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Sample records for abdelsalam sumi helal

  1. Sumi-e: A Way of the Brush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platten, Marvin R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the Japanese style of ink painting called sumi-e can be taught to middle school students. After preparation of materials and demonstration of sumi-e by the teacher, students are ready to paint bamboo. In spite of the formalized method of learning stroke order, they often create highly original compositions. (CS)

  2. Polarization Measurements on SUMI's TVLS Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, K.; West, E. A.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of toroidal variable-line-space (TVLS) gratings for the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI), currently being developed at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC). SUMI is a spectro-polarimeter designed to measure magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere by observing two UV emission lines sensitive to magnetic fields, the CIY line at 155nm and the MgII line at 280nm. The instrument uses a pair of TVLS gratings, to observe both linear polarizations simultaneously. Efficiency measurements were done on bare aluminum gratings and aluminum/MgF2 coated gratings, at both linear polarizations.

  3. Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) Component Responses to Payload Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration testing of SUMI was performed at both the experiment and payload levels. No accelerometers were installed inside the experiment during testing, but it is certain that component responses were very high. The environments experienced by optical and electronic components in these tests is an area of ongoing concern. The analysis supporting this presentation included a detailed finite element model of the SUMI experiment section, the dynamic response of which, correlated well with accelerometer measurements from the testing of the experimental section at Marshall Space Flight Center. The relatively short timeframe available to complete the task and the limited design information available was a limitation on the level of detail possible for the non-experiment portion of the model. However, since the locations of interest are buried in the experimental section of the model, the calculated responses should be enlightening both for the development of test criteria and for guidance in design.

  4. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  5. Innovation for Information: International Contributions to Librarianship. Festschrift in Honour of Dr. Ahmed H. Helal. Publication 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    This publication contains the following essays: (1) "Das Bibliothekssystem der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum: hochschul-und stazungsrechtliche Grundlagen" (Bernhard Adams); (2) "On Appropriate Librarianship: The Genesis of the Library of Today, and Its Possible Exodus Tomorrow" (Maurice B. Line); (3) "The Challenge to Library and Information…

  6. [Achromatic watercolor effect: about requirement of formation of sumi painting effect].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori

    2008-10-01

    The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achroriatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a)a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect.

  7. [Achromatic watercolor effect: about requirement of formation of sumi painting effect].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Midori

    2008-10-01

    The watercolor effect (Pinna, Brelstaff, & Spillmann, 2001) is a new color spreading phenomenon. Pinna et al. (2001) proposed that the watercolor effect is a new Gestalt factor because it determines figure-ground organization more strongly than classical Gestalt factors. We used achroriatic watercolor patterns and varied the lightness of the background and two border lines to study the relationship between the color spreading effect and figure-ground organization. The results demonstrated (a)a bidirectional color spreading phenomenon when the background lightness was between the two border-lines' lightness, and that (b) some patterns elicit only a color spreading effect without organization of figure-ground, while others elicit only figure-ground organization without a color spreading effect. PMID:19069121

  8. EXTENT AND KINEMATICS OF ASWA SHEAR ZONE IN UGANDA AND SOUTH SUDAN USING AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL AND REMOTE SENSING DATA. A. Katumwehe. 1, E. A. Atekwana. 1, M.G. Abdelsalam.1 1Oklahoma State University, Boone Pickens School of Geology, Stillwater, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Salam, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a fundamental Precambrian lithospheric structure playing an important role in the evolution of the Mesozoic South Sudan rifts, the propagation of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS), the eruption of EARS shield volcanoes (Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Elgon), re-organization of drainage systems (the White Nile), and the distribution of recent seismicity in South Sudan. Traces of the shear zone have been mapped extending in central and east Africa in a NW-SE direction from South Sudan in the northwest through Uganda and Tanzania to the southeast and possibly into Madagascar. Gondwana reconstructions suggest that the ASZ continues further southeast into south India. Nonetheless, the kinematics and extent of the ASZ have not been fully understood because of limited exposure. In areas where it is exposed the shear zone is expressed by narrow dominantly NW-trending outcrops. We use recently acquired high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data over Uganda integrated with 90 m spatial resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and 30 m spatial resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data to elucidate the kinematics and ascertain the significance of the ASZ in the development of the EARS and the tectonic architecture of east and central Africa. Vertical derivative, Euler deconvolution and analytical signal filters were applied to the total field magnetic data to image the shallow subsurface structures associated with the ASZ while upward continuation (5000 m) was applied to assess the ASZ depth continuity. We also used radiometric data to create ternary images while SRTM and Landsat TM data were used to map the surface expression of the shear zone. The geophysical data from Uganda suggest that the ASZ is characterised by a 50-60 km wide corridor of ductile deformation associated with NW-trending strike-slip shearing. It is dominated by three, equally-spaced and discrete sinistral strike-slip shear zones bounding wider belts dominated by splays of secondary shear zones and shear-related folds. These folds become tighter close to discrete shear zones and their axial traces become sub-parallel to the shear zones themselves. A similar pattern is observed on the surface in South Sudan in the SRTM DEM and the Landsat TM images. The evolution of these folds is explained in terms of secondary constructional strain developed in association and nearly perpendicular to the NW-trend of the sinistral strike-slip shearling. There is a remarkable resemblance between the magnetic fabric of the ASZ and that of the Najd fault system; a major sinistral strike-slip shear system in the Arabian-Nubian Shield suggesting that the shear zones may have evolved through similar Neopreterozoic Pan-African tectonic events, possibly associated with the collision between East and West Gondwana. The EARS bifurcates into the Eastern and Western branches -south of the ASZ while the Western branch terminates at the ASZ near the border between Uganda and South Sudan. This implies that the ASZ together with the Tanzanian craton played an important role in strain localization and prorogation during the evolution of the EARS.

  9. MgII Observations Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific goals of our sounding rocket program, the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI). This paper will present a brief description of the optics that were developed to meet SUMI's scientific goals, discuss the spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics of SUMI s optics, describe SUMI's flight which was launched 7/30/2010, and discuss what we have learned from that flight.

  10. Spectral Calibration of the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Gary, Allen; Davis, John; Reader, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the scientific goals of a sounding rocket program called the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI), presents a brief description of the optics that were developed to meet those goals and discusses the spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics of SUMI's Toroidal Variable-Line-Space (TVLS) gratings; which are critical to SUMI's measurements of the magnetic field in the Sun's transition region.

  11. Dual regulation of energy metabolism by p53 in human cervix and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Román-Rosales, Alejandra; García-Villa, Enríque; López-Macay, Ambar; Pineda, Erika; Saavedra, Emma; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Ríos, Elizabeth; Gariglio, Patricio; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The role of p53 as modulator of OxPhos and glycolysis was analyzed in HeLa-L (cells containing negligible p53 protein levels) and HeLa-H (p53-overexpressing) human cervix cancer cells under normoxia and hypoxia. In normoxia, functional p53, mitochondrial enzyme contents, mitochondrial electrical potential (ΔΨm) and OxPhos flux increased in HeLa-H vs. HeLa-L cells; whereas their glycolytic enzyme contents and glycolysis flux were unchanged. OxPhos provided more than 70% of the cellular ATP and proliferation was abolished by anti-mitochondrial drugs in HeLa-H cells. In hypoxia, both cell proliferations were suppressed, but HeLa-H cells exhibited a significant decrease in OxPhos protein contents, ΔΨm and OxPhos flux. Although glycolytic function was also diminished vs. HeLa-L cells in hypoxia, glycolysis provided more than 60% of cellular ATP in HeLa-H cells. The energy metabolism phenotype of HeLa-H cells was reverted to that of HeLa-L cells by incubating with pifithrin-α, a p53-inhibitor. In normoxia, the energy metabolism phenotype of breast cancer MCF-7 cells was similar to that of HeLa-H cells, whereas p53shRNAMCF-7 cells resembled the HeLa-L cell phenotype. In hypoxia, autophagy proteins and lysosomes contents increased 2-5 times in HeLa-H cells suggesting mitophagy activation. These results indicated that under normoxia p53 up-regulated OxPhos without affecting glycolysis, whereas under hypoxia, p53 down-regulated both OxPhos (severely) and glycolysis (weakly). These p53 effects appeared mediated by the formation of p53-HIF-1α complexes. Therefore, p53 exerts a dual and contrasting regulatory role on cancer energy metabolism, depending on the O₂level.

  12. Making Ultraviolet Spectro-Polarimetry Polarization Measurements with the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program. This paper will concentrate on SUMI's VUV optics, and discuss their spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics. While SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria, there are several areas that will be improved for its second and third flights. This paper will emphasize the MgII linear polarization measurements and describe the changes that will be made to the sounding rocket and how those changes will improve the scientific data acquired by SUMI.

  13. 75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the... importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized... CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy Import Licensing Program, Import Policies and Export...

  14. 77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate Import... person or firm by the Department of Agriculture authorizing the importation of certain dairy articles... States. DATES: August 27, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Abdelsalam El-Farra, Dairy...

  15. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Porter, Jason; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the MSFC SUMI project and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed, This paper will describe the optical measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirrors and polarization optics.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Hydrophilic-to-Hydrophobic Switching in the Wettability of a Gold Surface Corrugated with Spherical Cavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengqing; Matin, Mohammad A; Ha, Man Yeong; Jang, Joonkyung

    2016-09-20

    This paper reports a large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of the wettability of a gold surface engraved with (hemi)spherical cavities. By increasing the depth of cavities, the contact angle (CA) of a water droplet on the surface was varied from a hydrophilic (69°) to a hydrophobic value (>109°). The nonmonotonic behavior of the CA vs the depth of the cavities was consistent with the Cassie-Baxter theory, as found in the experiment by Abdelsalam et al. (Abdelsalam, M. E.; Bartlett, P. N.; Kelf, T.; Baumberg, J. Wetting of Regularly Structured Gold Surfaces. Langmuir 2005, 21, 1753-1757). Depending on the depth of cavities, however, the droplet existed not only in the Cassie-Baxter state, but also in the Wenzel or an intermediate state, where the cavities were penetrated partially by the droplet. PMID:27584981

  17. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  18. The Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Utraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Noble, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will describe the objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the W, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirrors and polarimeter.

  19. The Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Noble, M. W.; Lewis, M.; Thomas, Roger J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will describe the objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550Angstroms) and MgII (2800Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirrors and polarimeter.

  20. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayahsi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  1. Toroidal Variable-Line-Space Gratings: The Good, the Bad and The Ugly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward A.; Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan; Gary, Allen; Davis, John; Reader, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Toroidal variable-line-space (VLS) gratings are an important factor in the design of an efficient VUV solar telescope that will measure the CIV (155nm) and MgII (280nm) emissions lines in the Sun's transition region. In 1983 Kita and Harada described spherical VLS gratings but the technology to commercially fabricate these devices is a recent development, especially for toroidal surfaces. This paper will describe why this technology is important in the development of the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program (the good), the delays due to the conversion between the TVLS grating design and the optical fabrication (the bad), and finally the optical testing, alignment and tolerancing of the gratings (the ugly). The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation, SUMI, has been reported in several papers since this program began in 2000. The emphasis of this paper is to describe SUMI's Toroidal Variable-Line-Space (TVLS) gratings. These gratings help SUMI meet its scientific goals which require both high spectral resolution and high optical efficiency for magnetic field measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength band of the solar spectrum (the good). Unfortunately, the technology readiness level of these gratings has made their implementation difficult, especially for a sounding rocket payload (the bad). Therefore, this paper emphasizes the problems and solutions that were developed to use these gratings in SUMI (the ugly). Section 2 contains a short review of the scientific goals of SUMI and why this mission is important in the understanding of the 3D structure of the magnetic field on the Sun. The flight hardware that makes up the SUMI payload is described in Section 3 with emphasis on those components that affect the TVLS gratings. Section 4 emphasizes the alignment, testing and optical modeling that were developed to optimize the performance of these gratings.

