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Sample records for abdomen origins dendritic

  1. Abdomen - swollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... meal will go away when you digest the food. Eating smaller amounts will help prevent swelling. For a swollen abdomen caused by swallowing air: Avoid carbonated beverages. Avoid chewing gum or sucking on candies. Avoid ...

  2. High dendritic expression of Ih in the proximity of the axon origin controls the integrative properties of nigral dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Engel, Dominique; Seutin, Vincent

    2015-11-15

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih is expressed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, but the subcellular distribution of the current and its role in synaptic integration remain unknown. We used cell-attached patch recordings to determine the localization profile of Ih along the somatodendritic axis of nigral dopamine neurons in slices from young rats. Ih density is higher in axon-bearing dendrites, in a membrane area close to the axon origin, than in the soma and axon-lacking dendrites. Dual current-clamp recordings revealed a similar contribution of Ih to the waveform of single excitatory postsynaptic potentials throughout the somatodendritic domain. The Ih blocker ZD 7288 increased the temporal summation in all dendrites with a comparable effect in axon- and non-axon dendrites. The strategic position of Ih in the proximity of the axon may influence importantly transitions between pacemaker and bursting activities and consequently the downstream release of dopamine. Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in the dendrites of some pyramidal neurons affects their membrane and integration properties, synaptic plasticity and higher functions such as memory. A gradient of increasing h-channel density towards distal dendrites has been found to be responsible for the location independence of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) waveform and temporal summation in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, reports on other cell types revealed that smoother gradients or even linear distributions of Ih can achieve homogeneous temporal summation. Although the existence of a robust, slowly activating Ih current has been repeatedly demonstrated in nigral dopamine neurons, its subcellular distribution and precise role in synaptic integration

  3. Distinct kinetics of inhibitory currents in thalamocortical neurons that arise from dendritic or axonal origin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sunggu; Govindaiah, Gubbi; Lee, Sang-Hun; Yang, Sungchil; Cox, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Thalamocortical neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) transfer visual information from retina to primary visual cortex. This information is modulated by inhibitory input arising from local interneurons and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons, leading to alterations of receptive field properties of thalamocortical neurons. Local GABAergic interneurons provide two distinct synaptic outputs: axonal (F1 terminals) and dendritic (F2 terminals) onto dLGN thalamocortical neurons. By contrast, TRN neurons provide only axonal output (F1 terminals) onto dLGN thalamocortical neurons. It is unclear if GABAA receptor-mediated currents originating from F1 and F2 terminals have different characteristics. In the present study, we examined multiple characteristics (rise time, slope, halfwidth and decay τ) of GABAA receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic synaptic currents (mIPSCs) originating from F1 and F2 terminals. The mIPSCs arising from F2 terminals showed slower kinetics relative to those from F1 terminals. Such differential kinetics of GABAAR-mediated responses could be an important role in temporal coding of visual signals.

  4. Phenotypic and functional comparison of two distinct subsets of programmable cell of monocytic origin (PCMOs)-derived dendritic cells with conventional monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Beikzadeh, Babak; Delirezh, Nowruz

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells with the ability to induce primary T-cell responses. They are commonly produced by culturing monocytes in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF (cells produced in this manner are called conventional DCs). Here we report the generation of two functionally distinct subsets of DCs derived from programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMOs) in the presence of IL-3 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Monocytes were treated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and IL-3 for 6 days and then incubated with IL-4 and IL-3 (for IL-3 DCs) or with IL-4, GM-CSF and TNF-α (for TNF-α DCs) for 7 days. Monocytes were then loaded with tumor lysate (used as antigen), and poly (I∶C) was added. The maturation factors TNF-α and monocyte conditioned medium (MCM) were added on days 4 and 5, respectively. The phenotypes of the DCs generated were characterized by flow cytometry, and the cells' phagocytic activities were measured using FITC-conjugated latex bead uptake. T-cell proliferation and cytokine release were assayed using MTT and commercially available ELISA kits, respectively. We found that either IL-3DCs or TNF-α DCs induce T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion; the cytokine release pattern showed reduced IL-12/IL-10 and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratios in both types of DCs and in DC-primed T-cell supernatant, respectively, which confirmed that the primed T cells were polarized toward aTh2-type immune response. We concluded that PCMOs are a new cell source that can develop into two functionally distinct DCs that both induce a Th2-type response in vitro. This modality can be used as a DC-based immunotherapy for autoimmune diseases. PMID:25661728

  5. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging will spread a clear, warm gel on the skin of the abdomen. This gel helps with the transmission of the sound waves. The ... abdominal ultrasound is painless. Your child may feel a slight ...

  6. CT angiography - abdomen and pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007674.htm CT angiography - abdomen and pelvis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection ...

  7. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the dummy assembly shown in drawing 175-0000 including load sensors specified in § 572.189...

  9. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the dummy assembly shown in drawing 175-0000 including load sensors specified in § 572.189(e...

  10. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the dummy assembly shown in drawing 175-0000 including load sensors specified in § 572.189(e...

  11. Milk of calcium in abdomen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Kuo-How; Chang, Chin-Chen; Liu, Kao-Lang

    2011-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman had an asymptomatic abnormality on a screening abdominal radiograph. The radiopaque mass in her right upper abdomen was surrounded by numerous "pearls" and resembled an abalone on the supine abdominal radiograph. We advised an additional upright abdominal radiograph, which showed a calcium fluid level. We also clarified the location of the cystic lesion at the right floating kidney, which changed its location between the supine and upright positions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right renal cyst with a calcium-fluid interface owing to the milk of calcium. The patient was then followed up without additional investigation or the need for intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical burns of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  13. Dendrite inhibitor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for removing dendrites or other crystalline matter from the surface of a liquid in a matter transport process, and an electrolytic cell including such an apparatus. A notch may be provided to allow continuous exposure of the liquid surface, and a bore may be further provided to permit access to the liquid.

  14. Dendrite inhibitor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.

    1988-06-07

    An apparatus for removing dendrites or other crystalline matter from the surface of a liquid in a matter transport process, and an electrolytic cell including such an apparatus. A notch may be provided to allow continuous exposure of the liquid surface, and a bore may be further provided to permit access to the liquid. 2 figs.

  15. [Treatment of enteric fistula in open abdomen].

    PubMed

    Evenson, R A; Fischer, J E

    2006-07-01

    Formation of enteric fistulas frequently complicates the open abdomen in patients who have sustained traumatic injury. The post-traumatic subset of patients with enterocutaneous fistula enjoy better than average recovery. To optimize this recovery, a systematic management approach is required. Patients must first be stabilized with nutritional support, control of sepsis, and special wound management systems to prevent further deterioration of the abdominal wall. Investigation of the origin, course, and characteristics of the fistula provides information about its likelihood to close without operation. Definitive operative therapy may be necessary to resolve the fistula and close the abdominal wall. Finally, healing support includes nutritional support and physical and occupational therapies to restore patients to pre-injury states.

  16. Dendrite Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Donald Gilles, the Discipline Scientist for Materials Science in NASA's Microgravity Materials Science and Applications Department, demonstrates to Carl Dohrman a model of dendrites, the branch-like structures found in many metals and alloys. Dohrman was recently selected by the American Society for Metals International as their 1999 ASM International Foundation National Merit Scholar. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign freshman recently toured NASA's materials science facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014406 TITLE: Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens...Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens Darci M. S. Esquivel, Eliane Wajnberg, Geraldo R. Cernicchiaro, Daniel Acosta-Avalos’ and B.E...transition (52 K- 91 K). Hysteresis curves of Apis mellifera abdomens organized parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field were obtained

  18. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... part of the dummy assembly shown in drawing 175-0000 including load sensors specified in § 572.189(e... measuring sensor in the abdomen as shown in Figure U5; (5) The impactor impacts the dummy's abdomen at 4.0 m... of the forces of the three abdominal load sensors, specified in 572.189(e), shall be not less than...

  19. Infected Congenital Epicardial Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Dribin, Timothy; Files, Matthew D; Rudzinski, Erin R; Kaplan, Ron; Stone, Kimberly P

    2016-12-01

    A previously healthy 3-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, fever, and emesis. Laboratory and radiologic evaluation for causes of acute abdomen were negative; however, review of the abdominal x-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly with the subsequent diagnosis of pericardial cyst by echocardiogram and computed tomography. The patient underwent surgical decompression and attempted removal of the cystic structure revealing that the cyst originated from the epicardium. His abdominal pain and fever resolved postoperatively and he completed a 3-week course of ceftriaxone for treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infected congenital epicardial cyst. Emergency department physicians must maintain a broad differential in patients with symptoms of acute abdomen to prevent complications from serious cardiac or pulmonary diseases that present with symptoms of referred abdominal pain.

  20. [Acute abdomen caused by eosinophilic enteritis: six observations].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ubieto, Fernando; Bueno-Delgado, Alvaro; Jiménez-Bernadó, Teresa; Santero Ramírez, María Pilar; Arribas-Del Amo, Dolores; Martínez-Ubieto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by eosinophils; as a casue of acute abdomen it is really exceptional. The etiology is unclear and its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy and parasitic infections as it was confirmed in one of our pathologic studies. From 1997 to 2011 six cases of eosinophilic enteritis that involved a small bowel segment were diagnosed. A partial resection by an irreversible necrosis was necessary in three of them; in the other three only a biopsy was necessary due to the inflammatory aspect of the affected loop causing the acute abdomen. Eosinophilic enteritis can originate acute abdomen processes where an urgent surgical treatment is necessary. The intraoperative aspect can be from a segment of small bowel with inflammatory signs up to a completely irrecoverable loop, where removing of the affected segment is the correct treatment, which can be done laparoscopically.

  1. Quantification of the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio for breathing motion modeling.

    PubMed

    White, Benjamin M; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Low, Daniel A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 ciné scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine η(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum Ση(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with η(i) = 0. Extrapolation of η(i)-η(i) = 0 was used to include the entire breathing volume. The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11 - Ση(i) where the sum was taken throughout the thorax. The average Ση(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20

  2. Emergency management of acute abdomen in children.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Binesh; Singhi, Sunit; Lal, Sadhna

    2013-03-01

    Acute abdomen can be defined as a medical emergency in which there is sudden and severe pain in abdomen with accompanying signs and symptoms that focus on an abdominal involvement. It accounts for about 8 % of all children attending the emergency department. The goal of emergency management is to identify and treat any life-threatening medical or surgical disease condition and relief from pain. In mild cases often the cause is gastritis or gastroenteritis, colic, constipation, pharyngo-tonsilitis, viral syndromes or acute febrile illnesses. The common surgical causes are malrotation and Volvulus (in early infancy), intussusception, acute appendicitis, and typhoid and ischemic enteritis with perforation. Lower lobe pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis and acute porphyria should be considered in patients with moderate-severe pain with little localizing findings in abdomen. The approach to management in ED should include, in order of priority, a rapid cardiopulmonary assessment to ensure hemodynamic stability, focused history and examination, surgical consult and radiologic examination to exclude life threatening surgical conditions, pain relief and specific diagnosis. In a sick patient the initial steps include rapid IV access and normal saline 20 ml/kg (in the presence of shock/hypovolemia), adequate analgesia, nothing per oral/IV fluids, Ryle's tube aspiration and surgical consultation. An ultrasound abdomen is the first investigation in almost all cases with moderate and severe pain with localizing abdominal findings. In patients with significant abdominal trauma or features of pancreatitis, a Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) abdomen will be a better initial modality. Continuous monitoring and repeated physical examinations should be done in all cases. Specific management varies according to the specific etiology.

  3. Options for Closure of the Infected Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Chris A.; Rosenberger, Laura H.; Politano, Amani D.; Davies, Stephen W.; Riccio, Lin M.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The infected abdomen poses substantial challenges to surgeons, and often, both temporary and definitive closure techniques are required. We reviewed the options available to close the abdominal wall defect encountered frequently during and after the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Methods A comprehensive review was performed of the techniques and literature on abdominal closure in the setting of intra-abdominal infection. Results Temporary abdominal closure options include the Wittmann Patch, Bogota bag, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), the AbThera™ device, and synthetic or biologic mesh. Definitive reconstruction has been described with mesh, components separation, and autologous tissue transfer. Conclusion Reconstructing the infected abdomen, both temporarily and definitively, can be accomplished with various techniques, each of which is associated with unique advantages and disadvantages. Appropriate judgment is required to optimize surgical outcomes in these complex cases. PMID:23216525

  4. Sickle Cell Crisis and the Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Ahmad; Walker, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common symptoms in sickle cell crisis, and its cause remains controversial. Simple vaso-occlusive crisis may be an explanation. The abdominal pain may also reflect an acute surgical abdomen. A patient presented with sickle cell crisis and abdominal pain; he had a periappendiceal abscess at the site of an appendiceal stump five months after appendectomy. The role of sickle cell anemia in the pathogenesis of this abscess is uncertain. PMID:3531534

  5. Dendritic Cells and Innate Immunity in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Quan; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This review summarizes emerging concepts related to the roles of dendritic cells and innate immunity in organ transplant rejection. First, it highlights the primary role that recipient, rather than donor, dendritic cells have in rejection and reviews their origin and function in the transplanted kidney. Second, it introduces the novel concept that recognition of allogeneic non-self by host monocytes (referred to here as innate allorecognition) is necessary for initiating rejection by inducing monocyte differentiation into mature, antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Both concepts provide opportunities for preventing rejection by targeting monocytes or dendritic cells. PMID:25629552

  6. Laparoscopic anatomy of the equine abdomen.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, L D; Snyder, J R; Pascoe, J R

    1995-04-01

    Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, 2 stallions) to determine the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the equine abdomen. After withholding feed for 36 hours, horses were examined from the left and right paralumbar fossae, and the visceral anatomic structures were recorded by videotape and photography. One mare developed emphysema located subcutaneously at the primary laparoscopic portal; otherwise, there were no complications. The anatomic structures of diagnostic importance that were observed in the left half of the abdomen were the hepatic duct; left lateral and quadrate lobes of the liver; stomach; spleen; left kidney with the associated nephrosplenic ligament; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; left side of the male and female reproductive tracts; urinary bladder; vaginal ring; and mesorchium. Important structures observed in the right side of the abdomen were portions of the common hepatic duct; left lateral, quadrate, and right lobes of the liver; caudate process of the liver; stomach; duodenum; right dorsal colon, epiploic foramen; omental bursa; right kidney; base of the cecum; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; urinary bladder; right half of the male and female reproductive tracts; and rectum.

  7. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma resembling acute abdomen. Case report.

    PubMed

    Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Soto Guerrero, María Teresa; Cedillo de la Cruz, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It presents mainly in the soft tissue of the extremities and thorax. Histologically, it is similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. We present the case of a male who arrived at the emergency room with acute abdomen, leucocytosis and imaging techniques (abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography) suggestive of complicated diverticular disease. He was treated with emergency surgery. Intraoperative findings were an unsuspected tumor (20 x 15 x 15 cm). Treatment consisted of extirpation of the tumor, separating it from the adjacent viscera and followed by chemotherapy based on epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine for six cycles. Because the control abdominal CT demonstrated tumor activity in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the ascending colon and cecum, further resection was decided upon. In a review of the literature, no previous reports of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma were found presenting as acute abdomen. Due to the rarity of this tumor, only case reports or series have been found in the literature without randomized or comparative studies. Surgery was the cornerstone of treatment, without reports of preoperative chemotherapy. If the patient's condition permits, percutaneous needle biopsy is mandatory to obtain optimum treatment as well as to improve prognosis.

  8. HAART toxicity masquerading as a surgical abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Feghali, Anthony; Wang, Yi; Irizarry, Evelyn; Lueders, Meno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intussusception is a rare disease in adults and poses a challenge to identify and manage. In adults, surgical resection is the preferred treatment since half are due to malignancy. This case reveals an association between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and intussusception. Presentation of case A 44 year-old female with history of HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented with 3 month history of epigastric pain, nausea, emesis, weight loss, and lactic acidosis. CT of abdomen showed two small bowel intussusceptions and pericolic fat infiltration. A diagnosis of mitochondrial toxicity secondary to HAART medication was made. HAART medication was discontinued with resolution of symptoms. Further work-up to exclude a mechanical cause for her symptoms including colonoscopy, small bowel follow through, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and repeat CT were performed. All established an absence of malignancy and intussusception. Discussion Mitochondrial toxicity (MT) is a well-known complication of HAART. A hallmark of MT is lactic acidosis which when untreated can be fatal. Although MT is known to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, intussusception has not been previously reported. In our patient with MT, prolonged usage of HAART medication resulted in severe gastrointestinal symptoms and intussusception mimicking a surgical abdomen. Laparotomy has been recommended on adult patients with intussusceptions because of the high likelihood of identifying a pathologic lesion. The doctrine of adult intussusception is to operate for concern of malignancy. Conclusion Surgeons, gastroenterologist and internist caring for patients on HAART therapy must be aware of the possibility of MT when evaluating HIV patients for possible surgical abdomen. PMID:26686487

  9. Acute abdomen caused by brucellar hepatic abscess.

    PubMed

    Ibis, Cem; Sezer, Atakan; Batman, Ali K; Baydar, Serkan; Eker, Alper; Unlu, Ercument; Kuloglu, Figen; Cakir, Bilge; Coskun, Irfan

    2007-10-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection that is transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or aerosol inhalation. The disease is endemic in many countries, including the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, India, Mexico, Central and South America and, central and southwest Asia. Human brucellosis is a systemic infection with a wide clinical spectrum. Although hepatic involvement is very common during the course of chronic brucellosis, hepatic abscess is a very rare complication of Brucella infection. We present a case of hepatic abscess caused by Brucella, which resembled the clinical presentation of surgical acute abdomen.

  10. Abnormal cytokine production by circulating monocytes and dendritic cells of myeloid origin in ART-treated HIV-1+ patients relates to CD4+ T-cell recovery and HCV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria; Cordero, Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-05-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with dysregulation of cytokine production by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes and dendritic cells (DC), but controversial results have been reported. We aimed to analyze the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines by PB-stimulated monocytes and DC of myeloid origin -CD33(high+ ) myeloid DC (mDC) and CD33(+)/CD14(-/dim+)/CD16(high+) DC- from HIV-1+ patients and its relationship with CD4+ T-cell recovery and co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In vitro cytokine production was analyzed at the single cell level in 32 HIV-1+ patients, grouped according to the number of CD4+ T-cells/microl in PB (<200 CD4 versus >200 CD4). Patients were tested prior to therapy and at weeks +2, +4, +8, +12 and +52 after ART. Prior to ART, production of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-12 by mDC and of IL-8 and IL-12 by CD16+ DC was significantly increased among >200 CD4 patients. After one year of ART, increased production of IL-8 by monocytes, of TNF-alpha by mDC and of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by CD16+ DC was specifically observed among <200 CD4 HIV-1+ individuals showing a high recovery of PB CD4+ T-cell counts. In turn, we found that the significantly reduced percentage of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha-producing monocytes and of IL-6 and IL-8-producing mDC and CD16+ DC, as well as the significantly diminished mean amount of IL-6 produced per monocyte, mDC and CD16+ DC and of IL-12 produced per CD16+ DC observed at week +52 for the >200 CD4 patients, were related to the presence of co-infection with HCV. In summary, HIV-1+ individuals show abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines by PB-stimulated monocytes and DC of myeloid origin even after one year of ART, such abnormalities being associated with the degree of recovery of PB CD4+ T-cell counts in more immunocompromised patients and HCV co-infection in more immunocompetent HIV-1+ individuals.

  11. Dendritic Cells in Kidney Transplant Biopsy Samples Are Associated with T Cell Infiltration and Poor Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    De Serres, Sacha A.; Safa, Kassem; Bijol, Vanesa; Ueno, Takuya; Onozato, Maristela L.; Iafrate, A. John; Herter, Jan M.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Mayadas, Tanya N.; Guleria, Indira; Rennke, Helmut G.; Najafian, Nader; Chandraker, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Progress in long-term renal allograft survival continues to lag behind the progress in short-term transplant outcomes. Dendritic cells are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells, but surprisingly little attention has been paid to their presence in transplanted kidneys. We used dendritic cell–specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3–grabbing nonintegrin as a marker of dendritic cells in 105 allograft biopsy samples from 105 kidney transplant recipients. High dendritic cell density was associated with poor allograft survival independent of clinical variables. Moreover, high dendritic cell density correlated with greater T cell proliferation and poor outcomes in patients with high total inflammation scores, including inflammation in areas of tubular atrophy. We then explored the association between dendritic cells and histologic variables associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association between the densities of dendritic cells and T cells. In biopsy samples with high dendritic cell density, electron microscopy showed direct physical contact between infiltrating lymphocytes and cells that have the ultrastructural morphologic characteristics of dendritic cells. The origin of graft dendritic cells was sought in nine sex-mismatched recipients using XY fluorescence in situ hybridization. Whereas donor dendritic cells predominated initially, the majority of dendritic cells in late allograft biopsy samples were of recipient origin. Our data highlight the prognostic value of dendritic cell density in allograft biopsy samples, suggest a new role for these cells in shaping graft inflammation, and provide a rationale for targeting dendritic cell recruitment to promote long-term allograft survival. PMID:25855773

  12. Dendritic release of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Mike; Apps, David; Menzies, John; Patel, Jyoti C.; Rice, Margaret E.

    2017-01-01

    Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters and signaling molecules such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances. PMID:28135005

  13. Role of computed tomography of abdomen in difficult to diagnose typhoid fever: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Wajid; Rajalakshmi, S; Sripriya, S; Madhu Bashini, M

    2018-04-01

    Background and Aim Diagnosis of typhoid is challenging when blood cultures fail to isolate Salmonella species. We report our experience with interpreting computed tomography (CT) abdomen findings in a case series of typhoid fever. Methods The case series consisted of patients who had a CT abdomen done as part of their investigations and a final diagnosis of typhoid fever. The CT films were reviewed and findings evaluated for distinctive features. Results During 2011-2017, 11 patients met the inclusion criteria. Indication for CT was pyrexia of unknown origin in the majority of patients. Review of CT films revealed mesenteric lymphadenopathy (100%), terminal ileum thickening (85%), hepatosplenomegaly (45%), retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy (18%) and ascites (9%). Conclusions Enhancing discrete mesenteric lymphadenopathy and terminal ileum thickening are non-specific findings noted in typhoid fever. Absence of matted necrotic nodes and peritoneal thickening rule out tuberculosis and raise suspicion of typhoid fever in endemic regions.

  14. Modification of dendritic development.

    PubMed

    Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the

  15. Universal features of dendrites through centripetal branch ordering

    PubMed Central

    Effenberger, Felix; Muellerleile, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Dendrites form predominantly binary trees that are exquisitely embedded in the networks of the brain. While neuronal computation is known to depend on the morphology of dendrites, their underlying topological blueprint remains unknown. Here, we used a centripetal branch ordering scheme originally developed to describe river networks—the Horton-Strahler order (SO)–to examine hierarchical relationships of branching statistics in reconstructed and model dendritic trees. We report on a number of universal topological relationships with SO that are true for all binary trees and distinguish those from SO-sorted metric measures that appear to be cell type-specific. The latter are therefore potential new candidates for categorising dendritic tree structures. Interestingly, we find a faithful correlation of branch diameters with centripetal branch orders, indicating a possible functional importance of SO for dendritic morphology and growth. Also, simulated local voltage responses to synaptic inputs are strongly correlated with SO. In summary, our study identifies important SO-dependent measures in dendritic morphology that are relevant for neural function while at the same time it describes other relationships that are universal for all dendrites. PMID:28671947

  16. Silicon dendritic web material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.; Campbell, R. B.; Sienkiewicz, L. J.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a low cost and reliable contact system for solar cells and the fabrication of several solar cell modules using ultrasonic bonding for the interconnection of cells and ethylene vinyl acetate as the potting material for module encapsulation are examined. The cells in the modules were made from dendritic web silicon. To reduce cost, the electroplated layer of silver was replaced with an electroplated layer of copper. The modules that were fabricated used the evaporated Ti, Pd, Ag and electroplated Cu (TiPdAg/Cu) system. Adherence of Ni to Si is improved if a nickel silicide can be formed by heat treatment. The effectiveness of Ni as a diffusion barrier to Cu and the ease with which nickel silicide is formed is discussed. The fabrication of three modules using dendritic web silicon and employing ultrasonic bonding for interconnecting calls and ethylene vinyl acetate as the potting material is examined.

  17. Silicon dendritic web material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, D. L.; Campbell, R. B.; Sienkiewicz, L. J.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1982-03-01

    The development of a low cost and reliable contact system for solar cells and the fabrication of several solar cell modules using ultrasonic bonding for the interconnection of cells and ethylene vinyl acetate as the potting material for module encapsulation are examined. The cells in the modules were made from dendritic web silicon. To reduce cost, the electroplated layer of silver was replaced with an electroplated layer of copper. The modules that were fabricated used the evaporated Ti, Pd, Ag and electroplated Cu (TiPdAg/Cu) system. Adherence of Ni to Si is improved if a nickel silicide can be formed by heat treatment. The effectiveness of Ni as a diffusion barrier to Cu and the ease with which nickel silicide is formed is discussed. The fabrication of three modules using dendritic web silicon and employing ultrasonic bonding for interconnecting calls and ethylene vinyl acetate as the potting material is examined.

  18. Silicon dendritic web growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Technological goals for a silicon dendritic web growth program effort are presented. Principle objectives for this program include: (1) grow long web crystals front continuously replenished melt; (2) develop temperature distribution in web and melt; (3) improve reproductibility of growth; (4) develop configurations for increased growth rates (width and speed); (5) develop new growth system components as required for improved growth; and (6) evaluate quality of web growth.

  19. Three-Dimensional Dendrite Growth Within the Shrouds of Single Crystal Blades of a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu; Wu, Zining; Huang, Can; Ma, Dexin; Jakumeit, Jürgen; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The effect of withdrawal rates on the three-dimensional dendrite growth within the shrouds of single crystal blades during directional solidification was studied by both experiments and numerical simulations. The results showed that at given withdrawal rates, the dendrite pattern within the shrouds comprised three zones: primary dendrite zone, secondary dendrite spread zone, and a higher-order dendrite branched zone. With increasing withdrawal rate, the average primary dendrite arm spacing in the primary dendrite zone and the average secondary dendrite arm spacings in both the secondary dendrite spread zone and the higher-order dendrite branched zone were reduced. Independent of the variation in withdrawal rate, two analogous dendrite growth routes were observed within the shrouds of the employed blade geometry. These routes originated from the primary dendrites in the primary dendrite zone and filled in the shrouds by directly spreading secondary or successively branching higher-order dendrites. Except for a withdrawal rate of 6 mm min-1, these dendrites impinged at the shroud's highest extremity and could be explained by the simulated moving isotherms. As the withdrawal rate was increased to 2.5 mm min-1, undercooling and contraction stress-related equiaxed grains were observed in the interdendritic region at the lowest shroud extremity. With increasing withdrawal rate, the amount of the defects was increased. Since the defects destroy the integrity of single crystal blades, the solidification condition within the shroud should be controlled to avoid their occurrence. Along the dendrite growth route, an accumulated misorientation of the dendrites was observed. At the same positions, this accumulation increased with increasing withdrawal rate.

  20. Web-dendritic ribbon growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilborn, R. B., Jr.; Faust, J. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A web furnace was constructed for pulling dendritic-web samples. The effect of changes in the furnace thermal geometry on the growth of dendritic-web was studied. Several attempts were made to grow primitive dendrites for use as the dendritic seed crystals for web growth and to determine the optimum twin spacing in the dendritic seed crystal for web growth. Mathematical models and computer programs were used to determine the thermal geometries in the susceptor, crucible melt, meniscus, and web. Several geometries were determined for particular furnace geometries and growth conditions. The information obtained was used in conjunction with results from the experimental growth investigations in order to achieve proper conditions for sustained pulling of two dendrite web ribbons. In addition, the facilities for obtaining the following data were constructed: twin spacing, dislocation density, web geometry, resistivity, majority charge carrier type, and minority carrier lifetime.

  1. An Efficient Pipeline for Abdomen Segmentation in CT Images.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Hasan; Ceylan, Rahime; Sivri, Mesut; Erdogan, Hasan

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans usually include some disadvantages due to the nature of the imaging procedure, and these handicaps prevent accurate abdomen segmentation. Discontinuous abdomen edges, bed section of CT, patient information, closeness between the edges of the abdomen and CT, poor contrast, and a narrow histogram can be regarded as the most important handicaps that occur in abdominal CT scans. Currently, one or more handicaps can arise and prevent technicians obtaining abdomen images through simple segmentation techniques. In other words, CT scans can include the bed section of CT, a patient's diagnostic information, low-quality abdomen edges, low-level contrast, and narrow histogram, all in one scan. These phenomena constitute a challenge, and an efficient pipeline that is unaffected by handicaps is required. In addition, analysis such as segmentation, feature selection, and classification has meaning for a real-time diagnosis system in cases where the abdomen section is directly used with a specific size. A statistical pipeline is designed in this study that is unaffected by the handicaps mentioned above. Intensity-based approaches, morphological processes, and histogram-based procedures are utilized to design an efficient structure. Performance evaluation is realized in experiments on 58 CT images (16 training, 16 test, and 26 validation) that include the abdomen and one or more disadvantage(s). The first part of the data (16 training images) is used to detect the pipeline's optimum parameters, while the second and third parts are utilized to evaluate and to confirm the segmentation performance. The segmentation results are presented as the means of six performance metrics. Thus, the proposed method achieves remarkable average rates for training/test/validation of 98.95/99.36/99.57% (jaccard), 99.47/99.67/99.79% (dice), 100/99.91/99.91% (sensitivity), 98.47/99.23/99.85% (specificity), 99.38/99.63/99.87% (classification accuracy), and 98

  2. Phase I (Safety) Study of Autologous Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Giannoukakis, Nick; Phillips, Brett; Finegold, David; Harnaha, Jo; Trucco, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The safety of dendritic cells to selectively suppress autoimmunity, especially in type 1 diabetes, has never been ascertained. We investigated the safety of autologous dendritic cells, stabilized into an immunosuppressive state, in established adult type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized, double-blind, phase I study was conducted. A total of 10, otherwise generally healthy, insulin-requiring type 1 diabetic patients between 18 and 60 years of age, without any other known or suspected health conditions, received autologous dendritic cells, unmanipulated or engineered ex vivo toward an immunosuppressive state. Ten million cells were administered intradermally in the abdomen once every 2 weeks for a total of four administrations. The primary end point determined the proportion of patients with adverse events on the basis of the physician’s global assessment, hematology, biochemistry, and immune monitoring for a period of 12 months. RESULTS The dendritic cells were safely tolerated. There were no discernible adverse events in any patient throughout the study. Other than a significant increase in the frequency of peripheral B220+ CD11c− B cells, mainly seen in the recipients of engineered dendritic cells during the dendritic cell administration period, there were no statistically relevant differences in other immune populations or biochemical, hematological, and immune biomarkers compared with baseline. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with autologous dendritic cells, in a native state or directed ex vivo toward a tolerogenic immunosuppressive state, is safe and well tolerated. Dendritic cells upregulated the frequency of a potentially beneficial B220+ CD11c− B-cell population, at least in type 1 diabetes autoimmunity. PMID:21680720

  3. Dendritic Alloy Solidification Experiment (DASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Steinbach, I.; deGroh, H. C., III

    2001-01-01

    A space experiment, and supporting ground-based research, is proposed to study the microstructural evolution in free dendritic growth from a supercooled melt of the transparent model alloy succinonitrile-acetone (SCN-ACE). The research is relevant to equiaxed solidification of metal alloy castings. The microgravity experiment will establish a benchmark for testing of equiaxed dendritic growth theories, scaling laws, and models in the presence of purely diffusive, coupled heat and solute transport, without the complicating influences of melt convection. The specific objectives are to: determine the selection of the dendrite tip operating state, i.e. the growth velocity and tip radius, for free dendritic growth of succinonitrile-acetone alloys; determine the growth morphology and sidebranching behavior for freely grown alloy dendrites; determine the effects of the thermal/solutal interactions in the growth of an assemblage of equiaxed alloy crystals; determine the effects of melt convection on the free growth of alloy dendrites; measure the surface tension anisotropy strength of succinon itrile -acetone alloys establish a theoretical and modeling framework for the experiments. Microgravity experiments on equiaxed dendritic growth of alloy dendrites have not been performed in the past. The proposed experiment builds on the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) of Glicksman and coworkers, which focused on the steady growth of a single crystal from pure supercooled melts (succinonitrile and pivalic acid). It also extends the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) of the present investigators, which is concerned with the interactions and transients arising in the growth of an assemblage of equiaxed crystals (succinonitrile). However, these experiments with pure substances are not able to address the issues related to coupled heat and solute transport in growth of alloy dendrites.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Cellular Exit Alters Interactions with Host Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sherrid, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The strategies utilized by pathogens to exit host cells are an area of pathogenesis which has received surprisingly little attention, considering the necessity of this step for infections to propagate. Even less is known about how exit through these pathways affects downstream host-pathogen interactions and the generation of an immune response. Chlamydia trachomatis exits host epithelial cells through two equally active mechanisms: lysis and extrusion. Studies have characterized the outcome of interactions between host innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, and free, extracellular Chlamydia bacteria, such as those resulting from lysis. Exit via extrusion generates a distinct, host-membrane-bound compartment of Chlamydia separate from the original infected cell. In this study, we assessed the effect of containment within extrusions upon the interaction between Chlamydia and host dendritic cells. Extrusion dramatically affected the outcome of Chlamydia-dendritic cell interactions for both the bacterium and the host cell. Dendritic cells rapidly underwent apoptosis in response to engulfment of an extrusion, while uptake of an equivalent dose of free Chlamydia had no such effect. Containment within an extrusion also prolonged bacterial survival within dendritic cells and altered the initial innate immune signaling by the dendritic cell. PMID:28223346

  5. Fine and distributed subcellular retinotopy of excitatory inputs to the dendritic tree of a collision-detecting neuron

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Individual neurons in several sensory systems receive synaptic inputs organized according to subcellular topographic maps, yet the fine structure of this topographic organization and its relation to dendritic morphology have not been studied in detail. Subcellular topography is expected to play a role in dendritic integration, particularly when dendrites are extended and active. The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) neuron in the locust visual system is known to receive topographic excitatory inputs on part of its dendritic tree. The LGMD responds preferentially to objects approaching on a collision course and is thought to implement several interesting dendritic computations. To study the fine retinotopic mapping of visual inputs onto the excitatory dendrites of the LGMD, we designed a custom microscope allowing visual stimulation at the native sampling resolution of the locust compound eye while simultaneously performing two-photon calcium imaging on excitatory dendrites. We show that the LGMD receives a distributed, fine retinotopic projection from the eye facets and that adjacent facets activate overlapping portions of the same dendritic branches. We also demonstrate that adjacent retinal inputs most likely make independent synapses on the excitatory dendrites of the LGMD. Finally, we show that the fine topographic mapping can be studied using dynamic visual stimuli. Our results reveal the detailed structure of the dendritic input originating from individual facets on the eye and their relation to that of adjacent facets. The mapping of visual space onto the LGMD's dendrites is expected to have implications for dendritic computation. PMID:27009157

  6. Acute surgical abdomen due to phytobezoar-induced ileal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Sdoukos, Nikolaos; Niakas, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    Phytobezoar-induced small bowel obstruction is an uncommon clinical entity accounting for 2-4.8% of all mechanical intestinal obstructions. In addition, presentation with features of acute surgical abdomen is extremely rare, accounting for only 1% of the patients. The aim of this report is to present a very rare case of a phytobezoar-induced small bowel obstruction in a male patient who presented with acute surgical abdomen. A correct preoperative diagnosis was made based on the patient's history and characteristic imaging features on the emergency computed tomography (CT) scan. A 55-year-old man with previous gastrectomy presented with typical manifestations of acute abdomen. CT scan demonstrated dilatated small bowel loops and an intraluminal ileal mass with a mottled appearance. At exploratory laparotomy, a phytobezoar was found impacted in the terminal ileum and was removed through an enterotomy. Phytobezoar should be considered in patients with previous gastric outlet surgery who present with bowel obstruction and features of acute surgical abdomen. The presence of a well-defined intraluminal mass with a mottled gas pattern on emergency CT scan is suggestive of an intestinal phytobezoar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monkey extensor digitorum communis motoneuron pool: Proximal dendritic trees and small motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Arthur B; Cheney, Paul D; Jenny, Andrew K

    2018-05-14

    Transverse sections of the monkey cervical spinal cord from a previous study (Jenny and Inukai, 1983) were reanalyzed using Neurolucida to create a three-dimensional display of extensor digitorum communis (EDC) motoneurons and proximal dendrites that had been labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HRP). The EDC motoneuron pool was located primarily in the C8 and T1 segments of the spinal cord. Small motoneurons (cell body areas less than 500 μm 2 and presumed to be gamma motoneurons) comprised about ten percent of the motoneurons and were located throughout the length of the motoneuron pool. Most small motoneurons were oblong in shape and had one or two major dendrites originating from the cell body in the transverse plane of section. The majority of the HRP labeled dendritic trees were directed either superiorly, dorsal-medially to the mid zone area between the base of the dorsal horn and the upper portion of the ventral horn, or medially to the ventromedial gray matter. The longer HRP labeled dendrites usually continued in the same radial direction as when originating from the cell body. As such we considered the radial direction of the longer proximal HRP labeled dendrites to be a reasonable estimate of the radial direction of the more distal dendritic tree. Our data suggest that the motoneuron dendritic tree as seen in transverse section has direction-oriented dendrites that extend toward functional terminal regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Can dendritic cells see light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    There are many reports showing that low-level light/laser therapy (LLLT) can enhance wound healing, upregulate cell proliferation and has anti-apoptotic effects by activating intracellular protective genes. In the field of immune response study, it is not known with any certainty whether light/laser is proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Increasingly in recent times dendritic cells have been found to play an important role in inflammation and the immunological response. In this study, we try to look at the impact of low level near infrared light (810-nm) on murine bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Changes in surface markers, including MHC II, CD80 and CD11c and the secretion of interleukins induced by light may provide additional evidence to reveal the mystery of how light affects the maturation of dendritic cells as well how these light-induced mature dendritic cells would affect the activation of adaptive immune response.

  9. Electrical Advantages of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Gulledge, Allan T.; Carnevale, Nicholas T.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2012-01-01

    Many neurons receive excitatory glutamatergic input almost exclusively onto dendritic spines. In the absence of spines, the amplitudes and kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) at the site of synaptic input are highly variable and depend on dendritic location. We hypothesized that dendritic spines standardize the local geometry at the site of synaptic input, thereby reducing location-dependent variability of local EPSP properties. We tested this hypothesis using computational models of simplified and morphologically realistic spiny neurons that allow direct comparison of EPSPs generated on spine heads with EPSPs generated on dendritic shafts at the same dendritic locations. In all morphologies tested, spines greatly reduced location-dependent variability of local EPSP amplitude and kinetics, while having minimal impact on EPSPs measured at the soma. Spine-dependent standardization of local EPSP properties persisted across a range of physiologically relevant spine neck resistances, and in models with variable neck resistances. By reducing the variability of local EPSPs, spines standardized synaptic activation of NMDA receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels. Furthermore, spines enhanced activation of NMDA receptors and facilitated the generation of NMDA spikes and axonal action potentials in response to synaptic input. Finally, we show that dynamic regulation of spine neck geometry can preserve local EPSP properties following plasticity-driven changes in synaptic strength, but is inefficient in modifying the amplitude of EPSPs in other cellular compartments. These observations suggest that one function of dendritic spines is to standardize local EPSP properties throughout the dendritic tree, thereby allowing neurons to use similar voltage-sensitive postsynaptic mechanisms at all dendritic locations. PMID:22532875

  10. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Malarik, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of dendrites is one of the commonly observed forms of solidification encountered when metals and alloys freeze under low thermal gradients, as occurs in most casting and welding processes. In engineering alloys, the details of the dendritic morphology directly relates to important material responses and properties. Of more generic interest, dendritic growth is also an archetypical problem in morphogenesis, where a complex pattern evolves from simple starting conditions. Thus, the physical understanding and mathematical description of how dendritic patterns emerge during the growth process are of interest to both scientists and engineers. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is a basic science experiment designed to measure, for a fundamental test of theory, the kinetics and morphology of dendritic growth without complications induced by gravity-driven convection. The IDGE, a collaboration between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy NY, and NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) was developed over a ten year period from a ground-based research program into a space flight experiment. Important to the success of this flight experiment was provision of in situ near-real-time teleoperations during the spaceflight experiment.

  11. The connection between acute otitis media and the acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Masood, Imran; Hendriksz, Tami

    2017-06-22

    A female aged 9 years with a recent episode of acute otitis media (AOM) presented to her primary care physician with complaints of severe abdominal pain with right lower quadrant rebound tenderness, suggestive of an acute surgical abdomen. Neurological examination was normal on presentation. She was transferred to the local children's hospital for workup of appendicitis, during which she began exhibiting ataxia and slurred speech. Further evaluation revealed mastoiditis, venous sinus thrombosis and subdural empyema. Appendicitis was ruled out. We describe the first documented case of neurological complications of AOM presenting as an acute surgical abdomen without initial neurological findings. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Acute abdomen: an unusual presentation of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection.

    PubMed

    George, I A; Sudarsanam, T D; Pulimood, A B; Mathews, M S

    2008-01-01

    Varied clinical presentations of Penicillium marneffei, an opportunistic pathogen in HIV disease has been rarely described in literature. We report a patient with advanced AIDS who presented to us with prolonged fever and had features of an acute abdomen. On radiologic imaging he had features of intestinal obstruction and mesenteric lymphadenitis. A diagnosis was made possible by endoscopic biopsies of the small bowel and bone marrow culture which grew P. Marneffei. He was treated with intravenous amphotericin for 2 weeks followed by oral itraconazole. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation and to sensitise clinicians and microbiologists to consider this as an aetiology in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS who present with acute abdomen, more so in patients from a distinct geographic region--South-East Asia.

  13. Magnetic Sensing through the Abdomen of the Honey bee.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao-Hung; Chuang, Cheng-Long; Jiang, Joe-Air; Yang, En-Cheng

    2016-03-23

    Honey bees have the ability to detect the Earth's magnetic field, and the suspected magnetoreceptors are the iron granules in the abdomens of the bees. To identify the sensing route of honey bee magnetoreception, we conducted a classical conditioning experiment in which the responses of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) were monitored. Honey bees were successfully trained to associate the magnetic stimulus with a sucrose reward after two days of training. When the neural connection of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) between the abdomen and the thorax was cut, the honey bees no longer associated the magnetic stimulus with the sucrose reward but still responded to an olfactory PER task. The neural responses elicited in response to the change of magnetic field were also recorded at the VNC. Our results suggest that the honey bee is a new model animal for the investigation of magnetite-based magnetoreception.

  14. Orchestration of transplantation tolerance by regulatory dendritic cell therapy or in-situ targeting of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Adrian E; Thomson, Angus W

    2014-08-01

    Extensive research in murine transplant models over the past two decades has convincingly demonstrated the ability of regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) to promote long-term allograft survival. We review important considerations regarding the source of therapeutic DCregs (donor or recipient) and their mode of action, in-situ targeting of DCregs, and optimal therapeutic regimens to promote DCreg function. Recent studies have defined protocols and mechanisms whereby ex-vivo-generated DCregs of donor or recipient origin subvert allogeneic T-cell responses and promote long-term organ transplant survival. Particular interest has focused on how donor antigen is acquired, processed and presented by autologous dendritic cells, on the stability of DCregs, and on in-situ targeting of dendritic cells to promote their tolerogenic function. New evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of DCregs in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate organ transplant model and production of clinical grade DCregs support early evaluation of DCreg therapy in human graft recipients. We discuss strategies currently used to promote dendritic cell tolerogenicity, including DCreg therapy and in-situ targeting of dendritic cells, with a view to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and identification of the most promising strategies for therapeutic application.

  15. Regulatory Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsuaki; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets, functionally classified into conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). DCs are considered to be essential antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles in activation and fine-tuning of innate and adaptive immunity under inflammatory conditions, as well as induction of immune tolerance to maintain immune homeostasis under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, DC functions can be modified and influenced by stimulation with various extrinsic factors, such as ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines. On the other hand, treatment of DCs with certain immunosuppressive drugs and molecules leads to the generation of tolerogenic DCs that show downregulation of both the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and costimulatory molecules, and not only show defective T-cell activation, but also possess tolerogenic properties including the induction of anergic T-cells and regulatory T (T reg ) cells. To develop an effective strategy for Ag-specific intervention of T-cell-mediated immune disorders, we have previously established the modified DCs with moderately high levels of MHC molecules that are defective in the expression of costimulatory molecules that had a greater immunoregulatory property than classical tolerogenic DCs, which we therefore designated as regulatory DCs (DC reg ). Herein, we integrate the current understanding of the role of DCs in the control of immune responses, and further provide new information of the characteristics of tolerogenic DCs and DC reg , as well as their regulation of immune responses and disorders.

  16. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O

    2013-04-19

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission.

  17. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission. PMID:23597024

  18. A role of abdomen in butterfly's flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, Jeeva; Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly's forward flight with periodic flapping motion is longitudinally unstable, and control of the thoracic pitching angle is essential to stabilize the flight. This study aims to comprehend roles which the abdominal motion play in the pitching stability of butterfly's flapping flight by using a two-dimensional model. The control of the thoracic pitching angle by the abdominal motion is an underactuated problem because of the limit on the abdominal angle. The control input of the thorax-abdomen joint torque is obtained by the hierarchical sliding mode control in this study. Numerical simulations reveal that the control by the abdominal motion provides short-term pitching stabilization in the butterfly's flight. Moreover, the control input due to a large thorax-abdomen joint torque can counteract a quite large perturbation, and can return the pitching attitude to the periodic trajectory with a short recovery time. These observations are consistent with biologists' view that living butterflies use their abdomens as rudders. On the other hand, the abdominal control mostly fails in long-term pitching stabilization, because it cannot directly alter the aerodynamic forces. The control for the long-term pitching stabilization will also be discussed.

  19. Coding and decoding with dendrites.

    PubMed

    Papoutsi, Athanasia; Kastellakis, George; Psarrou, Maria; Anastasakis, Stelios; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of complex, voltage dependent mechanisms in the dendrites of multiple neuron types, great effort has been devoted in search of a direct link between dendritic properties and specific neuronal functions. Over the last few years, new experimental techniques have allowed the visualization and probing of dendritic anatomy, plasticity and integrative schemes with unprecedented detail. This vast amount of information has caused a paradigm shift in the study of memory, one of the most important pursuits in Neuroscience, and calls for the development of novel theories and models that will unify the available data according to some basic principles. Traditional models of memory considered neural cells as the fundamental processing units in the brain. Recent studies however are proposing new theories in which memory is not only formed by modifying the synaptic connections between neurons, but also by modifications of intrinsic and anatomical dendritic properties as well as fine tuning of the wiring diagram. In this review paper we present previous studies along with recent findings from our group that support a key role of dendrites in information processing, including the encoding and decoding of new memories, both at the single cell and the network level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dendrite Array Disruption by Bubbles during Re-melting in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI), Succinonitrile Water alloys consisting of aligned dendritic arrays were re-melted prior to conducting directional solidification experiments in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. Thermocapillary convection initiated by bubbles at the solid-liquid interface during controlled melt back of the alloy was observed to disrupt the initial dendritic alignment. Disruption ranged from detaching large arrays to the transport of small dendrite fragments at the interface. The role of bubble size and origin is discussed along with subsequent consequences upon reinitiating controlled solidification.

  1. Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    role of dendritic cells in pancreatitis. Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells which initiate innate and adaptive immune... Lymphoid -tissue-specific homing of bone- marrow-derived dendritic cells . Blood. 113:6638–6647. http://dx.doi .org/10.1182/blood-2009-02-204321 Dapito...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0313 TITLE: Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. George Miller

  2. The acutely affected abdomen in paraplegic spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed Central

    Neumayer, L A; Bull, D A; Mohr, J D; Putnam, C W

    1990-01-01

    The records of 145 paraplegic or quadriplegic patients were reviewed to identify those factors useful in the correct diagnosis of the acute abdomen in this population. Twenty-one patients had 22 episodes of acute or subacute abdominal problems. Presenting complaints, physical findings, and laboratory results were useful in various ways. However appropriate radiographic studies led to the correct diagnosis in 77% of patients. Although paraplegic and quadriplegic patients are predisposed to a distinct constellation of medical problems, including urinary tract infection and calculi, they also may present with other abdominal conditions that cause significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized. PMID:2241311

  3. MELAS syndrome presenting as an acute surgical abdomen.

    PubMed

    Dindyal, S; Mistry, K; Angamuthu, N; Smith, G; Hilton, D; Arumugam, P; Mathew, J

    2014-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial cytopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a syndrome in which signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are uncommon if not rare. We describe the case of a young woman who presented as an acute surgical emergency, diagnosed as toxic megacolon necessitating an emergency total colectomy. MELAS syndrome was suspected postoperatively owing to persistent lactic acidosis and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was later confirmed with histological and genetic studies. This case highlights the difficulties in diagnosing MELAS because of its unpredictable presentation and clinical course. We therefore recommend a high index of suspicion in cases of an acute surgical abdomen with additional neurological features or raised lactate.

  4. Vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction for open abdomen therapy - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Stefan; Björck, Martin; Petersson, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the literature on vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) in open abdomen therapy. It was designed as systematic review of observational studies. A Pub Med, EMBASE and Cochrane search from 2007/01-2016/07 was performed combining the Medical Subject Headings "vacuum", "mesh-mediated fascial traction", "temporary abdominal closure", "delayed abdominal closure", "open abdomen", "abdominal compartment syndrome", "negative pressure wound therapy" or "vacuum assisted wound closure". Eleven original studies were found including patients numbering from 7 to 111. Six studies were prospective and five were retrospective. Nine studies were on mixed surgical (n = 9), vascular (n = 6) and trauma (n = 6) patients, while two were exclusively on vascular patients. The primary fascial closure rate per protocol varied from 80-100%. The time to closure of the open abdomen varied between 9-32 days. The entero-atmospheric fistula rate varied from 0-10.0%. The in-hospital survival rate varied from 57-100%. In the largest prospective study, the incisional hernia rate among survivors at 63 months of median follow-up was 54% (27/50), and 16 (33%) repairs out of 48 incisional hernias were performed throughout the study period. The study patients reported lower short form health survey (SF-36) scores than the mean reference population, mainly dependent on the prevalence of major co-morbidities. There was no difference in SF-36 scores or a modified ventral hernia pain questionnaire (VHPQ) at 5 years of follow up between those with versus those without incisional hernias. A high primary fascial closure rate can be achieved with the vacuum-assisted wound closure and meshmediated fascial traction technique in elderly, mainly non-trauma patients, in need of prolonged open abdomen therapy.

  5. Covariation of axon initial segment location and dendritic tree normalizes the somatic action potential

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mustafa S.; Goethals, Sarah; de Vries, Sharon I.; Brette, Romain

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian neurons, the axon initial segment (AIS) electrically connects the somatodendritic compartment with the axon and converts the incoming synaptic voltage changes into a temporally precise action potential (AP) output code. Although axons often emanate directly from the soma, they may also originate more distally from a dendrite, the implications of which are not well-understood. Here, we show that one-third of the thick-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neurons have an axon originating from a dendrite and are characterized by a reduced dendritic complexity and thinner main apical dendrite. Unexpectedly, the rising phase of somatic APs is electrically indistinguishable between neurons with a somatic or a dendritic axon origin. Cable analysis of the neurons indicated that the axonal axial current is inversely proportional to the AIS distance, denoting the path length between the soma and the start of the AIS, and to produce invariant somatic APs, it must scale with the local somatodendritic capacitance. In agreement, AIS distance inversely correlates with the apical dendrite diameter, and model simulations confirmed that the covariation suffices to normalize the somatic AP waveform. Therefore, in pyramidal neurons, the AIS location is finely tuned with the somatodendritic capacitive load, serving as a homeostatic regulation of the somatic AP in the face of diverse neuronal morphologies. PMID:27930291

  6. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  7. Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Camille M.; Weiden, Jorieke; Eggermont, Loek J.; Figdor, Carl G.

    2018-06-01

    Camille M. Le Gall, Jorieke Weiden, Loek J. Eggermont and Carl G. Figdor provide an overview of immunotherapeutics for cancer treatment that harness dendritic cells, their challenges in clinical use, and approaches employed to enhance their recruitment and activation to promote effective anti-tumour immunity.

  8. Neutrophils, dendritic cells and Toxoplasma.

    PubMed

    Denkers, Eric Y; Butcher, Barbara A; Del Rio, Laura; Bennouna, Soumaya

    2004-03-09

    Toxoplasma gondii rapidly elicits strong Type 1 cytokine-based immunity. The necessity for this response is well illustrated by the example of IFN-gamma and IL-12 gene knockout mice that rapidly succumb to the effects of acute infection. The parasite itself is skilled at sparking complex interactions in the innate immune system that lead to protective immunity. Neutrophils are one of the first cell types to arrive at the site of infection, and the cells release several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to Toxoplasma. Dendritic cells are an important source of IL-12 during infection with T. gondii and other microbial pathogens, and they are also specialized for high-level antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. Tachyzoites express at least two types of molecules that trigger innate immune cell cytokine production. One of these involves Toll-like receptor/MyD88 pathways common to many microbial pathogens. The second pathway is less conventional and involves molecular mimicry between a parasite cyclophilin and host CC chemokine receptor 5-binding ligands. Neutrophils, dendritic cells and Toxoplasma work together to elicit the immune response required for host survival. Cytokine and chemokine cross-talk between parasite-triggered neutrophils and dendritic cells results in recruitment, maturation and activation of the latter. Neutrophil-empowered dendritic cells possess properties expected of highly potent antigen presenting cells that drive T helper 1 generation.

  9. Plastic deformation of silicon dendritic web ribbons during the growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L. J.; Dumas, K. A.; Su, B. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of slip dislocations in silicon dendritic web ribbons due to plastic deformation during the cooling phase of the growth was studied. The results show the existence of two distinguishable stress regions across the ribbon formed during the plastic deformation stage, namely, shear stress at the ribbon edges and tensile stress at the middle. In addition, slip dislocations caused by shear stress near the edges appear to originate at the twin plane.

  10. [The acute (surgical) abdomen - epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of management].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, R T; Petersen, M; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2010-06-01

    This review comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with acute abdomen. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: The most common cause of acute abdominal pain is non-specific abdominal pain (24 - 44.3 % of the study populations), followed by acute appendicitis (15.9 - 28.1 %), acute biliary disease (2.9 - 9.7 %) and bowel obstruction or diverticulitits in elderly patients. Acute appendicitis represents the cause of surgical intervention in two-thirds of the children with acute abdomen. A standardised physical examination combined with ultrasonography (US) represents the initial investigation in patients with acute abdominal pain. Due to the risk associated with radiation and due to the costs, a selective use of CT imaging is recommended. The work-flow given in this paper restricts the use of CT imaging to less than 50 % of patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in patients without a specific diagnosis after appropriate imaging and as an alternative to active clinical observation which is the current practice in patients with non-specific abdominal pain. Acute small bowel obstruction has previously been considered as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic management, but it has been shown in the meantime that laparoscopic treatment is an elegant tool for the management of simple band small bowel obstruction. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute abdomen or sepsis of unknown origin, in suspicion of acute cholecystitis, diffuse gut hypoperfusion and mesenteric ischaemia or in refractory lactic acidosis, especially after cardiac surgery. Early administration of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department will reduce the patient's discomfort without impairing clinically important diagnostic accuracy and is recommended on the basis of some prospective randomised trials. However, the impact on

  11. The larval abdomen of the enigmatic Nannochoristidae (Mecoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Fraulob, Maximilian; Wipfler, Benjamin; Hünefeld, Frank; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf G

    2012-03-01

    External and internal structures of the larval abdomen of Nannochorista are described in detail, with emphasis on the posterior segments. The results are compared with conditions found in other groups of Antliophora, especially the mecopteran subgroups Boreidae and Pistillifera. Like the entire postcephalic body, the larval abdomen of Nannochorista is extremely slender and nearly cylindrical. The anterior segments are largely unmodified. The surface is smooth and lacks any protuberances or prolegs. The term "cloaca" for the posterior membranous pouch of Nannochorista sp. is morphologically unjustified. A list of muscles of segments IX and X is presented. The abdominal musculature was partly homologized following Snodgrass. The muscles of segment X are highly modified. They move the membranous pouch, the anal papillae, and the terminal lobes. The presence of these structures is likely an adaptation to the specific aquatic life style of nannochoristid larvae. The anal papillae are possibly homologous to the 4-lobed terminal attachment apparatus of larvae of Caurinus (Boreidae) and Pistillifera (Panorpidae, Bittacidae, Choristidae) but this is uncertain. The specific condition in both groups, i.e. two retractile papillae with tracheae and Malpighian tubules in Nannochoristidae, and a 4-lobed exposed attachment device in Pistillifera + Boreidae (groundplan) are very likely autapomorphic for both groups, respectively. A slender abdomen with smooth surface is very likely plesiomorphic within Antliophora and Mecopterida. This condition is found in Trichoptera (partim), Nannochoristidae, Siphonaptera, and many basal groups of Diptera. An eruciform or scarabaeiform body shape with a soft, largely unsclerotised cuticle is probably a synapomorphy of Boreidae and Pistillifera. The presence of ventral protuberances resembling prolegs on the anterior segments is an autapomorphy of the latter group. The homology of paired or unpaired terminal appendages of segment X is

  12. Microtubule nucleation and organization in dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Delandre, Caroline; Amikura, Reiko; Moore, Adrian W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendrite branching is an essential process for building complex nervous systems. It determines the number, distribution and integration of inputs into a neuron, and is regulated to create the diverse dendrite arbor branching patterns characteristic of different neuron types. The microtubule cytoskeleton is critical to provide structure and exert force during dendrite branching. It also supports the functional requirements of dendrites, reflected by differential microtubule architectural organization between neuron types, illustrated here for sensory neurons. Both anterograde and retrograde microtubule polymerization occur within growing dendrites, and recent studies indicate that branching is enhanced by anterograde microtubule polymerization events in nascent branches. The polarities of microtubule polymerization events are regulated by the position and orientation of microtubule nucleation events in the dendrite arbor. Golgi outposts are a primary microtubule nucleation center in dendrites and share common nucleation machinery with the centrosome. In addition, pre-existing dendrite microtubules may act as nucleation sites. We discuss how balancing the activities of distinct nucleation machineries within the growing dendrite can alter microtubule polymerization polarity and dendrite branching, and how regulating this balance can generate neuron type-specific morphologies. PMID:27097122

  13. Extrinsic Repair of Injured Dendrites as a Paradigm for Regeneration by Fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Oren-Suissa, Meital; Gattegno, Tamar; Kravtsov, Veronika; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Injury triggers regeneration of axons and dendrites. Research has identified factors required for axonal regeneration outside the CNS, but little is known about regeneration triggered by dendrotomy. Here, we study neuronal plasticity triggered by dendrotomy and determine the fate of complex PVD arbors following laser surgery of dendrites. We find that severed primary dendrites grow toward each other and reconnect via branch fusion. Simultaneously, terminal branches lose self-avoidance and grow toward each other, meeting and fusing at the tips via an AFF-1-mediated process. Ectopic branch growth is identified as a step in the regeneration process required for bypassing the lesion site. Failure of reconnection to the severed dendrites results in degeneration of the distal end of the neuron. We discover pruning of excess branches via EFF-1 that acts to recover the original wild-type arborization pattern in a late stage of the process. In contrast, AFF-1 activity during dendritic auto-fusion is derived from the lateral seam cells and not autonomously from the PVD neuron. We propose a model in which AFF-1-vesicles derived from the epidermal seam cells fuse neuronal dendrites. Thus, EFF-1 and AFF-1 fusion proteins emerge as new players in neuronal arborization and maintenance of arbor connectivity following injury in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results demonstrate that there is a genetically determined multi-step pathway to repair broken dendrites in which EFF-1 and AFF-1 act on different steps of the pathway. EFF-1 is essential for dendritic pruning after injury and extrinsic AFF-1 mediates dendrite fusion to bypass injuries. PMID:28283540

  14. Extrinsic Repair of Injured Dendrites as a Paradigm for Regeneration by Fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Oren-Suissa, Meital; Gattegno, Tamar; Kravtsov, Veronika; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    Injury triggers regeneration of axons and dendrites. Research has identified factors required for axonal regeneration outside the CNS, but little is known about regeneration triggered by dendrotomy. Here, we study neuronal plasticity triggered by dendrotomy and determine the fate of complex PVD arbors following laser surgery of dendrites. We find that severed primary dendrites grow toward each other and reconnect via branch fusion. Simultaneously, terminal branches lose self-avoidance and grow toward each other, meeting and fusing at the tips via an AFF-1-mediated process. Ectopic branch growth is identified as a step in the regeneration process required for bypassing the lesion site. Failure of reconnection to the severed dendrites results in degeneration of the distal end of the neuron. We discover pruning of excess branches via EFF-1 that acts to recover the original wild-type arborization pattern in a late stage of the process. In contrast, AFF-1 activity during dendritic auto-fusion is derived from the lateral seam cells and not autonomously from the PVD neuron. We propose a model in which AFF-1-vesicles derived from the epidermal seam cells fuse neuronal dendrites. Thus, EFF-1 and AFF-1 fusion proteins emerge as new players in neuronal arborization and maintenance of arbor connectivity following injury in Caenorhabditis elegans Our results demonstrate that there is a genetically determined multi-step pathway to repair broken dendrites in which EFF-1 and AFF-1 act on different steps of the pathway. EFF-1 is essential for dendritic pruning after injury and extrinsic AFF-1 mediates dendrite fusion to bypass injuries. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Automatically pairing measured findings across narrative abdomen CT reports.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, Merlijn; Bozeman, Jeffrey; Cowhy, Andrea; Trost, William

    2013-01-01

    Radiological measurements are one of the key variables in widely adopted guidelines (WHO, RECIST) that standardize and objectivize response assessment in oncology care. Measurements are typically described in free-text, narrative radiology reports. We present a natural language processing pipeline that extracts measurements from radiology reports and pairs them with extracted measurements from prior reports of the same clinical finding, e.g., lymph node or mass. A ground truth was created by manually pairing measurements in the abdomen CT reports of 50 patients. A Random Forest classifier trained on 15 features achieved superior results in an end-to-end evaluation of the pipeline on the extraction and pairing task: precision 0.910, recall 0.878, F-measure 0.894, AUC 0.988. Representing the narrative content in terms of UMLS concepts did not improve results. Applications of the proposed technology include data mining, advanced search and workflow support for healthcare professionals managing radiological measurements.

