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Sample records for abdominal aorta endovascular

  1. Endovascular Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta Secondary to Translumbar Aortography

    SciTech Connect

    Mir, Naheed; Nunzio, Mario De; Pollock, John G

    This report describes an incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta on a computed tomography (CT) renal angiogram during investigation of chronic renal failure in a 73-year-old man. The patient had undergone a translumbar aortogram 20 years previously. An increase in the size of the aneurysm by 7 mm over 6 months prompted treatment and the aneurysm underwent successful endovascular repair with a custom-made stent-graft.

  2. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: geert.maleux@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Heye, Sam

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealedmore » an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.« less

  3. Endovascular repair of an actively hemorrhaging stab wound injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  4. Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for Severe Pelvic Fracture and Intra Abdominal Hemorrhagic Shock using Continuous Vital Signs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0025 TITLE: Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for Severe Pelvic...Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhagic Shock 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0025 Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta ...sites. Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been clinically demonstrated to stop bleeding below the diaphragm. It has the potential

  5. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Petrocelli, Francesco

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  6. Replacement of the Thoracoabdominal Aorta after Endovascular Abdominal Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Infected Aneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Nobuo; Tamura, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Chikazawa, Genta; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man underwent emergency endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) for a ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Two years after EVAR, he was admitted with a spiking fever and left lower back pain. Computed tomography scan revealed not only recurrent graft infection with psoas abscess but also infection around the orifice of the superior mesenteric artery. Because conservative medical therapy with antibiotics could not control the infection, we performed complete removal of the infected stent graft, debridement of psoas abscess, and in situ replacement of the thoracoabdominal aorta using rifampicin-soaked prosthetic grafts, followed by the omental flap. He was discharged with no complications. PMID:29034025

  7. Extra-anatomic endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a horseshoe kidney supplied by the aneurysmal aorta.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aortic arch/elephant trunk procedure with Sienna(TM) graft and endovascular stenting of thoraco-abdominal aorta for treatment of complex chronic dissection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Randolph H L; Baghai, Max; Yu, Simon C H; Underwood, Malcolm J

    2013-05-01

    Aneurismal dilatation of the remaining thoracic aorta after ascending aortic interposition grafting for type 'A' aortic dissection is not uncommon. For such complex cases, one treatment option is total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure with the Sienna(TM) collared graft (Vascutek, Inchinnan, UK) technique followed by a staged thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The video illustrates our technique in a 56-year-old man with an extensive aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic dissecting aneurysm. For the 'open' procedure femoral arterial and venous cannulation was used along with systemic cooling and circulatory arrest at 22 °C. Upon circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was incised and antegrade cerebral perfusion achieved via selective cannulation to the right brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery, keeping flow rates at 10-15 mL/kg/min and perfusion pressure at 50-60 mmHg. Arch replacement with an elephant trunk component was then performed and after completion of the distal aortic anastomosis antegrade perfusion via a side-arm in the graft was started and the operation completed using a variation of the 'sequential' clamping technique to maximize cerebral perfusion. The second endovascular stage was performed two weeks after discharge. Two covered stents were landing from the elephant trunk to the distal descending thoracic aorta, to secure the distal landing a bare stent of was placed to cover the aorta just distal to the origin of the celiac axis. The left subclavian artery was embolised with fibre coils. Post TEVAR angiogram showed no endoleak Although re-operative total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure and subsequent TEVAR remained a challenging procedure, we believe excellent surgical outcome can be achieved with carefully planned operative strategy.

  9. Endovascular stent grafting for ascending aorta diseases.

    PubMed

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos A; Argiriou, Mihalis; Geroulakos, George

    2017-11-01

    Conventional open surgery encompassing cardiopulmonary bypass has been traditionally used for the treatment of ascending aorta diseases. However, more than one in five of these patients will be finally considered unfit for open repair. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for aortic diseases limited to the ascending aorta. The current meta-analysis was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We investigated patients' baseline characteristics along with early (30 days/in-hospital stay) and late (beyond 30 days/in-hospital stay) outcomes after TEVAR limited to the ascending aorta and not involving the arch vessels. Separate analyses for case reports and case series were conducted, and pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of outcome rates were calculated. Approximately 67% of the patients had a prior cardiac operation. TEVAR was performed mainly for acute or chronic Stanford type A dissection (49%) or pseudoaneurysm (28%). The device was usually delivered through the femoral artery (67%), and rapid ventricular pacing was used in nearly half of the patients. Technical success of the method was 95.5% (95% CI, 87.8-99.8). Among the early outcomes, conversion to open repair was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.1-4.8), whereas mortality was 2.9% (95% CI, 0.02-8.6). We estimated a pooled rate of 1.8% (95% CI, 0.1-7.0) for neurologic events (stroke or transient ischemic attack) and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1-5.6) for myocardial infarction. Late endoleak was recorded in 16.4% (95% CI, 8.2-26.0), and 4.4% (95% CI, 0.1-12.4) of the population died in the postoperative period. Finally, reoperation was recorded in 8.9% (95% CI, 3.1-16.4) of the study sample. TEVAR in the ascending aorta seems to be safe and feasible for selected patients with various aortic diseases, although larger studies are required. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular

  10. Tratamento endovascular de aneurisma de aorta abdominal com erosão de vértebra lombar associada à doença de Behçet: relato de caso

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Nathalia Leslie Albanez Rodrigues; Siqueira, Daniel Emílio Dalledone; Cantador, Alex Aparecido; Rossetti, Leandro Pablos; Molinari, Giovani José Dal Poggetto; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    Resumo A doença de Behçet é uma doença sistêmica, multifatorial e autoimune com diversas manifestações clínicas, entre elas o acometimento vascular. Aneurisma de aorta associado a erosão de vértebra lombar é condição rara na literatura, existindo apenas quatro relatos de caso nas bases de dados da PubMed. O presente artigo relata o caso de paciente do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de Doença de Behçet de longa data e aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal infrarrenal com erosão de vértebra lombar. O caso foi tratado por meio de técnica endovascular com colocação de endoprótese monoilíaca e enxerto fêmoro-femoral cruzado, devido a limitações anatômicas da bifurcação aórtica. O artigo aborda a raridade desse tipo de apresentação da doença e o desfecho do tratamento e apresenta revisão da literatura sobre esse tema. PMID:29930640

  11. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta: A Bridge to Flight Survival.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl; Bradley, Matthew; Pineda, Benilani; See, Suzanne; Pasley, Jason

    2018-04-01

    Trauma endures as the leading cause of death worldwide, and most deaths occur in the first 24 hours after initial injury as a result of hemorrhage. Historically, about 90% of battlefield deaths occur before the injured person arrives at a theater hospital, and most are due to noncompressible hemorrhage of the torso. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta is an evolving technique to quickly place a balloon into the thoracic or abdominal aorta to efficiently block blood flow to distal circulation. Maneuvers, such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, to control endovascular hemorrhage offer a potential intervention to control noncompressible hemorrhage. This technique can be performed percutaneously or open in prehospital environments to restore hemodynamic functions and serve as a survival bridge until the patient is delivered to a treatment facility for definitive surgical hemostasis. This article describes the indications, complications, and application of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta to military and civilian aeromedical transport. ©2018 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Angiossarcoma mimetizando endoleak tardio pós-reparo endovascular de aneurisma de aorta infrarrenal: relato de caso

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Bruno Lorenção; Caria, Vinicius Pena; Cavalcante, Sthefanie Fauve Andrade; Ventin, Felipe Carvalho; Vieira, Eduardo Augusto Moreira; Darold, Eduardo Mulinari; de Souza, Rodrigo Américo Cunha; Araújo, Edmur Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Em todo paciente submetido a reparo endovascular do aneurisma de aorta abdominal (REVA) que se apresente subitamente com quadro de dor abdominal ou sinais de choque, a hipótese de endoleak ou vazamento, com expansão do aneurisma e ruptura deve ser aventada. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente em pós-operatório de REVA que apresentou uma neoplasia de duodeno mimetizando um endoleak. PMID:29930672

  13. [Graft Pseudoaneurysm after Ascending to Abdominal Aorta Bypass for Atypical Coarctation Due to Aortitis Syndrome;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Yada, Masashi; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Miwa, Senri; Hirose, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Yoshida, Yukiyo; Onga, Youhei; Tara, Yuichi

    2017-05-01

    We present a case of a 44-year-old woman, with pseudoaneurysm formation at the middle of the prosthetic graft, 60 mm in diameter. She had been diagnosed with atypical coarctation due to aortitis 27 years before, and had undergone a bypass operation with 14 mm-diameter Cooley double velour graft from the ascending aorta to the abdominal aorta. This time, endovascular aortic repair was performed to prevent rupture of the pseudoaneurysm. Though a knitted Dacron graft has a risk of psuedaneurysm formation long patency could be obtained when used in ascending aorta-abdominal aorta bypass.

  14. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.

    1999-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135

  15. A systematic review of primary endovascular repair of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Muetterties, Corbin E; Menon, Rohan; Wheatley, Grayson H

    2018-01-01

    Endovascular repair of the ascending aorta is currently limited to patients at high surgical risk with aortic diseases originating above the sinotubular junction. A number of different endovascular technologies and approaches have been used, although no consensus exists regarding a standardized technique. To better understand real-world endovascular approaches to the ascending aorta, we performed a comprehensive review of the types of endovascular aortic stents and associated vascular access used in repair of the ascending aorta. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted from January 1, 1995, through January 31, 2017, with the search term "ascending aortic stent." Studies involving endovascular stenting in which the primary therapy was confined exclusively to the ascending aorta were included. Studies involving hybrid arch procedures and surgical replacement of the ascending aorta associated with aortic stenting were excluded. The type of aortic stent, underlying aortic disease, and surgical approach were recorded along with outcomes, need for reinterventions, and follow-up. A total of 46 publications that focused on primary endovascular repair of the ascending aorta were identified. Thirteen different aortic stent grafts of various designs were used in 118 total patients. The most commonly used device types were thoracic stents (n = 84 [71.2%]) along with abdominal cuffs (n = 13 [11%]) and custom-made grafts (n = 12 [10.2%]). The most commonly treated aortic disease was type A aortic dissection (n = 59 [50%]), followed by aortic pseudoaneurysm (n = 35 [29.7%]), aortic aneurysm (n = 6 [5.1%]), penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 5 [4.2%]), and acute aortic rupture (n = 3 [2.5%]). Femoral arterial access was used in 62.7% of patients (n = 74); transapical (n = 17 [14.4%]), carotid (n = 15 [12.7%]), and axillary (n = 8 [6.8%]) approaches were also used. The overall type I endoleak rate was 18.6% (n = 22), with 11 patients (9.3%) requiring

  16. Stabilization of the Abdominal Aorta During the Cardiac Cycle with the Sac-Anchoring Nellix Device.

    PubMed

    Itoga, Nathan K; Suh, Ga-Young; Cheng, Christopher P

    2018-06-09

    The Nellix device uses polymer-filled endobags to stabilize the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac which is described as endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS). We analyzed cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography scans of repaired AAA with EVAS in 4 patients to evaluate the geometry and cardiac pulsatility-induced deformation. Graft translation and aortic curvature changes were found to be minimal during the cardiac cycle. The mean ± standard deviation changes in renal-aorta angles (1.0 ± 0.9°) were less than the changes in the superior mesenteric artery-aorta angle (4.0 ± 2.1°) (P < 0.01), during the cardiac cycle, demonstrating greater stabilization of the visceral branches closer to the device. These findings confirm stabilization of the abdominal aorta during the cardiac cycle using EVAS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  18. Complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Meghoo, Colin A L; Gonzalez, Ernest A; Tyroch, Alan H; Wohltmann, Christopher D

    2003-10-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma is uncommon. When this injury results in complete vessel occlusion, the presentation is dramatic. Timely intervention is essential. After a case report, we examined all reported cases of complete occlusion after blunt injury to the abdominal aorta and reviewed the cause, presentation, and management of this injury. Complete vessel occlusion arises from intimal injury. The most frequent mechanism is compression from a seat belt or steering wheel during a motor vehicle crash. Patients present with absent femoral and distal pulses in association with lower extremity neuropathy. Intervention commonly involves bypass grafting of the abdominal aorta. Complete occlusion after blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is rare. Neurologic deficits most commonly arise from peripheral nerve ischemia. Reperfusion within 6 hours confers a greater chance of limb salvage and neurologic recovery.

  19. Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  20. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta.

  1. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta atmore » the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.« less

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Distal Aortic Arch Aneurysm Associated with Coarctation of Aorta in a Jehovah's Witness

    PubMed Central

    Mannacio, Vito A.; Di Tommaso, Ettorino; Pinna, Giovanni B.; Fontana, Immacolata; Iannelli, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Late aneurysm formation in the proximal aorta or distal aortic arch is a recognized sequela of untreated stenosis of the aortic isthmus and is associated with substantial risk of aortic rupture. We describe the case of a 44-year-old man with untreated coarctation of the aorta who presented with a prestenotic dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm. He declined surgery because he was a Jehovah's Witness. Instead, we performed emergency endovascular aortic repair in which 2 stent-grafts were placed in the descending aorta. Our experience suggests that this procedure is a useful and safe alternative to open surgery in patients who have aneurysms associated with coarctation of the aorta. PMID:29276439

  3. The anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta and their relationship to the renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Neil; Soames, Roger W

    2005-12-01

    Variations in the anatomy of the abdominal aorta and its branches are of interest as vessel geometry not only determines flow dynamics, but is also crucial in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. The relationship between the anterior visceral and renal arteries is important when undertaking diagnostic arteriography and endovascular interventions. To examine these relationships, the length of the abdominal aorta was determined and measurements taken of the position of origin of the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery (SMA), inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and renal arteries, as well as the three-dimensional projection of each vessel from the aorta. The mean level of bifurcation of the aorta was at the lower third of the body of L4, with the celiac artery, SMA, renal arteries and IMA arising at the level of the T12/L1 intervertebral disc, upper third of the body of L1, lower third of the body of L1 and lower third of the body of L3, respectively. The horizontal projection of the celiac artery, SMA and IMA was to the left of the midline; in the sagittal plane, the celiac artery and SMA projected anteriorly and the IMA posteriorly; in the coronal plane all vessels projected inferiorly, with the SMA to the right and the IMA to the left. The celiac artery, SMA and both renal arteries all arise from the proximal half of the abdominal aorta within 45 mm of each other, with the origins of the renal arteries being remarkably consistent. It is concluded that the celiac artery and SMA are both useful landmarks for determining the position of the renal arteries.

  4. Genuine splenic artery aneurysm rupture treated by N‐butyl cyanoacrylate and metallic coils under resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Kaneko, Minoru; Murata, Masato; Nakajima, Jun; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Oshima, Kiyohiro

    2016-01-01

    Case A 66 year‐old woman who presented with sudden lower abdominal pain was transferred to our emergency room. Vital signs were stable on arrival at the hospital, but immediately became unstable. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were 66/33 mmHg and 70 b.p.m., respectively. Computed tomography scanning showed splenic artery aneurysm rupture and extravasation. The patient was treated non‐operatively and definitively by endovascular therapy comprising resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta for hemodynamic control, N‐butyl cyanoacrylate, and metallic coils as an embolization material. Outcome On admission day 3, she was enrolled in another department and admission day 54, she was discharged. Conclusion Although resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta and N‐butyl cyanoacrylate is known to be effective, the use of resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta with transcatheter arterial embolization and N‐butyl cyanoacrylate for non‐traumatic bleeding has not previously been reported. By combining and adapting these devices, their applications in endovascular management may be increased. PMID:29123801

  5. [Successful treatment of injuries of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Merkl, J; Bat'alík, B; Mydlo, J

    1990-03-01

    The authors describe successful treatment of severe haemorrhagic shock caused by profuse haemorrhage from the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta. After primary treatment of the perforation by a vascular suture reoperation was necessary because of repeated haemorrhage from that site, and for closure of the dehiscence Dacron stitch was used.

  6. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  7. Effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C A; Hughes, T J; Zarins, C K

    1999-06-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise in the retardation of the progression of cardiovascular disease is hypothesized to be caused, at least in part, by the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions, including flow recirculation and low wall shear stress. In vitro and in vivo investigations have provided qualitative and limited quantitative information on flow patterns in the abdominal aorta and on the effect of exercise on the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions. We used computational fluid mechanics methods to examine the effects of simulated exercise on hemodynamic conditions in an idealized model of the human abdominal aorta. A three-dimensional computer model of a healthy human abdominal aorta was created to simulate pulsatile aortic blood flow under conditions of rest and graded exercise. Flow velocity patterns and wall shear stress were computed in the lesion-prone infrarenal aorta, and the effects of exercise were determined. A recirculation zone was observed to form along the posterior wall of the aorta immediately distal to the renal vessels under resting conditions. Low time-averaged wall shear stress was present in this location, along the posterior wall opposite the superior mesenteric artery and along the anterior wall between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Shear stress temporal oscillations, as measured with an oscillatory shear index, were elevated in these regions. Under simulated light exercise conditions, a region of low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index remained along the posterior wall immediately distal to the renal arteries. Under simulated moderate exercise conditions, all the regions of low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index were eliminated. This numeric investigation provided detailed quantitative data on the effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta. Our results indicated that moderate levels of lower limb exercise are necessary to eliminate the flow

  8. Surgery insight: advances in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Jacobs, Tikva S; Marin, Michael L

    2007-04-01

    Despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic methods and an increased awareness of their clinical significance, abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular repair of AAAs, initially described in 1990, offers a less-invasive alternative to conventional open repair. The technology and devices used for endovascular repair of AAAs have progressed rapidly and the approach has proven to be safe and effective in short to midterm investigations. Furthermore, several large trials have demonstrated that elective endovascular repair is associated with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality than open repair. The long-term benefits of endovascular repair relative to open repair, however, continue to be studied. In addition to elective repair, the use of endovascular repair for ruptured AAAs has been increasing, and has been shown to be associated with reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality. Advances in endovascular repair of AAAs, including the development of branched and fenestrated grafts and the use of implantable devices to measure aneurysm-sac pressures following stent-graft deployment, have further broadened the application of the technique and have enhanced postoperative monitoring. Despite these advances, endovascular repair of AAAs remains a relatively novel technique, and further long-term data need to be collected.

  9. [Renal failure in surgery of abdominal aorta aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Asamov, R E; Ermoliuk, R S; Iudin, V I; Kapanadze, G I

    1994-09-01

    The authors analyse the experience in operations for resection of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in 70 patients, which were performed at the Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery, AMS of Russia, from 1983 to 1991. Preoperative examination revealed renal insufficiency in 8 (11.4%) patients. Resection of the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta with one-stage prosthetics of the renal arteries was carried out in 10 cases. To prevent ischemic damage to the renal parenchyma and acute renal insufficiency, local methods of kidney protection (isolated cold perfusion--2 and normothermic aorto-renal perfusion--2) were applied in 4 of 70 cases. The work discusses the methods of kidney protection and the indications and contraindications for their use, and factors promoting the development of postoperative renal insufficiency. Postoperative complications are shown and their causes are identified.

  10. Endovascular thoracic aortic repair and previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair: is the increased risk of spinal cord ischemia real?

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Carroccio, Alfio; Ellozy, Sharif H; Palchik, Eugene; Addis, Michael D; Jacobs, Tikva S; Teodorescu, Victoria; Marin, Michael L

    2006-03-01

    Spinal cord ischemia after endovascular thoracic aortic repair remains a significant risk. Previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair may increase this risk. This investigation reviews the occurrence of spinal cord ischemia after endovascular repair of the descending thoracic aorta in patients with previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair. Over an 8-year period, 125 patients underwent endovascular exclusion of the thoracic aorta at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. Twenty-eight of these patients had previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair. The 27 patients who underwent staged repairs all had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage during and following repair. This population was analyzed for the complication of spinal cord ischemia and factors related to its occurrence. Mean follow-up was 19.3 months (range 1-61). Spinal cord ischemia developed in four of the 28 patients (14.3%) who underwent endovascular thoracic aortic repair with previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair, while one of 97 patients (1.0%) developed ischemia among the remaining thoracic endograft population. One patient with concomitant abdominal aortic repair developed cord ischemia that manifested 12 hr following the procedure. The remaining three patients with previous abdominal aortic repair developed more delayed-onset paralysis ranging from the third postoperative day to 7 weeks following repair. Irreversible cord ischemia occurred in three patients, with full recovery in one patient. Major complications from CSF drainage occurred in one patient (3.7%). Spinal cord ischemia occurred at a markedly higher rate in patients with previous or concomitant abdominal aortic repair. This risk continued beyond the immediate postoperative period. The benefit of perioperative and salvage CSF drainage remains to be determined.

  11. Endovascular abdominal aortic stenosis treatment with the OptiMed self-expandable nitinol stent.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Payam; Haji-Zeinali, Ali-Mohammad; Shafiee, Nahid; Qureshi, Shakeel A

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of self-expandable stents (OptiMed) for treatment of abdominal aortic stenosis in the situations in which the aortic stenosis locates near the origin of celiac, superior mesenteric, renal and inferior mesenteric arteries. Five consecutive patients scheduled for endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic stenosis by self-expandable nitinol stent (Sinus-Aorta/OptiMed) implantation. The diameter of the stent was chosen as 10-30% more than that of the normal portion of the aorta above the stenosis. Long stents of 60 mm or longer were chosen. After stent deployment, balloon postdilation was performed with a balloon in patients with residual gradient > 5 mm Hg. All patients were successfully treated with the OptiMed stents. The balloon predilation was performed in one patient due to severe stenosis. The mean diameter and length of the stents deployed were 20.4 +/- 2.9 (range, 16-24 mm) and 64 +/- 8.9 (range, 60-80 mm), respectively. The balloon postdilation was performed in all cases. The mean diameter of the balloons was 13.6 +/- 1.5 (range, 12-15 mm). The mean diameter of stenosis increased from 4.8 +/- 1.9 to 14.4 +/- 1.8 mm after stent placement. The mean peak systolic gradient decreased from 46.8 +/- 31.5 mm Hg to 0.8 +/- 1.8 mm Hg. During follow-up (22.8 +/- 14.3 months), none of the patients had restenosis within the stent, occlusion of any branches of the aorta, or other related complications. In our small series, we observed that abdominal aortic stenosis can be successfully and effectively treated with OptiMed stents in the situations in which the stenotic segment is located next to the origins of the main visceral branches of abdominal aorta.

  12. Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Cherif; Villard, Jacques; Boussel, Loic

    The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcermore » (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 {+-} 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 {+-} 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients.« less

  13. A computational simulation of the effect of hybrid treatment for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Qingyuan; Hu, Yao; Zhao, Jichun; Zheng, Tinghui; Fan, Yubo

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid visceral-renal debranching procedures with endovascular repair have been proposed as an appealing technique to treat conventional thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). This approach, however, still remained controversial because of the non-physiological blood flow direction of its retrograde visceral revascularization (RVR) which is generally constructed from the aortic bifurcation or common iliac artery. The current study carried out the numerical simulation to investigate the effect of RVR on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta. The results indicated that the inflow sites for the RVR have great impact on the hemodynamic performance. When RVR was from the distal aorta, the perfusion to visceral organs were adequate but the flow flux to the iliac artery significantly decreased and a complex disturbed flow field developed at the distal aorta, which endangered the aorta at high risk of aneurysm development. When RVR was from the right iliac artery, the abdominal aorta was not troubled with low WSS or disturbed flow, but the inadequate perfusion to the visceral organs reached up to 40% and low WSS and flow velocity predominated appeared at the right iliac artery and the grafts, which may result in the stenosis in grafts and aneurysm growth on the host iliac artery.

  14. Complications at the Proximal Landing Zone of Endovascular Stent Grafts Deployed in Surgically Replaced Ascending Aorta.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Vamshi K; Herget, Eric J; Appoo, Jehangir J

    2016-11-01

    The ascending aorta, with its hostile angulations and forces, is the next frontier in the evolution of endovascular surgery. Type II hybrid arch repair, involving surgical replacement of the ascending aorta, arch debranching, and stent graft deployment in the ascending aortic graft, offers an opportunity to study the behavior of an endovascular prosthesis in the ascending aorta. We report complications seen at the proximal landing zone after type II hybrid arch repair. A dedicated imaging protocol was used to monitor 20 consecutive patients who underwent type II hybrid arch repair at a single center from June 2009 to July 2014. Mean age was 66 years (range, 47 to 82 years). Mean imaging follow-up was 34 months (range, 12 to 64 months). There was 1 operative death (5%). Bird beaking (>5 mm of nonapposition) of the stent graft at the proximal landing zone occurred in 12 patients, and >20 mm of bird beaking occurred in 7 patients. Proximal landing zone complications occurred in 4 patients (20%), comprising 2 type Ia endoleaks, 1 graft migration, and 1 graft infolding detected on postoperative days 4, 11, 5, and 755, respectively. Three patients underwent endovascular reintervention for proximal landing zone complications. There were no late deaths. Thoracic aortic stent grafts may be prone to proximal landing zone complications when deployed in the ascending aorta. Bird beaking is common when endografts are deployed in the Dacron (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) ascending aorta. Angulation issues will likely need to be overcome by stent graft refinement to enable future closed chest approaches to the ascending aorta. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Endovascular and surgical treatment of a patient with traumatic rupture of the aorta and hepatic artery].

    PubMed

    Chernaya, N R; Muslimov, R Sh; Selina, I E; Kokov, L S; Vladimirova, E S; Navruzbekov, M S; Gulyaev, V A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the aorta is the second most common cause of death in closed chest injury. The latest findings of autopsy showed that 80% of lethal outcomes in aortic injury occur in the prehospital period. Taking into consideration the incidence and high rate of death prior to the diagnosis stage, aortic rupture in closed thoracic injury is an important problem. Due to the characteristic mechanism of the development (during sharp deceleration of the body) this type of traumatic lesion of the aorta became known as "deceleration syndrome". The most vulnerable to tension aortic portion is its neck where the mobile part of the thoracic aorta is connected to the fixed arch in the place of the arterial ligament attachment. Open surgical intervention in patients with severe closed chest injury (often concomitant injury) is associated with high mortality and complications. Currently endovascular prosthetic repair of the aorta is a method of choice at the primary stage of treatment of patients with aortic injury. In this article we present a rare case report of concomitant lesion of large vessels (the descending aortic portion and proper hepatic artery) in a patient with severe concomitant injury, as well as peculiarities of diagnosis and combined treatment (endovascular prosthetic repair of the aorta and hepatic artery with an aotovein).

  16. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent proceduremore » 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.« less

  17. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A., E-mail: saratzis@germanosnet.gr; Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosedmore » with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising.« less

  18. Revolutionary treatment of aneurysms and dissections of descending aorta: the endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    Buffolo, Enio; da Fonseca, José Honório Palma; de Souza, José Augusto Marcondes; Alves, Claudia Maria Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening medical condition. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Type B dissections are usually managed clinically during the acute phase. Conventional surgery carries high mortality rates due to the presence of serious complications. We herein present treatment of this condition with a less invasive endovascular approach. Other clinical situations such as penetrating ulcers, intramural hematomas, and true aneurysms of descending aorta were similarly treated. From December 1996 to March 2002, 191 patients with type B dissections were treated with self-expandable, polyester-covered stents. There were 120 patients (62.8%) with type B dissections, 61 patients (31.9%) with true aneurysms, 6 patients (3.1%) with penetrating ulcers or intramural hematomas, and 4 patients (2.1%) with trauma. Patients with abdominal aneurysms (44) and stents introduced under direct vision through the aortic arch (70) were excluded. The stent graft was delivered in the catheterization laboratory under general anesthesia, with induced hypotension and heparinization. All stents used were made in Brazil (Braile Biomedics, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP). The procedure was performed in 191 consecutive cases. The success rate was 91.1% (174/191). Success was defined as occlusion of the thoracic intimal tear, or exclusion of the aneurysm without leaks. Hospital mortality was 10.4% (20/191 patients), due to preoperative comorbidities. Six patients required conversion to surgery. No case of paraplegia was observed. An actuarial survival curve showed 87.4% +/- 29% survival in the late follow-up period. Stent grafts are an important development in the treatment of descending aortic aneurysms or dissections. This novel approach may replace conventional surgical treatment of these conditions, with earlier intervention and less morbidity.

  19. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair and clinical trial devices for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Brinster, Clayton J; Milner, Ross

    2018-06-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has revolutionized the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with consistently low reported perioperative morbidity and mortality. Universal applicability of EVAR to treat AAA is hindered by several specific anatomic constraints, however, and many patients cannot be treated with commercially available stent-grafts within the device specific instructions for use. Treatment of these complex pararenal aneurysms is increasingly accomplished by extension of EVAR into the visceral segment of the abdominal aorta with branches or fenestrations that allow perfusion of the visceral and renal arteries. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) was initially developed to treat high-risk patients unfit for open surgery and anatomically ineligible for standard infrarenal EVAR, but this technique has evolved over the past decade into a mature treatment option for complex AAA. High-volume, single-center reports, multicenter series and clinical reviews have demonstrated that FEVAR is a safe and effective technique with favorable results at proficient centers. Generalizability of these outcomes to less advanced centers remains unproven, and reintervention rates following FEVAR in the mid- and long-term, even among the most experienced centers, remain a concern. Several off-the-shelf devices that are undergoing clinical trial seek to broaden the anatomic applicability and overall availability of FEVAR. A significant number of patients are not candidates for off-the-shelf or customized stent-grafts, however, stressing the need for continued refinement of existing devices, development of novel devices with broader indications for use, and maintenance of open surgical skills.

  1. Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail: jala@medicon.cz; Peregrin, Jan H.

    Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months ofmore » mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.« less

  2. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic true-lumen collapse of the downstream aorta after open surgery for acute aortic dissection type A.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, L O; Doemland, M; Weigang, E; Frieß, T; Schotten, S; Düber, C; Vahl, C F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of endovascular treatment of true-lumen collapse (TLC) of the downstream aorta after open surgery for acute aortic dissection type A (AADA). Retrospective, observational study with follow-up of 16 ± 7.6 months. From April 2010 to January 2012, 89 AADA-patients underwent aortic surgery. Out of these, computed tomography revealed a TLC of the downstream aorta in 13 patients (14.6%). They all received additional thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in consequence of malperfusion syndromes. In all 13 TLC-patients, dissection after AADA-surgery extended from the aortic arch to the abdominal aorta and malperfusion syndromes occurred. Remodeling of the true-lumen was achieved by TEVAR with complemental stent disposal in abdominal and iliac arteries in all cases. One patient died on the third postoperative day due to intracerebral hemorrhage. Another patient, who presented under severe cardiogenic shock died despite AADA-surgery and TEVAR-treatment. Thirty-day mortality was 15.4% in TLC-patients (N = 2/13). In the follow-up period, 3 patients required additional aortic stents after the emergency TEVAR procedures. After 20 weeks, a third patient died secondary to malperfusion due to false-lumen recanalization. Therefore, late mortality was 23.1%. After proximal aortic repair for AADA, early postoperative computed tomography should be demanded in all patients to exclude a TLC of the descending aorta. Mortality is still substantial in these patients despite instant TEVAR application. Thus, in case of TLC and malperfusion syndrome of the downstream aorta, TEVAR should be performed early to alleviate or even prevent ischemic injury.

