endemic haplotype H58-C and a localised outbreak of S. Typhi haplotype H58-E2 in 2004. H58-E2-associated typhoid fever cases exhibited evidence of significant geo-spatial clustering along the Sông H u branch of the Mekong River. Multidrug resistance was common in the established clone H58-C but not in the outbreak clone H58-E2, however all H58 S. Typhi were nalidixic acid resistant and carried a Ser83Phe amino acid substitution in the gyrA gene. Significance The H58 haplogroup dominates S. Typhi populations in other endemic areas, but the population described here was more homogeneous than previously examined populations, and the dominant clonal complex (H58-C, -E1, -E2) observed in this study has not been detected outside Vietnam. IncHI1 plasmid-bearing S. Typhi H58-C was endemic during the study period whilst H58-E2, which rarely carried the plasmid, was only transient, suggesting a selective advantage for the plasmid. These data add insight into the outbreak dynamics and local molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi in southern Vietnam. PMID:21245916

  14. Radiological signs associated with pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: an analysis of published evidences.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì Xiáng J; Chung, Myung Jin; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Rosenthal, Alex; Gabrielian, Andrei; Tartakovsky, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Despite that confirmative diagnosis of pulmonary drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is determined by microbiological testing, early suspicions of MDR-TB by chest imaging are highly desirable in order to guide diagnostic process. We aim to perform an analysis of currently available literatures on radiological signs associated with pulmonary MDR-TB. A literature search was performed using PubMed on January 29, 2018. The search words combination was "((extensive* drug resistant tuberculosis) OR (multidrug-resistant tuberculosis)) AND (CT or radiograph or imaging or X-ray or computed tomography)". We analyzed English language articles reported sufficient information of radiological signs of DS-TB vs. MDR-TB. Seventeen articles were found to be sufficiently relevant and included for analysis. The reported pulmonary MDR-TB cases were grouped into four categories: (I) previously treated (or 'secondary', or 'acquired') MDR-TB in HIV negative (-) adults; (II) new (or 'primary') MDR-TB in HIV(-) adults; (III) MDR-TB in HIV positive (+) adults; and (IV) MDR-TB in child patients. The common radiological findings of pulmonary MDR-TB included centrilobular small nodules, branching linear and nodular opacities (tree-in-bud sign), patchy or lobular areas of consolidation, cavitation, and bronchiectasis. While overall MDR-TB cases tended to have more extensive disease, more likely to be bilateral, to have pleural involvement, to have bronchiectasis, and to have lung volume loss; these signs alone were not sufficient for differential diagnosis of MDR-TB. Current literatures suggest that the radiological sign which may offer good specificity for pulmonary MDR-TB diagnosis, though maybe at the cost of low sensitivity, would be thick-walled multiple cavities, particularly if the cavity number is ≥3. For adult HIV(-) patients, new MDR-TB appear to show similar prevalence of cavity lesion, which was estimated to be around 70%, compared

  15. Surgical Face Masks Worn by Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A.; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. Objectives: We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Methods: Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68–85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31–51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33–70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Conclusions: Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients. PMID:22323300

  16. Influence of multidrug resistance and drug transport proteins on chemotherapy drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Helena; McCann, Andrew; Clynes, Martin; Larkin, Annemarie

    2015-05-01

    Chemotherapy involving the use of anticancer drugs remains an important strategy in the overall management of patients with metastatic cancer. Acquisition of multidrug resistance remains a major impediment to successful chemotherapy. Drug transporters in cell membranes and intracellular drug metabolizing enzymes contribute to the resistance phenotype and determine the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs in the body. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate the transport of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics including cytotoxic drugs out of cells. Solute carrier (SLC) transporters mediate the influx of cytotoxic drugs into cells. This review focuses on the substrate interaction of these transporters, on their biology and what role they play together with drug metabolizing enzymes in eliminating therapeutic drugs from cells. The majority of anticancer drugs are substrates for the ABC transporter and SLC transporter families. Together, these proteins have the ability to control the influx and the efflux of structurally unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs, thereby modulating the intracellular drug concentration. These interactions have important clinical implications for chemotherapy because ultimately they determine therapeutic efficacy, disease progression/relapse and the success or failure of patient treatment.