  16. Missile injuries of the abdomen in Zimbabwe-Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Dent, R I; Jena, G P

    1980-05-01

    One hundred and thirteen patients with missile injuries of the abdomen were seen over a 3-year period at one hospital in Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. The details of these injuries and the results of their treatment are presented. Twenty-four patients died (21 per cent). Twenty of these patients had sustained high velocity missile injuries, 18 had damaged colons and 3 died from major vascular injuries before surgery. Excluding these last 3 patients, the mortality rate for high velocity wounds of the colon was 52 per cent and that for all other patients was 6 per cent (P less than 0.01). More than half the postoperative deaths were due to septicaemia. The importance is stressed is stressed of early and effective resuscitation, including appropriate antibiotic therapy and rapid evacuation to facilities for major surgery.

  17. MELAS syndrome presenting as an acute surgical abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, K; Angamuthu, N; Smith, G; Hilton, D; P, Arumugam; Mathew, J

    2014-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial cytopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a syndrome in which signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are uncommon if not rare. We describe the case of a young woman who presented as an acute surgical emergency, diagnosed as toxic megacolon necessitating an emergency total colectomy. MELAS syndrome was suspected postoperatively owing to persistent lactic acidosis and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was later confirmed with histological and genetic studies. This case highlights the difficulties in diagnosing MELAS because of its unpredictable presentation and clinical course. We therefore recommend a high index of suspicion in cases of an acute surgical abdomen with additional neurological features or raised lactate. PMID:24417855

  18. [Sensibility of the abdomen after high superior tension abdominoplasty].

    PubMed

    Castus, P; Grandjean, F-X; Tourbach, S; Heymans, O

    2009-12-01

    Patients who undergo an abdominoplasty frequently complain about the loss of sensibility of the abdominal wall. In this study, we analyze this sensibility after the high tension abdominoplasty. This is a prospective study of 23 females operated between July 2003 and January 2005. The abdominoplasty technique used in our study combines extensive liposuccion, limited undermining centered on the linea alba and traction sutures. The sensibilty tests are carried out preoperatively, as well as at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The three components of the skin sensibility -tactile, algesic and thermic- are evaluated in four differents areas of the abdomen. In the lateral areas of the abdomen (liposucted only), the thermoalgesic sensibility is diminished at 3 months and completely recovers at 6 months. At 3 months postoperatively, the tactile sensibility is even better than the preoperative one and continues to improve by 6 months. The postoperative hypogastric area is widely undermined during surgery. In this area, the three types of sensibility are heavily altered at 3 months and only partially recover at 6 months. The undermining of the postoperative epigastric area is limited. In this zone, the postoperative thermoalgesic sensibility is diminished at 3 months, but completely recovers at 6 months. At 3 months, the tactile sensibility is less than the preoperative one, but it improves with time to even exceed the preoperative values at 6 months. The high tension abdominoplasty only needs a limited undermining and largely preserves the innervation of the abdominal flap. Only the hypogastric area, largely undermined, presents a sensitivity loss. These results are better than those previously reported in the literature.

  19. Dendritic Spine Pathology in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Glausier, Jill R.; Lewis, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose clinical features include impairments in perception, cognition and motivation. These impairments reflect alterations in neuronal circuitry within and across multiple brain regions that are due, at least in part, to deficits in dendritic spines, the site of most excitatory synaptic connections. Dendritic spine alterations have been identified in multiple brain regions in schizophrenia, but are best characterized in layer 3 of the neocortex, where pyramidal cell spine density is lower. These spine deficits appear to arise during development, and thus are likely the result of disturbances in the molecular mechanisms that underlie spine formation, pruning, and/or maintenance. Each of these mechanisms may provide insight into novel therapeutic targets for preventing or repairing the alterations in neural circuitry that mediate the debilitating symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:22546337

  20. Method of inhibiting dislocation generation in silicon dendritic webs

    DOEpatents

    Spitznagel, John A.; Seidensticker, Raymond G.; McHugh, James P.

    1990-11-20

    A method of tailoring the heat balance of the outer edge of the dendrites adjacent the meniscus to produce thinner, smoother dendrites, which have substantially less dislocation sources contiguous with the dendrites, by changing the view factor to reduce radiation cooling or by irradiating the dendrites with light from a quartz lamp or a laser to raise the temperature of the dendrites.

  1. Anatomical study of superficial fascia and localized fat deposits of abdomen.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Pandey, Arvind K; Kumar, Brijesh; Aithal, Shrinivas K

    2011-09-01

    The development of liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the localized fat deposits (LFD) areas of the abdomen. This study aims at ascertaining the gross anatomy of superficial fascia and the localized fat deposits of abdomen. Eight adult cadavers (four males and four females) were dissected. Attachments, number of layers of fascia and colour, shape and maximum size of the fat lobules in loin, and upper and lower abdomen were noted. Thickness of deep membranous layer of superficial fascia of upper abdomen and lower abdomen were measured by metal casing electronic digital calipers, with resolution being 10 μm. The independent sample t-test, ANOVA for comparison and Pearson coefficient for correlation were used. Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multilayered in the midline and number of layers reduced laterally. The shape, size, color, and arrangement of fat lobules were different in different locations. The thickness of the fascia of the lower abdomen in males (mean 528.336 ± SE38.48) was significantly (P < 0.041) more than that in females. (Mean 390.822 ± SE36.24). Pearson correlation between thickness of the membranous layer of the upper and lower abdomen revealed moderately positive correlation (r=0.718; P<0.045). The LFD in the central region of the abdomen corresponds to the area of multilayered fascia with smaller fat lobules. The relatively thinner supporting fascia of the lower abdomen in females may be responsible for excessive bulges of the lower abdomen. The fat lobule anatomy at different sites under study was different.

  2. Identification of Avian and Hemoparasite DNA in Blood-Engorged Abdomens of Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) from a West Nile Virus Epidemic region in Suburban Chicago, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Boothe, Emily; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-05-01

    Multiple mosquito-borne parasites cocirculate in nature and potentially interact. To understand the community of parasites cocirculating with West Nile virus (WNV), we screened the bloodmeal content of Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes for three common types of hemoparasites. Blood-fed Cx. pipiens were collected from a WNV-epidemic area in suburban Chicago, IL, from May to September 2005 through 2010. DNA was extracted from dissected abdomens and subject to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate host. RNA was extracted from the head or thorax and screened for WNV using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Seventy-nine engorged females with avian host origin were screened using PCR and amplicon sequencing for filarioid nematodes, Haemosporida, and trypanosomatids. Filarioid nematodes were identified in 3.8% of the blooded abdomens, Plasmodium sp. in 8.9%, Haemoproteus in 31.6%, and Trypanosoma sp. in 6.3%. The sequences from these hemoparasite lineages were highly similar to sequences from birds in prior studies in suburban Chicago. Overall, 50.6% of blood-fed Culex pipiens contained hemoparasite DNA in their abdomen, presumably from current or prior bloodmeals. Additionally, we detected hemoparasite DNA in the blooded abdomen of three of 10 Cx. pipiens infected with WNV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.

  4. Active Dendrites Enhance Neuronal Dynamic Range

    PubMed Central

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; Kinouchi, Osame; Copelli, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Since the first experimental evidences of active conductances in dendrites, most neurons have been shown to exhibit dendritic excitability through the expression of a variety of voltage-gated ion channels. However, despite experimental and theoretical efforts undertaken in the past decades, the role of this excitability for some kind of dendritic computation has remained elusive. Here we show that, owing to very general properties of excitable media, the average output of a model of an active dendritic tree is a highly non-linear function of its afferent rate, attaining extremely large dynamic ranges (above 50 dB). Moreover, the model yields double-sigmoid response functions as experimentally observed in retinal ganglion cells. We claim that enhancement of dynamic range is the primary functional role of active dendritic conductances. We predict that neurons with larger dendritic trees should have larger dynamic range and that blocking of active conductances should lead to a decrease in dynamic range. PMID:19521531

  5. Immune heterogeneity in neuroinflammation: dendritic cells in the brain.

    PubMed

    Colton, Carol A

    2013-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical to an integrated immune response and serve as the key link between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Under steady state conditions, brain DC's act as sentinels, continually sampling their local environment. They share this function with macrophages derived from the same basic hemopoietic (bone marrow-derived) precursor and with parenchymal microglia that arise from a unique non-hemopoietic origin. While multiple cells may serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs), dendritic cells present both foreign and self-proteins to naïve T cells that, in turn, carry out effector functions that serve to protect or destroy. The resulting activation of the adaptive response is a critical step to resolution of injury or infection and is key to survival. In this review we will explore the critical roles that DCs play in the brain's response to neuroinflammatory disease with emphasis on how the brain's microenvironment impacts these actions.

  6. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa on the legs and abdomen with morbid obesity in an Indian lady.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Podila S; Ghorpade, Ashok

    2008-12-15

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) of the legs and abdomen in a morbidly obese woman with multiple medical problems is reported. The diagnosis was suggested by the classical clinical features and confirmed by histopathology. The patient succumbed due to her multisystem diseases. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa involving the abdomen is uncommon and has been reported only five times in the past.

  7. Subperitoneal extension of disease processes between the chest, abdomen, and the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Osman, Sherif; Moshiri, Mariam; Robinson, Tracy J; Gunn, Martin; Lehnert, Bruce; Sundarkumar, Dinesh; Katz, Douglas S

    2015-08-01

    The subserous space is a large, anatomically continuous potential space that interconnects the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The subserous space is formed from areolar and adipose tissue, and contains branches of the vascular, lymphatic, and nervous systems. As such, it provides one large continuous space in which many disease processes can spread between the chest, abdomen, and the pelvis.

  8. Orientations of dendritic growth during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Nyung

    2017-03-01

    Dendrites are crystalline forms which grow far from the limit of stability of the plane front and adopt an orientation which is as close as possible to the heat flux direction. Dendritic growth orientations for cubic metals, bct Sn, and hcp Zn, can be controlled by thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and surface energy. The control factors have been elaborated. Since the dendrite is a single crystal, its properties such as thermal conductivity that influences the heat flux direction, the minimum Young's modulus direction that influences the strain energy minimization, and the minimum surface energy plane that influences the crystal/liquid interface energy minimization have been proved to control the dendritic growth direction. The dendritic growth directions of cubic metals are determined by the minimum Young's modulus direction and/or axis direction of symmetry of the minimum crystal surface energy plane. The dendritic growth direction of bct Sn is determined by its maximum thermal conductivity direction and the minimum surface energy plane normal direction. The primary dendritic growth direction of hcp Zn is determined by its maximum thermal conductivity direction and the minimum surface energy plane normal direction and the secondary dendrite arm direction of hcp Zn is normal to the primary dendritic growth direction.

  9. Intravital imaging of dendritic spine plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sau Wan Lai, Cora

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Recent works have suggested that the structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines have been associated with information coding and memories. Advances in imaging and labeling techniques enable the study of dendritic spine dynamics in vivo. This perspective focuses on intravital imaging studies of dendritic spine plasticity in the neocortex. I will introduce imaging tools for studying spine dynamics and will further review current findings on spine structure and function under various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28243511

  10. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  11. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  12. IROA: International Register of Open Abdomen, preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Coccolini, Federico; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Catena, Fausto; Ivatury, Rao; Sugrue, Michael; Sartelli, Massimo; Fugazzola, Paola; Corbella, Davide; Salvetti, Francesco; Negoi, Ionut; Zese, Monica; Occhionorelli, Savino; Maccatrozzo, Stefano; Shlyapnikov, Sergei; Galatioto, Christian; Chiarugi, Massimo; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Dondossola, Daniele; Yovtchev, Yovcho; Ioannidis, Orestis; Novelli, Giuseppe; Nacoti, Mirco; Khor, Desmond; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Kaussen, Torsten; Jusoh, Asri Che; Ghannam, Wagih; Sakakushev, Boris; Guetta, Ohad; Dogjani, Agron; Costa, Stefano; Singh, Sandeep; Damaskos, Dimitrios; Isik, Arda; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Trotta, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Martinez-Perez, Aleix; Bellanova, Giovanni; Fonseca, Vinicius Cordeiro; Hernández, Fernando; Marinis, Athanasios; Fernandes, Wellington; Quiodettis, Martha; Bala, Miklosh; Vereczkei, Andras; Curado, Rafael L; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Bruno M; Gachabayov, Mahir; Chagerben, Guillermo Perez; Arellano, Miguel Leon; Ozyazici, Sefa; Costa, Gianluca; Tezcaner, Tugan; Ansaloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    No definitive data about open abdomen (OA) epidemiology and outcomes exist. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and the Panamerican Trauma Society (PTS) promoted the International Register of Open Abdomen (IROA). A prospective observational cohort study including patients with an OA treatment. Data were recorded on a web platform (Clinical Registers®) through a dedicated website: www.clinicalregisters.org. Four hundred two patients enrolled. Adult patients: 369 patients; Mean age: 57.39±18.37; 56% male; Mean BMI: 36±5.6. OA indication: Peritonitis (48.7%), Trauma (20.5%), Vascular Emergencies/Hemorrhage (9.4%), Ischemia (9.1%), Pancreatitis (4.2%),Post-operative abdominal-compartment-syndrome (3.9%), Others (4.2%). The most adopted Temporary-abdominal-closure systems were the commercial negative pressure ones (44.2%). During OA 38% of patients had complications; among them 10.5% had fistula. Definitive closure: 82.8%; Mortality during treatment: 17.2%. Mean duration of OA: 5.39(±4.83) days; Mean number of dressing changes: 0.88(±0.88). After-closure complications: (49.5%) and Mortality: (9%). No significant associations among TACT, indications, mortality, complications and fistula. A linear correlationexists between days of OA and complications (Pearson linear correlation = 0.326 p <0.0001) and with the fistula development (Pearson = 0.146 p = 0.016). Pediatric patients: 33 patients. Mean age: 5.91±(3.68) years; 60% male. Mortality: 3.4%; Complications: 44.8%; Fistula: 3.4%. Mean duration of OA: 3.22(±3.09) days. Temporary abdominal closure is reliable and safe. The different techniques account for different results according to the different indications. In peritonitis commercial negative pressure temporary closure seems to improve results. In trauma skin-closure and Bogotà-bag seem to improve results. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02382770.

  13. International consensus conference on open abdomen in trauma.

    PubMed

    Chiara, Osvaldo; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Biffl, Walter; Leppaniemi, Ari; Henry, Sharon; Scalea, Thomas M; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Chieregato, Arturo; de Blasio, Elvio; Gambale, Giorgio; Gordini, Giovanni; Nardi, Guiseppe; Paldalino, Pietro; Gossetti, Francesco; Dionigi, Paolo; Noschese, Giuseppe; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Sgardello, Sebastian; Magnone, Stefano; Rausei, Stefano; Mariani, Anna; Mengoli, Francesca; di Saverio, Salomone; Castriconi, Maurizio; Coccolini, Federico; Negreanu, Joseph; Razzi, Salvatore; Coniglio, Carlo; Morelli, Francesco; Buonanno, Maurizio; Lippi, Monica; Trotta, Liliana; Volpi, Annalisa; Fattori, Luca; Zago, Mauro; de Rai, Paolo; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Manfredi, Roberto; Cingolani, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A part of damage-control laparotomy is to leave the fascial edges and the skin open to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome and allow further explorations. This condition, known as open abdomen (OA), although effective, is associated with severe complications. Our aim was to develop evidence-based recommendations to define indications for OA, techniques for temporary abdominal closure, management of enteric fistulas, and methods of definitive wall closure. The literature from 1990 to 2014 was systematically screened according to PRISMA [Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses] protocol. Seventy-six articles were reviewed by a panel of experts to assign grade of recommendations (GoR) and level of evidence (LoE) using the GRADE [Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation] system, and an international consensus conference was held. OA in trauma is indicated at the end of damage-control laparotomy, in the presence of visceral swelling, for a second look in vascular injuries or gross contamination, in the case of abdominal wall loss, and if medical treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome has failed (GoR B, LoE II). Negative-pressure wound therapy is the recommended temporary abdominal closure technique to drain peritoneal fluid, improve nursing, and prevent fascial retraction (GoR B, LoE I). Lack of OA closure within 8 days (GoR C, LoE II), bowel injuries, high-volume replacement, and use of polypropylene mesh over the bowel (GoR C, LoE I) are risk factors for frozen abdomen and fistula formation. Negative-pressure wound therapy allows to isolate the fistula and protect the surrounding tissues from spillage until granulation (GoR C, LoE II). Correction of fistula is performed after 6 months to 12 months. Definitive closure of OA has to be obtained early (GoR C, LoE I) with direct suture, traction devices, component separation with or without mesh. Biologic meshes are an option for wall reinforcement if bacterial

  14. Calcium transient prevalence across the dendritic arbor predicts place field properties

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Mark E. J.; Dombeck, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the hippocampal cellular ensemble that represents an animal’s environment involves the emergence and disappearance of place fields in specific CA1 pyramidal neurons1–4, and the acquisition of different spatial firing properties across the active population5. While such firing flexibility and diversity have been linked to spatial memory, attention and task performance6,7, the cellular and network origin of these place cell features is unknown. Basic integrate-and-fire models of place firing propose that such features result solely from varying inputs to place cells8,9, but recent studies3,10 instead suggest that place cells themselves may play an active role through regenerative dendritic events. However, due to the difficulty of performing functional recordings from place cell dendrites, no direct evidence of regenerative dendritic events exists, leaving any possible connection to place coding unknown. Using multi-plane two-photon calcium imaging of CA1 place cell somata, axons, and dendrites in mice navigating a virtual environment, we show that regenerative dendritic events do exist in place cells of behaving mice and, surprisingly, their prevalence throughout the arbor is highly spatiotemporally variable. Further, we show that the prevalence of such events predicts the spatial precision and persistence or disappearance of place fields. This suggests that the dynamics of spiking throughout the dendritic arbor may play a key role in forming the hippocampal representation of space. PMID:25363782

  15. Calcium transient prevalence across the dendritic arbour predicts place field properties.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Mark E J; Dombeck, Daniel A

    2015-01-08

    Establishing the hippocampal cellular ensemble that represents an animal's environment involves the emergence and disappearance of place fields in specific CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the acquisition of different spatial firing properties across the active population. While such firing flexibility and diversity have been linked to spatial memory, attention and task performance, the cellular and network origin of these place cell features is unknown. Basic integrate-and-fire models of place firing propose that such features result solely from varying inputs to place cells, but recent studies suggest instead that place cells themselves may play an active role through regenerative dendritic events. However, owing to the difficulty of performing functional recordings from place cell dendrites, no direct evidence of regenerative dendritic events exists, leaving any possible connection to place coding unknown. Using multi-plane two-photon calcium imaging of CA1 place cell somata, axons and dendrites in mice navigating a virtual environment, here we show that regenerative dendritic events do exist in place cells of behaving mice, and, surprisingly, their prevalence throughout the arbour is highly spatiotemporally variable. Furthermore, we show that the prevalence of such events predicts the spatial precision and persistence or disappearance of place fields. This suggests that the dynamics of spiking throughout the dendritic arbour may play a key role in forming the hippocampal representation of space.

  16. [Successful treatment of hyperthyroidism simulating acute abdomen and psychosis].

    PubMed

    Kósa, D; Patakfalvi, A; Györi, L

    1992-07-19

    A 49 years old female patient entered the surgical department because of epigastric and ileocoecal pains with the symptoms of acute abdomen. A surgical intervention was performed because of supposed appendicitis, but it was not verified. During the surgical observation the patient was confused and negativistic so she was transferred to the psychiatric department. Because of loss of 20 kg weight, high blood sedimentation and anaemia she was sent to our department with the suspicion of an organic disease. A moderate exophthalmos, glittering eyes and Graefe's sign was noted, therefore hyperthyroidism was diagnosed, which was proved by Kocher's blood picture, low serum cholesterol, extremely high T3 and T4 level, and iodine storage diagram. The antithyreotic treatment resulted a dramatic improvement in the extremely serious moreover hopeless case and after a long-term treatment the patient became symptom-free without complaints. Later because of regression of hyperthyreoidism and the growing nodular goitre the patient was treated on two occasions with radioactive iodine. At present the patient is in remission.

  17. Ultrasound Dopplerography of abdomen pathology using statistical computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Wapota, Alberto R. W.

    1998-04-01

    The modern ultrasound dopplerography give us the big possibilities in investigation of gemodynamical changes in all stages of abdomen pathology. Many of researches devoted to using of noninvasive methods in practical medicine. Now ultrasound Dopplerography is one of the basic one. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages, including 149 men and 101 women. The basic diagnosis of all patients was the Ischaemic Pancreatitis. The Second diagnoses of pathology were the Ischaemic Disease of Heart, Gypertension, Atherosclerosis, Diabet, Vascular Disease of Extremities. We researched the abdominal aorta and her branches: Arteria Mesenterica Superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC), arteria lienalis (AL). For investigation we use the following equipment: ACUSON 128 XP/10c, BIOMEDIC, GENERAL ELECTRIC (USA, Japan). We analyzed the following componetns of gemodynamical changes of abdominal vessels: index of pulsation, index of resistance, ratio of systol-dystol, speed of blood circulation. Statistical program included the following one: 'basic statistic's,' 'analytic program.' In conclusion we determined that the all gemodynamical components of abdominal vessels had considerable changes in abdominal ischaemia than in normal situation. Using the computer's program for definition degree of gemodynamical changes, we can recommend the individual plan of diagnostical and treatment program.

  18. Abdomen and spinal cord segmentation with augmented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhoubing; Conrad, Benjamin N; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Smith, Seth A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-07-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) have been widely used for extracting human anatomies in medical images given their capability for shape regularization of topology preservation. However, sensitivity to model initialization and local correspondence search often undermines their performances, especially around highly variable contexts in computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. In this study, we propose an augmented ASM (AASM) by integrating the multiatlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques into the traditional ASM framework. Using AASM, landmark updates are optimized globally via a region-based LS evolution applied on the probability map generated from MALF. This augmentation effectively extends the searching range of correspondent landmarks while reducing sensitivity to the image contexts and improves the segmentation robustness. We propose the AASM framework as a two-dimensional segmentation technique targeting structures with one axis of regularity. We apply AASM approach to abdomen CT and spinal cord (SC) MR segmentation challenges. On 20 CT scans, the AASM segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous/visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. On 28 3T MR scans, AASM yields better performances than other state-of-the-art approaches in segmenting white/gray matter in SC.

  19. Abdomen and spinal cord segmentation with augmented active shape models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhoubing; Conrad, Benjamin N.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Smith, Seth A.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Active shape models (ASMs) have been widely used for extracting human anatomies in medical images given their capability for shape regularization of topology preservation. However, sensitivity to model initialization and local correspondence search often undermines their performances, especially around highly variable contexts in computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. In this study, we propose an augmented ASM (AASM) by integrating the multiatlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques into the traditional ASM framework. Using AASM, landmark updates are optimized globally via a region-based LS evolution applied on the probability map generated from MALF. This augmentation effectively extends the searching range of correspondent landmarks while reducing sensitivity to the image contexts and improves the segmentation robustness. We propose the AASM framework as a two-dimensional segmentation technique targeting structures with one axis of regularity. We apply AASM approach to abdomen CT and spinal cord (SC) MR segmentation challenges. On 20 CT scans, the AASM segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous/visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. On 28 3T MR scans, AASM yields better performances than other state-of-the-art approaches in segmenting white/gray matter in SC. PMID:27610400

  20. Fetal demise by umbilical cord around abdomen and stricture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chi-Huang; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chang, Cheng-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord abnormalities are accepted as conditions associated with intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), and umbilical cord stricture is most frequently encountered. In addition, although cord entanglement with multiple loops rarely increases the perinatal mortality, it is associated with a significant increase in variable kind of morbidity such as growth restriction. We describe a 27-year-old woman, with a missed abortion history at about 10 weeks' gestation in her first pregnancy, who presented to our outpatient department at 34 4/7 weeks of gestation due to decreased fetal activity during the preceding week. No fetal heart activity and blood flow had been detected by ultrasonography and pulsed-wave Doppler. A demised fetus with umbilical cord stricture and three loops around abdomen was delivered and was weighted 1,830 g that was below the tenth percentile for the gestational age. Either umbilical cord stricture or entanglement around the body can affect the development of the fetus and even be lethal. The former might play a more important role in this case. Their etiology and the sequence of the events are still undetermined, and additional evaluation such as autopsy and further research may be needed. In addition, counsel and frequent fetal surveillance should be done in patients with previous IUFD attributed to cord stricture during next pregnancy because of undetermined risk of recurrence.

  1. A Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma Identified by 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Xiaoping; Xu, Junyan; Huang, Dan

    2018-05-31

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm, which is not lymphoma, but originates from a type of immune cells called follicular dendritic cells. We presented a 37-year-old woman who has suffered from obstructive jaundice, weight loss and right upper abdominal pain for 2 months. The contrast CT revealed masses located in the region of pancreatic head and lots of enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, both of which were enhanced on the artery phase of CT images. Meanwhile, Tc-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT revealed high activity in the corresponding lesions. After biopsy, the masses were pathologically confirmed as retroperitoneal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.

  2. Dendrites of medial olivocochlear neurons in mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, M C; Levine, J L

    2008-06-12

    Stains for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and retrograde labeling with Fluorogold (FG) were used to study olivocochlear neurons and their dendritic patterns in mice. The two methods gave similar results for location and number of somata. The total number of medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) is about 170 per side. An additional dozen large olivocochlear neurons are located in the dorsal periolivary nucleus (DPO). Dendrites of all of these neurons are long and extend in all directions from the cell bodies, a pattern that contrasts with the sharp frequency tuning of their responses. For VNTB neurons, there were greater numbers of dendrites directed medially than laterally and those directed medially were longer (on average, 25-50% longer). Dendrite extensions were most pronounced for neurons located in the rostral portion of the VNTB. When each dendrite from a single neuron was represented as a vector, and all the vectors summed, the result was also skewed toward the medial direction. DPO neurons, however, had more symmetric dendrites that projected into more dorsal parts of the trapezoid body, suggesting that this small group of olivocochlear neurons has very different physiological properties. Dendrites of both types of neurons were somewhat elongated rostrally, about 20% longer than those directed caudally. These results can be interpreted as extensions of dendrites of olivocochlear neurons toward their synaptic inputs: medially to meet crossing fibers from the cochlear nucleus that are part of the MOC reflex pathway, and rostrally to meet descending inputs from higher centers.

  3. Movement Analysis of Flexion and Extension of Honeybee Abdomen Based on an Adaptive Segmented Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jieliang; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) curl their abdomens for daily rhythmic activities. Prior to determining this fact, people have concluded that honeybees could curl their abdomen casually. However, an intriguing but less studied feature is the possible unidirectional abdominal deformation in free-flying honeybees. A high-speed video camera was used to capture the curling and to analyze the changes in the arc length of the honeybee abdomen not only in free-flying mode but also in the fixed sample. Frozen sections and environment scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the microstructure and motion principle of honeybee abdomen and to explore the physical structure restricting its curling. An adaptive segmented structure, especially the folded intersegmental membrane (FIM), plays a dominant role in the flexion and extension of the abdomen. The structural features of FIM were utilized to mimic and exhibit movement restriction on honeybee abdomen. Combining experimental analysis and theoretical demonstration, a unidirectional bending mechanism of honeybee abdomen was revealed. Through this finding, a new perspective for aerospace vehicle design can be imitated. PMID:26223946

  4. Vertical solidification of dendritic binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Felicelli, S.; Poirier, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    Three numerical techniques are employed to analyze the influence of thermosolutal convection on defect formation in directionally solidified (DS) alloys. The finite-element models are based on the Boussinesq approximation and include the plane-front model and two plane-front models incorporating special dendritic regions. In the second model the dendritic region has a time-independent volume fraction of liquid, and in the last model the dendritic region evolves as local conditions dictate. The finite-element models permit the description of nonlinear thermosolutal convection by treating the dendritic regions as porous media with variable porosities. The models are applied to lead-tin alloys including DS alloys, and severe segregation phenomena such as freckles and channels are found to develop in the DS alloys. The present calculations and the permeability functions selected are shown to predict behavior in the dendritic regions that qualitatively matches that observed experimentally.

  5. Active dendrites regulate the impact of gliotransmission on rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ashhad, Sufyan

    2016-01-01

    An important consequence of gliotransmission, a signaling mechanism that involves glial release of active transmitter molecules, is its manifestation as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent slow inward currents in neurons. However, the intraneuronal spatial dynamics of these events or the role of active dendrites in regulating their amplitude and spatial spread have remained unexplored. Here, we used somatic and/or dendritic recordings from rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons and demonstrate that a majority of NMDAR-dependent spontaneous slow excitatory potentials (SEP) originate at dendritic locations and are significantly attenuated through their propagation across the neuronal arbor. We substantiated the astrocytic origin of SEPs through paired neuron–astrocyte recordings, where we found that specific infusion of inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) into either distal or proximal astrocytes enhanced the amplitude and frequency of neuronal SEPs. Importantly, SEPs recorded after InsP3 infusion into distal astrocytes exhibited significantly slower kinetics compared with those recorded after proximal infusion. Furthermore, using neuron-specific infusion of pharmacological agents and morphologically realistic conductance-based computational models, we demonstrate that dendritically expressed hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide–gated (HCN) and transient potassium channels play critical roles in regulating the strength, kinetics, and compartmentalization of neuronal SEPs. Finally, through the application of subtype-specific receptor blockers during paired neuron–astrocyte recordings, we provide evidence that GluN2B- and GluN2D-containing NMDARs predominantly mediate perisomatic and dendritic SEPs, respectively. Our results unveil an important role for active dendrites in regulating the impact of gliotransmission on neurons and suggest astrocytes as a source of dendritic plateau potentials that have been implicated in localized plasticity and place

  6. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma presenting as acute surgical abdomen: an important differential in elderly coagulopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2009-06-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) presenting as acute surgical abdomen is a rare clinical entity. Failing to establish an early diagnosis will probably result in increased morbidity or unnecessary surgical intervention. We describe herein a case of an 85-year-old woman receiving anticoagulants who presented with typical clinical manifestations of acute surgical abdomen and a slightly palpable abdominal mass. Ultrasonography was inconclusive whereas computed tomography scans demonstrated a large right rectus sheath hematoma associated with hemoperitoneum. The patient was treated conservatively with success. It is therefore concluded that RSH must be considered in any elderly patient on anticoagulant therapy who presents with manifestations of acute surgical abdomen.

  7. Perforated duodenal ulcer -a rare cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goel, Bharti; Rani, Jyotsna; Huria, Anju; Gupta, Pratiksha; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Acute abdomen during pregnancy is a medico-surgical emergency demanding concerted, synchronized specialties approach of obstetrician, surgeon and gastroenterologist. Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in third trimester of pregnancy requiring surgical management. Our aim of reporting this case is to stress the physicians to keep the differential of duodenal perforation also in mind while dealing with cases of acute abdomen in pregnancy and to proceed with multidisciplinary approach for better feto-maternal outcome.

  8. Zones of Adhesion of the Abdomen: Implications for Abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D Alastair

    2017-02-01

    The elucidation of the superficial fascial system (SFS) by Lockwood in 1991 has been the cornerstone of our understanding of abdominal excisional dynamics for the last 25 years. The SFS can be used for closure and, appropriately mobilized, for tension transmission in abdominoplasty, and lower body lifts. The pattern of SFS adhesion to muscle fascia and the zones of adhesion was also described but there are inconsistencies between the description and clinical experience. This study was performed to better describe the pattern of subcutaneous tissue adhesion to the trunk. Twenty pre-abdominoplasty patients were studied. A series of points were marked around the trunk and the skin moved in four opposing directions. The excursions were measured and the median plotted on a diagram. Two fresh cadavers were also dissected, removing all subcutaneous tissue circumferentially from the trunk muscle fascia and marking the strength of the adhesion with a colored pin. Three grades of adhesion were mapped. In the current study, maximal laxity was shown in the mid-lower abdomen and the anterior and lateral chest. Laxity was limited in the anterior and posterior midlines, over the lower back, and the lateral upper thigh. The cadaver dissection mapped adhesion which correlated with the skin laxity diagram. The detailed skin adhesion map better explains features of surface anatomy. Incorporating this understanding a tension vector of abdominoplasty closure obliquely inwards is proposed to maximally harvest the laxity of the anterior and lateral chest and to create further lowering and narrowing of the waist. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Dendritic cell-based therapeutic cancer vaccines].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manglio; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo D

    In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. The increased knowledge in the tumor immune-biology has allowed developing rational treatments by manipulation of the immune system with significant clinical impact. This rapid development has significantly changed the prognosis of many tumors without treatment options up to date. Other strategies have explored the use of therapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DC) by inducing antitumor immunity. DC are cells of hematopoietic origin, constitutively expressing molecules capable to present antigens, that are functionally the most potent inducers of the activation and proliferation of antigen specific T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T cells proliferate and acquire cytotoxic capacity after recognizing their specific antigen presented on the surface of DC, although only some types of DC can present antigens internalized from outside the cell to precursors of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (this function is called cross-presentation) requiring translocation mechanisms of complex antigens. The induction of an effective adaptive immune response is considered a good option given its specificity, and prolonged duration of response. The DC, thanks to its particular ability of antigen presentation and lymphocyte stimulation, are able to reverse the poor antitumor immune response experienced by patients with cancer. The DC can be obtained from various sources, using different protocols to generate differentiation and maturation, and are administered by various routes such as subcutaneous, intravenous or intranodal. The wide variety of protocols resulted in heterogeneous clinical responses.

  10. From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenko, P. K.; Alexandrov, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Transport processes around phase interfaces, together with thermodynamic properties and kinetic phenomena, control the formation of dendritic patterns. Using the thermodynamic and kinetic data of phase interfaces obtained on the atomic scale, one can analyse the formation of a single dendrite and the growth of a dendritic ensemble. This is the result of recent progress in theoretical methods and computational algorithms calculated using powerful computer clusters. Great benefits can be attained from the development of micro-, meso- and macro-levels of analysis when investigating the dynamics of interfaces, interpreting experimental data and designing the macrostructure of samples. The review and research articles in this theme issue cover the spectrum of scales (from nano- to macro-length scales) in order to exhibit recently developing trends in the theoretical analysis and computational modelling of dendrite pattern formation. Atomistic modelling, the flow effect on interface dynamics, the transition from diffusion-limited to thermally controlled growth existing at a considerable driving force, two-phase (mushy) layer formation, the growth of eutectic dendrites, the formation of a secondary dendritic network due to coalescence, computational methods, including boundary integral and phase-field methods, and experimental tests for theoretical models-all these themes are highlighted in the present issue. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  11. PhytobezoarInduced Small Bowel Obstruction in a Young Male with Virgin Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Edward P.; Vattipallly, Vikram; Niazi, Masooma; Shah, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Phytobezoars are a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Such cases are most commonly associated with previous abdominal surgery or poor dentition or psychiatric conditions. A 40 year old man with a virgin abdomen and excellent dentition and no underlying psychiatric condition presented with an acute abdomen. CT scan revealed a transition point between dilated proximal loops of small bowel and collapsed distal loops. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a phytobezoar unable to be milked into the cecum and an enterectomy with primary anastamosis was performed without complication. A detailed history revealing several less common predisposing factors for phytobezoars should increase clinical suspicion of a phytobezoarinduced small bowel obstruction in the setting of an acute abdomen. Vigilance in presentations of an acute abdomen improves the usefulness of medical imaging, such as a CT, to detect phytobezoars. Understanding mechanisms of phytobezoar formation helps guide management and may prevent surgery.

  12. TNP-assisted fascial closure in a patient with acute abdomen and abdominal compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, S; Villias, C; Benetatos, C; Tsakiris, A; Parisis, C; Aloizos, S; Salemis, N S

    2009-02-01

    Topical negative pressure was applied to prevent abdominal compartment syndrome in a patient following surgery for an acute abdomen. It delayed fascial closure, protected the underlying bowel and facilitated abdominal re-entry.

  13. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z–S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  14. Acute abdomen in mentally retarded patients: role of aerophagia. Report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, M B; Bender, M H; Goris, R J

    1999-05-01

    Between 1993 and 1996 nine mentally retarded patients presented because of an acute abdomen. All had the habit of aerophagia, diagnosed previously by a general practitioner. Massive distension of the bowel led to ileus, volvulus, and necrosis. After placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy catheter or performing a gastrostomy during laparotomy with the intention to use as a desufflator, no recurrence of the signs and symptoms of an acute abdomen were observed.

  15. Open abdomen management: A review of its history and a proposed management algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kreis, Barbara Elize; de Mol van Otterloo, Johan Coenraad Alexander; Kreis, Robert Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review we look into the historical development of open abdomen management. Its indication has spread in 70 years from intra-abdominal sepsis to damage control surgery and abdominal compartment syndrome. Different temporary abdominal closure techniques are essential to benefit the potential advantages of open abdomen management. Here, we discuss the different techniques and provide a new treatment strategy, based on available evidence, to facilitate more consistent decision making and further research on this complicated surgical topic. PMID:23823991

  16. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  17. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Miller, Eric C.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Spines are small cytoplasmic extensions of dendrites that form the postsynaptic compartment of the majority of excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Alterations in the numerical density, size, and shape of dendritic spines have been correlated with neuronal dysfunction in several neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with intellectual disability, including Rett syndrome (RTT). RTT is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability that is caused by loss of function mutations in the transcriptional regulator methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that principal neurons in RTT individuals and Mecp2-based experimental models exhibit alterations in the number and morphology of dendritic spines. We also discuss the exciting possibility that signaling pathways downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is transcriptionally regulated by MeCP2, offer promising therapeutic options for modulating dendritic spine development and plasticity in RTT and other MECP2-associated neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25309341

  18. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in Autism Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Mary; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The activity-dependent structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines has led to the long-standing belief that these neuronal compartments are the subcellular sites of learning and memory. Of relevance to human health, central neurons in several neuropsychiatric illnesses, including autism related disorders, have atypical numbers and morphologies of dendritic spines. These so-called dendritic spine dysgeneses found in individuals with autism related disorders are consistently replicated in experimental mouse models. Dendritic spine dysgenesis reflects the underlying synaptopathology that drives clinically relevant behavioral deficits in experimental mouse models, providing a platform for testing new therapeutic approaches. By examining molecular signaling pathways, synaptic deficits, and spine dysgenesis in experimental mouse models of autism related disorders we find strong evidence for mTOR to be a critical point of convergence and promising therapeutic target. PMID:25578949

  19. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in autism related disorders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Mary; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-08-05

    The activity-dependent structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines has led to the long-standing belief that these neuronal compartments are the subcellular sites of learning and memory. Of relevance to human health, central neurons in several neuropsychiatric illnesses, including autism related disorders, have atypical numbers and morphologies of dendritic spines. These so-called dendritic spine dysgeneses found in individuals with autism related disorders are consistently replicated in experimental mouse models. Dendritic spine dysgenesis reflects the underlying synaptopathology that drives clinically relevant behavioral deficits in experimental mouse models, providing a platform for testing new therapeutic approaches. By examining molecular signaling pathways, synaptic deficits, and spine dysgenesis in experimental mouse models of autism related disorders we find strong evidence for mTOR to be a critical point of convergence and promising therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Lithium Dendritic Growth in Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Downing, Gregory; Wang, Howard

    The nature of Li dendritic growth in polymeric electrolytes for rechargeable batteries has been investigated using simultaneous electrochemical and neutron depth profiling (NDP) measurements. A symmetric sandwich cell of Li / poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) : lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI) / Li was used as a model system in this study. Operating the cell at a constant electric current of 0.1 mA, in situ NDP measurements show that after a period of steady Li plating, dendrites start to grow, which eventually short-circuit the sandwich cell. 3D Li mapping reveals heterogeneous lateral distribution of Li over length scales from below a millimeter to centimeters. Most Li in the electrolyte layer resides in dendrites growing from the top electrode, it is observed that dendrites also grow from the bottom electrode, where presumably only Li oxidation reaction occurs. The revelation poses new design and engineering challenges in using Li metal electrode in future development of rechargeable batteries.

  1. Con-nectin axons and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Gerard M J

    2006-07-03

    Unlike adherens junctions, synapses are asymmetric connections, usually between axons and dendrites, that rely on various cell adhesion molecules for structural stability and function. Two cell types of adhesion molecules found at adherens junctions, cadherins and nectins, are thought to mediate homophilic interaction between neighboring cells. In this issue, Togashi et al. (see p. 141) demonstrate that the differential localization of two heterophilic interacting nectins mediates the selective attraction of axons and dendrites in cooperation with cadherins.

  2. Semaphorin-1a prevents Drosophila olfactory projection neuron dendrites from mis-targeting into select antennal lobe regions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Chu, Sao-Yu; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Wang, Chun-Han; Lin, I-Ya; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2017-04-01

    Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts. Here, by examining a previously explored transmembrane protein Semaphorin-1a (Sema-1a) which was proposed to globally control initial PN dendritic targeting along the dorsolateral-to-ventromedial axis of the AL, we discover a new role for Sema-1a in preventing dendrites of both uni-glomerular and poly-glomerular PNs from aberrant invasion into select AL regions and, intriguingly, this Sema-1a-deficient dendritic mis-targeting phenotype seems to associate with the origins of PNs from which they are derived. Further, ectopic expression of Sema-1a resulted in PN dendritic mis-projection from a select AL region into adjacent glomeruli, strengthening the idea that Sema-1a plays an essential role in preventing abnormal dendritic accumulation in select AL regions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Sema-1a repulsion keeps dendrites of different types of PNs away from each other, enabling the same types of PN dendrites to be sorted into destined AL glomeruli and permitting for functional assembly of olfactory circuitry.

  3. Semaphorin-1a prevents Drosophila olfactory projection neuron dendrites from mis-targeting into select antennal lobe regions

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Sao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Han; Lin, I-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts. Here, by examining a previously explored transmembrane protein Semaphorin-1a (Sema-1a) which was proposed to globally control initial PN dendritic targeting along the dorsolateral-to-ventromedial axis of the AL, we discover a new role for Sema-1a in preventing dendrites of both uni-glomerular and poly-glomerular PNs from aberrant invasion into select AL regions and, intriguingly, this Sema-1a-deficient dendritic mis-targeting phenotype seems to associate with the origins of PNs from which they are derived. Further, ectopic expression of Sema-1a resulted in PN dendritic mis-projection from a select AL region into adjacent glomeruli, strengthening the idea that Sema-1a plays an essential role in preventing abnormal dendritic accumulation in select AL regions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Sema-1a repulsion keeps dendrites of different types of PNs away from each other, enabling the same types of PN dendrites to be sorted into destined AL glomeruli and permitting for functional assembly of olfactory circuitry. PMID:28448523

  4. Dendritic cells: importance in allergy.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Setsuya

    2007-09-01

    In this review we discuss the role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH) and atopic disorders, such as asthma and atopic eczema. In ACH patients, DC recognize the invasion of simple chemicals such as haptens, and trigger antigen-specific T cell responses leading to the characteristic histological and clinical changes such as spongiosis and papulovesicular eruptions. During atopic disorders, it is well known that the Th2-deviated immune response plays a crucial role in their pathogenesis. DC provide T cells with antigen and costimulatory signals (signals 1 and 2, respectively), as well as with a polarizing signal (signal 3). When studying ACH, it is important to understand how simple chemicals induce the activation of DC and their migration to the draining lymph nodes where they supply signals 1 and 2 to naive T cells. The mechanisms by which DC induce the Th2-deviated immune response, namely via the Th2-deviated signal 3, are central topics in the pathogenesis of atopic disorders.

  5. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh; Aithal, K S; Dsouza, Antony Sylvan

    2013-09-01

    The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs) area of abdomen in fetus. Four fetus (two male & two female) of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits) area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  6. Open abdomen treatment for septic patients with gastrointestinal fistula: from fistula control to definitive closure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianan; Yuan, Yujie; Zhao, Yunzhao; Gu, Guosheng; Wang, Gefei; Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang; Wang, Xinbo; Li, Jieshou

    2014-04-01

    The use of open abdomen in the management of gastrointestinal fistula complicated with severe intra-abdominal infection is uncommon. This study was designed to evaluate outcomes of our staged approach for the infected open abdomen. Patients who had gastrointestinal fistula and underwent open abdomen treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Various materials such as polypropylene mesh and a modified sandwich package were used to achieve temporary abdominal closure followed by skin grafting when the granulation bed matured. A delayed definitive operation was performed for final abdominal closure without implant of prosthetic mesh. Between 1999 and 2009, 56 (68.3%) of 82 patients survived through this treatment. Among them, 42 patients achieved final abdominal closure. Spontaneous fistula closure occurred in 16 patients with secondary fistula recorded in six patients. Besides, wound complications occurred in 13 patients with two cases for pulmonary infection. Within a 12-month follow-up period after definitive closure, no additional fistula was recorded excluding planned ventral hernia repair. Open abdomen treatment was effective for gastrointestinal fistula complicated by severe intra-abdominal infection. A delayed and deliberate operative strategy aiming at fistula excision and fascial closure, with simultaneous abdominal wall reconstruction, was required for the infected open abdomen.

  7. Sonographic findings of localized Castleman disease of the abdomen and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhan, Weiwei; Zhou, Jianqiao; Zhu, Ying; Yao, Jiejie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to sonographically evaluate the diagnosis of localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis. This was a retrospective analysis of 18 cases of Castleman disease localized in the abdomen and pelvis. The following features of the lesions were assessed on sonography (US): location, size, margin, echogenicity, echotexture, intralesional cystic necrosis, intralesional calcification, posterior acoustic enhancement, and blood supply. Of the 18 tumors, 16 were located in the abdomen and 2 were located in the pelvis close to iliac vessels. The most frequent appearance of localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis on US was of a single, well-defined, hypoechoic solid mass with no intralesional cystic necrosis. The internal echotexture was homogeneous in 4 cases and heterogeneous in 14 cases, with thin hyperechoic septa (n = 14) or calcifications (n = 3). Posterior acoustic enhancement was seen in 17 of the 18 cases (94%). Ninety-four percent of the lesions (17/18) had marked vascularity on color Doppler US. Localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis usually appears on US as a heterogeneously hypoechoic lesion containing thin septa, and more commonly than not, demonstrates posterior acoustic enhancement and marked vascularity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Update on the management of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Barber-Millet, Sebastián; Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gómez Gavara, Immaculada; Ballester Pla, Neus; García Domínguez, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Acute abdomen is a rare entity in the pregnant patient, with an incidence of one in 500-635 patients. Its appearance requires a quick response and an early diagnosis to treat the underlying disease and prevent maternal and fetal morbidity. Imaging tests are essential, due to clinical and laboratory masking in this subgroup. Appendicitis and complicated biliary pathology are the most frequent causes of non-obstetric acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. The decision to operate, the timing, and the surgical approach are essential for a correct management of this pathology. The aim of this paper is to perform a review and update on the diagnosis and treatment of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Complete Reconfiguration of Dendritic Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneru, Govind; Flanders, Bret

    2014-03-01

    Reconfigurability-by-design is an important strategy in modern materials science, as materials with this capability could potentially be used to confer hydrophobic, lipophobic, or anti-corrosive character to substrates in a regenerative manner. The present work extends the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) methodology, which is a technique that employs alternating voltages to grow single crystalline metallic nanowires and nano-dendrites from simple salt solutions, to enable the complete dissolution of macroscopic arrays of metallic dendrites following their growth. Our main finding is that structural reconfiguration of dendritic gold is induced by changes in the MHz-level frequencies of voltages that are applied to the dendrites. Cyclic voltammetry and micro-Raman spectroscopy have been used to show that dendritic gold grows and dissolves by the same chemical mechanisms as bulk gold. Hence, the redox chemistry that occurs at the crystal-solution interface is no different than the established electrochemistry of gold. What differs in this process and allows for reconfiguration to occur is the diffusive behavior of the gold chloride molecules in the solution adjacent to the interface. We will present a simple model that captures the physics of this behavior.

  10. Modulating STDP Balance Impacts the Dendritic Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Iannella, Nicolangelo; Launey, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The ability for cortical neurons to adapt their input/output characteristics and information processing capabilities ultimately relies on the interplay between synaptic plasticity, synapse location, and the nonlinear properties of the dendrite. Collectively, they shape both the strengths and spatial arrangements of convergent afferent inputs to neuronal dendrites. Recent experimental and theoretical studies support a clustered plasticity model, a view that synaptic plasticity promotes the formation of clusters or hotspots of synapses sharing similar properties. We have previously shown that spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can lead to synaptic efficacies being arranged into spatially segregated clusters. This effectively partitions the dendritic tree into a tessellated imprint which we have called a dendritic mosaic. Here, using a biophysically detailed neuron model of a reconstructed layer 2/3 pyramidal cell and STDP learning, we investigated the impact of altered STDP balance on forming such a spatial organization. We show that cluster formation and extend depend on several factors, including the balance between potentiation and depression, the afferents' mean firing rate and crucially on the dendritic morphology. We find that STDP balance has an important role to play for this emergent mode of spatial organization since any imbalances lead to severe degradation- and in some case even destruction- of the mosaic. Our model suggests that, over a broad range of of STDP parameters, synaptic plasticity shapes the spatial arrangement of synapses, favoring the formation of clustered efficacy engrams. PMID:28649195

  11. Nerve Conduction Through Dendrites via Proton Hopping.

    PubMed

    Kier, Lemont B

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies of nerve conduction conducted by proton hopping, we have considered the axon, soma, synapse and the nodes of Ranvier. The role of proton hopping described the passage of information through each of these units of a typical nerve system. The synapse projects information from the axon to the dendrite and their associated spines. We have invoked the passage of protons via a hopping mechanism to illustrate the continuum of the impulse through the system, via the soma following the dendrites. This is proposed to be a continuum invoked by the proton hopping method. With the proposal of the activity through the dendrites, via proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve function is invoked. At each step to the way, a water pathway is present and is invoked in the proposed model as the carrier of the message via proton hopping. The importance of the dendrites is evident by the presence of a vast number of spines, each possessing the possibility to carry unique messages through the nervous system. With this model of the role of dendrites, functioning with the presence of proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve system is presented. The validity of this model will be available for further studies and models to assess it's validity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Orchestration of transplantation tolerance by regulatory dendritic cell therapy or in situ targeting of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Adrian E.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Extensive research in murine transplant models over the past two decades has convincingly demonstrated the ability of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) to promote long-term allograft survival. We review important considerations regarding the source of therapeutic DCreg (donor or recipient) and their mode of action, in situ targeting of DCreg, and optimal therapeutic regimens to promote DCreg function. Recent findings Recent studies have defined protocols and mechanisms whereby ex vivo-generated DCreg of donor or recipient origin subvert allogeneic T cell responses and promote long-term organ transplant survival. Particular interest has focused on how donor antigen (Ag) is acquired, processed and presented by autologous DCs, on the stability of DCreg, and on in situ targeting of DC to promote their tolerogenic function. New evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of DCreg in a clinically-relevant non-human primate organ transplant model and production of clinical grade DCreg support early evaluation of DCreg therapy in human graft recipients. Summary We discuss strategies currently used to promote DC tolerogenicity, including DCreg therapy and in situ targeting of DC, with a view to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and identification of the most promising strategies for therapeutic application. PMID:24926700

  13. Stress-driven lithium dendrite growth mechanism and dendrite mitigation by electroplating on soft substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Zeng, Wei; Hong, Liang; Xu, Wenwen; Yang, Haokai; Wang, Fan; Duan, Huigao; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Hanqing

    2018-03-01

    Problems related to dendrite growth on lithium-metal anodes such as capacity loss and short circuit present major barriers to next-generation high-energy-density batteries. The development of successful lithium dendrite mitigation strategies is impeded by an incomplete understanding of the Li dendrite growth mechanisms, and in particular, Li-plating-induced internal stress in Li metal and its effect on Li growth morphology are not well addressed. Here, we reveal the enabling role of plating residual stress in dendrite formation through depositing Li on soft substrates and a stress-driven dendrite growth model. We show that dendrite growth is mitigated on such soft substrates through surface-wrinkling-induced stress relaxation in the deposited Li film. We demonstrate that this dendrite mitigation mechanism can be utilized synergistically with other existing approaches in the form of three-dimensional soft scaffolds for Li plating, which achieves higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention than that for conventional copper substrates.

  14. Nak regulates localization of clathrin sites in higher-order dendrites to promote local dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Kang; Peng, Yu-Huei; Li, Hsun; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Tzu-Ting; Suo, Hsien; Wang, Chien-Hsiang; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Ou, Chan-Yen; Zhou, Xin; Pi, Haiwei; Chang, Henry C; Chien, Cheng-Ting

    2011-10-20

    During development, dendrites arborize in a field several hundred folds of their soma size, a process regulated by intrinsic transcription program and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)-mediated interaction. However, underlying cellular machineries that govern distal higher-order dendrite extension remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Nak, a clathrin adaptor-associated kinase, promotes higher-order dendrite growth through endocytosis. In nak mutants, both the number and length of higher-order dendrites are reduced, which are phenocopied by disruptions of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Nak interacts genetically with components of the endocytic pathway, colocalizes with clathrin puncta, and is required for dendritic localization of clathrin puncta. More importantly, these Nak-containing clathrin structures preferentially localize to branching points and dendritic tips that are undergoing active growth. We present evidence that the Drosophila L1-CAM homolog Neuroglian is a relevant cargo of Nak-dependent internalization, suggesting that localized clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CAMs facilitates the extension of nearby higher-order dendrites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Successful Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) Proves Current Theories of Dendritic Solidification are Flawed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The scientific objective of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is to test fundamental assumptions about dendritic solidification of molten materials. "Dendrites"-- from the ancient Greek word for tree--are tiny branching structures that form inside molten metal alloys when they solidify during manufacturing. The size, shape, and orientation of the dendrites have a major effect on the strength, ductility (ability to be molded or shaped), and usefulness of an alloy. Nearly all of the cast metal alloys used in everyday products (such as automobiles and airplanes) are composed of thousands to millions of tiny dendrites. Gravity, present on Earth, causes convection currents in molten alloys that disturb dendritic solidification and make its precise study impossible. In space, gravity is negated by the orbiting of the space shuttle. Consequently, IDGE (which was conducted on the space shuttle) gathered the first precise data regarding undisturbed dendritic solidification. IDGE is a microgravity materials science experiment that uses an apparatus which was designed, built, tested, and operated by people from the NASA Lewis Research Center. This experiment was conceived by the principal investigator, Professor Martin E. Glicksman, from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. The experiment was a team effort of Lewis civil servants, contractors from Aerospace Design & Fabrication Inc. (ADF), and personnel at Rensselaer.

  16. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  17. Strings on a Violin: Location Dependence of Frequency Tuning in Active Dendrites.