  3. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  4. Outcome of Pregnancies After Balloon Occlusion of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta During Caesarean in 230 Patients With Placenta Praevia Accreta

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qinghua, E-mail: qh-wu77@163.com; Liu, Zhuan, E-mail: liuchuan2015ck@163.com; Zhao, Xianlan, E-mail: zxl121292014@163.com

    PurposeTo explore the efficacy and safety of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta during caesarean for the management of patients with placenta praevia accreta.MethodsTwo hundred and sixty-eight cases of placenta praevia accreta from January 2012 to June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Group A included two hundred and thirty patients who underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section. Group B included thirty-eight patients who underwent caesarean without endovascular intervention. The parameters including operating room time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion volume, PT (prothrombin time) during operation, days in the intensive care unit,more » and total hospital days were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe operating room time, estimated blood loss, PT, the incidence of hysterectomy, blood transfusion volume, postpartum haemorrhage, and days in intensive care unit were lower in group A than in group B, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the Apgar scores of the neonates and the incidences of thrombosis in lower limbs between the two groups (P > 0.05). No patient in the group with prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was performed hysterectomy, while three patients in group B were performed hysterectomy because of uncontrollable haemorrhage.ConclusionsThe results indicate that prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section is safe and effective to control intraoperative blood loss and greatly decreases the risk of hysterectomy in patients with placenta praevia accreta.« less

  5. Acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta: repair with use of endovascular stent-grafts.

    PubMed

    Semba, C P; Kato, N; Kee, S T; Lee, G K; Mitchell, R S; Miller, D C; Dake, M D

    1997-01-01

    To describe the use of endovascular stent-grafts to treat acute ruptures of the descending thoracic aorta as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. From July 1992 to August 1996, 95 patients underwent stent-grafting of the descending thoracic aorta for a variety of lesions. Of these, 11 patients with acute (< or = 7 days) rupture from aneurysms (n = 8) or trauma (n = 3) underwent repair with use of endovascular stent-grafts. Rupture was confirmed with preoperative imaging studies and occurred in the mediastinum (n = 9), the pleural space (n = 1), or the lung (n = 1). All patients were considered high surgical risk due to generalized cardiopulmonary disease and/or previous thoracotomies. Stent-grafts were constructed from Z stents covered with polyester fabric and delivered through a catheter under fluoroscopic control from a remote access site. Stent-graft deployment was successful in all patients. There were no complications of perigraft leak, stent migration, paraplegia, or intraoperative death. Two patients died in the follow-up period: one of ventricular perforation during unrelated thoracic surgery for tumor resection (day 1) and one of cardiac arrest (day 28). All others are alive (mean follow-up, 15.1 months). For acute rupture of the thoracic aorta, endovascular stent-graft repair is technically feasible and may be a therapeutic alternative to a surgical interposition graft in patients considered high risk for conventional thoracotomy. Long-term studies are necessary to determine the role of stent-grafts in preventing future aortic rupture.

  6. Experience with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Palchik, Eugene; Carroccio, Alfio; Olin, Jeffrey W; Ellozy, Sharif H; Jacobs, Tikva S; Ponzio, Marc M; Teodorescu, Victoria J; Marin, Michael L

    2006-06-01

    To report a single-institution experience with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) in nonagenarians. A retrospective review was performed of all patients >90 years old undergoing EVAR over an 8-year period at a major academic medical center. The patient population was investigated for the presence of various comorbidities, initial aneurysm size, successful aneurysm exclusion, perioperative complications, disposition, endoleaks, secondary interventions, and overall survival. EVAR was performed in 18 male nonagenarians (mean age 92.4 years, range 90- 95). Mean aneurysm diameter was 7.3 cm (range 5.5-9.8). The cohort had an average of 3.2 comorbid conditions. Sixteen patients were treated electively, while 2 patients underwent emergent repair for contained rupture and bleeding aortoenteric fistula, respectively. Immediate technical success was 100%. Perioperative local/vascular complications occurred in 4 (22%) patients. Perioperative systemic complications occurred in 3 (17%) patients. There were 2 (11%) perioperative (<30 days) deaths. Three (17%) patients required secondary interventions. Mean survival in patients who expired during the follow-up period beyond the first 30 days was 34 months (range 8-78). Mean survival in 8 patients who are still alive is 17.4 months (range 9-39). Endovascular AAA repair in nonagenarians is associated with a high rate of technical success and relatively low morbidity rate. Survival times following successful hospital discharge are significant. Suitable patients over 90 years of age may benefit from an endovascular AAA repair.

  7. Field and en route resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta: A feasible military reality?

    PubMed

    Reva, Viktor A; Hörer, Tal M; Makhnovskiy, Andrey I; Sokhranov, Mikhail V; Samokhvalov, Igor M; DuBose, Joseph J

    2017-07-01

    Severe noncompressible torso hemorrhage remains a leading cause of potentially preventable death in modern military conflicts. Resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has demonstrated potential as an effective adjunct to the treatment of noncompressible torso hemorrhage in the civilian early hospital and even prehospital settings-but the application of this technology for military prehospital use has not been well described. We aimed to assess the feasibility of both field and en route prehospital REBOA in the military exercise setting, simulating a modern armed conflict. Two adult male Sus Scrofa underwent simulated junctional combat injury in the context of a planned military training exercise. Both underwent zone I REBOA in conjunction with standard tactical combat casualty care interventions-one during point of injury care and the other during en route flight care. Animals were sequentially evacuated to two separate forward surgical teams by rotary wing platform where the balloon position was confirmed by chest x-ray. Animals then underwent different damage control thoracic and abdominal procedures before euthanasia. The first swine underwent immediate successful REBOA at the point of injury 7 minutes and 30 seconds after the injury. It required 6 minutes total from initiation of procedure to effective aortic occlusion. Total occlusion time was 60 minutes. In the second animal, the REBOA placement procedure was initiated immediately after take off (17 minutes and 40 seconds after the injury). Although the movements and vibration of flight were not significant impediments, we only succeeded to put a 6-French (Fr) sheath into a femoral artery during the 14 minutes flight due to lighting and visualization challenges. After the sheath had been upsized in the forward surgical team, the REBOA catheter was primarily placed in zone I followed by its replacement to zone III. Both animals survived to study completion and the termination of training. No

  8. Transcardiac endograft delivery for endovascular treatment of the ascending aorta: a feasibility study in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wipper, Sabine; Lohrenz, Christina; Ahlbrecht, Oliver; Carpenter, Sebastian W; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Kersten, Jan Felix; Detter, Christian; Debus, Eike S; Kölbel, Tilo

    2015-06-01

    To compare the technical feasibility and hemodynamic alterations during antegrade transcardiac access routes vs conventional transfemoral access (TFA) for endovascular treatment of the ascending aorta in a porcine model. Antegrade transseptal access (TSA), transapical access (TAA), and TFA were used for implantation of custom-made endografts into the ascending aorta under fluoroscopy (6 pigs each). Hemodynamic parameters, myocardial and cerebral blood flow, and carotid artery blood flow were evaluated during baseline (T1), sheath advancement (T2), after sheath retraction (T3), and after endograft deployment (T4). Endograft deployment was feasible in all animals; all coronary arteries remained patent. Hemodynamic parameters were comparable in all 3 study groups during all measurements. During T2, transient hemodynamic alteration occurred in all groups, with transient severe valve insufficiency in TSA and TAA reflected by the higher pulmonary to mean arterial pressure ratio (p<0.05) as compared with TFA. Values stabilized again at T3 and remained stable until T4. The innominate artery was partially occluded in 4 (TSA), 3 (TAA), and 5 (TFA) animals. There was no deterioration of myocardial or cerebral perfusion during the procedures. Endograft deployment and fluoroscopy times during TAA were shorter than in TSA and TFA. TSA, TFA, and TAA to the ascending aorta are feasible for endograft delivery to the ascending aorta in a porcine model. Transient hemodynamic instability in TSA and TAA recovered to near preoperative values. TAA appeared technically easier. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  10. In-situ laser fenestration of endovascular stent-graft in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Filippo; Pini, Roberto; Piazza, Roberta; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Condino, Sara; Rossi, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysms repair (EVAR) involves the minimally invasive implantation of a stent-graft within the aorta to exclude the aneurysm from the circulation thus preventing its rupture. The feasibility of such operation is highly dependent on the aorta morphology and in general the presence of one/both renal arteries emerging from the aneurysm is the absolute limit for the implantation of a standard stent-graft. Consequently, classical intervention methods involve the implantation of a custom-made graft with fenestrations, leading to extremely complicated surgeries with high risks for the patient and high costs. Recent techniques introduced the use of standard grafts (i.e. without fenestrations) in association with mechanical in-situ fenestration, but this procedure is limited principally by the brittleness and low stability of the environment, in addition to the difficulty of controlling the guidance of the endovascular tools due to the temporarily block of the blood flow. In this work we propose an innovative EVAR strategy, which involves in-situ fenestration with a fiber guided laser tool, controlled via an electromagnetic navigation system. The fiber is sensorized to be tracked by means of the driving system and, using a 3D model of the patient anatomy, the surgeon can drive the fiber to the aneurysm, where the stent has been previously released, to realize the proper fenestration(s). The design and construction of the catheter laser tool will be presented, togheter with preliminary fenestration tests on graft-materials, including the effects due to the presence of blood and tissues.

  11. Endovascular stent-graft repair of failed endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Silverberg, Daniel; Ellozy, Sharif H; Carroccio, Alfio; Jacobs, Tikva S; Sachdev, Ulka; Teodorescu, Victoria J; Lookstein, Robert A; Marin, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    Despite high initial technical success, the long-term durability of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) continues to be a concern. Following EVAR, patients can experience endoleaks, device migration, device fractures, or aneurysm growth that may require intervention. The purpose of this study was to review all patients treated with secondary endovascular devices at our institution for failed EVAR procedures. Over an 8-year period, 988 patients underwent EVAR, of whom 42 (4.3%) required secondary interventions involving placement of additional endovascular devices. Data regarding patient characteristics, aneurysm size, initial device type, time until failure, failure etiology, secondary interventions, and outcomes were reviewed. The mean time from initial operation until second operation was 34.1 months. Failures included type I endoleaks in 38 patients (90.5%), type III endoleaks in two patients (4.8%), and enlarging aneurysms without definite endoleaks in two patients (4.8%). The overall technical success rate for secondary repair was 92.9% (39/42). Perioperative complications occurred in nine patients (21.4%), including wound complications (n = 6), cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (n = 1), foot drop (n = 1), and death (n = 1). Mean follow-up following secondary repair was 16.4 months (range 1-50). Eighty-six percent of patients treated with aortouni-iliac devices had successful repairs compared to 45% of patients treated with proximal cuffs. Ten patients (23.8%) had persistent or recurrent type I or type III endoleaks following revision. Of these, four had tertiary interventions, including two patients who had additional devices placed. Failures following EVAR occur in a small but significant number of patients. When anatomically possible, endovascular revision offers a safe means of treating these failures. Aortouni-iliac devices appear to offer a more durable repair than the proximal cuff for treatment of proximal type I endoleaks. Midterm

  12. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair complicated by spondylodiscitis and iliaco-enteral fistula.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Heleen D; van Sterkenburg, Steven M M; Pierie, Maurice E N; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2008-06-01

    Infections of abdominal aortic endografts are rare. There are no reports on the association with spondylodiscitis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and subsequently femorofemoral bypass placement due to occlusion of the right limb of the endograft. Six months later, he presented with rectal bleeding, weight loss, back pain, and low abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed extensive abscess formation with air in and around the endograft and psoas muscles, in continuity with destructive spondylodiscitis L3-4. There was a small bowel loop in close proximity to the occluded right leg of the endograft, which was filled with air bubbles. An axillofemoral bypass was created followed by a laparotomy. Intra-operatively, an iliaco-enteral fistula was found. The small bowel defect was sutured, the endograft completely removed, and the infrarenal aorta and both common iliac arteries were closed. Necrotic fragments of the former L3-4 disk were removed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Seven months postoperatively, the patient had recovered well. Iliaco-enteric fistula and spondylodiscitis are rare complications of aortic aneurysm repair. This is the first report of spondylodiscitis after EVAR.

  13. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Scott, Katherine D; Edwards, John F

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis.

  14. International experience with endovascular therapy of the ascending aorta with a dedicated endograft.

    PubMed

    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Debus, E Sebastian; Oderich, Gustavo S; Haulon, Stephan; Terp, Kim Allan; Roeder, Blayne; Detter, Christian; Kölbel, Tilo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a novel stent graft specifically designed for treatment of the ascending aorta. This was a multicenter, retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with the dedicated Zenith Ascend TAA Endovascular Graft (William Cook Europe, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) for pathologic processes requiring stent grafting of the ascending aorta. The graft is short (6.5 cm), with a delivery system designed for transfemoral placement in the ascending aorta. In 10 patients (five men; age, 67 years; range, 26-90 years), the Zenith Ascend graft was implanted for the following indications: dissection (n = 5) and aneurysm (n = 4) of the ascending aorta and fixation of an intraprocedural dislocated aortic valve (n = 1). All patients were judged to be at high risk for open surgery (nine patients were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or class 4). A transfemoral approach was selected in eight cases and a transapical approach in two. All endografts were successfully deployed without intraoperative adverse events at the targeted landing zone. Clinical success in coverage of the lesions was achieved in all cases with the exception of an attempted treatment of an intraprocedural aortic valve implantation dissection that resulted in early mortality. The 30-day survival was 90%. Early neurologic events included one patient with stroke and paraplegia and one patient with a transient ischemic attack. One patient underwent early evacuation of a hemopericardium. There were two late reinterventions for persisting endoleaks. At a mean follow-up of 10 months (range, 1-36 months), three late deaths occurred, with one treatment related, as a result of graft infection. Despite the fact that in this first published series the graft was frequently used as a "rescue tool" outside its intended indication, treatment with the Zenith Ascend graft in this early experience appears to be safe and feasible

  15. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik, E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.d; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacementmore » between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.« less

  16. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... to guide the stent graft up into your aorta, to where the aneurysm is located. Next open ...

  17. Pressure waves in the aorta during isolated abdominal belt loading: the magnitude, phasing, and attenuation.

    PubMed

    Arregui-Dalmases, C; Del Pozo, E; Stacey, S; Kindig, M; Lessley, D; Lopez-Valdes, F; Forman, J; Kent, R

    2011-07-01

    While rupture of the aorta is a leading cause of sudden death following motor vehicle crashes, the specific mechanism that causes this injury is not currently well understood. Aortic ruptures occurring in the field are likely due to a complex combination of contributing factors such as acceleration, compression of the chest, and increased pressure within the aorta. The objective of the current study was to investigate one of these factors in more detail than has been done previously; specifically, to investigate the in situ intra-aortic pressure generated during isolated belt loading to the abdomen. Ten juvenile swine were subjected to dynamic belt loads applied to the abdomen. Intraaortic pressure was measured at multiple locations to assess the magnitude and propagation of the resulting blood pressure wave. The greatest average peak pressure (113.6 +/- 43.5 kPa) was measured in the abdominal aorta. Pressures measured in the thoracic aorta and aortic arch were 70 per cent and 50 per cent, respectively, that measured in the abdominal aorta. No macroscopic aortic trauma was observed. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first one to document the presence, propagation, and attenuation of a transient pressure wave in the aorta generated by abdominal belt loading. The superiorly moving wave is sufficient to generate hydrostatic and intimal shear stress in the aorta, possibly contributing to the hypothesized mechanisms of traumatic aortic rupture.

  18. Impact of Age-Dependent Adventitia Inflammation on Structural Alteration of Abdominal Aorta in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Sumiharu; Tsuruda, Toshihiro; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Imamura, Takuroh; Asada, Yujiro; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background The adventitia is suggested to contribute to vascular remodeling; however, the site-selective inflammatory responses in association with the development of atherosclerosis remain to be elucidated. Methods and Results Wild-type or apolipoprotein E knockout male C57BL/6J background mice were fed standard chow for 16, 32, and 52 weeks, and the morphology of the aortic arch, descending aorta, and abdominal aorta was compared. Atheromatous plaque formation progressed with age, particularly in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta but not in the descending aorta. In addition, we found that the numbers of macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and microvessels, assessed by anti-F4/80, CD3, and CD31 antibodies, were higher in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta at 52 weeks. These numbers were positively correlated with plaque formation, but negatively correlated with elastin content, resulting in the enlargement of the total vessel area. In aortic tissues, interleukin-6 levels increased in the atheromatous plaque with age, whereas the level of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) increased with age, and compared with other sites, it was particularly distributed in inflammatory cells in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta. Conclusion This study suggests that adventitial inflammation contributes to the age-dependent structural alterations, and that the activation/inactivation of cytokines/chemokines is involved in the process. PMID:25153991

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Lesions With or Without Common Iliac Artery Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Oender, Hakan, E-mail: drhakanonder@hotmail.com; Oguzkurt, Levent; Guer, Serkan

    To evaluate the results of stent placement for obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease with or without involvement of the common iliac artery. Forty patients had self-expanding stents primarily or after balloon dilatation in the abdominal aorta between January 2005 and May 2011. All patients had trouble walking. Follow-up examinations were performed with clinical visits; these included color Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography. Technical, clinical, and hemodynamic success was achieved in all patients. None of the patients underwent reintervention during the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 months to 6 years (median 24 months). Nine complications occurred in six patients. Ofmore » the nine complications, four were distal thromboembolisms, which were successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis or anticoagulation therapy. Endovascular treatment of the obstructive aortic disease using self-expanding stents was safe and effective, with high technical success and long-term patency. Thromboembolic complications were high even though direct stenting was considered protective for thromboembolism formation. Particularly for infrarenal aortic stenosis, it can be recommended as the first-line treatment option for patients with obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease.« less

  20. Retroperitoneal haematoma causing gastric outflow obstruction following endovascular repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Benjamin; Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with back pain and collapse. A ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully managed by endovascular aneurysm repair. Postoperatively, he developed gastric outlet obstruction owing to duodenal compression from the unevacuated retroperitoneal haematoma. In the absence of abdominal compartment syndrome, conservative management with gastric decompression and parenteral nutrition led to a full recovery. PMID:23162028

  1. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ishibash@aichi-med-u.ac.j; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg,more » 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.« less

  2. Acute Left Arm Ischemia Associated with Floating Thrombus in the Proximal Descending Aorta: Combined Endovascular and Surgical Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, F., E-mail: fabrizio.fanelli@uniroma1.it; Gazzetti, M.; Boatta, E.

    Free floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta is an uncommon and dangerous condition that can be associated with acute peripheral embolization. The few cases described were solved with surgical and/or medical therapy. We report the case of a patient with acute left arm ischemia secondary to the presence of floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta extending into the left subclavian artery, solved with combined endovascular and surgical therapy. Treatment was successfully performed with thrombembolectomy combined with temporary deployment, into the descending aorta, of a Wallstent in a 'basket-fashion' to avoid distal embolization secondary to thrombus fragmentation. At 1more » year follow-up the patient remained symptom-free.« less

  3. First long-term evidence supporting endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Muhs, Bart E; Dardik, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The traditional method of treating abdominal aortic aneurysms with open surgical repair has been steadily replaced by endovascular repair, thought to be a more minimally invasive approach. It is not known, however, whether the endovascular approach is truly less invasive for operative physiology; in addition, this approach has a different spectrum of complications. As such, it is uncertain whether elective endovascular repair of nonruptured aortic aneurysms reduces long-term morbidity and mortality compared with traditional open approaches. In this article, the authors evaluate a recent publication investigating long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms treated with either endovascular or open repair, and discuss the results in the context of current evidence.

  4. Dynamic Geometric Analysis of the Renal Arteries and Aorta following Complex Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Kim, John J; Lee, Jason T; Dalman, Ronald L; Cheng, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    Aneurysm regression and target vessel patency during early and mid-term follow-up may be related to the effect of stent-graft configuration on the anatomy. We quantified geometry and remodeling of the renal arteries and aneurysm following fenestrated (F-) or snorkel/chimney (Sn-) endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Twenty-nine patients (mean age, 76.8 ± 7.8 years) treated with F- or Sn-EVAR underwent computed tomography angiography at preop, postop, and follow-up. Three-dimensional geometric models of the aorta and renal arteries were constructed. Renal branch angle was defined relative to the plane orthogonal to the aorta. End-stent angle was defined as the angulation between the stent and native distal artery. Aortic volumes were computed for the whole aorta, lumen, and their difference (excluded lumen). Renal patency, reintervention, early mortality, postoperative renal impairment, and endoleak were reviewed. From preop to postop, F-renal branches angled upward, Sn-renal branches angled downward (P < 0.05), and Sn-renals exhibited increased end-stent angulation (12 ± 15°, P < 0.05). From postop to follow-up, branch angles did not change for either F- or Sn-renals, whereas F-renals exhibited increased end-stent angulation (5 ± 10°, P < 0.05). From preop to postop, whole aortic and excluded lumen volumes increased by 5 ± 14% and 74 ± 81%, whereas lumen volume decreased (39 ± 27%, P < 0.05). From postop to follow-up, whole aortic and excluded lumen volumes decreased similarly (P < 0.05), leaving the lumen volume unchanged. At median follow-up of 764 days (range, 7-1,653), primary renal stent patency was 94.1% and renal impairment occurred in 2 patients (6.7%). Although F- and Sn-EVAR resulted in significant, and opposite, changes to renal branch angle, only Sn-EVAR resulted in significant end-stent angulation increase. Longitudinal geometric analysis suggests that these anatomic alterations are primarily generated early as a

  5. Epithelioid Angiosarcoma With Metastatic Disease After Endovascular Therapy of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Scharpf, Marcus; Brechtel, Klaus

    2012-02-15

    Malignancies of the aortic wall represent a rare condition, and only a few reports have covered cases of sarcomas arising at the site of a prosthesis made of Dacron. A coincidence with endovascular repair has only been reported in one case to date. We report a patient with epithelioid angiosarcoma and metastatic disease, which was found in an aneurysmal sac after endovascular aortic repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  6. Miliary tuberculosis in a patient with tuberculous mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Manika, Katerina; Efthymiou, Christoforos; Damianidis, Georgios; Zioga, Elisavet; Papadaki, Eleni; Lagoudi, Kalliopi; Kioumis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The combination of miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous mycotic aneurysm has been described in the literature. We present the case of an 84-year-old man who was diagnosed with a mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and an adjacent soft tissue mass, after a 3- month history of fever. The patient underwent endovascular restoration of the aneurysm and was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. One and a half months later the fever relapsed and the chest CT scan revealed findings consistent with miliary tuberculosis and opacities of both upper lobes not present before, while the abdominal CT scan revealed an increase in the size of the para-aortic mass. Tuberculosis was documented by positive culture for M. tuberculosis of bronchial washing and by the CT-guided para-aortic mass biopsy. The patient received anti-TB treatment for 9 months leading to a spectacular improvement of his clinical condition and imaging findings. A review of the literature since 2008 revealed 28 more cases of tuberculous mycotic aneurysm. The treatment and outcome of all cases are described. Mycotic aneurysm of tuberculous etiology remains a reality and has a relatively good prognosis. Although miliary tuberculosis affects mortality even elderly patients may benefit from "aggressive" management and treatment.

  7. Calcification detection of abdominal aorta in CT images and 3D visualization in VR devices.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Berna, Jose A; Sanchez-Gomez, Juan M; Hermanns, Judith; Garcia-Mateos, Gines; Fernandez-Aleman, Jose L

    2016-08-01

    Automatic calcification detection in abdominal aorta consists of a set of computer vision techniques to quantify the amount of calcium that is found around this artery. Knowing that information, it is possible to perform statistical studies that relate vascular diseases with the presence of calcium in these structures. To facilitate the detection in CT images, a contrast is usually injected into the circulatory system of the patients to distinguish the aorta from other body tissues and organs. This contrast increases the absorption of X-rays by human blood, making it easier the measurement of calcifications. Based on this idea, a new system capable of detecting and tracking the aorta artery has been developed with an estimation of the calcium found surrounding the aorta. Besides, the system is complemented with a 3D visualization mode of the image set which is designed for the new generation of immersive VR devices.

  8. Assessment of the accuracy of AortaScan for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

    PubMed

    Abbas, A; Smith, A; Cecelja, M; Waltham, M

    2012-02-01

    AortaScan AMI 9700 is a portable 3D ultrasound device that automatically measures the maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta without the need for a trained sonographer. It is designed to rapidly diagnose or exclude an AAA and may have particular use in screening programs. Our objective was to determine its accuracy to detect AAA. Subjects from our AAA screening and surveillance programs were examined. The aorta was scanned using the AortaScan and computed tomography (CT). Ninety-one subjects underwent imaging (44 AAA on conventional ultrasound surveillance and 47 controls). The largest measurement obtained by AortaScan was compared against the CT-aortic measurement. The mean aortic diameter was 2.8 cm. The CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of AAA in 43 subjects. There was one false positive measurement on conventional ultrasound. AortaScan missed the diagnosis of AAA in eight subjects. There were thirteen false positive measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81%, 72%, 72% and 81% respectively. A device to detect AAA without the need for a trained operator would have potential in a community-based screening programme. The AortaScan, however, lacks adequate sensitivity and significant technical improvement is necessary before it could be considered a replacement for trained screening personnel. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bringing Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) Closer to the Point of Injury.

    PubMed

    Pasley, Jason D; Teeter, William A; Gamble, William B; Wasick, Philip; Romagnoli, Anna N; Pasley, Amelia M; Scalea, Thomas M; Brenner, Megan L

    The management of noncompressible torso hemorrhage remains a significant issue at the point of injury. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been used in the hospital to control bleeding and bridge patients to definitive surgery. Smaller delivery systems and wirefree devices may be used more easily at the point of injury by nonphysician providers. We investigated whether independent duty military medical technicians (IDMTs) could learn and perform REBOA correctly and rapidly as assessed by simulation. US Air Force IDMTs without prior endovascular experience were included. All participants received didactic instruction and evaluation of technical skills. Procedural times and pretest/posttest examinations were administered after completion of all trials. The Likert scale was used to subjectively assess confidence before and after instruction. Eleven IDMTs were enrolled. There was a significant decrease in procedural times from trials 1 to 6. Overall procedural time (± standard deviation) decreased from 147.7 ± 27.4 seconds to 64 ± 8.9 seconds (ρ < .001). There was a mean improvement of 83.7 ± 24.6 seconds from the first to sixth trial (ρ < .001). All participants demonstrated correct placement of the sheath, measurement and placement of the catheter, and inflation of the balloon throughout all trials (100%). There was significant improvement in comprehension and knowledge between the pretest and posttest; average performance improved significantly from 36.4.6% ± 12.3% to 71.1% ± 8.5% (ρ < .001). Subjectively, all 11 participants noted significant improvement in confidence from 1.2 to 4.1 out of 5 on the Likert scale (ρ < .001). Technology for aortic occlusion has advanced to provide smaller, wirefree devices, making field deployment more feasible. IDMTs can learn the steps required for REBOA and perform the procedure accurately and rapidly, as assessed by simulation. Arterial access is a challenge in the ability to perform

  10. Early Results of Endovascular Treatment of the Thoracic Aorta Using the Valiant Endograft

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Matt, E-mail: matt.thompson@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Ivaz, Stella; Cheshire, Nicholas

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta has been adopted as the first-line therapy for much pathology. Initial results from the early-generation endografts have highlighted the potential of this technique. Newer-generation endografts have now been introduced into clinical practice and careful assessment of their performance should be mandatory. This study describes the initial experience with the Valiant endograft and makes comparisons with similar series documenting previous-generation endografts. Data were retrospectively collected on 180 patients treated with the Valiant endograft at seven European centers between March 2005 and October 2006. The patient cohort consisted of 66 patients with thoracic aneurysms, 22 withmore » thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 19 with an acute aortic syndrome, 52 with aneurysmal degeneration of a chronic dissection, and 21 patients with traumatic aortic transection. The overall 30-day mortality for the series was 7.2%, with a stroke rate of 3.8% and a paraplegia rate of 3.3%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality differed significantly between different indications; thoracic aneurysms (6.1%), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (27.3%), acute aortic syndrome (10.5%), chronic dissections (1.9%), and acute transections (0%). Adjunctive surgical procedures were required in 63 patients, and 51% of patients had grafts deployed proximal to the left subclavian artery. Comparison with a series of earlier-generation grafts demonstrated a significant increase in complexity of procedure as assessed by graft implantation site, number of grafts and patient comorbidity. The data demonstrate acceptable results for a new-generation endograft in series of patients with diverse thoracic aortic pathology. Comparison of clinical outcomes between different endografts poses considerable challenges due to differing case complexity.« less

  11. [Effect of external abdominal aorta compression on circulation during anesthesia induction in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuman; Wang, Lixiang

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of external abdominal aorta compression on circulation during anesthetic induction in elderly patients. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients with age of 60-75 years old, requiring a general anesthesia for non-abdominal surgery, and with II-III class of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and admitted to General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces from January to April in 2017 were enrolled. They were divided into abdominal aorta pressure group and control group according to random number method, with 20 patients in each group. In both groups, anesthesia was induced with midazolam, propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium, and was maintained with propofol, remifentanil and cisatracurium. After successful intubation, the anesthesia machine was changed into mechanical ventilation. The patients in abdominal aorta pressure group were given abdominal aorta pressure 1 minute after induction of general anesthesia with midazolam till 5 minutes after intubation. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were observed before anesthesia induction, immediately after anesthesia induction, immediately after intubation, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after intubation, respectively. The incidence of hypotension or bradycardia, and usage of ephedrine or atropine were recorded. There were no significant differences in MAP [mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 83.6±4.7 vs. 82.9±4.7], HR (bpm: 67.3±5.9 vs. 65.9±5.7) and SpO 2 (0.962±0.007 vs. 0.960±0.009) before anesthesia induction between abdominal aorta pressure group and control group (all P > 0.05). Immediately after anesthesia induction, the MAP and HR in control group were significantly decreased as compared with those before anesthesia induction [MAP (mmHg): 70.0±8.7 vs. 82.9±4.7, HR (bpm): 60.7±6.7 vs. 65.9±5.7, both P < 0.05], and they were also significantly lower than those of

  12. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P < 0.05), increased collagen content (P < 0.05), and decreased sulfated glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05). Our derived constitutive model from experimental data related increased stiffness to reorganization changes of increased alignment angle of collagen fibers and increased elastin (P < 0.05) in the thoracic aorta and increased concentration of collagen fibers in the abdominal aorta toward the circumferential direction verified through use of histological techniques. This fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals.