  2. [Military history of evacuation hospital No 3457 and the head of this hospital -- Porfirii Ivanovich Zabolotnyi].

    PubMed

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-05-01

    The article is devoted to publication of an archive document "History of evacuation hospital AN 3457". This archive document was found in one of the deserted country house in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. 32 pages of text is bright and eloquent testimony of the period of the Great Patriotic War. Hospital was founded in 1941 in Sumy Oblast and then was deployed in Siberia, in the region of the Far North, again in Ukraine and in Hungary. Army medical officer Porfirii Zabolotnyi was the chef of evacuation hospital during this period.

  3. Approach to Dynamic Assembling of Individualized Learning Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys

    2012-01-01

    E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…

  4. Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Closed-Type Two-Phase Loop Thermosyphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Hideaki; Saito, Yuji; Fujimoto, Hiromitsu

    A closed-loop two-phase thermosyphon can transport a large amount of thermal energy with small temperature differences without any external power supply. A fundamental investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics was performed experimentally and theoretically using water, ethanol and R113 as the working liquids. Heat transfer coefficients in an evaporator and a condenser, and circulation flow rates were measured experimentally. The effects of liquid fill charge, rotation angle, pressure in the loop and heat flux on the heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator and the condenser were correlated by the expressions for pool boiling and film condensation respectively. As a result, the heat transfer coefficients in the evaporator were correlated by the Stephan-Abdelsalam equations within a±40% error. Theoretically, the circulation flow rate was predicted by calculating pressure, temperature, quality and void fraction along the loop. And, the comparison between the calculated and experimental results was made.

  5. Overview of the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Edward A.; Porter, Jason G.; Davis, John M.; Gary, G. A.; Spann, James F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Traditional magnetographs measure the solar magnetic field at the visible "surface" of the Sun, the photosphere. The Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) is a design study for an instrument to measure the solar magnetic field higher in the atmosphere, in the upper chromosphere and in the transition region at the base of the corona. The magnetic pressure at these levels is much stronger than the gas pressure (in contrast to the situation at the photosphere), and so the field is much more dynamic. Observations in this region will significantly improve our understanding of the physical processes driving flares and heating in the Sun's upper atmosphere. The instrument will incorporate new technologies to achieve the polarization efficiencies required to isolate the magnetic lines (Civ at 155nm and MgII at 280nm) to be observed in the UV. We describe the scientific goals, the SUMI baseline design and the optical components that are being developed for a sounding rocket program.

  6. Stability of Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism of Zinc-Blende Type CrAs and MnM (M=Si, Ge and Sn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Akimasa

    2002-10-01

    By the first-principles calculations both for electronic structures and effective exchange constants, we investigate the stability of ferromagnetism of zinc-blende (ZB) type CrAs, and further examine a possibility of ferromagnetism of ZB type MnM (M=Si, Ge and Sn). ZB type CrAs, a half-metallic ferromagnet reported by Akinaga’s group [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) L1118], is found to have an effective exchange constant (J0=\\sumi\

  7. Energy Fluctuation of Ideal Fermi Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential U=\\sum_{i=1}^{d} c_i\\vert x_{i}/a_{i}\\vert^{n_{i} } in d Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Muktadir Rahman, Md.; Debnath, Dwaipayan; Sakhawat Hossain Himel, Md.

    2016-04-01

    Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.

  8. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  9. Multiway In-Place Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffert, Viliam; Gajdoš, Jozef

    We present an algorithm for asymptotically efficient k-way merging. Given an array A containing sorted subsequences A 1,...,A k of respective lengths n 1,...,n k , where sum_{i=1}kn_i = n, our algorithm merges A 1,...,A k in-place, into a single sorted sequence, performing lceil{lg k}rceil \\cdot n + o(n) element comparisons and 3·n + o(n) element moves. That is, our algorithm runs in linear time, with the number of moves independent of k, the number of input sequences.

  10. Evidence of the existence and eastward motion of superclusters at the Equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakazawa, Tetsuo

    1989-01-01

    A numerical experiment performed by Hayashi and Sumi (1986) with an atmospheric GCM has shown that moist convection in the equatorial region is spontaneously organized into a form of supercluster (an area of precipitation with a spatial extent of about 2000 km and an eastward propagation speed of about 15 m/sec. Here, the existence of superclusters in the real atmosphere is shown through a comparison between satellite observations and the GCM results. It is argued that eastward motion of convective activity occurs not only as the well-known property of the 30-60-day oscillation, but as a property of synoptic-scale disturbances at the equator.

  11. Correlation for the Prediction of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Small Diameter Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kazushi; Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    The objective of the present study is to develop a correlation applicable to a prediction of an axially local heat transfer coefficient in flow boiling within small diameter tubes. From experimental data of authors obtained previously, it was found that, for the accurate prediction of the heat transfer in small diameter tubes, it was necessary to evaluate precisely the contribution of evaporation heat transfer of thin liquid film around vapor plugs in slug flow, adding to the forced convection heat transfer and nucleate boiling heat transfer. There are, however, only conventional heat transfer correlations which consider any two of the three contributions; forced convection and nucleate boiling in most cases. In this study, a new correlation considering all of three contributions was developed based on data of R 410A by authors and data of other Freons, water and CO2 by other researchers. In the new correlation, the liquid film evaporation heat transfer is evaluated using liquid film thickness correlated with the Capillary number, the forced convection heat transfer is calculated by use of the Dittus-Boelter correlation and the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter, and the nucleate boiling heat transfer is predicted from the Stephan-Abdelsalam correlation with the suppression factor. The new correlation showed higher prediction performance compared with conventional heat transfer correlations.

  12. Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics: Introduction, Dynamical Foundations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2003-03-01

    Many natural and artificial systems exist whose thermostatistical properties appear to be hardly tractable or just untractable within Boltzmann-Gibbes statistical mechanics. Nonextensive statistical mechanics is a generalization of the standard formalism which addresses such systems, typically characterized by long-range interactions, long-range memory, (multi)fractal structures and similar anomalies. This formalism is based on the entropic form Sq = k (1-sumi p_i^q)/(q-1) (S1 = - k sumi pi ln p_i). A brief review of the formalism as well as some illustrative applications will be presented. Finally, the a priori calculation of the entropic index q to be associated with specific systems will be exhibited, starting from the knowledge of the corresponding micorscopic or mesoscopic dynamics. This formalism yields, for nonequilibrium stationary states (e.g., metastable states) and relaxation properties of many ubiquitous systems, asymptotic power-laws, as Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics yields, for the thermal equilibrium and relaxation properties of standard systems, exponential laws. Bibliography: http://tsallis.cat.cbpf.br/biblio.htm

  13. Exploring the Usability of a Mobile App for Adolescent Obesity Management

    PubMed Central

    Dowdall, Grainne; Burls, Amanda; Perry, Ivan J; Curran, Noirin

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global epidemic. Behavioral change approaches towards improving nutrition, increasing physical activity level, improving sleep, and reducing sitting time are recommended as best practices in adolescent obesity management. However, access to evidence-based treatment is limited and portable technologies such as mobile apps may provide a useful platform to deliver such lifestyle interventions. No evidence-based validated app exists for obesity intervention; therefore, a novel mobile app (Reactivate) was developed for use in the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles Program (W82GO). Objective This study aimed to test the usability (technical effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) of the Reactivate mobile app in obese adolescents. Methods Ten adolescents (7 males and 3 females, aged 12-17 years) who had been treated for obesity (>98th percentile for body mass index) at the Temple Street Children's University Hospital were recruited. Participants were given 8 tasks to complete in order to test the technical effectiveness of the app. A research assistant timed the user while completing each task in order to test the relative user efficiency of the app (time-on-task). The tasks fell into 5 categories and required the user to enter personal settings, find and answer surveys, create a message, use the goal setting feature, and enter details regarding their weight and height. In exploration of user satisfaction, each participant completed the standardized software usability measurement inventory (SUMI), which measures 5 aspects of user satisfaction: efficiency, effect, helpfulness, controllability, and learnability. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the mean relative user efficiency and SUMI scores. Results Mean age was 14.26 (SD 1.58) years. All adolescents completed each of the tasks successfully. The mean relative user efficiency scores were two to three times that of an expert user. Users responded that they would use

  14. The Structure of a Fundamental System of Solutions of a Singularly Perturbed Equation with a Regular Singular Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, S. A.; Yudina, A. S.

    1983-04-01

    The method of regularization is applied to obtain a fundamental system of solutions of a singularly perturbed equation with a regular singular point \\displaystyle \\varepsilon^2z^2w'' + \\varepsilon zp(z)w' + g(z)w = 0.(i) The solutions are of the form \\displaystyle w_k(z, \\varepsilon) = z^{r_k(\\varepsilon)/\\varepsilon} \\exp{\\Bigg......(\\tau)\\, d\\tau\\Biggr \\}}\\sum_{i=0}^\\infty\\varepsilon^iw^k_i(z), \\quad k = 1, 2.(ii) The series are asymptotically convergent as \\varepsilon \\to 0 uniformly in z in some bounded domain. Here the r_k(\\varepsilon) are the roots of the indicial equations, the \\lambda_k(z) are the roots of the characteristic equation and the functions w_i^{(k)}(z) are the solutions of certain recurrent linear differential equations of the first order. The results are applied to an asymptotic expansion of Bessel functions I_\

  15. Ligand reorganization and activation energies in nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Wang, Jianji; Stell, George

    2006-10-01

    The activation energy and ligand reorganization energy for nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions in chemical and biological systems are investigated in this paper. The free energy surfaces and the activation energy are derived exactly in the general case in which the ligand vibration frequencies are not equal. The activation energy is derived by free energy minimization at the transition state. Our formulation leads to the Marcus-Hush [J. Chem. Phys. 24, 979 (1956); 98, 7170 (1994); 28, 962 (1958)] results in the equal-frequency limit and also generalizes the Marcus-Sumi [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4894 (1986)] model in the context of studying the solvent dynamic effect on electron transfer reactions. It is found that when the ligand vibration frequencies are different, the activation energy derived from the Marcus-Hush formula deviates by 5%-10% from the exact value. If the reduced reorganization energy approximation is introduced in the Marcus-Hush formula, the result is almost exact.

  16. Quantum percolation by Arnoldi-Saad diagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hisao

    1998-03-01

    A quantum percolation problem is studied in two and three dimensions numerically by approximately diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian using the Arnoldi-Saad method. In this problem, the randomness is implemented as random site percolation with probability p for site occupation but is reflected as a random hopping term v_ij in the tight-binding Hamiltonian: H = sumi ɛi |i>v_ij|i>

  17. Zeldovich and the Missing Baryons, Results from Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.

    2016-10-01

    Central to Zeldovich's attempts to understand the origin of cosmological structure was his exploration of the fluid dynamical effects in the primordial gas, and how the baryonic dark matter formed. Unfortunately microlensing searches for condensed objects in the foreground of the Magellanic Clouds were flawed by the assumption that the objects would be uniformly (Gaussian) distributed, and because the cadence of daily observations strongly disfavored detection of planet mass microlenses. But quasar microlensing showed them to exist at planetary mass at the same time that a hydro-gravitational theory predicted the planet-mass population as fossils of turbulence at the time of recombination (z = 1100; Gibson 1996, 2001). Where the population has now been detected from MACHO searches to the LMC (Sumi et al. 2011) we compare the quasar microlensing results to the recent determination of the mass distribution function measured for the planetary mass function, and show that the population can account for the baryonic dark matter.