    PubMed

    Das, Anindita; Rathour, Rahul K; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2017-01-01

    Strings on a violin are tuned to generate distinct sound frequencies in a manner that is firmly dependent on finger location along the fingerboard. Sound frequencies emerging from different violins could be very different based on their architecture, the nature of strings and their tuning. Analogously, active neuronal dendrites, dendrites endowed with active channel conductances, are tuned to distinct input frequencies in a manner that is dependent on the dendritic location of the synaptic inputs. Further, disparate channel expression profiles and differences in morphological characteristics could result in dendrites on different neurons of the same subtype tuned to distinct frequency ranges. Alternately, similar location-dependence along dendritic structures could be achieved through disparate combinations of channel profiles and morphological characteristics, leading to degeneracy in active dendritic spectral tuning. Akin to strings on a violin being tuned to different frequencies than those on a viola or a cello, different neuronal subtypes exhibit distinct channel profiles and disparate morphological characteristics endowing each neuronal subtype with unique location-dependent frequency selectivity. Finally, similar to the tunability of musical instruments to elicit distinct location-dependent sounds, neuronal frequency selectivity and its location-dependence are tunable through activity-dependent plasticity of ion channels and morphology. In this morceau, we explore the origins of neuronal frequency selectivity, and survey the literature on the mechanisms behind the emergence of location-dependence in distinct forms of frequency tuning. As a coda to this composition, we present some future directions for this exciting convergence of biophysical mechanisms that endow a neuron with frequency multiplexing capabilities.

  18. Isothermal dendritic growth: A low gravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Hahn, R. C.; Lograsso, T. A.; Rubinstein, E. R.; Selleck, M. E.; Winsa, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment is an active crystal growth experiment designed to test dendritic growth theory at low undercoolings where convection prohibits such studies at 1 g. The experiment will be essentially autonomous, though limited in-flight interaction through a computer interface is planned. One of the key components of the apparatus will be a crystal growth chamber capable of achieving oriented single crystal dendritic growth. Recent work indicates that seeding the chamber with a crystal of the proper orientation will not, in and of itself, be sufficient to meet this requirement. Additional flight hardware and software required for the STS flight experiment are currently being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

  19. Visual Stimuli Evoked Action Potentials Trigger Rapidly Propagating Dendritic Calcium Transients in the Frog Optic Tectum Layer 6 Neurons.

    PubMed

    Svirskis, Gytis; Baranauskas, Gytis; Svirskiene, Natasa; Tkatch, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus in mammals or the optic tectum in amphibians is a major visual information processing center responsible for generation of orientating responses such as saccades in monkeys or prey catching avoidance behavior in frogs. The conserved structure function of the superior colliculus the optic tectum across distant species such as frogs, birds monkeys permits to draw rather general conclusions after studying a single species. We chose the frog optic tectum because we are able to perform whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings fluorescence imaging of tectal neurons while they respond to a visual stimulus. In the optic tectum of amphibians most visual information is processed by pear-shaped neurons possessing long dendritic branches, which receive the majority of synapses originating from the retinal ganglion cells. Since the first step of the retinal input integration is performed on these dendrites, it is important to know whether this integration is enhanced by active dendritic properties. We demonstrate that rapid calcium transients coinciding with the visual stimulus evoked action potentials in the somatic recordings can be readily detected up to the fine branches of these dendrites. These transients were blocked by calcium channel blockers nifedipine CdCl2 indicating that calcium entered dendrites via voltage-activated L-type calcium channels. The high speed of calcium transient propagation, >300 μm in <10 ms, is consistent with the notion that action potentials, actively propagating along dendrites, open voltage-gated L-type calcium channels causing rapid calcium concentration transients in the dendrites. We conclude that such activation by somatic action potentials of the dendritic voltage gated calcium channels in the close vicinity to the synapses formed by axons of the retinal ganglion cells may facilitate visual information processing in the principal neurons of the frog optic tectum.

  20. Superresolving dendritic spine morphology with STED microscopy under holographic photostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Marcel Andreas; Guillon, Marc; Desnos, Claire; Khamsing, Dany; Jaffal, Zahra; Darchen, François; Emiliani, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Emerging all-optical methods provide unique possibilities for noninvasive studies of physiological processes at the cellular and subcellular scale. On the one hand, superresolution microscopy enables observation of living samples with nanometer resolution. On the other hand, light can be used to stimulate cells due to the advent of optogenetics and photolyzable neurotransmitters. To exploit the full potential of optical stimulation, light must be delivered to specific cells or even parts of cells such as dendritic spines. This can be achieved with computer generated holography (CGH), which shapes light to arbitrary patterns by phase-only modulation. We demonstrate here in detail how CGH can be incorporated into a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope for photostimulation of neurons and monitoring of nanoscale morphological changes. We implement an original optical system to allow simultaneous holographic photostimulation and superresolution STED imaging. We present how synapses can be clearly visualized in live cells using membrane stains either with lipophilic organic dyes or with fluorescent proteins. We demonstrate the capabilities of this microscope to precisely monitor morphological changes of dendritic spines after stimulation. These all-optical methods for cell stimulation and monitoring are expected to spread to various fields of biological research in neuroscience and beyond. PMID:27413766

  1. Convection Effects in Three-dimensional Dendritic Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yili; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.

    2003-01-01

    A phase-field model is developed to simulate free dendritic growth coupled with fluid flow for a pure material in three dimensions. The preliminary results presented here illustrate the strong influence of convection on the three-dimensional (3D) dendrite growth morphology. The detailed knowledge of the flow and temperature fields in the melt around the dendrite from the simulations allows for a detailed understanding of the convection effects on dendritic growth.

  2. Interactions of Cryptococcus with Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Karen L.

    2018-01-01

    The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis. PMID:29543719

  3. Interactions of Cryptococcus with Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Karen L

    2018-03-15

    The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis.

  4. The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Swiecki, Melissa; Colonna, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that specializes in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). pDCs promote antiviral immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases characterized by a type I IFN signature. However, pDCs can also induce tolerogenic immune responses. Here, we review recent progress from the field of pDC biology, focusing on: the molecular mechanisms that regulate pDC development and functions; the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids; the function of pDCs at mucosal sites; and their roles in infections, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:26160613

  5. Apparatus for growing a dendritic web

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles S.; Piotrowski, Paul A.; Skutch, Maria E.; McHugh, James P.

    1983-06-21

    A melt system including a susceptor-crucible assembly having improved gradient control when melt replenishment is used during dendritic web growth. The improvement lies in the formation of a thermal barrier in the base of the receptor which is in the form of a vertical slot in the region of the susceptor underlying the crucible at the location of a compartmental separator dividing the crucible into a growth compartment and a melt replenishment compartment. The result achieved is a step change in temperature gradient in the melt thereby providing a more uniform temperature in the growth compartment from which the dendritic web is drawn.

  6. Dendritic microstructure in argon atomized superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Kumar, Mahundra

    1986-01-01

    The dendritic microstructure of atomized nickel base superalloy powders (Ni-20 pct Cr, NIMONIC-80A, ASTROALOY, and ZHS6-K) was studied. Prealloyed vacuum induction melted ingots were argon-atomized, the powders were cooled to room temperature, and various powder-size fractions were examined by optical metallography. Linear correlations were obtained for the powder size dependence of the secondary dendrite arm spacing, following the expected d-alpha (R) to the m power dependence on the particle size for all four superalloy compositions. However, the Ni-20 pct Cr alloy, which had much coarser arm spacing as compared to the other three alloys, had a much larger value of m.

  7. Transient Potentials in Dendritic Systems of Arbitrary Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Edward G.; Cowan, Jack D.

    1974-01-01

    A simple graphical calculus is developed that generates analytic solutions for membrane potential transforms at any point on the dendritic tree of neurons with arbitrary dendritic geometries, in response to synaptic “current” inputs. Such solutions permit the computation of transients in neurons with arbitrary geometry and may facilitate analysis of the role of dendrites in such cells. PMID:4416699

  8. Transient potentials in dendritic systems of arbitrary geometry.

    PubMed

    Butz, E G; Cowan, J D

    1974-09-01

    A simple graphical calculus is developed that generates analytic solutions for membrane potential transforms at any point on the dendritic tree of neurons with arbitrary dendritic geometries, in response to synaptic "current" inputs. Such solutions permit the computation of transients in neurons with arbitrary geometry and may facilitate analysis of the role of dendrites in such cells.

  9. Regulation of dendrite growth and maintenance by exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yun; Lee, Jiae; Rowland, Kimberly; Wen, Yuhui; Hua, Hope; Carlson, Nicole; Lavania, Shweta; Parrish, Jay Z.; Kim, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendrites lengthen by several orders of magnitude during neuronal development, but how membrane is allocated in dendrites to facilitate this growth remains unclear. Here, we report that Ras opposite (Rop), the Drosophila ortholog of the key exocytosis regulator Munc18-1 (also known as STXBP1), is an essential factor mediating dendrite growth. Neurons with depleted Rop function exhibit reduced terminal dendrite outgrowth followed by primary dendrite degeneration, suggestive of differential requirements for exocytosis in the growth and maintenance of different dendritic compartments. Rop promotes dendrite growth together with the exocyst, an octameric protein complex involved in tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane, with Rop–exocyst complexes and exocytosis predominating in primary dendrites over terminal dendrites. By contrast, membrane-associated proteins readily diffuse from primary dendrites into terminals, but not in the reverse direction, suggesting that diffusion, rather than targeted exocytosis, supplies membranous material for terminal dendritic growth, revealing key differences in the distribution of materials to these expanding dendritic compartments. PMID:26483382

  10. Negative dendritic effect on enzymatic hydrolysis of dendrimer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Cong, Mei; Li, Mengyao; Tintaru, Aura; Li, Jia; Yao, Jianhua; Xia, Yi; Peng, Ling

    2018-06-08

    Dendrimers possess intriguing "dendritic effects", which are unique characteristics that stem from the dendrimer generation and size. Here we report a "negative dendritic effect" observed during enzymatic hydrolysis of dendrimer conjugates. Such negative dendritic effects, though rarely reported, may be explored for tailored and generation-dependent drug release.

  11. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  12. Linking magnetite in the abdomen of honey bees to a magnetoreceptive function

    PubMed Central

    Lambinet, Veronika; Hayden, Michael E.; Reigl, Katharina; Gomis, Surath

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of magnetoreception in honey bees, Apis mellifera, focused on the identification of magnetic material, its formation, the location of the receptor and potential underlying sensory mechanisms, but never directly linked magnetic material to a magnetoreceptive function. In our study, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic material consistent with magnetite plays an integral role in the bees' magnetoreceptor. Subjecting lyophilized and pelletized bee tagmata to analyses by a superconducting quantum interference device generated a distinct hysteresis loop for the abdomen but not for the thorax or the head of bees, indicating the presence of ferromagnetic material in the bee abdomen. Magnetic remanence of abdomen pellets produced from bees that were, or were not, exposed to the 2.2-kOe field of a magnet while alive differed, indicating that magnet exposure altered the magnetization of this magnetite in live bees. In behavioural two-choice field experiments, bees briefly exposed to the same magnet, but not sham-treated control bees, failed to sense a custom-generated magnetic anomaly, indicating that magnet exposure had rendered the bees' magnetoreceptor dysfunctional. Our data support the conclusion that honey bees possess a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor located in the abdomen. PMID:28330921

  13. Abnormal /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan of the abdomen in tuberculous peritonitis: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, J.J.

    1976-04-01

    Tuberculous peritonitis in a 34-year-old alcoholic man was associated with an abnormal /sup 67/Ga-citrate scan of the abdomen. Repeated studies after thorough bowel cleansing revealed no change in the site and shape of the abnormality for 2 to 5 days after injection of the tracer. The inflammatory process may have been responsible for the abnormal scan. (auth)

  14. Abdomen/pelvis computed tomography in staging of pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma: is it always necessary?

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Puccio, Giuseppe; Sala, Alessandra; Todesco, Alessandra; Terenziani, Monica; Mura, Rosamaria; D'Amico, Salvatore; Casini, Tommaso; Mosa, Clara; Pillon, Marta; Boaro, Maria Paola; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Burnelli, Roberta; Consarino, Caterina; Fedeli, Fausto; Mascarin, Maurizio; Perruccio, Katia; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Trizzino, Angela; Ficola, Umberto; Garaventa, Alberto; Rossello, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if abdomen/pelvis computed tomography (CT) can be safety omitted in the initial staging of a subgroup of children affected by Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). Every participating center of A.I.E.O.P (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica) sent local staging reports of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and abdominal ultrasound (US) along with digital images of staging abdomen/pelvis CT to the investigation center where the CT scans were evaluated by an experienced pediatric radiologist. The local radiologist who performed the US was unaware of local CT and PET reports (both carried out after US), and the reviewer radiologist examining the CT images was unaware of local US, PET and CT reports. A new abdominal staging of 123 patients performed on the basis of local US report, local PET report, and centralized CT report was then compared to a simpler staging based on local US and PET. No additional lesion was discovered by CT in patients with abdomen/pelvis negativity in both US and PET or isolated spleen positivity in US (or US and PET), and so it seems that in the initial staging, abdomen/pelvis CT can be safety omitted in about 1/2 to 2/3 of children diagnosed with HL. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ["Abdominal dressing" - a new method of treatment for open abdomen following secondary peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Wild, T; Stremitzer, S; Budzanowski, A; Rinder, H; Tamandl, D; Zeisel, C; Hölzenbein, T; Sautner, T

    2004-05-01

    Treatment of open abdomen following secondary peritonitis is a challenge for surgery and intensive care units (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare three different concurrent treatment strategies. Patients suffering an open abdomen following surgery for secondary peritonitis at the Department of General Surgery from 01/01 to 12/03 were investigated. Factor studied: duration of open abdomen, incidence of multi-organ failure, need for surgical revisions, length of stay (LOS) in ICU, nursing requirements (change of dressing/day), survival and integrity of abdominal wall after discharge. Treatment strategies included: open packing (OP), classic vacuum assisted (V.A.C.(R))-therapy with silicone net protection for the intestine (CV) and V.A.C.(R)-therapy with "abdominal dressing" a newly developed meshed polyvinyl wrap (AD). 21 patients were studied: 5 patients were treated with OP, 8 patients with CV and 8 patients with AD. Mean LOS was 65 (OP) vs. 53 (CV) vs. 42 (AD) days (NS), peritonitis related death was 3 (OP) vs. 1 (CV) vs. 0 (AD) (p < 0.05 Chisquare test). Median nursing effort was 4 dressings/day (OP), 0.5 (CV) and 0.5 (AD) (p < 0.005 OP vs CV, AD Kruskal-Wallis test). The "abdominal dressing"-therapy seems to be a more efficient treatment option in patients suffering from open abdomen following secondary peritonitis. A trend towards shorter ICU-LOS, lower mortality rates and reduced nursing requirements support our hypothesis.

  16. Abdomen Impact Testing of the Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) Anthropomorphic Test Device

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-09-01

    The Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is a crash test dummy that was developed in the UK to evaluate abdomen and lower thorax injuries that occur when passengers impact workstation tables during train accidents. The H3-...

  17. Linking magnetite in the abdomen of honey bees to a magnetoreceptive function.

    PubMed

    Lambinet, Veronika; Hayden, Michael E; Reigl, Katharina; Gomis, Surath; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-03-29

    Previous studies of magnetoreception in honey bees, Apis mellifera , focused on the identification of magnetic material, its formation, the location of the receptor and potential underlying sensory mechanisms, but never directly linked magnetic material to a magnetoreceptive function. In our study, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic material consistent with magnetite plays an integral role in the bees' magnetoreceptor. Subjecting lyophilized and pelletized bee tagmata to analyses by a superconducting quantum interference device generated a distinct hysteresis loop for the abdomen but not for the thorax or the head of bees, indicating the presence of ferromagnetic material in the bee abdomen. Magnetic remanence of abdomen pellets produced from bees that were, or were not, exposed to the 2.2-kOe field of a magnet while alive differed, indicating that magnet exposure altered the magnetization of this magnetite in live bees. In behavioural two-choice field experiments, bees briefly exposed to the same magnet, but not sham-treated control bees, failed to sense a custom-generated magnetic anomaly, indicating that magnet exposure had rendered the bees' magnetoreceptor dysfunctional. Our data support the conclusion that honey bees possess a magnetite-based magnetoreceptor located in the abdomen. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in dengue fever in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in patients with dengue fever. This descriptive case series is a prospective analysis of acute abdomen in dengue fever that was performed at three secondary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan from June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2008. The inclusion criterion was all patients with confirmed diagnosis of dengue fever. Patients with incomplete laboratory, ultrasound or histopathology data were excluded. Among 357 patients with dengue fever, 43 (12.04%) had acute abdomen. There were 15 men and 28 women, with a median age of 29 years. These included 26 cases of acute cholecystitis, 7 cases of acute appendicitis, 7 cases of nonspecific peritonitis, and 3 cases of acute pancreatitis. Dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome was found in acute pancreatitis, and two of these patients died. Emergency surgery was required in eight patients (5 appendectomy and 3 open cholecystectomy). Substantial transfusion of blood and its components was required in eight patients who underwent emergency surgery. Early diagnosis and prompt conservative management of dengue acute abdomen is necessary to avoid mortality and emergency surgery-related morbidity. However, if needed, surgery can be performed with acceptable morbidity. Copyright © 2010 Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Acoustic Access to the Prostate Through the Abdomen and Perineum for Extracorporeal Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Sabb, Brian J.; Roberts, William W.

    2010-03-01

    As part of the development of a noninvasive treatment for BPH using histotripsy, this study aimed to measure acoustic access for extracorporeal ablation of the prostate. Both transabdominal and transperineal approaches were considered. The objective was to measure the size and shape of a transducer aperture that could target the prostate without obstruction. CT images obtained from 17 subjects >56 years of age were used to create 3D reconstructions of the lower abdomen and pelvis. Target locations on the urethra at the base, mid, and apex in the prostate were marked along with a transrectal imaging probe. Evenly space rays spanning were traced from each target location towards the perineum and separately towards the abdomen with the maximum x-ray density encountered along each path recorded. The overall free aperture through the perineum was found to be a triangular shaped region bounded by the lower bones of the pelvis and the transrectal probe varying significantly in size between subjects. The free aperture through the abdomen was wedge shaped limited by the pubis also with great subject to subject variability. Average unblocked fractions of an f/1 transducer to target base, veru, and apex through the perineum were 77.0%, 94.4%, and 99.6%, respectively. Averages targeting through the abdomen were 86.1%, 52.3%, and 11.0%. Acoustic access to the prostate for through the perineum was judged to be feasible.

  20. Interactions with Astroglia Influence the Shape of the Developing Dendritic Arbor and Restrict Dendrite Growth Independent of Promoting Synaptic Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Jennifer R.; Sterritt, Jeffrey R.; Crane, Andrés B.; Wallace, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Astroglia play key roles in the development of neurons, ranging from regulating neuron survival to promoting synapse formation, yet basic questions remain about whether astrocytes might be involved in forming the dendritic arbor. Here, we used cultured hippocampal neurons as a simple in vitro model that allowed dendritic growth and geometry to be analyzed quantitatively under conditions where the extent of interactions between neurons and astrocytes varied. When astroglia were proximal to neurons, dendrites and dendritic filopodia oriented toward them, but the general presence of astroglia significantly reduced overall dendrite growth. Further, dendritic arbors in partial physical contact with astroglia developed a pronounced pattern of asymmetrical growth, because the dendrites in direct contact were significantly smaller than the portion of the arbor not in contact. Notably, thrombospondin, the astroglial factor shown previously to promote synapse formation, did not inhibit dendritic growth. Thus, while astroglia promoted the formation of presynaptic contacts onto dendrites, dendritic growth was constrained locally within a developing arbor at sites where dendrites contacted astroglia. Taken together, these observations reveal influences on spatial orientation of growth as well as influences on morphogenesis of the dendritic arbor that have not been previously identified. PMID:28081563

  1. Human skin dendritic cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Haniffa, Muzlifah; Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells abundant in peripheral tissues such as skin where they function as immune sentinels. Skin DCs migrate to draining lymph node where they interact with naïve T cells to induce immune responses to microorganisms, vaccines, tumours and self-antigens. In this review, we present the key historical developments and recent advances in human skin DC research. We also integrate the current understanding on the origin and functional specializations of DC subsets in healthy skin with findings in inflammatory skin diseases focusing on psoriasis and atopic eczema. A comprehensive understanding of the dynamic changes in DC subsets in health and disease will form a strong foundation to facilitate the clinical translation of DC-based therapeutic and vaccination strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermosolutal convection and macrosegregation in dendritic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirier, David R.; Heinrich, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model of solidification, that simulates the formation of channel segregates or freckles, is presented. The model simulates the entire solidification process, starting with the initial melt to the solidified cast, and the resulting segregation is predicted. Emphasis is given to the initial transient, when the dendritic zone begins to develop and the conditions for the possible nucleation of channels are established. The mechanisms that lead to the creation and eventual growth or termination of channels are explained in detail and illustrated by several numerical examples. A finite element model is used for the simulations. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. The major task was to develop the solidification model. In addition, other tasks that were performed in conjunction with the modeling of dendritic solidification are briefly described.

  3. Defect characterization of silicon dendritic web ribbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Progress made in the study of defect characterization of silicon dendritic web ribbon is presented. Chemical etching is used combined with optical microscopy, as well as the electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique. Thermal annealing effect on carrier lifetime is examined.

  4. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore » to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn⁰/Zn²⁺ showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  5. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  6. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Gupta, Tanya; ...

    2015-04-24

    The low cost, significant reducing potential, and relative safety of the zinc electrode is a common hope for a reductant in secondary batteries, but it is limited mainly to primary implementation due to shape change. In this work we exploit such shape change for the benefit of static electrodes through the electrodeposition of hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam. Electrodeposition of zinc foam resulted in nanoparticles formed on secondary dendrites in a three-dimensional network with a particle size distribution of 54.1 - 96.0 nm. The nanoporous zinc foam contributed to highly oriented crystals, high surface area and more rapid kinetics in contrastmore » to conventional zinc in alkaline mediums. The anode material presented had a utilization of ~ 88% at full depth-of-discharge at various rates indicating a superb rate-capability. The rechargeability of Zn⁰/Zn²⁺ showed significant capacity retention over 100 cycles at a 40% depth-of-discharge to ensure that the dendritic core structure was imperforated. The dendritic architecture was densified upon charge-discharge cycling and presented superior performance compared to bulk zinc electrodes.« less

  7. Characterization of chicken dendritic cell markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal and Natural Resources Institute, ARS-USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. New mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect CD80 and CD83 were developed to characterize chicken dendritic cells (DCs). The characteristics of these molecules have been studied in human, swine, ovine, feline, and canine but not ...

  8. Open Abdomen Therapy with Vacuum and Mesh Mediated Fascial Traction After Aortic Repair: an International Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Stefan; Seternes, Arne; Venermo, Maarit; Vikatmaa, Leena; Sörelius, Karl; Wanhainen, Anders; Svensson, Mats; Djavani, Khatereh; Björck, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Open abdomen therapy may be necessary to prevent or treat abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The aim of the study was to analyse the primary delayed fascial closure (PDFC) rate and complications after open abdomen therapy with vacuum and mesh mediated fascial traction (VACM) after aortic repair and to compare outcomes between those treated with open abdomen after primary versus secondary operation. This was a retrospective cohort, multicentre study in Sweden, Finland, and Norway, including consecutive patients treated with open abdomen and VACM after aortic repair at six vascular centres in 2006-2015. The primary endpoint was PDFC rate. Among 191 patients, 155 were men. The median age was 71 years (IQR 66-76). Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) occurred in 69.1%. Endovascular/hybrid and open repairs were performed in 49 and 142 patients, respectively. The indications for open abdomen were inability to close the abdomen (62%) at primary operation and ACS (80%) at secondary operation. Duration of open abdomen was 11 days (IQR 7-16) in 157 patients alive at open abdomen termination. The PDFC rate was 91.8%. Open abdomen initiated at primary (N=103), compared with secondary operation (N=88), was associated with less severe initial open abdomen status (p=.006), less intestinal ischaemia (p=.002), shorter duration of open abdomen (p=.007), and less renal replacement therapy (RRT, p<.001). In hospital mortality was 39.3%, and after entero-atmospheric fistula (N=9) was 88.9%. Seven developed graft infection within 6 months, 1 year mortality was 28.6%. Intestinal ischaemia (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.55-8.91), RRT (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.72-7.65), and age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.12), were independent factors associated with in hospital mortality, but not open abdomen initiated at primary versus secondary operation. VACM was associated with a high PDFC rate after prolonged open abdomen therapy following aortic repair. Patient outcomes seemed better when open abdomen was

  9. Nanoscale stiffness of individual dendritic molecules and their aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Shulha, Hennady; Zhai, Xiaowen

    2003-02-01

    We demonstrate that carefully designed micromapping of the surface stiffness with nanoscale resolution could reveal quantitative data on the elastic properties of compliant, dendritic organic molecules with nanoparticulate dimensions below 3 nm. Much higher elastic modulus was observed for individual, fourth generation dendritic molecules due to their more shape persistent conformation. Large, reversible, elastic deformation is a distinct characteristic of the nanomechanical response observed for individual dendritic molecules. Such a "rubbery" response could be an indication of spatial constraints imposed on vitrification of dendritic molecules tethered to the functionalized interface. Surprisingly, an increased stiffness was also found for the third generation dendritic molecules within long aggregates.

  10. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  11. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rejane G; Costa, Ana Paula A; Bragato, Nathália; Fonseca, Angela M; Duque, Juan C M; Prado, Tales D; Silva, Andrea C R; Borges, Naida C

    2013-06-23

    The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.

  12. Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Goo, Marisa S; Sancho, Laura; Slepak, Natalia; Boassa, Daniela; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Bloodgood, Brenda L; Patrick, Gentry N

    2017-08-07

    In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites. We also find trafficking of lysosomes is correlated with synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors. Strikingly, lysosomes traffic to dendritic spines in an activity-dependent manner and can be recruited to individual spines in response to local activation. These data indicate the position of lysosomes is regulated by synaptic activity and thus plays an instructive role in the turnover of synaptic membrane proteins. © 2017 Goo et al.

  13. Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Laura; Slepak, Natalia; Boassa, Daniela; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2017-01-01

    In neurons, lysosomes, which degrade membrane and cytoplasmic components, are thought to primarily reside in somatic and axonal compartments, but there is little understanding of their distribution and function in dendrites. Here, we used conventional and two-photon imaging and electron microscopy to show that lysosomes traffic bidirectionally in dendrites and are present in dendritic spines. We find that lysosome inhibition alters their mobility and also decreases dendritic spine number. Furthermore, perturbing microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics has an inverse relationship on the distribution and motility of lysosomes in dendrites. We also find trafficking of lysosomes is correlated with synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid–type glutamate receptors. Strikingly, lysosomes traffic to dendritic spines in an activity-dependent manner and can be recruited to individual spines in response to local activation. These data indicate the position of lysosomes is regulated by synaptic activity and thus plays an instructive role in the turnover of synaptic membrane proteins. PMID:28630145

  14. Differential polarization of cortical pyramidal neuron dendrites through weak extracellular fields

    PubMed Central

    Obermayer, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The rise of transcranial current stimulation (tCS) techniques have sparked an increasing interest in the effects of weak extracellular electric fields on neural activity. These fields modulate ongoing neural activity through polarization of the neuronal membrane. While the somatic polarization has been investigated experimentally, the frequency-dependent polarization of the dendritic trees in the presence of alternating (AC) fields has received little attention yet. Using a biophysically detailed model with experimentally constrained active conductances, we analyze the subthreshold response of cortical pyramidal cells to weak AC fields, as induced during tCS. We observe a strong frequency resonance around 10-20 Hz in the apical dendrites sensitivity to polarize in response to electric fields but not in the basal dendrites nor the soma. To disentangle the relative roles of the cell morphology and active and passive membrane properties in this resonance, we perform a thorough analysis using simplified models, e.g. a passive pyramidal neuron model, simple passive cables and reconstructed cell model with simplified ion channels. We attribute the origin of the resonance in the apical dendrites to (i) a locally increased sensitivity due to the morphology and to (ii) the high density of h-type channels. Our systematic study provides an improved understanding of the subthreshold response of cortical cells to weak electric fields and, importantly, allows for an improved design of tCS stimuli. PMID:29727454

  15. The role of the dendritic growth model dimensionality in predicting the Columnar to Equiaxed Transition (CET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyński, M.; Rebow, M.; Banaszek, J.

    2017-06-01

    The dendrite tip kinetics model accuracy relies on the reliability of the stability constant used, which is usually experimentally determined for 3D situations and applied to 2D models. The paper reports authors` attempts to cure the situation by deriving 2D dendritic tip scaling parameter for aluminium-based alloy: Al-4wt%Cu. The obtained parameter is then incorporated into the KGT dendritic growth model in order to compare it with the original 3D KGT counterpart and to derive two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the modified Hunt's analytical model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The conclusions drawn from the above analysis are further confirmed through numerical calculations of the two cases of Al-4wt%Cu metallic alloy solidification using the front tracking technique. Results, including the porous zone-under-cooled liquid front position, the calculated solutal under-cooling, the average temperature gradient at a front of the dendrite tip envelope and a new predictor of the relative tendency to form an equiaxed zone, are shown, compared and discussed for two numerical cases. The necessity to calculate sufficiently precise values of the tip scaling parameter in 2D and 3D is stressed.

  16. Dendrite-Suppressed Lithium Plating from a Liquid Electrolyte via Wetting of Li 3N

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyusung; Goodenough, John B.

    Lithium metal is an ultimate anode material to provide the highest energy density for a given cathode by providing a higher capacity and cell voltage. However, lithium is not used as the anode in commercial lithium-ion batteries because electrochemical dendrite formation and growth during charge can induce a cell short circuit that ignites the flammable liquid electrolyte. Plating of lithium through a bed of Li 3N particles is shown to transform dendrite growth into a 3D lithium network formed by wetting the particle surfaces; plating through a Li 3N particle is without dendrite nucleation. The Li 3N particles create amore » higher overpotential during Li deposition than that with dendrite growth in galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The characteristic overpotential increase is correlated with the morphological changes and a more isotropic growth behavior. The Li 3N-modified Li electrode shows a stable cycling performance at 0.5 and 1.0 mA cm -2 for more than 100 cycles. In this paper, the origin of the bonding responsible for wetting of the Li 3N particles by lithium and for plating through a Li 3N particle is discussed.« less

  17. Dendrite-Suppressed Lithium Plating from a Liquid Electrolyte via Wetting of Li 3N

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Kyusung; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-07-10

    Lithium metal is an ultimate anode material to provide the highest energy density for a given cathode by providing a higher capacity and cell voltage. However, lithium is not used as the anode in commercial lithium-ion batteries because electrochemical dendrite formation and growth during charge can induce a cell short circuit that ignites the flammable liquid electrolyte. Plating of lithium through a bed of Li 3N particles is shown to transform dendrite growth into a 3D lithium network formed by wetting the particle surfaces; plating through a Li 3N particle is without dendrite nucleation. The Li 3N particles create amore » higher overpotential during Li deposition than that with dendrite growth in galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The characteristic overpotential increase is correlated with the morphological changes and a more isotropic growth behavior. The Li 3N-modified Li electrode shows a stable cycling performance at 0.5 and 1.0 mA cm -2 for more than 100 cycles. In this paper, the origin of the bonding responsible for wetting of the Li 3N particles by lithium and for plating through a Li 3N particle is discussed.« less

  18. Dendritic mRNA targeting and translation.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Stefan; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Selective targeting of specific mRNAs into neuronal dendrites and their locally regulated translation at particular cell contact sites contribute to input-specific synaptic plasticity. Thus, individual synapses become decision-making units, which control gene expression in a spatially restricted and nucleus-independent manner. Dendritic targeting of mRNAs is achieved by active, microtubule-dependent transport. For this purpose, mRNAs are packaged into large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles containing an array of trans-acting RNA-binding proteins. These are attached to molecular motors, which move their RNP cargo into dendrites. A variety of proteins may be synthesized in dendrites, including signalling and scaffold proteins of the synapse and neurotransmitter receptors. In some cases, such as the alpha subunit of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) and the activity-regulated gene of 3.1 kb (Arg3.1, also referred to as activity-regulated cDNA, Arc), their local synthesis at synapses can modulate long-term changes in synaptic efficiency. Local dendritic translation is regulated by several signalling cascades including Akt/mTOR and Erk/MAP kinase pathways, which are triggered by synaptic activity. More recent findings show that miRNAs also play an important role in protein synthesis at synapses. Disruption of local translation control at synapses, as observed in the fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its mouse models and possibly also in autism spectrum disorders, interferes with cognitive abilities in mice and men.

  19. Dendritic solidification. I - Analysis of current theories and models. II - A model for dendritic growth under an imposed thermal gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laxmanan, V.

    1985-01-01

    A critical review of the present dendritic growth theories and models is presented. Mathematically rigorous solutions to dendritic growth are found to rely on an ad hoc assumption that dendrites grow at the maximum possible growth rate. This hypothesis is found to be in error and is replaced by stability criteria which consider the conditions under which a dendrite tip advances in a stable fashion in a liquid. The important elements of a satisfactory model for dendritic solidification are summarized and a theoretically consistent model for dendritic growth under an imposed thermal gradient is proposed and described. The model is based on the modification of an analysis due to Burden and Hunt (1974) and predicts correctly in all respects, the transition from a dendritic to a planar interface at both very low and very large growth rates.

  20. Dendritic excitability modulates dendritic information processing in a purkinje cell model.

    PubMed

    Coop, Allan D; Cornelis, Hugo; Santamaria, Fidel

    2010-01-01

    Using an electrophysiological compartmental model of a Purkinje cell we quantified the contribution of individual active dendritic currents to processing of synaptic activity from granule cells. We used mutual information as a measure to quantify the information from the total excitatory input current (I(Glu)) encoded in each dendritic current. In this context, each active current was considered an information channel. Our analyses showed that most of the information was encoded by the calcium (I(CaP)) and calcium activated potassium (I(Kc)) currents. Mutual information between I(Glu) and I(CaP) and I(Kc) was sensitive to different levels of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity that, at the same time, resulted in the same firing rate at the soma. Since dendritic excitability could be a mechanism to regulate information processing in neurons we quantified the changes in mutual information between I(Glu) and all Purkinje cell currents as a function of the density of dendritic Ca (g(CaP)) and Kca (g(Kc)) conductances. We extended our analysis to determine the window of temporal integration of I(Glu) by I(CaP) and I(Kc) as a function of channel density and synaptic activity. The window of information integration has a stronger dependence on increasing values of g(Kc) than on g(CaP), but at high levels of synaptic stimulation information integration is reduced to a few milliseconds. Overall, our results show that different dendritic conductances differentially encode synaptic activity and that dendritic excitability and the level of synaptic activity regulate the flow of information in dendrites.

  1. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. Aim The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. Materials and Methods The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. Results There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female Conclusion The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of

  2. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  3. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arens, Anne I J; Postema, Jan W A; Schreurs, Wendy M J; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W; Oyen, Wim J G; Vogel, Wouter V

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly.

  4. An umbilical venous catheter complication presented as acute abdomen: case report.

    PubMed

    Oztan, Mustafa O; Ilhan, Ozkan; Abay, Elif; Koyluoglu, Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    Umbilical venous catheterization has become a widely accepted intravenous route for premature babies. These catheters allow administration of parenteral nutrition and medication and facilitate blood sampling. Besides these benefits, they also have significant potential complications like portal vein thrombosis, infection, vascular or hepatic injury, arrhythmia and sepsis. One of the rare but important complication is extravasation of the fluids due to misplacement of the catheter. The typical symptoms of this condition are sudden deterioration, hepatic enlargement, hematocrit drop, hypotension and abdominal distension. We herein present a premature newborn with unusual acute abdomen findings suggesting a surgical pathology after the extravasation of total parenteral nutrition into the abdomen. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  5. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Diagnosis and Management of Adult Colonic Intussusception.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Mehmet; Emre, Arif; Pircanoglu, Eyüp Mehmet; Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Tepe, Murat; Cengiz, Emrah; Isler, Ali; Vicdan, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Intussusception in adults is very rarely seen, and this cause acute abdomen. A computed tomography (CT) scan, clinical suspicion, history, and a physical examination are important for the diagnosis. We present two cases of colonic intussusceptions induced by lipoma. The cases had similar locations, diagnoses, and management. Both lipomas were located close to the cecum in the ascending colon, and a right segmental colon resection was performed in both cases. The follow-up of both cases was uneventful. Although benign lesions can cause colonic intussusception, the high incidence of malignancy in colonic lesions should always be considered. Therefore, oncologic surgical procedures should be applied. The definitive diagnosis can be made by histopathology. Sertkaya M, Emre A, Pircanoglu EM, Yazar FM, Tepe M, Cengiz E, Isler A, Vicdan H. A Rare cause of Acute Abdomen: Diagnosis and Management of Adult Colonic Intussusception. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(2):179-182.

  6. Lymphangioma of the jejunal mesentery and jejunal polyps presenting as an acute abdomen in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Jasb; Perera, E; Chandu de Silva, M V; Pathirana, A A

    2017-03-01

    Cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery is a rare clinical entity, especially after childhood. Medical literature reveals a limited number of such cases presenting as acute abdomen due to bowel obstruction, small bowel volvulus and bleeding into the tumour. We present the management experience of an 18-year-old woman who presented with rapid onset diffuse peritonism and raised inflammatory markers. Computed tomography showed a mass in the small bowel mesentery with suspicion of segmental bowel ischaemia. Emergency laparotomy revealed a mass in the mid-jejunal mesentery close to the bowel wall with no bowel ischaemia. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery after segmental bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Histology confirmed the mass as a cystic lymphangioma involving the jejunal mesentery and two small jejunal polyps. Lymphangioma could be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen in a young adult when the presentation is atypical.

  7. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desoil, M.; Gillis, P.; Gossuin, Y.; Pankhurst, Q. A.; Hautot, D.

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  8. The Clinical anatomy of the physical examination of the abdomen: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Voin, Vlad; Topale, Nitsa; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Physical examination of the abdomen is an essential skill. Knowledge of its clinical anatomy and application is vital for making diagnoses. Misinterpretation of anatomy during examination can have serious consequences. This review addresses understanding of the anatomy, methodology, and complications of abdominal physical examination. It includes particular reference to modern technology and investigations. Physical examination is performed for diagnostic purposes. However, the art of physical examination is declining as more and more clinicians rely on newer technology. This can have regrettable consequences: negligence, waste of time and resources, and deterioration of clinical skills. With a sound knowledge of clinical anatomy, and realization of the importance of physical examination of the abdomen, clinician, and patients alike can benefit. Clin. Anat. 30:352-356, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mechanical response of the herniated human abdomen to the placement of different prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Peña, Estefanía; Grasa, Jorge; Pascual, Gemma; Bellón, Juan M; Calvo, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a method designed to model the repaired herniated human abdomen just after surgery and examine its static mechanical response to the maximum intra-abdominal pressure provoked by a physiological movement (standing cough). The model is based on the real geometry of the human abdomen bearing a large incisional hernia with several anatomical structures differentiated by MRI. To analyze the outcome of hernia repair, the surgical procedure was simulated by modeling a prosthesis placed over the hernia. Three surgical meshes with different mechanical properties were considered: an isotropic heavy-weight mesh (Surgipro®), a slightly anisotropic light-weight mesh (Optilene®), and a highly anisotropic medium-weight mesh (Infinit®). Our findings confirm that anisotropic implants need to be positioned such that the most compliant axis of the mesh coincides with the craneo-caudal direction of the body.

  10. Simulation of dendritic growth reveals necessary and sufficient parameters to describe the shapes of dendritic trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trottier, Olivier; Ganguly, Sujoy; Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Liang, Xin; Howard, Jonathon

    For the last 120 years, the development of neuronal shapes has been of great interest to the scientific community. Over the last 30 years, significant work has been done on the molecular processes responsible for dendritic development. In our ongoing research, we use the class IV sensory neurons of the Drosophila melanogaster larva as a model system to understand the growth of dendritic arbors. Our main goal is to elucidate the mechanisms that the neuron uses to determine the shape of its dendritic tree. We have observed the development of the class IV neuron's dendritic tree in the larval stage and have concluded that morphogenesis is defined by 3 distinct processes: 1) branch growth, 2) branching and 3) branch retraction. As the first step towards understanding dendritic growth, we have implemented these three processes in a computational model. Our simulations are able to reproduce the branch length distribution, number of branches and fractal dimension of the class IV neurons for a small range of parameters.

  11. Somato-dendritic Synaptic Plasticity and Error-backpropagation in Active Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Schiess, Mathieu; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade dendrites of cortical neurons have been shown to nonlinearly combine synaptic inputs by evoking local dendritic spikes. It has been suggested that these nonlinearities raise the computational power of a single neuron, making it comparable to a 2-layer network of point neurons. But how these nonlinearities can be incorporated into the synaptic plasticity to optimally support learning remains unclear. We present a theoretically derived synaptic plasticity rule for supervised and reinforcement learning that depends on the timing of the presynaptic, the dendritic and the postsynaptic spikes. For supervised learning, the rule can be seen as a biological version of the classical error-backpropagation algorithm applied to the dendritic case. When modulated by a delayed reward signal, the same plasticity is shown to maximize the expected reward in reinforcement learning for various coding scenarios. Our framework makes specific experimental predictions and highlights the unique advantage of active dendrites for implementing powerful synaptic plasticity rules that have access to downstream information via backpropagation of action potentials. PMID:26841235

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Dendritic Cell Haptotaxis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jan; Sixt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are the main guidance cues directing leukocyte migration. Opposed to early assumptions, chemokines do not necessarily act as soluble cues but are often immobilized within tissues, e.g., dendritic cell migration toward lymphatic vessels is guided by a haptotactic gradient of the chemokine CCL21. Controlled assay systems to quantitatively study haptotaxis in vitro are still missing. In this chapter, we describe an in vitro haptotaxis assay optimized for the unique properties of dendritic cells. The chemokine CCL21 is immobilized in a bioactive state, using laser-assisted protein adsorption by photobleaching. The cells follow this immobilized CCL21 gradient in a haptotaxis chamber, which provides three dimensionally confined migration conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles S.; Kochka, Edgar L.; Piotrowski, Paul A.; Seidensticker, Raymond G.

    1992-03-24

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  14. Intrarectal negative pressure system in the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yetişir, Fahri; Salman, A Ebru; Mamedov, Ruslan; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yalcin, Abdussamet; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    To present the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula by application of intrarectal negative pressure system (NPS) in addition to abdominal NPS. Twenty-year old man had a history of injuries by a close-range gunshot to the abdomen eight days ago and he had been treated by bowel repairs, resections, jejunal anastomosis and Hartman's procedure. He was referred to our center after deterioration, evisceration with open abdomen and enteric fistula in septic shock. There were edematous, fibrinous bowels and large multiple fistulas from the edematous rectal stump. APACHE II, Mannheim Peritoneal Index and Björck scores were 18, 33 and 3, respectively (expected mortality 100%). After intensive care for 5 days, he was treated by abdominal and intrarectal NPS. NPS repeated for 5 times and the fistula was recovered on day 18 completely. Fascial closure was facilitated with a dynamic abdominal closure system (ABRA) and he was discharged on day 33 uneventfully. There was no herniation and any other problem after 12 months follow-up. Management of fistula in OA can be extremely challenging. Floating stoma, fistula VAC, nipple VAC, ring and silo VAC, fistula intubation systems are used for isolation of the enteric effluent from OA. Several biologic dressings such as acellular dermal matrix, pedicled flaps have been used to seal the fistula opening with various success. Resection of the involved enteric loop and a new anastomosis of the intestine is very hard and rarely possible. In all of these reports, usually patients are left to heal with a giant hernia. In contrast to this, there is no hernia in our case during one year follow up period. Combination of intra and extra luminal negative pressure systems and ABRA is a safe and successful method to manage open abdomen with colorectal fistula. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Definitive Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of Unknown Primary in the Abdomen and Pelvis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Varadhachary, Gauri R.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) in the abdomen and pelvis is a heterogeneous group of cancers with no standard treatment. Considered by many to be incurable, these patients are often treated with chemotherapy alone. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy in patients with CUP in the abdomen and pelvis. Patients and Methods: Medical records were reviewed for 37 patients with CUP treated with radiation therapy for disease located in the soft tissues and/or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer between 2002 and 2009.more » All patients underwent chemotherapy, either before or concurrent with radiation therapy. Patients were selected for radiation therapy on the basis of histologic type, disease extent, and prior therapy response. Twenty patients underwent definitive radiation therapy (defined as radiation therapy targeting all known disease sites with at least 45 Gy) and 17 patients underwent palliative radiation therapy. Only 6 patients had surgical resection of their disease. Patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the endpoints of local disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity incidence were analyzed. Results: The 2-year PFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 32% and 57%, respectively. However, in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, the rates were 48% and 76%, and 7 patients lived more than 3 years after treatment with no evidence of disease progression. Nevertheless, radiation-associated toxicity was significant in this cohort, as 40% experienced Grade 2 or higher late toxicities. Conclusions: The use of definitive radiation therapy should be considered in selected patients with CUP in the soft tissues or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis.« less

  16. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Specific aims include: (1) Application of the bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC); (2) Based on clues from spaceflight: compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients; and (3) Initiate studies on the efficiency of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in animal models of experimental fungal infections.

  17. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis for solitary fibrous tumor in the abdomen and pelvis by CT].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaping; Li, Wenzheng; Yi, Xiaoping; Pei, Yigang; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wenguang; Hou, Jiale; Ghimire, Obin

    2017-04-28

    To study the CT features for solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the abdomen and pelvis and to improve the diagnostic accuracy.
 Methods: Fourteen patients with SFT were collected in our hospital from January, 2011 to December, 2015. Characteristic of images were analyzed and compared for 10 SFT, which located outside the abdominal organs with extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGIST), leiomyosarcoma, and schwannoma.
 Results: Necrosis and cystic formation were frequently present in SFT in the abdomen and pelvis. CE-CT showed serpentine vessels along the periphery, while pattern of enhancement was map-like inhomogeneous progressive. Comparing with the EGIST or schwannoma, the difference of CT value in non-contrast and the arterial phase were statistically significant (P<0.05). The numbers of peritumoral circuity vessel were significantly different between SFT and EGIST (χ²=18.27, P<0.008) or between SFT and schwannoma (χ²=19.25, P<0.008). Comparing with the leiomyosarcoma or schwannoma, SFT located outside the abdominal organs. We found that tumor necrosis rate was significantly different between SFT and leiomyoscarcoma (χ²=8.00, P<0.008).
 Conclusion: SFT in the abdomen and pelvis show certain CT characteristics. The CT value in non-contrast and at the arterial phase, tumor necrosis rate, and serpentine vessels along the periphery were pivotal in differentiating SFT from leiomyosarcoma, EGIST and schwannoma.

  18. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  19. An eleven year old boy with pain abdomen and early morning neuroparalytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Milap; Kalia, Shaurya; Sharma, Seema

    2016-08-01

    An 11 year old boy presented with pain abdomen and tenderness all over body when he got up from sleep early in the morning and subsequently had one vomiting after 30 min. He had no other significant past medical history. The child was shifted to nearby health facility where he was managed as a case of acute abdomen on the basis of suggestive history and clinical findings. Within 2 h after the onset of clinical features suggestive of acute abdomen the patient went on to develop marked ptosis and flaccid quadriplegia. The young boy underwent a sequence of clinical tests which were noncontributory. Based on the clinical picture, a differential diagnosis of hypokalemic paralysis, botulism, Miller Fischer syndrome and EMNS were considered. Through exclusion, the most probable diagnosis for the symptoms was elapid envenomation hence he was started on anti-snake venom (ASV) with working diagnosis of EMNS. Within 2 h, he began to show improvement. This recovery with ASV suggests the possibility of elapid envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    The growth of dendrites is governed by the interplay between two simple and familiar processes---the irreversible diffusion of energy, and the reversible work done in the formation of new surface area. To advance our understanding of these processes, NASA sponsored a project that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia is 1994, 1996, and 1997 to record and analyze benchmark data in an apparent-microgravity ``laboratory.'' In this laboratory, energy transfer by gravity driven convection was essentially eliminated and one could test independently, for the first time, both components of dendritic growth theory. The analysis of this data shows that although the diffusion of energy can be properly accounted for, the results from interfacial physics appear to be in disagreement and alternate models should receive increased attention. Unfortunately, currently and for the foreseeable future, there is no access or financial support to develop and conduct additional experiments of this type. However, the benchmark data of 35mm photonegatives, video, and all supporting instrument data are now available at the IDGE Archive at the College of the Holy Cross. This data may still have considerable relevance to researchers working specifically with dendritic growth, and more generally those working in the synthesis, growth & processing of materials, multiscale computational modeling, pattern formation, and systems far from equilibrium.

  1. Designing oral vaccines targeting intestinal dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Devriendt, Bert; De Geest, Bruno G; Cox, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Most pathogens colonize and invade the host at mucosal surfaces, such as the lung and the intestine. To combat intestinal pathogens the induction of local adaptive immune responses is required, which is mainly achieved through oral vaccination. However, most vaccines are ineffective when given orally owing to the hostile environment in the gastrointestinal tract. The encapsulation of antigens in biodegradable microparticulate delivery systems enhances their immunogenicity; however, the uptake of these delivery systems by intestinal immune cells is rather poor. Surface decoration of the particulates with targeting ligands could increase the uptake and mediate the selective targeting of the vaccine to intestinal antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells. In this review, current knowledge on dendritic cell subsets is discussed, along with progress in the development of selective antigen targeting to these cells, in addition to focusing on data obtained in mice and, where possible, the pig, as a non-rodent animal model for humans. Moreover, the potential use and benefits of Fcγ receptor-mediated targeting of antigen delivery systems are highlighted. In conclusion, dendritic cell targeting ligands grafted on antigen carrier systems should preferably bind to a conserved endocytotic receptor, facilitating the design of a multispecies vaccine platform, which could elicit robust protective immune responses against enteric pathogens.

  2. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: clinical features in 90 patients.

    PubMed

    Julia, F; Petrella, T; Beylot-Barry, M; Bagot, M; Lipsker, D; Machet, L; Joly, P; Dereure, O; Wetterwald, M; d'Incan, M; Grange, F; Cornillon, J; Tertian, G; Maubec, E; Saiag, P; Barete, S; Templier, I; Aubin, F; Dalle, S

    2013-09-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare disease characterized by malignant proliferation of a contingent blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell. This rare entity is recognized mostly by cutaneous spreading, or not having a leukaemic component. The prognosis is very poor. To study a large cohort of 90 patients with BPDCN, to define additional symptoms to form a correct diagnosis earlier, and to manage such patients accordingly. We retrospectively reviewed BPDCN cases registered in the French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphoma database between November 1995 and January 2012. Ninety patients were studied. Demographic data, clinical presentation, initial staging and outcome were recorded. The group contained 62 male and 28 female patients (sex ratio 2·2). Their ages ranged from 8 to 103 years at the time of diagnosis (mean 67·2 years). Three major different clinical presentations were identified. Sixty-six patients (73%) presented with nodular lesions only, 11 patients (12%) with 'bruise-like' patches and 13 (14%) with disseminated lesions (patches and nodules). Mucosal lesions were seen in five patients (6%). The median survival in patients with BPDCN was 12 months. We here distinguish three different clinical presentations of BPDCN. A nodular pattern is a more common feature than the originally reported 'bruise-like' pattern. Despite the fact that BPDCN may initially appear as a localized skin tumour, aggressive management including allogeneic bone marrow transplantation should be considered immediately, as it is currently the only option associated with long-term survival. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Random Positions of Dendritic Spines in Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Dar, Mor; Fernaud, Isabel; Rodríguez, Angel; Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines establish most excitatory synapses in the brain and are located in Purkinje cell's dendrites along helical paths, perhaps maximizing the probability to contact different axons. To test whether spine helixes also occur in neocortex, we reconstructed >500 dendritic segments from adult human cortex obtained from autopsies. With Fourier analysis and spatial statistics, we analyzed spine position along apical and basal dendrites of layer 3 pyramidal neurons from frontal, temporal, and cingulate cortex. Although we occasionally detected helical positioning, for the great majority of dendrites we could not reject the null hypothesis of spatial randomness in spine locations, either in apical or basal dendrites, in neurons of different cortical areas or among spines of different volumes and lengths. We conclude that in adult human neocortex spine positions are mostly random. We discuss the relevance of these results for spine formation and plasticity and their functional impact for cortical circuits. PMID:25057209

  4. Efficiency and Impact of Positive and Negative Magnetic Separation on Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cell Generation.

    PubMed

    Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Ograczyk, Elżbieta; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fol, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The immunomagnetic separation technique is the basis of monocyte isolation and further generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. To compare the efficiency of monocyte positive and negative separation, concentration of beads, and their impact on generated dendritic cells. Monocytes were obtained using monoclonal antibody-coated magnetic beads followed the Ficoll-Paque gradient separation of mononuclear cell fraction from the peripheral blood of 6 healthy volunteers. CD14 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Both types of magnetic separation including recommended and reduced concentrations of beads did not affect the yield and the purity of monocytes and their surface CD14 expression. However, DCs originated from the "positively" separated monocytes had noticeable higher expression of CD80.

  5. A scaling law derived from optimal dendritic wiring

    PubMed Central

    Cuntz, Hermann; Mathy, Alexandre; Häusser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The wide diversity of dendritic trees is one of the most striking features of neural circuits. Here we develop a general quantitative theory relating the total length of dendritic wiring to the number of branch points and synapses. We show that optimal wiring predicts a 2/3 power law between these measures. We demonstrate that the theory is consistent with data from a wide variety of neurons across many different species and helps define the computational compartments in dendritic trees. Our results imply fundamentally distinct design principles for dendritic arbors compared with vascular, bronchial, and botanical trees. PMID:22715290

  6. Bent dendrite growth in undercooled Fe-B alloy melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Volkmann, T.; Valloton, J.; Kolbe, M.; Herlach, DM

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic growth is the main solidification mode in alloy casting. In order to control dendrite growth for materials design from the melt it is important to fully understand the influence of process conditions. This study stands as an experimental note observing bent dendrite growth in Fe-B alloys and suggesting possible explanations as induced by fluid flow, thermal, and concentrational diffusion or impurities. Electromagnetic levitation technique (EML) is used for containerless processing of undercooled melts under 1g and reduced gravity conditions in parabolic flight. Further investigations are needed to find a suitable explanation for the observed bent dendrite growth behaviour.

  7. The Evolution of Dendrite Morphology during Isothermal Coarsening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jens; Mendoza, Roberto; Kammer, Dimitris; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Dendrite coarsening is a common phenomenon in casting processes. From the time dendrites are formed until the inter-dendritic liquid is completely solidified dendrites are changing shape driven by variations in interfacial curvature along the dendrite and resulting in a reduction of total interfacial area. During this process the typical length-scale of the dendrite can change by orders of magnitude and the final microstructure is in large part determined by the coarsening parameters. Dendrite coarsening is thus crucial in setting the materials parameters of ingots and of great commercial interest. This coarsening process is being studied in the Pb-Sn system with Sn-dendrites undergoing isothermal coarsening in a Pb-Sn liquid. Results are presented for samples of approximately 60% dendritic phase, which have been coarsened for different lengths of times. Presented are three-dimensional microstructures obtained by serial-sectioning and an analysis of these microstructures with regard to interface orientation and interfacial curvatures. These graphs reflect the evolution of not only the microstructure itself, but also of the underlying driving forces of the coarsening process. As a visualization of the link between the microstructure and the driving forces a three-dimensional microstructure with the interfaces colored according to the local interfacial mean curvature is shown.

  8. Synthesis of a posterior indicator protein in normal embryos and double abdomens of Smittia sp. (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    PubMed Central

    Jäckle, H; Kalthoff, K

    1980-01-01

    In embryos of the chironomid midge Smittia, synthesis of a posterior indicator protein designated PI1 (Mr approximately 50,000; pI approximately 5.5) forecasts development of an abdomen as opposed to head and thorax. The protein is synthesized several hours before germ anlage formation. In normal embryos at early blastoderm stages, synthesis of PI1 is restricted to posterior embryonic fragments but not to pole cells. In "double-abdomen" embryos, a mirror-image duplication of the abdomen is formed by cells that would otherwise develop into head and thorax. Embryos were programmed for double-abdomen development by UV irradiation of the anterior pole, and half of them were reprogrammed for normal development by subsequent exposure to visible light (photoreversal). Correspondingly, PI1 was synthesized in anterior fragments of UV-irradiated embryos but not after photoreversal. In a control experiment, UV irradiation of the posterior pole caused neither double-abdomen formation nor PI1 synthesis in anterior fragments. The identity of PI1 formed in anterior fragments of prospective double abdomens with the protein found in posterior fragments was revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and limited proteolysis. Suppression of PI1 synthesis in anterior fragments of normal embryos is ascribed to the activity of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles thought to act as anterior determinants. Images PMID:6935679

  9. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás

    2015-04-21

    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendritesdendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with themore » interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.« less

  10. Patient-specific dose estimation for pediatric abdomen-pelvis CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Frush, Donald P.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for estimating patient-specific dose from abdomen-pelvis CT examinations and to investigate dose variation across patients in the same weight group. Our study consisted of seven pediatric patients in the same weight/protocol group, for whom full-body computer models were previously created based on the patients' CT data obtained for clinical indications. Organ and effective dose of these patients from an abdomen-pelvis scan protocol (LightSpeed VCT scanner, 120-kVp, 85-90 mA, 0.4-s gantry rotation period, 1.375-pitch, 40-mm beam collimation, and small body scan field-of-view) was calculated using a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated for the same CT system. The seven patients had effective dose of 2.4-2.8 mSv, corresponding to normalized effective dose of 6.6-8.3 mSv/100mAs (coefficient of variation: 7.6%). Dose variations across the patients were small for large organs in the scan coverage (mean: 6.6%; range: 4.9%-9.2%), larger for small organs in the scan coverage (mean: 10.3%; range: 1.4%-15.6%), and the largest for organs partially or completely outside the scan coverage (mean: 14.8%; range: 5.7%-27.7%). Normalized effective dose correlated strongly with body weight (correlation coefficient: r = -0.94). Normalized dose to the kidney and the adrenal gland correlated strongly with mid-liver equivalent diameter (kidney: r = -0.97; adrenal glands: r = -0.98). Normalized dose to the small intestine correlated strongly with mid-intestine equivalent diameter (r = -0.97). These strong correlations suggest that patient-specific dose may be estimated for any other child in the same size group who undergoes the abdomen-pelvis scan.