  13. [Pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment of reperfusion syndrome in the surgery of abdominal aorta aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Medvedskyĭ, E B; Kostylev, M V; Kornitskaia, A I; Gindich, L A; Dominiak, A B; Vlaĭkov, G G

    1999-01-01

    The peroxidal oxidation of the lipids state was studied up, as well as of the whole blood neutrophils functional activity, hemodynamics and microcirculation of lower extremities in surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta aneurysm. The main significance in the reperfusional syndrome pathophysiology, caused by temporary overcompression of aorta, has the neutrophils activation, their interrelationship with the endothelium cells and the activity lowering of the tissue antioxidant system, manifestated by vascular spasm, which is mostly expressed in the patients with stenotic affection of the lower extremities arteries. Positive effect was noted in application of preparation corvitin, which has antioxidant action.

  14. Colonic Ischemia After Standard Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, A Rare But Dangerous Complication.

    PubMed

    Berchiolli, R; Adami, D; Marconi, M; Mari, M; Puta, B; Ferrari, M

    2018-05-21

    Colonic Ischemia (CI) after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, although rare, is associated with severe prognosis. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) is becoming the standard of practice in most vascular centers, and it also may reduce CI incidence in comparison to conventional open repair. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Atypical moyamoya syndrome with brain calcification and stenosis of abdominal aorta and renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Hideki; Fujii, Katsunori; Fujita, Mayuko; Okunushi, Tomoko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    Moyamoya syndrome is a progressive cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and its main branches, in combination with an accompanying disease. We herein describe an 8-year-old boy exhibiting transient loss of consciousness, who had recurrent seizures in infancy with progressive brain calcification. On admission, he was alert but magnetic resonance angiography showed bilateral stenosis of the whole internal carotid artery and proliferation of vascular collaterals, and brain CT revealed calcification on bilateral putamen. Given that this fulfilled diagnostic criteria, we finally diagnosed him as having moyamoya syndrome, though the etiology was unclear. Interestingly, a whole vessel survey revealed vascular stenosis of abdominal aorta and renal arteries, in which the former has not been reported in moyamoya syndrome. We considered that brain calcification was gradually formed by decreased cerebral vascular flow from infancy, and stenosis of abdominal aorta was possibly extended from renal arteries. This is, moyamoya syndrome with brain calcification and stenosis of abdominal aorta, suggesting that morphological screening of whole vessels containing cerebral and abdominal arteries should be considered in cases of slowly progressive brain calcification. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  17. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  18. Long-term comparison of endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Frank A; Freischlag, Julie A; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Matsumura, Jon S; Padberg, Frank T; Kohler, Ted R; Kougias, Panagiotis; Jean-Claude, Jessie M; Cikrit, Dolores F; Swanson, Kathleen M

    2012-11-22

    Whether elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm reduces long-term morbidity and mortality, as compared with traditional open repair, remains uncertain. We randomly assigned 881 patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms who were candidates for both procedures to either endovascular repair (444) or open repair (437) and followed them for up to 9 years (mean, 5.2). Patients were selected from 42 Veterans Affairs medical centers and were 49 years of age or older at the time of registration. More than 95% of the patients underwent the assigned repair. For the primary outcome of all-cause mortality, 146 deaths occurred in each group (hazard ratio with endovascular repair versus open repair, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.22; P=0.81). The previously reported reduction in perioperative mortality with endovascular repair was sustained at 2 years (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.98; P=0.04) and at 3 years (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.00; P=0.05) but not thereafter. There were 10 aneurysm-related deaths in the endovascular-repair group (2.3%) versus 16 in the open-repair group (3.7%) (P=0.22). Six aneurysm ruptures were confirmed in the endovascular-repair group versus none in the open-repair group (P=0.03). A significant interaction was observed between age and type of treatment (P=0.006); survival was increased among patients under 70 years of age in the endovascular-repair group but tended to be better among those 70 years of age or older in the open-repair group. Endovascular repair and open repair resulted in similar long-term survival. The perioperative survival advantage with endovascular repair was sustained for several years, but rupture after repair remained a concern. Endovascular repair led to increased long-term survival among younger patients but not among older patients, for whom a greater benefit from the endovascular approach had been expected. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of

  19. Over length quantification of the multiaxial mechanical properties of the ascending, descending and abdominal aorta using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Peña, Juan A; Corral, Victoria; Martínez, Miguel A; Peña, Estefanía

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize that the biaxial mechanical properties of the aorta may be dependent on arterial location. To demonstrate any possible position-related difference, our study analyzed and compared the biaxial mechanical properties of the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta stemming from the same porcine subjects, and reported values of constitutive parameters for well-known strain energy functions, showing how these mechanical properties are affected by location along the aorta. When comparing ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta, abdominal tissues were found to be stiffer and highly anisotropic. We found that the aorta changed from a more isotropic to a more anisotropic tissue and became progressively less compliant and stiffer with the distance to the heart. We observed substantial differences in the anisotropy parameter between aortic samples where abdominal samples were more anisotropic and nonlinear than the thoracic samples. The phenomenological model was not able to capture the passive biaxial properties of each specific porcine aorta over a wide range of biaxial deformations, showing the best prediction root mean square error ε=0.2621 for ascending thoracic samples and, especially, the worst for the infrarenal abdominal samples ε=0.3780. The micro-structured model with Bingham orientation density function was able to better predict biaxial deformations (ε=0.1372 for ascending thoracic aorta samples). The root mean square error of the micro-structural model and the micro-structured model with von Mises orientation density function were similar for all positions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Logistic considerations for a successful institutional approach to the endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Dieter; Rancic, Zoran; Pfammatter, Thomas; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Veith, Frank J; Donas, Konstantin; Lachat, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The value of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in the setting of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains controversial owing to differing results. However, interpretation of published results remains difficult as there is a lack of generally accepted protocols or standard operating procedures. Furthermore, such protocols and standard operating procedures often are reported incompletely or not at all, thereby making interpretation of results difficult. We herein report our integrated logistic system for the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. Important components of this system are prehospital logistics, in-hospital treatment logistics, and aftercare. Further studies should include details about all of these components, and a description of these logistic components must be included in all future studies of emergency EVAR for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  1. Minimally invasive retrieval of a dislodged Wallstent endoprosthesis after an endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Lam, Russell C; Rhee, Soo J; Morrissey, Nicholas J; McKinsey, James F; Faries, Peter L; Kent, K Craig

    2008-02-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is being performed more frequently in patients with concomitant iliac artery occlusive disease. We report a case of a 70-year-old male status post angioplasty and stenting of bilateral iliac arteries for occlusive disease who subsequently underwent EVAR for a rapidly expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). One month after the placement of the endograft, it was discovered that the previously placed Wallstent had been dislodged during the endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Minimally invasive retrieval using an Amplatz Goose Neck Snare was successful in recovering the stent. This case underscores the danger of performing EVAR in the setting of prior iliac artery stenting and the potential complications that may ensue.

  2. Effectiveness of open versus endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in population settings: A systematic review of statewide databases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2017-10-01

    Patient outcomes after open abdominal aortic aneurysm and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair have been widely reported from several large, randomized, controlled trials. It is not clear whether these trial outcomes are representative of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures performed in real-world hospital settings across the United States. This study was designed to evaluate population-based outcomes after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using statewide inpatient databases and examine how they have helped improve our understanding of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify articles comparing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using data from statewide inpatient databases. This search was limited to studies published in the English language after 1990, and abstracts were screened and abstracted by 2 authors. Our search yielded 17 studies published between 2004 and 2016 that used data from 29 different statewide inpatient databases to compare endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. These studies support the randomized, controlled trial results, including a lower mortality associated with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair extended from the perioperative period up to 3 years after operation, as well as a higher complication rate after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The evidence from statewide inpatient database analyses has also elucidated trends in procedure volume, patient case mix, volume-outcome relationships, and health care disparities associated with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Population analyses of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using statewide inpatient databases have confirmed short- and long-term mortality outcomes obtained from

  3. Prophylactic temporary abdominal aorta balloon occlusion in women with placenta previa accretism during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Jifen; Wu, Jianbo; Chen, Lihong

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa accretism during cesarean section. Twenty-three consecutive patients, prenatally confirmed with placenta previa accretism were retrospectively analyzed in our center from August 2012 to October 2014. All 23 subjects underwent cesarean section with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. All of the 23 subjects experienced singleton pregnancies leading to the birth of live infants. Of these subjects, the following problems were diagnosed: placenta accrete (n = 10), placenta increte (n = 10), and placenta precrete (n = 3). Mean intraoperative hemorrhage was 1170.0 mL. Fifteen patients received red blood cell transfusion with a mean transfusion volume of 2.3 units. The incidence of hysterectomy was 21.74% (5/23) with blood loss ranging from 2000 to 5000 mL (mean 3360.0 mL). One complication encountered in this retrospective study was lower extremity arterial thrombosis. Eighteen patients were followed-up by telephone to 14 months following discharge, all babies were noted to be healthy. Prophylactic abdominal aorta balloon occlusion (ABO) was relatively safe in the treatment of patients with placenta previa accretism. This approach could represent a key aspect in a multidisciplinary algorithm in reducing hemorrhage in abnormal placentation.

  4. Prophylactic temporary abdominal aorta balloon occlusion in women with placenta previa accretism during late gestation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Jifen; Wu, Jianbo; Chen, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa accretism during cesarean section. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive patients, prenatally confirmed with placenta previa accretism were retrospectively analyzed in our center from August 2012 to October 2014. All 23 subjects underwent cesarean section with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Results: All of the 23 subjects experienced singleton pregnancies leading to the birth of live infants. Of these subjects, the following problems were diagnosed: placenta accrete (n = 10), placenta increte (n = 10), and placenta precrete (n = 3). Mean intraoperative hemorrhage was 1170.0 mL. Fifteen patients received red blood cell transfusion with a mean transfusion volume of 2.3 units. The incidence of hysterectomy was 21.74% (5/23) with blood loss ranging from 2000 to 5000 mL (mean 3360.0 mL). One complication encountered in this retrospective study was lower extremity arterial thrombosis. Eighteen patients were followed-up by telephone to 14 months following discharge, all babies were noted to be healthy. Conclusion: Prophylactic abdominal aorta balloon occlusion (ABO) was relatively safe in the treatment of patients with placenta previa accretism. This approach could represent a key aspect in a multidisciplinary algorithm in reducing hemorrhage in abnormal placentation. PMID:29145299

  5. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, İrfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  6. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: Is endovascular aneurysm repair the answer for everybody?

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Treatment paradigms for elective repair of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have evolved during the past 2 decades, with endovascular aneurysm repair as the preferred treatment modality. The patient care strategy for emergent treatment for ruptured AAA is not as straightforward, due in part to surgeon expertise and stent-graft availability at the institution. Although most reports have extrapolated elective endovascular aneurysm repair feasibility data to the ruptured AAA patient and the aneurysm anatomy, these expectations should be interpreted with caution. In the absence of level I evidence, and lack of adequate local hospital resources, endovascular aneurysm repair-first policy might not be feasible for all the patients who present with ruptured AAA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endovascular Stent Graft Placement in the Treatment of Ruptured Tuberculous Pseudoaneurysm of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Sozen, E-mail: sozendogan@hotmail.com; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co; Kale, Arzum, E-mail: arzumkale@kenthospital.com

    We report a successful repair of a ruptured tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta by endovascular stent graft placement. This procedure is starting to be accepted as an alternative method to surgery, and we review similar cases in the literature.

  8. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: experience in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Davit, Flavia E; Cole, Theresa; Helling, Thomas; Tretter, James

    2007-11-01

    The endovascular technique has been recently used as an alternative procedure for selected patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) as a result of the potential for decreasing morbidity, mortality, and recovery time. We examined our institution's results with endovascular repair of RAAA. Between July 2005 and April 2006, four patients underwent endovascular repair of infrarenal RAAA. We performed a retrospective analysis of our comorbidities, operation time, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, morbidity and mortality, blood transfusions, and secondary interventions on these patients at our institution. The median age was 73.2 years (range, 66-82 years); 75 per cent were male and 25 per cent were female. Mean operating time was 90 minutes. We had no operative or postoperative mortalities. Five complications occurred in three patients. These included acute renal failure, common femoral artery intimal dissection, graft thrombosis of the iliac limb, ischemic colitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Endovascular repair of RAAA by an endovascular team is feasible in the community hospital setting. Our limited number of patients in this study does not allow us to compare it directly with results from the standard open procedure. A larger, multicenter study may eventually show this method to be helpful in patients who require repair of RAAA.

  9. Open versus endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: What have we learned after more than 2 decades of ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William P

    2017-12-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most difficult clinical problems in surgical practice, with extraordinarily high morbidity and mortality. During the past 23 years, the literature has become replete with reports regarding ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of study designs and databases have been utilized to compare ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair and open surgical repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and studies of various designs from different databases have yielded vastly different conclusions. It therefore remains controversial whether ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair improves outcomes after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. The purpose of this article is to review the best available evidence comparing ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair and open surgical repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, including single institution and multi-institutional retrospective observational studies, large national population-based studies, large national registries of prospectively collected data, and randomized controlled clinical trials. This article will analyze the study designs and databases utilized with their attendant strengths and weaknesses to understand the sometimes vastly different conclusions the studies have reached. This article will attempt to integrate the data to distill some of the lessons that have been learned regarding ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair and identify ongoing needs in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transfer of Learning from Practicing Microvascular Anastomosis on Silastic Tubes to Rat Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Pooneh; Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Payman, Andre; Benet, Arnau

    2017-12-01

    Learning to perform microvascular anastomosis is difficult. Laboratory practice models using artificial vessels are frequently used for this purpose. However, the efficacy of such practice models has not been objectively assessed for the performance of microvascular anastomosis during live surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess the transfer of learning from practicing microvascular anastomosis on tubes to anastomosing rat abdominal aorta. Ten surgeons without any experience in microvascular anastomosis were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. Both groups received didactic and visual training on end-to-end microvascular anastomosis. The experimental group received 24 sessions of hands-on training on microanastomosis using Silastic tubes. Next, both groups underwent recall tests on weeks 1, 2, and 8 after training. The recall test consisted of completing an end-to-end anastomosis on the rat's abdominal aorta. Anastomosis score, the time to complete the anastomosis, and the average time to place 1 stitch on the vessel perimeter were compared between the 2 groups. Compared with the control group, the experimental group did significantly better in terms of anastomosis score, total time, and per-stitch time. The measured variables showed stability and did not change significantly between the 3 recall tests. The skill of microvascular anastomosis is transferred from practicing on Silastic tubes to rat's abdominal aorta. Considering the relative advantages of Silastic tubes to live rodent surgeries, such as lower cost and absence of ethical issues, our results support the widespread use of Silastic tubes in training programs for microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mini-invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms: current roles of endovascular, laparoscopic, and open techniques.

    PubMed

    Coscas, Raphaël; Maumias, Thibault; Capdevila, Clément; Javerliat, Isabelle; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR), laparoscopic aortic surgery (LAS), and open surgery (OS) are three established treatment methods of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). While these techniques are often percieved as competitive between them, they are complementary for the vascular surgeon, whose goal is to provide a treatment adapted to each case that is noninvasive and durable. The objective of this study was to report our results of AAA repair to better define the roles of the three techniques. From January 2009 to December 2011, we operated on 235 patients for AAAs. Patients for whom the three technical methods were discussed preoperatively were selected. Cases where the three techniques were not discussed were excluded (ruptured AAA, technique not available). One hundred seventy-five (75%) patients were included. Four groups were established based on the surgical risk and the anatomic EVAR criteria of the French Health Authority (Haute Autorité de Santé [HAS]), including: (1) good risk and favorable anatomy (GR-FA); (2) good risk and unfavorable anatomy (GR-UA); (3) high-risk and favorable anatomy (HR-FA); and (4) high-risk and unfavorable anatomy (HR-UA). Data collection was prospective. The numerical data were expressed as median and range. There were 166 (95%) men, aged 74 years (range 38-97 years). AAA diameter was 51 mm (range 30-81 mm). Mini-invasive treatment (EVAR or LAS) was chosen in 156 (89%) cases. Mortality at 30 days was 3.4% (6 patients, 1 EVAR, 1 LAS, and 4 OS), including 3 patients presenting with a "shaggy aorta." There were 58, 19, 65, and 33 patients in groups GR-FA (33%), GR-UA (11%), HR-FA (37%), and HR-UA (19%), respectively. The distribution of the three techniques (EVAR, LAS, OS) according to the groups was as follows: GR-FA (9, 46, 3); GR-UA (0, 13, 6); HR-FA (50, 13, 2); and HR-UA (12, 13, 8), respectively. The results by subgroups are presented. Based on our results, we present a new algorithm for AAA treatment. Among GR-FA patients

  12. Differential Stiffening between the Abdominal and Thoracic Aorta: Effect of Salt Loading in Stroke-Prone Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Bézie, Yvonnick; Ragonnet, Christophe; Duchatelle, Véronique; Dharmasena, Chandima; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2018-06-08

    Central artery stiffening is recognized as a cardiovascular risk. The effects of hypertension and aging have been shown in human and animal models but the effect of salt is still controversial. We studied the effect of a high-salt diet on aortic stiffness in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypersensitive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Distensibility, distension, and β-stiffness were measured at thoracic and abdominal aortic sites in the same rats, using echotracking recording of the aortic diameter coupled with blood pressure (BP), in SHRSP-salt (5% salted diet, 5 weeks), SHRSP, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Hemodynamic parameters were measured at BP matched to that of WKY. Histological staining and immunohistochemistry were used for structural analysis. Hemodynamic isobaric parameters in SHRSP did not differ from WKY and only those from the abdominal aorta of SHRSP-salt presented decreased distensibility and increased stiffness compared with WKY and SHRSP. The abdominal and thoracic aortas presented similar thickening, increased fibrosis, and remodeling with no change in collagen content. SHRSP-salt presented a specific increased elastin disarray at the abdominal aorta level but a decrease in elastin content in the thoracic aorta. This study demonstrates the pro-stiffening effect of salt in addition to hypertension; it shows that only the abdominal aorta presents a specific pressure-independent stiffening, in which elastin disarray is likely a key mechanism. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The accuracy of combined physical examination and ultrasonography for the detection of abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Cârstea, Doina; Streba, Letiţia Adela Maria; Glodeanu, Adina; Cârstea, A P; Vancu, Mihaela; Ninulescu, Ana-Maria

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most frequent cause in the appearance of an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) and plays an important role in his development. Most AAA does not cause any symptoms, especially when talking about elderly patients, however, many of those aneurysms can be detected during physical examination. Their detection is very important because the natural evolution and the major reason in treating AAA is their tendency to rupture. We present the case of an adult man with a complex clinical pathology, but not related to the AAA. The diagnosis of the AAA has been suspicion through palpation, and the abdominal ultrasound exam confirmed it. This case is particular interesting, as the AAA requires surgical intervention, while patient's health status was poor. An essential issue is establishing the importance of the AAA screening, when there are no symptoms present. For now, there are not satisfactory studies to be used as a guide.

  14. The effect of endograft device on patient outcomes in endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Vinay; Nagpal, Sudhir; Jetty, Prasad

    2017-12-01

    Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is being increasingly applied as the intervention of choice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether survival and reintervention rates after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm vary between endograft devices. Methods This cohort study identified all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms performed at The Ottawa Hospital from January 1999 to May 2015. Data collected included patient demographics, stability index at presentation, adherence to device instructions for use, endoleaks, reinterventions, and mortality. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare outcomes between groups. Mortality outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and multivariate Cox regression modeling. Results One thousand sixty endovascular aneurysm repairs were performed using nine unique devices. Ninety-six ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms were performed using three devices: Cook Zenith ( n = 46), Medtronic Endurant ( n = 33), and Medtronic Talent ( n = 17). The percent of patients presented in unstable or extremis condition was 30.2, which did not differ between devices. Overall 30-day mortality was 18.8%, and was not statistically different between devices ( p = 0.16), although Medtronic Talent had markedly higher mortality (35.3%) than Cook Zenith (15.2%) and Medtronic Endurant (15.2%). AUI configuration was associated with increased 30-day mortality (33.3% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.02). Long-term mortality and graft-related reintervention rates at 30 days and 5 years were similar between devices. Instructions for use adherence was similar across devices, but differed between the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and elective endovascular aneurysm repair cohorts (47.7% vs. 79.0%, p < 0.01). Notably, two patients who received Medtronic Talent grafts underwent open conversion >30 days post-endovascular aneurysm repair ( p = 0.01). Type 1 endoleak rates differed

  15. Short-term (30-day) outcome of endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurism: results from the prospective Registry of Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurism (RETA).

    PubMed

    Thomas, S M; Gaines, P A; Beard, J D

    2001-01-01

    to assess the early morbidity and mortality of a new treatment, the endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, during its introduction into clinical practice. a prospective voluntary registry collecting demographic and risk factor data, details of aneurysm morphology, procedure performed, immediate and 30-day outcomes. thirty-one U.K. centres performing endovascular repair submitted data. six hundred and eleven cases were registered in three years of data collection (January 1996 to December 1998). Four per cent of patients received an aortic tube device, 60% an aorto-bi-iliac device and 36% an aorto-uni-iliac device and a crossover graft (AUIC). Conversion to open repair was required in 5% of cases, with more conversions in the AUIC group (OR 2.9 (95% CI: 1.3-6.4)p=0.01). Post procedure complications occurred in 25% of cases. Unfit patients had significantly more complications than fit patients (35% vs 20% for fit patients (OR 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2-2.7)p=0.007)). At 30 days aneurysms were excluded in 90% of cases. Endoleaks were more common in larger aneurysms (2% if aneurysms were <6 cm in diameter vs 10% if >6 cm, OR 5.6 (95% CI: 2.1-14.9)p=0.0006). The overall mortality was 7% but was significantly higher for AUIC devices, (4% for combined aortic tube and bi-iliac devices (AT/BI) vs 12%, OR 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.9 p=0.018)), and unfit patients (4% for fit patients vs 18%, OR 4.3 (95% CI: 2.0-9.5)p<0.001). endovascular repair is feasible with short-term outcomes comparable to those of conventional surgical repair. In unfit patients the possible benefit in life expectancy gain must be balanced against the morbidity and mortality of the procedure.

  16. Abdominal aorta anastomosis in rats and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hrelec, M; Klicek, R; Brcic, L; Brcic, I; Cvjetko, I; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2009-12-01

    We focused on abdominal aorta, clamped and transected bellow renal arteries, and aortic termino-terminal anastomosis created in Albino male rats. We suggested stomach cytoprotection theory holding endothelium protection and peptidergic anti-ulcer cytoprotection therapy to improve management of abdominal aorta anastomosis and thrombus formation. The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419) is a small anti-ulcer peptide efficient in inflammatory bowel disease trials (PL 14736) and various wound treatment, no toxicity reported. After 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis, we shown that BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) may also decrease formation of cloth after aortic termino-terminal anastomosis and preserved walking ability and muscle strength when given as a bath immediately after aortic anastomosis creation. This may be important since aortic termino-terminal anastomosis is normally presenting in rats with a formed cloth obstructing more than third of aortic lumen, severely impaired walking ability, painful screaming and weak muscle strength. Thereby, the effect of BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) was additionally studied at 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis. Given at the that point, intraperitoneally, within 3 minutes post-application interval the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 rapidly recovered the function of lower limbs and muscle strength while no cloth could be seen in those rats at the anastomosis site.

  17. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

  18. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm sizing and case planning using the TeraRecon Aquarius workstation.

    PubMed

    Lee, W Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The gold standard for preoperative evaluation of an aortic aneurysm is a computed tomography angiogram (CTA). Three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of the computed tomography data set is enormously helpful, and even sometimes essential, in proper sizing and planning for endovascular stent graft repair. To a large extent, it has obviated the need for conventional angiography for morphologic evaluation. The TeraRecon Aquarius workstation (San Mateo, Calif) represents a highly sophisticated but user-friendly platform utilizing a combination of task-specific hardware and software specifically designed to rapidly manipulate large Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets and provide surface-shaded and multiplanar renderings in real-time. This article discusses the basics of sizing and planning for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and the role of 3-dimensional analysis using the TeraRecon workstation.

  19. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas-two case reports with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Ivan; Sarac, Momir; Tomic, Aleksandar; Bezmarevic, Mihailo

    2013-10-01

    A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is a rare diagnosis with high mortality. We present two cases of endovascular reconstruction of mycotic descending thoracic aorta. Specific or nonspecific bacterial or other infectious agent in serial samples of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and pleural puncture was not detected in the first case, but we found in sputum sample Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the second patient. We empirically began by administering broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics in the first case, with preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and antituberculotic drugs therapy in the second case, and continued with the same medication for 4 months after endovascular repair. Control computed tomographic scans 6 months after reconstruction showed no endoleak in both patients. Repair of mycotic descending thoracic aortic aneurysms by endoluminal stent graft is reasonable alternative to open surgical intervention. A broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy has a high significance in the treatment of patients with mycotic aneurysm. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. REBOA at Role 2 Afloat: resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta as a bridge to damage control surgery in the military maritime setting.

    PubMed

    Rees, Paul; Waller, B; Buckley, A M; Doran, C; Bland, S; Scott, T; Matthews, J

    2018-05-01

    Role 2 Afloat provides a damage control resuscitation and surgery facility in support of maritime, littoral and aviation operations. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) offers a rapid, effective solution to exsanguinating haemorrhage from pelvic and non-compressible torso haemorrhage. It should be considered when the patient presents in a peri-arrest state, if surgery is likely to be delayed, or where the single operating table is occupied by another case. This paper will outline the data in support of endovascular haemorrhage control, describe the technique and explore how REBOA could be delivered using equipment currently available in the Royal Navy Role 2 Afloat equipment module. Also discussed are potential future directions in endovascular resuscitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Blunt Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion With Kissing Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Idoguchi, Koji, E-mail: idoguchi@ares.eonet.ne.jp; Yamaguchi, Masato; Okada, Takuya

    Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and potentially deadly. We present the case of a 62-year-old man involved in a frontal car crash. After emergency undergoing laparotomy for bowel injuries, he was referred to our hospital due to acute ischemia of bilateral lower extremities on day 3 after the trauma. Computed tomography and aortography showed an aortobiiliac dissection with complete occlusion. This injury was successfully treated by endovascular treatment with 'kissing'-technique stent placement, which appears to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases. Their role in degenerative chronic diseases of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Palombo, D; Maione, M; Cifiello, B I; Udini, M; Maggio, D; Lupo, M

    1999-04-01

    The main chronic degenerative diseases of the abdominal aorta, namely aneurysmatic and steno-obstructive pathologies, have a common denominator: atherosclerosis. Both pathologies are characterised by the destruction of the structural integrity of the extracellular protein matrix (ME). A number of studies have shown the presence and involvement of a group of enzymes with proteolytic activity towards one or more ME components, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in the pathogenesis of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta. Other authors have underlined the role of MMPs in the proliferation and migration process of smooth muscle cells into the intima in the pathogenesis of atheromasic plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases of the aorta. Fragments of aortic wall were removed from patients undergoing elective aortic surgery for aneurysms (14 patients) or aortic steno-obstruction (4 patients). The samples obtained were treated appropriately and then subject to immunohistochemical analysis. The preparations were incubated with specific anti-MMP antibodies and were also incubated with substrate and chromogen, forming a pigmented precipitate on the site of the antigen, before being observed using an optic microscopic at an enlargement of 250x. Nuclear positivity linked to the presence of the antigen testified the validity of staining. Lastly, the MMP INDEX, or in other words the number of positive cells out of 100, was stained in the adventitia and in the tunica media in each preparation. MMPs were divided into three main groups: interstitial collagenase (MMP1) which degrade type I and III native collagen; gelatinases (MMP9, MMP2) which act on elastin and type IV collagen; stromelysins (MMP3) with specific proteolytic action towards proteoglycans, fibronectin and laminine. In our experience, those preparations obtained from aorta affected by steno-obstructive pathologies (4 patients

  3. Some ultrastructural characteristics of the renal artery and abdominal aorta in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne-Pellegrin, M J

    1978-01-01

    The rat renal artery and abdominal aorta have been studied by light and electron microscopy. In rats of 200 g body weight the extracellular space in aortic media ranges between 50-60% and that of the distal renal artery between 15-25%. The surface to volume ratio of aortic smooth muscle cells is 2.7 micron2/micron3 compared to 1.6 micron2/micron3 in the distal renal artery. Dense bodies are rare in aortic smooth muscle cells but are abundant in those of the distal renal artery. Other ultrastructural details of the smooth muscle cells are similar in the two types of artery. Cell-to-cell contacts consist of simple apposition of plasm membranes and their number is proportional to the total length of cell membrane profile. Mitochondria represent 7-8% of the cell volume in both arteries. The proximal renal artery shows structural characteristics which are intermediate between those of the aorta and distal renal artery. In all renal arteries examined, bands of longitudinal smooth muscle are present in the adventitia, principally at branch points. In older rats, regions of discontinuity of the internal elastic lamina have been observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:640965

  4. Use of the Hardman index in predicting mortality in endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Daniel M; Altaf, Nishath; Goode, Steve D; Braithwaite, Bruce D; MacSweeney, Shane T; Richards, Toby

    2011-12-01

    The Hardman index is a predictor of 30-day mortality after open ruptured abdominal aneurysm repair through the use of preoperative patient factors. The aim of this study was to assess the Hardman index in patients undergoing endovascular repair of ruptured aortic aneurysms. A retrospective analysis of 95 patients undergoing emergency endovascular repairs of computed tomography-confirmed ruptured aneurysms from 1994 to 2008 in a university hospital was performed. All relevant patient variables, calculations of the Hardman index, and the incidence of 30-day mortality were collected in these patients. Correlation of the relationship between each variable and the overall score with the incidence of 30-day mortality was undertaken. The 24-hour mortality was 16% and 30-day mortality 36%. Increasing scores on the Hardman index showed an increasing mortality rate. Thirty-day mortality in patients with a score of 0 to 2 was 30.5%, and in those with a score of ≥3 was 69.2% (P = .01, risk ratio = 2.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.98 to 5.17). This is lower than predicted in both patient groups based on Hardman index score. Loss of consciousness was the only statistically significant independent predictor of 30-day mortality with a risk ratio of 3.16 (95% confidence interval = 2.00-4.97, P < .001). These data suggest that the Hardman index can predict an increased risk of 30-day mortality from endovascular repairs of ruptured aortic aneurysms. However, mortality from endovascular repair is much lower than would be predicted in open repair and it therefore cannot be used clinically as a tool for exclusion from intervention.