  18. On the reality of spectra of U q (sl 2)-invariant XXZ Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Ruelle, Philippe; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2016-05-01

    A new inner product is constructed on each standard module over the Temperley-Lieb algebra $\\mathsf{TL}_n(\\beta)$ for $\\beta\\in \\mathbb R$ and $n \\ge 2$. On these modules, the Hamiltonian $h = -\\sum_i e_i$ is shown to be self-adjoint with respect to this inner product. This implies that its action on these modules is diagonalisable with real eigenvalues. A representation theoretic argument shows that the reality of spectra of the Hamiltonian extends to all other Temperley-Lieb representations. In particular, this result applies to the celebrated $U_q(sl_2)$-invariant XXZ Hamiltonian, for all $q+q^{-1}\\in \\mathbb R$.

  19. Design, Implementation, and Wide Pilot Deployment of FitForAll: An Easy to use Exergaming Platform Improving Physical Fitness and Life Quality of Senior Citizens.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis S; Mouzakidis, Christos A; Zilidou, Vasiliki I; Antoniou, Panagiotis E; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-01-01

    Many platforms have emerged as response to the call for technology supporting active and healthy aging. Key requirements for any such e-health systems and any subsequent business exploitation are tailor-made design and proper evaluation. This paper presents the design, implementation, wide deployment, and evaluation of the low cost, physical exercise, and gaming (exergaming) FitForAll (FFA) platform system usability, user adherence to exercise, and efficacy are explored. The design of FFA is tailored to elderly populations, distilling literature guidelines and recommendations. The FFA architecture introduces standard physical exercise protocols in exergaming software engineering, as well as, standard physical assessment tests for augmented adaptability through adjustable exercise intensity. This opens up the way to next generation exergaming software, which may be more automatically/smartly adaptive. 116 elderly users piloted FFA five times/week, during an eight-week controlled intervention. Usability evaluation was formally conducted (SUS, SUMI questionnaires). Control group consisted of a size-matched elderly group following cognitive training. Efficacy was assessed objectively through the senior fitness (Fullerton) test, and subjectively, through WHOQoL-BREF comparisons of pre-postintervention between groups. Adherence to schedule was measured by attendance logs. The global SUMI score was 68.33±5.85%, while SUS was 77.7. Good usability perception is reflected in relatively high adherence of 82% for a daily two months pilot schedule. Compared to control group, elderly using FFA improved significantly strength, flexibility, endurance, and balance while presenting a significant trend in quality of life improvements. This is the first elderly focused exergaming platform intensively evaluated with more than 100 participants. The use of formal tools makes the findings comparable to other studies and forms an elderly exergaming corpus.

  20. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    PubMed

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83). PMID:27266031

  1. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    PubMed

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83).

  2. Design, Implementation, and Wide Pilot Deployment of FitForAll: An Easy to use Exergaming Platform Improving Physical Fitness and Life Quality of Senior Citizens.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis S; Mouzakidis, Christos A; Zilidou, Vasiliki I; Antoniou, Panagiotis E; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-01-01

    Many platforms have emerged as response to the call for technology supporting active and healthy aging. Key requirements for any such e-health systems and any subsequent business exploitation are tailor-made design and proper evaluation. This paper presents the design, implementation, wide deployment, and evaluation of the low cost, physical exercise, and gaming (exergaming) FitForAll (FFA) platform system usability, user adherence to exercise, and efficacy are explored. The design of FFA is tailored to elderly populations, distilling literature guidelines and recommendations. The FFA architecture introduces standard physical exercise protocols in exergaming software engineering, as well as, standard physical assessment tests for augmented adaptability through adjustable exercise intensity. This opens up the way to next generation exergaming software, which may be more automatically/smartly adaptive. 116 elderly users piloted FFA five times/week, during an eight-week controlled intervention. Usability evaluation was formally conducted (SUS, SUMI questionnaires). Control group consisted of a size-matched elderly group following cognitive training. Efficacy was assessed objectively through the senior fitness (Fullerton) test, and subjectively, through WHOQoL-BREF comparisons of pre-postintervention between groups. Adherence to schedule was measured by attendance logs. The global SUMI score was 68.33±5.85%, while SUS was 77.7. Good usability perception is reflected in relatively high adherence of 82% for a daily two months pilot schedule. Compared to control group, elderly using FFA improved significantly strength, flexibility, endurance, and balance while presenting a significant trend in quality of life improvements. This is the first elderly focused exergaming platform intensively evaluated with more than 100 participants. The use of formal tools makes the findings comparable to other studies and forms an elderly exergaming corpus. PMID:26731797

  3. Level repulsion exponent β for many-body localization transitions and for Anderson localization transitions via Dyson Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2016-03-01

    The generalization of the Dyson Brownian motion approach of random matrices to Anderson localization (AL) models (Chalker et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 554) and to many-body localization (MBL) Hamiltonians (Serbyn and Moore 2015 arXiv:1508.07293) is revisited to extract the level repulsion exponent β, where β =1 in the delocalized phase governed by the Wigner-Dyson statistics, β =0 , in the localized phase governed by the Poisson statistics, and 0<{βc}<1 at the critical point. The idea is that the Gaussian disorder variables h i are promoted to Gaussian stationary processes h i (t) in order to sample the disorder stationary distribution with some time correlation τ. The statistics of energy levels can then be studied via Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. For the MBL quantum spin Hamiltonian with random fields h i , we obtain β =2qn,n+1\\text{EA}(N)/qn,n\\text{EA}(N) in terms of the Edwards-Anderson matrix qnm\\text{EA}(N)\\equiv \\frac{1}{N}{\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|σ iz|{φm}> {{|}2} for the same eigenstate m  =  n and for consecutive eigenstates m  =  n  +  1. For the Anderson localization tight-binding Hamiltonian with random on-site energies h i , we find β =2{{Y}n,n+1}(N)/≤ft({{Y}n,n}(N)-{{Y}n,n+1}(N)\\right) in terms of the density correlation matrix {{Y}nm}(N)\\equiv {\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|i> {{|}2}|< i|{φm}> {{|}2} for consecutive eigenstates m  =  n  +  1, while the diagonal element m  =  n corresponds to the inverse participation ratio {{Y}nn}(N)\\equiv {\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|i> {{|}4} of the eigenstate |{φn}> .

  4. Distribution of ascorbic acid in potato tubers and in home-processed and commercial potato foods.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Sook; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Young, Kyung-Soon; Lee, Kap-Rang; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-10-20

    HPLC was used to analyze the content of ascorbic acid (AA) in tubers of four Korean potato cultivars (Chaju, Sumi, Deso, and Dejima), in a series of baked, boiled, braised, fried, microwaved, pressure-cooked, and sauteed potato slices from the Dejima cultivar and in 14 commercial Korean and 14 processed potato foods sold in the United States (chips, snacks, mashed potatoes, fries). The AA content for the four cultivars ranged from 16 to 46 mg/100 g of fresh weight. The distribution of AA in each of the eight potato slices (sticks, plugs) cut horizontally from the stem end of the Dejima potato ranged from 6.8 to 19.3% of the total. The corresponding distribution in seven sticks cut vertically was much narrower, ranging from 11.7 to 17.5% of the total. Losses of AA in water (pH 5.2) were significantly greater than in 5% metaphosphoric acid (pH 1.0). Less degradation occurred in water solutions of the vitamin stored at 1 degree C than at 25 degrees C. Losses of AA observed during home-processing of three varieties with low (Dejima, 16 mg/100 g), intermediate (Sumi, 32 mg/100 g), and high (Chaju, 42 mg/100 g) AA contents were as follows: boiling in water, 77-88%; boiling in water containing 1-3% NaCl, 61-79%; frying in oil, 55-79%; sauteing, 61-67%; pressure-cooking in water, 56-60%; braising, 50-63%; baking, 33-51%; and microwaving, 21-33%. The content of the Korean foods ranged from trace amounts to 25 mg/100 g and that of the U.S. foods from 0.4 to 46 mg/100 g. These results permit optimization of the vitamin C content of the diet by (a) using high-vitamin C potato varieties such as Chaju, (b) selecting sticks cut horizontally for frying, (c) baking or microwaving rather than boiling or frying, and (d) selecting commercial potato foods with a high vitamin C content.

  5. Usability testing of a monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity

    PubMed Central

    van der Weegen, Sanne; Verwey, Renée; Tange, Huibert J; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; de Witte, Luc P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity, consisting of an activity sensor, smartphone application (app), and website for patients and their practice nurses, has been developed: the ‘It’s LiFe!’ tool. In this study the usability of the tool was evaluated by technology experts and end users (people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type 2 diabetes, with ages from 40–70 years), to improve the user interfaces and content of the tool. Patients and methods The study had four phases: 1) a heuristic evaluation with six technology experts; 2) a usability test in a laboratory by five patients; 3) a pilot in real life wherein 20 patients used the tool for 3 months; and 4) a final lab test by five patients. In both lab tests (phases 2 and 4) qualitative data were collected through a thinking-aloud procedure and video recordings, and quantitative data through questions about task complexity, text comprehensiveness, and readability. In addition, the post-study system usability questionnaire (PSSUQ) was completed for the app and the website. In the pilot test (phase 3), all patients were interviewed three times and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) was completed. Results After each phase, improvements were made, mainly to the layout and text. The main improvement was a refresh button for active data synchronization between activity sensor, app, and server, implemented after connectivity problems in the pilot test. The mean score on the PSSUQ for the website improved from 5.6 (standard deviation [SD] 1.3) to 6.5 (SD 0.5), and for the app from 5.4 (SD 1.5) to 6.2 (SD 1.1). Satisfaction in the pilot was not very high according to the SUMI. Discussion The use of laboratory versus real-life tests and expert-based versus user-based tests revealed a wide range of usability issues. The usability of the It’s LiFe! tool improved considerably during the study. PMID:24669188

  6. Retrieval of Latent Heating from TRMM Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R. F.; Hou, A. Y.; Meneghini, R.; Simpson, J.; Haddad, Z. S.; Iguchi, T.; Satoh, S.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Kummerow, C. D.; Lang, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Okamoto, K.; Shige, S.; Olson, W. S.; Takayabu, Y.; Tripoli, G. J.; Yang, S.

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation, in driving the global hydrological cycle, strongly influences the behavior of the Earth's weather and climate systems and is central to their variability. Two-thirds of the global rainfall occurs over the Tropics, which leads to its profound effect on the general circulation of the atmosphere. This is because its energetic equivalent, latent heating (LH), is the tropical convective heat engine's primary fuel source as originally emphasized by Riehl and Malkus (1958). At low latitudes, LH stemming from extended bands of rainfall modulates large-scale zonal and meridional circulations and their consequent mass overturnings (e.g., Hartmann et al. 1984; Hack and Schubert 1990). Also, LH is the principal energy source in the creation, growth, vertical structure, and propagation of long-lived tropical waves (e.g., Puri 1987; Lau and Chan 1988). Moreover, the distinct vertical distribution properties of convective and stratiform LH profiles help influence climatic outcomes via their tight control on large-scale circulations (Lau and Peng 1987; Nakazawa 1988; Sui and Lau 1988; Emanuel et al. 1994; Yanai et al. 2000; Sumi and Nakazawa 2002; Schumacher et al. 2004). The purpose of this paper is to describe how LH profiles are being derived from satellite precipitation rate retrievals, focusing on those being made with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements.