  11. Delayed pneumothorax after stab wound to thorax and upper abdomen: Truth or myth?

    PubMed

    Zehtabchi, Shahriar; Morley, Eric J; Sajed, Dana; Greenberg, Oded; Sinert, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Stab wounds to the thorax and upper abdomen have the potential to cause pneumothorax (PTX). When a CXR (CXR) obtained during initial resuscitation is negative, a second CXR (CXR-2) is commonly performed with the goal of identifying delayed PTX. To assess the diagnostic yield of the CXR-2 in identifying delayed PTX. Prospective observational study of patients (age >or=13 years) with stab wounds to the thorax (chest/back) and upper abdomen with suspected PTX, in a level 1 trauma centre. Patients were included if they had a negative initial CXR followed by a repeat CXR 3-6h after the initial one. patients who died, were transferred out of the ED, or received chest tubes before the second CXR. The outcome of interest was delayed PTX. All CXR were read by an attending radiologist. To test the inter-observer agreement, another blinded radiologist reviewed 20% of CXR. Continuous data is presented as mean+/-standard deviation and categorical data as percentages with 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa statistics were used to measure the inter-observer agreement between radiologists. Between January 2003 and December 2006 a total of 185 patients qualified for the enrollment (mean age: 28+/-10 years, age range: 13-65, 94% male). Only 2 patients (1.1%, 95% CI, 0.4- 4.1%) had PTX on the CXR-2. Both patients received chest tubes. The inter-observer agreement for radiology reports was high (kappa: 0.79). Occurrence of delayed PTX in patients with stab wounds to the thorax and upper abdomen and negative triage CXR is rare.

  12. Musical representation of dendritic spine distribution: a new exploratory tool.

    PubMed

    Toharia, Pablo; Morales, Juan; de Juan, Octavio; Fernaud, Isabel; Rodríguez, Angel; DeFelipe, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Dendritic spines are small protrusions along the dendrites of many types of neurons in the central nervous system and represent the major target of excitatory synapses. For this reason, numerous anatomical, physiological and computational studies have focused on these structures. In the cerebral cortex the most abundant and characteristic neuronal type are pyramidal cells (about 85 % of all neurons) and their dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic target of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Thus, our understanding of the synaptic organization of the cerebral cortex largely depends on the knowledge regarding synaptic inputs to dendritic spines of pyramidal cells. Much of the structural data on dendritic spines produced by modern neuroscience involves the quantitative analysis of image stacks from light and electron microscopy, using standard statistical and mathematical tools and software developed to this end. Here, we present a new method with musical feedback for exploring dendritic spine morphology and distribution patterns in pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that audio analysis of spiny dendrites with apparently similar morphology may "sound" quite different, revealing anatomical substrates that are not apparent from simple visual inspection. These morphological/music translations may serve as a guide for further mathematical analysis of the design of the pyramidal neurons and of spiny dendrites in general.

  13. SNAP-25 requirement for dendritic growth of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Grosse, G; Grosse, J; Tapp, R; Kuchinke, J; Gorsleben, M; Fetter, I; Höhne-Zell, B; Gratzl, M; Bergmann, M

    1999-06-01

    Structure and dimension of the dendritic arbor are important determinants of information processing by the nerve cell, but mechanisms and molecules involved in dendritic growth are essentially unknown. We investigated early mechanisms of dendritic growth using mouse fetal hippocampal neurons in primary culture, which form processes during the first week in vitro. We detected a key component of regulated exocytosis, SNAP-25 (synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa), in axons and axonal terminals as well as in dendrites identified by the occurrence of the dendritic markers transferrin receptor and MAP2. Selective inactivation of SNAP-25 by botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNTA) resulted in inhibition of axonal growth and of vesicle recycling in axonal terminals. In addition, dendritic growth of hippocampal pyramidal and granule neurons was significantly inhibited by BoNTA. In contrast, cleavage of synaptobrevin by tetanus toxin had an effect on neither axonal nor dendritic growth. Our observations indicate that SNAP-25, but not synaptobrevin, is involved in constitutive axonal growth and dendrite formation by hippocampal neurons.

  14. Mechanisms underlying subunit independence in pyramidal neuron dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Behabadi, Bardia F.; Mel, Bartlett W.

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal neuron (PN) dendrites compartmentalize voltage signals and can generate local spikes, which has led to the proposal that their dendrites act as independent computational subunits within a multilayered processing scheme. However, when a PN is strongly activated, back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) sweeping outward from the soma synchronize dendritic membrane potentials many times per second. How PN dendrites maintain the independence of their voltage-dependent computations, despite these repeated voltage resets, remains unknown. Using a detailed compartmental model of a layer 5 PN, and an improved method for quantifying subunit independence that incorporates a more accurate model of dendritic integration, we first established that the output of each dendrite can be almost perfectly predicted by the intensity and spatial configuration of its own synaptic inputs, and is nearly invariant to the rate of bAP-mediated “cross-talk” from other dendrites over a 100-fold range. Then, through an analysis of conductance, voltage, and current waveforms within the model cell, we identify three biophysical mechanisms that together help make independent dendritic computation possible in a firing neuron, suggesting that a major subtype of neocortical neuron has been optimized for layered, compartmentalized processing under in-vivo–like spiking conditions. PMID:24357611

  15. Contribution of sublinear and supralinear dendritic integration to neuronal computations

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Van-Minh, Alexandra; Cazé, Romain D.; Abrahamsson, Therése; Cathala, Laurence; Gutkin, Boris S.; DiGregorio, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear dendritic integration is thought to increase the computational ability of neurons. Most studies focus on how supralinear summation of excitatory synaptic responses arising from clustered inputs within single dendrites result in the enhancement of neuronal firing, enabling simple computations such as feature detection. Recent reports have shown that sublinear summation is also a prominent dendritic operation, extending the range of subthreshold input-output (sI/O) transformations conferred by dendrites. Like supralinear operations, sublinear dendritic operations also increase the repertoire of neuronal computations, but feature extraction requires different synaptic connectivity strategies for each of these operations. In this article we will review the experimental and theoretical findings describing the biophysical determinants of the three primary classes of dendritic operations: linear, sublinear, and supralinear. We then review a Boolean algebra-based analysis of simplified neuron models, which provides insight into how dendritic operations influence neuronal computations. We highlight how neuronal computations are critically dependent on the interplay of dendritic properties (morphology and voltage-gated channel expression), spiking threshold and distribution of synaptic inputs carrying particular sensory features. Finally, we describe how global (scattered) and local (clustered) integration strategies permit the implementation of similar classes of computations, one example being the object feature binding problem. PMID:25852470

  16. Modelling dendritic ecological networks in space: An integrated network perspective

    Treesearch

    Erin E. Peterson; Jay M. Ver Hoef; Dan J. Isaak; Jeffrey A. Falke; Marie-Josee Fortin; Chris E. Jordan; Kristina McNyset; Pascal Monestiez; Aaron S. Ruesch; Aritra Sengupta; Nicholas Som; E. Ashley Steel; David M. Theobald; Christian E. Torgersen; Seth J. Wenger

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic ecological networks (DENs) are a unique form of ecological networks that exhibit a dendritic network topology (e.g. stream and cave networks or plant architecture). DENs have a dual spatial representation; as points within the network and as points in geographical space. Consequently, some analytical methods used to quantify relationships in other types of...

  17. Dendrites Enable a Robust Mechanism for Neuronal Stimulus Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Cazé, Romain D; Jarvis, Sarah; Foust, Amanda J; Schultz, Simon R

    2017-09-01

    Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli. Using a multi-subunit nonlinear model, we demonstrate that stimulus selectivity can arise from the spatial distribution of synapses. We propose this as a general mechanism for information processing by neurons possessing dendritic trees. Moreover, we show that this implementation of stimulus selectivity increases the neuron's robustness to synaptic and dendritic failure. Importantly, our model can maintain stimulus selectivity for a larger range of loss of synapses or dendrites than an equivalent linear model. We then use a layer 2/3 biophysical neuron model to show that our implementation is consistent with two recent experimental observations: (1) one can observe a mixture of selectivities in dendrites that can differ from the somatic selectivity, and (2) hyperpolarization can broaden somatic tuning without affecting dendritic tuning. Our model predicts that an initially nonselective neuron can become selective when depolarized. In addition to motivating new experiments, the model's increased robustness to synapses and dendrites loss provides a starting point for fault-resistant neuromorphic chip development.

  18. Open abdomen critical care management principles: resuscitation, fluid balance, nutrition, and ventilator management

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Elizabeth; Nirula, Ram

    2017-01-01

    The term “open abdomen” refers to a surgically created defect in the abdominal wall that exposes abdominal viscera. Leaving an abdominal cavity temporarily open has been well described for several indications, including damage control surgery and abdominal compartment syndrome. Although beneficial in certain patients, the act of keeping an abdominal cavity open has physiologic repercussions that must be recognized and managed during postoperative care. This review article describes these issues and provides guidelines for the critical care physician managing a patient with an open abdomen. PMID:29766080

  19. Dual-energy and low-kVp CT in the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Benjamin M; Shepherd, John A; Wang, Zhen J; Teh, Hui Seong; Hartman, Robert P; Prevrhal, Sven

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the influence of tube potential on CT images and explore the potential impact of dual-energy CT on imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. Low peak tube voltage (kVp) settings provide high conspicuity of contrast materials at CT but may result in high image noise, particularly in larger patients. Material decomposition at dual-energy CT can differentiate renal stones by their composition, quantify tissue iron stores, improve the detection of pathologic hyperenhancement, and reduce contrast material and radiation dose compared with conventional CT. Further clinical research and technique refinement will be needed as the usage of these exciting technologies spreads.

  20. "Surgical" abdomen in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case of acquired angioedema.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moonjung; Rice, Lawrence

    2011-12-01

    Acquired angioedema (AAE), an acquired deficiency of C1esterase inhibitor, is a medically treatable condition which can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking an acute surgical abdomen. This disorder is strongly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other indolent lymphoplasmacytic disorders. We describe a patient with known CLL who developed incapacitating, recurrent severe abdominal pains, culminating in partial bowel resection. Signs, symptoms, laboratory and pathologic findings demonstrated AAE. Wider appreciation of the possibility of AAE, particularly in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders, could lead to preventive therapy and spare unnecessary surgery. This is more important now that more effective medical therapies are available.

  1. Use of computed tomography abdomen and pelvis for investigation of febrile neutropenia in adult haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, H Y; Ashby, M; Williams, B; Grigg, A

    2016-11-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the use of computed tomography abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) in febrile neutropenic autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. CTAP was more common in ASCT patients (59%) compared with AML (31%; P  < 0.001). Although abnormal findings were reported in 51%, only 10% resulted in therapy change (addition of anaerobic antibiotic/bowel rest), which would have otherwise been instituted based on clinical grounds. CTAP in these patients rarely provide useful information unsuspected clinically. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Hematoma of the falciform ligament: a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Sari, Serkan; Ersöz, Feyzullah; Güneş, Mehmet Emin; Paşaoğlu, Esra; Arikan, Soykan

    2011-01-01

    Hematoma or abscess of the liver ligaments is extremely rare, and hematoma of the falciform ligament has been sporadically reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old female who presented with a three-day history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever and nausea. With a preoperative diagnosis of probable perforated acalculous cholecystitis, the patient underwent emergency surgery. Hematoma of the falciform ligament was found. Wide excision of the falciform ligament including the hematoma with abscess was performed. Although pathology of the falciform ligament is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in the case of antiaggregant drug usage.

  3. Sensory-evoked LTP driven by dendritic plateau potentials in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Frédéric; Pagès, Stéphane; Kehayas, Vassilis; Baptista, Daniela; Tatti, Roberta; Carleton, Alan; Holtmaat, Anthony

    2014-11-06

    Long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) is thought to be a key process in cortical synaptic network plasticity and memory formation. Hebbian forms of LTP depend on strong postsynaptic depolarization, which in many models is generated by action potentials that propagate back from the soma into dendrites. However, local dendritic depolarization has been shown to mediate these forms of LTP as well. As pyramidal cells in supragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex spike infrequently, it is unclear which of the two mechanisms prevails for those cells in vivo. Using whole-cell recordings in the mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo, we demonstrate that rhythmic sensory whisker stimulation efficiently induces synaptic LTP in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells in the absence of somatic spikes. The induction of LTP depended on the occurrence of NMDAR (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor)-mediated long-lasting depolarizations, which bear similarities to dendritic plateau potentials. In addition, we show that whisker stimuli recruit synaptic networks that originate from the posteromedial complex of the thalamus (POm). Photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing POm neurons generated NMDAR-mediated plateau potentials, whereas the inhibition of POm activity during rhythmic whisker stimulation suppressed the generation of those potentials and prevented whisker-evoked LTP. Taken together, our data provide evidence for sensory-driven synaptic LTP in vivo, in the absence of somatic spiking. Instead, LTP is mediated by plateau potentials that are generated through the cooperative activity of lemniscal and paralemniscal synaptic circuitry.

  4. Spatially Distributed Dendritic Resonance Selectively Filters Synaptic Input

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Idan; Shamma, Shihab

    2014-01-01

    An important task performed by a neuron is the selection of relevant inputs from among thousands of synapses impinging on the dendritic tree. Synaptic plasticity enables this by strenghtening a subset of synapses that are, presumably, functionally relevant to the neuron. A different selection mechanism exploits the resonance of the dendritic membranes to preferentially filter synaptic inputs based on their temporal rates. A widely held view is that a neuron has one resonant frequency and thus can pass through one rate. Here we demonstrate through mathematical analyses and numerical simulations that dendritic resonance is inevitably a spatially distributed property; and therefore the resonance frequency varies along the dendrites, and thus endows neurons with a powerful spatiotemporal selection mechanism that is sensitive both to the dendritic location and the temporal structure of the incoming synaptic inputs. PMID:25144440

  5. Self-heating–induced healing of lithium dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Basu, Swastik; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Zhizhong; Hundekar, Prateek; Wang, Baiwei; Shi, Jian; Shi, Yunfeng; Narayanan, Shankar; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2018-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal electrodes are not deployable in rechargeable batteries because electrochemical plating and stripping invariably leads to growth of dendrites that reduce coulombic efficiency and eventually short the battery. It is generally accepted that the dendrite problem is exacerbated at high current densities. Here, we report a regime for dendrite evolution in which the reverse is true. In our experiments, we found that when the plating and stripping current density is raised above ~9 milliamperes per square centimeter, there is substantial self-heating of the dendrites, which triggers extensive surface migration of Li. This surface diffusion heals the dendrites and smoothens the Li metal surface. We show that repeated doses of high-current-density healing treatment enables the safe cycling of Li-sulfur batteries with high coulombic efficiency.

  6. Responsive linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Eva; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The combination of dendritic and linear polymeric structures in the same macromolecule opens up new possibilities for the design of block copolymers and for applications of functional polymers that have self-assembly properties. There are three main strategies for the synthesis of linear-dendritic block copolymers (LDBCs) and, in particular, the emergence of click chemistry has made the coupling of preformed blocks one of the most efficient ways of obtaining libraries of LDBCs. In these materials, the periphery of the dendron can be precisely functionalised to obtain functional LDBCs with self-assembly properties of interest in different technological areas. The incorporation of stimuli-responsive moieties gives rise to smart materials that are generally processed as self-assemblies of amphiphilic LDBCs with a morphology that can be controlled by an external stimulus. Particular emphasis is placed on light-responsive LDBCs. Furthermore, a brief review of the biomedical or materials science applications of LDBCs is presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dendritic growth model of multilevel marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, James Christopher S.; Monterola, Christopher P.

    2017-02-01

    Biologically inspired dendritic network growth is utilized to model the evolving connections of a multilevel marketing (MLM) enterprise. Starting from agents at random spatial locations, a network is formed by minimizing a distance cost function controlled by a parameter, termed the balancing factor bf, that weighs the wiring and the path length costs of connection. The paradigm is compared to an actual MLM membership data and is shown to be successful in statistically capturing the membership distribution, better than the previously reported agent based preferential attachment or analytic branching process models. Moreover, it recovers the known empirical statistics of previously studied MLM, specifically: (i) a membership distribution characterized by the existence of peak levels indicating limited growth, and (ii) an income distribution obeying the 80 - 20 Pareto principle. Extensive types of income distributions from uniform to Pareto to a "winner-take-all" kind are also modeled by varying bf. Finally, the robustness of our dendritic growth paradigm to random agent removals is explored and its implications to MLM income distributions are discussed.

  8. High Surface Area Dendrite Nanoelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan; Glover, Jennifer; Goyal, Saurabh; Simidjiysky, Svetoslav; Naughton, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Solution-based electrodeposition of metal using a low ion concentration, surface passivation agents, and/or electrochemical crystal conditioning has allowed for the formation of high surface area metal electrodes, useful for Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. Additionally, high frequency electrical oscillations have been used to electrically connect co-planar electrodes, a process called directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA). These approaches aim to control the crystal face that metal atoms in solution will nucleate onto, thus causing anisotropic growth of metal crystals. However, DENA has not been used to create high surface area electrodes, and no study has been conducted on the effect of micron-scale surface topography on the initial nucleation of metal crystals on the electrode surface. When DENA is used to create a high surface area electrode, such a texture has a strong impact on the subsequent topography of the three dimensional dendritic structures by limiting the areal density of crystals on the electrode surface. Such structures both demonstrate unique physics concerning the nucleation of metal dendrites, and offer a unique and highly facile fabrication method of high surface area electrodes, useful for chemical and biological sensing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  9. Astrocytes refine cortical connectivity at dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Risher, W Christopher; Patel, Sagar; Kim, Il Hwan; Uezu, Akiyoshi; Bhagat, Srishti; Wilton, Daniel K; Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Calhan, Osman Y; Silver, Debra L; Stevens, Beth; Calakos, Nicole; Soderling, Scott H; Eroglu, Cagla

    2014-01-01

    During cortical synaptic development, thalamic axons must establish synaptic connections despite the presence of the more abundant intracortical projections. How thalamocortical synapses are formed and maintained in this competitive environment is unknown. Here, we show that astrocyte-secreted protein hevin is required for normal thalamocortical synaptic connectivity in the mouse cortex. Absence of hevin results in a profound, long-lasting reduction in thalamocortical synapses accompanied by a transient increase in intracortical excitatory connections. Three-dimensional reconstructions of cortical neurons from serial section electron microscopy (ssEM) revealed that, during early postnatal development, dendritic spines often receive multiple excitatory inputs. Immuno-EM and confocal analyses revealed that majority of the spines with multiple excitatory contacts (SMECs) receive simultaneous thalamic and cortical inputs. Proportion of SMECs diminishes as the brain develops, but SMECs remain abundant in Hevin-null mice. These findings reveal that, through secretion of hevin, astrocytes control an important developmental synaptic refinement process at dendritic spines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04047.001 PMID:25517933

  10. Abdomen disease diagnosis in CT images using flexiscale curvelet transform and improved genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Gaurav; Saini, B S

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an abdomen disease diagnostic system based on the flexi-scale curvelet transform, which uses different optimal scales for extracting features from computed tomography (CT) images. To optimize the scale of the flexi-scale curvelet transform, we propose an improved genetic algorithm. The conventional genetic algorithm assumes that fit parents will likely produce the healthiest offspring that leads to the least fit parents accumulating at the bottom of the population, reducing the fitness of subsequent populations and delaying the optimal solution search. In our improved genetic algorithm, combining the chromosomes of a low-fitness and a high-fitness individual increases the probability of producing high-fitness offspring. Thereby, all of the least fit parent chromosomes are combined with high fit parent to produce offspring for the next population. In this way, the leftover weak chromosomes cannot damage the fitness of subsequent populations. To further facilitate the search for the optimal solution, our improved genetic algorithm adopts modified elitism. The proposed method was applied to 120 CT abdominal images; 30 images each of normal subjects, cysts, tumors and stones. The features extracted by the flexi-scale curvelet transform were more discriminative than conventional methods, demonstrating the potential of our method as a diagnostic tool for abdomen diseases.

  11. Role of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Reoperative Abdomen or Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Feigel, Amanda; Sylla, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy has become widely accepted as the preferred surgical approach in the management of benign and malignant colorectal diseases. Once considered a relative contraindication in patients with prior abdominal surgery (PAS), as surgeons have continued to gain expertise in advanced laparoscopy, minimally invasive approaches have been increasingly incorporated in the reoperative abdomen and pelvis. Although earlier studies have described conversion rates, most contemporary series evaluating the impact of PAS in laparoscopic colorectal resection have reported equivalent conversion and morbidity rates between reoperative and non-reoperative cases, and series evaluating the impact of laparoscopy in reoperative cases have demonstrated improved short-term outcomes with laparoscopy. The data overall highlight the importance of case selection, careful preoperative preparation and planning, and the critical role of surgeons' expertise in advanced laparoscopic techniques. Challenges to the widespread adoption of minimally invasive techniques in reoperative colorectal cases include the longer learning curve and longer operative time. However, with the steady increase in adoption of minimally invasive techniques worldwide, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is likely to continue to be applied in the management of increasingly complex reoperative colorectal cases in an effort to improve patient outcomes. In the hands of experienced MIS surgeons and in carefully selected cases, laparoscopy is both safe and efficacious for reoperative procedures in the abdomen and pelvis, with measurable short-term benefits. PMID:28642675

  12. Estimation of organ and effective doses from newborn radiography of the chest and abdomen.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hillgan; Elbakri, Idris A; Reed, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Neonatal intensive care patients undergo frequent chest and abdomen radiographic imaging. In this study, the organ doses and the effective dose resulting from combined chest-abdomen radiography of the newborn child are determined. These values are calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation software PCXCM 2.0 and compared with direct dose measurements obtained from thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) in a physical phantom. The effective dose obtained from PCXMC is 21.2 ± 0.7 μSv and that obtained from TLD measurements is 22.0 ± 0.5 μSv. While the two methods are in close agreement with regard to the effective dose, there is a wide range of variation in organ doses, ranging from 85 % difference for the testes to 1.4 % for the lungs. Large organ dose variations are attributed to organs at the edge of the field of view, or organs with large experimental error or simulation uncertainty. This study suggests that PCXMC can be used to estimate organ and effective doses for newborn patients.

  13. Ruptured Hemorrhagic Corpus Luteum Cyst in an Undescended Ovary: A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Soo; Han, Si Eun; Yun, Ka Yeong; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Yoon, Man Soo

    2016-02-01

    Undescended ovaries are typically detected during infertility evaluations and are frequently associated with uterine malformations. Ruptured hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst of an undescended ovary is an unusual cause of acute abdomen in an adolescent. A 15-year-old girl presented with right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and vomiting, and transabdominal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed a 10 cm × 5 cm sized cystic mass at the level of the pelvic brim, anterior to the psoas muscle suggestive of a retroperitoneal hemorrhagic cyst. At surgery, the uterus and left adnexa appeared normal, but the right ovary was not visible within the pelvic cavity, and the right pelvic retroperitoneum was distended. After opening the retroperitoneum and aspirating blood clots, the undescended ovary with a ruptured cyst was visualized within the retroperitoneum. Right ovarian wedge resection was performed and the right ovary was repositioned in the pelvic cavity. Rupture of a corpus luteum cyst in an undescended ovary should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prostheses size dependency of the mechanical response of the herniated human abdomen.

    PubMed

    Simón-Allué, R; Hernández-Gascón, B; Lèoty, L; Bellón, J M; Peña, E; Calvo, B

    2016-12-01

    Hernia repairs still exhibit clinical complications, i.e. recurrence, discomfort and pain and mesh features are thought to be highly influent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the defect size and mesh type in an herniated abdominal wall using numerical models. To do so, we have started from a FE model based on a real human abdomen geometry obtained by MRI, where we have provoked an incisional hernia of three different sizes. The surgical procedure was simulated by covering the hernia with a prostheses, and three surgical meshes with distinct mechanical properties were used for the hernia repair: an isotropic heavy-weight mesh (Surgipro @ ), a slightly anisotropic light-weight mesh (Optilene @ ) and a highly anisotropic medium-weight mesh (Infinit @ ). The mechanical response of the wall to a high intraabdominal pressure (corresponding to a coughing motion) was analyzed here. Our findings suggest that the anisotropy of the mesh becomes more relevant with the increase of the defect size. Additionally, according to our results Optilene @ showed the closest deformation to the natural distensibility of the abdomen while Infinit @ should be carefully used due to its excessive compliance.

  15. Original Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  16. Using Medical Claims for Policy Effectiveness Surveillance: Reimbursement and Utilization of Abdomen/Pelvis Computed Tomography Scans.

    PubMed

    Horný, Michal; Morgan, Jake R; Merker, Vanessa L

    2015-12-01

    To quantify changes in private insurance payments for and utilization of abdominal/pelvic computed tomography scans (CTs) after 2011 changes in CPT coding and Medicare reimbursement rates, which were designed to reduce costs stemming from misvalued procedures. TruvenHealth Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. We used difference-in-differences models to compare combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis to CTs of the abdomen or pelvis only. Our main outcomes were inflation-adjusted log payments per procedure, daily utilization rates, and total annual payments. Claims data were extracted for all abdominal/pelvic CTs performed in 2009-2011 within noncapitated, employer-sponsored private plans. Adjusted payments per combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis dropped by 23.8 percent (p < .0001), and their adjusted daily utilization rate accelerated by 0.36 percent (p = .034) per month after January 2011. Utilization rate of abdominal-only or pelvic-only CTs dropped by 5.0 percent (p < .0001). Total annual payments for combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis decreased in 2011 despite the increased utilization. Private insurance payments for combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis declined and utilization accelerated significantly after 2011 policy changes. While growth in total annual payments was contained in 2011, it may not be sustained if 2011 utilization trends persist. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Dendritic cell reprogramming by endogenously produced lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Aikaterini; Fekete, Tünde; Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Snowden, Stuart; Rajnavölgyi, Eva; Catrina, Anca I; Wheelock, Craig E; Vivar, Nancy; Rethi, Bence

    2013-09-15

    The demand for controlling T cell responses via dendritic cell (DC) vaccines initiated a quest for reliable and feasible DC modulatory strategies that would facilitate cytotoxicity against tumors or tolerance in autoimmunity. We studied endogenous mechanisms in developing monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) that can induce inflammatory or suppressor programs during differentiation, and we identified a powerful autocrine pathway that, in a cell concentration-dependent manner, strongly interferes with inflammatory DC differentiation. MoDCs developing at low cell culture density have superior ability to produce inflammatory cytokines, to induce Th1 polarization, and to migrate toward the lymphoid tissue chemokine CCL19. On the contrary, MoDCs originated from dense cultures produce IL-10 but no inflammatory cytokines upon activation. DCs from high-density cultures maintained more differentiation plasticity and can develop to osteoclasts. The cell concentration-dependent pathway was independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a known endogenous regulator of MoDC differentiation. Instead, it acted through lactic acid, which accumulated in dense cultures and induced an early and long-lasting reprogramming of MoDC differentiation. Our results suggest that the lactic acid-mediated inhibitory pathway could be efficiently manipulated in developing MoDCs to influence the immunogenicity of DC vaccines.

  18. Cutaneous myeloid dendritic cell dyscrasia: A cutaneous clonal monocytosis associated with chronic myeloproliferative disorders and peripheral blood monocytosis.

    PubMed

    Magro, Cynthia M; Momtahen, Shabnam; Verma, Shalini; Abraham, Ronnie M; Friedman, Constantin; Nuovo, Gerard J; Tam, Wayne

    2016-12-01

    Monocytes are critical components of the innate immune system and they can differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). Cutaneous neoplasms of dendritic cell origin are uncommon and mostly represented by histiocytic lesions derived primarily from Langerhans cells. The myeloid DC (mDC) while recognized in the immunology literature does not have a well-defined neoplastic cutaneous counterpart. Eleven patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous mDC dyscrasia were evaluated. Routine hematoxylin and eosin stain were performed followed by selective phenotypic studies. The patients were older without a gender predilection and exhibited an asymptomatic papular skin rash with a waxing and waning course. The biopsies demonstrated a dermal based monomorphic small mononuclear cell infiltrate. The cells expressed CD14, CD11c, HLA-DR, as well as granzyme and lysozyme that defines terminally differentiated monocyte/dendritic cells. Expression of BDCA-3 (CD141) by the tumor cells indicated that they were myeloid dendritic cells (mDC2). Each patient had a prior or subsequent diagnosis of an abnormal bone marrow biopsy that included myelodysplastic syndrome, myelofibrosis, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. We propose the term cutaneous mDC cell dyscrasia for distinctive infiltrates of differentiated mDCs reflective of underlying myeloproliferative disease. The clinical course is variable and can be indolent although it is strongly correlated with myelodysplastic syndrome that included leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematical foundations of the dendritic growth models.

    PubMed

    Villacorta, José A; Castro, Jorge; Negredo, Pilar; Avendaño, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    At present two growth models describe successfully the distribution of size and topological complexity in populations of dendritic trees with considerable accuracy and simplicity, the BE model (Van Pelt et al. in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997) and the S model (Van Pelt and Verwer in Bull. Math. Biol. 48:197-211, 1986). This paper discusses the mathematical basis of these models and analyzes quantitatively the relationship between the BE model and the S model assumed in the literature by developing a new explicit equation describing the BES model (a dendritic growth model integrating the features of both preceding models; Van Pelt et al. in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997). In numerous studies it is implicitly presupposed that the S model is conditionally linked to the BE model (Granato and Van Pelt in Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 142:223-227, 2003; Uylings and Van Pelt in Network 13:397-414, 2002; Van Pelt, Dityatev and Uylings in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997; Van Pelt and Schierwagen in Math. Biosci. 188:147-155, 2004; Van Pelt and Uylings in Network. 13:261-281, 2002; Van Pelt, Van Ooyen and Uylings in Modeling Dendritic Geometry and the Development of Nerve Connections, pp 179, 2000). In this paper we prove the non-exactness of this assumption, quantify involved errors and determine the conditions under which the BE and S models can be separately used instead of the BES model, which is more exact but considerably more difficult to apply. This study leads to a novel expression describing the BE model in an analytical closed form, much more efficient than the traditional iterative equation (Van Pelt et al. in J. Comp. Neurol. 387:325-340, 1997) in many neuronal classes. Finally we propose a new algorithm in order to obtain the values of the parameters of the BE model when this growth model is matched to experimental data, and discuss its advantages and improvements over the more commonly used procedures.

  20. A Case Report and Literature Review of Scrub Typhus With Acute Abdomen and Septic Shock in a Child-The Role of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis and Granulysin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsiung; Cheng, Yu-Pin; Chang, Po-Sheng; Lo, Chiao-Wei; Lin, Lung-Huang; Lu, Chin-Fang; Chung, Wen-Hung

    2018-04-24

    Scrub typhus is becoming a clinically important cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Taiwan. The incubation period is between 6 and 21 days after exposure. It is transmitted by chiggers (larva of trombiculid mite) in long grasses and in dirt-floor homes, with infection characterized by a flu-like illness of fever, headache, and myalgia lasting approximately 1 week. It has various systemic manifestations, including GI symptoms. In some, the illness progresses to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and death. We report on a 13-year-old boy who lived in Taipei City and who had initially tentative diagnosis of acute pyrexia of unknown origin with high fever up to 40.3°C for 1 week, but later had thrombocytopenia and diffuse abdominal pain with peritoneal sign suspected acute appendicitis. During the clinical course, septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) were noted. There were skin rash in his trunk and extremities and an eschar with black crust surrounded by a scaling erythematous rim on his right buttock. In addition, we got the information of his travel history in Green Island and Orchid Island for 10 days.With the correct antibiotics, vancomycin, meropenem, and doxycycline, the patient was getting better and corresponding with high level of granulysin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The diagnosis of scrub typhus was confirmed by the biopsy of eschar and high quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction values of Orientia tsutsugamushi (16sRNA and 56 kDa) tested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiwan. Histopathological findings of the eschar revealed the leukocytoclastic vasculitis, crust and thrombus formation with many gram-negative microorganisms, O. tsutsugamushi demonstrated by 47 kDa monoclonal antibody immunohistochemical stain and electromicroscopy. After the careful selection of appropriate antibiotics including meropenem, vancomycin, and doxycycline, he recovered and was subsequently discharged 7 days

  1. Input transformation by dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, most inputs received by a neuron are formed on the dendritic tree. In the neocortex, the dendrites of pyramidal neurons are covered by thousands of tiny protrusions known as dendritic spines, which are the major recipient sites for excitatory synaptic information in the brain. Their peculiar morphology, with a small head connected to the dendritic shaft by a slender neck, has inspired decades of theoretical and more recently experimental work in an attempt to understand how excitatory synaptic inputs are processed, stored and integrated in pyramidal neurons. Advances in electrophysiological, optical and genetic tools are now enabling us to unravel the biophysical and molecular mechanisms controlling spine function in health and disease. Here I highlight relevant findings, challenges and hypotheses on spine function, with an emphasis on the electrical properties of spines and on how these affect the storage and integration of excitatory synaptic inputs in pyramidal neurons. In an attempt to make sense of the published data, I propose that the raison d'etre for dendritic spines lies in their ability to undergo activity-dependent structural and molecular changes that can modify synaptic strength, and hence alter the gain of the linearly integrated sub-threshold depolarizations in pyramidal neuron dendrites before the generation of a dendritic spike. PMID:25520626

  2. Dendritic cells in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Tran, Dinh; Killingsworth, Murray C; Buckland, Michael; Lord, Reginald V N

    2009-01-01

    Like other premalignant conditions that develop in the presence of chronic inflammation, the development and progression of Barrett's esophagus is associated with the development of an immune response, but how this immune response is regulated is poorly understood. A comprehensive literature search failed to find any report of the presence of dendritic cells in Barrett's intestinal metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma and this prompted our study. We used immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy to examine whether dendritic cells are present in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD83, a specific marker for dendritic cells, was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of Barrett's intestinal metaplasia (IM, n = 12), dysplasia (n = 11) and adenocarcinoma (n = 14). CD83+ cells were identified in the lamina propria surrounding intestinal type glands in Barrett's IM, dysplasia, and cancer tissues. Computerized quantitative analysis showed that the numbers of dendritic cells were significantly higher in cancer tissues. Double immunostaining with CD83, CD20, and CD3, and electron microscopy demonstrated that dendritic cells are present in Barrett's esophagus and form clusters with T cells and B cells directly within the lamina propria. These findings demonstrate that dendritic cells are present in Barrett's tissues, with a significant increase in density in adenocarcinoma compared to benign Barrett's esophagus. Dendritic cells may have a role in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy treatment of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma.

  3. Adolescent cocaine exposure simplifies orbitofrontal cortical dendritic arbors

    PubMed Central

    DePoy, Lauren M.; Perszyk, Riley E.; Zimmermann, Kelsey S.; Koleske, Anthony J.; Gourley, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine and amphetamine remodel dendritic spines within discrete cortico-limbic brain structures including the orbitofrontal cortex (oPFC). Whether dendrite structure is similarly affected, and whether pre-existing cellular characteristics influence behavioral vulnerabilities to drugs of abuse, remain unclear. Animal models provide an ideal venue to address these issues because neurobehavioral phenotypes can be defined both before, and following, drug exposure. We exposed mice to cocaine from postnatal days 31–35, corresponding to early adolescence, using a dosing protocol that causes impairments in an instrumental reversal task in adulthood. We then imaged and reconstructed excitatory neurons in deep-layer oPFC. Prior cocaine exposure shortened and simplified arbors, particularly in the basal region. Next, we imaged and reconstructed orbital neurons in a developmental-genetic model of cocaine vulnerability—the p190rhogap+/– mouse. p190RhoGAP is an actin cytoskeleton regulatory protein that stabilizes dendrites and dendritic spines, and p190rhogap+/– mice develop rapid and robust locomotor activation in response to cocaine. Despite this, oPFC dendritic arbors were intact in drug-naïve p190rhogap+/– mice. Together, these findings provide evidence that adolescent cocaine exposure has long-term effects on dendrite structure in the oPFC, and they suggest that cocaine-induced modifications in dendrite structure may contribute to the behavioral effects of cocaine more so than pre-existing structural abnormalities in this cell population. PMID:25452728

  4. Quantifying the Number of Discriminable Coincident Dendritic Input Patterns through Dendritic Tree Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Current developments in neuronal physiology are unveiling novel roles for dendrites. Experiments have shown mechanisms of non-linear synaptic NMDA dependent activations, able to discriminate input patterns through the waveforms of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Contextually, the synaptic clustering of inputs is the principal cellular strategy to separate groups of common correlated inputs. Dendritic branches appear to work as independent discriminating units of inputs potentially reflecting an extraordinary repertoire of pattern memories. However, it is unclear how these observations could impact our comprehension of the structural correlates of memory at the cellular level. This work investigates the discrimination capabilities of neurons through computational biophysical models to extract a predicting law for the dendritic input discrimination capability (M). By this rule we compared neurons from a neuron reconstruction repository (neuromorpho.org). Comparisons showed that primate neurons were not supported by an equivalent M preeminence and that M is not uniformly distributed among neuron types. Remarkably, neocortical neurons had substantially less memory capacity in comparison to those from non-cortical regions. In conclusion, the proposed rule predicts the inherent neuronal spatial memory gathering potentially relevant anatomical and evolutionary considerations about the brain cytoarchitecture. PMID:26100354

  5. Efficient estimation of diffusion during dendritic solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeum, K. S.; Poirier, D. R.; Laxmanan, V.

    1989-01-01

    A very efficient finite difference method has been developed to estimate the solute redistribution during solidification with diffusion in the solid. This method is validated by comparing the computed results with the results of an analytical solution derived by Kobayashi (1988) for the assumptions of a constant diffusion coefficient, a constant equilibrium partition ratio, and a parabolic rate of the advancement of the solid/liquid interface. The flexibility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the dendritic solidification of a Pb-15 wt pct Sn alloy, for which the equilibrium partition ratio and diffusion coefficient vary substantially during solidification. The fraction eutectic at the end of solidification is also obtained by estimating the fraction solid, in greater resolution, where the concentration of solute in the interdendritic liquid reaches the eutectic composition of the alloy.

  6. Induction of RNA interference in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Qian, Hua; Ichim, Thomas E; Ge, Wei-Wen; Popov, Igor A; Rycerz, Katarzyna; Neu, John; White, David; Zhong, Robert; Min, Wei-Ping

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) reside at the center of the immunological universe, possessing the ability both to stimulate and inhibit various types of responses. Tolerogenic/regulatory DC with therapeutic properties can be generated through various means of manipulations in vitro and in vivo. Here we describe several attractive strategies for manipulation of DC using the novel technique of RNA interference (RNAi). Additionally, we overview some of our data regarding yet undescribed characteristics of RNAi in DC such as specific transfection strategies, persistence of gene silencing, and multi-gene silencing. The advantages of using RNAi for DC genetic manipulation gives rise to the promise of generating tailor-made DC that can be used effectively to treat a variety of immunologically mediated diseases.

  7. Harnessing dendritic cells in inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chung-Ching; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O.

    2011-01-01

    The skin immune system harbors a complex network of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies highlight a diverse functional specialization of skin DC subsets. In addition to generating cellular and humoral immunity against pathogens, skin DCs are involved in tolerogenic mechanisms to ensure the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the skin when excessive immune responses are initiated and unrestrained. Harnessing DCs by directly targeting DC-derived molecules or selectively modulate DC subsets is a convincing strategy to tackle inflammatory skin diseases. In this review we discuss recent advances underlining the functional specialization of skin DCs and discuss the potential implication for future DC-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:21295490

  8. Harnessing dendritic cells in inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chung-Ching; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-02-01

    The skin immune system harbors a complex network of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies highlight a diverse functional specialization of skin DC subsets. In addition to generating cellular and humoral immunity against pathogens, skin DCs are involved in tolerogenic mechanisms to ensure the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the skin when excessive immune responses are initiated and unrestrained. Harnessing DCs by directly targeting DC-derived molecules or selectively modulate DC subsets is a convincing strategy to tackle inflammatory skin diseases. In this review we discuss recent advances underlining the functional specialization of skin DCs and discuss the potential implication for future DC-based therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting dendritic cells--why bother?

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Martin; Tacken, Paul J; Figdor, Carl G

    2013-04-11

    Vaccination is among the most efficient forms of immunotherapy. Although sometimes inducing lifelong protective B-cell responses, T-cell-mediated immunity remains challenging. Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is an extensively explored concept aimed at improving cellular immunity. The identification of various DC subsets with distinct functional characteristics now allows for the fine-tuning of targeting strategies. Although some of these DC subsets are regarded as superior for (cross-) priming of naive T cells, controversies still remain about which subset represents the best target for immunotherapy. Because targeting the antigen alone may not be sufficient to obtain effective T-cell responses, delivery systems have been developed to target multiple vaccine components to DCs. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of targeting DCs: if targeting is beneficial at all and which vaccine vehicles and immunization routes represent promising strategies to reach and activate DCs.

  10. Antitumor immune responses mediated by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Spel, Lotte; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; Nierkens, Stefan; Boes, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the induction of adaptive immune responses against malignant cells by virtue of their capacity to effectively cross-present exogenous antigens to T lymphocytes. Dying cancer cells are indeed a rich source of antigens that may be harnessed for the development of DC-based vaccines. In particular, malignant cells succumbing to apoptosis, rather than necrosis, appear to release antigens in a manner that allows for the elicitation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the processes that mediate the cross-presentation of antigens released by apoptotic cancer cells to CD8+ T lymphocytes, resulting in the activation of protective tumor-specific immune responses. PMID:24482744

  11. Role of Dendritic Cells in Immune Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, Cherylyn A.

    1998-01-01

    The specific aims of the project were: (1) Application of the NASA bioreactor to enhance cytokine-regulated proliferation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC). (2) Compare the frequency and function of DC in normal donors and immunocompromised cancer patients. (3) Analyze the effectiveness of cytokine therapy and DC-assisted immunotherapy (using bioreactor-expanded DC) in a murine model of experimental fungal disease. Our investigations have provided new insight into DC immunobiology and have led to the development of methodology to evaluate DC in blood of normal donors and patients. Information gained from these studies has broadened our understanding of possible mechanisms involved in the immune dysfunction of space travelers and earth-bound cancer patients, and could contribute to the design of novel therapies to restore/preserve immunity in these individuals. Several new avenues of investigation were also revealed. The results of studies completed during Round 2 are summarized.

  12. Dendritic integration: 60 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Greg J; Spruston, Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how individual neurons integrate the thousands of synaptic inputs they receive is critical to understanding how the brain works. Modeling studies in silico and experimental work in vitro, dating back more than half a century, have revealed that neurons can perform a variety of different passive and active forms of synaptic integration on their inputs. But how are synaptic inputs integrated in the intact brain? With the development of new techniques, this question has recently received substantial attention, with new findings suggesting that many of the forms of synaptic integration observed in vitro also occur in vivo, including in awake animals. Here we review six decades of progress, which collectively highlights the complex ways that single neurons integrate their inputs, emphasizing the critical role of dendrites in information processing in the brain.

  13. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations—the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons. PMID:29205151

  14. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites.

    PubMed

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Richards, Blake A

    2017-12-05

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations-the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  15. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=сΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  16. Lens and dendrite formation during colloidal solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worster, Grae; You, Jiaxue

    2017-11-01

    Colloidal particles in suspension are forced into a variety of morphologies when the suspending fluid medium is frozen: soil is compacted between ice lenses during frost heave; ice templating is a recent and growing technology to produce bio-inspired, micro-porous materials; cells and tissue can be damaged during cryosurgery; and metal-matrix composites with tailored microstructure can be fabricated by controlled casting. Various instabilities that affect the microscopic morphology are controlled by fluid flow through the compacted layer of particles that accumulates ahead of the solidification front. By analysing the flow in connection with equilibrium phase relationships, we develop a theoretical framework that identifies two different mechanisms for ice-lens formation, with and without a frozen fringe, identifies the external parameters that differentiates between them and the possibility of dendritic formations, and unifies a range of apparently disparate conclusions drawn from previous experimental studies. China Scholarship Council and the British Council.

  17. Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function in Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Said, André; Weindl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells and link the innate and adaptive immune system. During steady state immune surveillance in skin, DC act as sentinels against commensals and invading pathogens. Under pathological skin conditions, inflammatory cytokines, secreted by surrounding keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and immune cells, influence the activation and maturation of different DC populations including Langerhans cells (LC) and dermal DC. In this review we address critical differences in human DC subtypes during inflammatory settings compared to steady state. We also highlight the functional characteristics of human DC subsets in inflammatory skin environments and skin diseases including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Understanding the complex immunoregulatory role of distinct DC subsets in inflamed human skin will be a key element in developing novel strategies in anti-inflammatory therapy.

  18. Dendritic cells: key to fetal tolerance?

    PubMed

    Blois, Sandra M; Kammerer, Ulrike; Alba Soto, Catalina; Tometten, Mareike C; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Jurd, Richard; Rukavina, Daniel; Thomson, Angus W; Klapp, Burghard F; Fernández, Nelson; Arck, Petra C

    2007-10-01

    Pregnancy is a unique event in which a fetus, despite being genetically and immunologically different from the mother (a hemi-allograft), develops in the uterus. Successful pregnancy implies avoidance of rejection by the maternal immune system. Fetal and maternal immune cells come into direct contact at the decidua, which is a highly specialized mucous membrane that plays a key role in fetal tolerance. Uterine dendritic cells (DC) within the decidua have been implicated in pregnancy maintenance. DC serve as antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. Just as lymphocytes comprise different subsets, DC subsets have been identified that differentially control lymphocyte function. DC may also act to induce immunologic tolerance and regulation of T cell-mediated immunity. Current understanding of DC immunobiology within the context of mammalian fetal-maternal tolerance is reviewed and discussed herein.

  19. Dendritic cell control of tolerogenic responses

    PubMed Central

    Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Pulendran, Bali

    2011-01-01

    Summary One of the most fundamental problems in immunology is the seemingly schizophrenic ability of the immune system to launch robust immunity against pathogens, while acquiring and maintaining a state of tolerance to the body’s own tissues and the trillions of commensal microorganisms and food antigens that confront it every day. A fundamental role for the innate immune system, particularly dendritic cells (DCs), in orchestrating immunological tolerance has been appreciated, but emerging studies have highlighted the nature of the innate receptors and the signaling pathways that program DCs to a tolerogenic state. Furthermore, several studies have emphasized the major role played by cellular interactions, and the microenvironment in programming tolerogenic DCs. Here we review these studies and suggest that the innate control of tolerogenic responses can be viewed as different hierarchies of organization, in which DCs, their innate receptors and signaling networks, and their interactions with other cells and local microenvironments represent different levels of the hierarchy. PMID:21488899

  20. Communications: Mechanical Deformation of Dendrites by Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilling, J.; Hellawell, A.

    1996-01-01

    It is generally accepted that liquid agitation during alloy solidification assists in crystal multiplication, as in dendrite fragmentation and the detachment of side arms in the mushy region of a casting. Even without deliberate stirring by electromagnetic or mechanical means, there is often vigorous interdendritic fluid flow promoted by natural thermosolutal convection. In this analysis, we shall estimate the stress at the root of a secondary dendrite arm of aluminum arising from the action of a flow of molten metal past the dendrite arm.

  1. Dendritic Growth of Hard-Sphere Crystals. Experiment 34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russel, W. B.; Chaikin, P. M.; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Meyer, W. V.; Rogers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent observations of the disorder-order transition for colloidal hard spheres under microgravity revealed dendritic crystallites roughly 1-2 mm in size for samples in the coexistence region of the phase diagram. Order-of-magnitude estimates rationalize the absence of large or dendritic crystals under normal gravity and their stability to annealing in microgravity. A linear stability analysis of the Ackerson and Schaetzel model for crystallization of hard spheres establishes the domain of instability for diffusion-limited growth at small supersaturations. The relationship between hard-sphere and molecular crystal growth is established and exploited to relate the predicted linear instability to the well-developed dendrites observed.

  2. Dendritic cells in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, S; Fearnley, D B; Gunningham, S; Spearing, R L; Patton, W N; Hart, D N

    1999-06-01

    Blood dendritic cells (DC) differentiate in vitro via two separate pathways: either directly from blood DC precursors (DCp) or from CD14+ monocytes. In chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) abnormal bone marrow precursors contribute to blood monocyte development but DC development has not been studied previously. Monocytes comprised 60% of blood MNC in 15 CMML patients studied, compared with 20% in 16 age-matched controls. The increase in blood monocytes was accompanied by a reciprocal decrease in mean blood DC percentage (from 0.42% of MNC in normal individuals to 0.16% of MNC in CMML patients). Absolute blood DC numbers showed a minimal (non-significant) reduction from 9.8 x 10(6)/l in normal individuals to 7.5 x 10(6)/l in CMML patients. The CD14(low) WCD16+ monocyte subpopulation was not found in CMML patients. After culture in GM-CSF/IL-4, CMML CD14+ monocytes acquired the phenotype of immature monocyte derived DC (Mo-DC) with similar yields to normal blood Mo-DC generation. Addition of TNF-alpha or LPS induced both normal and CMML Mo-DC to express prominent dendritic processes, the CMRF44+ and CD83+ antigens and high levels of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86. Treatment either with TNF-alpha or LPS increased the allostimulatory activity of normal Mo-DC, but had little effect on the allostimulatory activity of CMML Mo-DC, perhaps reflecting the underlying neoplastic changes in monocyte precursors. We conclude that the blood DC numbers are relatively unaffected in CMML, suggesting discrete regulation of monocyte and DC production.

  3. Growth of a Dendritic Channel Network (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D.; Abrams, D. M.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A. P.; Lobkovsky, A. E.; Straub, K. M.; McElroy, B.; Mohrig, D. C.; Kudrolli, A.

    2009-12-01

    Dendritic channel networks are a ubiquitous feature of Earth's topography. A half century of work has detailed their scale-invariant geometry. But relatively little is known about how such networks grow, especially in natural settings at geologic time scales. This talk addresses the growth of a particularly simple class of channel networks: those which drain groundwater. We focus on a pristine field site in the Florida Panhandle, in which channels extending for kilometers have been incised vertically through tens of meters of ancient beach sands. We first show how the flow of subsurface water interacts with the planform geometry of the network. Ground-penetrating radar images of the water table shape near a highly-ramified section of the network provide a qualitative view of groundwater focusing. Noting that the water table represents a balance between water input via rain and water flowing into the channel network, we solve for the steady state shape of the water table around the entire network and the associated water fluxes. Comparison of predicted and measured fluxes shows that the ramified structure of the Florida network is consistent with uniformly forced unstable growth through a homogeneous medium. In other words, the dendritic pattern results intrinsically from growth dynamics rather than geologic heterogeneity. We then use these observations to show that the growth of groundwater-driven networks can be described by two linear response laws. Remarkably, one of these growth laws is reversible, which allows us to reconstruct network history and estimate network age. A particularly striking feature of the Florida network is the existence of a characteristic length scale between channels. Our theory predicts how this length scale evolves, thereby linking network growth to geometric form. Reference: D. M. Abrams, A. E. Lobkovsky, A. P. Petroff, K. M. Straub, B. McElroy, D. C. Mohrig, A. Kudrolli, and D. H. Rothman,, Growth laws for channel networks incised by

  4. Accuracy and precision of flash glucose monitoring sensors inserted into the abdomen and upper thigh compared with the upper arm.

    PubMed

    Charleer, Sara; Mathieu, Chantal; Nobels, Frank; Gillard, Pieter

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, most Belgian patients with type 1 diabetes use flash glucose monitoring (FreeStyle Libre [FSL]; Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, California) to check their glucose values, but some patients find the sensor on the upper arm too visible. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy and precision of FSL sensors when placed on different sites. A total of 23 adults with type 1 diabetes used three FSL sensors simultaneously for 14 days on the upper arm, abdomen and upper thigh. FSL measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose (BG) measurements obtained with a built-in FSL BG meter. The aggregated mean absolute relative difference was 11.8 ± 12.0%, 18.5 ± 18.4% and 12.3 ± 13.8% for the arm, abdomen (P = .002 vs arm) and thigh (P = .5 vs arm), respectively. Results of Clarke error grid analysis for the arm and thigh were similar (zone A: 84.9% vs 84.5%; P = .6), while less accuracy was seen for the abdomen (zone A: 69.4%; P = .01). Apart from the first day, the accuracy of FSL sensors on the arm and thigh was more stable across the 14-day wear duration than accuracy of sensors on the abdomen, which deteriorated mainly during week 2 (P < .0005). The aggregated precision absolute relative difference was markedly lower for the arm/thigh (10.9 ± 11.9%) compared with the arm/abdomen (20.9 ± 22.8%; P = .002). Our results indicate that the accuracy and precision of FSL sensors placed on the upper thigh are similar to the upper arm, whereas the abdomen performed unacceptably poorly. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dendritic Kv3.3 potassium channels in cerebellar purkinje cells regulate generation and spatial dynamics of dendritic Ca2+ spikes.

    PubMed

    Zagha, Edward; Manita, Satoshi; Ross, William N; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Purkinje cell dendrites are excitable structures with intrinsic and synaptic conductances contributing to the generation and propagation of electrical activity. Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed in the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. However, the functional relevance of this dendritic distribution is not understood. Moreover, mutations in Kv3.3 cause movement disorders in mice and cerebellar atrophy and ataxia in humans, emphasizing the importance of understanding the role of these channels. In this study, we explore functional implications of this dendritic channel expression and compare Purkinje cell dendritic excitability in wild-type and Kv3.3 knockout mice. We demonstrate enhanced excitability of Purkinje cell dendrites in Kv3.3 knockout mice, despite normal resting membrane properties. Combined data from local application pharmacology, voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents, and assessment of dendritic Ca(2+) spike threshold in Purkinje cells suggest a role for Kv3.3 channels in opposing Ca(2+) spike initiation. To study the physiological relevance of altered dendritic excitability, we measured [Ca(2+)](i) changes throughout the dendritic tree in response to climbing fiber activation. Ca(2+) signals were specifically enhanced in distal dendrites of Kv3.3 knockout Purkinje cells, suggesting a role for dendritic Kv3.3 channels in regulating propagation of electrical activity and Ca(2+) influx in distal dendrites. These findings characterize unique roles of Kv3.3 channels in dendrites, with implications for synaptic integration, plasticity, and human disease.

  6. A new method to assess the deformations of internal organs of the abdomen during impact.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein-Didier, Clémentine; Rongiéras, Frédéric; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickaël; Beillas, Philippe

    2016-11-16

    Due to limitations of classic imaging approaches, the internal response of abdominal organs is difficult to observe during an impact. Within the context of impact biomechanics for the protection of the occupant of transports, this could be an issue for human model validation and injury prediction. In the current study, a previously developed technique (ultrafast ultrasound imaging) was used as the basis to develop a protocol to observe the internal response of abdominal organs in situ at high imaging rates. The protocol was applied to 3 postmortem human surrogates to observe the liver and the colon during impacts delivered to the abdomen. The results show the sensitivity of the liver motion to the impact location. Compression of the colon was also quantified and compared to the abdominal compression. These results illustrate the feasibility of the approach. Further tests and comparisons with simulations are under preparation.

  7. Principles of three-dimensional printing and clinical applications within the abdomen and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Bastawrous, Sarah; Wake, Nicole; Levin, Dmitry; Ripley, Beth

    2018-04-04

    Improvements in technology and reduction in costs have led to widespread interest in three-dimensional (3D) printing. 3D-printed anatomical models contribute to personalized medicine, surgical planning, and education across medical specialties, and these models are rapidly changing the landscape of clinical practice. A physical object that can be held in one's hands allows for significant advantages over standard two-dimensional (2D) or even 3D computer-based virtual models. Radiologists have the potential to play a significant role as consultants and educators across all specialties by providing 3D-printed models that enhance clinical care. This article reviews the basics of 3D printing, including how models are created from imaging data, clinical applications of 3D printing within the abdomen and pelvis, implications for education and training, limitations, and future directions.

  8. State of the art: dual-energy CT of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Marin, Daniele; Boll, Daniel T; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C

    2014-05-01

    Recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT)--enabling the nearly simultaneous acquisition of clinical images using two different x-ray energy spectra--have sparked renewed interest in dual-energy CT. By interrogating the unique characteristics of different materials at different x-ray energies, dual-energy CT can be used to provide quantitative information about tissue composition, overcoming the limitations of attenuation-based conventional single-energy CT imaging. In the past few years, intensive research efforts have been devoted to exploiting the unique and powerful opportunities of dual-energy CT for a variety of clinical applications. This has led to CT protocol modifications for radiation dose reduction, improved diagnostic performance for detection and characterization of diseases, as well as image quality optimization. In this review, the authors discuss the basic principles, instrumentation and design, examples of current clinical applications in the abdomen and pelvis, and future opportunities of dual-energy CT.

  9. Spontaneous rupture of a giant non parasitic hepatic cyst presenting as an acute surgical abdomen.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Georgoulis, Epameinondas; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Tsohataridis, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a non parasitic hepatic cyst is an extremely rare occurrence. A 50 -year- old male, was admitted with typical clinical manifestations of acute surgical abdomen. At exploratory laparotomy, a giant ruptured non parasitic cyst occupying the entire left liver lobe was found, along with a large amount of free intraperitoneal fluid. The cyst was widely unroofed very close to the liver parenchyma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged six days later. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and surgical management of this extremely rare clinical entity are discussed, along with a review of the literature. This case, which according to our best knowledge is the fourth reported in the literature, highlights the considerable risk of serious complications associated with the presence of a large symptomatic nonparasitic hepatic cyst. Prophylactic treatment should be considered in all these cases.

  10. Type IV-a choledochal cyst--a rare adolescent presentation as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Satya, Ramadass; Vijayakumar, Vani

    2006-10-01

    A 17-year-old adolescent girl from El Salvador presented to the emergency room (ER) with severe abdominal pain associated with one episode of nausea and vomiting. The pain that started 5 days earlier was sharp in nature and epigastric in location with radiation to back and was relieved by half a tablet of Vicodin. The patient has a history of intermittent epigastric pain for the past 2 years and was treated for Helicobacter pylori for 1 year. In the ER, the serum chemistry demonstrated elevated amylase. Further workup with abdominal ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirmed a type IV-a choledochal cyst with intra- and extrahepatic dilation of bile ducts. We report an unusual acute abdomen presentation of type IV-a choledochal cyst in a 17-year-old young adult from El Salvador.

  11. Deflection measurement system for the hybrid iii six-year-old biofidelic abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gregory, T Stan; Howes, Meghan K; Rouhana, Stephen W; Hardy, Warren N

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for children ages 5 to 14. Enhancement of child occupant protection is partly dependent on the ability to accurately assess the interaction of child-size occupants with restraint systems. Booster seat design and belt fit are evaluated using child anthropomorphic test devices, such as the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy., A biofidelic abdomen for the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy is being developed by the Ford Motor Company to enhance the dummy’s ability to assess injury risk and further quantify submarining risk by measuring abdominal deflection. A practical measurement system for the biofidelic abdominal insert has been developed and demonstrated for three dimensional determination of abdominal deflection. Quantification of insert deflection is achieved via differential signal measurement using electrodes mounted within a conductive medium. Signal amplitude is proportional to the distance between the electrodes. A microcontroller is used to calculate distances between ventral electrodes and a dorsal electrode in three dimensions. This system has been calibrated statically, and its performance demonstrated in a series of sled tests. Deflection measurements from the instrumented abdominal insert indicate performance differences between two booster seat designs, yielding an average peak anterior to posterior displacement of the abdomen of 1.0 ± 3.4 mm and 31.2 ± 7.2 mm for the seats, respectively. Implementation of a 6-year-old abdominal insert with the ability to evaluate submarining potential will likely help safety researchers further enhance booster seat design and interaction with vehicle restraint systems , and help to further understand child occupant injury risk in automobile collisions.