  5. Design of a cost-effective, hemodynamically adjustable model for resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) simulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin A; Salcedo, Edgardo S; Williams, Timothy K; Neff, Lucas P; Carden, Anthony J; Li, Yiran; Gotlib, Oren; Tran, Nam K; Galante, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct technique for salvaging patients with noncompressible torso hemorrhage. Current REBOA training paradigms require large animals, virtual reality simulators, or human cadavers for acquisition of skills. These training strategies are expensive and resource intensive, which may prevent widespread dissemination of REBOA. We have developed a low-cost, near-physiologic, pulsatile REBOA simulator by connecting an anatomic vascular circuit constructed out of latex and polyvinyl chloride tubing to a commercially available pump. This pulsatile simulator is capable of generating cardiac outputs ranging from 1.7 to 6.8 L/min with corresponding arterial blood pressures of 54 to 226/14 to 121 mmHg. The simulator accommodates a 12 French introducer sheath and a CODA balloon catheter. Upon balloon inflation, the arterial waveform distal to the occlusion flattens, distal pulsation within the simulator is lost, and systolic blood pressures proximal to the balloon catheter increase by up to 62 mmHg. Further development and validation of this simulator will allow for refinement, reduction, and replacement of large animal models, costly virtual reality simulators, and perfused cadavers for training purposes. This will ultimately facilitate the low-cost, high-fidelity REBOA simulation needed for the widespread dissemination of this life-saving technique.

  6. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in the Presence of a Transplanted Kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: silverberg-d@msn.com; Yalon, Tal; Halak, Moshe

    PurposeTo present our experience performing endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in kidney transplanted patients.MethodsA retrospective review of all patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) performed at our institution from 2007 to 2014. We identified all patients who had previously undergone a kidney transplant. Data collected included: comorbidities, preoperative imaging modalities, indication for surgery, stent graft configurations, pre- and postoperative renal function, perioperative complications, and survival rates.ResultsA total of 267 EVARs were performed. Six (2 %) had a transplanted kidney. Mean age was 74 (range, 64–82) years; five were males. Mean time from transplantation tomore » EVAR was 7.5 (range, 2–12) years. Five underwent preoperative planning with noncontrast modalities only. Devices used included bifurcated (n = 3), aortouniiliac (n = 2), and tube (n = 1) stent grafts. Technical success was achieved in all patients. None experienced deterioration in renal function. Median follow-up was 39 (range, 6–51) months. Four patients were alive at the time of the study. Two patients expired during the period of follow-up from unrelated causes.ConclusionsEVAR is an effective modality for the management of AAAs in the coexistence of a transplanted kidney. It can be performed with minimal morbidity and mortality without harming the transplanted kidney. Special consideration should be given to device configuration to minimize damage to the renal graft.« less

  7. A comparison of age-related changes in axial prestretch in human carotid arteries and in human abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Horný, Lukáš; Adámek, Tomáš; Kulvajtová, Markéta

    2017-02-01

    It is known that large arteries in situ are subjected to significant axial prestretch. This prestretch plays an important physiological role in optimizing the biomechanical response of an artery. It is also known that the prestretch declines with age. However, a detailed description of age-related changes in prestretch is available only for the abdominal aorta and for the femoropliteal artery. Our study presents results of measurements of axial prestretch in 229 left common carotid arteries excised in autopsies. It was found that the prestretch of the carotid artery correlates significantly with age ([Formula: see text], p value < 0.001). A linear regression model was used to fit the observations. Simultaneously with the measurement of the prestretch in the carotid artery, the axial prestretch was also measured in abdominal aorta. By comparing data obtained from these locations, it was concluded that the axial prestretch in the carotid artery is greater than in the abdominal aorta, and that atherosclerosis develops more rapidly in the abdominal aorta than in the carotid artery. Histological sections obtained from 8 carotid arteries and aortas suggest that the medial layer of the left common carotid artery is significantly thinner than aortic media (median/IQR: 0.343/0.086 vs. 0.482/0.172 mm, [Formula: see text] in Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and simultaneously that carotid media contains a lower number of elastic membranes (median/IQR: 26.5/11.8 vs. 31.5/11.8, [Formula: see text] in the Wilcoxon signed-rank test). This could be a reason for the different extent of the prestretch observed in aorta and in carotid artery. Our data sample also contains 5 measurements of the axial prestretch in abdominal aortas suffering from an aneurysm. It was found that aneurysmatic aortas also exhibit axial retraction when excised from in situ position. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that detailed data characterizing axial prestretch of the human left common

  8. Optical pathology study of human abdominal aorta tissues using confocal micro resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Boydston-White, Susie; Wang, Wubao; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Weisberg, Arel; Tomaselli, Vincent P.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic technique has a high potential for label-free and in-situ detection of biomedical lesions in vivo. This study evaluates the ability of RR spectroscopy method as an optical histopathology tool to detect the atherosclerotic plaque states of abdominal aorta in vitro. This part demonstrates the RR spectral molecular fingerprint features from different sites of the atherosclerotic abdominal aortic wall tissues. Total 57 sites of five pieces aortic samples in intimal and adventitial wall from an autopsy specimen were examined using confocal micro Raman system of WITec 300R with excitation wavelength of 532nm. The preliminary RR spectral biomarkers of molecular fingerprints indicated that typical calcified atherosclerotic plaque (RR peak at 964cm-1) tissue; fibrolipid plaque (RR peaks at 1007, 1161, 1517 and 2888cm-1) tissue, lipid pool with the fatty precipitation cholesterol) with collagen type I (RR peaks at 864, 1452, 1658, 2888 and 2948cm-1) in the soft tissue were observed and investigated.

  9. Usefulness of the Hardman index in predicting outcome after endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Karkos, Christos D; Karamanos, Dimitrios; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Kantas, Alexandros S; Theochari, Evangelia G; Kamparoudis, Apostolos G; Gerassimidis, Thomas S

    2008-10-01

    The Hardman index, which has five variables, has been recommended as a predictor of outcome after open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). It has been reported that the presence of three or more variables is uniformly fatal. The aim of this study was to test the same model in an independent series of RAAA patients undergoing endovascular repair. A consecutive series of 41 patients undergoing endovascular repair for RAAA during an 8-year period was analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-day mortality and patient variables, including the five Hardman risk factors of age >76 years, serum creatinine >190 micromol/L, hemoglobin <9 g/dL, loss of consciousness, and electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of ischemia, were recorded. The Hardman index and a revised version of the index with four variables (without ECG ischemia) were calculated and related to clinical outcome. Operative mortality was 41% (17 of 41). On univariate analysis, only age >76 years (P = .01) and the use of local anesthesia (P < .0001) were statistically significant. Loss of consciousness (P = .05) showed a trend toward a higher mortality, albeit not statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, the use of local anesthesia was the only significant predictor of survival (odds ratio [OR], 0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.003-0.25, P = .001). Again, loss of consciousness showed an association with a higher chance of dying but did not achieve statistical significance (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 0.93-42.51, P = .059). The original and revised versions of the Hardman index were both significantly associated with death (P = .02 and P = .001, chi(2) test for trend). The cumulative effect of 0, 1, 2, and >/=3 risk factors on mortality was 0%, 27%, 36%, and 71% for the original index, and 12.5%, 21%, 60%, and 78% for the revised version, respectively. Four and two patients with a score of >/=3 in each version of the index survived endovascular repair. The Hardman index, with or without

  10. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta may increase the bleeding of minor thoracic injury in severe multiple trauma patients: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maruhashi, Takaaki; Minehara, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Kataoka, Yuichi; Asari, Yasushi

    2017-12-14

    The resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, because of its efficacy and feasibility, has been widely used in treating patients with severe torso trauma. However, complications developing around the site proximal to the occlusion by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta have almost never been studied. A 50-year-old Japanese woman fell from a height of approximately 10 m. At initial arrival, her respiratory rate was 24 breaths/minute, her blood oxygen saturation was 95% under 10 L/minute oxygenation, her pulse rate was 90 beats per minute, and her blood pressure was 180/120 mmHg. Mild lung contusion, hemopneumothorax, unstable pelvic fracture, and retroperitoneal bleeding with extravasation of contrast media were observed in initial computed tomography. As her vital signs had deteriorated during computed tomography, a 7-French aortic occlusion catheter (RESCUE BALLOON®, Tokai Medical Products, Aichi, Japan) was inserted and inflated for aortic occlusion at the first lumbar vertebra level and transcatheter arterial embolization was performed for the pelvic fracture. Her bilateral internal iliac arteries were embolized with a gelatin sponge; however, the embolized sites presented recanalization as coagulopathy appeared. Her bilateral internal iliac arteries were re-embolized by n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The balloon was deflated 18 minutes later. After embolization, repeat computed tomography was performed and a massive hemothorax, which had not been captured on arrival, had appeared in her left pleural cavity. Thoracotomy hemostasis was performed and a hemothorax of approximately 2500 ml was aspirated to search for the source of bleeding. However, clear active bleeding was not captured; resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta may have been the cause of the increased bleeding of the thoracic injury at the proximal site of the aorta occlusion. It is necessary to note that the use of resuscitative endovascular

  11. Periprocedural and long-term outcomes of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in cardiology practice.

    PubMed

    Basoor, Abhijeet; Patel, Kiritkumar C; Halabi, Abdul R; Todorov, Mina; Senthilvadivel, Prashanth; Choksi, Nishit; Phan, Thanh; LaLonde, Thomas; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; DeGregorio, Michele

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has recently been made a class I indication in the treatment of AAA. In comparison to the conventional open surgical treatment, endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is associated with equivalent long-term morbidity and mortality rates. Vascular surgeons perform majority of EVAR. There are no reports for the long-term results of this intervention performed by interventional cardiologists. We present one of the first reports of periprocedural and long-term outcomes of EVAR performed by interventional cardiologists. Retrospective chart review on patients with attempted EVAR between September 2005 and January 2011 was performed. Included cases were all consecutive patients who had attempted EVAR by interventional cardiologists. During the study period EVAR was attempted in 170 patients, with 27% being women. The mean age was 74 years (range 52-93). The endovascular graft placement was successful in 96% (163/170) of patients. Procedure failures were more common in women (6 of 46 vs 1 of 124, P = 0.003). The 30-day mortality was 1.8 % (3 of 170). In patients with successful EVAR the mean follow-up was 30 months and mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 ± 3.2 days. Major periprocedural complications were noted in 9% patients (15 of 167). During follow-up, six patients (3.5%) required re-intervention and additional 16 patients died with no aneurysm related deaths. EVAR primarily performed by interventional cardiologists demonstrates high periprocedural and long-term success rates. A higher EVAR failure rate has been observed in women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fluoroscopy-free Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for controlling life threatening postpartum hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Stensaeth, Knut Haakon; Sovik, Edmund; Haig, Ingrid Natasha Ylva; Skomedal, Erna; Jorgensen, Arve

    2017-01-01

    Background Severe postpartum hemorrhage occurs in 1/1000 women giving birth. This condition is often dramatic and may be life threatening. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) has in recent years been introduced as a novel treatment for hemorrhagic shock. We present a series of fluoroscopy-free REBOA for controlling life threatening postpartum hemorrhage. Methods In 2008 an ‘aortic occlusion kit’ was assembled and used in three Norwegian university hospitals. The on-call interventional radiologist (IR) was to be contacted with a response time < 30 minutes in case of life threatening PPH. Demographics and characteristics were noted from the medical records. Results This retrospective study includes 36 patients treated with fluoroscopy-free REBOA for controlling severe postpartum hemorrhage in the years 2008–2015. The REBOA success rate was 100% and no patients died from REBOA related complications. Uterine artery embolization was performed in 17 (47%) patients and a hysterectomy in 16 (44%) patients. A short (11cm) introducer length was strongly associated with iliac artery thrombus formation (ρ = 0.50, P = 0.002). In addition, there was a strong negative correlation between uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy (ρ = -0.50, P = 0.002). Conclusions Our Norwegian experience indicates the clinical safety and feasibility of REBOA in life threatening PPH. Also, REBOA can be used in an emergency situation without the use of fluoroscopy with a high degree of technical success. It is important that safety implementation of REBOA is established, especially through limited aortic balloon occlusion time and a thorough balloon deflation regime. PMID:28355242

  13. Open versus endovascular stent graft repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms: an historical view.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert B

    2012-03-01

    Development of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysms repair (EVAR), now in its 4th decade, has involved at least 16 different devices, not counting major modifications of some, only 4 of which have emerged from clinical trials and gained US Food and Drug Administration approval. The main impetus behind EVAR has been its potential for significantly reducing procedural mortality and morbidity, but it was also expected to speed recovery and reduce costs through decreased use of hospital resources. At the outset, EVAR was touted as a better alternative to OPEN in high-risk patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms, and to "watchful waiting" (periodic ultrasound surveillance) for those with small abdominal aortic aneurysms. This new technology has evoked a mixed response with enthusiasts and detractors debating its pros and cons. Bias and conflict of interest exist on both sides. This review will attempt to present a balanced review of the development and current status of this controversial competition between EVAR and OPEN, comparing them in terms of the following key considerations: mortality and morbidity, complications, failure modes and durability, and costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilateral hypogastric artery occlusion in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zander, Tobias; Baldi, Sebastian; Rabellino, Martin; Rostagno, Roman; Isaza, Baltasar; Llorens, Rafael; Carreira, Jose M; Maynar, Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Endovascular treatment of aortoiliac aneurysms near or involving the hypogastric artery (HGA) requires HGA occlusion before endografting to avoid retrograde filling of the aneurysm. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of bilateral HGA occlusion and determine if benefits gained by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) outweigh the morbidity associated with the procedure. Between 1999 and 2004, 128 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated with bifurcated endograft placement. Bilateral coverage or embolization of HGAs was performed in 14 patients (10.9%). Embolization was achieved by deployment of coils and coverage was accomplished by extending the endoprosthesis into the external iliac artery. Clinical follow-up and computed tomographic angiography were performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and annually thereafter to detect potential aneurysm growth and endoleaks. During follow-up (range, 1-72 months), buttock claudication was noted in four patients (28.6%), including unilateral claudication in two and bilateral claudication in two. One patient experienced claudication longer than 12 months, which resolved within 18 months. De novo erectile dysfunction was seen in one patient, and pelvic ischemia was not found in any patient. There was no evidence of endoleak, aneurysm enlargement, or death associated with HGA occlusion. In our series, complications of bilateral HGA occlusion before EVAR were moderate and resolved over time. The benefits gained from EVAR outweigh the clinical problems caused by bilateral HGA occlusion, as there are no technical complications added to the EVAR procedure.

  15. Place of endovascular repair in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    BenHammamia, Mohamed; Kaouel, Karim; Ben Mrad, Malek; Ziadi, Jalel; Derbel, Bilel; Ghedira, Faker; Denguir, Raouf

    2017-01-01

    Open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a significant morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of endovascular techniques, much progress has been made. The aim of this study is to clarify the feasibility and the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in short and middle terms. Between 2008 and 2015, 14 patients underwent EVAR. The average age was 65 years. Comorbidities were found in 7 patients. It was coronary artery disease in 3 cases and severe respiratory failure in 4 cases. The aneurysm was atherosclerotic in 12 cases and inflammatory in 2 cases. The average length of the proximal neck was 29 mm. The mean aneurysm diameter was 65mm. A bifurcated stent graft has been deployed in 12 cases and an aorto-mono-iliac stent graft was deployed in 2 cases. Immediate technical success was achieved in 13 patients. Immediate surgical conversion was performed in 1 case. The average hospital stay was 5 days. We haven't deployed any early death. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, we deployed 3 late deaths; two deaths were not related to the aneurysm and one death was secondary to rupture of the aneurysm caused by a proximal stent graft migration. EVAR is actually a therapeutic increasingly used. Its results, especially late, are still being evaluated. Meanwhile, its indications must be selective.

  16. The inflammatory response to ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is altered by endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Makar, R R; Badger, S A; O'Donnell, M E; Soong, C V; Lau, L L; Young, I S; Hannon, R J; Lee, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) causes a significant inflammatory response. The study aims to investigate this response following endovascular and open repair of ruptured AAA. Patients and Methods. Consecutive rAAA patients had either endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open repair (OR). Blood samples were taken for cytokines, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), antioxidants, and neutrophil elastase/ α 1-anti-trypsin complexes (NE/AAT) before surgery, 6 hours after clamp release and 1, 3, 5 days postoperatively. Results. 30 patients were included in the study, with 14 undergoing eEVAR and 16 eOR, with comparable baseline comorbidities, age, and parameters. IL-6 peaked higher in eOR patients (P = 0.04), while p75TNFr was similar between groups except at day 5 (P = 0.04). The NE/AAT concentrations were higher in eOR patients (P = 0.01), particularly in the first postoperative day, and correlated with blood (r = 0.398, P = 0.029) and platelet (r = 0.424, P = 0.020) volume transfused. C-reactive protein rose and lipid hydroperoxide fell in both groups without significant intergroup difference. Vitamins C and E, lycopene, and β -carotene levels were similar between groups. Conclusion. EVAR is associated with lower systemic inflammatory response compared to OR. Its increased future use may thereby improve outcomes for patients.

  17. The Inflammatory Response to Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Is Altered by Endovascular Repair

    PubMed Central

    Makar, R. R.; Badger, S. A.; O'Donnell, M. E.; Soong, C. V.; Lau, L. L.; Young, I. S.; Hannon, R. J.; Lee, B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) causes a significant inflammatory response. The study aims to investigate this response following endovascular and open repair of ruptured AAA. Patients and Methods. Consecutive rAAA patients had either endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open repair (OR). Blood samples were taken for cytokines, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), antioxidants, and neutrophil elastase/α1-anti-trypsin complexes (NE/AAT) before surgery, 6 hours after clamp release and 1, 3, 5 days postoperatively. Results. 30 patients were included in the study, with 14 undergoing eEVAR and 16 eOR, with comparable baseline comorbidities, age, and parameters. IL-6 peaked higher in eOR patients (P = 0.04), while p75TNFr was similar between groups except at day 5 (P = 0.04). The NE/AAT concentrations were higher in eOR patients (P = 0.01), particularly in the first postoperative day, and correlated with blood (r = 0.398, P = 0.029) and platelet (r = 0.424, P = 0.020) volume transfused. C-reactive protein rose and lipid hydroperoxide fell in both groups without significant intergroup difference. Vitamins C and E, lycopene, and β-carotene levels were similar between groups. Conclusion. EVAR is associated with lower systemic inflammatory response compared to OR. Its increased future use may thereby improve outcomes for patients. PMID:24363936

  18. [Early inflammatory response following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparison between endovascular procedure and conventional, open surgery].

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Ivan; Jevtić, Miodrag; Misović, Sidor; Vojvodić, Danilo; Zoranović, Uros; Rusović, Sinisa; Sarac, Momir; Stanojević, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) represents a pathological enlargment of infrarenal portion of aorta for over 50% of its lumen. The only treatment of AAA is a surgical reconstruction of the affected segment. Until the late XX century, surgical reconstruction implied explicit, open repair (OR) of AAA, which was accompanied by a significant morbidity and mortality of the treated patients. Development of endovascular repair of (EVAR) AAA, especially in the last decade, offered another possibility of surgical reconstruction of AAA. The preliminary results of world studies show that complications of such a procedure, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients, are significantly lower than with OR of AAA. The aim of this paper was to present results of comparative clinical prospective study of early inflammatory response after reconstruction of AAA be tween endovascular and open, conventional surgical technique. A comparative clinical prospective study included 39 patients, electively operated on for AAA within the period of December 2008 - February 2010, divided into two groups. The group I counted 21 (54%) of the patients, 58-87 years old (mean 74.3 years), who had been submited to EVAR by the use of excluder stent graft. The group II consisted of 18 (46%) of the patients, 49-82 (mean 66.8) years, operated on using OR technique. All of the treated patients in both groups had AAA larger than 50 mm. The study did not include patients who have been treated as urgent cases, due to the rupture or with simptomatic AAA. Clinical, biochemical and inflamatory parameters in early postoperative period were analyzed, in direct postoperative course (number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, serum circulating levels of cytokine--interleukine (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10). Parameters were monitored on the zero, first, second, third and seventh postoperative days. The study was approved by the Ethics Commitee of the Military Medical Academy. The study showed a statistically significantly

  19. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures: counterbalancing the benefits with the costs.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Bessias, Nikolaos; Giannoukas, Athanasios D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2010-05-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) is associated with lower 30-day mortality rates compared with open repair. Despite that, there are no significant differences in mortality rates between the two procedures at 2 years. On the other hand, EVAR is associated with considerably higher costs compared with open repair. The lack of significant long-term differences between the two procedures together with the substantially higher cost of EVAR may question the appropriateness of EVAR as an alternative to open surgical repair in patients fit for surgery. With several thousands of AAA procedures performed worldwide, the employment of EVAR for the management of all AAAs irrespective of the patient's surgical risk may hold implications for several national health economies. The lower perioperative mortality and morbidity rates associated with EVAR should thus be counterbalanced against the considerable costs of these procedures.

  20. Acute increases in arterial blood pressure produced by occlusion of the abdominal aorta induces antinociception: peripheral and central substrates.

    PubMed

    Thurston, C L; Randich, A

    1990-06-11

    Occlusion of the abdominal aorta proximal to the renal arteries results in an increase in arterial blood pressure, inhibition of forepaw and hindpaw withdrawal to a noxious mechanical stimulus, and inhibition of the tail-flick reflex to noxious heat. Occlusion of the abdominal aorta distal to the renal arteries does not elevate arterial blood pressure and produces no antinociceptive effects. Occlusion of the vena cava lowers arterial blood pressure and produces no antinociception. The inhibitory effects of occlusion of the abdominal aorta depend upon activation of high pressure baroreceptors since bilateral sinoaortic denervation, but not bilateral vagotomy, eliminates the inhibition with respect to all behavioral measures. The inhibitory effects with respect to the tail-flick reflex also depend upon activation of a descending inhibitory system since reversible cold block of the spinal cord at the level of the second thoracic vertebra eliminates the antinociception. This antinociception is also eliminated following intrathecal administration of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine, but not by intrathecal administration of either methysergide or naloxone. These data support the view that activation of high pressure baroreceptors by increases in arterial blood pressure produces antinociception via activation of a spinopetal noradrenergic system.

  1. Echocardiographic nomograms for upper abdominal aorta Doppler systolic wave values and systo-diastolic diameters variations in children.

    PubMed

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Corsini, Iuri; Dani, Carlo; Scalese, Marco; Murzi, Bruno; Assanta, Nadia; Spadoni, Isabella; Molinaro, Sabrina; Kutty, Shelby; Iervasi, Giorgio; Franchi, Eliana

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aorta pulsatility and blood flow patterns are important diagnostic indicators in congenital heart disease. Reference values for these indexes are lacking. We prospectively studied abdominal aorta pulsed-wave Doppler systolic peak velocity, deceleration time, and wave duration, and two-dimensional vessel diameters in systole and diastole in healthy Caucasian children. Heteroscedasticity was accounted for by White or Breusch-Pagan test. Age, weight, height, heart rate (HR), and body surface area (BSA) were used as independent variables in different analyses to predict the mean values of each measurement. Structured Z-scores were then computed. In all, 853 subjects (age 0 days to 17 years; 45% females; BSA 0.12-2.12m 2 ) were studied. The predicted values and Z-score boundaries are presented. Data are also presented as mean±2 SDs for a given BSA. We report paediatric echocardiographic nomograms for multiple proximal abdominal aorta parameters including pulsed-wave Doppler systolic velocities, deceleration time, wave duration, and two-dimensional vessel diameter variations. Significant variations in these functional indexes with age were found that should be taken into account in clinical practice. At lower ages, steeper and shorter pulsed-wave Doppler peak velocity and limited pulsatility should be expected as physiologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraperitoneal curcumin decreased lung, renal and heart injury in abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion model in rat.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Caliskan, Ahmet; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Yildiz, Ali; Günay, Samil; Savik, Emin; Hazar, Abdussemet; Yalcin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. We aimed to determine whether CUR has favorable effects on tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham, control and treatment (CUR) group. Control and CUR groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 60 min followed by a 120 min period of reperfusion. In the CUR group, CUR was given 5 min before reperfusion at a dose of 200 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured, and lung, renal and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. TOS and OSI activity in blood samples were statistically decreased in sham and CUR groups compared to the control group (p < 0.001 for TOS and OSI). Renal, lung, heart injury scores of sham and CUR groups were statistically decreased compared to control group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in CUR group than in the control group. CUR administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta I/R rat model. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Postoperative Development of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome among Patients Undergoing Endovascular Aortic Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Elizabeth; Manzur, Miguel; Han, Sukgu; Ham, Sung Wan; Weaver, Fred A; Rowe, Vincent L

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has a reported incidence of 9%-14% among trauma patients. However, in patients with similar hemodynamic changes, the incidence of ACS remains unclear. Our aim was to determine the incidence of ACS among patients undergoing endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) and to identify associated risk factors. A retrospective review was performed for consecutive patients who underwent EVAR for rAAA from March 2010 to November 2016 at our institution. The development of ACS was diagnosed based on a variety of factors, including bladder pressure, laboratory abnormalities, hemodynamic monitoring, and clinical evaluation. Previously validated risk factors for ACS development in trauma and EVAR patients (preoperative hypotension, aggressive fluid resuscitation, postoperative anemia, use of an aorto-uniiliac graft, and placement of an aortic occlusive balloon) were analyzed. Association between patient characteristics and ACS development was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. During the study period, 25 patients had image-confirmed rAAA and underwent emergent EVAR. Mortality rate was 28% (n = 7), and ACS incidence was 12% (n = 3). Of the analyzed risk factors, hypotension on arrival (P = 0.037), transfusion of 3 or more units of packed red blood cells (P = 0.037), and postoperative anemia (P = 0.02) were all significantly associated with postoperative ACS development. In addition, having greater than 3 of the studied risk factors was associated with increased odds of developing ACS (P = 0.015), and having greater than 4 of the studied risk factors showed the strongest association with ACS development (P = 0.0017). Overresuscitation should be avoided in patients with rAAA. In addition, patients who present with multiple risk factors for ACS should be monitored very closely with serial bladder pressures and may require decompression laparotomy immediately after EVAR. Copyright © 2018

  4. Extending the golden hour: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in a highly lethal swine liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rachel M; Williams, Timothy K; Grayson, John Kevin; Lamb, Christopher M; Cannon, Jeremy W; Clement, Nathan F; Galante, Joseph M; Neff, Lucas P

    2016-03-01

    Combat-injured patients may require rapid and sustained support during transport; however, the prolonged aortic occlusion produced by conventional resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) may lead to substantial morbidity. Partial REBOA (P-REBOA) may permit longer periods of occlusion by allowing some degree of distal perfusion. However, the ability of this procedure to limit exsanguination is unclear. We evaluated the impact of P-REBOA on immediate survival and ongoing hemorrhage in a highly lethal swine liver injury model. Fifteen Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, splenectomized, and subjected to rapid 10% total blood loss followed by 30% liver amputation. Coagulopathy was created through colloid hemodilution. Randomized swine received no intervention (control), P-REBOA, or complete REBOA (C-REBOA). Central mean arterial pressure (cMAP), carotid blood flow, and blood loss were recorded. Balloons remained inflated in the P-REBOA and C-REBOA groups for 90 minutes followed by graded deflation. The study ended at 180 minutes from onset of hemorrhage or death of the animal. Survival analysis was performed, and data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc pairwise comparisons. Mean survival times in the control, P-REBOA, and C-REBOA groups were, 25 ± 21, 86 ± 40, and 163 ± 20 minutes, respectively (p < 0.001). Blood loss was greater in the P-REBOA group than the C-REBOA or control groups, but this difference was not significant (4,722 ± 224, 3,834 ± 319, 3,818 ± 37 mL, respectively, p = 0.10). P-REBOA resulted in maintenance of near-baseline carotid blood flow and cMAP, while C-REBOA generated extreme cMAP and prolonged supraphysiologic carotid blood flow. Both experimental groups experienced profound decreases in cMAP following balloon deflation. In the setting of severe ongoing hemorrhage, P-REBOA increased survival time beyond the golden hour while maintaining cMAP and carotid flow

  5. Endovascular strategy or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: one-year outcomes from the IMPROVE randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Bruce; Cheshire, Nicholas J.; Greenhalgh, Roger M.; Grieve, Richard; Hassan, Tajek B.; Hinchliffe, Robert; Howell, Simon; Moore, Fionna; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Soong, Chee V.; Thompson, Matt M.; Thompson, Simon G.; Ulug, Pinar; Heatley, Francine; Anjum, Aisha; Kalinowska, Gosia; Sweeting, Michael J.; Thompson, Simon G.; Gomes, Manuel; Grieve, Richard; Powell, Janet T.; Ashleigh, Ray; Gomes, Manuel; Greenhalgh, Roger M.; Grieve, Richard; Hinchliffe, Robert; Sweeting, Michael; Thompson, Matt M.; Thompson, Simon G.; Ulug, Pinar; Roberts, Ian; Bell, Peter R. F.; Cheetham, Anne; Stephany, Jenny; Warlow, Charles; Lamont, Peter; Moss, Jonathan; Tijssen, Jan; Braithwaite, Bruce; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Thompson, Matthew; Ashleigh, Ray; Thompson, Luke; Cheshire, Nicholas J.; Boyle, Jonathan R.; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Thompson, Matt M.; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Bell, Rachel; Wilson, Noel; Bown, Matt; Dennis, Martin; Davis, Meryl; Ashleigh, Ray; Howell, Simon; Wyatt, Michael G.; Valenti, Domenico; Bachoo, Paul; Walker, Paul; MacSweeney, Shane; Davies, Jonathan N.; Rittoo, Dynesh; Parvin, Simon D.; Yusuf, Waquar; Nice, Colin; Chetter, Ian; Howard, Adam; Chong, Patrick; Bhat, Raj; McLain, David; Gordon, Andrew; Lane, Ian; Hobbs, Simon; Pillay, Woolagasen; Rowlands, Timothy; El-Tahir, Amin; Asquith, John; Cavanagh, Steve; Dubois, Luc; Forbes, Thomas L.; Ashworth, Emily; Baker, Sara; Barakat, Hashem; Brady, Claire; Brown, Joanne; Bufton, Christine; Chance, Tina; Chrisopoulou, Angela; Cockell, Marie; Croucher, Andrea; Dabee, Leela; Dewhirst, Nikki; Evans, Jo; Gibson, Andy; Gorst, Siobhan; Gough, Moira; Graves, Lynne; Griffin, Michelle; Hatfield, Josie; Hogg, Florence; Howard, Susannah; Hughes, Cían; Metcalfe, David; Lapworth, Michelle; Massey, Ian; Novick, Teresa; Owen, Gareth; Parr, Noala; Pintar, David; Spencer, Sarah; Thomson, Claire; Thunder, Orla; Wallace, Tom; Ward, Sue; Wealleans, Vera; Wilson, Lesley; Woods, Janet; Zheng, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Aims To report the longer term outcomes following either a strategy of endovascular repair first or open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, which are necessary for both patient and clinical decision-making. Methods and results This pragmatic multicentre (29 UK and 1 Canada) trial randomized 613 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm; 316 to an endovascular first strategy (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) and 297 to open repair. The principal 1-year outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were re-interventions, hospital discharge, health-related quality-of-life (QoL) (EQ-5D), costs, Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness [incremental net benefit (INB)]. At 1 year, all-cause mortality was 41.1% for the endovascular strategy group and 45.1% for the open repair group, odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62, 1.17], P = 0.325, with similar re-intervention rates in each group. The endovascular strategy group and open repair groups had average total hospital stays of 17 and 26 days, respectively, P < 0.001. Patients surviving rupture had higher average EQ-5D utility scores in the endovascular strategy vs. open repair groups, mean differences 0.087 (95% CI 0.017, 0.158), 0.068 (95% CI −0.004, 0.140) at 3 and 12 months, respectively. There were indications that QALYs were higher and costs lower for the endovascular first strategy, combining to give an INB of £3877 (95% CI £253, £7408) or €4356 (95% CI €284, €8323). Conclusion An endovascular first strategy for management of ruptured aneurysms does not offer a survival benefit over 1 year but offers patients faster discharge with better QoL and is cost-effective. Clinical trial registration ISRCTN 48334791. PMID:25855369

  6. Endovascular strategy or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: one-year outcomes from the IMPROVE randomized trial.