  7. Using K2 to Find Free-floating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Sumi et al. announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events, which they inferred to be caused by a population of unbound planetary-mass objects. Their result implies that these free-floating planet candidates may constitute an overwhelming fraction of the mass budget for planet formation. K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a ~4 square-degree microlensing survey toward the Galactic bulge and is our first and potentially only opportunity to perform a synoptic survey to measure the masses of a substantial number of short-timescale events. The ˜0.5 AU baseline between K2 and the Earth during C9 will facilitate satellite parallax measurements for short-timescale events, with durations of ˜1 day, which will identify that the cause of the event is in fact a very low-mass object, i.e., a free-floating planet candidate. By taking near-infrared (NIR) photometry during the event and comparing to high-resolution NIR photometry after the event is over, we can then distinguish between a planet that is widely separated from but gravitationally bound to a host star and one that is truly free-floating. Here we overview this procedure, describe the resources available to accomplish it, and detail the expected yields.

  8. Reflections on urban science teacher-student self-efficacy dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Sumi; Maulucci, Maria S. Rivera; Ramos, S. Lizette

    2011-12-01

    This forum article consists of commentaries—authored by Sumi Hagiwara, Maria S. Rivera Maulucci and Lizette Ramos—on the feature article by Virginia Jennings Bolshakova, Carla C. Johnson, and Charlene M. Czerniak. We reflect on a series of questions that take retrospective, introspective, and prospective views of self-efficacy in science education. We review selected studies that explore some of the historical developments and methodological approaches in the literature and examine a teacher-student self-efficacy system model that shows the ways in which teachers' and students' self-efficacy judgments are based upon multiple individual and shared components, such as identity and social interaction within the classroom and school. We close with a call for the design of measures of teacher-student self-efficacy systems, so that we can begin to tailor professional development experiences to the goals and motivations of individual and collective groups of teachers and students in ways that accommodate the unique cultural features of their classrooms and foster student self-efficacy.

  9. Solar Imaging UV/EUV Spectrometers Using TVLS Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.

    2003-01-01

    It is a particular challenge to develop a stigmatic spectrograph for UV, EUV wavelengths since the very low normal-incidence reflectance of standard materials most often requires that the design be restricted to a single optical element which must simultaneously provide both reimaging and spectral dispersion. This problem has been solved in the past by the use of toroidal gratings with uniform line-spaced rulings (TULS). A number of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been based on such designs, including SOHO/CDS, Solar-B/EIS, and the sounding rockets Solar Extreme ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) and Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS). More recently, Kita, Harada, and collaborators have developed the theory of spherical gratings with varied line-space rulings (SVLS) operated at unity magnification, which have been flown on several astronomical satellite missions. We now combine these ideas into a spectrometer concept that puts varied-line space rulings onto toroidal gratings. Such TVLS designs are found to provide excellent imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. Optical characteristics of three new solar spectrometers based on this concept are described: SUMI and RAISE, two sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, currently being proposed as a Small-Explorer (SMEX) mission.

  10. Beyond Effectiveness: A Pragmatic Evaluation Framework for Learning and Continuous Quality Improvement of e-Learning Interventions in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dafalla, Tarig Dafalla Mohamed; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic evaluation framework for evaluating the usability and usefulness of an e-learning intervention for a patient clinical information scheduling system is presented in this paper. The framework was conceptualized based on two different but related concepts (usability and usefulness) and selection of appropriate and valid methods of data collection and analysis that included: (1) Low-Cost Rapid Usability Engineering (LCRUE), (2) Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA), (3) Heuristic Evaluation (HE) criteria for web-based learning, and (4) Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The results of the analysis showed some areas where usability that were related to General Interface Usability (GIU), instructional design and content was problematic; some of which might account for the poorly rated aspects of usability when subjectively measured. This paper shows that using a pragmatic framework can be a useful way, not only for measuring the usability and usefulness, but also for providing a practical objective evidences for learning and continuous quality improvement of e-learning systems. The findings should be of interest to educators, developers, designers, researchers, and usability practitioners involved in the development of e-learning systems in healthcare. This framework could be an appropriate method for assessing the usability, usefulness and safety of health information systems both in the laboratory and in the clinical context. PMID:25676959

  11. Molecular Understanding of Efficient DNA Repair Machinery of Photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2012-06-01

    Photolyases repair the UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in damage DNA with high efficiency, through a cylic light-driven electron transfer radical mechanism. We report here our systematic studies of the repair dynamics in E. coli photolyase with mutation of five active-site residues. The significant loss of repair efficiency by the mutation indicates that those active-site residues play an important role in the DNA repair by photolyase. To understand how the active-site residues modulate the efficiency, we mapped out the entire evolution of each elementary step during the repair in those photolyase mutants with femtosecond resolution. We completely analyzed the electron transfer dynamics using the Sumi-Marcus model. The results suggest that photolyase controls the critical electron transfer and the ring-splitting of pyrimidine dimer through modulation of the redox potentials and reorganization energies, and stabilization of the anionic intermediates, maintaining the dedicated balance of all the reaction steps and achieving the maximum function activity.

  12. Catalysis-enhancement via rotary fluctuation of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Hayashi, Kumiko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-19

    Protein conformational fluctuations modulate the catalytic powers of enzymes. The frequency of conformational fluctuations may modulate the catalytic rate at individual reaction steps. In this study, we modulated the rotary fluctuation frequency of F1-ATPase (F1) by attaching probes with different viscous drag coefficients at the rotary shaft of F1. Individual rotation pauses of F1 between rotary steps correspond to the waiting state of a certain elementary reaction step of ATP hydrolysis. This allows us to investigate the impact of the frequency modulation of the rotary fluctuation on the rate of the individual reaction steps by measuring the duration of rotation pauses. Although phosphate release was significantly decelerated, the ATP-binding and hydrolysis steps were less sensitive or insensitive to the viscous drag coefficient of the probe. Brownian dynamics simulation based on a model similar to the Sumi-Marcus theory reproduced the experimental results, providing a theoretical framework for the role of rotational fluctuation in F1 rate enhancement.

  13. Effects of Dipole Perturbation on Last Good Surface of a Single Null Divertor Tokomak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Yogesh; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2003-10-01

    Using area preserving maps developed by Punjabi and Boozer /1,2/, one is able to investigate destruction of the last good surface (LGS) under dipole perturbation. Using simple map equations: X_n+1=X_n-KYn (1-Y_n) and Y_n+1=Y_n+KX_n+1, where X_0=0, Y_0=0.99692931261 and K=0.6 for LGS. These equations with dipole perturbation equations Y_n+1=Y_n+δ s^3 fracc-X^2_n+1(X^2_n+1 + c)^2 and sum_i=0^5c_iX_n+1^i=0 are used to study the destruction of the LGS. The surface transitions from a clean, smooth curve through a stage of embedded islands of high and low density and finally to chaos. This work is supported by NASA and DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-02ER54673. This work was done under mentorship of Drs. H. Ali and A. Punjabi. 1. A. Punjabi et al Phys. Rev. Letter 69, 3322 (1992) 2. Dipole Map for Single-Null Divertor Tokamaks, A. Punjabi et al, To Appear in Phys. of Plasma (2003)

  14. Assessment of the usability and impact of the Idaho Health Data Exchange (IHDE).

    PubMed

    Reis, Janet; MacKenzie, Lisa; Soelberg, Terri; Smith, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Eighty four health care professionals participated in an online survey assessing the usability, and clinical and administrative impact of the Idaho Health Data Exchange's (IHDE) Virtual Health Record (VHR). The IHDE VHR allows authorized users to use a secure web interface to view lab, radiology and transcribed reports from multiple facilities and view medical histories on patients in the data exchange. Results indicate the usability of the IHDE VHR was almost universally positively rated with the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) utilized as the assessment method. Medical providers however had the lowest rating of the exchange, raising concerns about the need for additional training and support. The addition of other Idaho health care organizations to the health data exchange was most widely desired, with the most frequently cited benefit being more comprehensive access to patients' records. In contrast to other published evaluations of health data exchanges in the U.S., few of the concerns emerged about cost of implementation of the data exchange or trust in the quality of information contained therein. PMID:26875079

  15. Unified expression for the rate constant of the bridged electron transfer derived by renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Keisuke; Sumi, Hitoshi

    2009-10-01

    Electron transfer (ET) from a donor to an acceptor through an energetically close intermediary state on a midway molecule is a process found often in natural and artificial solar-energy capturing systems such as photosynthesis. This process has often been thought of in terms of opposing "superexchange" and "sequential or hopping" mechanisms, and the recent theory of Sumi and Kakitani (SK) [J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 9603 (2001)] has shown an interpolation between these mechanisms. In their theory, however, dynamics governing the most interesting intermediary region between them has artificially been introduced by phenomenologies. The dynamics is played by decoherence among electronic states, their decay, and thermalization of phonons in the medium. The present work clarifies the dynamics on a microscopic basis by means of renormalization in electronic coupling among the states, and gives a complete unified expression of the rate constant of the ET. It merges to that given by the SK theory in the semiclassical approximation for phonons interacting with an electron transferred.

  16. Nonlocal diffusion problems that approximate a parabolic equation with spatial dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, Alexis; Rossi, Julio D.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that smooth solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the parabolic equation v_t(x,t)=sum_{i,j=1}N a_{ij}(x)partial2v(x,t)/partial{xipartial{x}j} + sum_{i =1}N bi(x)partial{v}(x,t)/partial{x_i} qquad x in Ω, with v( x, t) = g( x, t), {x in partial Ω,} can be approximated uniformly by solutions of nonlocal problems of the form ut^{\\varepsilon}(x,t)=int_{mathbb{R}n} K_{\\varepsilon}(x,y)(u^{\\varepsilon}(y,t)-u^{\\varepsilon}(x,t))dy, quad x in Ω, with {u^{\\varepsilon}(x,t)=g(x,t)}, {x notin Ω}, as {\\varepsilon to 0}, for an appropriate rescaled kernel {K_{\\varepsilon}}. In this way, we show that the usual local evolution problems with spatial dependence can be approximated by nonlocal ones. In the case of an equation in divergence form, we can obtain an approximation with symmetric kernels, that is, {K_{\\varepsilon}(x,y) = K_{\\varepsilon}(y,x)}.

  17. [The effect of anthropogenic transformation on the conditions for the circulation of the causative agent of opisthorchiasis].