  17. The antibiotic pipeline for multi-drug resistant gram negative bacteria: what can we expect?

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Mavroudis, Andreas D; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z

    2016-08-01

    A real concern in the medical community is the increasing resistance of bacteria, especially that of Gram-negative types. New antibiotics are currently under clinical development, promising to tackle severe infections caused, especially, by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and broaden the armamentarium of clinicians. We searched PUBMED and GOOGLE databases. Combinations of already approved β-lactams or monobactams with new β-lactamase inhibitors [imipenem-cilastatin/MK-7655 (relebactam), meropenem/RPX7009 (vaborbactam), ceftaroline/avibactam, aztreonam/avibactam], new β-lactams (S-649266, BAL30072), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (finafloxacin) and tetracyclines (eravacycline) were included in the review. Expert commentary: For the majority of the upcoming antibiotics the currently available data is limited to their microbiology and pharmacokinetics. Their effectiveness and safety against infections due to MDR bacteria remain to be proved. Significant issues are also the impact of these antibiotics on the human intestinal microbiota and their possible co-administration with already-known antimicrobial agents in difficult-to-treat-infections; further studies should be conducted for these objectives.

  18. Phosphate-Containing Polyethylene Glycol Polymers Prevent Lethal Sepsis by Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborin, Alexander; Defazio, Jennifer; Kade, Matthew

    The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization for multi-drug resistant healthcare associated pathogens (HAPs) that are the principal source and cause of life-threatening infections in critically ill patients. We previously identified a high molecular weight co-polymer (PEG15-20) with mucoadhesive and cytoprotective actions on the intestinal epithelium. In this report we covalently bonded phosphate (Pi) to PEG15-20 ( termed Pi-PEG15-20) to enhance its cytoprotective activity against microbial virulence activation and invasion based on our previous work showing that Pi is a key environmental cue regulating microbial virulence across pathogens of clinical importance to hospitalized patients. We demonstrated that Pi-PEG15-20more » can suppress phosphate-, iron-, and quorum sensing signal- mediated activation of bacterial virulence as well as inhibit intestinal epithelial IL-8 release during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Pi-PEG15-20 also prevented mortality in C. elegans and mice exposed to several highly virulent and antibiotic(?)-resistant health care acquired pathogens (HAPs) while preserving the normal microbiota. Intestinal application Pi-PEG 15-20 has the potential to be a useful agent to prevent the pathogenic activation of microbes during critical illness where exposure to HAPs is ubiquitous.« less

  19. Nationwide outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections associated with ground turkey: United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Routh, J A; Pringle, J; Mohr, M; Bidol, S; Arends, K; Adams-Cameron, M; Hancock, W T; Kissler, B; Rickert, R; Folster, J; Tolar, B; Bosch, S; Barton Behravesh, C; Williams, I T; Gieraltowski, L

    2015-11-01

    On 23 May 2011, CDC identified a multistate cluster of Salmonella Heidelberg infections and two multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from ground turkey retail samples with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. We defined cases as isolation of outbreak strains in persons with illness onset between 27 February 2011 and 10 November 2011. Investigators collected hypothesis-generating questionnaires and shopper-card information. Food samples from homes and retail outlets were collected and cultured. We identified 136 cases of S. Heidelberg infection in 34 states. Shopper-card information, leftover ground turkey from a patient's home containing the outbreak strain and identical antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical and retail samples pointed to plant A as the source. On 3 August, plant A recalled 36 million pounds of ground turkey. This outbreak increased consumer interest in MDR Salmonella infections acquired through United States-produced poultry and played a vital role in strengthening food safety policies related to Salmonella and raw ground poultry.