    PubMed

    2015-08-14

    To report the longer term outcomes following either a strategy of endovascular repair first or open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, which are necessary for both patient and clinical decision-making. This pragmatic multicentre (29 UK and 1 Canada) trial randomized 613 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm; 316 to an endovascular first strategy (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) and 297 to open repair. The principal 1-year outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were re-interventions, hospital discharge, health-related quality-of-life (QoL) (EQ-5D), costs, Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness [incremental net benefit (INB)]. At 1 year, all-cause mortality was 41.1% for the endovascular strategy group and 45.1% for the open repair group, odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62, 1.17], P = 0.325, with similar re-intervention rates in each group. The endovascular strategy group and open repair groups had average total hospital stays of 17 and 26 days, respectively, P < 0.001. Patients surviving rupture had higher average EQ-5D utility scores in the endovascular strategy vs. open repair groups, mean differences 0.087 (95% CI 0.017, 0.158), 0.068 (95% CI -0.004, 0.140) at 3 and 12 months, respectively. There were indications that QALYs were higher and costs lower for the endovascular first strategy, combining to give an INB of £3877 (95% CI £253, £7408) or €4356 (95% CI €284, €8323). An endovascular first strategy for management of ruptured aneurysms does not offer a survival benefit over 1 year but offers patients faster discharge with better QoL and is cost-effective. ISRCTN 48334791. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Endovascular or open repair strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: 30 day outcomes from IMPROVE randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Janet T; Sweeting, Michael J; Thompson, Matthew M; Ashleigh, Ray; Bell, Rachel; Gomes, Manuel; Greenhalgh, Roger M; Grieve, Richard; Heatley, Francine; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Thompson, Simon G; Ulug, Pinar

    2014-01-13

    To assess whether a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair reduces early mortality for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Randomised controlled trial. 30 vascular centres (29 UK, 1 Canadian), 2009-13. 613 eligible patients (480 men) with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm. 316 patients were randomised to the endovascular strategy (275 confirmed ruptures, 174 anatomically suitable for endovascular repair) and 297 to open repair (261 confirmed ruptures). 30 day mortality, with 24 hour and in-hospital mortality, costs, and time and place of discharge as secondary outcomes. 30 day mortality was 35.4% (112/316) in the endovascular strategy group and 37.4% (111/297) in the open repair group: odds ratio 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.28; P=0.62); odds ratio after adjustment for age, sex, and Hardman index 0.94 (0.67 to 1.33). Women may benefit more than men (interaction test P=0.02) from the endovascular strategy: odds ratio 0.44 (0.22 to 0.91) versus 1.18 (0.80 to 1.75). 30 day mortality for patients with confirmed rupture was 36.4% (100/275) in the endovascular strategy group and 40.6% (106/261) in the open repair group (P=0.31). More patients in the endovascular strategy than in the open repair group were discharged directly to home (189/201 (94%) v 141/183 (77%); P<0.001). Average 30 day costs were similar between the randomised groups, with an incremental cost saving for the endovascular strategy versus open repair of £1186 (€1420; $1939) (95% confidence interval -£625 to £2997). A strategy of endovascular repair was not associated with significant reduction in either 30 day mortality or cost. Longer term cost effectiveness evaluations are needed to assess the full effects of the endovascular strategy in both men and women. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48334791.

  8. Outcome after open surgery repair in endovascular-suitable patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krenzien, Felix; Matia, Ivan; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Freitas, Bruno; Moche, Michael; Schmelzle, Moritz; Jonas, Sven; Fellmer, Peter T

    2013-11-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been suggested in several studies to be superior to open surgery repair (OSR) for the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs), but this finding might be affected by selection bias based on aneurysm morphology and patient characteristics. We tested rAAA anatomy according to EVAR suitability in patients undergoing OSR to assess the impact on mortality. This retrospective analysis reports on 83 patients with rAAAs treated between November 2002 and July 2013. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated based on EVAR suitability and were determined by blinded independent reviewers. CT scans were lacking due to acquisition in an external institution with no availability (n = 9) or solely ultrasound evaluations (n = 8). In addition patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed. All patients who underwent OSR and who had available preoperative CT scans were included in the study (n = 66). In summary, 42 % of the patients (28/66; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 30.5 - 54.4) were considered eligible for EVAR according to pre-operative CT scans and 58 % of the patients (38/66; 95 % CI, 45.6 - 69.5) were categorized as unsuitable for endovascular repair. Patients suitable for EVAR had a significantly lower prevalence of in-hospital deaths (25 % [7/28]; 95 % CI, 9 - 41) in contrast to patients unsuitable for EVAR (53 % [20/38]; 95 % CI, 36.8 - 68.5; p = 0.02). EVAR-suitable patients had a highly significant mortality reduction undergoing OSR. Thus, the present study proposes that EVAR suitability is a positive predictor for survival after open repair of rAAA.

  9. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients with congenital renal vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D B; Kwon, C C; Marin, M L; Hollier, L H

    1999-09-01

    The endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been suggested as an alternative to conventional aortic reconstruction. The presence of anomalous renal vascular anatomy frequently necessitates special planning during conventional aortic replacement and may also create unique challenges for endovascular repair. We analyzed our experience with 24 patients with variant renal vascular anatomies who underwent treatment with aortic endografts to determine the safety and efficacy of this technique in this population. During a 6-year period, 204 patients underwent aortic endograft procedures, 24 (11.8%) of whom had variations in renal vascular anatomy. There were 19 men and five women. Each of the 24 patients had variant renal vascular anatomy, which was defined by the presence of multiple renal arteries (n = 32), with or without a renal parenchymal anomaly (horseshoe or solitary pelvic kidney). Twenty patients underwent aneurysm repair with balloon expandable polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, and the remaining patients underwent endograft placement with self-expanding attachment systems. Eighteen patients underwent exclusion and presumed thrombosis of anomalous renal branches to effectively attach the aortic endograft. The decision to sacrifice a supernumerary artery was made on the basis of the vessel size (<3 mm), the absence of coexisting renal insufficiency, and the expectation for successful aneurysm exclusion. The successful exclusion of the AAAs was achieved in all the patients, with the loss of a total of 17 renal artery branches in 12 patients. Small segmental renal infarcts (<20%) were detected in only six of the 12 patients with follow-up computed tomographic scan results, despite angiographic evidence of vessel occlusion at the time of endografting. No evidence of new onset hypertension or changes in antihypertensive medication was seen in this group. No retrograde endoleaks were detected through the excluded renal branches on late follow

  10. Long-term results of Talent endografts for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Bart A N; Waasdorp, Evert J; Gorrepati, Madhu L; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Vos, Jan Albert; Wille, Jan; Moll, Frans L; Zarins, Christopher K; de Vries, Jean Paul P M

    2011-02-01

    Since the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), long-term follow-up studies reporting single-device results are scarce. In this study, we focus on EVAR repair with the Talent stent graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif). Between July 2000 and December 2007, 365 patients underwent elective EVAR with a Talent device. Patient data were gathered prospectively and evaluated retrospectively. By American Society of Anesthesiologists category, 74% were categories III and IV. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed before discharge, at 3, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Data are presented according to reporting standards for EVAR. The mean proximal aortic neck diameter was 27 mm (range, 16-36 mm), with a neck length <15 mm in 31% (data available for 193 patients). Deployment of endografts was successful in 361 of 365 patients (99%). Initially, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in four patients. Primary technical success determined by results from computed tomography (CT) scans before discharge was achieved in 333 patients (91%). Proximal type I endoleaks were present in 28 patients (8%) during follow-up, and 14 of these patients needed additional treatment for type I endoleak. The 30-day mortality for the whole Talent group was 1.1% (4 of 365). Follow-up to 84 months is reported for 24 patients. During follow-up, 122 (33%) patients died; in nine, death was abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)-related (including 30-day mortality). Kaplan-Meier estimates revealed primary clinical success rates of 98% at 1 year, 93% at 2 years, 88% at 3 years, 79% at 4 years, 64% at 5 years, 51% at 6 years, and 48% at 7 years. Secondary interventions were performed in 73 of 365 patients (20%). Ten conversions for failed endografts were performed. Life-table yearly risk for AAA-related reintervention was 6%, yearly risk for conversion to open repair was 1.1%, yearly risk for total mortality was 8.9%, and yearly risk for AAA-related mortality was 0

  11. Hindlimb unweighting induces changes in the p38MAPK contractile pathway of the rat abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Summers, Scott Matthew; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nguyen, Steven Vu; Nguyen, Thu Minh; Purdy, Ralph Earl

    2009-07-01

    Hindlimb unweighting (HLU) of rats is a model used to mimic the cephalic fluid shift potentially involved in the orthostatic intolerance experienced by astronauts. Certain arteries in these rats exhibit a decreased contractile response to adrenergic agonists. It was shown previously that this may be caused by changes in thick filament regulation (Summers et al., Vascul Pharmacol 48: 208-214, 2008). In the present study, it was hypothesized that HLU also modifies thin filament regulation by effects on p38(MAPK) and ERK. Abdominal aorta rings from 20-day HLU rats and untreated controls were subjected to phenylephrine and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBU) concentration response curves in the presence and absence of two inhibitors: the p38(MAPK) inhibitor SB-203580 and the MEK inhibitor U-0126. SB-203580 decreased control sensitivity to both agonists, but HLU sensitivity was not significantly affected. U-0126, which blocks enzymes immediately upstream of ERK, affected sensitivity to both agonists equally between control and HLU. Western blot analysis revealed no change in total levels of p38(MAPK) and its downstream target heat shock protein 27 but did reveal a decrease in phosphorylated levels of both after stimulation with PDBU and phenylephrine after HLU treatment. Neither total ERK nor phosphorylated levels after stimulation were affected by HLU. Total levels of caldesmon, a molecule downstream of both pathways, were decreased, but phosphorylated levels after stimulation were decreased by roughly twice as much. The results of this study demonstrate that HLU downregulates p38(MAPK), but not ERK, signaling. In turn, this may decrease actin availability for contraction.

  12. Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano

    2008-07-15

    A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infectivemore » organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.« less

  13. Pseudoaneurisma de aorta abdominal como complicação de pancreatite crônica: relato de caso

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eduardo Carvalho Horta; Nóbrega, Leonardo Pires de Sá; Rodrigues, Daniel Augusto de Souza; Cunha, Josué Rafael Ferreira; Kalume, Claudio Eluan

    2017-01-01

    Resumo A pancreatite crônica é uma enfermidade associada a diversas complicações vasculares, como pseudocisto hemorrágico, trombose do sistema venoso portal e formações varicosas e pseudoaneurismáticas. O pseudoaneurisma de aorta abdominal secundário à pancreatite crônica é uma complicação rara, de difícil suspeição clínica, que requer tratamento complexo. A fisiopatologia dessa condição envolve a corrosão enzimática tecidual após a liberação e ativação de enzimas exócrinas proteolíticas das células acinares do pâncreas. O presente estudo relata o caso de um paciente de 52 anos, etilista crônico, internado com dor abdominal difusa, cuja propedêutica revelou se tratar de um pseudoaneurisma em aorta infrarrenal. Optou-se pelo tratamento cirúrgico convencional, levando-se em consideração a idade, as condições clínicas do paciente e a disponibilidade de endopróteses compatíveis com o diâmetro da aorta. PMID:29930654

  14. [Decompensated valvular disease and coarctation. One-stage repair using a median approach with an ascending aorta-abdominal aorta shunt].

    PubMed

    Baille, Y; Sigwalt, M; Vaillant, A; Sicard Desnuelle, M P; Varnet, B

    1981-11-01

    The tactical decision in patients with decompensated valvular disease associated with a severe stenosis of the aortic isthmus is always difficult. One stage surgical repair using two separate approaches is a long and high risk procedure. It would seem more logical and safer to treat the lesions in two stages a few weeks apart, the severest lesion being managed first. In the two cases reported. The isthmic stenoses and valvular lesions were of the same severity and made both classical techniques impracticable. Therefore the patients underwent a single stage procedure by a median approach associating valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass (mitral and tricuspid in one and aortic in the other case) and an ascending aorta-abdominal aorta dacron conduit. The present postoperative survival periods are 30 and 9 months. The functional result was good (Class 1 and 0) and postoperative angiography has shown the montage to be working satisfactorily. This technique is exceptional but may be useful in borderline cases with decompensated valvular disease and severe isthmic stenosis.

  15. A Systematic Review of Proximal Neck Dilatation After Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kouvelos, George N; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Antoniou, George A; Verhoeven, Eric L G; Katsargyris, Athanasios

    2017-02-01

    To provide an updated systematic literature review and summarize current evidence on proximal aortic neck dilatation (AND) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A review of the English-language medical literature from 1991 to 2015 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies reporting AND after EVAR. Studies considered for inclusion and full-text review fulfilled the following criteria: (1) reported AND after EVAR, (2) included at least 5 patients, and (3) provided data on AND quantification. The search identified 26 articles published between 1998 and 2015 that encompassed 9721 patients (median age 71.8 years; 9439 men). AND occurred in 24.6% of patients (95% CI 18.6% to 31.8%) over a period ranging from 15 months to 9 years after EVAR. No significant dilatation of the suprarenal part of the aorta was reported by most studies. The incidence of combined clinical events (endoleak type I, migration, reintervention during follow-up) was higher in the AND group (26%) when compared with 2% in the group without AND (OR 28.7, 95% CI 5.43 to 151.67, p<0.001). AND affects a considerable proportion of EVAR patients and was related to worse clinical outcome, as indicated by increased rates of type I endoleak, migration, and reinterventions. Future studies should focus on a better understanding of the pathophysiology, predictors, and risk factors of AND, which could identify patients who may warrant a different EVAR strategy and/or a closer post-EVAR surveillance strategy.

  16. Early Experience with the Use of Inner Branches in Endovascular Repair of Complex Abdominal and Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Marques de Marino, Pablo; Mufty, Hozan; Pedro, Luis Mendes; Fernandes, Ruy; Verhoeven, Eric L G

    2018-05-01

    Visceral arteries in fenestrated and branched endovascular repair (F/BEVAR) have been addressed by fenestrations or directional side branches. Inner branches, as used in the arch branched device, could provide an extra option for visceral arteries "unsuitable" for fenestrations or directional side branches. Early experience with the use of inner branches for visceral arteries in F/BEVAR is described. All consecutive patients treated by F/BEVAR for complex abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or thoraco-abdominal aneurysm (TAAA) using stent grafts with inner branches were included. Data were collected prospectively. Thirty-two patients (28 male, mean age 71.6 ± 8.3 years) were included. Seven (21.9%) patients had a complex AAA and 25 (78.1%) had a TAAA. A stent graft with inner branches only was used in four (12.5%) patients. The remaining 28 (87.5%) patients received a stent graft with fenestrations and inner branches. In total 52 vessels were targeted with inner branches. Technical success was achieved in all 32 (100%) patients. All 38 inner branch target vessels in grafts including fenestrations and inner branches were instantly catheterised (<1 minute), whereas catheterisation of target vessels in "inner branch only" grafts proved more difficult (<1 minute, n = 3; 1-3 min, n = 4; and >3 min, n = 7). The 30 day operative mortality was 3.1% (1/32). Estimated survival at 1 year was 80.0% ± 8.3%. During follow-up, four renal inner branches occluded in three patients. The estimated inner branch target vessel stent patency at 1 year was 91.9 ± 4.5%. The estimated freedom from re-intervention at 1 year was 78.4% ± 8.9%. Early data suggest that visceral inner branches might represent a feasible third option to address selected target vessels in F/BEVAR. Stent grafts with inner branch(es) in combination with fenestrations seem to be a better configuration than stent grafts with inner branches alone. Durability of the inner branch design needs further

  17. Cost-effectiveness of open versus endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    van Bochove, Cornelis A; Burgers, Laura T; Vahl, Anco C; Birnie, Erwin; van Schothorst, Marien G; Redekop, William K

    2016-03-01

    Patients with a large unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with a diameter >5.0 cm are treated with open surgical repair (OSR) or endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Because many studies have assessed the cost-effectiveness of these treatments with conflicting results, this systematic review examined published cost-effectiveness analyses of elective EVAR vs OSR in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. A systematic search strategy using three databases was conducted to find all relevant studies. Characteristics extracted from these studies included study characteristics (eg, age of the population), input parameters (eg, costs of the EVAR procedure), general results, and sensitivity analyses. The quality of each study was assessed using the Drummond checklist. The search identified 1141 potentially relevant studies, of which 13 studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies found that EVAR was more expensive and more effective than OSR. However, most studies concluded that the health gained from EVAR did not offset the higher total costs, leading to an unacceptably high incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. EVAR was considered more cost-effective in patient groups with a high surgical risk. The quality of most studies was judged as reasonably good. Overall, published cost-effectiveness analyses of EVAR do not provide a clear answer about whether elective EVAR is a cost-effective solution because the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio varies considerably among the studies. This answer can best be provided through a cost-effectiveness analysis of EVAR that incorporates more recent technologic advances and the improved experience that clinicians have with EVAR. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasationmore » of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.« less

  19. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of Acute Occlusion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intra-Aneurysmal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Terai, Yasuhiko; Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Nakai, Masanao; Goto, Shinnosuke; Miyano, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Hirokazu; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2015-11-01

    To report a rare case of acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occlusion successfully treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 89-year-old man complained of severe back pain and weakness in the bilateral lower extremities. Although there were neither acute ischemic signs on the brain computed tomography (CT) nor critical leg ischemia, the patient presented progressing weakness in the bilateral lower extremities and decreased sensation in the perianal and saddle area. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated an infrarenal AAA, the formation of an ulcer-like lesion in the aneurysmal wall, and the complete occlusion of distal AAA because of the caudal extension of intramural hematoma. Both common iliac arteries were patent because of the development of collateral vessels. The neurologic symptoms were considered to be caused by the occlusion of lumbar radicular arteries. EVAR seemed anatomically feasible, if the occlusion could be crossed by guidewires from both side of the common femoral artery. Wires easily traversed the occlusion, and the stent graft could be smoothly unwrapped and opened. The patient could recover decent iliac arterial flow. The neurovascular deficits recovered within 4 days after the procedure. Although our experience may not be reproduced in all case of AAA occlusion, EVAR warrants consideration to reduce the high mortality rate associated with the classical treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy: mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapma, Marten R; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I; van der Hilst, Christian S; Tielliu, Ignace F; Zeebregts, Clark J; Prins, Ted R; van den Dungen, Jan J; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2007-12-01

    To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with acute AAA were entered into a prospective study of a new management protocol that featured preferential use of eEVAR (n=18); patients with unsuitable anatomy or who were hemodynamically unstable underwent open repair (n=31). Mortality data and costs of treatment were compared in this mixed prospective group to a historical control group consisting of 147 patients (128 men; mean age 71 years) who underwent open repair from January 1998 to December 2001. All direct medical costs were included from the moment of admission until discharge from the hospital. Mortality in the mixed prospective group (18%) was lower than in the historical control group (31%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.099). The mean total cost in the mixed prospective group was 17,164 euro compared to 21,084 euro in the historical open repair group (p=0.255). A preferential eEVAR protocol for acute AAA can decrease mortality and does not increase overall costs during initial treatment, but larger studies are needed to determine if these trends are statistically significant.

  1. Redo thoracic endovascular aortic repair due to endoleak with celiac artery snorkeling.

    PubMed

    Planer, David; Bliagos, Dimitrios; Gray, William A

    2011-10-01

    Reintervention due to endoleak of aortic endograft repair is often challenging. Herein, we report endovascular endoleak repair in a patient with previous thoracic and abdominal endovascular grafts with extensive coverage of the aorta. The present technique included snorkeling of the celiac trunk to preserve antegrade flow in the celiac artery and to maintain future options for reintervention. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Secondary procedures after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms endovascular repair with second-generation endografts.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Michel A; Thevenin, Benjamin; Sarlon, Gabrielle; Giorgi, Roch; Albertini, Jean Noël; Lerussi, Gilles; Branchereau, Alain; Magnan, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-02-01

    To study the incidence, the types, and the results of secondary procedures performed after endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). To compare the population of patients who underwent secondary procedure (P2) with the population of those who did not require it. Between 1998 and 2008, this study included all the patients electively treated for AAA with stentgrafts that were still available on the market on January 1, 2009. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative follow-up included at least a systematic computed tomography scan at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and then every year. P2 were defined as any additionnal procedures performed to treat aneurysm related complications after initial stentgraft implantation. We studied 162 patients with a mean 40 ± 31 months' follow-up. In 32 patients (19.7%), there were 46 P2, 3 of them were surgical conversion and 1 with endovascular conversion. Thirty-nine P2 were scheduled, and seven were performed in emergency. Nine patients underwent more than one P2. P2 was indicated for type II endoleak in 17 cases, 13 of them with a diameter increase; for type I endoleak in 10 cases; for AAA rupture in 3 cases; for occlusion or stentgraft stenosis in 13 cases; and for 1 type III endoleak, 1 endotension, and 1 femoro-femoral crossover bypass infection. Two ruptures occurred in patients who had undergone P2. The immediate technical success was 89.1%. At 30 days, morbidity was 10.9%, and there was no mortality. Survival rates at 3 and 5 years were respectively 85.2% and 71.9% in patients with secondary procedure and 70.6% and 47.5% in the others (p = 0.046). In patients treated for AAA with second generation stentgrafts, in the long term, secondary procedure rate was 19.7%. Survival rate for patients who underwent a secondary procedure was better, which was probably related to the fact that they were younger at the time of stentgraft implantation. Large AAA diameter was a

  3. Zn-Li alloy after extrusion and drawing: Structural, mechanical characterization, and biodegradation in abdominal aorta of rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Seitz, Jan-M; Eifler, Rainer; Maier, Hans J; Guillory, Roger J; Earley, Elisha J; Drelich, Adam; Goldman, Jeremy; Drelich, Jaroslaw W

    2017-07-01

    Zinc shows great promise as a bio-degradable metal. Our early in vivo investigations implanting pure zinc wires into the abdominal aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that metallic zinc does not promote restenotic responses and may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. However, the low tensile strength of zinc remains a major concern. A cast billet of the Zn-Li alloy was produced in a vacuum induction caster under argon atmosphere, followed by a wire drawing process. Two phases of the binary alloy identified by x-ray diffraction include the zinc phase and intermetallic LiZn 4 phase. Mechanical testing proved that incorporating 0.1wt% of Li into Zn increased its ultimate tensile strength from 116±13MPa (pure Zn) to 274±61MPa while the ductility was held at 17±7%. Implantation of 10mm Zn-Li wire segments into abdominal aorta of rats revealed an excellent biocompatibility of this material in the arterial environment. The biodegradation rate for Zn-Li was found to be about 0.008mm/yr and 0.045mm/yr at 2 and 12months, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Clinical and immunological study of the relationship of the digestive system chronic diseases and atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Dolgushina, A I; Shaposhnik, I I; Volchegorskiĭ, I A

    2014-01-01

    Paper describes clinical and immunological study about the relationship between chronic diseases of the digestive system and atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta in patients of elderly and senile age. There were revealed the structural and clinical features of the gastrointestinal tract diseases, depending on the extent of atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta. Evaluation of the immune status included the determination of lymphocyte subpopulation composition, the functional state of neutrophils and cytokine levels. It is found that the progression of atherosclerosis in the basin of the abdominal aorta in patients of elderly and senile age with chronic diseases of the digestive system was accompanied by the activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms of the immune system and the accompanying intensification of oxidative stress.

  5. Hepatic Hemangiomas Alter Morphometry and Impair Hemodynamics of the Abdominal Aorta and Primary Branches From Computer Simulations.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoping; Huang, Xu; Li, Qiao; Li, Li; Niu, Pei; Cao, Minglu; Guo, Fei; Li, Xuechao; Tan, Wenchang; Huo, Yunlong

    2018-01-01

    Background: The formation of hepatic hemangiomas (HH) is associated with VEGF and IL-7 that alter conduit arteries and small arterioles. To our knowledge, there are no studies to investigate the effects of HH on the hemodynamics in conduit arteries. The aim of the study is to perform morphometric and hemodynamic analysis in abdominal conduit arteries and bifurcations of HH patients and controls. Methods: Based on morphometry reconstructed from CT images, geometrical models were meshed with prismatic elements for the near wall region and tetrahedral and hexahedral elements for the core region. Simulations were performed for computation of the non-Newtonian blood flow using the Carreau-Yasuda model, based on which multiple hemodynamic parameters were determined. Results: There was an increase of the lumen size, diameter ratio, and curvature in the abdominal arterial tree of HH patients as compared with controls. This significantly increased the surface area ratio of low time-averaged wall shear stress (i.e., SAR-TAWSS [Formula: see text] 100%) (24.1 ± 7.9 vs. 5 ± 6%, 11.6 ± 12.8 vs. < 0.1%, and 44.5 ± 9.2 vs. 21 ± 24% at hepatic bifurcations, common hepatic arteries, and abdominal aortas, respectively, between HH and control patients). Conclusions: Morphometric changes caused by HH significantly deteriorated the hemodynamic environment in abdominal conduit arteries and bifurcations, which could be an important risk factor for the incidence and progression of vascular diseases.

  6. Outcomes over Time in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy Undergoing Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Kim, Wonho; Katzen, Barry; Benenati, James; Samuels, Shaun

    2018-07-01

    To assess differences in outcome in an early and later time period in patients with hostile neck anatomy who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). This single-center, institutional review board-approved retrospective study assessed patients who underwent EVAR between 2004 and 2013, divided into 2 time periods: 2004-2008 and 2009-2013. One hundred twenty-five patients had at least 1 hostile neck parameter that met inclusion criteria: 61 of 216 (28%) patients in the early period and 64 of 144 (44%) patients in the late period. Patients in the late group were younger compared to patients in the early group (late group, 74.5 ± 8.8 years vs early group, 77.5 ± 7.5 years; P = .046). No significant differences were observed in hostile neck anatomic factors between the early and late periods. No statistical difference was observed in periprocedural factors or outcome measures, except for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac regression in the late period compared to the early period (late period, 73.5% vs early period, 55.7%; P = .038). A statistically significant increase was observed in type 1a endoleaks in patients in the late group with suprarenal fixation compared to patients with infrarenal fixation (suprarenal, 27.0% vs infrarenal, 7.9%; P = .025) and in the overall time studied (suprarenal, 20.3% vs infrarenal, 7.6%; P = .045). Except for AAA sac regression, no changes were observed in periprocedural factors and outcome measures over time in patients with hostile neck who underwent EVAR. Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endovascular repair or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Badger, S A; Harkin, D W; Blair, P H; Ellis, P K; Kee, F; Forster, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) may improve outcomes for patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). The study aim was to compare the outcomes for eEVAR with conventional open surgical repair for the treatment of RAAA. Setting A systematic review of relevant publications was performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing eEVAR with open surgical repair for RAAA were included. Participants 3 RCTs were included, with a total of 761 patients with RAAA. Interventions Meta-analysis was performed with fixed-effects models with ORs and 95% CIs for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% CIs for continuous data. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was short-term mortality. Secondary outcome measures included aneurysm-specific and general complication rates, quality of life and economic analysis. Results Overall risk of bias was low. There was no difference between the 2 interventions on 30-day (or in-hospital) mortality, OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.22; p=0.52). 30-day complications included myocardial infarction, stroke, composite cardiac complications, renal complications, severe bowel ischaemia, spinal cord ischaemia, reoperation, amputation and respiratory failure. Reporting was incomplete, and no robust conclusion was drawn. For complication outcomes that did include at least 2 studies in the meta-analysis, there was no clear evidence to support a difference between eEVAR and open repair. Longer term outcomes and cost per patient were evaluated in only a single study, thus precluding definite conclusions. Conclusions Outcomes between eEVAR and open repair, specifically 30-day mortality, are similar. However, further high-quality trials are required, as the paucity of data currently limits the conclusions. PMID:26873043

  8. Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effectiveness of Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nevala, Terhi, E-mail: Terhi.Nevala@ppshp.f; Biancari, Fausto; Manninen, Hannu

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in treating type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent EVAR with a Zenith stent-graft from January 2000 to December 2005. During a follow-up period of 4.5 {+-} 2.3 years, solely type II endoleak was detected in 47 patients (22%), and 14 of them underwent secondary interventions to correct this condition. Ten patients had transarterial embolization, and four patients had translumbar/transabdominal embolization. The embolization materials used were coils, thrombin, gelatin, Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer), and glue. Disappearance of the endoleak withoutmore » enlargement of the aneurysm sac after the first secondary intervention was achieved in only five of these patients (5/13). One patient without surveillance imaging was excluded from analyses of clinical success. After additional interventions in four patients and the spontaneous disappearance of type II endoleak in two patients, overall clinical success was achieved in eight patients (8/12). One patient did not have surveillance imaging after the second secondary intervention. Clinical success after the first secondary intervention was achieved in two patients (2/9) in the transarterial embolization group and three patients (3/4) in the translumbar embolization group. The results of secondary interventions for type II endoleak are unsatisfactory. Although the small number of patients included in this study prevents reliable comparisons between groups, the results seem to favor direct translumbar embolization in comparison to transarterial embolization.« less

  9. Predictors of long-term mortality following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Marques-Rios, Guilherme; Oliveira-Pinto, José; Mansilha, Armando

    2018-05-09

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) became the preferred modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, long term survival benefit may sometimes be questionable as many patients would die from other causes rather than aneurysm rupture. It is paramount to identify critical risk factors for late mortality after EVAR to understand its real benefit. The aim of this review is to identify most clinically relevant determinants of late mortality after elective EVAR. English literature was searched to identify publications on long-term predictors of mortality following elective EVAR. A follow-up extending for at least 5 years was the minimum required as inclusion criteria. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We addressed clinical and demographic variables and observe if they had any associations with long-term all-cause mortality following EVAR. Thirteen studies were included describing more than 82306 patients, exploring at least one predictors of long-term mortality. All-cause mortality was associated to age (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.06-3.34), gender (HR 1.07), aneurysm diameter (HR 1.09-1.64), smoking habits (HR 1.51-1.73), heart failure (HR 1.60-7.34), ischemic heart disease (HR 1.60), peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.30), cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.55), diabetes mellitus (HR 6.35), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.50-2.06) and chronic renal disease (HR 1.90-3.08). Risk factors associated with long-term mortality following elective EVAR remain scarcely published. Several demographic, anatomical, cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal co-morbidities seem to have an association with long-term mortality. Critical scrutiny of clinical patient status remains fundamental for a fair health resources allocation.