    PubMed

    Beér, S A; Danilenko, L N; German, S M; Kolesnik, E I

    1990-01-01

    The conditions of O. felineus circulations in the area of minor hydraulic constructions of Graĭvoron on the Vorskla River where a tense Ukrainian focus of opisthorchiasis existed (the village of Dobryanskoye, Sumy Province) were followed up for a 8-year period (since 1982). Hydraulic construction near the Vorskla River resulted in a significant violation of the ecological balance (macrocyte occupation of the river bed and the bay terrace, bog-making, dystrophic changes of the low-land bodies of water). The aforementioned circumstances influenced the conditions of O. felineus circulation (decreased number of Codiella mollusk habitats, decreased density of the mollusks and their invasion rate with larvivorous forms of Opisthorchis, lower invasion rate in carps). The considered processes are now characteristic of many minor rivers in the Ukraine. Though their negative impact on the ecological conditions causes no doubt it should be taken into account and used for the eradication of Opisthorchis foci (in combination with therapeutic and sanitary education measures). PMID:2377144

  18. Anticarcinogenic effects of glycoalkaloids from potatoes against human cervical, liver, lymphoma, and stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, In-Seon; Kozukue, Nobuyuke

    2005-07-27

    Methods were devised for the isolation of large amounts of pure alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine from Dejima potatoes and for the extraction and analysis of total glycoalkaloids from five fresh potato varieties (Dejima, Jowon, Sumi, Toya, and Vora Valley). These compounds were then evaluated in experiments using a tetrazolium microculture (MTT) assay to assess the anticarcinogenic effects of (a) the isolated pure glycoalkaloids separately, (b) artificial mixtures of the two glycoalkaloids, and (c) the total glycoalkaloids isolated from each of the five potato varieties. All samples tested reduced the numbers of the following human cell lines: cervical (HeLa), liver (HepG2), lymphoma (U937), stomach (AGS and KATO III) cancer cells and normal liver (Chang) cells. The results show that (a) the effects of the glycoalkaloids were concentration dependent in the range of 0.1-10 mug/mL (0.117-11.7 nmol/mL); (b) alpha-chaconine was more active than was alpha-solanine; (c) some mixtures exhibited synergistic effects, whereas other produced additive ones; (d) the different cancer cells varied in their susceptibilities to destruction; and (e) the destruction of normal liver cells was generally lower than that of cancer liver cells. The decreases in cell populations were also observed visually by reversed-phase microscopy. The results complement related observations on the anticarcinogenic potential of food ingredients.

  19. Order and disorder and their influences on optical absorption of glasses in the gap region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baník, Ivan; Kubliha, Marian; Labaš, Vladimír; Lukovičová, Jozefa; Pavlendová, Gabriela; Šín, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The exponential increase of the absorption coefficient near the absorption edge is usually explained by existence of the density-of-states tails. Among the quoted theoretical models which are widely used to explain the manifestations of the Urbach rule in semiconductors, are the Sumi-Toyozava and the Dow-Redfield models and ab initio (from begining) theory. Our barrier-cluster-heating model assumes the different creating mechanism of exponential tails. The energy by optical transition is provided to electrons except from photons also from vibration of microregion. It deals about the replenishment of absented photons energy, which is smaller as gap width. Absented energy needed for the transition by light absorption is acumulated in certain microregions of material in the form of vibrational energy. At absorption sufficiently big package of accumulated energy can be used. Energy of emptied microarea is filled by phonons from surrounding of microarea (as result of temperature status of surrounding), resp. phonons of optical background wich are created in given microarea at non radiative recombination of carriers. In this work simplified process at derivating of Urbach rule is listed.

  20. Free-floating planets from core accretion theory: microlensing predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sizheng; Mao, Shude; Ida, Shigeru; Zhu, Wei; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the microlensing event rate and typical time-scales for the free-floating planet (FFP) population that is predicted by the core accretion theory of planet formation. The event rate is found to be ˜1.8 × 10-3 of that for the stellar population. While the stellar microlensing event time-scale peaks at around 20 d, the median time-scale for FFP events (˜0.1 d) is much shorter. Our values for the event rate and the median time-scale are significantly smaller than those required to explain the Sumi et al. result, by factors of ˜13 and ˜16, respectively. The inclusion of planets at wide separations does not change the results significantly. This discrepancy may be too significant for standard versions of both the core accretion theory and the gravitational instability model to explain satisfactorily. Therefore, either a modification to the planet formation theory is required or other explanations to the excess of short-time-scale microlensing events are needed. Our predictions can be tested by ongoing microlensing experiment such as Korean Microlensing Telescope Network, and by future satellite missions such as WFIRST and Euclid.

  1. Sources of SOA gaseous precursors in contrasted urban environments: a focus on mono-aromatic compounds and intermediate volatility compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Therese; Borbon, Agnès; Ait-Helal, Warda; Afif, Charbel; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Bonneau, Stéphane; Sanchez, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    , SP95 E10, and SP98) and was used to constraint evaporative emissions in order to predict the headspace vapour composition (Harley and Coulter-Burke, 2000). Modelled and observed compositions are in good agreement (differences up to 20%). Therefore, the implemented model is a relevant tool to test the sensitivity of BTEX and other VOCs ambient composition to evaporative emissions of fuels with regards to their composition. Such analysis will be extended to other target cities and similarities/differences will be presented regarding regional characteristics. This work was supported by the Ile de France region, Life and PHOTOPAQ grant, PICS-CNRS, ENVIMED and ChArMEx. We would like to thank Laurence Dépelchin and Thierry Léonardis for technical support and AIRPARIF for providing the data. Borbon, A., et al. (2013) Emission ratios of anthropogenic VOC in northern mid-latitude megacities: observations vs. emission inventories in Los Angeles and Paris, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 2041 - 2057. Harley, R. and Coulter-Burke, S. (2000) Relating Liquid Fuel and Headspace Vapor Composition for California Reformulated Gasoline Samples Containing Ethanol, Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 4088-4094. Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. vol. 14 , No. 19 , p. 10439-10464

  2. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution valley network based on the SRTM DEM and the relationship of automatically extracted lineaments and the tectonic faults, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusák, Michal

    2016-04-01

    visualization in GIS identifies a larger number of shorter lineaments than lineaments by visual interpretation. Key words: valley network, lineaments, faults, azimuth, Jemma River basin, Ethiopian Highlands GANI, N., D., ABDELSALAM, M., G., GERA, S., GANI, M., R. (2009): Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Blue Nile Basin, Northweastern Ethiopian Plateau. Geologic Journal, 44, s. 30-56. KAZMIN, V. (1975): Geological Map of Ethiopia. Geological Survey of Ethiopia, Adrie Ababa, Ethiopia. MANGESHA, T., CHERNET, T., HARO, W. (1996): Geological Map Of Ethiopia (1: 250,000). Geological Survey of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PIK, R., MARTY, B., CARIGNAN, J., LAVÉ, J. (2003): Stability of the Upper Nile drainage network (Ethiopia) deduces from (U/Th)/He thermochronometry: implications for uplift and erosion of the Afar plume dome. and Planetary Science Letters, 215, s. 73 - 88.

  3. [Sugar content in non-alcoholic beverages and dietary recemmendations for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bilek, Maciej; Rybakowa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Wprowadzenie. Wzrost podaży cukrów prostych w diecie mieszkańców krajów wysokorozwiniętych związany jest m.in. z rosnącą konsumpcją napojów bezalkoholowych, dla których udowodniono związek z epidemią otyłości, szczególnie wśród dzieci i młodzieży. W tym kontekście wskazywane są napoje typu soft drink, słodzone najczęściej syropem glukozowo-fruktozowym, tj. napoje typu cola, tonik, ice tea, czy lemoniady. Napoje, soki i nektary owocowe w powszechnej świadomości wymieniane są jako zdrowa alternatywa napojów soft drink. Nie zwraca się jednak uwagi na fakt wysokiej zawartości cukrów prostych i sacharozy w tych produktach. Cel pracy oznaczenie zawartości cukrów prostych i sacharozy, występujących w popularnych wśród dzieci i młodzieży napojach bezalkoholowych. Materiał i metody. 80 napojów bezalkoholowych typu cola, tonik, lemoniada, ice tea, wód smakowych, soków owocowych, nektarów owocowych oraz napojów owocowych. Ocenę zawartości cukrów prostych i sacharozy prowadzono metodą wysokosprawnej chromatografii cieczowej (HPLC). Wyniki. W badanych napojach bezalkoholowych występowały cukry proste (glukoza i fruktoza) oraz sacharoza. Produktem o najniższej zawartości sumy cukrów była woda smakowa o smaku cytrynowym na bazie wody mineralnej (2,72 g/100 ml). W grupie soków, nektarów i napojów owocowych stwierdzono najwyższe sumaryczne zawartości sumy cukrów spośród badanych napojów bezalkoholowych (12,94 g/100 ml dla nektaru aroniowego i 12,76 g/100ml dla soku z granatu i winogron). Wnioski. Wysoka zawartość cukrów prostych i sacharozy w badanych napojach bezalkoholowych skłania do twierdzenia, że ich producenci powinni zostać zobligowani do umieszczania na etykietach ostrzeżeń adresowanych do pacjentów cierpiących na zaburzenia gospodarki węglowodanowej, zaś w programach edukacyjnych, adresowanych do dzieci i młodzieży chorujących na cukrzycę, należałoby wprowadzić informacje dotycz

  4. Obituary: Jason G. Porter, 1954-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-12-01

    development of a solar ultraviolet magnetograph instrument (SUMI) capable of measuring vector magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and transition region where the magnetic reconnection that powers solar flares and CMEs is believed to occur. He continued to provide inspiring leadership to the development of SUMI up until the last month of his life. Jason was admired by his colleagues on both a professional and personal level. He also had a rich life outside of his professional work. He loved the outdoors - hiking, camping, and fishing in particular. He loved music. Bluegrass was one of his favorites. He played the steel guitar, the Dobro, and the trombone, and spent many evenings playing in a local bluegrass band. He also loved finely crafted lagers and ales and would occasionally bring some strange brew to liven up an evening of poker. Jason and Linda have two sons, Graham (13) and Allen (11). All who knew him well will miss him dearly.

  5. Observation of the Marcus inverted region for bimolecular photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in viscous media.

    PubMed

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Manna, Arpan; Sayed, Mhejabeen; Kumar, Anil; Pal, Haridas

    2014-09-11

    The general observation of Marcus inverted region (MIR) for bimolecular electron-transfer (ET) reactions in different viscous media, e.g., micelles, reverse micelles, vesicles, ionic liquids, DNA scaffold, etc. has been doubted in some recent publications arguing limitations in Stern-Volmer (SV) analysis to account for the static and transient stages of quenching in these slow diffusing media. Thus, following a theoretical treatment based on a spherically symmetric diffusion equation coupled with conventional Marcus ET description, it has been suggested that the MIR observed in viscous media arises due to the inadequate consideration of different quenching regimes and also due to the differential excited-state lifetimes of the fluorophores used than a genuine one (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 11396). However, the overall treatment in this study is severely compromised by setting the minimum solvent reorganization energy (λs) to ∼0.96 eV while fitting the experimental data, which unambiguously suggests that the inversion in ET rate will never appear in the exergonicity (-ΔG(0)) range of 0.16 to 0.71 eV, as is the case for the studied ET systems. Besides, the applicability of the conventional Marcus ET model (instead of Sumi-Marcus two-dimensional ET model) in such extremely viscous media with exceptionally slow solvent response is highly debatable and perhaps is the main cause of the failure in fitting the experimental data quite satisfactorily. In the present study involving ultrafast ET quenching for coumarin derivatives by dimethylaniline donor in viscous ionic liquid media, we demonstrate clear MIR for the intrinsic ET rates, directly obtained from the ultrafast decay components of 1-10 ps, a time scale in which diffusion of reactants is negligible and the ET rates are either faster than or, at the most, competitive with the solvent reorganization. The appearance of MIR at ΔG(0) ∼ -0.5 eV, significantly lower than expected from the λs value, further

  6. An analytical continuation approach for evaluating emission lineshapes of molecular aggregates and the adequacy of multichromophoric Förster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Leonardo; Costagliola, Gianluca; Ishizaki, Akihito; Giorda, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    In large photosynthetic chromophore-protein complexes not all chromophores are coupled strongly, and thus the situation is well described by formation of delocalized states in certain domains of strongly coupled chromophores. In order to describe excitation energy transfer among different domains without performing extensive numerical calculations, one of the most popular techniques is a generalization of Förster theory to multichromophoric aggregates (generalized Förster theory) proposed by Sumi [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 252 (1999), 10.1021/jp983477u] and Scholes and Fleming [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 1854 (2000), 10.1021/jp993435l]. The aim of this paper is twofold. In the first place, by means of analytic continuation and a time convolutionless quantum master equation approach, a theory of emission lineshape of multichromophoric systems or molecular aggregates is proposed. In the second place, a comprehensive framework that allows for a clear, compact, and effective study of the multichromophoric approach in the full general version proposed by Jang, Newton, and Silbey [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 218301 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.218301] is developed. We apply the present theory to simple paradigmatic systems and we show on one hand the effectiveness of time-convolutionless techniques in deriving lineshape operators and on the other hand we show how the multichromophoric approach can give significant improvements in the determination of energy transfer rates in particular when the systems under study are not the purely Förster regime. The presented scheme allows for an effective implementation of the multichromophoric Förster approach which may be of use for simulating energy transfer dynamics in large photosynthetic aggregates, for which massive computational resources are usually required. Furthermore, our method allows for a systematic comparison of multichromophoric Föster and generalized Förster theories and for a clear understanding of their respective limits

  7. Mapping Mortality and Geophysical Features During a Heat Wave in Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, L.