  12. Efficient organ localization using multi-label convolutional neural networks in thorax-abdomen CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrain Humpire-Mamani, Gabriel; Arindra Adiyoso Setio, Arnaud; van Ginneken, Bram; Jacobs, Colin

    2018-04-01

    Automatic localization of organs and other structures in medical images is an important preprocessing step that can improve and speed up other algorithms such as organ segmentation, lesion detection, and registration. This work presents an efficient method for simultaneous localization of multiple structures in 3D thorax-abdomen CT scans. Our approach predicts the location of multiple structures using a single multi-label convolutional neural network for each orthogonal view. Each network takes extra slices around the current slice as input to provide extra context. A sigmoid layer is used to perform multi-label classification. The output of the three networks is subsequently combined to compute a 3D bounding box for each structure. We used our approach to locate 11 structures of interest. The neural network was trained and evaluated on a large set of 1884 thorax-abdomen CT scans from patients undergoing oncological workup. Reference bounding boxes were annotated by human observers. The performance of our method was evaluated by computing the wall distance to the reference bounding boxes. The bounding boxes annotated by the first human observer were used as the reference standard for the test set. Using the best configuration, we obtained an average wall distance of 3.20~+/-~7.33 mm in the test set. The second human observer achieved 1.23~+/-~3.39 mm. For all structures, the results were better than those reported in previously published studies. In conclusion, we proposed an efficient method for the accurate localization of multiple organs. Our method uses multiple slices as input to provide more context around the slice under analysis, and we have shown that this improves performance. This method can easily be adapted to handle more organs.

  13. PROPELLER for motion-robust imaging of in vivo mouse abdomen at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Teh, Irvin; Golay, Xavier; Larkman, David J

    2010-11-01

    In vivo high-field MRI in the abdomen of small animals is technically challenging because of the small voxel sizes, short T(2) and physiological motion. In standard Cartesian sampling, respiratory and gastrointestinal motion can lead to ghosting artefacts. Although respiratory triggering and navigator echoes can either avoid or compensate for motion, they can lead to variable TRs, require invasive intubation and ventilation, or extend TEs. A self-navigated fast spin echo (FSE)-based periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) acquisition was implemented at 9.4 T to enable high-resolution in vivo MRI of mouse abdomen without the use of additional navigators or triggering. T(2)-weighted FSE-PROPELLER data were compared with single-shot FSE and multi-shot FSE data with and without triggering. Single-shot methods, although rapid and robust to motion, demonstrated strong blurring. Multi-shot FSE data showed better resolution, but suffered from marked blurring in the phase-encoding direction and motion in between shots, leading to ghosting artefacts. When respiratory triggering was used, motion artefacts were largely avoided. However, TRs and acquisition times were lengthened by up to approximately 20%. The PROPELLER data showed a 25% and 61% improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio, respectively, compared with multi-shot FSE data, together with a 35% reduction in artefact power. A qualitative comparison between acquisition methods using diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. The results were similar, with the exception that respiratory triggering was unable to exclude major motion artefacts as a result of the sensitisation to motion by the diffusion gradients. The PROPELLER data were of consistently higher quality. Considerations specific to the use of PROPELLER at high field are discussed, including the selection of practical blade widths and the effects on contrast, resolution and artefacts.

  14. Double intestinal duplication and incidental neuroendocrine tumor of appendix, a rare case of acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, G.; Valduga, P.; Costa, A.; Barbareschi, M.; De Carli, N.; Giannelli, G.; Di Sipio, A.; Prezzi, C.; Ciarleglio, F.A.; Beltempo, P.; Marcucci, S.; Giacomin, D.; Depretis, G.; Brolese, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal duplication is rarely reported in adulthood and often remains undiagnosed until onset of complications. We describe the case of a 39 year old woman who came to our observation for acute abdomen due to a combination of double intestinal duplication (colon and ileum) and an incidental neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix. Materials and methods A 39 year old woman who was admitted at with upper abdominal pain. Multisliced spiral CT scan showed a cystic lesion suggestive of an inflammed Meckel’s diverticulum.The patient was underwent an urgent explorative laparoscopy. The intraoperative findings revealed a cystic lesion of the anti-mesenteric side of transverse colon, apparently dissectable from the bowel and a second lesion with a strongly adherent and unresectable from the anti-mesenteric aspect of the small bowel. A combined appendectomy was also performed. The histological diagnosis was consistent with a typical intestinal duplication for both intestinal lesionsand an incidental 2 mm carcinoid tumor was also found in the appendix. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on p.o. day 5. At the presenttime she is well and following a regular oncologic follow-up. Discussion The rarity of this case is due to the concomitant presence of an incidental, sincronous, appendiceal NET. The elective treatment is surgical resection. Conclusion Intestinal duplication in the adulthood is extremely rare and may either have an acute presentation as acute abdomen or represents an incidental finding of mass. We suggest that, once the diagnosis is suspected patient must undergo surgery. PMID:26188982

  15. The deceased organ donor with an "open abdomen": proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Watkins, A C; Vedula, G V; Horan, J; Dellicarpini, K; Pak, S-W; Daly, T; Samstein, B; Kato, T; Emond, J C; Guarrera, J V

    2012-06-01

    In solid organ transplantation, the disparity between donor supply and patients awaiting transplant continues to increase. The organ shortage has led to relaxation of historic contraindications to organ donation. A large percentage of deceased organ donors have been subjected to traumatic injuries, which can often result in intervention that leads to abdominal packing and intensive care unit resuscitation. The donor with this "open abdomen" (OA) presents a situation in which the risk of organ utilization is difficult to quantify. There exists a concern for the potential of a higher risk for both bacterial and fungal infections, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens because of the prevalence of antibiotic use and critical illness in this population. No recommendations have been established for utilization of organs from these OA donors, because data are limited. Herein, we report a case of a 21-year-old donor who had sustained a gunshot wound to his abdomen, resulting in a damage-control laparotomy and abdominal packing. The donor subsequently suffered brain death, and the family consented to organ donation. A multiorgan procurement was performed with respective transplantation of the procured organs (heart, liver, and both kidneys) into 4 separate recipients. Peritoneal swab cultures performed at the time of organ recovery grew out MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the day after procurement, subsequently followed by positive blood and sputum cultures as well. All 4 transplant recipients subsequently developed infections with MDR P. aeruginosa, which appeared to be donor-derived with similar resistance patterns. Appropriate antibiotic coverage was initiated in all of the patients. Although 2 of the recipients died, mortality did not appear to be clearly associated with the donor-derived infections. This case illustrates the potential infectious risk associated with organs from donors with an OA, and suggests that aggressive surveillance for occult infections

  16. Utility of screening computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis in patients after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Tarun W; Pavlovic-Surjancev, Biljana; Dusek, Linda; Patel, Nilamkumar; Heroux, Alain L

    2011-12-01

    Malignancy is a late cause of mortality in heart transplant recipients. It is unknown if screening computed tomography scan would lead to early detection of such malignancies or serious vascular anomalies post heart transplantation. This is a single center observational study of patients undergoing surveillance computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis at least 5 years after transplantation. Abnormal findings, included pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy and intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal masses and vascular anomalies such as abdominal aortic aneurysm. The clinical follow up of each of these major abnormal findings is summarized. A total of 63 patients underwent computed tomography scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis at least 5 years after transplantation. Of these, 54 (86%) were male and 9 (14%) were female. Mean age was 52±9.2 years. Computed tomography revealed 1 lung cancer (squamous cell) only. Non specific pulmonary nodules were seen in 6 patients (9.5%). The most common incidental finding was abdominal aortic aneurysms (N=6 (9.5%)), which necessitated follow up computed tomography (N=5) or surgery (N=1). Mean time to detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms from transplantation was 14.6±4.2 years. Mean age at the time of detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms was 74.5±3.2 years. Screening computed tomography scan in patients 5 years from transplantation revealed only one malignancy but lead to increased detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Thus the utility is low in terms of detection of malignancy. Based on this study we do not recommend routine computed tomography post heart transplantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Small bowel obstruction in the virgin abdomen: time to challenge surgical dogma with evidence.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yvonne Ying-Ru; Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Wong, Andrew Siang-Yih

    2018-01-01

    Although adhesions account for more than 70% of small bowel obstruction (SBO), they are thought to be less likely aetiologies in patients without previous abdominal surgery. Expedient surgery has historically been advocated as prudent management in these patients. Emerging evidence appears to challenge such a dogmatic approach. A retrospective analysis was performed in all SBO patients with a virgin abdomen admitted between January 2012 and August 2014. Patients with obstruction secondary to abdominal wall hernias were excluded. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, management strategy and pathology involved were reviewed. A total of 72 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were males (66.7%), with a median age of 58 years (range: 23-101). Abdominal pain (97%) and vomiting (86%) were the most common presentations while abdominal distention (60%) and constipation (25%) were reported less frequently. Adhesions accounted for the underlying cause in 44 (62%) patients. Other aetiologies included gallstone ileus (n = 5), phytobezoar (n = 5), intussusception (n = 4), internal herniation (n = 4), newly diagnosed small bowel tumour (n = 3), mesenteric volvulus (n = 3), stricture (n = 3) and Meckel's diverticulum (n = 1). Twenty-nine (40%) patients were successfully managed conservatively while the remaining 43 (60%) underwent surgery. The intraoperative findings were in concordance with the preoperative computed tomography scan in 76% of cases. Adhesions remain prevalent despite the absence of previous abdominal surgery. Non-operative management is feasible for SBO in a virgin abdomen. Computed tomography scan can be a useful adjunct in discerning patients who may be treated non-operatively by elucidating the underlying cause of obstruction. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.

    The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymore » is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. As a result, these experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.« less

  19. Kidney dendritic cells in acute and chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hochheiser, Katharina; Tittel, André; Kurts, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Dendritic cells are not only the master regulators of adaptive immunity, but also participate profoundly in innate immune responses. Much has been learned about their basic immunological functions and their roles in various diseases. Comparatively little is still known about their role in renal disease, despite their obvious potential to affect immune responses in the kidney, and immune responses that are directed against renal components. Kidney dendritic cells form an abundant network in the renal tubulointerstitium and constantly survey the environment for signs of injury or infection, in order to alert the immune system to the need to initiate defensive action. Recent studies have identified a role for dendritic cells in several murine models of acute renal injury and chronic nephritis. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of kidney dendritic cells that has been obtained from the study of murine models of renal disease. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites

    DOE PAGES

    Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; ...

    2015-07-03

    The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymore » is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. As a result, these experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.« less

  1. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 02: Quality Improvement: Diagnostic Reference Levels for Interior Health CT exams – L-Spine, Chest/Abdomen/pelvis, Abdomen/Pelvis, Head

    SciTech Connect

    Bjarnason, Thorarin

    Diagnostic Reference Levels are used to optimize patient dose and image quality in the clinical setting. It is assumed that the majority of exams are of diagnostic quality, or the radiologists would request protocol adjustments. By investigating the dose indicator distributions from all scanners, the upper DRL can be set to the 75th percentile of the distribution and a lower DRL can be set to the 10th percentile. Scanners using doses consistently outside the upper/lower DRL range can be adjusted accordingly. 11 CT scanners, all contributing to the American College of Radiology Dose Index Registry (ACR DIR) were used inmore » this study. Dose indicator data were compiled from the ACR DIR data and local DRLs established. Scanners with median doses outside the upper/lower DRL were followed-up with. Using effective dose and exam volumes, collective dose was determined before and after protocol adjustments to evaluate the effect of this quality improvement effort. The quality initiative is complete for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams and only initial surveys were completed for Head and Abdomen/Pelvis examsg. Median Scanner Dose reductions were 8.8 and 4.9 % for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams, respectively, resulting with collective dose reductions of 0.7 and 3.2 person•Sv/yr. Follow-up is ongoing for Abdomen/Pelvis and Head exams.« less

  2. Dendritic Spines and Development: Towards a Unifying Model of Spinogenesis—A Present Day Review of Cajal's Histological Slides and Drawings

    PubMed Central

    García-López, Pablo; García-Marín, Virginia; Freire, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic spines receive the majority of excitatory connections in the central nervous system, and, thus, they are key structures in the regulation of neural activity. Hence, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and plasticity, both during development and in adulthood, are a matter of fundamental and practical interest. Indeed, a better understanding of these mechanisms should provide clues to the development of novel clinical therapies. Here, we present original results obtained from high-quality images of Cajal's histological preparations, stored at the Cajal Museum (Instituto Cajal, CSIC), obtained using extended focus imaging, three-dimensional reconstruction, and rendering. Based on the data available in the literature regarding the formation of dendritic spines during development and our results, we propose a unifying model for dendritic spine development. PMID:21584262

  3. Influence of dendrite network defects on channel segregate growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M.; Yerebakan, M.; Flemings, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    The solidifying ingot interdendritic flow analysis in which channel segregates are assumed to be produced by interdendritic fluid flow dissolving channels in the primary dendrite network is presently refined by examining the flow through a dendrite network possessing a small defect. Attention is given to the section of the mushy zone in a solidifying casting. Since defects such as that presently treated are unavoidable in a real casting, a more reliable indication may be furnished of the occurrence of channel segregates.

  4. Dendritic biomimicry: microenvironmental hydrogen-bonding effects on tryptophan fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Koenig, S; Müller, L; Smith, D K

    2001-03-02

    Two series of dendritically modified tryptophan derivatives have been synthesised and their emission spectra measured in a range of different solvents. This paper presents the syntheses of these novel dendritic structures and discusses their emission spectra in terms of both solvent and dendritic effects. In the first series of dendrimers, the NH group of the indole ring is available for hydrogen bonding, whilst in the second series, the indole NH group has been converted to NMe. Direct comparison of the emission wavelengths of analogous NH and NMe derivatives indicates the importance of the Kamlet-Taft solvent beta3 parameter, which reflects the ability of the solvent to accept a hydrogen bond from the NH group, an effect not possible for the NMe series of dendrimers. For the NH dendrimers, the attachment of a dendritic shell to the tryptophan subunit leads to a red shift in emission wavelength. This dendritic effect only operates in non-hydrogen-bonding solvents. For the NMe dendrimers, however, the attachment of a dendritic shell has no effect on the emission spectra of the indole ring. This proves the importance of hydrogen bonding between the branched shell and the indole NH group in causing the dendritic effect. This is the first time a dendritic effect has been unambiguously assigned to individual hydrogen-bonding interactions and indicates that such intramolecular interactions are important in dendrimers, just as they are in proteins. Furthermore, this paper sheds light on the use of tryptophan residues as a probe of the microenvironment within proteins--in particular, it stresses the importance of hydrogen bonds formed by the indole NH group.

  5. Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Roberto; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Yuste, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In mammalian cortex, most excitatory inputs occur on dendritic spines, avoiding dendritic shafts. Although spines biochemically isolate inputs, nonspiny neurons can also implement biochemical compartmentalization; so, it is possible that spines have an additional function. We have recently shown that the spine neck can filter membrane potentials going into and out of the spine. To investigate the potential function of this electrical filtering, we used two-photon uncaging of glutamate and compared the integration of electrical signals in spines vs. dendritic shafts from basal dendrites of mouse layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Uncaging potentials onto spines summed linearly, whereas potentials on dendritic shafts reduced each other's effect. Linear integration of spines was maintained regardless of the amplitude of the response, distance between spines (as close as <2 μm), distance of the spines to the soma, dendritic diameter, or spine neck length. Our findings indicate that spines serve as electrical isolators to prevent input interaction, and thus generate a linear arithmetic of excitatory inputs. Linear integration could be an essential feature of cortical and other spine-laden circuits. PMID:17132736

  6. Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials.

    PubMed

    Araya, Roberto; Eisenthal, Kenneth B; Yuste, Rafael

    2006-12-05

    In mammalian cortex, most excitatory inputs occur on dendritic spines, avoiding dendritic shafts. Although spines biochemically isolate inputs, nonspiny neurons can also implement biochemical compartmentalization; so, it is possible that spines have an additional function. We have recently shown that the spine neck can filter membrane potentials going into and out of the spine. To investigate the potential function of this electrical filtering, we used two-photon uncaging of glutamate and compared the integration of electrical signals in spines vs. dendritic shafts from basal dendrites of mouse layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Uncaging potentials onto spines summed linearly, whereas potentials on dendritic shafts reduced each other's effect. Linear integration of spines was maintained regardless of the amplitude of the response, distance between spines (as close as < 2 microm), distance of the spines to the soma, dendritic diameter, or spine neck length. Our findings indicate that spines serve as electrical isolators to prevent input interaction, and thus generate a linear arithmetic of excitatory inputs. Linear integration could be an essential feature of cortical and other spine-laden circuits.

  7. Random positions of dendritic spines in human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Morales, Juan; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Dar, Mor; Fernaud, Isabel; Rodríguez, Angel; Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-07-23

    Dendritic spines establish most excitatory synapses in the brain and are located in Purkinje cell's dendrites along helical paths, perhaps maximizing the probability to contact different axons. To test whether spine helixes also occur in neocortex, we reconstructed >500 dendritic segments from adult human cortex obtained from autopsies. With Fourier analysis and spatial statistics, we analyzed spine position along apical and basal dendrites of layer 3 pyramidal neurons from frontal, temporal, and cingulate cortex. Although we occasionally detected helical positioning, for the great majority of dendrites we could not reject the null hypothesis of spatial randomness in spine locations, either in apical or basal dendrites, in neurons of different cortical areas or among spines of different volumes and lengths. We conclude that in adult human neocortex spine positions are mostly random. We discuss the relevance of these results for spine formation and plasticity and their functional impact for cortical circuits. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410078-07$15.00/0.

  8. Hormonal Regulation of Dendritic Cell Differentiation in the Thymus.

    PubMed

    Shirshev, S V; Orlova, E G; Loginova, O A; Nekrasova, I V; Gorbunova, O L; Maslennikova, I L

    2018-06-19

    We studied the effect of hormones estriol, ghrelin, kisspeptin, and chorionic gonadotropin in concentrations corresponding to their content in the peripheral blood in each trimester of pregnancy on the expression of membrane molecules on myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells of the thymus. It was found that thymic myeloid dendritic cells are sensitive to the action of estriol and kisspeptin. Estriol in a concentration of the first trimester of pregnancy reduces the number of myeloid dendritic cells expressing receptor for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (CD11c+TSLP-R + ) and inhibitory molecule B7-H3 (CD11c + CD276 + ). In contrast to estriol, kisspeptin regulates the processes of differentiation of thymic myeloid dendritic cells in concentrations typical of the second-third trimesters and reduced their total number (CD11c + ) and the number of cells expressing TSLP-R (CD11c + TSLP-R + ). Estriol and kisspeptin do not affect the total number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (CD303 + ) and expression of TSLP-R and CD276 by these cells. Ghrelin and chorionic gonadotropin in the studied concentrations had no significant effect on the total number of thymic myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells and on the expression of membrane molecules of TSLP-R and CD276.

  9. Dendritic position is a major determinant of presynaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Arthur P.H.; Schmitz, Sabine K.; Toonen, Ruud F.G.

    2012-01-01

    Different regulatory principles influence synaptic coupling between neurons, including positional principles. In dendrites of pyramidal neurons, postsynaptic sensitivity depends on synapse location, with distal synapses having the highest gain. In this paper, we investigate whether similar rules exist for presynaptic terminals in mixed networks of pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Unexpectedly, distal synapses had the lowest staining intensities for vesicular proteins vGlut, vGAT, Synaptotagmin, and VAMP and for many nonvesicular proteins, including Bassoon, Munc18, and Syntaxin. Concomitantly, distal synapses displayed less vesicle release upon stimulation. This dependence of presynaptic strength on dendritic position persisted after chronically blocking action potential firing and postsynaptic receptors but was markedly reduced on DG dendrites compared with pyramidal dendrites. These data reveal a novel rule, independent of neuronal activity, which regulates presynaptic strength according to dendritic position, with the strongest terminals closest to the soma. This gradient is opposite to postsynaptic gradients observed in pyramidal dendrites, and different cell types apply this rule to a different extent. PMID:22492722

  10. Electrolyte-free Amperometric Immunosensor using a Dendritic Nanotip†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Hiraiwa, Morgan; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Electric detection using a nanocomponent may lead to platforms for rapid and simple biosensing. Sensors composed of nanotips or nanodots have been described for highly sensitive amperometry enabled by confined geometry. However, both fabrication and use of nanostructured sensors remain challenging. This paper describes a dendritic nanotip used as an amperometric biosensor for highly sensitive detection of target bacteria. A dendritic nanotip is structured by Si nanowires coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for generation of a high electric field. For reliable measurement using the dendritic structure, Si nanowires were uniformly fabricated by ultraviolet (UV) lithography and etching. The dendritic structure effectively increased the electric current density near the terminal end of the nanotip according to numerical computation. The electrical characteristics of a dendritic nanotip with additional protein layers was studied by cyclic voltammetry and I–V measurement in deionized (DI) water. When the target bacteria dielectrophoretically captured onto a nanotip were bound with fluorescence antibodies, the electric current through DI water decreased. Measurement results were consistent with fluorescence- and electron microscopy. The sensitivity of the amperometry was 10 cfu/sample volume (103 cfu/mL), which was equivalent to the more laborious fluorescence measurement method. The simple configuration of a dendritic nanotip can potentially offer an electrolyte-free detection platform for sensitive and rapid biosensors. PMID:23585927

  11. Electrolyte-free Amperometric Immunosensor using a Dendritic Nanotip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Hiraiwa, Morgan; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Electric detection using a nanocomponent may lead to platforms for rapid and simple biosensing. Sensors composed of nanotips or nanodots have been described for highly sensitive amperometry enabled by confined geometry. However, both fabrication and use of nanostructured sensors remain challenging. This paper describes a dendritic nanotip used as an amperometric biosensor for highly sensitive detection of target bacteria. A dendritic nanotip is structured by Si nanowires coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for generation of a high electric field. For reliable measurement using the dendritic structure, Si nanowires were uniformly fabricated by ultraviolet (UV) lithography and etching. The dendritic structure effectively increased the electric current density near the terminal end of the nanotip according to numerical computation. The electrical characteristics of a dendritic nanotip with additional protein layers was studied by cyclic voltammetry and I-V measurement in deionized (DI) water. When the target bacteria dielectrophoretically captured onto a nanotip were bound with fluorescence antibodies, the electric current through DI water decreased. Measurement results were consistent with fluorescence- and electron microscopy. The sensitivity of the amperometry was 10 cfu/sample volume (10 3 cfu/mL), which was equivalent to the more laborious fluorescence measurement method. The simple configuration of a dendritic nanotip can potentially offer an electrolyte-free detection platform for sensitive and rapid biosensors.

  12. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; ...

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulkmore » metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.« less

  13. [Differential diagnosis and therapy of acute abdomen in sickle cell crisis. A rare case in visceral surgery].

    PubMed

    Zülke, C; Graeb, C; Rüschhoff, J; Wagner, H; Jauch, K W

    2000-01-01

    Surgical therapy of the acute abdomen often allows only limited time for differential diagnosis to confirm the indication for surgery. Under consideration of clinical aspects and case history both common and rare causes of an acute abdomen should be investigated without undue loss of time. Differential diagnostic considerations and eventual therapy are presented in the following case of a 25-year-old Afro-american who developed multiorgan failure after an initial course of lower-back pain. In addition to the clinical setting of an acute abdomen the patient presented with acute respiratory failure and laboratory signs of severe hemolysis in combination with newly detected splenomegaly. The indication for splenectomy was made following CT-proven complete splenic infarction due to repeated acute squestration. Histologic examination of the spleen together with hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the clinical assumption of unusually late primary manifestation of a sickle cell crisis. In the underlying case, the hemoglobinopathy was in fact the less common form of combined sickle-cell-beta-thalassemia. A ten-day course of intensive care therapy was necessary to treat ongoing multiorgan failure due to persistent sickle cell crisis. Current diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in connection with sickle cell crisis as a rare cause of an acute abdomen with the necessity for surgical intervention are presented.

  14. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: Radiologic-Pathologic Features, Part 2—Uncommon Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Maria A.; Miettinen, Markku M.

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, solitary fibrous tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal chondro-osseous sarcomas, vascular sarcomas, and sarcomas of uncertain differentiation uncommonly arise in the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall. Although these lesions are rare sarcomas and their imaging features overlap, familiarity with the locations where they occur and their imaging features is important so they can be diagnosed accurately. The anatomic location and clinical history are important factors in the differential diagnosis of these lesions because metastasis, more-common sarcomas, borderline fibroblastic proliferations (such as desmoid tumors), and endometriosis have imaging findings that overlap with those of these uncommon sarcomas. In this article, the clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings of uncommon soft-tissue sarcomas of the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall are reviewed, with an emphasis on their differential diagnosis. PMID:28493803

  15. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: Radiologic-Pathologic Features, Part 2-Uncommon Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Levy, Angela D; Manning, Maria A; Miettinen, Markku M

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, solitary fibrous tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal chondro-osseous sarcomas, vascular sarcomas, and sarcomas of uncertain differentiation uncommonly arise in the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall. Although these lesions are rare sarcomas and their imaging features overlap, familiarity with the locations where they occur and their imaging features is important so they can be diagnosed accurately. The anatomic location and clinical history are important factors in the differential diagnosis of these lesions because metastasis, more-common sarcomas, borderline fibroblastic proliferations (such as desmoid tumors), and endometriosis have imaging findings that overlap with those of these uncommon sarcomas. In this article, the clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings of uncommon soft-tissue sarcomas of the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall are reviewed, with an emphasis on their differential diagnosis.

  16. Effect of Solute Diffusion on Dendrite Growth in the Molten Pool of Al-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Gu, Cheng; Liu, Yun; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-10-01

    A cellular automaton (CA)-finite difference model is developed to simulate dendrite growth and solute diffusion during solidification process in the molten pool of Al-Cu alloy. In order to explain the interaction between the dendritic growth and solute distribution, a series of CA simulations with different solute diffusion velocity coefficients are carried out. It is concluded that the solute concentration increases with dendrite growing and solute accumulation in the dendrite tip. Converged value of the dendrite tip growth velocity is about 480 μm/s if the mesh size is refined to 2 μm or less. Growth of the primary dendrite and the secondary dendrite is mainly influenced by solute diffusion at the dendrite tips. And growth of secondary and tertiary dendrites is mainly influenced by solute diffusion at interdendrite.

  17. A Druggable TCF4 and BRD4 dependent Transcriptional Network Sustains Malignancy in Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Ceribelli, Michele; Hou, Zhiying Esther; Kelly, Priscilla N.; Huang, Da Wei; Wright, George; Ganapathi, Karthik; Evbuomwan, Moses O.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Marcucci, Guido; Forman, Stephen J.; Xiao, Wenming; Guha, Rajarshi; Zhang, Xiaohu; Ferrer, Marc; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joel; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Thomas, Craig J.; Reizis, Boris; Staudt, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive and largely incurable hematologic malignancy originating from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Using RNA interference screening, we identified the E-box transcription factor TCF4 as a master regulator of the BPDCN oncogenic program. TCF4 served as a faithful diagnostic marker of BPDCN, and its downregulation caused the loss of the BPDCN-specific gene expression program and apoptosis. High-throughput drug screening revealed that bromodomain and extra-terminal domain inhibitors (BETi’s) induced BPDCN apoptosis, which was attributable to disruption of a BPDCN-specific transcriptional network controlled by TCF4-dependent super-enhancers. BETi’s retarded the growth of BPDCN xenografts, supporting their clinical evaluation in this recalcitrant malignancy. PMID:27846392

  18. Asymptotic analysis of the narrow escape problem in dendritic spine shaped domain: three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofei; Lee, Hyundae; Wang, Yuliang

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the three-dimensional narrow escape problem in a dendritic spine shaped domain, which is composed of a relatively big head and a thin neck. The narrow escape problem is to compute the mean first passage time of Brownian particles traveling from inside the head to the end of the neck. The original model is to solve a mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary value problem for the Poisson equation in the composite domain, and is computationally challenging. In this paper we seek to transfer the original problem to a mixed Robin-Neumann boundary value problem by dropping the thin neck part, and rigorously derive the asymptotic expansion of the mean first passage time with high order terms. This study is a nontrivial three-dimensional generalization of the work in Li (2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 505202), where a two-dimensional analogue domain is considered.

  19. Prolactin, dendritic cells, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jara, Luis J; Benitez, Gamaliel; Medina, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the induction of autoimmunity in T and B cells. DC express a high level of the major histocompatibility complex that interact with the receptors on T cells. Immature DC present antigens efficiently. Prolactin (PRL) participates in DC maturation. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a loss of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent production of autoantibodies. Serum from SLE patients induces normal monocytes to differentiate into DC in correlation with disease activity depending on the actions of interferon-alpha, immune complexes, PRL, etc. High serum PRL levels have been found in a subset of SLE patients associated with active disease and organ involvement. It is possible that PRL interacts with DC, skewing its function from antigen presentation to a proinflammatory phenotype with high interferon-alpha production. Therefore, SLE is characterized by deficiency of DC functions and abnormal PRL secretion. The relationships between PRL and DC may have a role in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  20. Engineering Dendritic Cells to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Jeanette E; Bonehill, Aude; Thielemans, Kris; Wan, Yonghong

    2011-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy aims to establish immune-mediated control of tumor growth by priming T-cell responses to target tumor-associated antigens. Three signals are required for T-cell activation: (i) presentation of cognate antigen in self MHC molecules; (ii) costimulation by membrane-bound receptor-ligand pairs; and (iii) soluble factors to direct polarization of the ensuing immune response. The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to provide all three signals required for T-cell activation makes them an ideal cancer vaccine platform. Several strategies have been developed to enhance and control antigen presentation, costimulation, and cytokine production. In this review, we discuss progress toward developing DC-based cancer vaccines by genetic modification using RNA, DNA, and recombinant viruses. Furthermore, the ability of DC-based vaccines to activate natural killer (NK) and B-cells, and the impact of gene modification strategies on these populations is described. Clinical trials using gene-modified DCs have shown modest results, therefore, further considerations for DC manipulation to enhance their clinical efficacy are also discussed. PMID:21468005

  1. Phenotype and function of nasal dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haekyung; Ruane, Darren; Law, Kenneth; Ho, Yan; Garg, Aakash; Rahman, Adeeb; Esterházy, Daria; Cheong, Cheolho; Goljo, Erden; Sikora, Andrew G.; Mucida, Daniel; Chen, Benjamin; Govindraj, Satish; Breton, Gaëlle; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal vaccination generates immunity across local, regional and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DC), pivotal for the induction of intranasal vaccine- induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of “classical” DCs, dependent on the transcription factor zbtb46 were identified in the murine nose. The murine nasal DCs were FLT3 ligand-responsive and displayed unique phenotypic and functional characteristics including the ability to present antigen, induce an allogeneic T cell response and migrate in response to LPS or live bacterial pathogens. Importantly, in a cohort of human volunteers, BDCA-1+ DCs were observed to be the dominant nasal DC population at steady state. During chronic inflammation, the frequency of both BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3hi DCs was reduced in the nasal tissue, associating the loss of these immune sentinels with chronic nasal inflammation. The present study is the first detailed description of the phenotypic, ontogenetic and functional properties of nasal DCs and will inform the design of preventative immunization strategies as well as therapeutic modalities against chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:25669151

  2. Isolation of Human Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized leukocytes with antigen-processing and antigen-presenting functions. DCs can be divided into distinct subsets by anatomical location, phenotype and function. In human, the two most accessible tissues to study leukocytes are peripheral blood and skin. DCs are rare in human peripheral blood (<1 % of mononuclear cells) and have a less mature phenotype than their tissue counterparts (MacDonald et al., Blood. 100:4512-4520, 2002; Haniffa et al., Immunity 37:60-73, 2012). In contrast, the skin covering an average total surface area of 1.8 m(2) has approximately tenfold more DCs than the average 5 L of total blood volume (Wang et al., J Invest Dermatol 134:965-974, 2014). DCs migrate spontaneously from skin explants cultured ex vivo, which provide an easy method of cell isolation (Larsen et al., J Exp Med 172:1483-1493, 1990; Lenz et al., J Clin Invest 92:2587-2596, 1993; Nestle et al., J Immunol 151:6535-6545, 1993). These factors led to the extensive use of skin DCs as the "prototype" migratory DCs in human studies. In this chapter, we detail the protocols to isolate DCs and resident macrophages from human skin. We also provide a multiparameter flow cytometry gating strategy to identify human skin DCs and to distinguish them from macrophages.

  3. Entrance-length dendritic plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Bejan, A.; Alalaimi, M.; Sabau, A. S.

    We explore the idea that the highest heat transfer rate between two fluids in a given volume is achieved when plate channel lengths are given by the thermal entrance length, i.e., when the thermal boundary layers meet at the exit of each channel. The overall design can be thought of an elemental construct of a dendritic heat exchanger, which consists of two tree-shaped streams arranged in cross flow. Every channel is as long as the thermal entrance length of the developing flow that resides in that channel. The results indicate that the overall design will change with the total volumemore » and total number of channels. We found that the lengths of the surfaces swept in cross flow would have to decrease sizably as number of channels increases, while exhibiting mild decreases as total volume increases. The aspect ratio of each surface swept by fluid in cross flow should be approximately square, independent of total number of channels and volume. We also found that the minimum pumping power decreases sensibly as the total number of channels and the volume increase. FurtherThe maximized heat transfer rate per unit volume increases sharply as the total volume decreases, in agreement with the natural evolution toward miniaturization in technology.« less

  4. Mycobacterium avium subspecies impair dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Brumshagen, Christina; Beineke, Andreas; Goethe, Ralph; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. Dendritic cells (DC) of the gut are ideally placed to combat invading mycobacteria; however, little is known about their interaction with MAP. Here, we investigated the interaction of MAP and the closely related M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) with murine DC and the effect of infected macrophages on DC maturation. The infection of DC with MAP or MAA induced DC maturation, which differed to that of LPS as maturation was accompanied by higher production of IL-10 and lower production of IL-12. Treatment of maturing DC with supernatants from mycobacteria-infected macrophages resulted in impaired DC maturation, leading to a semi-mature, tolerogenic DC phenotype expressing low levels of MHCII, CD86 and TNF-α after LPS stimulation. Though the cells were not completely differentiated they responded with an increased IL-10 and a decreased IL-12 production. Using recombinant cytokines we provide evidence that the semi-mature DC phenotype results from a combination of secreted cytokines and released antigenic mycobacterial components of the infected macrophage. Our results indicate that MAP and MAA are able to subvert DC function directly by infecting and indirectly via the milieu created by infected macrophages.

  5. Disease-Associated Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), also called natural interferon (IFN)-producing cells, represent a specialized cell type within the innate immune system. pDCs are specialized in sensing viral RNA and DNA by toll-like receptor-7 and -9 and have the ability to rapidly produce massive amounts of type 1 IFNs upon viral encounter. After producing type 1 IFNs, pDCs differentiate into professional antigen-presenting cells, which are capable of stimulating T cells of the adaptive immune system. Chronic activation of human pDCs by self-DNA or mitochondrial DNA contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosis and IFN-related autoimmune diseases. Under steady-state conditions, pDCs play an important role in immune tolerance. In many types of human cancers, recruitment of pDCs to the tumor microenvironment contributes to the induction of immune tolerance. Here, we provide a systemic review of recent progress in studies on the role of pDCs in human diseases, including cancers and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. PMID:29085361

  6. Entrance-length dendritic plate heat exchangers

    DOE PAGES

    Bejan, A.; Alalaimi, M.; Sabau, A. S.; ...

    2017-07-17

    We explore the idea that the highest heat transfer rate between two fluids in a given volume is achieved when plate channel lengths are given by the thermal entrance length, i.e., when the thermal boundary layers meet at the exit of each channel. The overall design can be thought of an elemental construct of a dendritic heat exchanger, which consists of two tree-shaped streams arranged in cross flow. Every channel is as long as the thermal entrance length of the developing flow that resides in that channel. The results indicate that the overall design will change with the total volumemore » and total number of channels. We found that the lengths of the surfaces swept in cross flow would have to decrease sizably as number of channels increases, while exhibiting mild decreases as total volume increases. The aspect ratio of each surface swept by fluid in cross flow should be approximately square, independent of total number of channels and volume. We also found that the minimum pumping power decreases sensibly as the total number of channels and the volume increase. FurtherThe maximized heat transfer rate per unit volume increases sharply as the total volume decreases, in agreement with the natural evolution toward miniaturization in technology.« less

  7. The role of dendritic cells in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten; Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-04-01

    Though present in low numbers, dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as major players in the control of cancer by adaptive immunity. The roles of cytotoxic CD8 + T-cells and Th1 helper CD4 + T-cells are well-documented in murine models of cancer and associated with a profound prognostic impact when infiltrating human tumors, but less information is known about how these T-cells gain access to the tumor or how they are primed to become tumor-specific. Here, we highlight recent findings that demonstrate a vital role of CD103 + DCs, which have been shown to be experts in cross-priming and the induction of anti-tumor immunity. We also focus on two different mediators that impair the function of tumor-associated DCs: prostaglandin E 2 and β-catenin. Both of these mediators seem to be important for the exclusion of T-cells in the tumor microenvironment and may represent key pathways to target in optimized treatment regimens against cancer.

  8. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Subodh; Sagar, Sushma; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Albert, Venencia; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kapoor, Nitika

    2012-04-01

    There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA). To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged). Wilcoxon's Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80) years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to be significant. Day 1 serum amylase, AST, ALT, hemoglobin, and

  9. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Subodh; Sagar, Sushma; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Albert, Venencia; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kapoor, Nitika

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA). Aim: To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged). Wilcoxon's Rank sum or Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80) years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to be significant

  10. Analysis of dendritic spine morphology in cultured CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Deepak P; Woolfrey, Kevin M; Penzes, Peter

    2011-07-13

    Dendritic spines are the sites of the majority of excitatory connections within the brain, and form the post-synaptic compartment of synapses. These structures are rich in actin and have been shown to be highly dynamic. In response to classical Hebbian plasticity as well as neuromodulatory signals, dendritic spines can change shape and number, which is thought to be critical for the refinement of neural circuits and the processing and storage of information within the brain. Within dendritic spines, a complex network of proteins link extracellular signals with the actin cyctoskeleton allowing for control of dendritic spine morphology and number. Neuropathological studies have demonstrated that a number of disease states, ranging from schizophrenia to autism spectrum disorders, display abnormal dendritic spine morphology or numbers. Moreover, recent genetic studies have identified mutations in numerous genes that encode synaptic proteins, leading to suggestions that these proteins may contribute to aberrant spine plasticity that, in part, underlie the pathophysiology of these disorders. In order to study the potential role of these proteins in controlling dendritic spine morphologies/number, the use of cultured cortical neurons offers several advantages. Firstly, this system allows for high-resolution imaging of dendritic spines in fixed cells as well as time-lapse imaging of live cells. Secondly, this in vitro system allows for easy manipulation of protein function by expression of mutant proteins, knockdown by shRNA constructs, or pharmacological treatments. These techniques allow researchers to begin to dissect the role of disease-associated proteins and to predict how mutations of these proteins may function in vivo.

  11. Differential excitability and modulation of striatal medium spiny neuron dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Day, Michelle; Wokosin, David; Plotkin, Joshua L.; Tian, Xinyoung; Surmeier, D. James

    2011-01-01

    The loss of striatal dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease (PD) models triggers a cell-type specific reduction in the density of dendritic spines in D2 receptor-expressing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (D2 MSNs). How the intrinsic properties of MSN dendrites, where the vast majority of DA receptors are found, contribute to this adaptation is not clear. To address this question, two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) was performed in patch-clamped mouse MSNs identified in striatal slices by expression of green fluorescent protein (eGFP) controlled by DA receptor promoters. These studies revealed that single back-propagating action potentials (bAP) produced more reliable elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration at distal dendritic locations in D2 MSNs than at similar locations in D1 receptor-expressing striatonigral MSNs (D1 MSNs). In both cell types, the dendritic Ca2+ entry elicited by bAPs was enhanced by pharmacological blockade of Kv4, but not Kv1 K+ channels. Local application of DA depressed dendritic bAP-evoked Ca2+ transients, whereas application of ACh increased these Ca2+ transients in D2 MSNs—but not in D1 MSNs. Following DA depletion, bAP-evoked Ca2+ transients were enhanced in distal dendrites and spines in D2 MSNs. Taken together, these results suggest that normally D2 MSN dendrites are more excitable than those of D1 MSNs and that DA depletion exaggerates this asymmetry, potentially contributing to adaptations in PD models. PMID:18987196

  12. Distal gap junctions and active dendrites can tune network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Saraga, Fernanda; Ng, Leo; Skinner, Frances K

    2006-03-01

    Gap junctions allow direct electrical communication between CNS neurons. From theoretical and modeling studies, it is well known that although gap junctions can act to synchronize network output, they can also give rise to many other dynamic patterns including antiphase and other phase-locked states. The particular network pattern that arises depends on cellular, intrinsic properties that affect firing frequencies as well as the strength and location of the gap junctions. Interneurons or GABAergic neurons in hippocampus are diverse in their cellular characteristics and have been shown to have active dendrites. Furthermore, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic neurons, also known as basket cells, can contact one another via gap junctions on their distal dendrites. Using two-cell network models, we explore how distal electrical connections affect network output. We build multi-compartment models of hippocampal basket cells using NEURON and endow them with varying amounts of active dendrites. Two-cell networks of these model cells as well as reduced versions are explored. The relationship between intrinsic frequency and the level of active dendrites allows us to define three regions based on what sort of network dynamics occur with distal gap junction coupling. Weak coupling theory is used to predict the delineation of these regions as well as examination of phase response curves and distal dendritic polarization levels. We find that a nonmonotonic dependence of network dynamic characteristics (phase lags) on gap junction conductance occurs. This suggests that distal electrical coupling and active dendrite levels can control how sensitive network dynamics are to gap junction modulation. With the extended geometry, gap junctions located at more distal locations must have larger conductances for pure synchrony to occur. Furthermore, based on simulations with heterogeneous networks, it may be that one requires active dendrites if phase-locking is to occur in networks formed

  13. Comparison of virtual unenhanced CT images of the abdomen under different iodine flow rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongrui; Li, Ye; Jackson, Alan; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ning; Guo, Chunjie; Zhang, Huimao

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of varying iodine flow rate (IFR) and iodine concentration on the quality of virtual unenhanced (VUE) images of the abdomen obtained with dual-energy CT. 94 subjects underwent unenhanced and triphasic contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, including arterial phase, portal venous phase, and delayed phase using dual-energy CT. Patients were randomized into 4 groups with different IFRs or iodine concentrations. VUE images were generated at 70 keV. The CT values, image noise, SNR and CNR of aorta, portal vein, liver, liver lesion, pancreatic parenchyma, spleen, erector spinae, and retroperitoneal fat were recorded. Dose-length product and effective dose for an examination with and without plain phase scan were calculated to assess the potential dose savings. Two radiologists independently assessed subjective image quality using a five-point scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used first to test for normal distribution. Where data conformed to a normal distribution, analysis of variance was used to compare mean HU values, image noise, SNRs and CNRs for the 4 image sets. Where data distribution was not normal, a nonparametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test followed by stepwise step-down comparisons) was used. The significance level for all tests was 0.01 (two-sided) to allow for type 2 errors due to multiple testing. The CT numbers (HU) of VUE images showed no significant differences between the 4 groups (p > 0.05) or between different phases within the same group (p > 0.05). VUE images had equal or higher SNR and CNR than true unenhanced images. VUE images received equal or lower subjective image quality scores than unenhanced images but were of acceptable quality for diagnostic use. Calculated dose-length product and estimated dose showed that the use of VUE images in place of unenhanced images would be associated with a dose saving of 25%. VUE images can replace conventional unenhanced images. VUE images are not affected by varying iodine

  14. Human abdomen recognition using camera and force sensor in medical robot system for automatic ultrasound scan.

    PubMed

    Bin Mustafa, Ammar Safwan; Ishii, Takashi; Matsunaga, Yoshiki; Nakadate, Ryu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kouji; Saito, Akiko; Sugawara, Motoaki; Niki, Kiyomi; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    Physicians use ultrasound scans to obtain real-time images of internal organs, because such scans are safe and inexpensive. However, people in remote areas face difficulties to be scanned due to aging society and physician's shortage. Hence, it is important to develop an autonomous robotic system to perform remote ultrasound scans. Previously, we developed a robotic system for automatic ultrasound scan focusing on human's liver. In order to make it a completely autonomous system, we present in this paper a way to autonomously localize the epigastric region as the starting position for the automatic ultrasound scan. An image processing algorithm marks the umbilicus and mammary papillae on a digital photograph of the patient's abdomen. Then, we made estimation for the location of the epigastric region using the distances between these landmarks. A supporting algorithm distinguishes rib position from epigastrium using the relationship between force and displacement. We implemented these algorithms with the automatic scanning system into an apparatus: a Mitsubishi Electric's MELFA RV-1 six axis manipulator. Tests on 14 healthy male subjects showed the apparatus located the epigastric region with a success rate of 94%. The results suggest that image recognition was effective in localizing a human body part.

  15. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    PubMed

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p < 0.0001) for the former, and 0.861 (n = 469, p < 0.01) for the latter. These new BIA methods are useful for evaluating abdominal adiposity in clinical study and routine clinical practice of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  16. Computed Tomography of the Abdomen in Eight Clinically Normal Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Elliott, D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomical description of the abdomen in the clinically normal common marmoset by means of computed tomography (CT). Eight clinically healthy mature common marmosets ranging from 12 to 48 months and 235 to 365 g bodyweight were anesthetized and pre- and post-contrast CT examinations were performed using different CT settings in dorsal recumbency. Abdominal organs were identified and visibility noted. Diagnostic quality abdominal images could be obtained of the common marmoset despite its small size using a dual-slice CT scanner. Representative cross-sectional images were chosen from different animals illustrating the abdominal CT anatomy of clinically normal common marmosets. Identification or delineation of abdominal organs greatly improved with i.v. contrast. A modified high-frequency algorithm with edge enhancement added valuable information for identification of small structures such as the ureters. The Hounsfield unit (HU) of major abdominal organs differed from that of small animals (domestic dogs and cats). Due to their size and different anatomy, standard small animal CT protocols need to be critically assessed and adapted for exotics, such as the common marmoset. The established normal reference range of HU of major abdominal organs and adapted settings for a CT protocol will aid clinical assessment of the common marmoset. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Studying the Physiology of Tadpoles through their Naturally Transparent Abdomen Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitoh, T.; Yamashita, M.; Wassersug, R.

    Because their development is external and they grow rapidly, anurans (frogs and toads) have been important model species in studies of how spaceflight affects vertebrate development. However the long term effects of spaceflight on post embryonic stages have barely been studied in these, or for that matter, any other vertebrate species. Tadpoles of certain species have naturally transparent skin covering a large portion of their ventral abdomen wall. Consequently viscera and visceral movements can be observed through this window without any invasive treatment to the animals. Respiration rate (as measured by buccal floor movements), heart rate, and gut motility are all indices of physiological state that can be observed in unconstrained larvae of these particular anuran species. We are using changes in these physiological variables to study the responses of tadpoles to changes in their external environment. Our study of the physiological responses of these tadpoles to microgravity has been selected as a candidate spaceflight experiment (to be housed in the Canadian Aquatic Research Facility). Ground-based studies with these same larvae are currently underway. Those experiments make use of stepwise changes in temperature as a stimulus to document the effect of temperature on intestinal motility in tadpoles. The scope of our studies on gravitational physiology and key issues in post- embryonic development of anurans are the focus of our presentation. This research is a prelude to raising a vertebrate through a complete life cycle in the space environment.

  18. Experimental pain in the groin may refer into the lower abdomen: Implications to clinical assessments.

    PubMed

    Drew, M K; Palsson, T S; Hirata, R P; Izumi, M; Lovell, G; Welvaert, M; Chiarelli, P; Osmotherly, P G; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effects of experimental adductor pain on the pain referral pattern, mechanical sensitivity and muscle activity during common clinical tests. Repeated-measures design. In two separate sessions, 15 healthy males received a hypertonic (painful) and isotonic (control) saline injection to either the adductor longus (AL) tendon to produce experimental groin pain or into the rectus femoris (RF) tendon as a painful control. Pain intensity was recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS) with pain distribution indicated on body maps. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally in the groin area. Electromyography (EMG) of relevant muscles was recorded during six provocation tests. PPT and EMG assessment were measured before, during and after experimental pain. Hypertonic saline induced higher VAS scores than isotonic saline (p<0.001), and a local pain distribution in 80% of participants. A proximal pain referral to the lower abdominal region in 33% (AL) and 7% (RF) of participants. Experimental pain (AL and RF) did not significantly alter PPT values or the EMG amplitude in groin or trunk muscles during provocation tests when forces were matched with baseline. This study demonstrates that AL tendon pain was distributed locally in the majority of participants but may refer to the lower abdomen. Experimental adductor pain did not significantly alter the mechanical sensitivity or muscle activity patterns. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peritoneal mesothelioma presenting as an acute surgical abdomen due to jejunal perforation.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Mela, Ageliki; Karameris, Andreas; Tsohataridis, Efstathios

    2007-11-01

    Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease associated with poor prognosis. Acute abdomen as the first presentation is an extremely rare occurrence. We report an exceptional case of a patient who was found to have a jejunal perforation due to infiltration of peritoneal mesothelioma. A 62-year-old man was admitted with clinical signs of peritonitis. Computerized tomographic scans showed a mass distal to the ligament of Treitz, thickening of the mesentery and a small amount of ascites. Emergency laparotomy revealed a perforated tumor 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz and diffuse peritoneal disease. Segmental small bowel resection and suboptimal cytoreduction were performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry showed infiltration of malignant mesothelioma. During the postoperative period pleural mesothelioma was also diagnosed. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient died of disseminated progressive disease 7 months after surgery. Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare malignancy with grim prognosis. Small bowel involvement is a poor prognostic indicator. Our case of a small bowel perforation due to direct infiltration by peritoneal mesothelioma appears to be the first reported in the English literature.

  20. The open abdomen and temporary abdominal closure systems--historical evolution and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Quyn, A J; Johnston, C; Hall, D; Chambers, A; Arapova, N; Ogston, S; Amin, A I

    2012-08-01

    Several techniques for temporary abdominal closure have been developed. We systematically review the literature on temporary abdominal closure to ascertain whether the method can be tailored to the indication. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant meeting abstracts until December 2009 were searched using the following headings: open abdomen, laparostomy, VAC (vacuum assisted closure), TNP (topical negative pressure), fascial closure, temporary abdominal closure, fascial dehiscence and deep wound dehiscence. The data were analysed by closure technique and aetiology. The primary end-points included delayed fascial closure and in-hospital mortality. The secondary end-points were intra-abdominal complications. The search identified 106 papers for inclusion. The techniques described were VAC (38 series), mesh/sheet (30 series), packing (15 series), Wittmann patch (eight series), Bogotá bag (six series), dynamic retention sutures (three series), zipper (15 series), skin only and locking device (one series each). The highest facial closure rates were seen with the Wittmann patch (78%), dynamic retention sutures (71%) and VAC (61%). Temporary abdominal closure has evolved from simple packing to VAC based systems. In the absence of sepsis Wittmann patch and VAC offered the best outcome. In its presence VAC had the highest delayed primary closure and the lowest mortality rates. However, due to data heterogeneity only limited conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Childhood motocross truncal injuries: high-velocity, focal force to the chest and abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Raelene D; Potter, D Dean; Osborn, John B; Zietlow, Scott; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; McIntosh, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. Design cohort Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry. Setting Our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center serves five motocross tracks. These patients require frequent medical care for injuries. Participants All patients ≤17 years of age with truncal injuries sustained during motocross activities, between 2000 and 2011, were identified through the trauma registry. Primary and secondary outcome measures Operative intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, morbidity and demographics were reviewed. Results Motocross injured 162 children. Thirty (18.5%) were thoracic or abdominal injuries. Operative intervention was required in eight (27%) patients. Mean injury severity score (ISS) was 11.8. ICU admission was required in 50% and average hospital length of stay was 4.1 days. The most common injuries include pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, spleen and liver lacerations. 13% of subjects suffered truncal injury from motocross on more than one occasion. Conclusions Paediatric motocross-related truncal injuries are significant. Surgical intervention is required in 27% of patients. The lower ISS incurred from motocross combined with high surgical and ICU admission rates suggests focal high-impact injuries to the chest and abdomen. Despite significant injury, 13% of motocross patients suffer recurrent injuries. Parents and children need injury prevention education. PMID:23166134

  2. Multidetector CT of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Holly, Brian P; Steenburg, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Venous injuries as a result of blunt trauma are rare. Even though current protocols for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of patients with trauma are designed to evaluate primarily the solid organs and arteries, blunt venous injuries may nevertheless be identified, or at least suspected, on the basis of the multidetector CT findings. Venous injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Diagnosis of a possible venous injury is crucial because the physical findings of a venous injury are nonspecific and may be absent. This article aims to make the radiologist aware of various venous injuries caused by blunt trauma and to provide helpful hints to aid in the identification of venous injuries. Multidetector CT technology, in combination with interactive manipulation of the raw dataset, can be useful in the creation of multiplanar reconstructed images and in the identification of a venous injury caused by blunt trauma. Familiarity with direct and indirect signs of venous injuries, as well as with examples of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, will help in the diagnosis of these injuries.

  3. Slowing down light using a dendritic cell cluster metasurface waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Z. H.; Chen, H.; Yang, F. S.; Luo, C. R.; Zhao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    Slowing down or even stopping light is the first task to realising optical information transmission and storage. Theoretical studies have revealed that metamaterials can slow down or even stop light; however, the difficulty of preparing metamaterials that operate in visible light hinders progress in the research of slowing or stopping light. Metasurfaces provide a new opportunity to make progress in such research. In this paper, we propose a dendritic cell cluster metasurface consisting of dendritic structures. The simulation results show that dendritic structure can realise abnormal reflection and refraction effects. Single- and double-layer dendritic metasurfaces that respond in visible light were prepared by electrochemical deposition. Abnormal Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts were experimentally obtained. The rainbow trapping effect was observed in a waveguide constructed using the dendritic metasurface sample. The incident white light was separated into seven colours ranging from blue to red light. The measured transmission energy in the waveguide showed that the energy escaping from the waveguide was zero at the resonant frequency of the sample under a certain amount of incident light. The proposed metasurface has a simple preparation process, functions in visible light, and can be readily extended to the infrared band and communication wavelengths. PMID:27886279

  4. Location-dependent excitatory synaptic interactions in pyramidal neuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Behabadi, Bardia F; Polsky, Alon; Jadi, Monika; Schiller, Jackie; Mel, Bartlett W

    2012-01-01

    Neocortical pyramidal neurons (PNs) receive thousands of excitatory synaptic contacts on their basal dendrites. Some act as classical driver inputs while others are thought to modulate PN responses based on sensory or behavioral context, but the biophysical mechanisms that mediate classical-contextual interactions in these dendrites remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that if two excitatory pathways bias their synaptic projections towards proximal vs. distal ends of the basal branches, the very different local spike thresholds and attenuation factors for inputs near and far from the soma might provide the basis for a classical-contextual functional asymmetry. Supporting this possibility, we found both in compartmental models and electrophysiological recordings in brain slices that the responses of basal dendrites to spatially separated inputs are indeed strongly asymmetric. Distal excitation lowers the local spike threshold for more proximal inputs, while having little effect on peak responses at the soma. In contrast, proximal excitation lowers the threshold, but also substantially increases the gain of distally-driven responses. Our findings support the view that PN basal dendrites possess significant analog computing capabilities, and suggest that the diverse forms of nonlinear response modulation seen in the neocortex, including uni-modal, cross-modal, and attentional effects, could depend in part on pathway-specific biases in the spatial distribution of excitatory synaptic contacts onto PN basal dendritic arbors.

  5. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  6. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate ‘weak links’ where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  7. Hepatic dendritic cell subsets in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Jomantaite, Ieva; Dikopoulos, Nektarios; Kröger, Andrea; Leithäuser, Frank; Hauser, Hansjörg; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Reimann, Jörg

    2004-02-01

    The CD11c(+) cell population in the non-parenchymal cell population of the mouse liver contains dendritic cells (DC), NK cells, B cells and T cells. In the hepatic CD11c(+) DC population from immunocompetent or immunodeficient [recombinase-activating gene-1 (RAG1)(-/-)] C57BL/6 mice (rigorously depleted of T cells, B cells and NK cells), we identified a B220(+) CD11c(int) subset of 'plasmacytoid' DC, and a B220(-) CD11c(+) DC subset. The latter DC population could be subdivided into a major, immature (CD40(lo) CD80(lo) CD86(lo) MHC class II(lo)) CD11c(int) subset, and a minor, mature (CD40(hi) CD80(hi) CD86(hi) MHC class II(hi)) CD11c(hi) subset. Stimulated B220(+) but not B220(-) DC produced type I interferon. NKT cell activation in vivo increased the number of liver B220(-) DC three- to fourfold within 18 h post-injection, and up-regulated their surface expression of activation marker, while it contracted the B220(+) DC population. Early in virus infection, the hepatic B220(+) DC subset expanded, and both, the B220(+) as well as B220(-) DC populations in the liver matured. In vitro, B220(-) but not B220(+) DC primed CD4(+) or CD8(+)T cells. Expression of distinct marker profiles and functions, and distinct early reaction to activation signals hence identify two distinct B220(+) and B220(-) subsets in CD11c(+) DC populations freshly isolated from the mouse liver.

  8. Noise tolerant dendritic lattice associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Schmalz, Mark S.; Hayden, Eric; Tucker, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Linear classifiers based on computation over the real numbers R (e.g., with operations of addition and multiplication) denoted by (R, +, x), have been represented extensively in the literature of pattern recognition. However, a different approach to pattern classification involves the use of addition, maximum, and minimum operations over the reals in the algebra (R, +, maximum, minimum) These pattern classifiers, based on lattice algebra, have been shown to exhibit superior information storage capacity, fast training and short convergence times, high pattern classification accuracy, and low computational cost. Such attributes are not always found, for example, in classical neural nets based on the linear inner product. In a special type of lattice associative memory (LAM), called a dendritic LAM or DLAM, it is possible to achieve noise-tolerant pattern classification by varying the design of noise or error acceptance bounds. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the computation of noise-tolerant lattice associative memories (LAMs) under a variety of input constraints. Of particular interest are the classification of nonergodic data in noise regimes with time-varying statistics. DLAMs, which are a specialization of LAMs derived from concepts of biological neural networks, have successfully been applied to pattern classification from hyperspectral remote sensing data, as well as spatial object recognition from digital imagery. The authors' recent research in the development of DLAMs is overviewed, with experimental results that show utility for a wide variety of pattern classification applications. Performance results are presented in terms of measured computational cost, noise tolerance, classification accuracy, and throughput for a variety of input data and noise levels.