  10. Customized CT angiogram planning for intraoperative transesophageal echography-guided endovascular exclusion of thoracic aorta penetrating ulcer.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Michele; Lupia, Mario; Grego, Franco; Antonello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The technique is demonstrated in a 78-year-old man; the preoperative CT angiogram showed a descending thoracic aorta ulcer of 5.9 cm in maximum diameter and 3.8 cm longitudinal extension. A ZTEG-2P-36-127-PF (Cook Medical) single tubular endograft was planned to be deployed. From the preoperative CT angiogram we planned to land 4.7 cm above the midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and 8.0 cm below. In the operating room, under radioscopic vision the centre of the transesophageal echography probe was used as marker to identify the correspondent midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and a centimeter-sized pigtail catheter in the aorta was used to calculate the desired length above and below the ulcer midline. The endograft was introduced and placed in the desired position compared to the transesophageal echography probe and the catheter; under transesophageal echography vision the graft was finally deployed. The CT angiogram at 1 month showed the correct endograft position, descending thoracic aorta ulcer exclusion with no signs of endoleak. In selected cases, this method allows planning in advance safe stent graft positioning and deployment totally assisted by transesophageal echography, with no risk of periprocedural contrast-related renal failure and reduced radiation exposure for the patient and operators. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Mid-term results of zone 0 thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair after ascending aorta wrapping and supra-aortic debranching in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Felice; Lachat, Mario; Hofmann, Michael; Cayne, Neal S; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Rancic, Zoran; Puippe, Gilbert; Pfammatter, Thomas; Mangialardi, Nicola; Veith, Frank J; Bettex, Dominique; Maisano, Francesco; Neff, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Surgical repair of aneurysmal disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and eventually the descending aorta is generally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A less invasive approach with the ascending wrapping technique (WT), supra-aortic vessel debranching (SADB) and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) in zone 0 was developed to reduce the associated risk in these patients. During a 10-year period, consecutive patients treated by the ascending WT, SADB and TEVAR in zone 0 were included. All patients were considered at high risk for conventional surgery. Measured outcomes included perioperative deaths and morbidity, maximal aortic transverse diameter (TD) and its postoperative evolution, endoleak, survival, freedom from cardiovascular reinterventions, SADB freedom from occlusion and aortic valve function during follow-up. Median follow-up was 37.4 [mean = 34; range, 0-65; standard deviation (SD) = 20] months. Twenty-six cases were included with a mean age of 71.88 ( r  = 56-87; SD = 8) years. A mean of 2.9 supra-aortic vessels (75) per patient was debranched from the ascending aorta. The mean time interval from WT/SADB and TEVAR was 29 ( r  = 0-204; SD = 48) days. TEVAR was associated with chimney and/or periscope grafts in 6 (23%) patients, and extra-anatomical supra-aortic bypasses were performed in 6 (23%) patients. Perioperative mortality was 7.7% (2/26). Neurological events were registered in 3 (11.5%) cases, and a reintervention was required in 3 (11.5%) cases. After the WT, the ascending diameter remained stable during the follow-up period in all cases. At mean follow-up, significant shrinkage of the arch/descending aorta diameter was observed. A type I/III endoleak occurred in 3 cases. At 5 years, the rates of survival, freedom from cardiovascular reinterventions and SADB freedom from occlusion were 71.7, 82.3 and 96%, respectively. The use of the ascending WT, SADB and TEVAR in selected patients

  12. Patients with end-stage renal disease have poor outcomes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Komshian, Sevan; Farber, Alik; Patel, Virendra I; Goodney, Philip P; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Blazick, Elizabeth A; Jones, Douglas W; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2018-06-23

    Although endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been demonstrated to have favorable outcomes, not all cohorts of patients with AAA fare equally well. Our goal was to investigate perioperative and 1-year outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis, who have traditionally fared worse after vascular interventions, to assess how ESRD affects outcomes in a large modern cohort of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) patients. The Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing EVAR from 2010 to 2017. ESRD patients were compared with patients not on dialysis. Propensity-matched scoring and multivariable analysis were used to isolate the effects of ESRD. Of 28,683 EVARs identified, there were 321 (1.12%) patients with ESRD on dialysis. Patients with ESRD had no difference in presenting AAA size (57.5 ± 12.7 mm vs 56.7 ± 17.2 mm; P = .44); however, they had more urgent/emergent repairs (20.6% vs 13.6%; P = .002) than those without ESRD. ESRD patients were more often younger, nonwhite, and nonobese and less likely to have commercial insurance (P < .05). ESRD patients more often had hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, previous lower extremity bypass, aneurysm repair, and carotid interventions (P < .05). There was no difference in the rate of concomitant procedures. Matching based on demographics, comorbidities, and operative details showed that ESRD patients had longer hospital length of stay (4.8 ± 9.4 days vs 4.1 ± 12.6 days; P = .026) and higher 30-day mortality (7% vs 2.4%; P < .001). There was no difference in cardiac, pulmonary, lower extremity, bowel, and stroke complications or return to the operating room. On multivariable analysis, ESRD was associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.7; P < .001). Of the 24,750 elective EVARs, 1.04% had ESRD on dialysis. Matched data for elective EVAR show increased

  13. Fourteen-year outcomes of abdominal aortic endovascular repair with the Zenith stent graft.

    PubMed

    Verzini, Fabio; Romano, Lydia; Parlani, Gianbattista; Isernia, Giacomo; Simonte, Gioele; Loschi, Diletta; Lenti, Massimo; Cao, Piergiorgio

    2017-02-01

    Long-term results of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endovascular repair are affected by graft design renewals that tend to improve the performance of older generation prostheses but usually reset the follow-up times to zero. The present study investigated the long-term outcomes of endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) using the Zenith graft, still in use without major modification, in a single center experience. Between 2000 and 2011, 610 patients underwent elective EVAR using the Zenith endograft (Cook Inc, Bloomington, Ind) and represent the study group. Primary outcomes were overall survival, freedom from AAA rupture, and freedom from AAA-related death. Secondary outcomes included freedom from late (>30 days) reintervention, freedom from late (>30 days) conversion to open repair, freedom from aneurysm sac enlargement >5.0 mm and freedom from EVAR failure, defined as a composite of AAA-related death, AAA rupture, AAA growth >5 mm, and any reintervention. Mean age was 73.2 years. Mean aneurysm diameter was 55.3 mm. There were five perioperative deaths (0.8%) and three intraoperative conversions. At a mean follow-up of 99.2 (range, 0-175) months, seven AAA ruptures occurred, all fatal except one. Overall survival was 92.8% ± 1.1% at 1 year, 70.1% ± 1.9% at 5 years, 37.8% ± 2.9% at 10 years, and 24 ± 4% at 14 years. Freedom from AAA-rupture was 99.8% ± 0.02 at 1 year (one case), 99.4% ± 0.04 at 5 years (three cases), and 98.1% ± 0.07 at 10 and 14 years. Freedom from late reintervention and conversion was 98% ± 0.6 at 1 year, 87.7% ± 1.5 at 5 years, 75.7% ± 3.2 at 10 years, and 69.9% ± 5.2 at 14 years. Freedom from aneurysm sac growth >5.0 mm was 99.8% at 1 year, 96.6% ± 0.7 at 5 years, 81.0% ± 3.4 at 10 years, and 74.1% ± 5.8% at 14 years. EVAR failure occurred in 132 (21.6%) patients at 14 years. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of EVAR failure resulted type I and III endoleak (hazard ratio [HR], 6.7; 95

  14. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail: yi-xiang.wang@astrazeneca.com; Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killedmore » for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50

  15. [Application of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Cui, S H; Zhi, Y X; Zhang, K; Zhang, L D; Shen, L N; Gao, Y N

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the value of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2016, 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta were treated with temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta(the study group)before cesarean, and 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta did not receive balloon occlusion(the control group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume, the perioperative hemoglobin level, the hysterectomy rate and the related complications were compared retrospectively.Also, the hospitalization time, the blood coagulation parameters after operation, including activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer and reperfusion injury parameters including creatine phosphokinase(CK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and serum creatinine were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The blood loss[750 ml(400- 2 000 ml)vs 2 000 ml(1 500- 2 375 ml); Z =-3.214, P =0.001]and blood transfusion volume[200 ml(0-800 ml)vs 800 ml(0-1 200 ml); Z =- 2.173, P =0.030]in the study group were lower than in the control group. The hemoglobin difference between before and after operation in the study group was lower than the control group[(12.8±13.4)g/L vs(22.9±20.1)g/L; t =-2.041, P =0.047]. In the study group, there were still bleeding in 13 cases after releasing the balloon, 5 of them received uterine artery embolization, 5 cases received uterine artery ligation, and 3 cases received uterine packing. One case had venous thrombosis in the right lower limb. Two cases(8%,2/24)in the control group had hysterectomy, while none in the study group, there was no statistical significance( P = 0.489). Conclusions: Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively reduce blood loss and blood transfusion in the

  16. [Application of lower abdominal aorta balloon occlusion technique by ultrasound guiding during caesarean section in patients with pernicious placenta previa].

    PubMed

    Wei, L C; Gong, G Y; Chen, J H; Hou, P Y; Li, Q Y; Zheng, Z Y; Su, Y M; Zheng, Y; Luo, C Z; Zhang, K; Xu, T F; Ye, Y H; Lan, Y J; Wei, X M

    2018-03-27

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility, effect and safety of lower abdominal aorta balloon occlusion technique by ultrasound guiding during caesarean section in patients with pernicious placenta previa. Methods: The clinical data of 40 patients with pernicious placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta from January 2015 to August 2017 in Liuzhou workers hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The study group included 20 cases, which were operated in the way of cesarean section combined lower abdominal aorta balloon occlusion technique by ultrasound guiding, while the control group also included 20 cases, which were operated in the way of the conventional cesarean section without balloon occlusion technique. The bleeding amount, blood transfusion volume, operative total time, hysterectomy and complications of the two groups were compared. Results: The bleeding amount and blood transfusion volume in study group were(850±100)ml and (400±50)ml, which were lower than that of the control group[(2 500±230)ml and (1 500±100)ml], the difference was statistically significant( t =35.624, 16.523, all P <0.05). In addition, the hysterectomy rate in study group was 5%, which was lower than that in the control group(30%), the difference was statistically significant(χ 2 =8.672, P <0.05). And the total time of operation was (2.0±0.5)h in the study group, which was shorter than that in the control group[(3.5±0.4)h]. The difference was statistically significant( t =11.362, P <0.05). No postoperative complications took place in the study group.The blood pressure, heart rate and blood oxygen fluctuated significantly, and the postoperative renal function was significantly reduced in the control group. Conclusions: The lower abdominal aorta balloon occlusion technique by ultrasound guiding during a caesarean section in patients with pernicious placenta previa can effectively control the bleeding during operation, and preserve reproductive function to the utmost degree

  17. Strategy of endovascular versus open repair for patients with clinical diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: the IMPROVE RCT.

    PubMed

    Ulug, Pinar; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Sweeting, Michael J; Gomes, Manuel; Thompson, Matthew T; Thompson, Simon G; Grieve, Richard J; Ashleigh, Raymond; Greenhalgh, Roger M; Powell, Janet T

    2018-05-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular emergency. The mortality from emergency endovascular repair may be much lower than the 40-50% reported for open surgery. To assess whether or not a strategy of endovascular repair compared with open repair reduces 30-day and mid-term mortality (including costs and cost-effectiveness) among patients with a suspected ruptured AAA. Randomised controlled trial, with computer-generated telephone randomisation of participants in a 1 : 1 ratio, using variable block size, stratified by centre and without blinding. Vascular centres in the UK ( n  = 29) and Canada ( n  = 1) between 2009 and 2013. A total of 613 eligible participants (480 men) with a ruptured aneurysm, clinically diagnosed at the trial centre. A total of 316 participants were randomised to the endovascular strategy group (immediate computerised tomography followed by endovascular repair if anatomically suitable or, if not suitable, open repair) and 297 were randomised to the open repair group (computerised tomography optional). The primary outcome measure was 30-day mortality, with 30-day reinterventions, costs and disposal as early secondary outcome measures. Later outcome measures included 1- and 3-year mortality, reinterventions, quality of life (QoL) and cost-effectiveness. The 30-day mortality was 35.4% in the endovascular strategy group and 37.4% in the open repair group [odds ratio (OR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.28; p  = 0.62, and, after adjustment for age, sex and Hardman index, OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.33]. The endovascular strategy appeared to be more effective in women than in men (interaction test p  = 0.02). More discharges in the endovascular strategy group (94%) than in the open repair group (77%) were directly to home ( p  < 0.001). Average 30-day costs were similar between groups, with the mean difference in costs being -£1186 (95% CI -£2997 to £625), favouring the endovascular

  18. Trends in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: impact of endovascular repair and implications for future care.

    PubMed

    Park, Brian D; Azefor, Nchang; Huang, Chun-Chih; Ricotta, John J

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to determine national trends in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), with specific emphasis on open surgical repair (OSR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and its impact on mortality and complications. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2005 to 2009 were queried to identify patients older than 59 years with RAAA. Three groups were studied: nonoperative (NO), EVAR, and OSR. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the relationship between treatment type and patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital type. The impact of EVAR compared with OSR on mortality and overall complications was examined using logistic regression analysis. We identified 21,206 patients with RAAA from 2005 to 2009, of which 16,558 (78.1%) underwent operative repair and 21.8% received no operative treatment. In the operative group, 12,761 (77.1%) underwent OSR and 3,796 (22.9%) underwent EVAR. Endovascular aneurysm repair was more common in teaching hospitals (29.1% vs 15.2%, p < .0001) and in urban versus rural settings. Nonoperative approach was twice as common in rural versus urban hospitals. Reduced mortality was seen in patients transferred from another institutions (31.2% vs 39.4%, p = 0.014). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a benefit of EVAR on both complication rate (OR = 0.492; CI, 0.380-0.636) and mortality (OR=0.535; CI, 0.395-0.724). Endovascular aneurysm repair use is increasing for RAAA and is more common in urban teaching hospitals while NO therapy is more common in rural hospitals. Endovascular aneurysm repair is associated with reduced mortality and complications across all age groups. Efforts to reduce mortality from RAAA should concentrate on reducing NO and OSR in patients who are suitable for EVAR. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aneurysm into the Inferior Vena Cava in Patient After Stent Graft Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert, E-mail: radiologiamim@wp.p; Pukacki, Fryderyk; Zarzecka, Anna

    We report the case of a patient who underwent endovascular repair and then reintervention as a result of the presence of a persistent endoleak complicated by an aortocaval fistula. A 76-year-old patient with a history of endovascular treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm 2 years earlier had a palpable abdominal mass, high-output cardiac failure, and renal failure. A computed tomographic scan and angiography revealed bending of the right iliac limb, a type I endoleak, and rupture of the aneurysm into the inferior vena cava with aortocaval fistula formation. An iliac extension was positioned in the right external iliac artery. The proceduremore » was finished successfully. Control angiography showed normal flow within the endoprosthesis, and both iliac arteries were without signs of endoleakage and aortocaval fistula. Ectatic common iliac artery may lead to a late distal attachment site endoleak. The application of a stent graft in cases of secondary aortocaval fistula after stent graft repair is a good option, particularly in emergency cases.« less

  20. Seventeen years' experience of late open surgical conversion after failed endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with 13 variant devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Liang; Qu, Lefeng; Raithel, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the causes and results of late open surgical conversion (LOSC) after failed abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and to summarize our 17 years' experience with 13 various endografts. Retrospective data from August 1994 to January 2011 were analyzed at our center. The various devices' implant time, the types of devices, the rates and causes of LOSC, and the procedures and results of LOSC were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 1729 endovascular aneurysm repairs were performed in our single center (Nuremberg South Hospital) with 13 various devices within 17 years. The median follow-up period was 51 months (range 9-119 months). Among them, 77 patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms received LOSC. The LOSC rate was 4.5 % (77 of 1729). The LOSC rates were significantly different before and after January 2002 (p < 0.001). The reasons of LOSC were mainly large type I endoleaks (n = 51) that were hard to repair by endovascular techniques. For the LOSC procedure, 71 cases were elective and 6 were emergent. The perioperative mortality was 5.2 % (4 of 77): 1 was elective (due to septic shock) and 3 were urgent (due to hemorrhagic shock). Large type I endoleaks were the main reasons for LOSC. The improvement of devices and operators' experience may decrease the LOSC rate. Urgent LOSC resulted in a high mortality rate, while selective LOSC was relatively safe with significantly lower mortality rate. Early intervention, full preparation, and timely LOSC are important for patients who require LOSC.

  1. Disparities in outcomes for Hispanic patients undergoing endovascular and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy K; Schneider, Eric B; Black, James H; Lum, Ying Wei; Freischlag, Julie A; Perler, Bruce A; Abularrage, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities associated with the outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, although little is known about the influence of race and ethnicity on the costs associated with these disparities. The current study was undertaken to examine the influence of race and ethnicity on the outcomes of endovascular (EVAR) and open repair (open AAA) of unruptured AAA and its effect on costs in contemporary practice. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2005 to 2008) was queried using ICD-9-CM codes for unruptured AAA (441.4). The primary outcomes were mortality and total hospital charges. Multivariate analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, comorbidities (Charlson index), year, insurance type, and hospital characteristics. A total of 62,728 patients underwent EVAR and 24,253 patients underwent open AAA. White patients (72%) were more likely to undergo EVAR than Hispanic (69%) or black patients (69%; P = 0.02). On univariate analysis, in-hospital mortality after EVAR was increased in Hispanic patients compared with white patients (1% vs 2%; P = 0.02). There were no differences in mortality after EVAR between white and black patients, and there were no racial or ethnic differences in mortality after open AAA. Hispanic ethnicity remained an independent risk factor for increased mortality after AAA repair on multivariate analysis (RR 1.64; 95% CI [1.05 to 2.57]; P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was associated with increased hospital charges compared with white ethnicity after both EVAR ($108,886 vs $77,748; P < 0.001) and open AAA ($134,356 vs $85,536; P < 0.001) and for black patients after open AAA ($101,168 vs $85,536; P = 0.04). Hispanic ethnicity is an independent risk factor for mortality after AAA repair independent of insurance type or hospital characteristics. There were dramatic disparities in hospital costs for Hispanic patients undergoing either EVAR or open AAA and for black patients after open AAA

  2. Comparable perioperative mortality outcomes in younger patients undergoing elective open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nathan L; Reitz, Katherine M; Makaroun, Michel S; Malas, Mahmoud B; Tzeng, Edith

    2018-05-01

    Evidence for benefit of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) over open surgical repair for de novo infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in younger patients remains conflicting because of heterogeneous study populations and small sample sizes. The objective of this study was to compare perioperative and short-term outcomes for EVAR and open surgery in younger patients using a large national disease and procedure-specific data set. We identified patients 65 years of age or younger undergoing first-time elective EVAR or open AAA repair from the Vascular Quality Initiative (2003-2014). We excluded patients with pararenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysms, those medically unfit for open repair, and those undergoing EVAR for isolated iliac aneurysms. Clinical and procedural characteristics were balanced using inverse propensity of treatment weighting. A supplemental analysis extended the study to those younger than 70 years. We identified 2641 patients, 73% (n = 1928) EVAR and 27% (n = 713) open repair. The median age was 62 years (interquartile range, 59-64 years), and 13% were female. The median follow-up time was 401 days (interquartile range, 357-459 days). Unadjusted perioperative survival was 99.6% overall (open repair, 99.1%; EVAR, 99.8%; P < .001), with 97.4% 1-year survival overall (open repair, 97.3%; EVAR, 97.4%; P = .9). Unadjusted reintervention rates were five (open repair) and seven (EVAR) reinterventions per 100 person-years (P = .8). After propensity weighting, the absolute incidence of perioperative mortality was <1% in both groups (open repair, 0.9%, EVAR, 0.2%; P < .001), and complication rates were low. Propensity-weighted survival (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.38; P = .6) and reintervention rates (open repair, 6; EVAR, 8; reinterventions per 100 person-years; P = .8) did not differ between the two interventions. The analysis of those younger than 70 years showed similar results. In this study of younger

  3. Maximal aortic diameter affects outcome after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Gloviczki, Peter; Duncan, Audra A; Kalra, Manju; Oderich, Gustavo S; Fleming, Mark D; Harmsen, William S; Bower, Thomas C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maximal aortic diameter affects outcome after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical data of patients undergoing EVAR between 1997 and 2011 for nonruptured asymptomatic AAAs in a tertiary center were reviewed. Patients were classified according to diameter of AAA: group 1, <5.0 cm; group 2, 5.0 to 5.4 cm; group 3, 5.5 to 5.9 cm; and group 4, ≥6.0 cm. The primary end point was all-cause mortality; secondary end points were complications, reinterventions, and ruptures. There were 874 patients studied (female, 108 [12%]; group 1, 119; group 2, 246; group 3, 243; group 4, 266); mean age was 76 ± 7.2 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.0%, not significantly different between groups (P = .22); complication and reintervention rates were 13% and 4.1%, respectively, similar between groups (P < .05). Five-year survival was 68%; freedom from complications and reinterventions was 65% and 74%, respectively; rupture rate was 0.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors associated with all-cause mortality included maximal aortic diameter, age, gender, surgical risk, cancer history, and endograft type (P < .05). Group 4 had increased risks of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.85; P = .002) and complications (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = .009) relative to group 1. Reinterventions were more frequent for aneurysms ≥6.0 cm (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.3; P = .01). Late rupture rate after EVAR was not different between groups. Maximal aortic diameter is associated with long-term outcomes after elective EVAR. Patients with large AAAs (≥6.0 cm) have higher all-cause mortality, complication, and reintervention rates after EVAR than those with smaller aneurysms. We continue to recommend that AAAs be repaired when they reach 5.5 cm as recommended by the guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. On the basis of our data, EVAR

  4. [Results of combined reconstructions of the renal arteries, abdominal aorta and its other branches in patients with atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Semenov, D V; Ignashov, A M; Turobova, E P; Martynenko, G I; Vakhitov, K M

    2012-01-01

    A comparative analysis was made of clinical indices and long-term survival in 20 patients (13 men and 7 women of mean age 62 +/- 2 years), having multifocal atherosclerosis of the renal arteries (RA), abdominal aorta and arteries of lower extremities (LE) (11 aneurysms, 7 occlusive lesions of the aorta and 3 of its unpaired branches) who underwent combined reconstructions, with patients having similar lesions, but not operated (12) or operated only on RA or on the arteries of LE (45). The groups of patients had no great differences except more pronounced renal dysfunction (RD) in the first of them. In spite of high postoperative lethality (20%) mainly due to acute renal failure (3), long-term survival proved to be significantly higher (14 from 16), than in not operated (3 from 12) (p = 0.00001) and had better tendency than in those operated on the same basin (35 from 45). In addition, the patients after combined operations had substantially decreased systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (159 +/- 13 vs. 132 +/- 9, p = 0.00001; 91 +/- 5 vs. 83 +/- 7, p = 0.010) and also stabilized renal function.

  5. Wave intensity analysis in mice: an ultrasound-based study in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lascio, N.; Kusmic, C.; Stea, F.; Faita, F.

    2017-03-01

    Wave Intensity Analysis (WIA) can provide parameters representative of the interaction between the vascular network and the heart. It has been already demonstrated that WIA-derived biomarkes have a quantitative physiological meaning. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for performing non-invasive WIA in mice and correlate commonly used cardiac function parameters with WIA-derived indexes. Sixteen wild-type male mice (8 weeks-old) were imaged with high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 2100). Abdominal aorta and common carotid pulse wave velocities (PWVabd, PWVcar) were obtained processing B-Mode and PW-Doppler images and employed to assess WIA. Amplitudes of the first (W1abd, W1car) and the second (W2abd, W2car) local maxima and minimum (Wbabd,Wbcar) were evaluated; areas under the negative part of the curve were also calculated (NAabd, NAcar). Cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF) fractional shortening (FS) and stroke volume (SV) were estimated; strain analysis provided strain and strain rate values for longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions (LS, LSR, RS, RSR, CS, CSR). Isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) was calculated from mitral inflow PW-Doppler images; IVRT values were normalized for cardiac cycle length. W1abd was correlated with LS (R=0.65) and LSR (R=0.59), while W1car was correlated with CO (R=0.58), EF (R=0.72), LS (R=0.65), LSR (R=0.89), CS (R=0.71), CSR (R=0.70). Both W2abd and W2car were not correlated with IVRT. Carotid artery WIA-derived parameters are more representative of cardiac function than those obtained from the abdominal aorta. The described US-based method can provide information about cardiac function and cardio-vascular interaction simply studying a single vascular site.

  6. Antioxidant Effect of Captopril and Enalapril on Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Hak; Chung, Won-Sang; Suh, Jung Kook; Kim, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have beneficial effects against ROS. We investigated the antioxidant effect of captopril and enalapril in nitric oxide mediated vascular endothelium-dependent relaxations. Materials and Methods Isolated rabbit abdominal aorta ring segments were exposed to ROS by electrolysis of the organ bath medium (Krebs-Henseleit solution) after pretreatment with various concentrations (range, 10-5 to 3×10-4 M) of captopril and enalapril. Before and after electrolysis, the endothelial function was measured by preconstricting the vessels with norepinephrine (10-6 M) followed by the cumulative addition of acetylcholine (range, 3×10-8 to 10-6 M). The relevance of the superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect of captopril and enalapril was investigated using additional pretreatments of diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA, 0.5 mM), an inhibitor of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT, 50 mM), an inhibitor of catalase. Results Both captopril and enalapril preserved vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation after exposure to ROS in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.0001). Pretreatment with DETCA attenuated the antioxidant effect of captopril and enalapril (p<0.0001), but pretreatment with 3AT did not have an effect. Conclusion Both captopril and enalapril protect endothelium against ROS in a dose-dependent fashion in isolated rabbit abdominal aortas. This protective effect is related to superoxide anion scavenging. PMID:23422724

  7. Results of endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta with the Talent Thoracic stent graft: the Talent Thoracic Retrospective Registry.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Rossella; Nienaber, Christoph A; Rousseau, Hervé; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Heijmen, Robin; Grabenwöger, Martin; Piquet, Philippe; Lovato, Luigi; Dabbech, Chaouki; Kische, Stephan; Gaxotte, Virginia; Schepens, Marc; Ehrlich, Marek; Bartoli, Jean-Michelle

    2006-08-01

    Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic diseases demonstrated low perioperative morbidity and mortality when compared with conventional open repair. Long-term effectiveness of this minimally invasive technique remains to be proven. The Talent Thoracic Retrospective Registry was designed to evaluate the impact of this therapy on patients treated in 7 major European referral centers over an 8-year period. Data from 457 consecutive patients (113 emergency and 344 elective cases) who underwent endovascular thoracic aortic repair with the Medtronic Talent Thoracic stent graft (Medtronic/AVE, Santa Rosa, Calif) were collected. Follow-up analysis (24 +/- 19.4 months, range 1-85.1 months) was based on clinical and imaging findings, including all adverse events. To ensure consistency of data interpretation and event reporting, one physician reviewed all adverse events and deaths for the whole cohort of patients. In the case of discrepancies, the treating physicians were queried. Among 422 patients who survived the interventional procedure (in-hospital mortality 5%, 23 patients), mortality during follow-up was 8.5% (36 patients), and in 11 of them the death was related to the aortic disease. Persistent endoleak was reported at imaging follow-up in 64 cases: 44 were primary (9.6%) and 21 occurred during follow-up (4.9%). Seven patients with persistent endoleak had aortic rupture during follow-up, at a variable time from 40 days to 35 months, and all subsequently died. A minor incidence of migration of the stent graft (7 cases), graft fabric alteration (2 cases), and modular disconnection (3 cases) was observed at imaging. Kaplan-Meier overall survival estimate at 1 year was 90.97%, at 3 years was 85.36%, and at 5 years was 77.49%. At the same intervals, freedom from a second procedure (either open conversion or endovascular) was 92.45%, 81.3%, and 70.0%, respectively. Endovascular treatment for thoracic aortic disease with the Talent stent graft is associated with low early

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with aorta-left renal vein fistula with left varicocele.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, S L; Haider, S A; Gupta, N; O'Dorsio, J E; McKinsey, J F; Schwartz, L B

    2000-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm with spontaneous aorto-left renal vein fistula is a rare but well-described clinical entity usually with abdominal pain, hematuria, and a nonfunctioning left kidney. This report describes a 44-year-old man with left-sided groin pain and varicocele who was treated with conservative measures only. The diagnosis was eventually made when he returned with microscopic hematuria, elevated serum creatinine level, and nonfunction of the left kidney; computed tomography scan demonstrated a 6-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, a retroaortic left renal vein, and an enlargement of the left kidney. This patient represents the youngest to be reported with aorto-left renal vein fistula and the second case with a left-sided varicocele.

  9. Frequency of Intracranial Aneurysms Determined by Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Children (Mean Age 16) Having Operative or Endovascular Treatment of Coarctation of the Aorta (Mean Age 3).