    2011-12-01

    With climate change, heat waves are predicted to increase in intensity and duration, particularly in areas where they have occurred previously. Human mortality increases during heat waves, and that increase may vary by community due to a variety of factors including differing geophysical and built environment features. In July 2006, California experienced a statewide heat wave that was unprecedented in duration, lasting 10 days in much of the state, and longer in some areas. To explore heat wave health impacts by community, we focused on Los Angeles County, selected for its urban density and diverse social and geographic landscapes. We calculated the ratio of deaths during the heat wave period (July 15 - Aug 1) to deaths in reference days from the non-heat wave period in the same summer. The raw and empirical Bayes smoothed rate ratios were mapped by census tract (average population size approximately 5000). We then used spatial scanning procedures to identify census tract clusters of high and low mortality. Onto the heat mortality maps, we overlaid such geographic and built environment characteristics as elevation, recordings from temperature monitors, building climate zone boundaries, and air conditioning use. In this presentation, we will discuss the potential relationship between mortality and geophysical and built environment features. In the future, we will expand this analysis statewide and share our findings with local stakeholders to explore factors which may make their communities more resilient (low health impact) or vulnerable (high health impact). Ultimately, knowledge of vulnerability and resiliency factors may inform future applied research and climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Authors: Lauren Joe, Daniel Smith, Svetlana Smorodinksy, Sumi Hoshiko, Martha Harnly Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health

  8. A case study on toxicological aspects of the pest and disease control in the production of the high-quality raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Grodzicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The field studies on the residue levels of the fungicides and insecticides used in commercial raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantation have been performed. Starting on the first day of harvesting (on June 19), 20 laboratory samples of fruit, 10 laboratory samples of leaves and 4 samples of soil were analyzed and the residue levels were compared to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) and Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI). All analyses were carried out using extraction method and gas chromatography technique. Esfenwalerate (Sumi-alpha 050 EC) and beta-cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025 EC), the insecticides belonging to the group of synthetic pyrethroids, were not found in harvested ripe fruits, while cypermethrin residues (Cyperkill 25 EC) applied on May 24, 25 days later was still found on low levels in fruits (0.026 mg kg(-1)) and in leaves (2.58 mg kg(-1)). In turn, residues of chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 EC), applied to the soil on May 15 against the cockchafers Melolontha melolontha and Otiorhynchus sp., were found at the level 0.004 mg kg(-1). The content of pesticides in ripe fruits depended mainly on the dose and on the time that has elapsed from the date of their application and were as follows: boscalid -0.950, pyrimethanil -0.917, pyraclostrobin -0.253 cypermethrin -0.026 and chlorpyrifos -0.004 mg kg(-1) while in leaves: boscalid -30.64, pyrimethanil -8.13, pyraclostrobin -15.82, cypermethrin -2.58 and chlorpyrifos -0.15 mg kg(-1). The highest average daily intake was in the case of boscalid, and in fruits and leaves reached the levels 0.205 and 6.63, in total 0.33% and 12.18% of ADI, respectively.

  9. Solvent effect on intramolecular electron transfer rates of mixed-valence biferrocene monocation derivatives.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Shimizu, C

    2006-06-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer (ET) rates in various solvents of mixed-valence biferrocene monocation (Fe(II), Fe(III)) and the 1',1' ''-diiodo and 1',1' ''-diethyl derivatives (respectively abbreviated as BFC(+), I(2)BFC(+), and Et(2)BFC(+)) were determined by means of the spin-lattice relaxation times of the protons, taking into account the local magnetic field fluctuation caused by the electron hopping between the two ferrocene units. We also determined the ET rates of a mixed-valence diferrocenylacetylene monocation (DFA(+)) in order to examine the effect of the insertion of an acetylene bridge between the two ferrocene units. The insertion of the bridge decreased the ET rate, while the effect of substitution on the cyclopentadienyl rings on the rate was minor. The observed rates for each mixed-valence monocation in various solvents did not correlate with the reorganization energies, but we did find a significant contribution of the solvent dynamics. The observed rates were considerably higher than those expected on the basis of the Sumi-Marcus-Nalder model in which the solvents were regarded as dielectric continua. The slope of the logarithm plot of the pre-exponential factors in various solvents for each mixed-valence monocation versus the inverse of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation times of the solvents was significantly smaller than unity, and the slope for DFA(+) was larger than those for BFC(+), I(2)BFC(+), and Et(2)BFC(+). These results were ascribed to a partial contribution of the dielectric friction to the dynamics along the solvent coordinate; the extent of the contribution decreased with a reduction in the ET distance. For the dynamics along the solvent coordinate of the ET reactions in methanol, the observed rates indicated an important contribution by the minor dielectric relaxation components with faster relaxation times, rather than the major component with an extraordinarily long relaxation time.

  10. Tug-of-war and the infinity Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, Yuval; Schramm, Oded; Sheffield, Scott; Wilson, David B.

    2009-01-01

    We prove that every bounded Lipschitz function F on a subset Y of a length space X admits a tautest extension to X , i.e., a unique Lipschitz extension u:X rightarrow {R} for which operatorname{Lip}_U u =operatorname{Lip}_{partial U} u for all open U subset Xsetminus Y . This was previously known only for bounded domains in {R}^n , in which case u is infinity harmonic; that is, a viscosity solution to Δ_infty u = 0 , where Δ_infty u = \\vertnabla u\\vert^{-2} sum_{i,j} u_{x_i} u_{x_ix_j} u_{x_j}. We also prove the first general uniqueness results for Δ_{infty} u = g on bounded subsets of {R}^n (when g is uniformly continuous and bounded away from 0) and analogous results for bounded length spaces. The proofs rely on a new game-theoretic description of u . Let u^\\varepsilon(x) be the value of the following two-player zero-sum game, called tug-of-war: fix x_0=xin X setminus Y . At the k{^{{th}}} turn, the players toss a coin and the winner chooses an x_k with d(x_k, x_{k-1})< \\varepsilon . The game ends when x_k in Y , and player I's payoff is F(x_k) - frac{\\varepsilon^2}{2}sum_{i=0}^{k-1} g(x_i) . We show that Vert u^\\varepsilon- uVert _{infty} to 0 . Even for bounded domains in {R}^n , the game theoretic description of infinity harmonic functions yields new intuition and estimates; for instance, we prove power law bounds for infinity harmonic functions in the unit disk with boundary values supported in a δ -neighborhood of a Cantor set on the unit circle.

  11. The electronic structure of epitaxially strained iridate thin films and superlattices from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Johannes; Fennie, Craig J.

    2012-02-01

    Within the Ruddlesden-Popper iridates Srn+1IrnO3n+1, strong spin-orbit interactions lead to the formation of a half-filled, narrow Jeff=1/2 band and filled Jeff=3/2 bands. This places the iridates in the vicinity of a Mott transition, which is sensitive to perturbations in crystal structure, despite relatively weak on-site Coulomb interactions [1]. For example, Sr2IrO4 (n=1) is an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator that displays an almost rigid coupling between spin canting and IrO6 octahedron rotations [2], while epitaxially stabilized SrIrO3 (n=∞) is a correlated metal. In this talk, we will discuss from first-principles within the LDA+SO+U approach the possibility to engineer the electronic structure of SrIrO3 and CaIrO3 thin films using epitaxial strain and by creating superlattices of the form (AIrO3)m(A'BO3)m' with A, A' = Ca, Sr. [1] S.J. Moon, H. Jin, K.W. Kim, W.S. Choi, Y.S. Lee, J. Yu, G. Cao, A. Sumi, H. Funakubo, C. Bernhard, and T.W. Noh, PRL 101, 226402 (2008). [2] B.J. Kim, H. Jin, S.J. Moon, J.-Y. Kim, B.-G. Park, C.S. Leem, J. Yu, T.W. Noh, C. Kim, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, V. Durairaj, G. Cao, and E. Rotenberg, PRL 101, 076402 (2008).

  12. CAN THE MASSES OF ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS GRAVITATIONAL LENSES BE MEASURED BY TERRESTRIAL PARALLAX?

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.; Botzler, C. S.; Bray, J. C.; Cherrie, J. M.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Abe, F.; Muraki, Y.; Albrow, M. D.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Christie, G. W.; Natusch, T.; Dionnet, Z.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Heyrovský, D.; McCormick, J. M.; Skowron, J.; and others

    2015-02-01

    Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≥10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 M {sub J} and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass.

  13. Behavior of a Moist Kelvin Wave Packet with Nonlinear Heating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Xue, Yan

    1992-04-01

    The effects of nonlinear (positive only or conditional) heating on moist Kelvin waves are examined with a simple equatorial zonal-plane model describing the gravest baroclinic mode.The unstable perturbation subject to nonlinear beating emerges as a wave packet. A typical amplifying, eastward-moving wave packet is characterized by an asymmetric structure: 1) the ascending branch (wet region) is much narrower than the two descending ones (dry regions); and 2) the circulation cell to the east of the wet region center is smaller and stronger than its counterpart to the west of the center. The wet-dry asymmetry is primarily caused by the nonlinear beating effect, while the east-west asymmetry is a result of the movement of the wave packet relative to mean flow. The existence of Newtonian cooling and Rayleigh friction enhances the structural asymmetries.The unstable wave packet is characterized by two zonal length scales: the ascending branch length (ABL) and total circulation extent (TCE). For a given basic state, the growth rate of a wave packet increases with decreasing ABL or TCE. However, up to a moderate growth rate (order of day1) the energy spectra of all wave packets are dominated by zonal wavenumber one regardless of ABL size. In particular, the slowly growing (low frequency) wave packets normally exhibit TCEs of planetary scale and ABLs of synoptic scale.Observed equatorial intraseasonal disturbances often display a narrow convection region in between two much broader dry regions and a total circulation of planetary scale. These structure and scale characteristics are caused by the effects of nonlinear heating and the cyclic geometry of the equator. It is argued that the unstable disturbance found in numerical experiments (e.g., Lau and Peng; Hayashi and Sumi) is a manifestation of the nonlinear wave packet.