  20. C-terminal Lysine-Linked Magainin 2 with Increased Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lorenzón, Esteban N; Santos-Filho, Norival A; Ramos, Matheus A S; Bauab, Tais M; Camargo, Ilana L B C; Cilli, Eduardo M

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing problem of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the development of novel antimicrobial agents is a very important challenge. Dimerization of cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) is a potential strategy for enhancing antimicrobial activity. Here, we studied the effects of magainin 2 (MG2) dimerization on its structure and biological activity. Lysine and glutamic acid were used to synthesize the C- and N-terminal dimers of MG2, respectively, in order to evaluate the impact of linker position used to obtain the dimers. Both MG2 and its dimeric versions showed a random coil structure in aqueous solution. However, in the presence of a structure-inducing solvent or a membrane mimetic, all peptides acquired helical structure. N-terminal dimerization did not affect the biological activity of the peptide. On the other hand, the C-terminal dimer, (MG2)2K, showed antimicrobial activity 8-16 times higher than that of MG2, and the time required to kill Escherichia coli was lower. The enhanced antimicrobial activity was related to membrane permeabilization. (MG2)2K was also more active against multidrug-resistant bacteria of clinical origin. Overall, the results presented here demonstrate that C-terminal lysine-linked dimerization improve the activity of MG2, and (MG2)2K can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  1. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients' views of interventions to reduce treatment loss to follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tupasi, T; Garfin, A M C G; Mangan, J M; Orillaza-Chi, R; Naval, L C; Balane, G I; Basilio, R; Golubkov, A; Joson, E S; Lew, W-J; Lofranco, V; Mantala, M; Pancho, S; Sarol, J N; Blumberg, A; Burt, D; Kurbatova, E V

    2017-01-01

    Patients who initiated treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at 15 Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) health facilities in the Philippines between July and December 2012. To describe patients' views of current interventions, and suggest changes likely to reduce MDR-TB loss to follow-up. In-depth interviews were conducted between April and July 2014 with MDR-TB patients who were undergoing treatment, had finished treatment at the time of the interview (controls), or had been lost to follow-up (LTFU). Responses were thematically analyzed. Interviews were conducted with 182 patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment and 91 LTFU patients. Views and suggestions could be thematically categorized as approaches to facilitate adherence or address barriers to adherence. The top themes were the need for transportation assistance or improvements to the current transportation assistance program, food assistance, and difficulties patients encountered related to their medications. These themes were addressed by respectively 63%, 60%, and 32% of the participants. A more patient-centered approach is needed to improve MDR-TB treatment adherence. Programs should strive to provide assistance that considers patient preferences, is adequate to cover actual costs or needs, and is delivered in a timely, uninterrupted manner.

  2. Emodin reverses leukemia multidrug resistance by competitive inhibition and downregulation of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongping; Niu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Jia; Li, Jiachang; Tan, Xiying; Li, Bo; Su, Mengxiang; Di, Bin; Yan, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuous clinical challenge partially due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Herein, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L, on P-gp in P-gp positive K562/ADM cells. Competition experiments combined with molecular docking analysis were utilized to investigate the binding modes between emodin and binding sites of P-gp. Emodin reversed adriamycin resistance in K562/ADM cells accompanied with the decrease of P-gp protein expression, further increasing the uptake of rhodamine123 in both K562/ADM and Caco-2 cells, indicating the inhibition of P-gp efflux function. Moreover, when incubated with emodin under different conditions where P-gp was inhibited, K562/ADM cells displayed increasing intracellular uptake of emodin, suggesting that emodin may be the potential substrate of P-gp. Importantly, rhodamine 123 could increase the Kintrinsic (Ki) value of emodin linearly, whereas, verapamil could not, implying that emodin competitively bound to the R site of P-gp and noncompetition existed between emodin and verapamil at the M site, in a good accordance with the results of molecular docking that emodin bound to the R site of P-gp with higher affinity. Based on our results, we suggest that emodin might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression. PMID:29121121