    PubMed

    Donti, Andrea; Spinardi, Luca; Brighenti, Maurizio; Faccioli, Luca; Leoni, Chiara; Fabi, Marianna; Trossello, Marco P; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Bonvicini, Marco

    2015-08-15

    Coarctation of the aorta (CofA) has been associated with an increased risk of intracranial aneurysm (IA). This magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) study investigates the prevalence of IAs in 80 children treated in early life for CofA. MRA was performed at mean age of 15.7 ± 7.1 years, and surgical or endovascular treatment for CofA occurred at a mean age of 2.6 ± 4.4 years. No IA was found. In contrast with earlier findings in adult patients with late treatment for CofA, this first systematic study of very early treated patients for CofA failed to confirm the association between CofA and IAs. Our results call the abnormal developmental relation between CofA and IAs into question and suggest that modifiable risk factors like hypertension may be responsible for IA development in patients with CofA with adult diagnosis and treatment. In conclusion, our data suggest that early treatment of CofA can reduce the formation of IAs in children so as to make MRA screening less valuable in this young population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta to control hemorrhagic shock during video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement or infected necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Weltz, Adam S; Harris, Donald G; O'Neill, Natalie A; O'Meara, Lindsay B; Brenner, Megan L; Diaz, Jose J

    2015-01-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique that has been shown to provide central vascular control to support proximal aortic pressure and minimize hemorrhage in a wide variety of clinic settings, however the role of REBOA for emergency general surgery is less defined. This is a report of a 44 year old man who experienced hemorrhagic shock during video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD) for necrotizing pancreatitis where REBOA was used to prevent ongoing hemorrhage and death. This is the first documented report REBOA being used during pancreatic debridement in the literature and one of the first times it has been used in emergency general surgery. The use of REBOA is an option for those in hemorrhagic shock whom conventional aortic cross-clamping or supra-celiac aortic exposure is either not possible or exceedingly dangerous. REBOA allows for adequate resuscitation and can be used as a bridge to definitive therapy in a range of surgical subspecialties with minimal morbidity and complications. The risks associated with insertion of wires, sheaths, and catheters into the arterial system, as well as the risk of visceral and spinal cord ischemia due to aortic occlusion mandate that the use of this technique be utilized in only appropriate clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Total Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Aortic Aneurysms Involving the Proximal Anastomotic Aneurysm following Initial Open Repair for Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takeshi; Ohki, Takao; Kanaoka, Yuji; Maeda, Koji; Toya, Naoki; Ohta, Hiroki; Fukushima, Soichiro; Hara, Masayuki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate initial and midterm clinical outcomes of aortic aneurysms involving the proximal anastomotic aneurysm (AAPAAs) following initial open repair for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Between July 2006 and August 2015, 24 patients underwent elective endovascular repair for the treatment of AAPAAs at our institution. AAPAA classification has been categorized as 3 types. Type I AAPAA is the most extensive, extending from the descending aorta to the prior proximal anastomosis as similar to Crawford type II or III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Type II AAPAA is limited to the aortic aneurysm below the diaphragm including the abdominal visceral arteries. Finally, similar to pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, type III AAPAA involves the renal origins, but does not extend to the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. Total endovascular aneurysm repair (t-EVAR) consisted of fenestrated EVAR (f-EVAR), multibranched EVAR (t-Branch), and snorkel EVAR (s-EVAR) were performed for patients with high-risk open surgical repair. We retrospectively analyzed 24 cases, which were categorized with 3 types of AAPAA. F-EVAR, t-Branch, and s-EVAR for AAPAAs were performed in 15 patients (62.5%), 5 patients (20.8%), and 4 patients (16.7%), respectively. Type I and type II AAPAA were identified in 13 patients (54.2%) and 7 patients (29.2%), and type III AAPAA was identified in 4 patients (16.7%). Technical success was 95.8%, and clinical success was 79.2% with t-EVAR. Spinal cord ischemia was identified in 2 patients (8.3%) of type I AAPAA, the 30-day mortality rate was 4.2% (n = 1, type I AAPAA). Type II and III endoleaks occurred in 1 (4.2%, type III AAPAA) and 3 patients (12.5%, each case of type I, II, and III AAPAA), respectively. There was no open conversion or aneurysm rupture in the late follow-up period. The estimated overall survival rates of t-EVAR after 1 and 3 years were 95.6% and 76.2%, respectively. Rates of freedom from aneurysm-related death and

  12. Matched cohort comparison of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with and without EndoAnchors.

    PubMed

    Muhs, Bart E; Jordan, William; Ouriel, Kenneth; Rajaee, Sareh; de Vries, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether prophylactic use of EndoAnchors (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif) contributes to improved outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms through 2 years. The Aneurysm Treatment Using the Heli-FX Aortic Securement System Global Registry (ANCHOR) subjects who received prophylactic EndoAnchors during EVAR were considered for this analysis. Imaging data of retrospective subjects who underwent EVAR at ANCHOR enrolling institutions were obtained to create a control sample. Nineteen baseline anatomic measurements were used to perform propensity score matching, yielding 99 matched pairs. Follow-up imaging of the ANCHOR and control cohorts was then compared to examine outcomes through 2 years, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Freedom from type Ia endoleak was 97.0% ± 2.1% in the ANCHOR cohort and 94.1% ± 2.5% in the control cohort through 2 years (P = .34). The 2-year freedom from neck dilation in the ANCHOR and control cohorts was 90.4% ± 5.6% and 87.3% ± 4.3%, respectively (P = .46); 2-year freedom from sac enlargement was 97.0% ± 2.1% and 94.0% ± 3.0%, respectively (P = .67). No device migration was observed. Aneurysm sac regression was observed in 81.1% ± 9.5% of ANCHOR subjects through 2 years compared with 48.7% ± 5.9% of control subjects (P = .01). Cox regression analysis found an inverse correlation between number of hostile neck criteria met and later sac regression (P = .05). Preoperative neck thrombus circumference and infrarenal diameter were also variables associated with later sac regression, although not to a significant degree (P = .10 and P = .06, respectively). Control subjects with thrombus were significantly less likely to experience later sac regression than those without thrombus (6% and 43%, respectively; P = .001). In ANCHOR subjects, rate of regression was not significantly different in subjects with or without thrombus (33% and 36

  13. Cytokines as biomarkers of inflammatory response after open versus endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsilimigras, Diamantis I; Sigala, Fragiska; Karaolanis, Georgios; Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Spartalis, Michael; Patelis, Nikolaos; Papalampros, Alexandros; Long, Chandler; Moris, Demetrios

    2018-05-17

    The repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a high-risk surgical procedure related to hormonal and metabolic stress-related response with an ensuing activation of the inflammatory cascade. In contrast to open repair (OR), endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) seems to decrease the postoperative stress by offering less extensive incisions, dissection, and tissue manipulation. However, these beneficial effects may be offset by the release of cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites during intra-luminal manipulation of the thrombus using catheters in endovascular repair, resulting in systemic inflammatory response (SIR), which is clinically called post-implantation syndrome. In this systematic review we compared OR with EVAR in terms of the post-interventional inflammatory response resulting from alterations in the circulating cytokine levels. We sought to summarize all the latest evidence regarding post-implantation syndrome after EVAR. We searched Medline (PubMed), ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane library for clinical studies reporting on the release of cytokines as part of the inflammatory response after both open/conventional and endovascular repair of the AAA. We identified 17 studies examining the cytokine levels after OR versus EVAR. OR seemed to be associated with a greater SIR than EVAR, as evidenced by the increased cytokine levels, particularly IL-6 and IL-8, whereas IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α showed conflicting results or no difference between the two groups. Polyester endografts appear to be positively correlated with the incidence of post-implantation syndrome after EVAR. Future large prospective studies are warranted to delineate the underlying mechanisms of the cytokine interaction in the post-surgical inflammatory response setting.

  14. 3D Printed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Phantom for Image Guided Surgical Planning with a Patient Specific Fenestrated Endovascular Graft System.

    PubMed

    Meess, Karen M; Izzo, Richard L; Dryjski, Maciej L; Curl, Richard E; Harris, Linda M; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N

    2017-02-11

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging.

  15. Successful Aortic Banding for Type IA Endoleak Due to Neck Dilatation after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Yasushi; Tamai, Koichi; Shirasugi, Takehiro; Sato, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Imamura, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo; Kobinata, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-25

    A 69-year-old man with a type IA endoleak that developed approximately 21 months after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) of a 46 mm diameter aneurysm was referred to our department. He had impaired renal function, Parkinson's disease, and previous cerebral infarction. Computed tomography angiography showed a type IA endoleak with neck dilatation and that the aneurysm had grown to 60 mm in diameter. We decided to perform aortic banding. The type IA endoleak disappeared after banding and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. Aortic banding may be effective for type IA endoleak after EVAR and less invasive for high-risk patients in particular.

  16. Prevention of Kinked Stent Graft Limb Due to Severe Angulated Proximal Neck during Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Kim, Minsu; Shin, Eak Kyun; Kang, Woong Chol

    2018-04-20

    Although the technology of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is evolving that make it appealing for challenging anatomy, proximal aortic neck morphology, especially severe angulation, is still one of the most determinants for a successful procedure. We describe a patient of AAA with severely angulated proximal neck, in whom kinked stent graft limb occurred against severe angulation of proximal neck. Then, we suggested how to prevent this complication in the second patient. Our case demonstrated the stent graft limb could be kinked by severe aortic neck angulation, making it challenging. However, the kinked stent graft limb could be prevented by deploying stent graft limbs below the most severely angulated aortic neck intentionally.

  17. [Effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution infusion on tissue perfusion during surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Soskić, Ljiljana; Davidović, Lazar; Milicić, Biljana; Kocica, Mladen; Kovacević, Natasa; Simić, Tijana

    2007-10-01

    Decreasing of arterial flow below the critical level leads to capillary endothelium edema and to further worsening of tissue perfusion. Hypertonic solution infusion provides mild and short plasma osmolality increasing, while colloidal solutions intensify that effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution (HH) on the organs perfusion during reconstructive surgical procedure on the abdominal aorta (AA). The study included 40 patients submitted to AA reconstruction due to aneurysm or Leriche's syndrome. A clamp was put transversally to the aorta, under the outlets of the renal arterias. According to the solution received when a clamp was on the aorta, the patients were divided into two groups containing 20 patients each: the tested group (A) which received 4 ml/kg of the solution (7.2% NaCl/10% dextran), and the control group (B) which received 0.9% NaCl. The study excluded the patients with the preoperative creatinine level more than 139 micromol/l, and ejection heart fraction less than 40%. The mixed venous blood oxygen saturation increased from 73.3+/-7.33 to 74.95+/-6.19% in the group A, while it decreased from 65.35+/-10.39 to 62.65+/-10.42% in the group B (p = 0.001). The quantity of the provided oxygen in the group A increased significantly from 684.44+/-244.34 to 1362.45+/-2351.01 ml/min, while it decreased from 668.2+/-382.12 to 651.7+/-313.98 ml/min in the group B (p = 0.016). Alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen decreased from 23.12+/-14.74 to 21.1+/-10 mmHg in the group A, while it increased from 23.79+/-15.22 to 26.33+/-13.78 mmHg in the group B (p = 0.05). Satisfactory perfusion of organs during the AA surgery is obtained by using both HH and an isotonic solution. Due to maintaining the optimal values of the minute heart volume, saturation of vein blood blended with oxygen, and al-veolo-arterial difference in oxygen, it is recommended to use HH solution for reanimation of patients in declamping shock.

  18. Segmental and age differences in the elastin network, collagen, and smooth muscle phenotype in the tunica media of the porcine aorta.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbyněk; Kubíková, Tereza; Prior, Claudia; Demjén, Erna; Liška, Václav; Králíčková, Milena; Witter, Kirsti

    2015-09-01

    The porcine aorta is often used in studies on morphology, pathology, transplantation surgery, vascular and endovascular surgery, and biomechanics of the large arteries. Using quantitative histology and stereology, we estimated the area fraction of elastin, collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin within the tunica media in 123 tissue samples collected from five segments (thoracic ascending aorta; aortic arch; thoracic descending aorta; suprarenal abdominal aorta; and infrarenal abdominal aorta) of porcine aortae from growing domestic pigs (n=25), ranging in age from 0 to 230 days. The descending thoracic aorta had the greatest elastin fraction, which decreased proximally toward the aortic arch as well as distally toward the abdominal aorta. Abdominal aortic segments had the highest fraction of actin, desmin, and vimentin positivity and all of these vascular smooth muscle markers were lower in the thoracic aortic segments. No quantitative differences were found when comparing the suprarenal abdominal segments with the infrarenal abdominal segments. The area fraction of actin within the media was comparable in all age groups and it was proportional to the postnatal growth. Thicker aortic segments had more elastin and collagen with fewer contractile cells. The collagen fraction decreased from ascending aorta and aortic arch toward the descending aorta. By revealing the variability of the quantitative composition of the porcine aorta, the results are suitable for planning experiments with the porcine aorta as a model, i.e. power test analyses and estimating the number of samples necessary to achieving a desirable level of precision. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, are made publicly available for biomechanical modeling of site-dependent distensibility and compliance of the porcine aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. [Application and analysis of abdominal aortic branch malperfusion pattern in thoracic endovascular aortic repair for Stanford B aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Han, X F; Guo, X; Li, T Z; Liu, G R; Huang, L J

    2017-12-18

    To evaluate the efficiency of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in dealing with abdominal aortic branch malperfusion based on the analysis of aortic computed tomography angiography (CTA) images in pre- and post-TEVAR. Retrospective analysis from September 2015 to March 2016 in single institution to 32 patients, diagnosed as Stanford B aortic dissection with abdominal aortic branch malperfusion, CTA images in pre- and post-TEVAR were collected. Based on the aortic branch malperfusion pattern redefined by Nagamine, we identified and characterized branch malperfusion pattern for four abdominal aortic branches (celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, bilateral renal artery) in statistical analysis. In the four abdominal aortic branches (total 128 branches), 86 branches (67.2%) expressed with Class I patterns, in which subtype I-b presented with 0.8%, subtype I-c with 5.5%; 14 branches (10.9%) expressed with Class II patterns, in which subtype II-b-1 with 3.9%, subtype II-b-2 with 3.1%; 16 branches (12.5%) expressed with Class III patterns, all with subtype III-a, no subtype III-b and III-c presented. The remaining 12 branches were normal. The 100% successful rate of TEVAR obtained in 32 patients performed. The mean following-up was 4 months. Aortic CTA showed that among the 14 "high-risk" abdominal aortic branch malperfusion, 13 (92.9%) with obvious branch malperfusion in post-TEVAR were observed to improve, and the remaining one branch malperfusion (7.1%) was observed to change from subtype I-b to I-c. Few ratios in abdominal aortic branches suffered with obvious malperfusion complicated by Stanford B aortic dissection. For branches with "high-risk" malperfusion pattern, optimal changes were observed in abdominal aortic branch without revascularization in post-TEVAR, as well other branches with non-"high-risk" pattern perfusion were mostly stable in post-TEVAR. It could be of profound benefit to extend branch malperfusion patterns redefined by Nagamine in

  20. Evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure zinc stent in the one-year study of rabbit abdominal aorta model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongtao; Wang, Cong; Liu, Chaoqiang; Chen, Houwen; Wu, Yifan; Han, Jintao; Jia, Zichang; Lin, Wenjiao; Zhang, Deyuan; Li, Wenting; Yuan, Wei; Guo, Hui; Li, Huafang; Yang, Guangxin; Kong, Deling; Zhu, Donghui; Takashima, Kazuki; Ruan, Liqun; Nie, Jianfeng; Li, Xuan; Zheng, Yufeng

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, pure zinc stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of rabbits for 12 months. Multiscale analysis including micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and histological stainings was performed to reveal the fundamental degradation mechanism of the pure zinc stent and its biocompatibility. The pure zinc stent was able to maintain mechanical integrity for 6 months and degraded 41.75 ± 29.72% of stent volume after 12 months implantation. No severe inflammation, platelet aggregation, thrombosis formation or obvious intimal hyperplasia was observed at all time points after implantation. The degradation of the zinc stent played a beneficial role in the artery remodeling and healing process. The evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure zinc stents with time was revealed as follows: Before endothelialization, dynamic blood flow dominated the degradation of pure zinc stent, creating a uniform corrosion mode; After endothelialization, the degradation of pure zinc stent depended on the diffusion of water molecules, hydrophilic solutes and ions which led to localized corrosion. Zinc phosphate generated in blood flow transformed into zinc oxide and small amounts of calcium phosphate during the conversion of degradation microenvironment. The favorable physiological degradation behavior makes zinc a promising candidate for future stent applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thromboembolic Complications after Zenith{sup ®} Low Profile Endovascular Graft for Infrarenal Abdominal Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Urlings, T. A. J., E-mail: t-urlings@hotmail.com; Vries, A. C. de, E-mail: a.de.vries@mchaaglanden.nl; Mol van Otterloo, J. C. A. de, E-mail: a.de.molvanotterloo@mchaaglanden.nl

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to objectify and evaluate risk factors for thromboembolic complications after treatment with a Zenith{sup ®} Low Profile Endovascular Graft (Zenith LP). Results were compared with those in the recent literature on endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) and with the thromboembolic complications in the patient group treated with a Zenith Flex Endovascular Graft in our institute in the period before the use of the Zenith LP.Materials and MethodsAll consecutive patients who were suitable for treatment with a Zenith LP endograft between October 2010 and December 2011 were included. The preprocedural computed tomography scan (CT), procedural angiographicmore » images, and the postprocedural CT scans were evaluated for risk factors for and signs of thromboembolic complications. All patients treated between December 2007 and November 2012 with a Zenith Flex endograft were retrospectively evaluated for thromboembolic complications.ResultsIn the study period 17 patients were treated with a LP Zenith endograft. Limb occlusion occurred in 35 % of the patients. Limb occlusions occurred in 24 % of the limbs at risk (one limb occluded twice). In one patient two risk factors for limb occlusion were identified. Between December 2007 and November 2012, a total of 43 patients were treated with a Zenith Flex endograft. No limb occlusion or distal embolization occurred.ConclusionDespite that this was a small retrospective study, the Zenith LP endograft seems to be associated with more frequent thromboembolic complications compared with the known limb occlusion rates in the literature and those of the patients treated with a Zenith Flex endograft in our institute.« less

  2. Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA): Is there a role for prevention and therapy using antioxidants?

    PubMed

    Pincemail, Joël; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Courtois, Audrey; Albert, Adelin; Cheramy-Bien, Jean-Paul; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2017-09-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease that cause mortality in people aged > 65 years. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role in AAA pathogenesis. Several sources of ROS have been identified in aortic tissues using experimental models: inflammation, increased activity of NAD(P)H or NOX, over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), platelets activation and iron release from hemoglobin. Reducing oxidative stress by antioxidants has been shown to be a potential strategy for limiting AAA development. Human studies confirmed that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are well associated with AAA development. Unfortunately, there is currently no evidence showing that strategies using low molecular weight antioxidants (vitamins C and E, β-carotene) as target for ROS is effective to reduce human AAA progression. However, recent epidemiological data have highlighted the positive role of a diet enriched in fruits which contain high amounts of antioxidant polyphenols. By their ability to restore endothelial function but also their capacity to stimulate enzymatic antioxidants trough activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, polyphenols can represent a promising treatment target for reducing human AAA progression. Clinical studies are therefore urgently necessary to confirm such a suggestion. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  4. Mortality rates and risk factors for emergent open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Felice; Gloekler, Steffen; Mader, Caecilia E; Roos, Malgorzata; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mangialardi, Nicola; Neff, Thomas; Lachat, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The background of this paper is to report the mortality at 30 and 90 days and at mean follow-up after open abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) emergent repair and to identify predictive risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality. Between 1997 and 2002, 104 patients underwent emergent AAA open surgery. Symptomatic and ruptured AAAs were observed, respectively, in 21 and 79% of cases. Mean patient age was 70 (SD 9.2) years. Mean aneurysm maximal diameter was 7.4 (SD 1.6) cm. Primary endpoints were 30- and 90-day mortality. Significant mortality-related risk factor identification was the secondary endpoint. Open repair trend and its related perioperative mortality with a per-year analysis and a correlation subanalysis to identify predictive mortality factor were performed. Mean follow-up time was 23 (SD 23) months. Overall, 30-day mortality was 30%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were the use of computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative diagnostic tool, AAA rupture, preoperative shock, intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of aortic balloon occlusion, intraoperative massive blood transfusion (MBT), and development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Previous abdominal surgery was identified as a protective risk factor. The mortality rate at 90 days was 44%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were AAA rupture, aortocaval fistula, peripheral artery disease (PAD), preoperative shock, CPR, MBT, and ACS. The mortality rate at follow-up was 45%. Correlation analysis showed that MBT, shock, and ACS are the most relevant predictive mortality factor at 30 and 90 days. During the transition period from open to endovascular repair, open repair mortality outcomes remained comparable with other contemporary data despite a selection bias for higher risk patients. MBT, shock, and ACS are the most pronounced predictive mortality risk factors.

  5. Standardized volume rendering for magnetic resonance angiography measurements in the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Persson, A; Brismar, T B; Lundström, C; Dahlström, N; Othberg, F; Smedby, O

    2006-03-01

    To compare three methods for standardizing volume rendering technique (VRT) protocols by studying aortic diameter measurements in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) datasets. Datasets from 20 patients previously examined with gadolinium-enhanced MRA and with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for abdominal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively evaluated by three independent readers. The MRA datasets were viewed using VRT with three different standardized transfer functions: the percentile method (Pc-VRT), the maximum-likelihood method (ML-VRT), and the partial range histogram method (PRH-VRT). The aortic diameters obtained with these three methods were compared with freely chosen VRT parameters (F-VRT) and with maximum intensity projection (MIP) concerning inter-reader variability and agreement with the reference method DSA. F-VRT parameters and PRH-VRT gave significantly higher diameter values than DSA, whereas Pc-VRT gave significantly lower values than DSA. The highest interobserver variability was found for F-VRT parameters and MIP, and the lowest for Pc-VRT and PRH-VRT. All standardized VRT methods were significantly superior to both MIP and F-VRT in this respect. The agreement with DSA was best for PRH-VRT, which was the only method with a mean error below 1 mm and which also had the narrowest limits of agreement (95% of cases between 2.1 mm below and 3.1 mm above DSA). All the standardized VRT methods compare favorably with MIP and VRT with freely selected parameters as regards interobserver variability. The partial range histogram method, although systematically overestimating vessel diameters, gives results closest to those of DSA.

  6. 3D Printed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Phantom for Image Guided Surgical Planning with a Patient Specific Fenestrated Endovascular Graft System

    PubMed Central

    Meess, Karen M.; Izzo, Richard L.; Dryjski, Maciej L.; Curl, Richard E.; Harris, Linda M.; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-01-01

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. Results With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. Conclusions With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging. PMID:28638171

  7. 3D printed abdominal aortic aneurysm phantom for image guided surgical planning with a patient specific fenestrated endovascular graft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meess, Karen M.; Izzo, Richard L.; Dryjski, Maciej L.; Curl, Richard E.; Harris, Linda M.; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-03-01

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. Results: With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. Conclusions: With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging.

  8. Predictors and outcomes of endoleaks in the Veterans Affairs Open Versus Endovascular Repair (OVER) Trial of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lal, Brajesh K; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ziyi; Kyriakides, Tassos; Matsumura, Jon; Lederle, Frank A; Freischlag, Julie

    2015-12-01

    The Veterans Affairs Open Versus Endovascular Repair (OVER) Trial of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms study was a randomized controlled trial comparing open vs endovascular repair (EVAR) in standard-risk patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms. The analysis reported here identifies characteristics, risk factors, and long-term outcome of endoleaks in patients treated with EVAR in the OVER cohort. The OVER trial enrolled 881 patients, of whom 439 received successful EVAR. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for endoleaks and secondary interventions. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, longitudinal plots, and generalized linear mixed models methods were used to describe time to endoleak detection, resolution, or death. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 2.4 years, 135 patients (30.5%) developed 187 endoleaks. Four patients with EVAR went on to rupture; these four patients did not all have an endoleak. Mortality between patients who did and did not develop endoleaks was not significantly different. The 187 endoleaks included 12% type I, 76% type II, 3% type III, 3% type IV, and 6% indeterminate. Patient demographics and vascular risk factors were not associated with endoleak development. The presence of endoleaks resulted in an increase in aneurysm diameter over time (P < .0001). Fifty-three percent of endoleaks resolved spontaneously, and 31.9% received secondary interventions. The initial aneurysm size independently predicted a need for secondary interventions (P < .0003). Delayed type II endoleaks (detected >1 year after EVAR) were associated with aneurysm enlargement compared with the early counterpart. There was no difference in aneurysm size or length of survival between type II and other types of endoleak. We present one of the most comprehensive and longest follow-up analyses of patients treated with aortic endografts. Endoleaks were common and negatively affected aneurysm diameter reduction. Delayed type II endoleaks were associated with late

  9. The impact of endovascular aneurysm repair on mortality for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Karthikesalingam, Alan; Holt, Peter J; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Bahia, Sandeep S; Patterson, Benjamin O; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Thompson, Matthew M

    2016-08-01

    Procedural mortality is of paramount importance for patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Previous comparative studies have demonstrated international differences in the care of ruptured AAA. This study compared the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and in-hospital mortality for elective AAA repair in England and the United States. The English Hospital Episode Statistics and the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) were interrogated for elective AAA repair from 2005 to 2010. In-hospital mortality and the use of EVAR were analyzed separately for each health care system, after within-country risk adjustment for age, gender, year, and an accepted national comorbidity index. The study included 21,272 patients with AAA in England, of whom 86.61% were male, with median (interquartile range) age of 74 (69-79) years. There were 196,113 AAA patients in the United States, of whom 76.14% were male, with median (interquartile range) age of 73 (67-78) years. In-hospital mortality was greater in England (4.09% vs 1.96 %; P < .01) and EVAR less common (37.33% vs 64.36%; P < .01). These observations persisted in age- and gender-matched comparison. In both countries, lower mortality and greater use of EVAR were seen in centers performing greater numbers of AAA repairs per annum. In England, lower mortality and greater use of EVAR were seen in teaching hospitals with larger bed capacity. In-hospital survival and the uptake of EVAR are lower in England than in the United States. In both countries, mortality was lowest in high-caseload centers performing a greater proportion of cases with endovascular repair. These common factors suggest strategies for improving outcomes for patients requiring elective AAA repair. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Intimal cell masses in the abdominal aortas of swine fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for up to twelve years of age.

    PubMed

    Kim, D N; Schmee, J; Lee, K T; Thomas, W A

    1985-05-01

    The normal subendothelial intima of large arteries in man, swine and most other species is a variegated structure from birth onwards. In some regions it contains only a few scattered cells; in others there may be a continuous single layer of cells; and in still others the cells pile up to form what we have called intimal cell masses (ICM). The cells in the normal ICM are mostly smooth muscle cells although there is also a small resident population of monocyte-like cells. We have been studying the ICM in swine with emphasis on the abdominal aorta. We have found that atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine induced by high-fat high-cholesterol diets begin by a hyperplastic reaction of the smooth muscle cells in the ICM and progress to form large lesions characterized by extensive regions of lipid-rich calcific necrotic debris similar to advanced lesions in man. Because of the putative key role of the ICM in atherogenesis we think that it is important to learn as much as possible about their natural history under conditions as normal as possible. In this report we present data on ICM in the abdominal aortas of 34 male and female Hormel miniature swine maintained on a low-fat low-cholesterol diet for up to 12 years of age. The ICM grow slowly with aging and in the distal portion of the aorta account for an average of 9% in the male and 15% in the female of the total cells in the aortic wall (intima + media).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenic differentiation of macrophages in the abdominal aorta of angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Kelly, Matthew; Takei, Yuichiro; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2018-04-20

    Osteoclastogenic activation of macrophages (OCG) occurs in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and in calcium chloride-induced degenerative AAAs in mice, which have increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. As the activity of OCG in dissecting aneurysms is not clear, we tested the hypothesis that OCG contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced dissecting aneurysm (Ang II-induced AAA) in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. AAAs were produced in apolipoprotein E knockout mice via the administration of Ang II. Additionally, receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL)-neutralizing antibody (5 mg/kg) was administered to one group of mice 7 days prior to Ang II infusion. Aneurysmal sections were probed for presence of RANKL and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase via immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Mouse aortas were also examined for RANKL and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression via Western blot. In vitro murine vascular smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) and murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) were analyzed for the expression of osteogenic factors via Western blot, qPCR, and flow cytometry in response to Ang II or RANKL stimulation. The signaling pathway that mediates Ang II-induced RANKL expression in MOVAS cells was also investigated via application of TG101348, a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of Ang II-induced AAA sections revealed OCG as evidenced by increased RANKL and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression compared with control mice. Immunofluorescence staining of AAA sections revealed co-localization of vascular smooth muscle cells and RANKL, revealing vascular smooth muscle cells as one potential source of RANKL. Systemic administration of RANKL-neutralizing antibody suppressed Ang II-induced AAA, with significant reduction of the maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta compared with vehicle controls (1.5 ± 0.4 mm vs 2.2 ± 0.2 mm). Ang II (1 μM) treatment

  12. Trends of 30-day mortality and morbidities in endovascular repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysm during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kanhua; Locham, Satinderjit S; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Malas, Mahmoud B

    2018-06-15

    Significant research efforts have been made to improve the safety and efficacy of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in treating abdominal aortic aneurysm. This study aimed to examine the trends of perioperative outcomes of EVAR in the recent decade using a national validated database. Patients who underwent EVAR for intact abdominal aortic aneurysm between 2006 and 2015 were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and divided into early (2006-2010) and late (2011-2015) periods. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included operative time, length of hospital stay, and 30-day major complications (renal, cardiopulmonary, and wound infection). A total of 30,076 patients were identified, with 11,539 in the early period and 18,537 in the late period. The 30-day mortality was kept at a low level in both periods (1.2% vs 1.2%; P = .98), whereas both the mean operation time (155.5 ± 72.6 minutes vs 141.9 ± 73.7 minutes; P < .001) and length of hospital stay (3.24 ± 5.32 days vs 2.81 ± 4.30 days; P < .001) were decreased in the late period. The 30-day major complication rate was reduced by 19.6% (5.1% vs 4.1%; P < .0001), with decreased renal failure (1.4% vs 1.0%; P = .003), cardiopulmonary complications (2.2% vs 1.7%; P = .006), and wound complications (2.5% vs 1.8%; P < .001). All the decreasing trends of mortality, any 30-day complication, and each type of major complication were statistically significant. Being treated in the late period was independently associated with decreased 30-day major complications (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.87; P < .001), and this effect was confirmed in the propensity score-matched cohort (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.90; P < .001). Although the 30-day mortality remains similar, postoperative complications in EVAR have decreased significantly during the recent decade. The continuous improvement in endograft

  13. Human Thiel-Embalmed Cadaveric Aortic Model with Perfusion for Endovascular Intervention Training and Medical Device Evaluation.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Helen; Cox, Ben F; Robertson, James; Duncan, Robyn; Matthew, Shona; Bhat, Raj; Barclay, Avril; Anwar, J; Wilkinson, Tracey; Melzer, Andreas; Houston, J Graeme

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate human Thiel-embalmed cadavers with the addition of extracorporeal driven ante-grade pulsatile flow in the aorta as a model for simulation training in interventional techniques and endovascular device testing. Three human cadavers embalmed according to the method of Thiel were selected. Extracorporeal pulsatile ante-grade flow of 2.5 L per min was delivered directly into the aorta of the cadavers via a surgically placed connection. During perfusion, aortic pressure and temperature were recorded and optimized for physiologically similar parameters. Pre- and post-procedure CT imaging was conducted to plan and follow up thoracic and abdominal endovascular aortic repair as it would be in a clinical scenario. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and endovascular abdominal repair (EVAR) procedures were conducted in simulation of a clinical case, under fluoroscopic guidance with a multidisciplinary team present. The Thiel cadaveric aortic perfusion model provided pulsatile ante-grade flow, with pressure and temperature, sufficient to conduct a realistic simulation of TEVAR and EVAR procedures. Fluoroscopic imaging provided guidance during the intervention. Pre- and post-procedure CT imaging facilitated planning and follow-up evaluation of the procedure. The human Thiel-embalmed cadavers with the addition of extracorporeal flow within the aorta offer an anatomically appropriate, physiologically similar robust model to simulate aortic endovascular procedures, with potential applications in interventional radiology training and medical device testing as a pre-clinical model.