  9. Dendritic Cells: A Spot on Sialic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Hélio J.; Lau, Joseph T. Y.; Videira, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Glycans decorating cell surface and secreted proteins and lipids occupy the juncture where critical host–host and host-pathogen interactions occur. The role of glycan epitopes in cell–cell and cell-pathogen adhesive events is already well-established, and cell surface glycan structures change rapidly in response to stimulus and inflammatory cues. Despite the wide acceptance that glycans are centrally implicated in immunity, exactly how glycans and their changes contribute to the overall immune response remains poorly defined. Sialic acids are unique sugars that usually occupy the terminal position of the glycan chains and may be modified by external factors, such as pathogens, or upon specific physiological cellular events. At cell surface, sialic acid-modified structures form the key fundamental determinants for a number of receptors with known involvement in cellular adhesiveness and cell trafficking, such as the Selectins and the Siglec families of carbohydrate recognizing receptors. Dendritic cells (DCs) preside over the transition from innate to the adaptive immune repertoires, and no other cell has such relevant role in antigen screening, uptake, and its presentation to lymphocytes, ultimately triggering the adaptive immune response. Interestingly, sialic acid-modified structures are involved in all DC functions, such as antigen uptake, DC migration, and capacity to prime T cell responses. Sialic acid content changes along DC differentiation and activation and, while, not yet fully understood, these changes have important implications in DC functions. This review focuses on the developmental regulation of DC surface sialic acids and how manipulation of DC surface sialic acids can affect immune-critical DC functions by altering antigen endocytosis, pathogen and tumor cell recognition, cell recruitment, and capacity for T cell priming. The existing evidence points to a potential of DC surface sialylation as a therapeutic target to improve and diversify DC

  10. A role for a rat homolog of staufen in the transport of RNA to neuronal dendrites.

    PubMed

    Tang, S J; Meulemans, D; Vazquez, L; Colaco, N; Schuman, E

    2001-11-08

    RNAs are present in dendrites and may be used for local protein synthesis in response to synaptic activity. To begin to understand dendritic RNA targeting, we cloned a rat homolog of staufen, a Drosophila gene that participates in mRNA targeting during development. In hippocampal neurons, rat staufen protein displays a microtubule-dependent somatodendritic distribution pattern that overlaps with dendritic RNAs. To determine whether r-staufen is required for dendritic RNA targeting, we constructed a mutant version containing the RNA binding domains (stau-RBD) but lacking the C-terminal portion potentially involved in dendritic targeting. Stau-RBD expression was restricted to the cell bodies and proximal dendrites. Expression of stau-RBD significantly decreased, while overexpression of wild-type r-staufen increased, the amount of dendritic mRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the rat staufen protein plays an important role in the delivery of RNA to dendrites.

  11. Progress in Modeling Nonlinear Dendritic Evolution in Two and Three Dimensions, and Its Mathematical Justification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.; Foster, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    We report progress in three areas of investigation related to dendritic crystal growth. Those items include: 1. Selection of tip features dendritic crystal growth; 2) Investigation of nonlinear evolution for two-sided model; and 3) Rigorous mathematical justification.

  12. Extending Integrate-and-Fire Model Neurons to Account for the Effects of Weak Electric Fields and Input Filtering Mediated by the Dendrite.

    PubMed

    Aspart, Florian; Ladenbauer, Josef; Obermayer, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial brain stimulation and evidence of ephaptic coupling have recently sparked strong interests in understanding the effects of weak electric fields on the dynamics of brain networks and of coupled populations of neurons. The collective dynamics of large neuronal populations can be efficiently studied using single-compartment (point) model neurons of the integrate-and-fire (IF) type as their elements. These models, however, lack the dendritic morphology required to biophysically describe the effect of an extracellular electric field on the neuronal membrane voltage. Here, we extend the IF point neuron models to accurately reflect morphology dependent electric field effects extracted from a canonical spatial "ball-and-stick" (BS) neuron model. Even in the absence of an extracellular field, neuronal morphology by itself strongly affects the cellular response properties. We, therefore, derive additional components for leaky and nonlinear IF neuron models to reproduce the subthreshold voltage and spiking dynamics of the BS model exposed to both fluctuating somatic and dendritic inputs and an extracellular electric field. We show that an oscillatory electric field causes spike rate resonance, or equivalently, pronounced spike to field coherence. Its resonance frequency depends on the location of the synaptic background inputs. For somatic inputs the resonance appears in the beta and gamma frequency range, whereas for distal dendritic inputs it is shifted to even higher frequencies. Irrespective of an external electric field, the presence of a dendritic cable attenuates the subthreshold response at the soma to slowly-varying somatic inputs while implementing a low-pass filter for distal dendritic inputs. Our point neuron model extension is straightforward to implement and is computationally much more efficient compared to the original BS model. It is well suited for studying the dynamics of large populations of neurons with heterogeneous dendritic morphology with

  13. Extending Integrate-and-Fire Model Neurons to Account for the Effects of Weak Electric Fields and Input Filtering Mediated by the Dendrite

    PubMed Central

    Obermayer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial brain stimulation and evidence of ephaptic coupling have recently sparked strong interests in understanding the effects of weak electric fields on the dynamics of brain networks and of coupled populations of neurons. The collective dynamics of large neuronal populations can be efficiently studied using single-compartment (point) model neurons of the integrate-and-fire (IF) type as their elements. These models, however, lack the dendritic morphology required to biophysically describe the effect of an extracellular electric field on the neuronal membrane voltage. Here, we extend the IF point neuron models to accurately reflect morphology dependent electric field effects extracted from a canonical spatial “ball-and-stick” (BS) neuron model. Even in the absence of an extracellular field, neuronal morphology by itself strongly affects the cellular response properties. We, therefore, derive additional components for leaky and nonlinear IF neuron models to reproduce the subthreshold voltage and spiking dynamics of the BS model exposed to both fluctuating somatic and dendritic inputs and an extracellular electric field. We show that an oscillatory electric field causes spike rate resonance, or equivalently, pronounced spike to field coherence. Its resonance frequency depends on the location of the synaptic background inputs. For somatic inputs the resonance appears in the beta and gamma frequency range, whereas for distal dendritic inputs it is shifted to even higher frequencies. Irrespective of an external electric field, the presence of a dendritic cable attenuates the subthreshold response at the soma to slowly-varying somatic inputs while implementing a low-pass filter for distal dendritic inputs. Our point neuron model extension is straightforward to implement and is computationally much more efficient compared to the original BS model. It is well suited for studying the dynamics of large populations of neurons with heterogeneous dendritic morphology

  14. Dendritic growth shapes in kinetic Monte Carlo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumwiede, Tim R.; Schulze, Tim P.

    2017-02-01

    For the most part, the study of dendritic crystal growth has focused on continuum models featuring surface energies that yield six pointed dendrites. In such models, the growth shape is a function of the surface energy anisotropy, and recent work has shown that considering a broader class of anisotropies yields a correspondingly richer set of growth morphologies. Motivated by this work, we generalize nanoscale models of dendritic growth based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we examine the effects of extending the truncation radius for atomic interactions in a bond-counting model. This is done by calculating the model’s corresponding surface energy and equilibrium shape, as well as by running KMC simulations to obtain nanodendritic growth shapes. Additionally, we compare the effects of extending the interaction radius in bond-counting models to that of extending the number of terms retained in the cubic harmonic expansion of surface energy anisotropy in the context of continuum models.

  15. What do dendrites and their synapses tell the neuron?

    PubMed

    Segev, Idan

    2006-03-01

    This essay looks at the historical significance of four APS classic papers that are freely available online: Rall W. Distinguishing theoretical synaptic potentials computed for different soma-dendritic distributions of synaptic input. J Neurophysiol 30: 1138-1168, 1967 (http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/30/5/1138). Rall W, Burke RE, Smith TG, Nelson PG, and Frank K. Dendritic location of synapses and possible mechanisms for the monosynaptic EPSP in motoneurons. J Neurophysiol 30: 1169-1193, 1967 (http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/30/5/1169). Rall W and Shepherd GM. Theoretical reconstruction of field potentials and dendrodendritic synaptic interactions in olfactory bulb. J Neurophysiol 31: 884-915, 1968 (http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/31/6/884). Segev I and Rall W. Computational study of an excitable dendritic spine. J Neurophysiol 60: 499-523, 1988 (http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/60/2/499).

  16. Dendritic growth of undercooled nickel-tin. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.; Piccone, T. J.; Shiohara, Y.; Flemings, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison is made between high speed cinematography and optical temperature measurements of the solidification of an undercooled Ni-25 wt pct Sn alloy. The first part of this study notes that solidification during the recalescence period at all undercoolings studied occurred in the form of a dendritelike front moving across the sample surface, and that the growth velocities observed agree with calculation results for the dendrite growth model of Lipton et al. (1986); it is concluded that the coarse structure observed comprises an array of much finer, solute-controlled dendrites. In the second part, attention is given to the solidification of levitated metal samples within a transparent glass medium for the cases of two undercooled Ni-Sn alloys, one of which is eutectic and another hypoeutectic. The data obtained suggest a solidification model involving dendrites of very fine structure growing into the melt at temperatures near the bulk undercooling temperature.

  17. Dendritic protein synthesis in the normal and diseased brain

    PubMed Central

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Bassell, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic activity is a spatially-limited process that requires a precise, yet dynamic, complement of proteins within the synaptic micro-domain. The maintenance and regulation of these synaptic proteins is regulated, in part, by local mRNA translation in dendrites. Protein synthesis within the postsynaptic compartment allows neurons tight spatial and temporal control of synaptic protein expression, which is critical for proper functioning of synapses and neural circuits. In this review, we discuss the identity of proteins synthesized within dendrites, the receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating their synthesis, and the possible roles for these locally synthesized proteins. We also explore how our current understanding of dendritic protein synthesis in the hippocampus can be applied to new brain regions and to understanding the pathological mechanisms underlying varied neurological diseases. PMID:23262237

  18. Dendritic cell and histiocytic neoplasms: biology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Dalia, Samir; Shao, Haipeng; Sagatys, Elizabeth; Cualing, Hernani; Sokol, Lubomir

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic and histiocytic cell neoplasms are rare malignancies that make up less than 1% of all neoplasms arising in lymph nodes or soft tissues. These disorders have distinctive disease biology, clinical presentations, pathology, and unique treatment options. Morphology and immunohistochemistry evaluation by a hematopathologist remains key for differentiating between these neoplasms. In this review, we describe tumor biology, clinical features, pathology, and treatment of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, fibroblastic reticular cell tumors, and disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma. A literature search for articles published between 1990 and 2013 was undertaken. Articles are reviewed and salient findings are systematically described. Patients with dendritic cell and histiocytic neoplasms have distinct but variable clinical presentations; however, because many tumors have recently been recognized, their true incidence is uncertain. Although the clinical features can present in many organs, most occur in the lymph nodes or skin. Most cases are unifocal and solitary presentations have good prognoses with surgical resection. The role of adjuvant therapy in these disorders remains unclear. In cases with disseminated disease, prognosis is poor and data on treatment options are limited, although chemotherapy and referral to a tertiary care center should be considered. Excisional biopsy is the preferred method of specimen collection for tissue diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry is the most important diagnostic method for differentiating these disorders from other entities. Dendritic cell and histiocytic cell neoplasms are rare hematological disorders with variable clinical presentations and prognoses. Immunohistochemistry remains important for diagnosis. Larger pooled analyses or clinical trials are needed to better understand optimal treatment options in these rare

  19. CT analysis of fat distribution superficial and deep to the Scarpa's fascial layer in the mid and lower abdomen.

    PubMed

    Harley, O J H; Pickford, M A

    2013-04-01

    Mismatches in the thickness of subcutaneous fat at the level of the umbilicus and suprapubic region can result in an unsightly bulge and an unfavourable result following standard abdominoplasty. This problem can be avoided by thinning the abdominoplasty flap. This study was carried out to assess the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer at the level of the umbilicus and the supra-pubic region. Measurements of full thickness fat and the depth of Scarpa's fascia separating superficial and sub-Scarpa fat layers were taken from the CT scans in 69 women; mean age 52 years (range 30-79). The thickness of the skin and abdominal wall fat was an average of 7 mm thicker (max 22 mm; p < 0.05). The thickness of the fat layer superficial to Scarpa's fascia was an average of 19 mm at mid abdomen and 22 mm in the lower abdomen (p < 0.05). The thickness of the fat layer deep to Scarpa's fascia was 14 mm in the mid abdomen and 5 mm in the lower abdomen (p < 0.05). In 55% of patients the difference in thickness of the mid abdominal and lower abdominal fat was greater than 5 mm, a difference that could lead to a noticeable mismatch and therefore an unfavourable outcome. Results of this study suggest that selectively thinning the fat layer deep to Scarpa's fascia would address potential mismatches and preserve the Scarpa's fascia layer in more than 50% of cases, therefore allowing wounds to be closed with an effective deep tension layer. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the chest and abdomen with use of controlled apnea in children.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Roya S; Patel, Swati; Lee, Margaret H; Boechat, M Ines; Ratib, Osman; Saraiva, Carla R; Finn, J Paul

    2007-06-01

    To retrospectively determine if controlled apnea improves the image quality of contrast material--enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the chest and abdomen in children. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. The authors evaluated contrast-enhanced MR angiographic procedures performed in the chest, abdomen, or both, in 23 children (14 boys, nine girls; age range, 1 month to 8 years) who were under general anesthesia. All patients underwent mechanical ventilation with preoxygenation (100% oxygen) prior to controlled apnea during image acquisition. In control subjects, the authors assessed contrast-enhanced MR angiographic procedures performed in the chest, abdomen, or both, in 23 children (matched for age and type of study with children in the controlled apnea group; 11 boys, 12 girls; age range, 1 month to 8 years) who were under general anesthesia (n=15) or deep sedation (n=8) and were breathing spontaneously during image acquisition. MR angiograms of the chest, abdomen, or both, were assessed for image quality, motion artifacts, and vessel definition by two radiologists working in consensus with a subjective grading scale. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess differences in measurements. Image quality was rated excellent in 97% (30 of 31) of studies with controlled apnea and in 30% (nine of 31) of control studies (P<.001). Motion artifacts were absent in 97% (30 of 31) of studies with controlled apnea and 13% (four of 31) of control studies (P<.001). Vessel sharpness was rated as being significantly better on images obtained with controlled apnea (P<.05). There were no complications caused by anesthesia or sedation in either group. Controlled apnea is highly effective in children for eliminating respiratory motion artifacts with contrast-enhanced MR angiographic studies, resulting in greatly improved image quality and spatial resolution. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  1. Accuracy of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) in Blunt Trauma Abdomen-A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Subodh; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Muduly, Dillip Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Misra, Mahesh C; Chumber, Sunil; Singh, Saraman; Bhardwaj, D N

    2015-12-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a limited ultrasound examination, primarily aimed at the identification of the presence of free intraperitoneal or pericardial fluid. In the context of blunt trauma abdomen (BTA), free fluid is usually due to hemorrhage, bowel contents, or both; contributes towards the timely diagnosis of potentially life-threatening hemorrhage; and is a decision-making tool to help determine the need for further evaluation or operative intervention. Fifty patients with blunt trauma abdomen were evaluated prospectively with FAST. The findings of FAST were compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), laparotomy, and autopsy. Any free fluid in the abdomen was presumed to be hemoperitoneum. Sonographic findings of intra-abdominal free fluid were confirmed by CECT, laparotomy, or autopsy wherever indicated. In comparing with CECT scan, FAST had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 77.27, 100, and 79.16 %, respectively, in the detection of free fluid. When compared with surgical findings, it had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94.44, 50, and 90 %, respectively. The sensitivity of FAST was 75 % in determining free fluid in patients who died when compared with autopsy findings. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FAST were 80.43, 75 and 80 %, respectively, for the detection of free fluid in the abdomen. From this study, we can safely conclude that FAST is a rapid, reliable, and feasible investigation in patients with BTA, and it can be performed easily, safely, and quickly in the emergency room with a reasonable sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It helps in the initial triage of patients for assessing the need for urgent surgery.

  2. SU-F-I-40: Impact of Scan Length On Patient Dose in Abdomen/pelvis CT Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, I; Song, J; Kim, K

    Purpose: To analysis the impact of scan length on patient doses in abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis of each hospital. Methods: Scan length of 7 hospitals from abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis was surveyed in Korea. Surveyed scan lengths were additional distance above diaphragm and distance below pubic symphysis except for standard scan range between diaphragm and pubic symphysis. Patient dose was estimated for adult male and female according to scan length of each hospital. CT-Expo was used to estimate the patient dose under identical equipment settings (120 kVp, 100 mAs, 10 mm collimation width, etc.) except scan length. Effective dose was calculated bymore » using tissue weighting factor of ICRP 103 recommendation. Increase rate of effective dose was calculated comparing with effective dose of standard scan range Results: Scan lengths of abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis of each hospital were different. Also effective dose was increased with increasing the scan length. Generally increasing the distance above diaphragm caused increase of effective dose of male and female, but increasing the distance below pubic symphysis caused increase of effective dose of male. Conclusion: We estimated the patient dose according to scan length of each hospital in abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis. Effective dose was increased by increasing the scan length because dose of organs with high tissue weighting factor such as lung, breast, testis were increased. Scan length is important factor on patient dose in CT diagnosis. If radiologic technologist interested in patient dose, decreasing the unnecessary scan length will decrease the risk of patients from radiation. This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI13C0004).« less

  3. Dendritic mechanisms underlying the coupling of the dendritic with the axonal action potential initiation zone of adult rat layer 5 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Larkum, M E; Zhu, J J; Sakmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Double, triple and quadruple whole-cell voltage recordings were made simultaneously from different parts of the apical dendritic arbor and the soma of adult layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons. We investigated the membrane mechanisms that support the conduction of dendritic action potentials (APs) between the dendritic and axonal AP initiation zones and their influence on the subsequent AP pattern. The duration of the current injection to the distal dendritic initiation zone controlled the degree of coupling with the axonal initiation zone and the AP pattern. Two components of the distally evoked regenerative potential were pharmacologically distinguished: a rapidly rising peak potential that was TTX sensitive and a slowly rising plateau-like potential that was Cd2+ and Ni2+ sensitive and present only with longer-duration current injection. The amplitude of the faster forward-propagating Na+-dependent component and the amplitude of the back-propagating AP fell into two classes (more distinctly in the forward-propagating case). Current injection into the dendrite altered propagation in both directions. Somatic current injections that elicited single Na+ APs evoked bursts of Na+ APs when current was injected simultaneously into the proximal apical dendrite. The mechanism did not depend on dendritic Na+–Ca2+ APs. A three-compartment model of a L5 pyramidal neuron is proposed. It comprises the distal dendritic and axonal AP initiation zones and the proximal apical dendrite. Each compartment contributes to the initiation and to the pattern of AP discharge in a distinct manner. Input to the three main dendritic arbors (tuft dendrites, apical oblique dendrites and basal dendrites) has a dominant influence on only one of these compartments. Thus, the AP pattern of L5 pyramids reflects the laminar distribution of synaptic activity in a cortical column. PMID:11389204

  4. Involvement of dendritic cells in allograft rejection new implications of dendritic cell-endothelial cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, C L; Schareck, W D; Kofler, S; Weis, M

    2007-04-01

    For almost half a century immunologists have tried to tear down the MHC barrier, which separates two unrelated individuals during transplantation. Latest experimental data suggest that a breakthrough in vitro is imminent. Dendritic cells (DCs), which activate naïve allo-reactive T-cells (TCs), play a central role in the establishment of allo-antigen-specific immunity. Allograft solid organ rejection is initiated at the foreign endothelial cell (EC) layer, which forms an immunogenic barrier for migrating DCs. Thus, DC/EC interactions might play a crucial role in antigen-specific allograft rejection. Organ rejection is mediated by host allo-reactive TCs, which are activated by donor DCs (direct activation) or host DCs (indirect activation). Direct allo-antigen presentation by regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) can play an instructive role towards tolerance induction. Several groups established that, DCregs, if transplanted beforehand, enter host thymus, spleen, or bone marrow where they might eventually establish allo-antigen-specific tolerance. A fundamental aspect of DC function is migration throughout the entire organism. After solid organ transplantation, host DCs bind to ECs, invade allograft tissues, and finally transmigrate into lymphoid vessels and secondary lymphoid organs, where they present allo-antigens to naïve host TCs. Recent data suggest that in vitro manipulated DCregs may mediate allo-transplantation tolerance induction. However, the fundamental mechanisms on how such DCregs cause host TCs in the periphery towards tolerance remain unclear. One very promising experimental concept is the simultaneous manipulation of DC direct and indirect TC activation/suppression, towards donor antigen-specific allo-transplantation tolerance. The allo-antigen-specific long-term tolerance induction mediated by DCreg pre-transplantation (with simultaneous short-term immunosuppression) has become reproducible in the laboratory animal setting. Despite the shortcomings

  5. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Foong, H B B; Chong, M; Taylor, E M; Carlson, J A; Petrella, T

    2013-04-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (a.k.a. NK cell lymphoma, CD4+CD56+ haematodermic neoplasm) is a rare aggressive tumour that arises from plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors. We report the first case from Malaysia of a 79-year-old Chinese woman who presented with purpuric plaques and nodules produced by pleomorphic CD4+, CD56+, CD68+, CD123+ and CD303+, but CD2APmononuclear cell infiltrates. Leukemic dissemination occurred and she succumbed to disease without treatment 4 weeks after diagnosis and 9 months after onset of cutaneous disease.

  6. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  7. Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

  8. Electrical and Structural Characterization of Web Dendrite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, G. H.; Koliwad, K.; Dumas, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetime distributions in silicon web dendrites are measured. Emphasis is placed on measuring areal homogeneity of lifetime, show its dependency on structural defects, and its unique change during hot processing. The internal gettering action of defect layers present in web crystals and their relation to minority carrier lifetime distributions is discussed. Minority carrier lifetime maps of web dendrites obtained before and after high temperature heat treatment are compared to similar maps obtained from 100 mm diameter Czochralski silicon wafers. Such maps indicate similar or superior areal homogeneity of minority carrier lifetime in webs.

  9. Neuron array with plastic synapses and programmable dendrites.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Shubha; Wunderlich, Richard; Hasler, Jennifer; George, Suma

    2013-10-01

    We describe a novel neuromorphic chip architecture that models neurons for efficient computation. Traditional architectures of neuron array chips consist of large scale systems that are interfaced with AER for implementing intra- or inter-chip connectivity. We present a chip that uses AER for inter-chip communication but uses fast, reconfigurable FPGA-style routing with local memory for intra-chip connectivity. We model neurons with biologically realistic channel models, synapses and dendrites. This chip is suitable for small-scale network simulations and can also be used for sequence detection, utilizing directional selectivity properties of dendrites, ultimately for use in word recognition.

  10. "Enteroatmospheric fistulae"--gastrointestinal openings in the open abdomen: a review and recent proposal of a surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Marinis, A; Gkiokas, G; Argyra, E; Fragulidis, G; Polymeneas, G; Voros, D

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of an enteric fistula in the middle of an open abdomen is called an enteroatmospheric fistula, which is the most challenging and feared complication for a surgeon to deal with. It is in fact not a true fistula because it neither has a fistula tract nor is covered by a well-vascularized tissue. The mortality of enteroatmospheric fistulae was as high as 70% in past decades but is currently approximately 40% due to advanced modern intensive care and improved surgical techniques. Management of patients with an open abdomen and an enteroatmospheric fistula is very challenging. Intensive care support of organs and systems is vital in order to manage the severely septic patient and the associated multiple organ failure syndrome. Many of the principles applied to classic enterocutaneous fistulae are used as well. Control of enteric spillage, attempts to seal the fistula, and techniques of peritoneal access for excision of the involved loop are reviewed in this report. Additionally, we describe our recent proposal of a lateral surgical approach via the circumference of the open abdomen in order to avoid the hostile and granulated surface of the abdominal trauma, which is adhered to the intraperitoneal organs.

  11. [Correlation between vertebral bone marrow fat and abdomen fat: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Yin-Xia; Zhao, Wen-Ji; Zhang, Ling-Yan; Yan, Jie-Wen; Hao, Shuai; Lu, Xiong-Guang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Lin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between the lumbar bone marrow fat and abdominal fat. A total of 68 individuals (32 men and 36 women, aged 21-74 years with a median of 49.5 years) were included in this study. All the subjects underwent spectroscopic examination of the third lumber vertebra with the single voxel method on a 1.5T MR scanner to measure the fat fraction (FF%). Quantitative CT was also performed for measurement of the abdomen subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The measurements were compared between subjects aged ≥50 years and those below 50 years, respectively,in male or female subjects. In male subjects, BMI, FF%, VAT or SAT showed no significant differences between the two age groups (P>0.05), and FF% was not correlated with BMI, VAT or SAT (r=0.109, 0.034, 0.066, respectively; P>0.05). In the female subjects, BMI, FF%, VAT and SAT differed significantly between the two age groups (P<0.05), and in ≥50 years group, FF% showed a positive correlation with VAT (r=0.499, P<0.05) but was not correlated with SAT (r=0.221, P>0.05); in<50 years group, FF% was not correlated with VAT or SAT (r=0.076, -0.067, respectively; P>0.05). FF% is positively correlated with VAT in female subjects aged beyond 50 years, but is not correlated with VAT or SAT in male subjects or in younger female subjects.

  12. CAN ULTRASOUND ABDOMEN HELP IN EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES MELLITUS? AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Javed; Aamir, Muhammad Omer; Sanaullah; Imdad, Zeeshan ul Hasnain; Parveen, Ishrat; Yousaf, Nasreen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease. Similarly, ultrasound findings of fatty change and renal crystals are commonly seen on ultrasound. In the personal observation of the main author over the past so many years it was noticed that Diabetes Mellitus, Fatty liver and renal crystals all sit well together. This study tries to establish a relationship between diabetes mellitus renal echogenic foci and fatty liver. This study is first of its kind, as nobody has ever before investigated an association between the renal echogenic foci and fatty liver in relation to diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at Radiology Department Combined Military Hospital, Kohat From 2nd June 2013 to 30th May 2014. Three hundred patients were collected on the basis of having fatty liver and renal echogenic foci on ultrasound and three hundred more patients were collected who had no fatty liver or renal echogenic foci on ultrasound. Their labs were done for diabetes mellitus. The patients having renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver had 83% positive rate of being diabetics, while patients with no fatty liver and no echogenic foci on ultrasonography had only 0.6% Positive rate of being diabetics. Our results provided the first demonstration of an association between renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver with the diabetes mellitus. Thus ultrasound examination of abdomen can be helpful in its early diagnosis if we make a protocol of doing fasting and random blood sugars in all those patients who have positive renal echogenic foci and fatty liver on their ultrasound examination.

  13. Tremulatory and abdomen vibration signals enable communication through air in the stink bug Euschistus heros.

    PubMed

    Kavčič, Andreja; Cokl, Andrej; Laumann, Raúl A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Borges, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Communication by substrate-borne mechanical signals is widespread among animals but remains one of their least understood communication channels. Past studies of vibrational communication in insects have been oriented predominantly to communication during mating, showing that species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable recognition and localization of potential mates on continuous solid substrates. No special attention has been paid to vibrational signals with less obvious specificity as well as to the possibility of vibrational communication across substrates that are not in physical contact. We aimed to reinvestigate emission of the aforementioned vibrational signals transmitted through a plant in the stink bug Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) and to check whether individuals are able to communicate across adjecent, physically separated substrates. We used laser vibrometry for registration of substrate-borne vibrational signals on a bean plant. Using two bean plants separated for 3 to 7 cm between two most adjacent leaves, we investigated the possibility of transmission of these signals through air. Our study showed that males and females of E. heros communicate using tremulatory, percussion and buzzing signals in addition to the previously described signals produced by vibrations of the abdomen. Contrary to the latter, the first three signal types did not differ between sexes or between pentatomid species. Experiments with two physically separated plants showed significant searching behaviour and localization of vibrational signals of an E. heros male or a female, in response to abdominal vibration produced signals of a pair duetting on the neighbouring plant, in comparison to control where no animals were on the neighbouring plant. We also confirmed that transmission through air causes amplitude and frequency decay of vibrational signals, which suggests high-amplitude, low-frequency tremulatory signals of these stink bugs their most

  14. Performance of CT scan of abdomen and pelvis in detecting asymptomatic synchronous metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    James, Justin; Teo, Melanie; Ramachandran, Vivekananda; Law, Michael; Stoney, David; Cheng, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In many centres in Australia, CT scan of abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) is a commonly used staging investigation to detect asymptomatic synchronous metastasis (ASM) in newly diagnosed breast cancer. However, its routine use is not supported by strong evidence either on its cost effectiveness or on specificity. Despite contrary recommendations by international guidelines this staging investigation is widely used among new early breast cancers(EBC). This retrospective study aims to assess the cost effectiveness and usefulness of CTAP in new breast cancers. All patients with primary invasive breast cancers who underwent breast cancer treatment through Eastern health breast unit during 50-month period from January 2012 were included in the study. All staging CTAP results were reviewed to evaluate its yield, false positive rate and cost of investigation per single positive result. Odds ratio for positive test results were calculated for five possible risk factors (Age less than 40 years, stage III disease, presence of LVI, HER2 positive disease and presence of metastasis in lymph node). 49% (n = 285) of all breast cancer patient underwent staging CTAP which lead to the detection of 4 ASM. (Over all yield of 1%) Overall false positive rate was 15% because of 42 indeterminate results needing further tests. Based merely on approved billing rates this amounted to $ 40733 per single ASM identified. Presence of lymph node metastasis did not increase the chance of positive test result (OR = 1.3; CI:0.13-12.69). Staging CTAP is associated with high incidence of false positive rates and low yield, especially among EBCs. It is desirable to choose this investigation more selectively than currently practiced. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Drosophila social clustering is disrupted by anesthetics and in narrow abdomen ion channel mutants.

    PubMed

    Burg, E D; Langan, S T; Nash, H A

    2013-04-01

    Members of many species tend to congregate, a behavioral strategy known as local enhancement. Selective advantages of local enhancement range from efficient use of resources to defense from predators. While previous studies have examined many types of social behavior in fruit flies, few have specifically investigated local enhancement. Resource-independent local enhancement (RILE) has recently been described in the fruit fly using a measure called social space index (SSI), although the neural mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we analyze RILE of Drosophila under conditions that allow us to elucidate its neural mechanisms. We have investigated the effects of general volatile anesthetics, compounds that compromise higher order functioning of the type typically required for responding to social cues. We exposed Canton-S flies to non-immobilizing concentrations of halothane and found that flies had a significantly decreased SSI compared with flies tested in air. Narrow abdomen (na) mutants, which display altered responses to anesthetics in numerous behavioral assays, also have a significantly reduced SSI, an effect that was fully reversed by restoring expression of na by driving a UAS-NA rescue construct with NA-GAL4. We found that na expression in cholinergic neurons fully rescued the behavioral defect, whereas expression of na in glutamatergic neurons did so only partially. Our results also suggest a role for na expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs), as suppressing na expression in the MBs of NA-GAL4 rescue flies diminishes SSI. Our data indicate that RILE, a simple behavioral strategy, requires complex neural processing. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Accurate diagnosis of acute abdomen in FMF and acute appendicitis patients: how can we use procalcitonin?

    PubMed

    Kisacik, Bunyamin; Kalyoncu, Umut; Erol, M Fatih; Karadag, Omer; Yildiz, Mustafa; Akdogan, Ali; Kaptanoglu, Bugra; Hayran, Mutlu; Ureten, Kemal; Ertenli, Ihsan; Kiraz, Sedat; Calguneri, Meral

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to define the value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in the differential diagnosis of abdominal familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) attacks from acute appendicitis. From October 2006 to January 2007, 28 FMF (12 males, 16 females) patients with acute abdominal attacks and 34 patients (18 males) with acute abdomen who underwent operation with the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis were consecutively enrolled in this study. FMF patients with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. PCT values were measured by an immunofluorescent method using the B.R.A.H.M.S. PCT kit (B.R.A.H.M.S. Diagnostica, Berlin, Germany). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive proteins (CRP) and leucocyte levels were also noted. Mean disease duration in FMF patients was 9.6 +/- 8.1 years (range 2-33 years) and all were on colchicine therapy with a mean colchicine dosage of 1.2 +/- 0.4 mg/day. Among the operated patients, 5 were excluded: 3 patients had normal findings and 2 had intestinal perforation (PCT levels were 2.69 and 4.93 ng/ml, respectively) at operative and pathologic evaluation. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to gender and age (p was not significant (NS) for all). Acute phase reactants and PCT levels were increased in patients with FMF compared to patients with acute appendicitis (0.529[0.12 +/- 0.96] vs 0.095 [0.01-0.80] p < 0.001, respectively). PCT levels higher than 0.5 ng/ml were found in 11% (3/28) of FMF patients compared to 62% (18/29) of acute appendicitis patients (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that PCT could be a useful test in the differentiation of abdominal FMF attacks from acute appendicitis, though it should not supplant more conventional investigations.

  17. Tremulatory and Abdomen Vibration Signals Enable Communication through Air in the Stink Bug Euschistus heros

    PubMed Central

    Kavčič, Andreja; Čokl, Andrej; Laumann, Raúl A.; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Borges, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Communication by substrate-borne mechanical signals is widespread among animals but remains one of their least understood communication channels. Past studies of vibrational communication in insects have been oriented predominantly to communication during mating, showing that species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable recognition and localization of potential mates on continuous solid substrates. No special attention has been paid to vibrational signals with less obvious specificity as well as to the possibility of vibrational communication across substrates that are not in physical contact. We aimed to reinvestigate emission of the aforementioned vibrational signals transmitted through a plant in the stink bug Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) and to check whether individuals are able to communicate across adjecent, physically separated substrates. We used laser vibrometry for registration of substrate-borne vibrational signals on a bean plant. Using two bean plants separated for 3 to 7 cm between two most adjacent leaves, we investigated the possibility of transmission of these signals through air. Our study showed that males and females of E. heros communicate using tremulatory, percussion and buzzing signals in addition to the previously described signals produced by vibrations of the abdomen. Contrary to the latter, the first three signal types did not differ between sexes or between pentatomid species. Experiments with two physically separated plants showed significant searching behaviour and localization of vibrational signals of an E. heros male or a female, in response to abdominal vibration produced signals of a pair duetting on the neighbouring plant, in comparison to control where no animals were on the neighbouring plant. We also confirmed that transmission through air causes amplitude and frequency decay of vibrational signals, which suggests high-amplitude, low-frequency tremulatory signals of these stink bugs their most

  18. Sew it up! A Western Trauma Association multi-institutional study of enteric injury management in the postinjury open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Cuschieri, Joseph; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Codner, Panna; Crowell, Kody; Nirula, Ram; Haan, James; Rowell, Susan E; Kato, Catherine M; MacNew, Heather; Ochsner, M Gage; Harrison, Paul B; Fusco, Cynthia; Sauaia, Angela; Kaups, Krista L

    2011-02-01

    Use of damage control surgery techniques has reduced mortality in critically injured patients but at the cost of the open abdomen. With the option of delayed definitive management of enteric injuries, the question of intestinal repair/anastomosis or definitive stoma creation has been posed with no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes on the basis of management of enteric injuries in patients relegated to the postinjury open abdomen. Patients requiring an open abdomen after trauma from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 were reviewed. Type of bowel repair was categorized as immediate repair, immediate anastomosis, delayed anastomosis, stoma and a combination. Logistic regression was used to determine independent effect of risk factors on leak development. During the 6-year study period, 204 patients suffered enteric injuries and were managed with an open abdomen. The majority was men (77%) sustaining blunt trauma (66%) with a mean age of 37.1 years±1.2 years and median Injury Severity Score of 27 (interquartile range=20-41). Injury patterns included 81 (40%) small bowel, 37 (18%) colonic, and 86 (42%) combined injuries. Enteric injuries were managed with immediate repair (58), immediate anastomosis (15), delayed anastomosis (96), stoma (10), and a combination (22); three patients died before definitive repair. Sixty-one patients suffered intra-abdominal complications: 35 (17%) abscesses, 15 (7%) leaks, and 11 (5%) enterocutaneous fistulas. The majority of patients with leaks had a delayed anastomosis; one patient had a right colon repair. Leak rate increased as one progresses toward the left colon (small bowel anastomoses, 3% leak rate; right colon, 3%; transverse colon, 20%; left colon, 45%). There were no differences in emergency department physiology, injury severity, transfusions, crystalloids, or demographic characteristics between patients with and without leak. Leak cases had higher 12-hour heart rate (148 vs. 125, p=0

  19. Independent predictors of enteric fistula and abdominal sepsis after damage control laparotomy: results from the prospective AAST Open Abdomen registry.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Matthew J; Dubose, Joseph J; Scalea, Thomas M; Holcomb, John B; Shrestha, Binod; Okoye, Obi; Inaba, Kenji; Bee, Tiffany K; Fabian, Timothy C; Whelan, James F; Ivatury, Rao R

    2013-10-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF), enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF), and intra-abdominal sepsis/abscess (IAS) are major challenges for surgeons caring for patients undergoing damage control laparotomy after trauma. To determine independent predictors of ECF, EAF, or IAS in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy after trauma, using the AAST Open Abdomen Registry. The AAST Open Abdomen registry of patients with an open abdomen following damage control laparotomy was used to identify patients who developed ECF, EAF, or IAS and to compare these patients with those without these complications. Univariate analyses were performed to compare these groups of patients. Variables from univariate analyses differing at P < .20 were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to identify independent risk factors for ECF, EAF, or IAS. Fourteen level I trauma centers. A total of 517 patients with an open abdomen following damage control laparotomy. Complication of ECF, EAF, or IAS. More patients in the ECF/EAF/IAS group than in the group without these complications underwent bowel resection (63 of 111 patients [57%] vs 133 of 406 patients [33%]; P < .001). Within the first 48 hours after surgery, the ECF/EAF/IAS group received more colloids (P < .03) and total fluids (P < .03) than did the group without these complications. The ECF/EAF/IAS group underwent almost twice as many abdominal reexplorations as did the group without these complications (mean [SD] number, 4.1 [4.1] vs 2.2 [3.4]; P < .001). After multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of ECF/EAF/IAS were a large bowel resection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.56 [95% CI, 1.88-6.76]; P < .001), a total fluid intake at 48 hours of between 5 and 10 L (AOR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.15-3.88]; P = .02) or more than 10 L (AOR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.04-3.57]; P = .04), and an increasing number of reexplorations (AOR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.06-1.21]; P < .001). Large bowel resection, large-volume fluid

  20. The TNF receptor and Ig superfamily members form an integrated signaling circuit controlling dendritic cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    De Trez, Carl; Ware, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) constitute the most potent antigen presenting cells of the immune system, playing a key role bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Specialized DC subsets differ depending on their origin, tissue location and the influence of trophic factors, the latter remain to be fully understood. Stromal cell and myeloid-associated Lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) signaling is required for the local proliferation of lymphoid tissue DC. This review focuses the LTβR signaling cascade as a crucial positive trophic signal in the homeostasis of DC subsets. The noncanonical coreceptor pathway comprised of the Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and TNFR superfamily member, Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) counter regulates the trophic signaling by LTβR. Together both pathways form an integrated signaling circuit achieving homeostasis of DC subsets. PMID:18511331

  1. Lithium dendrite growth through solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Katherine; Schauser, Nicole; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Replacing the graphite-based anode in current batteries with a lithium foil will result in a qualitative increase in the energy density of lithium batteries. The primary reason for not adopting lithium-foil anodes is the formation of dendrites during cell charging. In this study, stop-motion X-ray microtomography experiments were used to directly monitor the growth of lithium dendrites during electrochemical cycling of symmetric lithium-lithium cells with a block copolymer electrolyte. In an attempt to understand the relationship between viscoelastic properties of the electrolyte on dendrite formation, a series of complementary experiments including cell cycling, tomography, ac impedance, and rheology, were conducted above and below the glass transition temperature of the non-conducting poly(styrene) block; the conducting phase is a mixture of rubbery poly(ethylene oxide) and a lithium salt. The tomography experiments enable quantification of the evolution of strain in the block copolymer electrolyte. Our work provides fundamental insight into the dynamics of electrochemical deposition of metallic films in contact with high modulus polymer electrolytes. Rational approaches for slowing down and, perhaps, eliminating dendrite growth are proposed.

  2. Statistical analysis of dendritic spine distributions in rat hippocampal cultures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendritic spines serve as key computational structures in brain plasticity. Much remains to be learned about their spatial and temporal distribution among neurons. Our aim in this study was to perform exploratory analyses based on the population distributions of dendritic spines with regard to their morphological characteristics and period of growth in dissociated hippocampal neurons. We fit a log-linear model to the contingency table of spine features such as spine type and distance from the soma to first determine which features were important in modeling the spines, as well as the relationships between such features. A multinomial logistic regression was then used to predict the spine types using the features suggested by the log-linear model, along with neighboring spine information. Finally, an important variant of Ripley’s K-function applicable to linear networks was used to study the spatial distribution of spines along dendrites. Results Our study indicated that in the culture system, (i) dendritic spine densities were "completely spatially random", (ii) spine type and distance from the soma were independent quantities, and most importantly, (iii) spines had a tendency to cluster with other spines of the same type. Conclusions Although these results may vary with other systems, our primary contribution is the set of statistical tools for morphological modeling of spines which can be used to assess neuronal cultures following gene manipulation such as RNAi, and to study induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated to neurons. PMID:24088199

  3. Theory of electric resonance in the neocortical apical dendrite.

    PubMed

    Kasevich, Ray S; LaBerge, David

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex display a wide range of synchronous EEG rhythms, which arise from electric activity along the apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Here we present a theoretical description of oscillation frequency profiles along apical dendrites which exhibit resonance frequencies in the range of 10 to 100 Hz. The apical dendrite is modeled as a leaky coaxial cable coated with a dielectric, in which a series of compartments act as coupled electric circuits that gradually narrow the resonance profile. The tuning of the peak frequency is assumed to be controlled by the average amplitude of voltage-gated outward currents, which in turn are regulated by the subthreshold noise in the thousands of synaptic spines that are continuously bombarded by local circuits. The results of simulations confirmed the ability of the model both to tune the peak frequency in the 10-100 Hz range and to gradually narrow the resonance profile. Considerable additional narrowing of the resonance profile is provided by repeated looping through the apical dendrite via the corticothalamocortical circuit, which reduced the width of each resonance curve (at half-maximum) to approximately 1 Hz. Synaptic noise in the neural circuit is discussed in relation to the ways it can influence the narrowing process.

  4. Theory of Electric Resonance in the Neocortical Apical Dendrite

    PubMed Central

    Kasevich, Ray S.; LaBerge, David

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex display a wide range of synchronous EEG rhythms, which arise from electric activity along the apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Here we present a theoretical description of oscillation frequency profiles along apical dendrites which exhibit resonance frequencies in the range of 10 to 100 Hz. The apical dendrite is modeled as a leaky coaxial cable coated with a dielectric, in which a series of compartments act as coupled electric circuits that gradually narrow the resonance profile. The tuning of the peak frequency is assumed to be controlled by the average amplitude of voltage-gated outward currents, which in turn are regulated by the subthreshold noise in the thousands of synaptic spines that are continuously bombarded by local circuits. The results of simulations confirmed the ability of the model both to tune the peak frequency in the 10–100 Hz range and to gradually narrow the resonance profile. Considerable additional narrowing of the resonance profile is provided by repeated looping through the apical dendrite via the corticothalamocortical circuit, which reduced the width of each resonance curve (at half-maximum) to approximately 1 Hz. Synaptic noise in the neural circuit is discussed in relation to the ways it can influence the narrowing process. PMID:21853129

  5. Synaptic integration in dendrites: exceptional need for speed

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Nace L; Oertel, Donata

    2012-01-01

    Some neurons in the mammalian auditory system are able to detect and report the coincident firing of inputs with remarkable temporal precision. A strong, low-voltage-activated potassium conductance (gKL) at the cell body and dendrites gives these neurons sensitivity to the rate of depolarization by EPSPs, allowing neurons to assess the coincidence of the rising slopes of unitary EPSPs. Two groups of neurons in the brain stem, octopus cells in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus and principal cells of the medial superior olive (MSO), extract acoustic information by assessing coincident firing of their inputs over a submillisecond timescale and convey that information at rates of up to 1000 spikes s−1. Octopus cells detect the coincident activation of groups of auditory nerve fibres by broadband transient sounds, compensating for the travelling wave delay by dendritic filtering, while MSO neurons detect coincident activation of similarly tuned neurons from each of the two ears through separate dendritic tufts. Each makes use of filtering that is introduced by the spatial distribution of inputs on dendrites. PMID:22930273

  6. Functions of TGF-β-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Perruche, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) belong to the family of dendritic cells and possess specific features that distinguish them from conventional dendritic cells. For instance, pDC are the main interferon-alpha-secreting cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells exert both proinflammatory and regulatory functions. This is attested by the involvement of pDC through interferon-alpha secretion in several autoimmune diseases, and by the implication of pDC in tolerance. The same is true for TGF-β that plays a dual role in inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent data on pDC and TGF-β interactions. As with many cell types, pDCs are able to respond to TGF-β using the classic Smad signaling pathway. In addition, pDCs are capable to secrete TGF-β, in particular in response to TGF-β exposure. Exposure of pDCs to TGF-β prevents type I interferon secretion in response to TLR7/9 ligands. In contrast, the consequences of TGF-β on the antigen-presenting cell capacities of pDC are less clear, since TGF-β-exposed pDCs may lead to both regulatory T-cell and interleukin-17-secreting cell polarization. Here, we discuss the factors that may influence this polarization. We also discuss how pDCs exposed to TGF-β may participate in tolerance induction and maintenance, or, on the contrary, in autoimmune diseases.

  7. Nonlinear multiplicative dendritic integration in neuron and network models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danke; Li, Yuanqing; Rasch, Malte J.; Wu, Si

    2013-01-01

    Neurons receive inputs from thousands of synapses distributed across dendritic trees of complex morphology. It is known that dendritic integration of excitatory and inhibitory synapses can be highly non-linear in reality and can heavily depend on the exact location and spatial arrangement of inhibitory and excitatory synapses on the dendrite. Despite this known fact, most neuron models used in artificial neural networks today still only describe the voltage potential of a single somatic compartment and assume a simple linear summation of all individual synaptic inputs. We here suggest a new biophysical motivated derivation of a single compartment model that integrates the non-linear effects of shunting inhibition, where an inhibitory input on the route of an excitatory input to the soma cancels or “shunts” the excitatory potential. In particular, our integration of non-linear dendritic processing into the neuron model follows a simple multiplicative rule, suggested recently by experiments, and allows for strict mathematical treatment of network effects. Using our new formulation, we further devised a spiking network model where inhibitory neurons act as global shunting gates, and show that the network exhibits persistent activity in a low firing regime. PMID:23658543

  8. The expression and function of cathepsin E in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Chain, Benjamin M; Free, Paul; Medd, Patrick; Swetman, Claire; Tabor, Alethea B; Terrazzini, Nadia

    2005-02-15

    Cathepsin E is an aspartic proteinase that has been implicated in Ag processing within the class II MHC pathway. In this study, we document the presence of cathepsin E message and protein in human myeloid dendritic cells, the preeminent APCs of the immune system. Cathepsin E is found in a perinuclear compartment, which is likely to form part of the endoplasmic reticulum, and also a peripheral compartment just beneath the cell membrane, with a similar distribution to that of Texas Red-dextran within 2 min of endocytosis. To investigate the function of cathepsin E in processing, a new soluble targeted inhibitor was synthesized by linking the microbial aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin to mannosylated BSA via a cleavable disulfide linker. This inhibitor was shown to block cathepsin D/E activity in cell-free assays and within dendritic cells. The inhibitor blocked the ability of dendritic cells from wild-type as well as cathepsin D-deficient mice to present intact OVA, but not an OVA-derived peptide, to cognate T cells. The data therefore support the hypothesis that cathepsin E has an important nonredundant role in the class II MHC Ag processing pathway within dendritic cells.

  9. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Hui; Li, Ming-Xing; Xu, Chang; Chen, Hui-Bin; An, Shu-Cheng; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), have been used to recapitulate depression-like behaviors in rodents and study the underlying mechanisms. In comparison with CRS, CUMS overcomes the stress habituation and has been widely used to model depression-like behaviors. CSDS is one of the most frequently used models for depression, but it is limited to the study of male mice. Generally, chronic stress causes dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Meanwhile, neurons of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens exhibit an increase in spine density. These alterations induced by chronic stress are often accompanied by depression-like behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic stress-induced remodeling of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens and also discusses the putative underlying mechanisms. PMID:26881133

  10. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons.

  11. Dendritic spine geometry can localize GTPase signaling in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Samuel A.; Raghavachari, Sridhar; Lew, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic terminals of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Learning and memory are associated with long-lasting structural remodeling of dendritic spines through an actin-mediated process regulated by the Rho-family GTPases RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42. These GTPases undergo sustained activation after synaptic stimulation, but whereas Rho activity can spread from the stimulated spine, Cdc42 activity remains localized to the stimulated spine. Because Cdc42 itself diffuses rapidly in and out of the spine, the basis for the retention of Cdc42 activity in the stimulated spine long after synaptic stimulation has ceased is unclear. Here we model the spread of Cdc42 activation at dendritic spines by means of reaction-diffusion equations solved on spine-like geometries. Excitable behavior arising from positive feedback in Cdc42 activation leads to spreading waves of Cdc42 activity. However, because of the very narrow neck of the dendritic spine, wave propagation is halted through a phenomenon we term geometrical wave-pinning. We show that this can account for the localization of Cdc42 activity in the stimulated spine, and, of interest, retention is enhanced by high diffusivity of Cdc42. Our findings are broadly applicable to other instances of signaling in extreme geometries, including filopodia and primary cilia. PMID:26337387

  12. Delayed stabilization of dendritic spines in fragile X mice.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martín, Alberto; Crespo, Michelle; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos

    2010-06-09

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) causes mental impairment and autism through transcriptional silencing of the Fmr1 gene, resulting in the loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Cortical pyramidal neurons in affected individuals and Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice have an increased density of dendritic spines. The mutant mice also show defects in synaptic and experience-dependent circuit plasticity, which are known to be mediated in part by dendritic spine dynamics. We used in vivo time-lapse imaging with two-photon microscopy through cranial windows in male and female neonatal mice to test the hypothesis that dynamics of dendritic protrusions are altered in KO mice during early postnatal development. We find that layer 2/3 neurons from wild-type mice exhibit a rapid decrease in dendritic spine dynamics during the first 2 postnatal weeks, as immature filopodia are replaced by mushroom spines. In contrast, KO mice show a developmental delay in the downregulation of spine turnover and in the transition from immature to mature spine subtypes. Blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling, which reverses some adult phenotypes of KO mice, accentuated this immature protrusion phenotype in KO mice. Thus, absence of FMRP delays spine stabilization and dysregulated mGluR signaling in FXS may partially normalize this early synaptic defect.

  13. Dendritic Immunotherapy Improvement for an Optimal Control Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Chimal-Eguía, J. C.; Castillo-Montiel, E.

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic protocols in immunotherapy are usually proposed following the intuition and experience of the therapist. In order to deduce such protocols mathematical modeling, optimal control and simulations are used instead of the therapist's experience. Clinical efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines to cancer treatment is still unclear, since dendritic cells face several obstacles in the host environment, such as immunosuppression and poor transference to the lymph nodes reducing the vaccine effect. In view of that, we have created a mathematical murine model to measure the effects of dendritic cell injections admitting such obstacles. In addition, the model considers a therapy given by bolus injections of small duration as opposed to a continual dose. Doses timing defines the therapeutic protocols, which in turn are improved to minimize the tumor mass by an optimal control algorithm. We intend to supplement therapist's experience and intuition in the protocol's implementation. Experimental results made on mice infected with melanoma with and without therapy agree with the model. It is shown that the dendritic cells' percentage that manages to reach the lymph nodes has a crucial impact on the therapy outcome. This suggests that efforts in finding better methods to deliver DC vaccines should be pursued. PMID:28912828

  14. Porous dendritic copper: an electrocatalyst for highly selective CO2 reduction to formate in water/ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Ngoc; Simon, Philippe; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Génois, Isabelle; Artero, Vincent; Fontecave, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Copper is currently extensively studied because it provides promising electrodes for carbon dioxide electroreduction. The original combination, reported here, of a nanostructured porous dendritic Cu-based material, characterized by electron microcopy (SEM, TEM) and X-ray diffraction methods, and a water/ionic liquid mixture as the solvent, contributing to CO 2 solubilization and activation, results in a remarkably efficient (large current densities at low overpotentials), stable and selective (large faradic yields) electrocatalytic system for the conversion of CO 2 into formic acid, a product with a variety of uses. These results provide new directions for the further improvement of Cu electrodes.

  15. The Interactive Roles of Lipopolysaccharides and dsRNA/Viruses on Respiratory Epithelial Cells and Dendritic Cells in Allergic Respiratory Disorders: The Hygiene Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsang-Hsiung; Su, Hsing-Hao; Kang, Hong-Yo; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-10-23

    The original hygiene hypothesis declares "more infections in early childhood protect against later atopy". According to the hygiene hypothesis, the increased incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is explained by the decrease of infections. Epithelial cells and dendritic cells play key roles in bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. Among the various pattern-recognition receptor systems of epithelial cells and dendritic cells, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and others, TLRs are the key systems of immune response regulation. In humans, TLRs consist of TLR1 to TLR10. They regulate cellular responses through engagement with TLR ligands, e.g., lipopolysaccharides (LPS) acts through TLR4 and dsRNA acts through TLR3, but there are certain common components between these two TLR pathways. dsRNA activates epithelial cells and dendritic cells in different directions, resulting in allergy-related Th2-skewing tendency in epithelial cells, and Th1-skewing tendency in dendritic cells. The Th2-skewing effect by stimulation of dsRNA on epithelial cells could be suppressed by the presence of LPS above some threshold. When LPS level decreases, the Th2-skewing effect increases. It may be via these interrelated networks and related factors that LPS modifies the allergic responses and provides a plausible mechanism of the hygiene hypothesis. Several hygiene hypothesis-related phenomena, seemingly conflicting, are also discussed in this review, along with their proposed mechanisms.

  16. Dendritic spine dysgenesis contributes to hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bandaru, Samira P.; Liu, Shujun; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperreflexia and spasticity are chronic complications in spinal cord injury (SCI), with limited options for safe and effective treatment. A central mechanism in spasticity is hyperexcitability of the spinal stretch reflex, which presents symptomatically as a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes and exaggerated tendon jerks. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dendritic spine remodeling within motor reflex pathways in the spinal cord contributes to H-reflex dysfunction indicative of spasticity after contusion SCI. Six weeks after SCI in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we observed changes in dendritic spine morphology on α-motor neurons below the level of injury, including increased density, altered spine shape, and redistribution along dendritic branches. These abnormal spine morphologies accompanied the loss of H-reflex rate-dependent depression (RDD) and increased ratio of H-reflex to M-wave responses (H/M ratio). Above the level of injury, spine density decreased compared with below-injury spine profiles and spine distributions were similar to those for uninjured controls. As expected, there was no H-reflex hyperexcitability above the level of injury in forelimb H-reflex testing. Treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-specific inhibitor, decreased the presence of abnormal dendritic spine profiles below the level of injury, restored RDD of the H-reflex, and decreased H/M ratios in SCI animals. These findings provide evidence for a novel mechanistic relationship between abnormal dendritic spine remodeling in the spinal cord motor system and reflex dysfunction in SCI. PMID:25505110

  17. Morphological analysis of dendrites and spines by hybridization of ridge detection with twin support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuihua; Chen, Mengmeng; Li, Yang; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Yudong; Du, Sidan; Wu, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are described as neuronal protrusions. The morphology of dendritic spines and dendrites has a strong relationship to its function, as well as playing an important role in understanding brain function. Quantitative analysis of dendrites and dendritic spines is essential to an understanding of the formation and function of the nervous system. However, highly efficient tools for the quantitative analysis of dendrites and dendritic spines are currently undeveloped. In this paper we propose a novel three-step cascaded algorithm-RTSVM- which is composed of ridge detection as the curvature structure identifier for backbone extraction, boundary location based on differences in density, the Hu moment as features and Twin Support Vector Machine (TSVM) classifiers for spine classification. Our data demonstrates that this newly developed algorithm has performed better than other available techniques used to detect accuracy and false alarm rates. This algorithm will be used effectively in neuroscience research.

  18. Towards the optimisation of acoustic fields for ablative therapies of tumours in the upper abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of its non-invasiveness and low risk of harmful side effects. There is, however, a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. As such, a common side effect of focusing ultrasound in regions located behind the rib cage is the overheating of bone and surrounding tissue, which can lead to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy are deposited. This is likely to rely on a treatment planning procedure in which optimal source velocity distributions are obtained so as to maximise a dose quantity at the treatment sites, whilst ensuring that this quantity does not exceed a specified threshold at other field locations, particularly on the surface of the ribs. Previously, a boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data [1]. This work describes the reformulation of the boundary element equations as a least-squares minimisation problem with non-linear constraints. The methodology was subsequently tested at an excitation frequency of 100 kHz on a spherical multi-element array in the presence

  19. The optimization of acoustic fields for ablative therapies of tumours in the upper abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2012-12-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enables highly localized, non-invasive tissue ablation and its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of a range of cancers, including those of the kidney, prostate and breast. HIFU offers the ability to treat deep-seated tumours locally, and potentially bears fewer side effects than more invasive treatment modalities such as resection, chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. There remains however a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to ablate tissue at the required foci whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. This sometimes results in overheating of bone and overlying tissue during treatment, leading to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy is deposited. Previously, a boundary element approach based on a Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data (Gélat et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 5553-81). The present paper describes the reformulation of the boundary element equations as a least-squares minimization problem with nonlinear constraints. The methodology has subsequently been tested at an excitation frequency of 1 MHz on a spherical multi-element array in the presence of ribs. A single array-rib geometry was investigated on which a 50% reduction in the maximum acoustic pressure magnitude on the surface of the ribs was achieved with only a 4% reduction in the peak focal pressure compared to the spherical focusing case. This method was then compared with a binarized apodization approach

  20. Regulation of muscle stiffness during periodic length changes in the isolated abdomen of the hermit crab.

    PubMed

    Chapple, W D

    1997-09-01

    Reflex activation of the ventral superficial muscles (VSM) in the abdomen of the hermit crab, Pagurus pollicarus, was studied using sinusoidal and stochastic longitudinal vibration of the muscle while recording the length and force of the muscle and the spike times of three exciter motoneurons. In the absence of vibration, the interspike interval histograms of the two larger motoneurons were bimodal; cutting sensory nerves containing most of the mechanoreceptor input removed the short interval peak in the histogram, indicating that the receptors are important in maintaining tonic firing. Vibration of the muscle evoked a reflex increase in motoneuron frequency that habituated after an initial peak but remained above control levels for the duration of stimulation. Motoneuron frequency increased with root mean square (rms) stimulus amplitude. Average stiffness during stimulation was about two times the stiffness of passive muscle. The reflex did not alter muscle dynamics. Estimated transfer functions were calculated from the fast Fourier transform of length and force signals. Coherence was >0.9 for the frequency range of 3-35 Hz. Stiffness magnitude gradually increased over this range in both reflex activated and passive muscle; phase was between 10 and 20 degrees. Reflex stiffness decreased with increasing stimulus amplitudes, but at larger amplitudes, this decrease was much less pronounced; in this range stiffness was regulated by the reflex. The sinusoidal frequency at which reflex bursts were elicited was approximately 6 Hz, consistent with previous measurements using ramp stretch. During reflex excitation, there was an increase in amplitude of the short interval peak in the interspike interval histogram; this was reduced when the majority of afferent pathways was removed. A phase histogram of motoneuron firing during sinusoidal vibration had a peak at approximately 110 ms, also suggesting that an important component of the reflex is via direct projections from

  1. Conditional self-discrimination enhances dendritic spine number and dendritic length at prefrontal cortex and hippocampal neurons of rats.