  3. Emodin reverses leukemia multidrug resistance by competitive inhibition and downregulation of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Min, Hongping; Niu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Jia; Li, Jiachang; Tan, Xiying; Li, Bo; Su, Mengxiang; Di, Bin; Yan, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuous clinical challenge partially due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Herein, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of emodin, a natural anthraquinone derivative isolated from Rheum palmatum L, on P-gp in P-gp positive K562/ADM cells. Competition experiments combined with molecular docking analysis were utilized to investigate the binding modes between emodin and binding sites of P-gp. Emodin reversed adriamycin resistance in K562/ADM cells accompanied with the decrease of P-gp protein expression, further increasing the uptake of rhodamine123 in both K562/ADM and Caco-2 cells, indicating the inhibition of P-gp efflux function. Moreover, when incubated with emodin under different conditions where P-gp was inhibited, K562/ADM cells displayed increasing intracellular uptake of emodin, suggesting that emodin may be the potential substrate of P-gp. Importantly, rhodamine 123 could increase the Kintrinsic (Ki) value of emodin linearly, whereas, verapamil could not, implying that emodin competitively bound to the R site of P-gp and noncompetition existed between emodin and verapamil at the M site, in a good accordance with the results of molecular docking that emodin bound to the R site of P-gp with higher affinity. Based on our results, we suggest that emodin might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression.

  4. Reversal of multidrug resistance by morning glory resin glycosides in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-01-27

    Reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by thirty resin glycosides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) was evaluated in vinblastine-resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/Vin). The effects of these amphipathic compounds on the cytotoxicity and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR were estimated with the sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. Active noncytotoxic compounds exerted a potentiation effect of vinblastine susceptibility by 1- to over 1906-fold at tested concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/mL. Murucoidin V (1) enhanced vinblastine activity 255-fold when incorporated at 25 μg/mL and also, based on flow cytometry, significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 with the use of reserpine as a positive control for a MDR reversal agent. Incubation of MCF-7/Vin cells with 1 caused an increase in uptake and notably lowered the efflux rate of rhodamine 123. Decreased expression of P-glycoprotein by compound 1 was detected by immunofluorescence flow cytometry after incubation with an anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that resin glycosides represent potential efflux pump inhibitors for overcoming MDR in cancer therapy.

  5. A DECADE TREND OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    BOLLELA, Valdes Roberto; PUGA, Fernanda Guioti; MOYA, Maria Janete; ANDREA, Mauro; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Lourdes Viude

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). The same trend was observed in the cases studied at the reference center. The number of notified cases increased and death rate reduced from 37.5% (2000-2005) to 3.4% (2006-2012). Among the 48 drug-resistant TB cases, 17 non-tuberculous Mycobacteria were isolated in the sputum culture of nine patients, without any clinical significance. TB and fungus co-infection was diagnosed in 15% (7/48) of these cases: three with confirmed chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and four with positive serological markers for paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall, the reports show that MDR-TB diagnosis and cure rates have increased, while the mortality rate has decreased significantly in São Paulo State including in the studied reference center. PMID:27828618

  6. A DECADE TREND OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Puga, Fernanda Guioti; Moya, Maria Janete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Viude

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). The same trend was observed in the cases studied at the reference center. The number of notified cases increased and death rate reduced from 37.5% (2000-2005) to 3.4% (2006-2012). Among the 48 drug-resistant TB cases, 17 non-tuberculous Mycobacteria were isolated in the sputum culture of nine patients, without any clinical significance. TB and fungus co-infection was diagnosed in 15% (7/48) of these cases: three with confirmed chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and four with positive serological markers for paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall, the reports show that MDR-TB diagnosis and cure rates have increased, while the mortality rate has decreased significantly in São Paulo State including in the studied reference center.

  7. Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-12-01

    A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

  8. African Flora Has the Potential to Fight Multidrug Resistance of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Continuous efforts from scientists of diverse fields are necessary not only to better understand the mechanism by which multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells occur, but also to boost the discovery of new cytotoxic compounds to fight MDR phenotypes. Objectives. The present review reports on the contribution of African flora in the discovery of potential cytotoxic phytochemicals against MDR cancer cells. Methodology. Scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge were used to retrieve publications related to African plants, isolated compounds, and drug resistant cancer cells. The data were analyzed to highlight cytotoxicity and the modes of actions of extracts and compounds of the most prominent African plants. Also, thresholds and cutoff points for the cytotoxicity and modes of action of phytochemicals have been provided. Results. Most published data related to the antiproliferative potential of African medicinal plants were from Cameroon, Egypt, Nigeria, or Madagascar. The cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds isolated in African plants was generally much better documented than that of terpenoids and alkaloids. Conclusion. African flora represents an enormous resource for novel cytotoxic compounds. To unravel the full potential, efforts should be strengthened throughout the continent, to meet the challenge of a successful fight against MDR cancers. PMID:25961047