  14. Low stress drops observed for M1.5-5.6 Earthquakes During the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Sumy, D. F.; Neighbors, C.; Keranen, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    In November 2011, three M≥4.8 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred along the structurally complex Wilzetta fault system near Prague, Oklahoma. Previous studies suggest that fluid injection in nearby wells was responsible for inducing the M4.8 foreshock [Keranen et al., 2013], which subsequently triggered the M5.6 mainshock [Sumy et al., 2014]. We examine earthquake source properties using waveforms collected by 47 temporary and permanent seismic stations installed within ~100 km of the events. Brune stress drops are calculated for a subset of 278 aftershocks of the Prague, Oklahoma sequence that range in magnitude from M1.0-4.9. We compute the horizontal amplitude spectra and smooth the spectra with a Konno and Ohmachi [1998] filter. We then assume a standard Brune source spectral model and iteratively solve for seismic moment (Mo), corner frequency (fc) and kappa (κ) using a Gauss-Newton method. We are able to recover reasonably fit Mo, fc, and κ for 172 earthquakes, but find the Mo determined by spectra fit are consistently overestimated for events with M<1.5. Therefore only stress drops for the 149 events with initial Mo > 1.5 are reported. The median stress drop is ~0.3 MPa (3 bars), which is significantly lower than typical values (10+ MPa) observed for CEUS events. We find minimal dependence of stress drop on focal depth for the depth range from 1-10 km. However, we observe some spatial variation of stress drops, with higher stress drops observed near the intersection of the mainshock rupture plane with the fault plane associated with the M4.8 aftershock. The low stress drops observed for events on both the foreshock and mainshock fault plane may indicate both of these segments of the Wilzetta fault system were influenced by local wastewater injection. Our results echo those of several recent studies [Hough, 2014; Sun and Hartzell, 2014], which conclude that induced earthquakes have lower stress drops than tectonic events.

  15. Induced Seismicity: Balancing the Scientific Process With the Need for Rapid Communication of Evolving Seismic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Llenos, A. L.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation, we outline the USGS response to dramatically increased earthquake activity in the central and eastern US, with a focus on Oklahoma. Using the November 2011 Prague, OK earthquake sequence as an example, we describe the tensions between the need to conduct thorough scientific investigations while providing timely information to local, state, and federal government agencies, and the public. In the early morning hours of November 5, 2011 a M4.8 earthquake struck near the town of Prague, Oklahoma and was followed by a M5.6 earthquake just over 20 hours later. The mainshock was widely felt across the central US, causing damage to homes close to the epicenter and injuring at least 2 people. Within hours of the initial event several portable instruments were installed and following the mainshock a larger seismic deployment was mounted (Keranen et al., 2013). A sizeable earthquake in the central or eastern US is always of scientific interest due to the dearth of seismic data available for assessing seismic hazard. The Prague sequence garnered especially strong scientific and public interest when a link between the sequence and injection of wastewater at several local deep wells was postulated. Therefore, there was a need to provide immediate information as it became available. However, in the first few days to months it was impossible to confidently confirm or refute whether the seismicity was linked to injection, but it was known that the foreshock occurred close to several deep injection wells and many of the events were shallow; thus, the sequence warranted further study. Over the course of the next few years, several studies built the case that the Prague sequence was likely induced by wastewater injection (Keranen et al., 2013; Sumy et al., 2014; McGarr, 2014) and additional studies suggested that the changes in seismicity throughout Oklahoma were not due to natural variations in seismicity rates (Llenos and Michael, 2013; Ellsworth, 2013). These

  16. A comprehensive classification of complex statistical systems and an axiomatic derivation of their entropy and distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R.; Thurner, S.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the hope that the thermodynamical framework might be extended to strongly interacting statistical systems —complex systems in particular— a number of generalized entropies has been proposed in the past. So far the understanding of their fundamental origin has remained unclear. Here we address this question from first principles. We start by observing that many statistical systems fulfill a set of three general conditions (Shannon-Khinchin axioms, K1-K3). A fourth condition (separability) holds for non-interacting, uncorrelated or Markovian systems only (Shannon-Khinchin axiom, K4). If all four axioms hold the Shannon theorem provides a unique entropy, S=\\sum_i^W p_i \\ln p_i , i.e. Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. Here we ask about the consequences of violating the 4th axiom while assuming the first three to hold. By a simple scaling argument we prove that under these conditions each statistical system is characterized by a unique pair of scaling exponents (c, d) in the large size limit. These exponents define equivalence classes for all interacting and non-interacting systems and parametrize a unique entropy, S_{c,d}\\propto \\sum_i ^W \\Gamma(d+1, 1- c \\ln p_i) , where Γ(a,b) is the incomplete Gamma function. It covers all systems respecting K1-K3. A series of known entropies can be classified in terms of these equivalence classes. Corresponding distribution functions are special forms of Lambert-{\\cal W} exponentials containing —as special cases— Boltzmann, stretched exponential and Tsallis distributions (power laws) —all widely abundant in Nature. In the derivation we assume S=\\sum_i g(p_i) , with g some function, however more general entropic forms can be classified along the same lines. This is to our knowledge the first ab initio justification for generalized entropies. We discuss a physical example displaying two sets of scaling exponents depending on the external parameters.

  17. Time-Dependent Multiconfiguration Theory and Its Application to Ultrafast Electronic Dynamics of Molecules in an Intense Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Oyamada, T.; Kono, H.; Koseki, S.

    We outlined a time-dependent multiconfiguration theory todescribe electronic dynamics of molecules, where the many-electron wave function at time t, Φ(t), is expanded in terms of different electron configurations Φ_I(t) composed of time-dependent one-electron orbitals (spin-orbitals) as Φ(t) = sum_I C_I(t) Φ_I(t). The equations of motion (EOMs) for spin-orbitals in coordinate representation are derived together with the EOMs for configuration interaction coefficients C_I(t). As an example of application to molecules, we presented the results of investigation of the ionization dynamics of H_2 interacting with a near-infrared intense laser filed. By extending the concept of Hartree-Fock orbital energy to multiconfiguration theory, we newly introduced the ``molecular orbital energies" of natural spin-orbitals (NSOs) { j } of a many-electron system and defined the orbital potentials bar{ɛ}_j (t) and correlation energies V^c_j(t) of NSOs. The total energy E(t) is decomposed into individual components as E(t) = sum_j ω_j(t) bar{ɛ}_j (t) as in thermodynamics, where ω_j(t) are the occupation numbers of { j }. We proved that this type of partition of the total energy is interpreted as the time-dependent chemical potential for the two-electron system. The newly defined correlation energy V^c_j(t) associated with the {j}th NSO, involved in bar{ɛ}_j (t), reflects dynamical electron correlations on the attosecond timescale. We also compared the energy ζ_j(t) directly supplied by the applied field with the net energy gain Δbar{{ɛ}}_j(t) for respective natural orbitals. The responses of natural orbitals can be classified into three: Δbar{{ɛ}}_j(t) = ζ_j(t) (spectator orbital); Δbar{{ɛ}}_j(t) < ζ_j(t) (energy donor orbital); and Δbar{{ɛ}}_j(t) > ζ_j(t) (energy acceptor orbital). We found that ionization of H_2 most efficiently occurs from a time-developing energy acceptor NSO 2σ_g for the case of the present applied field. We concluded that energy acceptor

  18. PLANETARY AND OTHER SHORT BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS FROM THE MOA SHORT-EVENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Kamiya, K.; Abe, F.; Fukui, A.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyake, N.; Muraki, Y.; Botzler, C. S.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Korpela, A. V.; Sullivan, D. J.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Ohnishi, K.; Saito, To.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    We present the analysis of four candidate short-duration binary microlensing events from the 2006-2007 MOA Project short-event analysis. These events were discovered as a by-product of an analysis designed to find short-timescale single-lens events that may be due to free-floating planets. Three of these events are determined to be microlensing events, while the fourth is most likely caused by stellar variability. For each of the three microlensing events, the signal is almost entirely due to a brief caustic feature with little or no lensing attributable mainly to the lens primary. One of these events, MOA-bin-1, is due to a planet, and it is the first example of a planetary event in which the stellar host is only detected through binary microlensing effects. The mass ratio and separation are q (4.9 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and s = 2.10 {+-} 0.05, respectively. A Bayesian analysis based on a standard Galactic model indicates that the planet, MOA-bin-1Lb, has a mass of m{sub p} = 3.7 {+-} 2.1 M{sub Jup} and orbits a star of M{sub *} = 0.75{sub -0.41}{sup +}0{sup .33} M{sub Sun} at a semimajor axis of a = 8.3{sub -2.7}{sup +4.5} AU. This is one of the most massive and widest separation planets found by microlensing. The scarcity of such wide-separation planets also has implications for interpretation of the isolated planetary mass objects found by this analysis. If we assume that we have been able to detect wide-separation planets with an efficiency at least as high as that for isolated planets, then we can set limits on the distribution of planets in wide orbits. In particular, if the entire isolated planet sample found by Sumi et al. consists of planets bound in wide orbits around stars, we find that it is likely that the median orbital semimajor axis is >30 AU.

  19. Time-reversal imaging techniques applied to tremor waveforms near Cholame, California to locate tectonic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, T.; Harrington, R. M.; Cochran, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Thurber et al. (2006) interpolated to a grid spacing of 50 m. Such grid spacing corresponds to frequencies of up to 8 Hz, which is suitable to calculate the wave propagation of tremor. Our dataset contains continuous broadband data from 13 STS-2 seismometers deployed from May 2010 to July 2011 along the Cholame segment of the San Andreas Fault as well as data from the HRSN and PBO networks. Initial synthetic results from tests on a 2D plane using a line of 15 receivers suggest that we are able to recover accurate event locations to within 100 m horizontally and 300 m depth. We conduct additional synthetic tests to determine the influence of signal-to-noise ratio, number of stations used, and the uncertainty in the velocity model on the location result by adding noise to the seismograms and perturbations to the velocity model. Preliminary results show accurate show location results to within 400 m with a median signal-to-noise ratio of 3.5 and 5% perturbations in the velocity model. The next steps will entail performing the synthetic tests on the 3D velocity model, and applying the method to tremor waveforms. Furthermore, we will determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the source locations and compare our results to those by Sumy and others.