    PubMed

    Penagos-Corzo, Julio C; Bonilla, Andrea; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo; Negrete-Díaz, José V

    2015-11-01

    We studied conditional self-discrimination (CSD) in rats and compared the neuronal cytoarchitecture of untrained animals and rats that were trained in self-discrimination. For this purpose, we used thirty 10-week-old male rats were randomized into three groups: one control group and two conditioning groups: a comparison group (associative learning) and an experimental group (self-discrimination). At the end of the conditioning process, the experimental group managed to discriminate their own state of thirst. After the conditioning process, dendritic morphological changes in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex and CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were evaluated using Golgi-Cox stain method and then analyzed by the Sholl method. Differences were found in total dendritic length and spine density. Animals trained in self-discrimination showed an increase in the dendritic length and the number of dendritic spines of neurons of the prefrontal cortex and CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. Our data suggest that conditional self-discrimination improves the connectivity of the prefrontal cortex and dorsal CA1, which has implications for memory and learning processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  3. Phenotype and function of CD209+ bovine blood dendritic cells, monocyte-derived-dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny a...

  4. Effect of the environment on the dendritic morphology of the rat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Mitali; Muñoz-Llancao, Pablo; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Nichols, Justin A.; Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Porter, Benjamin; Byrapureddy, Rajasekhar; Salgado, Humberto; Kilgard, Michael P.; Aboitiz, Francisco; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Atzori, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify morphological correlates of environment-induced changes at excitatory synapses of the primary auditory cortex (A1). We used the Golgi-Cox stain technique to compare pyramidal cells dendritic properties of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different environmental manipulations. Sholl analysis, dendritic length measures, and spine density counts were used to monitor the effects of sensory deafness and an auditory version of environmental enrichment (EE). We found that deafness decreased apical dendritic length leaving basal dendritic length unchanged, whereas EE selectively increased basal dendritic length without changing apical dendritic length. On the contrary, deafness decreased while EE increased spine density in both basal and apical dendrites of A1 layer 2/3 (LII/III) neurons. To determine whether stress contributed to the observed morphological changes in A1, we studied neural morphology in a restraint-induced model that lacked behaviorally relevant acoustic cues. We found that stress selectively decreased apical dendritic length in the auditory but not in the visual primary cortex. Similar to the acoustic manipulation, stress-induced changes in dendritic length possessed a layer specific pattern displaying LII/III neurons from stressed animals with normal apical dendrites but shorter basal dendrites, while infragranular neurons (layers V and VI) displayed shorter apical dendrites but normal basal dendrites. The same treatment did not induce similar changes in the visual cortex, demonstrating that the auditory cortex is an exquisitely sensitive target of neocortical plasticity, and that prolonged exposure to different acoustic as well as emotional environmental manipulation may produce specific changes in dendritic shape and spine density. PMID:19771593

  5. Passive dendrites enable single neurons to compute linearly non-separable functions.

    PubMed

    Cazé, Romain Daniel; Humphries, Mark; Gutkin, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Local supra-linear summation of excitatory inputs occurring in pyramidal cell dendrites, the so-called dendritic spikes, results in independent spiking dendritic sub-units, which turn pyramidal neurons into two-layer neural networks capable of computing linearly non-separable functions, such as the exclusive OR. Other neuron classes, such as interneurons, may possess only a few independent dendritic sub-units, or only passive dendrites where input summation is purely sub-linear, and where dendritic sub-units are only saturating. To determine if such neurons can also compute linearly non-separable functions, we enumerate, for a given parameter range, the Boolean functions implementable by a binary neuron model with a linear sub-unit and either a single spiking or a saturating dendritic sub-unit. We then analytically generalize these numerical results to an arbitrary number of non-linear sub-units. First, we show that a single non-linear dendritic sub-unit, in addition to the somatic non-linearity, is sufficient to compute linearly non-separable functions. Second, we analytically prove that, with a sufficient number of saturating dendritic sub-units, a neuron can compute all functions computable with purely excitatory inputs. Third, we show that these linearly non-separable functions can be implemented with at least two strategies: one where a dendritic sub-unit is sufficient to trigger a somatic spike; another where somatic spiking requires the cooperation of multiple dendritic sub-units. We formally prove that implementing the latter architecture is possible with both types of dendritic sub-units whereas the former is only possible with spiking dendrites. Finally, we show how linearly non-separable functions can be computed by a generic two-compartment biophysical model and a realistic neuron model of the cerebellar stellate cell interneuron. Taken together our results demonstrate that passive dendrites are sufficient to enable neurons to compute linearly non

  6. Maintenance of dendritic spine morphology by partitioning-defective 1b through regulation of microtubule growth.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hirai, Syu-ichi; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Ohno, Shigeo

    2011-08-24

    Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures that receive excitatory synaptic input from presynaptic terminals. Actin and its regulatory proteins play a central role in morphogenesis of dendritic spines. In addition, recent studies have revealed that microtubules are indispensable for the maintenance of mature dendritic spine morphology by stochastically invading dendritic spines and regulating dendritic localization of p140Cap, which is required for actin reorganization. However, the regulatory mechanisms of microtubule dynamics remain poorly understood. Partitioning-defective 1b (PAR1b), a cell polarity-regulating serine/threonine protein kinase, is thought to regulate microtubule dynamics by inhibiting microtubule binding of microtubule-associated proteins. Results from the present study demonstrated that PAR1b participates in the maintenance of mature dendritic spine morphology in mouse hippocampal neurons. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed PAR1b localization in the dendrites, which was concentrated in dendritic spines of mature neurons. PAR1b knock-down cells exhibited decreased mushroom-like dendritic spines, as well as increased filopodia-like dendritic protrusions, with no effect on the number of protrusions. Live imaging of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins directly revealed decreases in distance and duration of microtubule growth following PAR1b knockdown in a neuroblastoma cell line and in dendrites of hippocampal neurons. In addition, reduced accumulation of GFP-p140Cap in dendritic protrusions was confirmed in PAR1b knock-down neurons. In conclusion, the present results suggested a novel function for PAR1b in the maintenance of mature dendritic spine morphology by regulating microtubule growth and the accumulation of p140Cap in dendritic spines.

  7. Passive Dendrites Enable Single Neurons to Compute Linearly Non-separable Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cazé, Romain Daniel; Humphries, Mark; Gutkin, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Local supra-linear summation of excitatory inputs occurring in pyramidal cell dendrites, the so-called dendritic spikes, results in independent spiking dendritic sub-units, which turn pyramidal neurons into two-layer neural networks capable of computing linearly non-separable functions, such as the exclusive OR. Other neuron classes, such as interneurons, may possess only a few independent dendritic sub-units, or only passive dendrites where input summation is purely sub-linear, and where dendritic sub-units are only saturating. To determine if such neurons can also compute linearly non-separable functions, we enumerate, for a given parameter range, the Boolean functions implementable by a binary neuron model with a linear sub-unit and either a single spiking or a saturating dendritic sub-unit. We then analytically generalize these numerical results to an arbitrary number of non-linear sub-units. First, we show that a single non-linear dendritic sub-unit, in addition to the somatic non-linearity, is sufficient to compute linearly non-separable functions. Second, we analytically prove that, with a sufficient number of saturating dendritic sub-units, a neuron can compute all functions computable with purely excitatory inputs. Third, we show that these linearly non-separable functions can be implemented with at least two strategies: one where a dendritic sub-unit is sufficient to trigger a somatic spike; another where somatic spiking requires the cooperation of multiple dendritic sub-units. We formally prove that implementing the latter architecture is possible with both types of dendritic sub-units whereas the former is only possible with spiking dendrites. Finally, we show how linearly non-separable functions can be computed by a generic two-compartment biophysical model and a realistic neuron model of the cerebellar stellate cell interneuron. Taken together our results demonstrate that passive dendrites are sufficient to enable neurons to compute linearly non

  8. Somatic spikes regulate dendritic signaling in small neurons in the absence of backpropagating action potentials.

    PubMed

    Myoga, Michael H; Beierlein, Michael; Regehr, Wade G

    2009-06-17

    Somatic spiking is known to regulate dendritic signaling and associative synaptic plasticity in many types of large neurons, but it is unclear whether somatic action potentials play similar roles in small neurons. Here we ask whether somatic action potentials can also influence dendritic signaling in an electrically compact neuron, the cerebellar stellate cell (SC). Experiments were conducted in rat brain slices using a combination of imaging and electrophysiology. We find that somatic action potentials elevate dendritic calcium levels in SCs. There was little attenuation of calcium signals with distance from the soma in SCs from postnatal day 17 (P17)-P19 rats, which had dendrites that averaged 60 microm in length, and in short SC dendrites from P30-P33 rats. Somatic action potentials evoke dendritic calcium increases that are not affected by blocking dendritic sodium channels. This indicates that dendritic signals in SCs do not rely on dendritic sodium channels, which differs from many types of large neurons, in which dendritic sodium channels and backpropagating action potentials allow somatic spikes to control dendritic calcium signaling. Despite the lack of active backpropagating action potentials, we find that trains of somatic action potentials elevate dendritic calcium sufficiently to release endocannabinoids and retrogradely suppress parallel fiber to SC synapses in P17-P19 rats. Prolonged SC firing at physiologically realistic frequencies produces retrograde suppression when combined with low-level group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Somatic spiking also interacts with synaptic stimulation to promote associative plasticity. These findings indicate that in small neurons the passive spread of potential within dendrites can allow somatic spiking to regulate dendritic calcium signaling and synaptic plasticity.

  9. Distinct Roles for Somatically and Dendritically Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Morphogenesis of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Orefice, Lauren L.; Waterhouse, Emily G.; Partridge, John G.; Lalchandani, Rupa R.; Vicini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic spines undergo the processes of formation, maturation, and pruning during development. Molecular mechanisms controlling spine maturation and pruning remain largely unknown. The gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produces two pools of mRNA, with either a short or long 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR). Our previous results show that short 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA is restricted to cell bodies, whereas long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA is also trafficked to dendrites for local translation. Mutant mice lacking long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA display normal spines at 3 weeks of age, but thinner and denser spines in adults compared to wild-type littermates. These observations suggest that BDNF translated from long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA, likely in dendrites, is required for spine maturation and pruning. In this study, using rat hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that knocking down long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA blocked spine head enlargement and spine elimination, whereas overexpressing long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA had the opposite effect. The effect of long 3′ UTR Bdnf mRNA on spine head enlargement and spine elimination was diminished by a human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs712442) in its 3′ UTR that inhibited dendritic localization of Bdnf mRNA. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of either Bdnf mRNA increased spine density at earlier time points. Spine morphological alterations were associated with corresponding changes in density, size, and function of synapses. These results indicate that somatically synthesized BDNF promotes spine formation, whereas dendritically synthesized BDNF is a key regulator of spine head growth and spine pruning. PMID:23843530

  10. Automatic exposure control calibration and optimisation for abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine imaging with an Agfa computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Joshi, H; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W

    2016-11-07

    The use of three physical image quality metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQ m ) have recently been examined by our group for their appropriateness in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with an Agfa computed radiography (CR) imaging system. This study uses the same methodology but investigates AEC calibration for abdomen, pelvis and spine CR imaging. AEC calibration curves were derived using a simple uniform phantom (equivalent to 20 cm water) to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated abdomen, pelvis and spine images (created from real patient CT datasets) with appropriate detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves did not provide optimized performance but constant eNEQ m and SNR did, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given that it is easier to measure in practice. This result was consistent with the previous investigation for chest imaging with AEC devices. Medical physicists may therefore use a simple and easily accessible uniform water equivalent phantom to measure the SNR image quality metric described here when calibrating AEC devices for abdomen, pelvis and spine imaging with Agfa CR systems, in the confidence that clinical image quality will be sufficient for the required clinical task. However, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma the advice of expert image evaluators must be sought.

  11. Automatic exposure control calibration and optimisation for abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine imaging with an Agfa computed radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. S.; Wood, T. J.; Avery, G.; Balcam, S.; Needler, L.; Joshi, H.; Saunderson, J. R.; Beavis, A. W.

    2016-11-01

    The use of three physical image quality metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm) have recently been examined by our group for their appropriateness in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with an Agfa computed radiography (CR) imaging system. This study uses the same methodology but investigates AEC calibration for abdomen, pelvis and spine CR imaging. AEC calibration curves were derived using a simple uniform phantom (equivalent to 20 cm water) to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated abdomen, pelvis and spine images (created from real patient CT datasets) with appropriate detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves did not provide optimized performance but constant eNEQm and SNR did, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given that it is easier to measure in practice. This result was consistent with the previous investigation for chest imaging with AEC devices. Medical physicists may therefore use a simple and easily accessible uniform water equivalent phantom to measure the SNR image quality metric described here when calibrating AEC devices for abdomen, pelvis and spine imaging with Agfa CR systems, in the confidence that clinical image quality will be sufficient for the required clinical task. However, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma the advice of expert image evaluators must be sought.

  12. Patient characteristics associated with differences in radiation exposure from pediatric abdomen-pelvis CT scans: a quantile regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Lodwick, Daniel L; Adler, Brent; Lee, Choonsik; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J

    2017-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used diagnostic tool in pediatric medicine. However, due to concerns regarding radiation exposure, it is essential to identify patient characteristics associated with higher radiation burden from CT imaging, in order to more effectively target efforts towards dose reduction. Our objective was to identify the effects of various demographic and clinical patient characteristics on radiation exposure from single abdomen/pelvis CT scans in children. CT scans performed at our institution between January 2013 and August 2015 in patients under 16 years of age were processed using a software tool that estimates patient-specific organ and effective doses and merges these estimates with data from the electronic health record and billing record. Quantile regression models at the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles were used to estimate the effects of patients' demographic and clinical characteristics on effective dose. 2390 abdomen/pelvis CT scans (median effective dose 1.52mSv) were included. Of all characteristics examined, only older age, female gender, higher BMI, and whether the scan was a multiphase exam or an exam that required repeating for movement were significant predictors of higher effective dose at each quantile examined (all p<0.05). The effects of obesity and multiphase or repeat scanning on effective dose were magnified in higher dose scans. Older age, female gender, obesity, and multiphase or repeat scanning are all associated with increased effective dose from abdomen/pelvis CT. Targeted efforts to reduce dose from abdominal CT in these groups should be undertaken. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The gap gene giant of Rhodnius prolixus is maternally expressed and required for proper head and abdomen formation.

    PubMed

    Lavore, Andrés; Pagola, Lucía; Esponda-Behrens, Natalia; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    The segmentation process in insects depends on a hierarchical cascade of gene activity. The first effectors downstream of the maternal activation are the gap genes, which divide the embryo in broad fields. We discovered a sequence corresponding to the leucine-zipper domain of the orthologue of the gene giant (Rp-gt) in traces from the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, a hemipteran with intermediate germ-band development. We cloned the Rp-gt gene from a normalized cDNA library and characterized its expression and function. Bioinformatic analysis of 12.5 kbp of genomic sequence containing the Rp-gt transcriptional unit shows a cluster of bona fide regulatory binding sites, which is similar in location and structure to the predicted posterior expression domain of the Drosophila orthologue. Rp-gt is expressed in ovaries and maternally supplied in the early embryo. The maternal contribution forms a gradient of scattered patches of mRNA in the preblastoderm embryo. Zygotic Rp-gt is expressed in two domains that after germ band extension are restricted to the head and the posterior growth zone. Parental RNAi shows that Rp-gt is required for proper head and abdomen formation. The head lacks mandibulary and maxillary appendages and shows reduced clypeus-labrum, while the abdomen lacks anterior segments. We conclude that Rp-gt is a gap gene on the head and abdomen and, in addition, has a function in patterning the anterior head capsule suggesting that the function of gt in hemipterans is more similar to dipterans than expected. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  15. PMHS impact response in 3 m/s and 8 m/s nearside impacts with abdomen offset.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carl S; Madura, Nathaniel H; Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-11-01

    Lateral impact tests were performed using seven male post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to characterize the force-deflection response of contacted body regions, including the lower abdomen. All tests were performed using a dual-sled, side-impact test facility. A segmented impactor was mounted on a sled that was pneumatically accelerated into a second, initially stationary sled on which a subject was seated facing perpendicular to the direction of impact. Positions of impactor segments were adjusted for each subject so that forces applied to different anatomic regions, including thorax, abdomen, greater trochanter, iliac wing, and thigh, could be independently measured on each PMHS. The impactor contact surfaces were located in the same vertical plane, except that the abdomen plate was offset 5.1 cm towards the subject. The masses of the sleds and the force- deflection characteristics of the energy-absorbing interface material between the sleds were set to provide the impactor sled with a velocity profile that matched the average driver door velocity history produced in a series of side NCAP tests. Impactor padding was also selected so that average ATD pelvis and thorax responses from the same series of side NCAP tests were reproduced when the ATD used in these tests was impacted using the average door-velocity history. Each subject was first impacted on one side of the body using an initial impactor speed of 3 m/s. If a post-test CT scan and strain-gage data revealed two or fewer non-displaced rib fractures, then the PMHS was impacted on the contralateral side of the body at a speed of 8 m/s or 10 m/s. The results of tests in the 3 m/s and 8 m/s conditions were used to develop force-deflection response corridors for the abdomen, force history response corridors for the pelvis (iliac wing and greater trochanter), the midthigh, and the thorax. Response corridors for the lateral acceleration of the pelvis were also developed. Future work will compare side impact ATD

  16. Whole abdomen radiation for minimal residual epithelial ovarian carcinoma after surgical resection and maximal first-line chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, J.M.; Russell, A.H.; Greer, B.E.

    1988-02-01

    Ten patients with Stage III epithelial ovarian received whole abdomen radiation therapy after extensive courses of chemotherapy and second or third laparotomies. All patients had less than 2-mm diameter residual disease. The major side effect was bone marrow suppression which led to decreased dose or field size in four patients. Five patients have recurred and three of these have died. Further treatment after recurrence was compromised by bone marrow suppression. While 40-50% of selected patients may respond to this approach, numerous alternatives are being explored that would not handicap further treatment to the same degree and may have equal responsemore » rates.« less

  17. Blunt-tip coaxial introducer: a revisited tool for difficult CT-guided biopsy in the chest and abdomen.

    PubMed

    de Bazelaire, Cedric; Farges, Cecile; Mathieu, Olivier; Zagdanski, Anne-Marie; Bourrier, Pierre; Frija, Jacques; de Kerviler, Eric

    2009-08-01

    We describe a coaxial introducer provided with an additional blunt-tip stylet that allows safe access to difficult-to-reach lymph nodes in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis under CT control. Once the thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic wall is crossed by the introducer fitted with the sharp-tip stylet, the blunt-tip stylet replaces the sharp stylet for further progression in the fat toward the target. The soft-tip stylet carries a smaller risk of inadvertent perforation displacing vital structures.

  18. Immunosuppressant effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on myeloid dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broer, Johanna; Behnke, Bert

    2002-04-01

    Dendritic cells are important antigen presenting cells that play a role in the initiation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The stinging nettle leaf extract IDS 30 (Hox alpha) has been recommended for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases. We investigated the immunomodulating effect of IDS 30 extract on the maturation of hematopoietic dendritic cells. Human dendritic cells were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin 4 (IL-4). Dendritic cell maturation was induced by keyhole limped hemocyanin (KLH). Dendritic cell phenotype was characterized by flow cytometric analysis; dendritic cell cytokine production was measured by ELISA. The ability of dendritic cells to activate naive autologous T cells was evaluated by mixed leukocyte reaction. IDS 30 prevented the maturation of dendritic cells, but did not affect their viability. IDS 30 reduced the expression of CD83 and CD86. It increased the expression of chemokine receptor 5 and CD36 in a dose dependent manner. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was reduced. Application of IDS 30 to dendritic cells in culture caused a high endocytosis of dextran and a low capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation. Our in vitro results showed the suppressive effect of IDS 30 on the maturation of human myeloid dendritic cells, leading to reduced induction of primary T cell responses. This may contribute to the therapeutic effect of IDS 30 on T cell mediated inflammatory diseases like RA.

  19. Dauer-specific dendrite arborization in C. elegans is regulated by KPC-1/Furin.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Nathan E; Androwski, Rebecca J; Rashid, Alina; Lee, Harksun; Lee, Junho; Barr, Maureen M

    2013-08-19

    Dendrites often display remarkably complex and diverse morphologies that are influenced by developmental and environmental cues. Neuroplasticity in response to adverse environmental conditions entails both hypertrophy and resorption of dendrites. How dendrites rapidly alter morphology in response to unfavorable environmental conditions is unclear. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans enters into a stress-resistant dauer larval stage in response to an adverse environment. Here we show that the IL2 bipolar sensory neurons undergo dendrite arborization and axon remodeling during dauer development. When dauer larvae are returned to favorable environmental conditions, animals resume reproductive development and IL2 dendritic branches retract, leaving behind remnant branches in postdauer L4 and adult animals. The C. elegans furin homolog KPC-1 is required for dauer IL2 dendritic arborization and dauer-specific nictation behavior. KPC-1 is also necessary for dendritic arborization of PVD and FLP sensory neurons. In mammals, furin is essential, ubiquitously expressed, and associated with numerous pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases. While broadly expressed in C. elegans neurons and epithelia, KPC-1 acts cell autonomously in IL2 neurons to regulate dauer-specific dendritic arborization and nictation. Neuroplasticity of the C. elegans IL2 sensory neurons provides a paradigm to study stress-induced and reversible dendritic branching, and the role of environmental and developmental cues in this process. The newly discovered role of KPC-1 in dendrite morphogenesis provides insight into the function of proprotein convertases in nervous system development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Mori, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) using in vivo confocal microscopy. Methods Four eyes of four patients (mean 65.8 years) with HSK presenting with a dendritic lesion were enrolled. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Acquired confocal images at the level of the epithelium were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Changes in the shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits around dendritic lesions as well as other corneal layers were qualitatively evaluated. Results Mapping of dendritic lesion was successful in all cases, and the subconfluent montages clearly showed the larger image of dendritic lesion. In all cases, the dendritic lesion consisted of hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, and was surrounded by distorted and elongated epithelial cells. In three cases, hyperreflective deposits were noted at the midline of the lesion. The corneal stroma showed a hyperreflective honeycomb pattern. In two cases, inflammatory cells were observed at the level of endothelial cell layer. Conclusion Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with HSK was successful in all patients using in vivo confocal microscopy. Cellular level observation of dendritic lesion at a relatively larger magnification may help understand the in vivo morphological change of HSK. Further study in more patients with HSK and nonherpetic dendritic lesion is needed to utilize confocal microscopy images in differential diagnosis and follow-up of the epithelial lesions with dendrite. PMID:26445524

  1. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Mori, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) using in vivo confocal microscopy. Four eyes of four patients (mean 65.8 years) with HSK presenting with a dendritic lesion were enrolled. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Acquired confocal images at the level of the epithelium were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Changes in the shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits around dendritic lesions as well as other corneal layers were qualitatively evaluated. Mapping of dendritic lesion was successful in all cases, and the subconfluent montages clearly showed the larger image of dendritic lesion. In all cases, the dendritic lesion consisted of hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, and was surrounded by distorted and elongated epithelial cells. In three cases, hyperreflective deposits were noted at the midline of the lesion. The corneal stroma showed a hyperreflective honeycomb pattern. In two cases, inflammatory cells were observed at the level of endothelial cell layer. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with HSK was successful in all patients using in vivo confocal microscopy. Cellular level observation of dendritic lesion at a relatively larger magnification may help understand the in vivo morphological change of HSK. Further study in more patients with HSK and nonherpetic dendritic lesion is needed to utilize confocal microscopy images in differential diagnosis and follow-up of the epithelial lesions with dendrite.

  2. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin dosesmore » were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply

  3. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the

  4. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Xu, X George; Liu, Bob

    2014-09-01

    To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8%-25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2±3.3 and 16.5±2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the fix-mA doses with local mA values; (2

  5. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. Design and Methods Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T cells were incubated with human plasmacytoid dendritic cells sorted from healthy donor blood or with monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dendritic cell maturation was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion as well as naive T-cell activation and polarization. Labeled microparticles were also used to study cellular interactions. Results Endothelial microparticles induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. In contrast, conventional dendritic cells were resistant to endothelial microparticle-induced maturation. In addition to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, endothelial microparticle-matured plasmacytoid dendritic cells secreted inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8, but no interferon-α) and also induced allogeneic naive CD4+ T cells to proliferate and to produce type 1 cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Endothelial microparticle endocytosis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells appeared to be required for plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Importantly, the ability of endothelial microparticles to induce plasmacytoid dendritic cells to mature was specific as microparticles derived from activated T cells or platelets (the major source of circulating microparticules in healthy subjects) did not induce such plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Conclusions Our data show that endothelial microparticles specifically induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines. This novel activation pathway may be implicated in

  6. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-11-01

    Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T cells were incubated with human plasmacytoid dendritic cells sorted from healthy donor blood or with monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dendritic cell maturation was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion as well as naive T-cell activation and polarization. Labeled microparticles were also used to study cellular interactions. Endothelial microparticles induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. In contrast, conventional dendritic cells were resistant to endothelial microparticle-induced maturation. In addition to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, endothelial microparticle-matured plasmacytoid dendritic cells secreted inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8, but no interferon-alpha) and also induced allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells to proliferate and to produce type 1 cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Endothelial microparticle endocytosis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells appeared to be required for plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Importantly, the ability of endothelial microparticles to induce plasmacytoid dendritic cells to mature was specific as microparticles derived from activated T cells or platelets (the major source of circulating microparticules in healthy subjects) did not induce such plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Our data show that endothelial microparticles specifically induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines. This novel activation pathway may be implicated in various inflammatory disorders and

  7. Synaptic clustering within dendrites: an emerging theory of memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Kastellakis, George; Cai, Denise J.; Mednick, Sara C.; Silva, Alcino J.; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that complex memories are stored in distributed representations throughout the brain, however the mechanisms underlying these representations are not understood. Here, we review recent findings regarding the subcellular mechanisms implicated in memory formation, which provide evidence for a dendrite-centered theory of memory. Plasticity-related phenomena which affect synaptic properties, such as synaptic tagging and capture, synaptic clustering, branch strength potentiation and spinogenesis provide the foundation for a model of memory storage that relies heavily on processes operating at the dendrite level. The emerging picture suggests that clusters of functionally related synapses may serve as key computational and memory storage units in the brain. We discuss both experimental evidence and theoretical models that support this hypothesis and explore its advantages for neuronal function. PMID:25576663

  8. Numerical model for dendritic solidification of binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felicelli, S. D.; Heinrich, J. C.; Poirier, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    A finite element model capable of simulating solidification of binary alloys and the formation of freckles is presented. It uses a single system of equations to deal with the all-liquid region, the dendritic region, and the all-solid region. The dendritic region is treated as an anisotropic porous medium. The algorithm uses the bilinear isoparametric element, with a penalty function approximation and a Petrov-Galerkin formulation. Numerical simulations are shown in which an NH4Cl-H2O mixture and a Pb-Sn alloy melt are cooled. The solidification process is followed in time. Instabilities in the process can be clearly observed and the final compositions obtained.

  9. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: report of two pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Dharmani, Preeti Ashok; Mittal, Neha Manish; Subramanian, P G; Galani, Komal; Badrinath, Yajamanam; Amare, Pratibha; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia that typically follows a highly aggressive clinical course in adults, whereas experience in children with this disease is very limited. We report cases of two children in whom bone marrow showed infiltration by large atypical monocytoid 'blast-like' cells which on immunophenotyping expressed CD4, CD56, HLA-DR and CD33 while were negative for CD34 other T-cell, B-cell and myeloid markers. The differential diagnoses considered were AML, T/NK-cell leukemia and acute undifferentiated leukemia. Additional markers CD303/BDCA-2 and CD123 which are recently validated plasmacytoid dendritic cell markers were done which helped us clinch the diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. An accurate diagnosis of BPDCN is essential in order to provide prompt treatment. Due to its rarity and only recent recognition as a distinct clinicopathological entity, no standardized therapeutic approach has been established for BPDCN.

  10. The dendritic spine story: an intriguing process of discovery

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are key components of a variety of microcircuits and they represent the majority of postsynaptic targets of glutamatergic axon terminals in the brain. The present article will focus on the discovery of dendritic spines, which was possible thanks to the application of the Golgi technique to the study of the nervous system, and will also explore the early interpretation of these elements. This discovery represents an interesting chapter in the history of neuroscience as it shows us that progress in the study of the structure of the nervous system is based not only on the emergence of new techniques but also on our ability to exploit the methods already available and correctly interpret their microscopic images. PMID:25798090

  11. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-5 Induces Dendritic Outgrowth by Homophilic Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Nyman, Henrietta; Kilgannon, Patrick; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kensaku; Andersson, Leif C.; Kaukinen, Sami; Rauvala, Heikki; Gallatin, W. Michael; Gahmberg, Carl G.

    2000-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) is a dendritically polarized membrane glycoprotein in telencephalic neurons, which shows heterophilic binding to leukocyte β2-integrins. Here, we show that the human ICAM-5 protein interacts in a homophilic manner through the binding of the immunoglobulin domain 1 to domains 4–5. Surface coated ICAM-5-Fc promoted dendritic outgrowth and arborization of ICAM- 5–expressing hippocampal neurons. During dendritogenesis in developing rat brain, ICAM-5 was in monomer form, whereas in mature neurons it migrated as a high molecular weight complex. The findings indicate that its homophilic binding activity was regulated by nonmonomer/monomer transition. Thus, ICAM-5 displays two types of adhesion activity, homophilic binding between neurons and heterophilic binding between neurons and leukocytes. PMID:10893271

  12. Dendritic Learning as a Paradigm Shift in Brain Learning.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Shira; Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Tugendhaft, Yael; Uzan, Herut; Kanter, Ido

    2018-06-20

    Experimental and theoretical results reveal a new underlying mechanism for fast brain learning process, dendritic learning, as opposed to the misdirected research in neuroscience over decades, which is based solely on slow synaptic plasticity. The presented paradigm indicates that learning occurs in closer proximity to the neuron, the computational unit, dendritic strengths are self-oscillating, and weak synapses, which comprise the majority of our brain and previously were assumed to be insignificant, play a key role in plasticity. The new learning sites of the brain call for a reevaluation of current treatments for disordered brain functionality and for a better understanding of proper chemical drugs and biological mechanisms to maintain, control and enhance learning.

  13. Dendrite and Axon Specific Geometrical Transformation in Neurite Development

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Vasily I.; Semyanov, Alexey V.; Kazantsev, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model of neurite growth to explain the differences in dendrite and axon specific neurite development. The model implements basic molecular kinetics, e.g., building protein synthesis and transport to the growth cone, and includes explicit dependence of the building kinetics on the geometry of the neurite. The basic assumption was that the radius of the neurite decreases with length. We found that the neurite dynamics crucially depended on the relationship between the rate of active transport and the rate of morphological changes. If these rates were in the balance, then the neurite displayed axon specific development with a constant elongation speed. For dendrite specific growth, the maximal length was rapidly saturated by degradation of building protein structures or limited by proximal part expansion reaching the characteristic cell size. PMID:26858635

  14. Dendritic Growth with Fluid Flow for Pure Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, Jun-Ho; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional, adaptive, parallel finite element code to examine solidification of pure materials under conditions of forced flow. We have examined the effect of undercooling, surface tension anisotropy and imposed flow velocity on the growth. The flow significantly alters the growth process, producing dendrites that grow faster, and with greater tip curvature, into the flow. The selection constant decreases slightly with flow velocity in our calculations. The results of the calculations agree well with the transport solution of Saville and Beaghton at high undercooling and high anisotropy. At low undercooling, significant deviations are found. We attribute this difference to the influence of other parts of the dendrite, removed from the tip, on the flow field.

  15. The dendritic spine story: an intriguing process of discovery.

    PubMed

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are key components of a variety of microcircuits and they represent the majority of postsynaptic targets of glutamatergic axon terminals in the brain. The present article will focus on the discovery of dendritic spines, which was possible thanks to the application of the Golgi technique to the study of the nervous system, and will also explore the early interpretation of these elements. This discovery represents an interesting chapter in the history of neuroscience as it shows us that progress in the study of the structure of the nervous system is based not only on the emergence of new techniques but also on our ability to exploit the methods already available and correctly interpret their microscopic images.

  16. Lymphatic exosomes promote dendritic cell migration along guidance cues

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Markus; Johnson, Louise A.; Leone, Dario A.; Majek, Peter; Senfter, Daniel; Bukosza, Nora; Asfour, Gabriele; Langer, Brigitte; Parapatics, Katja; Hong, Young-Kwon; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Sixt, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature. In vitro and ex vivo EEV fractions augmented cellular protrusion formation in a CX3CL1/fractalkine-dependent fashion and enhanced the directional migratory response of human dendritic cells along guidance cues. We conclude that perilymphatic LEC exosomes enhance exploratory behavior and thus promote directional migration of CX3CR1-expressing cells in complex tissue environments. PMID:29650776

  17. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  18. Solute redistribution in dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, S.; Poirier, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of solute redistribution during dendritic solidification with diffusion in the solid has been performed using numerical techniques. The extent of diffusion is characterized by the instantaneous and average diffusion parameters. These parameters are functions of the diffusion Fourier number, the partition ratio and the fraction solid. Numerical results are presented as an approximate model, which is used to predict the average diffusion parameter and calculate the composition of the interdendritic liquid during solidification.

  19. Disarmed by density: A glycolytic break for immunostimulatory dendritic cells?

    PubMed

    Nasi, Aikaterini; Rethi, Bence

    2013-12-01

    We observed a cell concentration-dependent differentiation switch among cultured dendritic cells (DCs) triggered by lactic acid, a product of glycolytic metabolism. In particular, while interleukin (IL)-12, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-producing, migratory DCs developed in sparse cultures, IL-10-producing, non-migratory DCs differentiated in dense cultures. This points to a novel opportunity for tailoring DC-based anticancer therapies through metabolism modulation in developing DCs.

  20. Estimating neuronal connectivity from axonal and dendritic density fields

    PubMed Central

    van Pelt, Jaap; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    Neurons innervate space by extending axonal and dendritic arborizations. When axons and dendrites come in close proximity of each other, synapses between neurons can be formed. Neurons vary greatly in their morphologies and synaptic connections with other neurons. The size and shape of the arborizations determine the way neurons innervate space. A neuron may therefore be characterized by the spatial distribution of its axonal and dendritic “mass.” A population mean “mass” density field of a particular neuron type can be obtained by averaging over the individual variations in neuron geometries. Connectivity in terms of candidate synaptic contacts between neurons can be determined directly on the basis of their arborizations but also indirectly on the basis of their density fields. To decide when a candidate synapse can be formed, we previously developed a criterion defining that axonal and dendritic line pieces should cross in 3D and have an orthogonal distance less than a threshold value. In this paper, we developed new methodology for applying this criterion to density fields. We show that estimates of the number of contacts between neuron pairs calculated from their density fields are fully consistent with the number of contacts calculated from the actual arborizations. However, the estimation of the connection probability and the expected number of contacts per connection cannot be calculated directly from density fields, because density fields do not carry anymore the correlative structure in the spatial distribution of synaptic contacts. Alternatively, these two connectivity measures can be estimated from the expected number of contacts by using empirical mapping functions. The neurons used for the validation studies were generated by our neuron simulator NETMORPH. An example is given of the estimation of average connectivity and Euclidean pre- and postsynaptic distance distributions in a network of neurons represented by their population mean density

  1. Breast Cancer Vaccines Based on Dendritic Cells and the Chemokines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Cancer 50: 289, 1992. 13 . Restifo NP, Esquivel F, Dawakami Y , Yewdell JW, Mule JJ, Rosenberg SA, Bennink JR: Identification of human cancers... 13 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Annual (l. Jul 97 - 30 Jun 98) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Breast Cancer Vaccines Based on Dendritic...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19981210 109 - 12a. DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13

  2. Induction of dendritic spines by β2-containing nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Adrian F; Wang, Xulong; Gounko, Natalia V; Massey, Kerri A; Duan, Jingjing; Liu, Zhaoping; Berg, Darwin K

    2012-06-13

    Glutamatergic synapses are located mostly on dendritic spines in the adult nervous system. The spines serve as postsynaptic compartments, containing components that mediate and control the synaptic signal. Early in development, when glutamatergic synapses are initially forming, waves of excitatory activity pass through many parts of the nervous system and are driven in part by a class of heteropentameric β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs). These β2*-nAChRs are widely distributed and, when activated, can depolarize the membrane and elevate intracellular calcium levels in neurons. We show here that β2*-nAChRs are essential for acquisition of normal numbers of dendritic spines during development. Mice constitutively lacking the β2-nAChR gene have fewer dendritic spines than do age-matched wild-type mice at all times examined. Activation of β2*-nAChRs by nicotine either in vivo or in organotypic slice culture quickly elevates the number of spines. RNA interference studies both in vivo and in organotypic culture demonstrate that the β2*-nAChRs act in a cell-autonomous manner to increase the number of spines. The increase depends on intracellular calcium and activation of calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Absence of β2*-nAChRs in vivo causes a disproportionate number of glutamatergic synapses to be localized on dendritic shafts, rather than on spines as occurs in wild type. This shift in synapse location is found both in the hippocampus and cortex, indicating the breadth of the effect. Because spine synapses differ from shaft synapses in their signaling capabilities, the shift observed is likely to have significant consequences for network function.

  3. Cellular-dendritic transition in directionally solidified binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Laxmanan, V.

    1987-01-01

    The microstructural development of binary alloys during directional solidification is studied. Cellular growth data for the Al-Cu and Pb-Sn binary alloy systems are analyzed in order evaluate the criteria of Kurz and Fisher (1981) and Trivedi (1984) for cellular-dendritic transition. It is observed that the experimental growth values do not correlate with the Kurz and Fisher or Trivedi data.

  4. Dendritic Cell-Based Genetic Immunotherapy for Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    transduction of dendritic cells (DCs) is inefficient because of the lack of the primary Ad receptor, CAR. CD40 is a surface marker expressed by DCs that...ligands or antibodies that can bind to the cell surface markers expressed by DCs. The tumor antigen or peptides are linked to the ligands...thus pose the risk of insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. The various cell- surface markers that have been exploited for targeting DCs have

  5. Dendritic cell chimerism in oral mucosa of transplanted patients affected by graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudio A; Rabanales, Ramón; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Larrondo, Milton; Escobar, Alejandro F; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Alfaro, Jorge I; González, Fermín E

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the main complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical features of GVHD include either an acute (aGVHD) or a chronic (cGVHD) condition that affects locations such as the oral mucosa. While the involvement of the host's dendritic cells (DCs) has been demonstrated in aGVHD, the origin (donor/host) and mechanisms underlying oral cGVHD have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we intend to determine the origin of DCs present in mucosal tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of transplanted patients affected by cGVHD. We purified DCs, from oral biopsies of three patients with cGVHD, through immunobeads and subsequently performed DNA extraction. The origin of the obtained DCs was determined by PCR amplification of 13 informative short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. We also characterised the DCs phenotype and the inflammatory infiltrate from biopsies of two patients by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and histological features of the biopsies were concordant with oral cGVHD. We identified CD11c-, CD207- and CD1a-positive cells in the epithelium and beneath the basal layer. Purification of DCs from the mucosa of patients affected by post-transplantation cGVHD was >95%. PCR-STR data analysis of DCs DNA showed that 100% of analysed cells were of donor origin in all of the evaluated patients. Our results demonstrate that resident DCs isolated from the oral tissue of allotransplanted patients affected by cGVHD are originated from the donor. Further research will clarify the role of DCs in the development and/or severity of oral cGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Implications of respiratory motion for the quantification of 2D MR spectroscopic imaging data in the abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, A. J.; Leach, M. O.

    2000-08-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) studies in the abdomen or breast are acquired in the presence of respiratory motion. This modifies the point spread function (PSF) and hence the reconstructed spectra. We evaluated the quantitative effects of both periodic and aperiodic motion on spectra localized by MRSI. Artefactual signal changes, both the modification of native to a voxel and spurious signals arising elsewhere, depend primarily upon the motion amplitude relative to the voxel dimension. A similar dependence on motion amplitude was observed for simple harmonic motion (SHM), quasi-periodic motion and random displacements. No systematic dependence upon the period or initial phase of SHM or on the array size was found. There was also no significant variation with motion direction relative to the internal and external phase-encoding directions. In measured excursion ranges of 20 breast and abdominal tumours, 70% moved ≤ 5 mm, while 30% moved 6-23 mm. The diaphragm and fatty tissues in the gut typically moved ~ 15-20 mm. While tumour/organ excursions less than half the voxel dimension do not substantially affect native signals, the bleeding in of strong lipid signals will be problematic in 1H studies. MRSI studies in the abdomen, even of relatively well-anchored tumours, are thus likely to benefit from the addition of respiratory triggering or other motion compensation strategies.

  7. MRI artifact reduction and quality improvement in the upper abdomen with PROPELLER and prospective acquisition correction (PACE) technique.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Yuusuke; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Maetani, Yoji S; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER [BLADE in the MR systems from Siemens Medical Solutions]) with a respiratory compensation technique for motion correction, image noise reduction, improved sharpness of liver edge, and image quality of the upper abdomen. Twenty healthy adult volunteers with a mean age of 28 years (age range, 23-42 years) underwent upper abdominal MRI with a 1.5-T scanner. For each subject, fat-saturated T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences with respiratory compensation (prospective acquisition correction [PACE]) were performed with and without the BLADE technique. Ghosting artifact, artifacts except ghosting artifact such as respiratory motion and bowel movement, sharpness of liver edge, image noise, and overall image quality were evaluated visually by three radiologists using a 5-point scale for qualitative analysis. The Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to determine whether a significant difference existed between images with and without BLADE. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. In the BLADE images, image artifacts, sharpness of liver edge, image noise, and overall image quality were significantly improved (p < 0.001). With the BLADE technique, T2-weighted TSE images of the upper abdomen could provide reduced image artifacts including ghosting artifact and image noise and provide better image quality.

  8. Selective non-operative management of stab wounds to the posterior abdomen is safe: the Pietermaritzburg experience.

    PubMed

    Kong, Victor; Oosthuizen, George; Sartorius, Benn; Clarke, Damian

    2015-09-01

    The selective non-operative management (SNOM) of stab injuries of the anterior abdomen is well established, but its application to the posterior abdomen remains controversial. A retrospective review of 1013 patients was undertaken at a major trauma service in South Africa over a five-year period. Ninety per cent of patients were males, and the mean age was 25 years. The mean time from injury to presentation was 4h and 73% of all injuries were inflicted by knives. A total of 9% (93) of patients required a laparotomy [Group A] and 82% (833) were successfully observed without the need for operative intervention [Group B]. CT imaging was performed on 52 patients (5%) who had haematuria [Group C], 25 (3%) who had neurological deficits [Group D], and 10 (1%) with retained weapon injuries [Group E]. The accuracy of physical examination for identifying the presence of organ injury was 88%. All observed patients who required laparotomy declared themselves within 24h. There were no mortalities as direct result of our current management protocol. Selective management based on active clinical observation and serial physical examination is safe, and when coupled with the judicious use of advanced imaging, is a prudent and reliable approach in a resource constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-E-P-11: Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Between Different Scanner System in Routine Abdomen CT

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, S; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    Purpose To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of routine abdomen computed tomography exam with the automatic current modulation technique (ATCM) performed in two different brand 64-slice CT scanners in our site. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of routine abdomen CT exam performed with two scanners; scanner A and scanner B in our site. To calculate standard deviation of the portal hepatic level with a region of interest of 12.5 mm x 12.5mm represented to the image noise. The radiation dose was obtained from CT DICOM image information. Using Computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIv) to represented CT radiationmore » dose. The patient data in this study were with normal weight (about 65–75 Kg). Results The standard deviation of Scanner A was smaller than scanner B, the scanner A might with better image quality than scanner B. On the other hand, the radiation dose of scanner A was higher than scanner B(about higher 50–60%) with ATCM. Both of them, the radiation dose was under diagnostic reference level. Conclusion The ATCM systems in modern CT scanners can contribute a significant reduction in radiation dose to the patient. But the reduction by ATCM systems from different CT scanner manufacturers has slightly variation. Whatever CT scanner we use, it is necessary to find the acceptable threshold of image quality with the minimum possible radiation exposure to the patient in agreement with the ALARA principle.« less

  10. Democratization in a passive dendritic tree: an analytical investigation.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Y; Cox, S J; Coombes, S; Josić, K

    2008-10-01

    One way to achieve amplification of distal synaptic inputs on a dendritic tree is to scale the amplitude and/or duration of the synaptic conductance with its distance from the soma. This is an example of what is often referred to as "dendritic democracy". Although well studied experimentally, to date this phenomenon has not been thoroughly explored from a mathematical perspective. In this paper we adopt a passive model of a dendritic tree with distributed excitatory synaptic conductances and analyze a number of key measures of democracy. In particular, via moment methods we derive laws for the transport, from synapse to soma, of strength, characteristic time, and dispersion. These laws lead immediately to synaptic scalings that overcome attenuation with distance. We follow this with a Neumann approximation of Green's representation that readily produces the synaptic scaling that democratizes the peak somatic voltage response. Results are obtained for both idealized geometries and for the more realistic geometry of a rat CA1 pyramidal cell. For each measure of democratization we produce and contrast the synaptic scaling associated with treating the synapse as either a conductance change or a current injection. We find that our respective scalings agree up to a critical distance from the soma and we reveal how this critical distance decreases with decreasing branch radius.

  11. Overview of the Tusas Code for Simulation of Dendritic Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Trainer, Amelia J.; Newman, Christopher Kyle; Francois, Marianne M.

    2016-01-07

    The aim of this project is to conduct a parametric investigation into the modeling of two dimensional dendrite solidification, using the phase field model. Specifically, we use the Tusas code, which is for coupled heat and phase-field simulation of dendritic solidification. Dendritic solidification, which may occur in the presence of an unstable solidification interface, results in treelike microstructures that often grow perpendicular to the rest of the growth front. The interface may become unstable if the enthalpy of the solid material is less than that of the liquid material, or if the solute is less soluble in solid than itmore » is in liquid, potentially causing a partition [1]. A key motivation behind this research is that a broadened understanding of phase-field formulation and microstructural developments can be utilized for macroscopic simulations of phase change. This may be directly implemented as a part of the Telluride project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), through which a computational additive manufacturing simulation tool is being developed, ultimately to become part of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program within the U.S. Department of Energy [2].« less

  12. Dendritic cell fate is determined by BCL11A

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Gregory C.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Lin, Jian; Wall, Jason K.; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Staudt, Louis M.; Liu, Yong-Jun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tucker, Haley O.

    2014-01-01

    The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) is vital to the coordinated action of innate and adaptive immunity. pDC development has not been unequivocally traced, nor has its transcriptional regulatory network been fully clarified. Here we confirm an essential requirement for the BCL11A transcription factor in fetal pDC development, and demonstrate this lineage-specific requirement in the adult organism. Furthermore, we identify BCL11A gene targets and provide a molecular mechanism for its action in pDC commitment. Embryonic germ-line deletion of Bcl11a revealed an absolute cellular, molecular, and functional absence of pDCs in fetal mice. In adults, deletion of Bcl11a in hematopoietic stem cells resulted in perturbed yet continued generation of progenitors, loss of downstream pDC and B-cell lineages, and persisting myeloid, conventional dendritic, and T-cell lineages. Challenge with virus resulted in a marked reduction of antiviral response in conditionally deleted adults. Genome-wide analyses of BCL11A DNA binding and expression revealed that BCL11A regulates transcription of E2-2 and other pDC differentiation modulators, including ID2 and MTG16. Our results identify BCL11A as an essential, lineage-specific factor that regulates pDC development, supporting a model wherein differentiation into pDCs represents a primed “default” pathway for common dendritic cell progenitors. PMID:24591644

  13. Information processing in dendrites I. Input pattern generalisation.

    PubMed

    Gurney, K N

    2001-10-01

    In this paper and its companion, we address the question as to whether there are any general principles underlying information processing in the dendritic trees of biological neurons. In order to address this question, we make two assumptions. First, the key architectural feature of dendrites responsible for many of their information processing abilities is the existence of independent sub-units performing local non-linear processing. Second, any general functional principles operate at a level of abstraction in which neurons are modelled by Boolean functions. To accommodate these assumptions, we therefore define a Boolean model neuron-the multi-cube unit (MCU)-which instantiates the notion of the discrete functional sub-unit. We then use this model unit to explore two aspects of neural functionality: generalisation (in this paper) and processing complexity (in its companion). Generalisation is dealt with from a geometric viewpoint and is quantified using a new metric-the set of order parameters. These parameters are computed for threshold logic units (TLUs), a class of random Boolean functions, and MCUs. Our interpretation of the order parameters is consistent with our knowledge of generalisation in TLUs and with the lack of generalisation in randomly chosen functions. Crucially, the order parameters for MCUs imply that these functions possess a range of generalisation behaviour. We argue that this supports the general thesis that dendrites facilitate input pattern generalisation despite any local non-linear processing within functionally isolated sub-units.

  14. Emitter formation in dendritic web silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R. B.; Alexander, P.; Fonash, S. J.; Singh, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of liquid dopants and liquid masks for p-n junction formation in dendritic web solar cells was investigated and found to be equivalent to the use of gaseous dopants and CVD SiO2 masks previously used. This results in a projected cost reduction of 0.02 1980$/Watt for a 25 MW/year production line, and makes possible junction formation processes having a higher throughput than more conventional processes. The effect of a low-energy (0.4 keV) hydrogen ion implant on dendritic web solar cells was also investigated. Such an implant was observed to improve Voc and Jsc substantially. Measurements of internal quantum efficiency suggest that it is the base of the cell, rather than the emitter, which benefits from the hydrogen implant. The diffusion length for electrons in the p-type base increased from 53 microns to 150 microns in one case, with dendritic web cell efficiency being boosted to 15.2 percent. The mechanism by which low-energy hydrogen ions can penetrate deeply into the silicon to effect the observed improvement is not known at this time.

  15. Dendritic-metasurface-based flexible broadband microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Weng, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-01

    Based on the dendritic metasurface model, a type of flexible and lightweight microwave absorber (MA) comprising resistance film array with dendritic slot (RFADS), dielectric material, and metal plate is proposed. A broadband absorptivity of >80% is obtained both from simulation and experiment at frequency ranges of 3.0-9.2 and 3.2-9.00 GHz, respectively. And the thickness of MA is 5 mm, which is only 0.05λ _{low}, or 0.15λ _ {high}, where the λ _{low} and the λ _{high} are the beginning and the end of the working frequency. By combining this metasurface-based MA with the dendritic-resistance-film-based microwave metasurface absorber (MMA), we designed a broadband MMA. The simulations and experiments showed that this kind of MMA can absorb the radiation effectively at a wide frequency range 4.5-17.5 GHz. And the thickness of this combined MMA is 4 mm. All the structures showed their insensitivity to the incident angle (0°-40°) and the polarization of the incident wave because of their structural symmetry. In addition, the small thickness, low apparent density, and flexibility made those structures possess the advantages of being applied in microwave stealth and radar cross-section (RCS) reduction.

  16. Mu-opioid receptors modulate the stability of dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dezhi; Lin, Hang; Law, Ping Yee; Loh, Horace H.

    2005-01-01

    Opioids classically regulate the excitability of neurons by suppressing synaptic GABA release from inhibitory neurons. Here, we report a role for opioids in modulating excitatory synaptic transmission. By activating ubiquitously clustered μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in excitatory synapses, morphine caused collapse of preexisting dendritic spines and decreased synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Meanwhile, the opioid antagonist naloxone increased the density of spines. Chronic treatment with morphine decreased the density of dendritic spines even in the presence of Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, indicating that the morphine's effect was not caused by altered activity in neural network through suppression of GABA release. The effect of morphine on dendritic spines was absent in transgenic mice lacking MORs and was blocked by CTOP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-ThrNH2), a μ-receptor antagonist. These data together with others suggest that endogenous opioids and/or constitutive activity of MORs participate in maintaining normal morphology and function of spines, challenging the classical model of opioids. Abnormal alteration of spines may occur in drug addiction when opioid receptors are overactivated by exogenous opiates. PMID:15659552

  17. Democracy-independence trade-off in oscillating dendrites and its implications for grid cells.

    PubMed

    Remme, Michiel W H; Lengyel, Máté; Gutkin, Boris S

    2010-05-13

    Dendritic democracy and independence have been characterized for near-instantaneous processing of synaptic inputs. However, a wide class of neuronal computations requires input integration on long timescales. As a paradigmatic example, entorhinal grid fields have been thought to be generated by the democratic summation of independent dendritic oscillations performing direction-selective path integration. We analyzed how multiple dendritic oscillators embedded in the same neuron integrate inputs separately and determine somatic membrane voltage jointly. We found that the interaction of dendritic oscillations leads to phase locking, which sets an upper limit on the timescale for independent input integration. Factors that increase this timescale also decrease the influence that the dendritic oscillations exert on somatic voltage. In entorhinal stellate cells, interdendritic coupling dominates and causes these cells to act as single oscillators. Our results suggest a fundamental trade-off between local and global processing in dendritic trees integrating ongoing signals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Onset of Curved Dendrite Growth in an Al-Cu Welding Pool: A Phase Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wei, Yanhong

    2018-02-01

    A phase field model is developed to predict curved dendrite growth in the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding pool of an Al-Cu alloy. The equations of temperature gradient, pulling velocity and dendrite growth orientation are proposed to consider the transient solidification process during welding. Solidification microstructures and solute diffusion along the fusion boundary in the welding pool are predicted by using the phase field model coupled with transient solidification conditions. Predicted primary dendrites are curved and point toward the welding direction. Welding experiments are carried out to observe solidification microstructures of the weld. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental measurements are conducted. Predicted dendritic morphology, dendrite growth orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing and initial cell spacing give a good agreement with experimental measurements.

  19. 3D morphology-based clustering and simulation of human pyramidal cell dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2018-06-13

    The dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are the targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex. They have a wide variety of morphologies, and their morphology appears to be critical from the functional point of view. To further characterize dendritic spine geometry, we used in this paper over 7,000 individually 3D reconstructed dendritic spines from human cortical pyramidal neurons to group dendritic spines using model-based clustering. This approach uncovered six separate groups of human dendritic spines. To better understand the differences between these groups, the discriminative characteristics of each group were identified as a set of rules. Model-based clustering was also useful for simulating accurate 3D virtual representations of spines that matched the morphological definitions of each cluster. This mathematical approach could provide a useful tool for theoretical predictions on the functional features of human pyramidal neurons based on the morphology of dendritic spines.

  20. A route for direct retinal input to the preoptic hypothalamus: dendritic projections into the optic chiasm.

    PubMed

    Silver, J; Brand, S

    1979-07-01

    With the use of Golgi, horseradish peroxidase, and electron microscopic techniques, neurons within a broad region of the preoptic hypothalamus of the mouse were shown to have dendrites that projected well into the depths of the optic chiasm. Further experimental and ultrastructural investigation demonstrated synapses between these dendrites and retinal axonal boutons within the chiasm. All synapses located in the chiasm were classified as Gray's type I. The possible function of these dendritic projections is discussed.

  1. Active action potential propagation but not initiation in thalamic interneuron dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Amanda E.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus modulate the activity of thalamocortical cells in response to excitatory input through the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter from both axons and dendrites. The exact mechanisms by which release can occur from dendrites are, however, not well understood. Recent experiments using calcium imaging have suggested that Na/K based action potentials can evoke calcium transients in dendrites via local active conductances, making the back-propagating action potential a candidate for dendritic neurotransmitter release. In this study, we employed high temporal and spatial resolution voltage-sensitive dye imaging to assess the characteristics of dendritic voltage deflections in response to Na/K action potentials in interneurons of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that trains or single action potentials elicited by somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation led to action potentials that rapidly and actively back-propagated throughout the entire dendritic arbor and into the fine filiform dendritic appendages known to release GABAergic vesicles. Action potentials always appeared first in the soma or proximal dendrite in response to somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation, and the rapid back-propagation into the dendritic arbor depended upon voltage-gated sodium and TEA-sensitive potassium channels. Our results indicate that thalamic interneuron dendrites integrate synaptic inputs that initiate action potentials, most likely in the axon initial segment, that then back-propagate with high-fidelity into the dendrites, resulting in a nearly synchronous release of GABA from both axonal and dendritic compartments. PMID:22171033

  2. Dynamics of action potential backpropagation in basal dendrites of prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Liang; Yan, Ping; Wuskell, Joseph P; Loew, Leslie M; Antic, Srdjan D

    2008-02-01

    Basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons are relatively short and directly attached to the cell body. This allows electrical signals arising in basal dendrites to strongly influence the neuronal output. Likewise, somatic action potentials (APs) should readily propagate back into the basilar dendritic tree to influence synaptic plasticity. Two recent studies, however, determined that sodium APs are severely attenuated in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells, so that they completely fail in distal dendritic segments. Here we used the latest improvements in the voltage-sensitive dye imaging technique (Zhou et al., 2007) to study AP backpropagation in basal dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat prefrontal cortex. With a signal-to-noise ratio of > 15 and minimal temporal averaging (only four sweeps) we were able to sample AP waveforms from the very last segments of individual dendritic branches (dendritic tips). We found that in short- (< 150 microm) and medium (150-200 microm in length)-range basal dendrites APs backpropagated with modest changes in AP half-width or AP rise-time. The lack of substantial changes in AP shape and dynamics of rise is inconsistent with the AP-failure model. The lack of substantial amplitude boosting of the third AP in the high-frequency burst also suggests that in short- and medium-range basal dendrites backpropagating APs were not severely attenuated. Our results show that the AP-failure concept does not apply in all basal dendrites of the rat prefrontal cortex. The majority of synaptic contacts in the basilar dendritic tree actually received significant AP-associated electrical and calcium transients.