  9. Global programmatic use of bedaquiline and delamanid for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cox, V; Brigden, G; Crespo, R H; Lessem, E; Lynch, S; Rich, M L; Waning, B; Furin, J

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommended two new drugs, bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid (DLM), for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in 2013 and 2014, respectively. An estimated one third of patients with MDR-TB would benefit from the inclusion of these drugs in their treatment regimens. A convenience sample of 36 countries voluntarily reported monthly data on cumulative programmatic use of new drugs to the Drug-Resistant TB Scale-Up Treatment Action Team between 1 July 2015 and 31 June 2017. Programmatic use was defined as treatment for MDR-TB with newer drugs outside of clinical trials or compassionate use. A total of 10 164 persons were started on BDQ and 688 started on DLM during the reporting period. Only 15.7% of the 69 213 persons estimated to need newer drugs over the study period were reported to have received them. While there has been significant progress in some countries, uptake of the newer drugs has not kept pace with a conservative estimate of need; fewer than 20% of persons likely to benefit from either BDQ or DLM have received them. Concerted efforts are needed to ensure that the newer drugs are made available more widely for persons with MDR-TB in need of these therapeutic options.

  10. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C; Leavis, Helen L; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers. Here we characterised the effects of the small-molecule inhibitor 1771 on the growth of E. faecium isolates, alone (28 strains) or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin, daptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin or linezolid (15 strains), and on biofilm formation (16 strains). Inhibition of LTA synthesis at the surface of the cell by compound 1771 in combination with current antibiotic therapy abrogates enterococcal growth in vitro but does not affect mature E. faecium biofilms. Targeting LTA synthesis may provide new possibilities to treat MDR E. faecium infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Low rates of recurrence after successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gelmanova, I Y; Ahmad Khan, F; Becerra, M C; Zemlyanaya, N A; Unakova, I A; Andreev, Y G; Berezina, V I; Pavlova, V E; Shin, S; Yedilbayev, A B; Krasnov, V A; Keshavjee, S

    2015-04-01

    Tomsk, Russia, where multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is prevalent. To report rates of recurrence following successful treatment of MDR-TB in a program providing individualized treatment regimens designed according to the current global standard of care. A retrospective cohort study of 408 adults successfully treated for pulmonary MDR-TB from 10 September 2000 to 1 November 2004, and followed for up to 6 years post-treatment. We used Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to assess whether recurrence rates changed significantly with time. We analyzed 399 (97.5%) patients with at least one follow-up visit (15 850 person-months of observation [PMO]). Baseline resistance to second-line drugs was common (65.2%); 398 patients (99.7%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative. In the first year of post-treatment follow-up, there were six episodes of recurrence (1.4/1000 PMO, 95%CI 0.5-3.0). After the first post-treatment year, there were 21 episodes of recurrence (1.8/1000 PMO, 95%CI 1.1-2.8). The rate did not change significantly with time. Individualized regimens designed according to the current global standard of care achieved low rates of MDR-TB recurrence among non-HIV-infected persons treated in a programmatic setting.

  12. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis around the world: what progress has been made?

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayev, Fuad; Wares, Fraser; Baena, Inés Garcia; Zignol, Matteo; Linh, Nguyen; Weyer, Karin; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) will influence the future of global TB control. 88% of estimated MDR-TB cases occur in middle- or high-income countries, and 60% occur in Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa. The World Health Organization collects country data annually to monitor the response to MDR-TB. Notification, treatment enrolment and outcome data were summarised for 30 countries, accounting for >90% of the estimated MDR-TB cases among notified TB cases worldwide. In 2012, a median of 14% (interquartile range 6–50%) of estimated MDR-TB cases were notified in the 30 countries studied. In 15 of the 30 countries, the number of patients treated for MDR-TB in 2012 (71 681) was >50% higher than in 2011. Median treatment success was 53% (interquartile range 40–70%) in the 25 countries reporting data for 30 021 MDR-TB cases who started treatment in 2010. Although progress has been noted in the expansion of MDR-TB care, urgent efforts are required in order to provide wider access to diagnosis and treatment in most countries with the highest burden of MDR-TB. PMID:25261327