  20. Deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate and isoprene-derived secondary organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Bertram, A. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2012-10-01

    The hygroscopic phase transitions of ammonium sulfate mixed with isoprene-derived secondary organic material were investigated in aerosol experiments. The organic material was produced by isoprene photo-oxidation at 40% and 60% relative humidity. The low volatility fraction of the photo-oxidation products condensed onto ammonium sulfate particles. The particle-phase organic material had oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.67 to 0.74 (±0.2) for mass concentrations of 20 to 30 μg m-3. The deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of the mixed particles were investigated using a dual arm tandem differential mobility analyzer. The isoprene photo-oxidation products induced deviations in behavior relative to pure ammonium sulfate. Compared to an efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 30 to 35% for pure ammonium sulfate, efflorescence was eliminated for aqueous particles having organic volume fractions ϵ of 0.6 and greater. Compared to a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 80% for pure ammonium sulfate, the DRH steadily decreased with increasing ϵ, approaching a DRH of 40% for ϵ of 0.9. Parameterizations of the DRH(ϵ) and ERH(ϵ) curves were as follows: DRH(ϵ)= &sum;i ci,d ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤0.86 and ERH(ϵ)= ∑ i ci,e ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤ 0.55 for the coefficients c0,d= 80.67, c0,e = 28.35, c1,d = -11.45, c1,e = -13.66, c2,d = 0, c2,e = 0, c3,d = 57.99, c3,e = -83.80, c4,d = -106.80, and c4,e = 0. The molecular description that is thermodynamically implied by these strongly sloped DRH(ϵ) and ERH(ϵ) curves is that the organic isoprene photo-oxidation products, the inorganic ammonium sulfate, and water form a miscible liquid phase even at low relative humidity. This phase miscibility is in contrast to the liquid-liquid separation that occurs for some other types of secondary organic material. These differences

  1. Safe Vibrations of Spilling Basin Explosions at "Gotvand Olya Dam" Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshandeh Amnieh, Hassan; Bahadori, Moein

    2014-12-01

    Ground vibration is an undesirable outcome of an explosion which can have destructive effects on the surrounding environment and structures. Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) is a determining factor in evaluation of the damage caused by an explosion. To predict the ground vibration caused by blasting at the Gotvand Olya Dam (GOD) spilling basin, thirty 3-component records (totally 90) from 19 blasts were obtained using 3 VIBROLOC seismographs. Minimum and the maximum distance from the center of the exploding block to the recording station were set to be 11 and 244 meters, respectively. To evaluate allowable safe vibration and determining the permissible explosive charge weight, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) was employed with Back Propagation (BP) and 3 hidden layers. The mean square error and the correlation coefficient of the network in this study were found to be 1.95 and 0.995, respectively, which compared to those obtained from the known empirical correlations, indicating substantially more accurate prediction. Considering the network high accuracy and precision in predicting vibrations caused by such blasting operations, the nearest distance from the center of the exploding block at this study was 11 m, and considering the standard allowable vibration of 120 mm/sec for heavy concrete structures, the maximum permissible explosive weight per delay was estimated to be 47.00 Kg. These results could be employed in subsequent safer blasting operation designs. Wibracje gruntu to niepożądany skutek prowadzenia prac strzałowych, które mogą negatywnie wpływać na otaczające środowisko oraz znajdujące się w sąsiedztwie budowle. Głównym wskaźnikiem używanym przy określaniu szkód spowodowanych przez wybuchy jest wskaźnik maksymalnej prędkości cząstek (PPV). Przy prognozowaniu wibracji terenu wskutek prac strzałowych prowadzonych na tamie Gotvand Olya i w zbiorniku zbadano zapisy 3-składnikowych prędkości ( w sumie 90 zapisów) z 13 wybuch

  2. Ionospheric parameter analysis techniques and anomaly identification in periods of ionospheric perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Polozov, Yury; Fetisova Glushkova, Nadejda; Shevtsov, Boris

    In the present paper we suggest intellectual techniques intended for the analysis of ionospheric parameters. These techniques are directed at studying dynamic processes in the "magnetosphere-ionosphere" system during perturbations. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, the authors have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of ionospheric parameters. This technique allows us to make data predictions and detect anomalies in the ionosphere. Multiscale component approximations of the critical frequency of the ionosphere layer F2 were constructed. These approximations can be presented in the following form: begin{center} c_{l,k+m} (t) = varphi_m(3) Bigl (sum_i omega(3_{mi}) varphi_i(2) Bigl (sum_j omega(2_{ij}) varphi_j(1) Bigl (sum_k omega(1_{jk}) c_{l,k} (t) Bigr ) Bigr ) Bigr ) , where c_{l,k} = bigl < f , Psi_{l,k} bigr > ; Psi_{l,k} (t) = 2(l/2) Psi (2(l) t - k) is the wavelet basis; omega(1_{jk}) are the weighting coefficients of the neuron j of the network input layer; omega(2_{ij}) are the weighting coefficients of the neuron i of the network hidden layer; omega(3_{mi}) are the weighting coefficients of the neuron m of the network output layer; varphi(1_j) (z) = varphi(2_i) (z) = (1)/(1+exp(-z))) ; varphi(3_m) (z) = x*z+y . The coefficients c_{l,k} can be found as a result of transforming the original function f into the space with the scale l . In order to obtain the approximations of the time variation of data, neural networks can be united in groups. In the paper we have suggested a multicomponent time variation model of ionospheric parameters, which makes it possible to perform the analysis of the ionospheric dynamic mode, receive predictions about parameter variations, and detect anomalies in periods of perturbations. The multicomponent model also allows us to fill missing values in critical frequency data taking into account diurnal and seasonal variations. Identification of the model is based on combining

  3. Analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations in periods of magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Zalyaev, Timur; Solovev, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    field and predicting strong magnetic storms. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, we have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of cosmic-ray data. This technique allows us to perform detailed analysis of geomagnetic data and detect anomalies in periods of high solar activity. Approximations of large-scale time variation components of cosmic-ray data have been obtained in the following form: [ c_{j,n+1}(t)=\\varphi^3_m Biggl (sum_i omega^3_{mi}\\varphi^2_i biggl (sum_l omega^2_{il}\\varphi^1_lBigl(sum_n omega^1_{ln}c_{j,n}(t)Bigr )biggr ) Biggr ) ] where c_{j,n}=< y, phi_{j,n} > ;phi_{j,n}=2(j/2) phi(2(j(t)-n)) is the scaling function, omega(1_{ln}) are the weights of the neurons of the network input layer l,omega(2_{il}) are the weights of the neurons of the network hidden layer i, omega(3_{mi}) are the weights of the neurons of the network output layer m, varphi(1_l(z)=varphi^2_i(z)=(2)/(1+exp(-2z))-1) ,varphi(3_m(z)) =a*z+b. Coefficients c_{j,n} are the result of transforming of the original function y to the space with the scale j. Analysis of long geomagnetic data from the Paratunka observatory (Kamchatka region, Russia) provided quantitative estimates of the storminess degree of the geomagnetic field before and during magnetic storms. Furthermore, we have managed to identify local weak increases of the field perturbations prior to the main phase of storms. The intensity of field perturbations rises on average 2.5 days before the onset of a storm. Abnormal time periods connected with increased solar activity have been detected in the flow of cosmic rays. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic data has shown that the anomalies in the cosmic ray variations occur in periods of strong geomagnetic perturbations. The tools and techniques suggested in the present work, together with other methods of data -analysis will help forecast space weather, estimate more accurately the condition of the Earth’s magnetic

  4. Nonadditive entropy: The concept and its use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, C.

    2009-06-01

    The thermodynamical concept of entropy was introduced by Clausius in 1865 in order to construct the exact differential dS = δ Q/ T , where δ Q is the heat transfer and the absolute temperature T its integrating factor. A few years later, in the period 1872-1877, it was shown by Boltzmann that this quantity can be expressed in terms of the probabilities associated with the microscopic configurations of the system. We refer to this fundamental connection as the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) entropy, namely (in its discrete form) ensuremath S_{BG}=-ksum_{i=1}^W p_i ln p_i , where k is the Boltzmann constant, and { p i} the probabilities corresponding to the W microscopic configurations (hence ∑W i=1 p i = 1 . This entropic form, further discussed by Gibbs, von Neumann and Shannon, and constituting the basis of the celebrated BG statistical mechanics, is additive. Indeed, if we consider a system composed by any two probabilistically independent subsystems A and B ( i.e., ensuremath p_{ij}^{A+B}=p_i^A p_j^B, forall(i,j) , we verify that ensuremath S_{BG}(A+B)=S_{BG}(A)+S_{BG}(B) . If a system is constituted by N equal elements which are either independent or quasi-independent ( i.e., not too strongly correlated, in some specific nonlocal sense), this additivity guarantees SBG to be extensive in the thermodynamical sense, i.e., that ensuremath S_{BG}(N) ∝ N in the N ≫ 1 limit. If, on the contrary, the correlations between the N elements are strong enough, then the extensivity of SBG is lost, being therefore incompatible with classical thermodynamics. In such a case, the many and precious relations described in textbooks of thermodynamics become invalid. Along a line which will be shown to overcome this difficulty, and which consistently enables the generalization of BG statistical mechanics, it was proposed in 1988 the entropy ensuremath S_q=k [1-sum_{i=1}^W p_i^q]/(q-1) (qin{R}; S_1=S_{BG}) . In the context of cybernetics and information theory, this and similar forms

  5. Why should we pay more for layout designers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Samee U.

    2003-12-01

    ,G2j^2,....,Gmj^2 6. Compute I, (Mij) in each Gij^2 7. Compute Si=si(u)|u belongs to Mij 8. Find the minimum index i such that w(Si)<= w(D) 9. Return Sj 10. Compute G'=min Mij belongs V [max si sum{i=0}^{|Sj|] 11. Return G' Theorem 2 The PNL algorithm is complete and will identify a solution, if there exists one. Proof (Trivial and not included due to space) Theorem 3 The PNL algorithm has a lower bound of 4-approximation to the optimal algorithm. Proof (Not included due to space, but the basic argument, is due to the fact that picking a node v with 2-epsilon in G^2, would required the neighbors to be picked in G^4, thus the PNL is no better than 4-epsilon, where epsilon >0) Experiments We made some initial experiments, which are showing promissing results with savings in fiber, equipment cost, due to space, and inital phase of the experiments, we are not including the results here. P.S. My appologies for exceeding the text limit. There is much more detail to the formal proof, I hope the idea is still conveyed. There are also 2 figures which will be faxed.

  6. Feasibility Analysis of Groundwater Abstraction for Gas Shale Fracturing in the Lublin Basin (Eastern Poland) / Ocena Możliwości Poboru Wód Podziemnych Do Szczelinowania Łupków Gazonośnych W Basenie Lubelskim (Wschodnia Polska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, Robert; Macuda, Jan

    2015-03-01

    ęści znajdujących się w zasięgu obszaru badań (Fig. 1). Zanalizowano rozkłady zmienności i skumulowanej gęstości prawdopodobieństwa w celu uzyskania odpowiednich zakresów zmienności wartości q studni ujmujących wodę z badanych trzech formacji litostratygraficznych (Fig. 2, 3). Wyróżniono na wykresach zakres równy sumie jednego odchylenia standardowego (SD) powyżej i poniżej wartości mediany (X-), czyli X- ± 1SD. W tym przedziale zawiera się po 34.1% danych o wartościach odpowiednio: większych i mniejszych od mediany; łącznie przedział zawiera 68.2% danych. Na będących źródłem danych arkuszach MHP obejmujących obszar badań, ilość danych dotyczących studni ujmujących wodę z utworów czwartorzędu i trzeciorzędu zazwyczaj jest mniejsza niż 30. Wykonano więc zestawienie q także dla danych skumulowanych w odniesieniu do poszczególnych poziomów litostratygraficznych (Fig. 3b). Uzyskane wyniki w odniesieniu do skał kredy górnej wskazują, że analizowany obszar dzieli się na bardziej wodonośną część położoną na zachód od rzeki Wieprz, tj. w granicach arkuszy "Łuków", "Lublin", "Rzeszów" oraz słabiej wodonośną część położoną na wschód od tej rzeki, czyli w obszarach arkuszy "Włodawa", "Chełm" i "Tomaszów Lubelski". W zakresie X- ± 1SD w strefach występowania margli ilastych i kredy piszącej (część wschodnia obszaru) q zawierają się w przedziale 0.6 ≤ q ≤ 40 m3h-1 na 1 m depresji. W rejonach występowania opok, gez, margli i wapieni (część zachodnia) q jest w przedziale 1.1 ≤ q ≤ 110 m3h-1 na 1 m. Wartości q studni zafiltrowanych w utworach trzeciorzędu i czwartorzędu, za względu na małą ilość danych analizowano łącznie dla całego obszaru badań i stwierdzono, że zawierają się w przedziale X- ± 1SD odpowiednio 0.8 ≤ q ≤ 20 m3h-1 na 1m oraz 1.0 ≤ q ≤ 10 m3h-1 na 1m. Oprócz zmienności litologicznej, rozkład zmienności q w skali regionalnej w danym poziomie