  3. Three-dimensional spatial modeling of spines along dendritic networks in human cortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Pedro; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Bielza, Concha

    2017-01-01

    We modeled spine distribution along the dendritic networks of pyramidal neurons in both basal and apical dendrites. To do this, we applied network spatial analysis because spines can only lie on the dendritic shaft. We expanded the existing 2D computational techniques for spatial analysis along networks to perform a 3D network spatial analysis. We analyzed five detailed reconstructions of adult human pyramidal neurons of the temporal cortex with a total of more than 32,000 spines. We confirmed that there is a spatial variation in spine density that is dependent on the distance to the cell body in all dendrites. Considering the dendritic arborizations of each pyramidal cell as a group of instances of the same observation (the neuron), we used replicated point patterns together with network spatial analysis for the first time to search for significant differences in the spine distribution of basal dendrites between different cells and between all the basal and apical dendrites. To do this, we used a recent variant of Ripley’s K function defined to work along networks. The results showed that there were no significant differences in spine distribution along basal arbors of the same neuron and along basal arbors of different pyramidal neurons. This suggests that dendritic spine distribution in basal dendritic arbors adheres to common rules. However, we did find significant differences in spine distribution along basal versus apical networks. Therefore, not only do apical and basal dendritic arborizations have distinct morphologies but they also obey different rules of spine distribution. Specifically, the results suggested that spines are more clustered along apical than in basal dendrites. Collectively, the results further highlighted that synaptic input information processing is different between these two dendritic domains. PMID:28662210

  4. Three-dimensional spatial modeling of spines along dendritic networks in human cortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Larrañaga, Pedro; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Bielza, Concha

    2017-01-01

    We modeled spine distribution along the dendritic networks of pyramidal neurons in both basal and apical dendrites. To do this, we applied network spatial analysis because spines can only lie on the dendritic shaft. We expanded the existing 2D computational techniques for spatial analysis along networks to perform a 3D network spatial analysis. We analyzed five detailed reconstructions of adult human pyramidal neurons of the temporal cortex with a total of more than 32,000 spines. We confirmed that there is a spatial variation in spine density that is dependent on the distance to the cell body in all dendrites. Considering the dendritic arborizations of each pyramidal cell as a group of instances of the same observation (the neuron), we used replicated point patterns together with network spatial analysis for the first time to search for significant differences in the spine distribution of basal dendrites between different cells and between all the basal and apical dendrites. To do this, we used a recent variant of Ripley's K function defined to work along networks. The results showed that there were no significant differences in spine distribution along basal arbors of the same neuron and along basal arbors of different pyramidal neurons. This suggests that dendritic spine distribution in basal dendritic arbors adheres to common rules. However, we did find significant differences in spine distribution along basal versus apical networks. Therefore, not only do apical and basal dendritic arborizations have distinct morphologies but they also obey different rules of spine distribution. Specifically, the results suggested that spines are more clustered along apical than in basal dendrites. Collectively, the results further highlighted that synaptic input information processing is different between these two dendritic domains.

  5. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic fields in old-world monkeys are oriented radially.

    PubMed

    Schall, J D; Perry, V H; Leventhal, A G

    1986-03-12

    We analyzed the dendritic field morphology of 297 ganglion cells from peripheral regions of monkey retina. Most of the dendritic fields were elongated, and there was a significant tendency for the dendritic fields to be oriented radially, i.e., like the spokes of a wheel with the fovea at the hub. An overrepresentation of radial orientations in the peripheral retina of primates might explain why humans are best able to detect stimuli which are oriented radially using peripheral vision.

  6. Wnt5 and Drl/Ryk Gradients Pattern the Drosophila Olfactory Dendritic Map

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuping; Helt, Jay-Christian; Wexler, Emily; Petrova, Iveta M.; Noordermeer, Jasprina N.; Fradkin, Lee G.

    2014-01-01

    During development, dendrites migrate to their correct locations in response to environmental cues. The mechanisms of dendritic guidance are poorly understood. Recent work has shown that the Drosophila olfactory map is initially formed by the spatial segregation of the projection neuron (PN) dendrites in the developing antennal lobe (AL). We report here that between 16 and 30 h after puparium formation, the PN dendrites undergo dramatic rotational reordering to achieve their final glomerular positions. During this period, a novel set of AL-extrinsic neurons express high levels of the Wnt5 protein and are tightly associated with the dorsolateral edge of the AL. Wnt5 forms a dorsolateral-high to ventromedial-low pattern in the antennal lobe neuropil. Loss of Wnt5 prevents the ventral targeting of the dendrites, whereas Wnt5 overexpression disrupts dendritic patterning. We find that Drl/Ryk, a known Wnt5 receptor, is expressed in a dorsolateral-to-ventromedial (DL > VM) gradient by the PN dendrites. Loss of Drl in the PNs results in the aberrant ventromedial targeting of the dendrites, a defect that is suppressed by reduction in Wnt5 gene dosage. Conversely, overexpression of Drl in the PNs results in the dorsolateral targeting of their dendrites, an effect that requires Drl's cytoplasmic domain. We propose that Wnt5 acts as a repulsive guidance cue for the PN dendrites, whereas Drl signaling in the dendrites inhibits Wnt5 signaling. In this way, the precise expression patterns of Wnt5 and Drl orient the PN dendrites allowing them to target their final glomerular positions. PMID:25378162

  7. Separate transcriptionally regulated pathways specify distinct classes of sister dendrites in a nociceptive neuron.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Barbara M J; Palumbos, Sierra D; Novakovic, Michaela; Shang, Xueying; Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Miller, David M

    2017-12-15

    The dendritic processes of nociceptive neurons transduce external signals into neurochemical cues that alert the organism to potentially damaging stimuli. The receptive field for each sensory neuron is defined by its dendritic arbor, but the mechanisms that shape dendritic architecture are incompletely understood. Using the model nociceptor, the PVD neuron in C. elegans, we determined that two types of PVD lateral branches project along the dorsal/ventral axis to generate the PVD dendritic arbor: (1) Pioneer dendrites that adhere to the epidermis, and (2) Commissural dendrites that fasciculate with circumferential motor neuron processes. Previous reports have shown that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor MEC-3 is required for all higher order PVD branching and that one of its targets, the claudin-like membrane protein HPO-30, preferentially promotes outgrowth of pioneer branches. Here, we show that another MEC-3 target, the conserved TFIIA-like zinc finger transcription factor EGL-46, adopts the alternative role of specifying commissural dendrites. The known EGL-46 binding partner, the TEAD transcription factor EGL-44, is also required for PVD commissural branch outgrowth. Double mutants of hpo-30 and egl-44 show strong enhancement of the lateral branching defect with decreased numbers of both pioneer and commissural dendrites. Thus, HPO-30/Claudin and EGL-46/EGL-44 function downstream of MEC-3 and in parallel acting pathways to direct outgrowth of two distinct classes of PVD dendritic branches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines – root or result of behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Cassandra D.; Olive, M. Foster

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are multifunctional integrative units of the nervous system and are highly diverse and dynamic in nature. Both internal and external stimuli influence dendritic spine density and morphology on the order of minutes. It is clear that the structural plasticity of dendritic spines is related to changes in synaptic efficacy, learning and memory, and other cognitive processes. However, it is currently unclear whether structural changes in dendritic spines are primary instigators of changes in specific behaviors, a consequence of behavioral changes, or both. In this review, we first review the basic structure and function of dendritic spines in the brain, as well as laboratory methods to characterize and quantify morphological changes in dendritic spines. We then discuss the existing literature on the temporal and functional relationship between changes in dendritic spines in specific brain regions and changes in specific behaviors mediated by those regions. Although technological advancements have allowed us to better understand the functional relevance of structural changes in dendritic spines that are influenced by environmental stimuli, the role of spine dynamics as an underlying driver or consequence of behavior still remains elusive. We conclude that while it is likely that structural changes in dendritic spines are both instigators and results of behavioral changes, improved research tools and methods are needed to experimentally and directly manipulate spine dynamics in order to more empirically delineate the relationship between spine structure and behavior. PMID:27561549

  9. Bi-stable dendrite in constant electric field: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Baginskas, A; Gutman, A; Svirskis, G

    1993-03-01

    Some neurons possess dendritic persistent inward current, which is activated during depolarization. Dendrites can be stably depolarized, i.e. they are bi-stable if the net current is inward. A proper method to show the existence of dendritic bi-stability is putting the neuron into the electric field to induce transmembrane potential changes along the dendrites. Here we present analytical and computer simulation of the bi-stable dendrite in the d.c. field. A prominent jump to a depolarization plateau can be seen in the soma upon initial hyperpolarization of its membrane. If a considerable portion of dendrites are parallel to the field it is impossible to switch off the depolarization plateau by changing the direction and the strength of the electric field. There is nothing similar in neurons with ohmic dendrites. The results of the simulation conform to the experimental observations in turtle motoneurons [Hounsgaard J. and Kiehn O. (1993) J. Physiol., Lond. (in press)]; comparison of the theoretical and the experimental results makes semi-quantitative estimation of some electrical parameters of dendrites possible. We propose modifications of the experiment which enable one to measure dendritic length constants and other parameters of stained neurons.

  10. hamlet, a binary genetic switch between single- and multiple- dendrite neuron morphology.

    PubMed

    Moore, Adrian W; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2002-08-23

    The dendritic morphology of neurons determines the number and type of inputs they receive. In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), the external sensory (ES) neurons have a single nonbranched dendrite, whereas the lineally related multidendritic (MD) neurons have extensively branched dendritic arbors. We report that hamlet is a binary genetic switch between these contrasting morphological types. In hamlet mutants, ES neurons are converted to an MD fate, whereas ectopic hamlet expression in MD precursors results in transformation of MD neurons into ES neurons. Moreover, hamlet expression induced in MD neurons undergoing dendrite outgrowth drastically reduces arbor branching.

  11. The immediate large-scale dendritic plasticity of cortical pyramidal neurons subjected to acute epidural compression.

    PubMed

    Chen, J-R; Wang, T-J; Wang, Y-J; Tseng, G-F

    2010-05-05

    Head trauma and acute disorders often instantly compress the cerebral cortex and lead to functional abnormalities. Here we used rat epidural bead implantation model and investigated the immediate changes following acute compression. The dendritic arbors of affected cortical pyramidal neurons were filled with intracellular dye and reconstructed 3-dimensionally for analysis. Compression was found to shorten the apical, but not basal, dendrites of underlying layer III and V cortical pyramidal neurons and reduced dendritic spines on the entire dendritic arbor immediately. Dendrogram analysis showed that in addition to distal, proximal apical dendrites also quickly reconfigured. We then focused on apical dendritic trunks and explored how proximal dendrites were rapidly altered. Compression instantly twisted the microtubules and deformed the membrane contour of dendritic trunks likely a result of the elastic nature of dendrites as immediate decompression restored it and stabilization of microtubules failed to block it. Subsequent adaptive remodeling restored plasmalemma and microtubules to normal appearance in 3 days likely via active mechanisms as taxol blocked the restoration of microtubules and in addition partly affected plasmalemmal reorganization which presumably engaged recycling of excess membrane. In short, the structural dynamics and the associated mechanisms that we revealed demonstrate how compression quickly altered the morphology of cortical output neurons and hence cortical functions consequently. (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety and Efficacy of a Non-Invasive 1060 nm Diode Laser for Fat Reduction of the Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Bass, Lawrence S; Doherty, Sean T

    2018-01-01

    Changes in temperature are known to produce apoptosis in adipocytes. This study examines the use of a non-invasive treatment that applies 1060 nm laser energy transcutaneously to hyperthermically induce disruption of fat cells in the abdomen. Thirty-five subjects received application of 1060 nm laser on the abdomen for fat reduction. Ultrasound images and high-resolution two-dimensional photography were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks post treatment. Subjects maintained a stable diet and exercise routine throughout the course of the study. Weight was recorded at baseline and each follow-up visit. Three board certified dermatologists were trained as blinded evaluators and tasked with identifying before and after photographs from randomized, paired baseline, and 12-week photographs. Ultrasound images were used to measure the fat thickness change from baseline at 6 and 12 weeks. Level of patient satisfaction was graded at 12 weeks using a 6 point Likert scale. 23% of subjects were Fitzpatrick IV-VI. Blinded evaluators correctly identified the post-treatment photograph 95% of the time (88%, 97%, and 100%). Mean reduction in fat layer thickness from baseline was statistically significant (P less than 0.001) at both 6 weeks (1.5 +/-1.23 mm) and 12 weeks (2.65 +/-1.41 mm). Mean weight change was +0.1 lb. Side effects were mild to moderate including edema, tenderness, and induration mostly resolving within 1-3 weeks post treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. 1060 nm based laser treatment can consistently reduce the fat contour in the abdomen with an excellent safety profile in all skin types. The study met all three of its prospectively defined endpoints of success.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(1):106-112.

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  13. Differences in regulatory T-cell and dendritic cell pattern in decidual tissue of placenta accreta/increta cases.

    PubMed

    Schwede, S; Alfer, J; von Rango, U

    2014-06-01

    Primary infertility, miscarriage, and preeclampsia have been correlated with reduced numbers of regulatory T-cells (Treg) suggesting that decreased extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion originates from inadequate EVT tolerance. In contrast increased numbers of Treg-cells may be responsible for over-invasion of EVT. As the maturation status of dendritic cells (DC) influences T-cell behavior (tolerance or immune activation), altered relation between immature and mature DCs may also influence EVT invasion. Paraffin-embedded specimens of placenta accreta/increta (Pc; n = 11) and healthy intrauterine pregnancy (IUG; n = 18) were double-stained for cytokeratin and CD45, CD68, CD56, CD20, CD3, or CD8 as well as FoxP3/CD4 and FoxP3/CD8 and single-stained for CD4, CD25, FoxP3, CD209, Dec205 and CD83. Quantification of the leukocyte subpopulations was performed for decidua parietalis and basalis as characterized by cytokeratin-positive EVT. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Mann-Whitney test. There were significantly fewer CD4(+) cells in Pc than in IUG. Concerning the Treg-markers, FoxP3(+) cells are significantly increased. CD25(+) cells showed a small non-significant increase in Pc in comparison to IUG. Concerning dendritic cells, immature non-activated CD209(+) DCs were significantly decreased in Pc while immature activated CD205(+) DCs were slightly but non-significantly increased. Mature activated CD83(+) DC were non-significantly decreased in IUG vs Pc. The increased number of Treg-cells in Pc suggests significance for these cells in the regulation of trophoblast invasion. Their adequate interaction with other lymphocyte populations (e.g. adequately maturated dendritic cells) may be one mechanism to assure controlled EVT invasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Can CT imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis identify all vertebral injuries of the thoracolumbar spine without dedicated reformatting?

    PubMed

    Imran, Jonathan B; Madni, Tarik D; Pruitt, Jeffrey H; Cornelius, Canon; Subramanian, Madhu; Clark, Audra T; Mokdad, Ali A; Rizk, Paul; Minei, Joseph P; Cripps, Michael W; Eastman, Alexander L

    2018-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare detection rates of clinically significant thoracolumbar spine (TLS) fracture between computed tomography (CT) imaging of the chest, abdomen, and spine (CT CAP) and CT for the thoracolumbar spine (CT TL). We retrospectively identified patients at our institution with a TLS fracture over a two-year period that had both CT CAP and reformatted CT TL imaging. The sensitivity of CT CAP to identify fracture was calculated for each fracture type. A total of 516 TLS fractures were identified in 125 patients using reformatted CT TL spine imaging. Overall, 69 of 512 fractures (13%) were missed on CT CAP that were identified on CT TL. Of those, there were no clinically significant missed fractures. CT CAP could potentially be used as a screening tool for clinically significant TLS injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Turtle Functions Downstream of Cut in Differentially Regulating Class Specific Dendrite Morphogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sulkowski, Mikolaj J.; Iyer, Srividya Chandramouli; Kurosawa, Mathieu S.; Iyer, Eswar Prasad R.; Cox, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dendritic morphology largely determines patterns of synaptic connectivity and electrochemical properties of a neuron. Neurons display a myriad diversity of dendritic geometries which serve as a basis for functional classification. Several types of molecules have recently been identified which regulate dendrite morphology by acting at the levels of transcriptional regulation, direct interactions with the cytoskeleton and organelles, and cell surface interactions. Although there has been substantial progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis, the specification of class-specific dendritic arbors remains largely unexplained. Furthermore, the presence of numerous regulators suggests that they must work in concert. However, presently, few genetic pathways regulating dendrite development have been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings The Drosophila gene turtle belongs to an evolutionarily conserved class of immunoglobulin superfamily members found in the nervous systems of diverse organisms. We demonstrate that Turtle is differentially expressed in Drosophila da neurons. Moreover, MARCM analyses reveal Turtle acts cell autonomously to exert class specific effects on dendritic growth and/or branching in da neuron subclasses. Using transgenic overexpression of different Turtle isoforms, we find context-dependent, isoform-specific effects on mediating dendritic branching in class II, III and IV da neurons. Finally, we demonstrate via chromatin immunoprecipitation, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry analyses that Turtle expression is positively regulated by the Cut homeodomain transcription factor and via genetic interaction studies that Turtle is downstream effector of Cut-mediated regulation of da neuron dendrite morphology. Conclusions/Significance Our findings reveal that Turtle proteins differentially regulate the acquisition of class-specific dendrite morphologies. In addition, we have established a transcriptional regulatory

  16. Influence of image registration on ADC images computed from free-breathing diffusion MRIs of the abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyader, Jean-Marie; Bernardin, Livia; Douglas, Naomi H. M.; Poot, Dirk H. J.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is an imaging biomarker providing quantitative information on the diffusion of water in biological tissues. This measurement could be of relevance in oncology drug development, but it suffers from a lack of reliability. ADC images are computed by applying a voxelwise exponential fitting to multiple diffusion-weighted MR images (DW-MRIs) acquired with different diffusion gradients. In the abdomen, respiratory motion induces misalignments in the datasets, creating visible artefacts and inducing errors in the ADC maps. We propose a multistep post-acquisition motion compensation pipeline based on 3D non-rigid registrations. It corrects for motion within each image and brings all DW-MRIs to a common image space. The method is evaluated on 10 datasets of free-breathing abdominal DW-MRIs acquired from healthy volunteers. Regions of interest (ROIs) are segmented in the right part of the abdomen and measurements are compared in the three following cases: no image processing, Gaussian blurring of the raw DW-MRIs and registration. Results show that both blurring and registration improve the visual quality of ADC images, but compared to blurring, registration yields visually sharper images. Measurement uncertainty is reduced both by registration and blurring. For homogeneous ROIs, blurring and registration result in similar median ADCs, which are lower than without processing. In a ROI at the interface between liver and kidney, registration and blurring yield different median ADCs, suggesting that uncorrected motion introduces a bias. Our work indicates that averaging procedures on the scanner should be avoided, as they remove the opportunity to perform motion correction.

  17. Feasibility of intra-acquisition motion correction for 4D DSA reconstruction for applications in the thorax and abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Martin; Laeseke, Paul; Harari, Colin; Schafer, Sebastian; Speidel, Michael; Mistretta, Charles

    2018-03-01

    The recently proposed 4D DSA technique enables reconstruction of time resolved 3D volumes from two C-arm CT acquisitions. This provides information on the blood flow in neurovascular applications and can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases. For applications in the thorax and abdomen, respiratory motion can prevent successful 4D DSA reconstruction and cause severe artifacts. The purpose of this work is to propose a novel technique for motion compensated 4D DSA reconstruction to enable applications in the thorax and abdomen. The approach uses deformable 2D registration to align the projection images of a non-contrast and a contrast enhanced scan. A subset of projection images is then selected, which are acquired in a similar respiratory state and an iterative simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction is applied to determine a 3D constraint volume. A 2D-3D registration step then aligns the remaining projection images with the 3D constraint volume. Finally, a constrained back-projection is performed to create a 3D volume for each projection image. A pig study has been performed, where 4D DSA acquisitions were performed with and without respiratory motion to evaluate the feasibility of the approach. The dice similarity coefficient between the reference 3D constraint volume and the motion compensated reconstruction was 51.12 % compared to 35.99 % without motion compensation. This technique could improve the workflow for procedures in interventional radiology, e.g. liver embolizations, where changes in blood flow have to be monitored carefully.

  18. Fragmentation alters stream fish community structure in dendritic ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B

    2012-12-01

    Effects of fragmentation on the ecology of organisms occupying dendritic ecological networks (DENs) have recently been described through both conceptual and mathematical models, but few hypotheses have been tested in complex, real-world ecosystems. Stream fishes provide a model system for assessing effects of fragmentation on the structure of communities occurring within DENs, including how fragmentation alters metacommunity dynamics and biodiversity. A recently developed habitat-availability measure, the "dendritic connectivity index" (DCI), allows for assigning quantitative measures of connectivity in DENs regardless of network extent or complexity, and might be used to predict fish community response to fragmentation. We characterized stream fish community structure in 12 DENs in the Great Plains, USA, during periods of dynamic (summer) and muted (fall) discharge regimes to test the DCI as a predictive model of fish community response to fragmentation imposed by road crossings. Results indicated that fish communities in stream segments isolated by road crossings had reduced species richness (alpha diversity) relative to communities that maintained connectivity with the surrounding DEN during summer and fall. Furthermore, isolated communities had greater dissimilarity (beta diversity) to downstream sites notisolated by road crossings during summer and fall. Finally, dissimilarity among communities within DENs decreased as a function of increased habitat connectivity (measured using the DCI) for summer and fall, suggesting that communities within highly connected DENs tend to be more homogeneous. Our results indicate that the DCI is sensitive to community effects of fragmentation in riverscapes and might be used by managers to predict ecological responses to changes in habitat connectivity. Moreover, our findings illustrate that relating structural connectivity of riverscapes to functional connectivity among communities might aid in maintaining metacommunity

  19. Combined dendritic cell cryotherapy of tumor induces systemic antimetastatic immunity.

    PubMed

    Machlenkin, Arthur; Goldberger, Ofir; Tirosh, Boaz; Paz, Adrian; Volovitz, Ilan; Bar-Haim, Erez; Lee, Sung-Hyung; Vadai, Ezra; Tzehoval, Esther; Eisenbach, Lea

    2005-07-01

    Cryotherapy of localized prostate, renal, and hepatic primary tumors and metastases is considered a minimally invasive treatment demonstrating a low complication rate in comparison with conventional surgery. The main drawback of cryotherapy is that it has no systemic effect on distant metastases. We investigated whether intratumoral injections of dendritic cells following cryotherapy of local tumors (cryoimmunotherapy) provides an improved approach to cancer treatment, combining local tumor destruction and systemic anticancer immunity. The 3LL murine Lewis lung carcinoma clone D122 and the ovalbumin-transfected B16 melanoma clone MO5 served as models for spontaneous metastasis. The antimetastatic effect of cryoimmunotherapy was assessed in the lung carcinoma model by monitoring mouse survival, lung weight, and induction of tumor-specific CTLs. The mechanism of cryoimmunotherapy was elucidated in the melanoma model using adoptive transfer of T cell receptor transgenic OT-I CTLs into the tumor-bearing mice, and analysis of Th1/Th2 responses by intracellular cytokine staining in CD4 and CD8 cells. Cryoimmunotherapy caused robust and tumor-specific CTL responses, increased Th1 responses, significantly prolonged survival and dramatically reduced lung metastasis. Although intratumor administration of dendritic cells alone increased the proliferation rate of CD8 cells, only cryoimmunotherapy resulted in the generation of effector memory cells. Furthermore, cryoimmunotherapyprotected mice that had survived primary MO5 tumors from rechallenge with parental tumors. These results present cryoimmunotherapy as a novel approach for systemic treatment of cancer. We envisage that cryotherapy of tumors combined with subsequent in situ immunotherapy by autologous unmodified immature dendritic cells can be applied in practice.

  20. Designer dendritic cells for tolerance induction: guided not misguided missiles.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, H; Morelli, A E; Thomson, A W

    2001-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles as initiators and modulators of adaptive immune responses. Although DC-based vaccines have been utilized successfully to generate cytolytic T-cell activity against tumor antigens (Ags), evidence has accumulated that DCs also have potent capabilities to tolerize T cells in an Ag-specific manner. DCs cultured in the laboratory can suppress auto- or alloimmunity. Current and prospective strategies to promote this inherent tolerogenic potential of DCs might prove to be important for the therapy of transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases.

  1. Active subthreshold dendritic conductances shape the local field potential

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Torbjørn V.; Remme, Michiel W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The local field potential (LFP), the low‐frequency part of extracellular potentials recorded in neural tissue, is often used for probing neural circuit activity. Interpreting the LFP signal is difficult, however.While the cortical LFP is thought mainly to reflect synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons, little is known about the role of the various subthreshold active conductances in shaping the LFP.By means of biophysical modelling we obtain a comprehensive qualitative understanding of how the LFP generated by a single pyramidal neuron depends on the type and spatial distribution of active subthreshold currents.For pyramidal neurons, the h‐type channels probably play a key role and can cause a distinct resonance in the LFP power spectrum.Our results show that the LFP signal can give information about the active properties of neurons and imply that preferred frequencies in the LFP can result from those cellular properties instead of, for example, network dynamics. Abstract The main contribution to the local field potential (LFP) is thought to stem from synaptic input to neurons and the ensuing subthreshold dendritic processing. The role of active dendritic conductances in shaping the LFP has received little attention, even though such ion channels are known to affect the subthreshold neuron dynamics. Here we used a modelling approach to investigate the effects of subthreshold dendritic conductances on the LFP. Using a biophysically detailed, experimentally constrained model of a cortical pyramidal neuron, we identified conditions under which subthreshold active conductances are a major factor in shaping the LFP. We found that, in particular, the hyperpolarization‐activated inward current, I h, can have a sizable effect and cause a resonance in the LFP power spectral density. To get a general, qualitative understanding of how any subthreshold active dendritic conductance and its cellular distribution can affect the LFP, we next performed a systematic

  2. Role of citron kinase in dendritic morphogenesis of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Ferrara, Luciana; Curtetti, Roberta; Imarisio, Sara; Guazzone, Simona; Broccoli, Vania; Bulfone, Alessandro; Altruda, Fiorella; Vercelli, Alessandro; Silengo, Lorenzo

    2003-05-30

    Small GTPases of the rho family regulate the extensive rearrangements of the cytoskeleton that characterize neuronal differentiation. Citron kinase is a target molecule for activated rhoA, previously implicated in control of cytokinesis. We have found that, in addition, it could play an important role in modulating the extension of neuronal processes. Using constitutively active and dominant negative mutants, we showed that citron kinase is involved in the morphologic differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells induced by serum starvation. More importantly, quantitative analysis of citron kinase knockout cerebral cortex displayed that this molecule may differentially regulate the morphology of the dendritic compartment in corticocollicular versus callosally-projecting pyramidal neurons.

  3. Regulation of dendritic cell function through toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Akira, Shizuo

    2003-12-01

    Higher animals establish host defense by orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. This is mediated by professional antigen presenting cells, i.e. dendritic cells (DCs). DCs can incorporate pathogens, produce a variety of cytokines, maturate, and present pathogen-derived peptides to T cells, thereby inducing T cell activation and differentiation. These responses are triggered by microbial recognition through type I transmembrane proteins, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on DCs. TLRs consist of ten members and each TLR is involved in recognizing a variety of microorganism-derived molecular structures. TLR ligands include cell wall components, proteins, nucleic acids, and synthetic chemical compounds, all of which can activate DCs as immune adjuvants.

  4. Two Dimensional Dendritic Crystal Growth for Weak Undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.; Kunka, M. D.; Foster, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the framework and issues brought forth in the recent work of Kunka, Foster & Tanveer, which incorporates small but nonzero surface energy effects in the nonlinear dynamics of a conformal mapping function z(zeta,t) that maps the upper-half zeta plane into the exterior of a dendrite. In this paper, surface energy effects on the singularities of z(zeta,t) in the lower-half plane were examined, as they move toward the real axis from below. In particular, the dynamics of complex singularities manifests itself in predictions on nature and growth rate of disturbances, as well as of coarsening.

  5. Periodically Arranged Arrays of Dendritic Pt Nanospheres Using Cage-Type Mesoporous Silica as a Hard Template.

    PubMed

    Kani, Kenya; Malgras, Victor; Jiang, Bo; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Huang, Zhenguo; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-04

    Dendritic Pt nanospheres of 20 nm diameter are synthesized by using a highly concentrated surfactant assembly within the large-sized cage-type mesopores of mesoporous silica (LP-FDU-12). After diluting the surfactant solution with ethanol, the lower viscosity leads to an improved penetration inside the mesopores. After Pt deposition followed by template removal, the arrangement of the Pt nanospheres is a replication from that of the mesopores in the original LP-FDU-12 template. Although it is well known that ordered LLCs can form on flat substrates, the confined space inside the mesopores hinders surfactant self-organization. Therefore, the Pt nanospheres possess a dendritic porous structure over the entire area. The distortion observed in some nanospheres is attributed to the close proximity existing between neighboring cage-type mesopores. This new type of nanoporous metal with a hierarchical architecture holds potential to enhance substance diffusivity/accessibility for further improvement of catalytic activity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Autologous Tumor Lysate-pulsed Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy for Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent High-grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Joseph L.; Panosyan, Eduard H.; Plant, Ashley; Davidson, Tom; Yong, William H.; Prins, Robert M.; Liau, Linda M.; Moore, Theodore B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy has the potential to improve clinical outcomes with little toxicity for pediatric patients with brain tumors. We conducted a pilot feasibility study of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in pediatric patients (1 to 18 years old) with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG). A total of nine DC vaccine doses, each containing 1×106 cells per dose were administered to three out of the seven originally enrolled patients. Toxicities were limited to mild side-effects, except in one case of elevated alkaline phosphatase, which resolved without clinical consequences. Two patients with primary lesions amongst the three vaccinated were alive at the time of writing, both without evidence of disease. Pre- and post-vaccination tumor samples from a patient with an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma that recurred failed to demonstrate immune cell infiltration by immunohistochemistry. Peripheral cytokine levels were evaluated in one patient following DC vaccination and demonstrated some changes in relation to vaccination. DC vaccine is tolerable and feasible with some limitations for pediatric patients with HGG. Dendritic cell based immunotherapy may provide some clinical benefit in pediatric patients with glioma, especially for patients with minimal residual disease, but further investigation of this modality is required. PMID:23645755

  7. Dendritic space-filling requires a neuronal type-specific extracellular permissive signal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Poe, Amy R; Tang, Lingfeng; Wang, Bei; Li, Yun; Sapar, Maria L; Han, Chun

    2017-09-19

    Neurons sometimes completely fill available space in their receptive fields with evenly spaced dendrites to uniformly sample sensory or synaptic information. The mechanisms that enable neurons to sense and innervate all space in their target tissues are poorly understood. Using Drosophila somatosensory neurons as a model, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) Dally and Syndecan on the surface of epidermal cells act as local permissive signals for the dendritic growth and maintenance of space-filling nociceptive C4da neurons, allowing them to innervate the entire skin. Using long-term time-lapse imaging with intact Drosophila larvae, we found that dendrites grow into HSPG-deficient areas but fail to stay there. HSPGs are necessary to stabilize microtubules in newly formed high-order dendrites. In contrast to C4da neurons, non-space-filling sensory neurons that develop in the same microenvironment do not rely on HSPGs for their dendritic growth. Furthermore, HSPGs do not act by transporting extracellular diffusible ligands or require leukocyte antigen-related (Lar), a receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) and the only known Drosophila HSPG receptor, for promoting dendritic growth of space-filling neurons. Interestingly, another RPTP, Ptp69D, promotes dendritic growth of C4da neurons in parallel to HSPGs. Together, our data reveal an HSPG-dependent pathway that specifically allows dendrites of space-filling neurons to innervate all target tissues in Drosophila .

  8. Dendritic Properties Control Energy Efficiency of Action Potentials in Cortical Pyramidal Cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile; Deng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Neural computation is performed by transforming input signals into sequences of action potentials (APs), which is metabolically expensive and limited by the energy available to the brain. The metabolic efficiency of single AP has important consequences for the computational power of the cell, which is determined by its biophysical properties and morphologies. Here we adopt biophysically-based two-compartment models to investigate how dendrites affect energy efficiency of APs in cortical pyramidal neurons. We measure the Na + entry during the spike and examine how it is efficiently used for generating AP depolarization. We show that increasing the proportion of dendritic area or coupling conductance between two chambers decreases Na + entry efficiency of somatic AP. Activating inward Ca 2+ current in dendrites results in dendritic spike, which increases AP efficiency. Activating Ca 2+ -activated outward K + current in dendrites, however, decreases Na + entry efficiency. We demonstrate that the active and passive dendrites take effects by altering the overlap between Na + influx and internal current flowing from soma to dendrite. We explain a fundamental link between dendritic properties and AP efficiency, which is essential to interpret how neural computation consumes metabolic energy and how biophysics and morphologies contribute to such consumption.

  9. Dynamic interaction between P-bodies and transport ribonucleoprotein particles in dendrites of mature hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zeitelhofer, Manuel; Karra, Daniela; Macchi, Paolo; Tolino, Marco; Thomas, Sabine; Schwarz, Martina; Kiebler, Michael; Dahm, Ralf

    2008-07-23

    The dendritic localization of mRNAs and their subsequent translation at stimulated synapses contributes to the experience-dependent remodeling of synapses and thereby to the establishment of long-term memory. Localized mRNAs are transported in a translationally silent manner to distal dendrites in specific ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), termed transport RNPs. A recent study suggested that processing bodies (P-bodies), which have recently been identified as sites of RNA degradation and translational control in eukaryotic cells, may participate in the translational control of dendritically localized mRNAs in Drosophila neurons. This study raised the interesting question of whether dendritic transport RNPs are distinct from P-bodies or whether those structures share significant overlap in their molecular composition in mammalian neurons. Here, we show that P-body and transport RNP markers do not colocalize and are not transported together in the same particles in dendrites of mammalian neurons. Detailed time-lapse videomicroscopy analyses reveal, however, that both P-bodies and transport RNPs can interact in a dynamic manner via docking. Docking is a frequent event involving as much as 50% of all dendritic P-bodies. Chemically induced neuronal activity results in a 60% decrease in the number of P-bodies in dendrites, suggesting that P-bodies disassemble after synaptic stimulation. Our data lend support to the exciting hypothesis that dendritically localized mRNAs might be stored in P-bodies and be released and possibly translated when synapses become activated.

  10. It's Lonely at the Top: Winning Climbing Fibers Ascend Dendrites Solo

    PubMed Central

    Draft, Ryan W.; Lichtman, Jeff W.

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, climbing fiber axons compete for sole innervation at each Purkinje cell. At the same time, synapses disappear from Purkinje somata and appear in great numbers on the dendrites. In this issue of Neuron, Hashimoto et al. show that, by the time climbing fibers ascend the dendrites, the winner and losers are already decided. PMID:19607787

  11. Maximization of the connectivity repertoire as a statistical principle governing the shapes of dendritic arbors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Quan; Stepanyants, Armen; Elston, Guy N.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Chklovskii, Dmitri B.

    2009-01-01

    The shapes of dendritic arbors are fascinating and important, yet the principles underlying these complex and diverse structures remain unclear. Here, we analyzed basal dendritic arbors of 2,171 pyramidal neurons sampled from mammalian brains and discovered 3 statistical properties: the dendritic arbor size scales with the total dendritic length, the spatial correlation of dendritic branches within an arbor has a universal functional form, and small parts of an arbor are self-similar. We proposed that these properties result from maximizing the repertoire of possible connectivity patterns between dendrites and surrounding axons while keeping the cost of dendrites low. We solved this optimization problem by drawing an analogy with maximization of the entropy for a given energy in statistical physics. The solution is consistent with the above observations and predicts scaling relations that can be tested experimentally. In addition, our theory explains why dendritic branches of pyramidal cells are distributed more sparsely than those of Purkinje cells. Our results represent a step toward a unifying view of the relationship between neuronal morphology and function. PMID:19622738

  12. CT findings associated with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung W; Jeong, Katherine; Sokol, Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy that is frequently misdiagnosed. We present a case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with extensive computed tomography (CT) findings and provide an imaging focused review of this uncommon malignancy. PMID:27504192

  13. Muscarinic regulation of Kenyon cell dendritic arborizations in adult worker honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Dobrin, Scott E.; Herlihy, J. Daniel; Robinson, Gene E.; Fahrbach, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    The experience of foraging under natural conditions increases the volume of mushroom body neuropil in worker honey bees. A comparable increase in neuropil volume results from treatment of worker honey bees with pilocarpine, an agonist for muscarinic-type cholinergic receptors. A component of the neuropil growth induced by foraging experience is growth of dendrites in the collar region of the calyces. We show here, via analysis of Golgi-impregnated collar Kenyon cells with wedge arborizations, that significant increases in standard measures of dendritic complexity were also found in worker honey bees treated with pilocarpine. This result suggests that signaling via muscarinic-type receptors promotes the increase in Kenyon cell dendritic complexity associated with foraging. Treatment of worker honey bees with scopolamine, a muscarinic inhibitor, inhibited some aspects of dendritic growth. Spine density on the Kenyon cell dendrites varied with sampling location, with the distal portion of the dendritic field having greater total spine density than either the proximal or medial section. This observation may be functionally significant because of the stratified organization of projections from visual centers to the dendritic arborizations of the collar Kenyon cells. Pilocarpine treatment had no effect on the distribution of spines on dendrites of the collar Kenyon cells. PMID:21262388

  14. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    SciTech Connect

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  15. p15Ink4b is Key in Dendritic Cell Development | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    An important step in the initiation of leukemia is the ability of pre-leukemic and leukemic cells to evade the immune system. Dendritic cells are instrumental in maintaining the body’s immunity, and CCR scientists have shown for the first time that the tumor suppressor protein p15Ink4b regulates the differentiation and maturation of conventional dendritic cells.

  16. Double-bromo and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins regulate dendrite morphology and mechanosensory function

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Joshua A.; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Wildonger, Jill

    2014-01-01

    A complex array of genetic factors regulates neuronal dendrite morphology. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression represents a plausible mechanism to control pathways responsible for specific dendritic arbor shapes. By studying the Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons, we discovered a role of the double-bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family proteins in regulating dendrite arbor complexity. A loss-of-function mutation in the single Drosophila BET protein encoded by female sterile 1 homeotic [fs(1)h] causes loss of fine, terminal dendritic branches. Moreover, fs(1)h is necessary for the induction of branching caused by a previously identified transcription factor, Cut (Ct), which regulates subtype-specific dendrite morphology. Finally, disrupting fs(1)h function impairs the mechanosensory response of class III da sensory neurons without compromising the expression of the ion channel NompC, which mediates the mechanosensitive response. Thus, our results identify a novel role for BET family proteins in regulating dendrite morphology and a possible separation of developmental pathways specifying neural cell morphology and ion channel expression. Since the BET proteins are known to bind acetylated histone tails, these results also suggest a role of epigenetic histone modifications and the “histone code,” in regulating dendrite morphology. PMID:25184680

  17. Double-bromo and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins regulate dendrite morphology and mechanosensory function.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Joshua A; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Wildonger, Jill; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-09-01

    A complex array of genetic factors regulates neuronal dendrite morphology. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression represents a plausible mechanism to control pathways responsible for specific dendritic arbor shapes. By studying the Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons, we discovered a role of the double-bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family proteins in regulating dendrite arbor complexity. A loss-of-function mutation in the single Drosophila BET protein encoded by female sterile 1 homeotic [fs(1)h] causes loss of fine, terminal dendritic branches. Moreover, fs(1)h is necessary for the induction of branching caused by a previously identified transcription factor, Cut (Ct), which regulates subtype-specific dendrite morphology. Finally, disrupting fs(1)h function impairs the mechanosensory response of class III da sensory neurons without compromising the expression of the ion channel NompC, which mediates the mechanosensitive response. Thus, our results identify a novel role for BET family proteins in regulating dendrite morphology and a possible separation of developmental pathways specifying neural cell morphology and ion channel expression. Since the BET proteins are known to bind acetylated histone tails, these results also suggest a role of epigenetic histone modifications and the "histone code," in regulating dendrite morphology. © 2014 Bagley et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Dendritic Properties Control Energy Efficiency of Action Potentials in Cortical Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xile; Deng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Neural computation is performed by transforming input signals into sequences of action potentials (APs), which is metabolically expensive and limited by the energy available to the brain. The metabolic efficiency of single AP has important consequences for the computational power of the cell, which is determined by its biophysical properties and morphologies. Here we adopt biophysically-based two-compartment models to investigate how dendrites affect energy efficiency of APs in cortical pyramidal neurons. We measure the Na+ entry during the spike and examine how it is efficiently used for generating AP depolarization. We show that increasing the proportion of dendritic area or coupling conductance between two chambers decreases Na+ entry efficiency of somatic AP. Activating inward Ca2+ current in dendrites results in dendritic spike, which increases AP efficiency. Activating Ca2+-activated outward K+ current in dendrites, however, decreases Na+ entry efficiency. We demonstrate that the active and passive dendrites take effects by altering the overlap between Na+ influx and internal current flowing from soma to dendrite. We explain a fundamental link between dendritic properties and AP efficiency, which is essential to interpret how neural computation consumes metabolic energy and how biophysics and morphologies contribute to such consumption. PMID:28919852

  19. A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Hausselt, Susanne E; Euler, Thomas; Detwiler, Peter B; Denk, Winfried

    2007-07-01

    Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs) playing a major role. SACs generate larger dendritic Ca(2+) signals when motion is from their somata towards their dendritic tips than for motion in the opposite direction. To study the mechanisms underlying the computation of direction selectivity (DS) in SAC dendrites, electrical responses to expanding and contracting circular wave visual stimuli were measured via somatic whole-cell recordings and quantified using Fourier analysis. Fundamental and, especially, harmonic frequency components were larger for expanding stimuli. This DS persists in the presence of GABA and glycine receptor antagonists, suggesting that inhibitory network interactions are not essential. The presence of harmonics indicates nonlinearity, which, as the relationship between harmonic amplitudes and holding potential indicates, is likely due to the activation of voltage-gated channels. [Ca(2+)] changes in SAC dendrites evoked by voltage steps and monitored by two-photon microscopy suggest that the distal dendrite is tonically depolarized relative to the soma, due in part to resting currents mediated by tonic glutamatergic synaptic input, and that high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels are active at rest. Supported by compartmental modeling, we conclude that dendritic DS in SACs can be computed by the dendrites themselves, relying on voltage-gated channels and a dendritic voltage gradient, which provides the spatial asymmetry necessary for direction discrimination.

  20. From Synaptic Transmission to Cognition: An Intermediary Role for Dendritic Spines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including…

  1. Golgi-independent secretory trafficking through recycling endosomes in neuronal dendrites and spines

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Aaron B; Bourke, Ashley M; Hiester, Brian G; Hanus, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Neurons face the challenge of regulating the abundance, distribution and repertoire of integral membrane proteins within their immense, architecturally complex dendritic arbors. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) supports dendritic translation, most dendrites lack the Golgi apparatus (GA), an essential organelle for conventional secretory trafficking. Thus, whether secretory cargo is locally trafficked in dendrites through a non-canonical pathway remains a fundamental question. Here we define the dendritic trafficking itinerary for key synaptic molecules in rat cortical neurons. Following ER exit, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 and neuroligin 1 undergo spatially restricted entry into the dendritic secretory pathway and accumulate in recycling endosomes (REs) located in dendrites and spines before reaching the plasma membrane. Surprisingly, GluA1 surface delivery occurred even when GA function was disrupted. Thus, in addition to their canonical role in protein recycling, REs also mediate forward secretory trafficking in neuronal dendrites and spines through a specialized GA-independent trafficking network. PMID:28875935

  2. Dendrites are dispensable for basic motoneuron function but essential for fine tuning of behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryglewski, Stefanie; Kadas, Dimitrios; Hutchinson, Katie; Schuetzler, Natalie; Vonhoff, Fernando; Duch, Carsten

    2014-12-16

    Dendrites are highly complex 3D structures that define neuronal morphology and connectivity and are the predominant sites for synaptic input. Defects in dendritic structure are highly consistent correlates of brain diseases. However, the precise consequences of dendritic structure defects for neuronal function and behavioral performance remain unknown. Here we probe dendritic function by using genetic tools to selectively abolish dendrites in identified Drosophila wing motoneurons without affecting other neuronal properties. We find that these motoneuron dendrites are unexpectedly dispensable for synaptic targeting, qualitatively normal neuronal activity patterns during behavior, and basic behavioral performance. However, significant performance deficits in sophisticated motor behaviors, such as flight altitude control and switching between discrete courtship song elements, scale with the degree of dendritic defect. To our knowledge, our observations provide the first direct evidence that complex dendrite architecture is critically required for fine-tuning and adaptability within robust, evolutionarily constrained behavioral programs that are vital for mating success and survival. We speculate that the observed scaling of performance deficits with the degree of structural defect is consistent with gradual increases in intellectual disability during continuously advancing structural deficiencies in progressive neurological disorders.

  3. The accuracy of a 2D and 3D dendritic tip scaling parameter in predicting the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyński, M.; Rebow, M.; Banaszek, J.

    2016-09-01

    The dendrite tip kinetics model accuracy relies on the reliability of the stability constant used, which is usually experimentally determined for 3D situations and applied to 2D models. The paper reports authors' attempts to cure the situation by deriving 2D dendritic tip scaling parameter for aluminium-based alloy: Al-4wt%Cu. The obtained parameter is then incorporated into the KGT dendritic growth model in order to compare it with the original 3D KGT counterpart and to derive two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the modified Hunt's analytical model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The conclusions drawn from the above analysis are further confirmed through numerical calculations of the two cases of Al-4wt%Cu metallic alloy solidification using the front tracking technique. Results, including the porous zone-under-cooled liquid front position, the calculated solutal under-cooling and a new predictor of the relative tendency to form an equiaxed zone, are shown, compared and discussed two numerical cases. The necessity to calculate sufficiently precise values of the tip scaling parameter in 2D and 3D is stressed.

  4. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  5. Dendritic nonlinearities are tuned for efficient spike-based computations in cortical circuits.

    PubMed

    Ujfalussy, Balázs B; Makara, Judit K; Branco, Tiago; Lengyel, Máté

    2015-12-24

    Cortical neurons integrate thousands of synaptic inputs in their dendrites in highly nonlinear ways. It is unknown how these dendritic nonlinearities in individual cells contribute to computations at the level of neural circuits. Here, we show that dendritic nonlinearities are critical for the efficient integration of synaptic inputs in circuits performing analog computations with spiking neurons. We developed a theory that formalizes how a neuron's dendritic nonlinearity that is optimal for integrating synaptic inputs depends on the statistics of its presynaptic activity patterns. Based on their in vivo preynaptic population statistics (firing rates, membrane potential fluctuations, and correlations due to ensemble dynamics), our theory accurately predicted the responses of two different types of cortical pyramidal cells to patterned stimulation by two-photon glutamate uncaging. These results reveal a new computational principle underlying dendritic integration in cortical neurons by suggesting a functional link between cellular and systems--level properties of cortical circuits.

  6. Manipulation of visible-light polarization with dendritic cell-cluster metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Huan; An, Di; Luo, Chun-Rong; Zhao, Xiao-Peng

    2018-06-26

    Cross-polarization conversion plays an important role in visible light manipulation. Metasurface with asymmetric structure can be used to achieve polarization conversion of linearly polarized light. Based on this, we design a quasi-periodic dendritic metasurface model composed of asymmetric dendritic cells. The simulation indicates that the asymmetric dendritic structure can vertically rotate the polarization direction of the linear polarization wave in visible light. Silver dendritic cell-cluster metasurface samples were prepared by the bottom-up electrochemical deposition. It experimentally proved that they could realize the cross - polarization conversion in visible light. Cross-polarized propagating light is deflected into anomalous refraction channels. Dendritic cell-cluster metasurface with asymmetric quasi-periodic structure conveys significance in cross-polarization conversion research and features extensive practical application prospect and development potential.

  7. Dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells contribute to pattern separation by controlling sparsity

    PubMed Central

    Chavlis, Spyridon; Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, nonverlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon. To investigate whether and how the dendrites of GCs contribute to pattern separation, we build a simplified, biologically relevant, computational model of the DG. Our model suggests that the presence of GC dendrites is associated with high pattern separation efficiency while their atrophy leads to increased excitability and performance impairments. These impairments can be rescued by restoring GC sparsity to control levels through various manipulations. We predict that dendrites contribute to pattern separation as a mechanism for controlling sparsity. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27784124

  8. Dynamics of cortical dendritic membrane potential and spikes in freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jason J; Ravassard, Pascal M; Ho, David; Acharya, Lavanya; Kees, Ashley L; Vuong, Cliff; Mehta, Mayank R

    2017-03-24

    Neural activity in vivo is primarily measured using extracellular somatic spikes, which provide limited information about neural computation. Hence, it is necessary to record from neuronal dendrites, which can generate dendritic action potentials (DAPs) in vitro, which can profoundly influence neural computation and plasticity. We measured neocortical sub- and suprathreshold dendritic membrane potential (DMP) from putative distal-most dendrites using tetrodes in freely behaving rats over multiple days with a high degree of stability and submillisecond temporal resolution. DAP firing rates were several-fold larger than somatic rates. DAP rates were also modulated by subthreshold DMP fluctuations, which were far larger than DAP amplitude, indicating hybrid, analog-digital coding in the dendrites. Parietal DAP and DMP exhibited egocentric spatial maps comparable to pyramidal neurons. These results have important implications for neural coding and plasticity. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Clustered Dynamics of Inhibitory Synapses and Dendritic Spines in the Adult Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jerry L.; Villa, Katherine L; Cha, Jae Won; So, Peter T.C.; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Nedivi, Elly

    2012-01-01

    A key feature of the mammalian brain is its capacity to adapt in response to experience, in part by remodeling of synaptic connections between neurons. Excitatory synapse rearrangements have been monitored in vivo by observation of dendritic spine dynamics, but lack of a vital marker for inhibitory synapses has precluded their observation. Here, we simultaneously monitor in vivo inhibitory synapse and dendritic spine dynamics across the entire dendritic arbor of pyramidal neurons in the adult mammalian cortex using large volume high-resolution dual color two-photon microscopy. We find that inhibitory synapses on dendritic shafts and spines differ in their distribution across the arbor and in their remodeling kinetics during normal and altered sensory experience. Further, we find inhibitory synapse and dendritic spine remodeling to be spatially clustered, and that clustering is influenced by sensory input. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for local coordination of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic rearrangements. PMID:22542188

  10. Rapid synthesis of dendritic Pt/Pb nanoparticles and their electrocatalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Xu, Hui; Yan, Bo; Wang, Jin; Gu, Zhulan; Du, Yukou

    2017-12-01

    This article reports a rapid synthetic method for the preparation of dendritic platinum-lead bimetallic catalysts by using an oil bath for 5 min in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and ascorbic acid (AA). CTAC acts as a shape-direction agent, and AA acts as a reducing agent during the reaction process. A series of physical techniques are used to characterize the morphology, structure and electronic properties of the dendritic Pt/Pb nanoparticles, indicating the Pt/Pb dendrites are porous, highly alloying, and self-supported nanostructures. Various electrochemical techniques were also investigated the catalytic performance of the Pt/Pb catalysts toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry indicated that the synthesized dendritic Pt/Pb nanoparticles possessed much higher electrocatalytic performance than bulk Pt catalyst. This study may inspire the engineering of dendritic bimetallic catalysts, which are expected to have great potential applications in fuel cells.

  11. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

  12. Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression of Spleen Dendritic Cells in Mouse Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Ahn, Hye-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells have been known as a member of strong innate immune cells against infectious organelles. In this study, we evaluated the cytokine expression of splenic dendritic cells in chronic mouse toxoplasmosis by tissue cyst-forming Me49 strain and demonstrated the distribution of lymphoid dendritic cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 increased rapidly at week 1 post-infection (PI) and peaked at week 3 PI. Serum IL-10 level followed the similar patterns. FACS analysis showed that the number of CD8α+/CD11c+ splenic dendritic cells increased at week 1 and peaked at week 3 PI. In conclusion, mouse splenic dendritic cells showed early and rapid cytokine changes and may have important protective roles in early phases of murine toxoplasmosis. PMID:21738265

  13. Somato-dendritic synapses in the nucleus reticularis thalami of the rat.

    PubMed

    Csillik, B; Pálfi, A; Gulya, K; Mihály, A; Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    In the reticular nucleus of the rat thalamus, about 30% of the synapses are brought about by the perikarya of parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons, which establish somato-dendritic synapses with large dendrites of nerve cells of specific thalamic nuclei. Although the parvalbumin-immunopositive presynaptic structures bear resemblance to goblet-like or calyciform axonal endings, electron microscopic immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that these structures are parts of the perikaryal cytoplasm studded with synaptic vesicles. In about 15% of the somato-dendritic synapses, axons are seen to be in synaptic contact with the parvalbumin-immunoreactive perikaryon. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that the parvalbumin immunoreactive presynaptic perikarya and dendrites contained GABA. It is assumed that the peculiar somato-dendritic synaptic complexes subserve the goal of filtration of impulses arriving at the reticular nucleus from various thalamic nuclei, thus processing them for further sampling.

  14. Non-Markovian Model for Transport and Reactions of Particles in Spiny Dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, Sergei; Méndez, Vicenç

    2008-11-01

    Motivated by the experiments [Santamaria , Neuron 52, 635 (2006)NERNET0896-627310.1016/j.neuron.2006.10.025] that indicated the possibility of subdiffusive transport of molecules along dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje cells, we develop a mesoscopic model for transport and chemical reactions of particles in spiny dendrites. The communication between spines and a parent dendrite is described by a non-Markovian random process and, as a result, the overall movement of particles can be subdiffusive. A system of integrodifferential equations is derived for the particles densities in dendrites and spines. This system involves the spine-dendrite interaction term which describes the memory effects and nonlocality in space. We consider the impact of power-law waiting time distributions on the transport of biochemical signals and mechanism of the accumulation of plasticity-inducing signals inside spines.

  15. Hierarchical Pd-Sn Alloy Nanosheet Dendrites: An Economical and Highly Active Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures. PMID:23383368

  16. Measurements of Dendritic Growth Velocities in Undercooled Melts of Pure Nickel Under Static Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jianrong; Zhang, Zongning; Zhang, Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic growth velocities in undercooled melts of pure Ni have been intensively studied over the past fifty years. However, the literature data are at marked variance with the prediction of the widely accepted model for rapid dendritic growth both at small and at large undercoolings. In the present work, bulk melts of pure Ni samples of high purity were undercooled by glass fluxing treatment under a static magnetic field. The recalescence processes of the samples at different undercoolings were recorded using a high-speed camera, and were modeled using a software to determine the dendritic growth velocities. The present data confirmed the effect of melt flow on dendritic growth velocities at undercoolings below 100 K. A comparison of the present data with previous measurements on a lower purity material suggested an effect of impurities on dendritic growth velocities at undercoolings larger than 200 K as well.

  17. Tau-Dependent Kv4.2 Depletion and Dendritic Hyperexcitability in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alicia M.; Throesch, Benjamin T.; Buckingham, Susan C.; Markwardt, Sean J.; Peng, Yin; Wang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal hyperexcitability occurs early in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contributes to network dysfunction in AD patients. In other disorders with neuronal hyperexcitability, dysfunction in the dendrites often contributes, but dendritic excitability has not been directly examined in AD models. We used dendritic patch-clamp recordings to measure dendritic excitability in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. We found that dendrites, more so than somata, of hippocampal neurons were hyperexcitable in mice overexpressing Aβ. This dendritic hyperexcitability was associated with depletion of Kv4.2, a dendritic potassium channel important for regulating dendritic excitability and synaptic plasticity. The antiepileptic drug, levetiracetam, blocked Kv4.2 depletion. Tau was required, as crossing with tau knock-out mice also prevented both Kv4.2 depletion and dendritic hyperexcitability. Dendritic hyperexcitability induced by Kv4.2 deficiency exacerbated behavioral deficits and increased epileptiform activity in hAPP mice. We conclude that increased dendritic excitability, associated with changes in dendritic ion channels including Kv4.2, may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in early stages AD. PMID:25878292

  18. Ecchymosis and/or haematoma formation after prophylactic administration of subcutaneous enoxaparin in the abdomen or arm of the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Jareño-Collado, R; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Fraile-Gamo, M P; García-Crespo, N; Barba-Aragón, S; Bermejo-García, H; Sánchez-Izquierdo, R; Sánchez-Muñoz, E I; López-López, A; Arias-Rivera, S

    Ecchymosis and/or haematoma are the most common adverse events after subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin. There is no strong recommendation as to the puncture site. To evaluate the adverse events, ecchymosis and/or haematoma after the administration of prophylactic subcutaneous enoxaparin in the abdomen vs the arm in the critically ill patient. A randomised, two-arm clinical trial (injection in the abdomen vs the arm), performed between July 2014 and January 2017, in an 18-bed, polyvalent intensive care unit. Patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin, admitted >72h, with no liver or haematological disorders, a body mass index (BMI) >18.5, not pregnant, of legal age and with no skin lesions which would impede assessment were included. We excluded patients who died or who were transferred to another hospital before completing the evaluation. We gathered demographic and clinical variables, and the onset of ecchymosis and/or haematomas at the injection site after 12, 24, 48 and 72hours. A descriptive analysis was undertaken, with group comparison and logistic regression. The study was approved by the ethics committee with the signed consent of patients/families. 301 cases (11 excluded): 149 were injected in the abdomen vs 141 in the arm. There were no significant differences in demographic and clinical variables, BMI, enoxaparin dose or antiplatelet administration [ecchymosis, abdomen vs arm, n(%): 66(44) vs 72(51), P=.25] [haematoma abdomen vs arm, n(%): 9(6) vs 14(10), P=.2]. Statistical significance was found in the size of the haematomas after 72h: [area of haematoma (mm 2 ) abdomen vs arm, median (IQR): 2(1-5.25) vs 20(5.25-156), P=.027]. In our patient cohort, prophylactic subcutaneous enoxaparin administered in the abdomen causes fewer haematomas after 72hours, than when administered in the arm. The incidence rate of ecchymosis and haematoma was lower than the published incidence in critically ill patients, although patients receiving

  19. Greater Success of Primary Fascial Closure of the Open Abdomen: A Retrospectiv