  13. Predictors of unfavourable treatment outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Velayutham, B.; Kannan, T.; Tripathy, J. P.; Harries, A. D.; Natrajan, M.; Swaminathan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: India has one of the highest global rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is associated with poor treatment outcomes. A better understanding of the risk factors for unfavourable outcomes is needed. Objectives: To describe 1) the demographic and clinical characteristics of MDR-TB patients registered in three states of India during 2009–2011, 2) treatment outcomes, and 3) factors associated with unfavourable outcomes. Design: A retrospective cohort study involving a record review of registered MDR-TB patients. Results: Of 788 patients, 68% were male, 70% were aged 15–44 years, 90% had failed previous anti-tuberculosis treatment or were retreatment smear-positive, 60% had a body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 and 72% had additional resistance to streptomycin and/or ethambutol. The median time from sputum collection to the start of MDR-TB treatment was 128 days (IQR 103–173). Unfavourable outcomes occurred in 40% of the patients, mostly from death or loss to follow-up. Factors significantly associated with unfavourable outcomes included male sex, age ⩾ 45 years, being underweight and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. Adverse drug reactions were reported in 24% of patients, with gastrointestinal disturbance, psychiatric morbidity and ototoxicity the most common. Conclusion: Long delays from sputum collection to treatment initiation using conventional methods, along with poor treatment outcomes, suggest the need to scale up rapid diagnostic tests and shorter regimens for MDR-TB. PMID:28775941

  14. Insight into multidrug-resistant Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    San, Lai Lai; Aye, Khin Saw; Oo, Nan Aye Thida; Shwe, Mu Mu; Fukushima, Yukari; Gordon, Stephen V; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Chie

    2018-06-21

    Myanmar is a WHO high tuberculosis (TB) burden country with a high multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB burden. Significantly a high prevalence of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) among MDR-MTB has been reported previously. To explore whether an association exists between the prevalence of the Beijing MTB genotype and MDR-TB in Myanmar, we performed detailed genetic characterization of TB clinical isolates. A total of 265 MDR-MTB clinical isolates collected in 2010 and 2012 were subjected to spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis, SNP typing and drug resistance-associated gene sequencing including rpoC to detect potential compensatory evolution. Of the total MDR-MTB isolates, 79.2% (210/265) were of the Beijing genotype, the majority of which were the "modern" subtype. Beijing genotype isolates were differentiated by 15-loci MIRU-VNTR and a high clustering rate (53.0%) was observed in the modern subtype. These MIRU-VNTR patterns were similar to Beijing genotype clones spreading across Russia and Central Asia. High prevalence of katG Ser315Thr, and genetic evidence of XDR and pre-XDR and compensatory mutations in rpoC were observed among clustered isolates. MDR-MTB strains of the Beijing genotype might be spreading in Myanmar and present a major challenge to TB control in this country. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. PGLa-H tandem-repeat peptides active against multidrug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Rončević, Tomislav; Gajski, Goran; Ilić, Nada; Goić-Barišić, Ivana; Tonkić, Marija; Zoranić, Larisa; Simunić, Juraj; Benincasa, Monica; Mijaković, Marijana; Tossi, Alessandro; Juretić, Davor

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates for new antibiotic classes but often display an unacceptably high toxicity towards human cells. A naturally produced C-terminal fragment of PGLa, named PGLa-H, has been reported to have a very low haemolytic activity while maintaining a moderate antibacterial activity. A sequential tandem repeat of this fragment, diPGLa-H, was designed, as well as an analogue with a Val to Gly substitution at a key position. These peptides showed markedly improved in vitro bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against both reference strains and multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, with generally low toxicity for human cells as assessed by haemolysis, cell viability, and DNA damage assays. The glycine substitution analogue, kiadin, had a slightly better antibacterial activity and reduced haemolytic activity, which may correlate with an increased flexibility of its helical structure, as deduced using molecular dynamics simulations. These peptides may serve as useful lead compounds for developing anti-infective agents against resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central