  14. [Endovascular repair of primary retrograde Stanford type A aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Wu, H W; Sun, L; Li, D M; Jing, H; Xu, B; Wang, C T; Zhang, L

    2016-10-01

    Objective: To summarize the short- and mid-term results on endovascular repair of primary retrograde Stanford type A aortic dissection with an entry tear in distal aortic arch or descending aorta. Methods: Between December 2009 and December 2014, 21 male patients of primary retrograde Stanford type A aortic dissection with a mean age of (52±9) years received endovascular repair in Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Jinling Hospital. Among the 21 cases, 17 patients were presented as ascending aortic intramural hematoma, 4 patients as active blood flow in false lumen and partial thrombosis, 8 patients as ulcer on descending aorta combined intramural hematoma in descending aorta, and 13 patients as typical dissection changes. All patients received endovascular stent-graft repair successfully, with 15 cases in acute phase and 6 cases in chronic phase. Results: Cone stent was implanted in 13 cases, while straight stent in 8 cases, including 1 case of left common carotid-left subclavian artery bypass surgery and 1 case of restrictive bare-metal stent implantation. No perioperative stroke, paraplegia, stent fracture or displacement, limbs or abdominal organ ischemia or other severe complications occured, except for tracheotomy in 2 patients. Active blood flow in ascending aorta or aortic arch disappeared, and intramural hematoma started being absorbed on CT angiography images before discharge. All patients were alive during follow-up (6 to 72 months), and intramural hematoma in ascending aorta and aortic arch was absorbed thoroughly. Type Ⅰ endoleak and ulcer expansion were found in 1 patient, and type Ⅳ endoleak in distal stent was found in another one patient. Secondary ascending aortic dissection was found in 1 case two years later, which was cured by hybrid procedure with cardiopulmonary bypass. Conclusion: Endovascular repair of primary retrograde Stanford type A aortic dissection was safe and effective, which correlated with favorable short- and mid

  15. Transcatheter Embolization of Type I Endoleaks Associated With Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Graif, Assaf; Vance, Ansar Z; Garcia, Mark J; Lie, Kevin T; McGarry, Michael K; Leung, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and outcome of transcatheter embolization using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) of type I endoleaks associated with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify 8 consecutive patients who had undergone EVOH embolization for type I endoleaks between 2012 and 2015. The primary approach used to access the endoleak was the perigraft technique, where the endoleak itself is catheterized at the anastomotic site. Six type Ia and 2 type Ib endoleaks were treated. In 2 patients, a direct transabdominal approach was used to access the endoleak because it was inaccessible via the perigraft approach. Coils were used in addition to EVOH in 5 cases. Residual endoleak was noted in 1 case, whereas 2 patients developed a recurrent type I endoleak during follow-up. No EVOH complications were observed. The 5 remaining patients demonstrated freedom from endoleak and reintervention at a mean follow-up of 6.9 months. Type I endoleaks can be safely and effectively treated by embolotherapy with EVOH. Larger endoleaks resulting from grossly undersized endografts appear to be unsuitable for EVOH embolization.

  16. Anatomical Features and Early Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm from a Korean Multicenter Registry.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Lee, Do Yun; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Park, Ki Hyuk; Min, Seung-Kee; Chang, Jeong-Hwan; Huh, Seung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Won, Jehwan; Byun, Seung Jae; Park, Sang Jun; Jang, Lee Chan; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2015-09-01

    To introduce a nation-based endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) registry in South Korea and to analyze the anatomical features and early clinical outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in patients who underwent EVAR. The Korean EVAR registry (KER) was a template-based online registry developed and established in 2009. The KER recruited 389 patients who underwent EVAR from 13 medical centers in South Korea from January 2010 to June 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the anatomic features and 30-day clinical outcomes. Initial deployment without open conversion was achieved in all cases and procedure-related 30-day mortality rate was 1.9%. Anatomic features showed the following variables: proximal aortic neck angle 48.8±25.7° (mean±standard deviation), vertical neck length 35.0±17.2 mm, aneurysmal sac diameter 57.2±14.2 mm, common iliac artery (CIA) involvement in 218 (56.3%) patients, and median right CIA length 34.9 mm. Two hundred and nineteen (56.3%) patients showed neck calcification, 98 patients (25.2%) had neck thrombus, and the inferior mesenteric arteries of 91 patients (23.4%) were occluded. Anatomical features of AAA in patients from the KER were characterized as having angulated proximal neck, tortuous iliac artery, and a higher rate of CIA involvement. Long-term follow-up and ongoing studies are required.

  17. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is more profitable than open repair based on contribution margin per day.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Barry L; Comstock, Matthew C; Butz, David A; Taheri, Paul A; Williams, David M; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-03-01

    Earlier studies have reported that endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (EAAA) repair yields lower total profit margins than open AAA (OAAA) repair. This study compared EAAA versus OAAA based on contribution margin per day, which may better measure profitability of new clinical technologies. Contribution margin equals revenue less variable direct costs (VDCs). VDCs capture incremental resources tied directly to individual patients' activity (eg, invoice price of endograft device, nursing labor). Overhead costs factor into total margin, but not contribution margin. The University of Michigan Health System's cost accounting system was used to extract fiscal year 2002-2003 information on revenue, total margin, contribution margin, and duration of stay for Medicare patients with principal diagnosis of AAA (ICD-9 code 441.4). OAAA had revenues of $37,137 per case versus $28,960 for EAAA, similar VDCs per case, and thus higher contribution margin per case ($24,404 for OAAA vs $13,911 for EAAA, P < .001). However, OAAA had significantly longer mean duration of stay per case (10.2 days vs 2.2 days, P < .001). Therefore, mean contribution margin per day was $2948 for OAAA, but $8569 for EAAA ( P < .001). On the basis of contribution margin per day, EAAA repair dominates OAAA repair. The shorter duration of stay with EAAA allows higher throughput, fuller overhead amortization, better use of scarce inpatient beds, and higher health system profits. Surgeons must understand overhead allocation to devices, especially when new technologies cut duration of stay markedly.

  18. Editor's Choice - Late Open Surgical Conversion after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Vinay; Nagpal, Sudhir; Jetty, Prasad

    2018-02-01

    Late open surgical conversion following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) may occur more frequently after performing EVAR in anatomy outside the instructions for use (IFU). This study reviews predictors and outcomes of late open surgical conversion for failed EVAR. This retrospective cohort study reviewed all EVARs performed at the Ottawa Hospital between January 1999 and May 2015. Open surgical conversions >1 month post EVAR were identified. Variables analysed included indication for conversion, pre-intervention AAA anatomy, endovascular device and configuration, operative technique, re-interventions, complications, and death. Of 1060 consecutive EVARs performed, 16 required late open surgical conversion. Endografts implanted were Medtronic Talent (n = 8, 50.0%), Medtronic Endurant (n = 3, 18.8%), Cook Zenith (n = 4, 25.0%), and Terumo Anaconda (n = 1, 6.2%). Eleven grafts were bifurcated (68.8%), five were aorto-uni-iliac (31.2%). The median time to open surgical conversion was 3.1 (IQR 1.0-5.2) years. There was no significant difference in pre-EVAR rupture status (1.4% elective, 2.1% ruptured, p = .54). Indications for conversion included: Type 1 endoleak with sac expansion (n = 4, 25.0%), Type 2 endoleak with expansion (n = 2, 12.5%), migration (n = 3, 18.8%), sac expansion without endoleak (n = 2, 12.5%), graft infection (n = 3, 18.8%), rupture (n = 2, 12.5%). Nine patients (56.2%) underwent stent graft explantation with in situ surgical graft reconstruction, seven had endograft preserving open surgical intervention. The 30 day mortality was 18.8% (n = 3, all of whom having had endograft preservation). Ten patients (62.5%) suffered major in hospital complications. One patient (6.5%) required post-conversion major surgical re-intervention. IFU adherence during initial EVAR was 43.8%, versus 79.0% (p < .01) among uncomplicated EVARs. Open surgical conversion following EVAR results in significant morbidity and mortality. IFU adherence of EVARs

  19. Endovascular Treatment of an Aneurysmal Aberrant Systemic Artery Supplying a Pulmonary Sequestrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Katrine Lawaetz, E-mail: klk@dadlnet.dk; Duus, Louise Aarup, E-mail: louise.brodersen@gmail.com; Elle, Bo, E-mail: Bo.Elle@rsyd.dk

    An aberrant systemic artery originating from the abdominal aorta supplying a pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation. This causes a left-to-left shunt. Symptoms include recurrent pneumonias, hemoptysis, and, in the long term, heart failure. Aneurysm of the aberrant vessel is rarely seen. Traditionally, treatment of pulmonary sequestrations includes ligation of the feeding vessel and lobectomy. A new promising treatment is an endovascular approach. Only a few cases describe endovascular treatment of pulmonary sequestration. This is the first published case of a giant aneurysmal branch from the abdominal aorta to the normal basal segments of the lung, successfully occluded withmore » an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II (AVP II, St.Jude Medical, MN, USA) alone.« less

  20. Discussion on the Timing of Balloon Occlusion of the Abdominal Aorta during a Caesarean Section in Patients with Pernicious Placenta Previa Complicated with Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kaili; Cai, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Objective This paper is aimed at investigating the role and value of the timing of balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta during caesarean section in patients with pernicious placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta. Methods 79 cases admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from September 2015 to December 2016 were treated with ultrasound mediated abdominal aortic balloon occlusion. Among them, 42 cases, whose balloon occlusion time was selected before the delivery and transverse incision was taken, were group A. The other 37 cases were group B, whose timing of balloon occlusion was selected after the delivery and the uterine incision made trying to avoid the placenta or double incisions. The intraoperative blood loss, utilization of blood, and other indicators were compared between the two groups. Results The intraoperative blood loss in groups A and B was 413.8 ± 105.9 ml and 810.3 ± 180.3 ml, and the utilization of blood products in groups A and B was 30.23% and 89.2%. The total hysterectomy rate was 2.53% (2/79), with no hysterectomies in groups A and 2 cases in group B. Conclusion The balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta before the delivery combined with a transverse incision is more effective. PMID:29230417

  1. Short- and long-term survival after open versus endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm-Polish population analysis.

    PubMed

    Symonides, Bartosz; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pinkas, Jarosław; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare short and long-term mortality and readmissions in patients with non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treated with endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or open aneurysm repair (OAR). Retrospective survival analysis based on prospectively collected medical records of the national Polish public health insurer. In the National Health Fund database we identified all patients who underwent elective open or endovascular treatment of AAA between January 1st 2011 and March 22nd 2016. The data on mortality, selected concomitant diseases and readmissions were collected. A total of 7805 patients (mean age 70.9±8.1 yrs, 85.8% males) underwent OAR (n = 2336) or EVAR (n = 5469). A median follow up was 27.5 months (IQR range 10.0-38.4 months). The primary outcome variable was all-cause mortality, secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality and readmissions. Kaplan-Meier (K-M), Cox proportional-hazards and propensity score analyses were performed for primary and secondary outcomes adjusting for repair type of AAA (OAR vs. EVAR), age, sex and concomitant diseases. EVAR patients had higher all-cause mortality (6.4% vs. 4.6% P = 0.002, adjHR 1.34, 95%CI 1.07-1.67, P = 0.010) compared with OAR. The mortality risks for OAR patients decreased below those for EVAR patients after 9.9 months. Of all the tested confounding factors only age independently and significantly influenced long-term mortality. Readmissions occurred more often in EVAR than in OAR (16.5% vs. 8.4% P<0.001, adjHR 2.15, 95%CI 1.84-2.52, P<0.001) independently from other covariants. Survival and readmissions Kaplan-Meier curves remained statistically different between OAR and EVAR patients after propensity score matching. Survival benefit of EVAR over OAR disappeared early during the first year after procedure, particularly in patients below 70 years of age, accompanied by an increased frequency of readmissions of EVAR patients. Our data suggest re-evaluation of the strategy for

  2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  3. Comparative clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of endovascular strategy v open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: three year results of the IMPROVE randomised trial.

    PubMed

    2017-11-14

    Objective  To assess the three year clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Design  Randomised controlled trial. Setting  30 vascular centres (29 in UK, one in Canada), 2009-16. Participants  613 eligible patients (480 men) with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm, of whom 502 underwent emergency repair for rupture. Interventions  316 patients were randomised to an endovascular strategy (275 with confirmed rupture) and 297 to open repair (261 with confirmed rupture). Main outcome measures  Mortality, with reinterventions after aneurysm repair, quality of life, and hospital costs to three years as secondary measures. Results  The maximum follow-up for mortality was 7.1 years, with two patients in each group lost to follow-up by three years. After similar mortality by 90 days, in the mid-term (three months to three years) there were fewer deaths in the endovascular than the open repair group (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.90), leading to lower mortality at three years (48% v 56%), but by seven years mortality was about 60% in each group (hazard ratio 0.92, 0.75 to 1.13). Results for the 502 patients with repaired ruptures were more pronounced: three year mortality was lower in the endovascular strategy group (42% v 54%; odds ratio 0.62, 0.43 to 0.88), but after seven years there was no clear difference between the groups (hazard ratio 0.86, 0.68 to 1.08). Reintervention rates up to three years were not significantly different between the randomised groups (hazard ratio 1.02, 0.79 to 1.32); the initial rapid rate of reinterventions was followed by a much slower mid-term reintervention rate in both groups. The early higher average quality of life in the endovascular strategy versus open repair group, coupled with the lower mortality at three years, led to a

  4. Endovascular Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fattori, Rossella, E-mail: rossella.fattori@unibo.it; Russo, Vincenzo; Lovato, Luigi

    The overall survival of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has improved significantly in the past few years. Endovascular treatment, proposed as an alternative to surgery, has been considered a therapeutic innovation because of its low degree of invasiveness, which allows the treatment of even high-surgical risk patients with limited complications and mortality. A major limitation is the lack of adequate evidence regarding long-term benefit and durability because follow-up has been limited to just a few years even in the largest series. The combination of endovascular exclusion with visceral branch revascularization for the treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms involving themore » visceral aorta has also been attempted. As an alternative, endografts with branches represent a technological evolution that allows treatment of complex anatomy. Even if only small numbers of patients and short follow-up are available, this technical approach, which has with limited mortality (<10%) and paraplegia rates, to expand endovascular treatment to TAA seems feasible. With improved capability to recognize proper anatomy and select clinical candidates, the choice of endovascular stent-graft placement may offer a strategy to optimize management and improve prognosis.« less

  5. Influence of warfarin therapy on the occurrence of postoperative endoleaks and aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Seike, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Itonaga, Tatsuya; Morita, Yoshiaki; Oda, Tatsuya; Inoue, Yosuke; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine whether warfarin therapy influences the occurrence of endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A total of 367 patients who underwent EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysm between 2007 and 2013 were recruited for this study. Satisfactory follow-up data including completed computed tomography scan follow-up for more than 2 years were available for 209 patients, and the mean follow-up time was 37 ± 12 months. Twenty-nine (16%) patients were on warfarin therapy (warfarin group), whereas 180 (84%) patients were not on warfarin therapy (control group). Two- and four-year freedom rates for persistent type II endoleaks were significantly lower in patients of the warfarin group compared with the control group (85 and 49% vs 93 and 91%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Similarly, 2- and 4-year freedom rates for sac enlargement (>5 mm) were significantly lower in patients of the warfarin group compared with the control group (83 and 61% vs 92 and 82%, respectively; P = 0.0036). Using Cox regression analysis, the warfarin therapy was identified to be an independent positive predictor of sac enlargement after EVAR [hazard ratio (HR): 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-5.40; P = 0.032], together with persistent type II endoleak. Warfarin therapy was also an independent predictor for persistent type II endoleak (HR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.81-7.41; P < 0.0001) together with the number of patent lumbar arteries. Results suggested that warfarin therapy was significantly associated with an increased risk for persistent II endoleak and sac enlargement after EVAR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Circulating Vascular Basement Membrane Fragments are Associated with the Diameter of the Abdominal Aorta and Their Expression Pattern is Altered in AAA Tissue.

    PubMed

    Holsti, Mari; Wanhainen, Anders; Lundin, Christina; Björck, Martin; Tegler, Gustaf; Svensson, Johan; Sund, Malin

    2018-04-12

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by enhanced proteolytic activity, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the vascular wall. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin are structural proteins in vascular basement membrane (VBM), a specialised ECM structure. Here the association between plasma levels of these collagens with the aortic diameter and expansion rate is studied, and their expression in aortic tissue characterised. This was a retrospective population based cohort study. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin were analysed in plasma by ELISA assay in 615 men, divided into three groups based on the aortic diameter: 1) normal aorta ≤ 25 mm, 2) sub-aneurysmal aorta (SAA) 26-29 mm, and 3) AAA ≥ 30 mm. Follow up data were available for 159 men. The association between collagen levels and aortic diameter at baseline, and with the expansion rate at follow up were analysed in ordinal logistic regression and linear regression models, controlling for common confounding factors. Tissue expression of the collagens was analysed in normal aorta (n = 6) and AAA (n = 6) by immunofluorescence. Plasma levels of type XVIII collagen/endostatin (136 ng/mL [SD 29] in individuals with a normal aorta diameter, 154 ng/ml [SD 45] in SAA, and 162 ng/ml [SD 46] in AAA; p = .001) and type IV collagen (105 ng/mL [SD 42] normal aorta, 124 ng/ml [SD 46] SAA, and 127 ng/ml [SD 47] AAA; p = .037) were associated with a larger aortic diameter. A significant association was found between the baseline levels of type XVIII/endostatin and the aortic expansion rate (p = .035), but in the multivariable model, only the initial aortic diameter remained significantly associated with expansion (p = .005). Altered expression patterns of both collagens were observed in AAA tissue. Plasma levels of circulating type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin increase with AAA diameter. The expression pattern of VBM proteins is altered in the aneurysm wall. Copyright

  7. Total Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amako, Mau; Spear, Rafaëlle; Clough, Rachel E; Hertault, Adrien; Azzaoui, Richard; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stéphan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a total endovascular aortic repair with branched and fenestrated endografts in a young patient with Marfan syndrome and a chronic aortic dissection. Open surgery is the gold standard to treat aortic dissections in patients with aortic disease and Marfan syndrome. In 2000, a 38-year-old man with Marfan syndrome underwent open ascending aorta repair for an acute type A aortic dissection. One year later, a redo sternotomy was performed for aortic valve replacement. In 2013, the patient presented with endocarditis and pulmonary infection, which necessitated tracheostomy and temporary dialysis. In 2014, the first stage of the endovascular repair was performed using an inner branched endograft to exclude a 77-mm distal arch and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. In 2015, a 63-mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm was excluded by implantation of a 4-fenestrated endograft. Follow-up after both endovascular repairs was uneventful. Total aortic endovascular repair was successfully performed to treat a patient with arch and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with chronic aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome. The postoperative images confirmed patency of the endograft and its branches, and complete exclusion of the aortic false lumen. Endovascular repair is a treatment option in patients with connective tissue disease who are not candidates for open surgery. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm these favorable early outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endovascular repair vs open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: comparative utilization trends from 2001 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Parker, Laurence; Frangos, Andrea J; Sunshine, Jonathan H

    2009-07-01

    Within the past few years, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has come into use for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). In many cases, EVAR has the potential to replace traditional open surgical repair (OSR), which is more invasive, risky, and expensive. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent EVAR is replacing OSR, whether the frequency of treatment is increasing with the advent of the less invasive approach, and which specialties are performing the procedures. The Medicare Part B data sets for 2001 through 2006 were studied. Procedure volume and utilization rates per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries were determined for the 7 Current Procedural Terminology, fourth edition, procedure codes that describe EVAR and the 4 codes that describe OSR for AAA. Medicare's physician specialty codes were used to ascertain the specialties of the physician providers. A total of 31,965 OSRs for AAA were performed in Medicare beneficiaries in 2001, dropping to 15,665 by 2006 (-51%). In contrast, EVAR was carried out in 11,028 instances in 2001, increasing to 28,937 by 2006 (+162%). The utilization rate per 100,000 for OSR dropped from 90 to 42 (a rate decrease of 48) during the study period, while the rate for EVAR increased from 31 to 77 (a rate increase of 46). The combined utilization rate per 100,000 of the two types of interventions for AAA (EVAR and OSR) decreased from 121 in 2001 to 119 in 2006. In performing EVAR, procedure volume and market share in 2006 by specialty were 1) 22,003 procedures by surgeons, a 76% share; 2) 3,287 procedures by radiologists, an 11% share; 3) 1,915 procedures by cardiologists, a 7% share; and 4) 1,732 procedures by all other physicians, a 6% share. Treatment for AAA seems to be an example of the responsible use of new technology by physicians. The newer, less invasive, and less risky procedure (EVAR) is replacing the older and more invasive procedure (OSR) to a considerable degree. However, the overall combined

  9. Mid-term cost-effectiveness analysis of open and endovascular repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Rollins, K E; Shak, J; Ambler, G K; Tang, T Y; Hayes, P D; Boyle, J R

    2014-02-01

    Emergency endovascular repair (EVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) may have lower operative mortality rates than open surgical repair. Concerns remain that the early survival benefit after EVAR for rAAA may be offset by late reinterventions. The aim of this study was to compare reintervention rates and cost-effectiveness of EVAR and open repair for rAAA. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients with rAAA undergoing EVAR or open repair over 6 years. A health economic model developed for the cost-effectiveness of elective EVAR was used in the emergency setting. Sixty-two patients (mean age 77·9 years) underwent EVAR and 85 (mean age 75·9 years) had open repair of rAAA. Median follow-up was 42 and 39 months respectively. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality rates after EVAR and open repair (18 and 26 per cent respectively; P = 0·243). Reintervention rates were also similar (32 and 31 per cent; P = 0·701). The mean cost per patient was €26,725 for EVAR and €30,297 for open repair, and the cost per life-year gained was €7906 and €9933 respectively (P = 0·561). Open repair had greater initial costs: longer procedural times (217 versus 178·5 min; P < 0·001) and intensive care stay (5·0 versus 1·0 days; P = 0·015). Conversely, EVAR had greater reintervention (€156,939 versus €35,335; P = 0·001) and surveillance (P < 0·001) costs. There was no significant difference in reintervention rates after EVAR or open repair for rAAA. EVAR was as cost-effective at mid-term follow-up. The increased procedural costs of open repair are not outweighed by greater surveillance and reintervention costs after EVAR. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Medium-Term Outcomes Following Endovascular Repair of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with an Unfavourable Proximal Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Prakash, E-mail: prakash.2.saha@kcl.ac.uk; Hughes, John, E-mail: johnhughes387@rocketmail.com; Patel, Ashish S., E-mail: ashish.s.patel@kcl.ac.uk

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate medium-term outcomes following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) with unfavourable neck anatomy using stent grafts with a 36 mm or larger proximal diameter.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of 27 patients who underwent elective EVAR between 2006 and 2008 using a stent graft with a 36 mm or larger proximal diameter was carried out. All patients had computed tomography angiography (CTA) for procedure planning, and detailed assessment of the aneurysm neck was performed using a three-dimensional CTA workstation. Patients were followed up with CTA at 3 and 12 months and annual duplex thereafter.ResultsThe medianmore » aneurysm diameter was 7 cm, and the median aneurysm neck diameter was 31 mm. Cook Zenith stent grafts were used in all patients, with a proximal diameter of 36 mm (n = 25) and 40 mm (n = 2). Primary and assisted primary technical success rates were 74 and 93 %, respectively. The follow-up period ranged from 62 to 84 months, with a median of 72 months. 15 patients died during follow-up. Two patients died from aortic rupture, and the remaining patients died from cardiac disease (n = 4), chest sepsis (n = 6), cancer (n = 2) and renal failure (n = 1). Complications included type I endoleak (n = 5), limb occlusion (n = 2), limb stenosis (n = 2), limb kinking (n = 1), dissection of an artery (n = 1), occlusion of a femorofemoral cross-over graft (n = 1) and poor attachment of a distal limb (n = 1).ConclusionsEVAR using stent grafts in the presence of an unfavourable neck has a high risk of complications. Medium-term survival in this group is low but mainly due to patient co-morbidities.« less

  11. Predictors of outcome after elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and external validation of a risk prediction model.

    PubMed

    Wisniowski, Brendan; Barnes, Mary; Jenkins, Jason; Boyne, Nicholas; Kruger, Allan; Walker, Philip J

    2011-09-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) has been associated with lower operative mortality and morbidity than open surgery but comparable long-term mortality and higher delayed complication and reintervention rates. Attention has therefore been directed to identifying preoperative and operative variables that influence outcomes after EVAR. Risk-prediction models, such as the EVAR Risk Assessment (ERA) model, have also been developed to help surgeons plan EVAR procedures. The aims of this study were (1) to describe outcomes of elective EVAR at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH), (2) to identify preoperative and operative variables predictive of outcomes after EVAR, and (3) to externally validate the ERA model. All elective EVAR procedures at the RBWH before July 1, 2009, were reviewed. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preoperative and operative variables predictive of outcomes after EVAR. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to externally validate the ERA model. Before July 1, 2009, 197 patients (172 men), who were a mean age of 72.8 years, underwent elective EVAR at the RBWH. Operative mortality was 1.0%. Survival was 81.1% at 3 years and 63.2% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis showed predictors of survival were age (P = .0126), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P = .0180), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .0348) at 3 years and age (P = .0103), ASA score (P = .0006), renal failure (P = .0048), and serum creatinine (P = .0022) at 5 years. Aortic branch vessel score was predictive of initial (30-day) type II endoleak (P = .0015). AAA tortuosity was predictive of midterm type I endoleak (P = .0251). Female sex was associated with lower rates of initial clinical success (P = .0406). The ERA model fitted RBWH data well for early death (C statistic = .906), 3-year survival (C statistic = .735), 5-year

  12. Endovascular stent grafting of thoracic aortic aneurysms: technological advancements provide an alternative to traditional surgical repair.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lauren E Beste

    2005-01-01

    The use of endovascular stent grafts is a leading technological advancement in the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms, and is being trialed in the United States as an alternative to medical management and traditional surgical repair. Aortic stent grafts, initially used only for abdominal aortic aneurysms, have been used for over 10 years in Europe and are currently under United States Food and Drug Administration investigation for the treatment of chronic and acute aortic aneurysms. Diseases of the thoracic aorta are often present in high-risk individuals, and, as a result, there is a high morbidity and mortality rate associated with both medical and surgical management of these patients. The development and refinement of endovascular approaches have the potential to decrease the need for traditional surgical repair, especially in high-risk populations such as the elderly and those with multiple comorbidities. Endovascular technology for thoracic repair has only been used in Europe for the last 10 years, with no long-term outcomes available; however, preliminary research demonstrates favorable early and midterm outcomes showing that endovascular stent graft placement to exclude the dilated, dissected, or ruptured aorta is both technically feasible and safe for patients. The article highlights the historical perspective of endovascular stent grafting as well as a description of patient selection, the operative procedure, benefits, risks, and unresolved issues pertaining to the procedure. A brief review of aneurysm and dissection pathophysiology and management is provided, as well as postoperative management for acute care nurses and recommendations for clinical practice.

  13. An anomalous origin of the gastrosplenic trunk and common hepatic artery arising independently from the abdominal aorta: a case report using MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Iacob, Nicoleta; Pusztai, Agneta Maria; Miclăuş, Graţian Dragoslav; Pop, Elena; Matusz, Petru

    2018-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a 61-year-old female patient, which presented on multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography a gastrosplenic trunk (GST) and common hepatic artery (CHA) arose independently from abdominal aorta (AA). The GST arose from the anterior wall of the AA, at the level of upper edge of the L1 vertebral body. The left gastric artery (LGA) arose from the superior wall of the GST. The splenic artery (SA) continuous the path of GST. The CHA arose from the anterior wall of the AA, at the level of upper one third of the L1 vertebral body, at 15.3 mm above the origin of superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The incidence and developmental and clinical significance of this vascular variation is discussed with a detailed review of the literature.

  14. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  15. The Impact of Aortic Occlusion Balloon on Mortality After Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Karkos, Christos D; Papadimitriou, Christina T; Chatzivasileiadis, Theodoros N; Kapsali, Nikoletta S; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the use of aortic occlusion balloon (AOB) has an impact on mortality of patients undergoing endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). A meta-analysis of the English-language literature was undertaken through February 2013. Articles reporting data on outcome after endovascular repair of RAAAs were identified and information regarding the use of AOB was sought. Included in this meta-analysis were 39 eligible studies reporting 1277 patients. The pooled perioperative mortality was 21.6% (95% CI 18.1-25.1%). There was significant within-study heterogeneity (I(2) 50.2%, P < 0.001). A total of 200 patients required AOB with an estimated pooled proportion of 14.1% (8.9-19.3%). Individual random-effects meta-regression investigating the effect of AOB and other risk factors on mortality revealed a significant linear association of hemodynamic instability, bifurcated endograft approach, and primary conversion to open repair with mortality and a nonlinear (second degree polynomial) association of AOB with mortality. On multivariable meta-regression models, both hemodynamic instability and AOB were found to be statistically significant, independent predictors of mortality. In particular, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between AOB and mortality and a positive effect of hemodynamic instability on mortality. In practical terms, mortality was significantly higher in studies with a higher proportion of hemodynamically unstable patients and lower in studies with a higher rate of AOB use. This study provides meta-analytical evidence that the use of an AOB in unstable RAAA patients undergoing endovascular repair may improve the results.

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Evolving Controversies and Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Carino, Davide; Sarac, Timur P; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a permanent dilatation of the abdominal aorta that exceeds 3 cm. Most AAAs arise in the portion of abdominal aorta distal to the renal arteries and are defined as infrarenal. Most AAAs are totally asymptomatic until catastrophic rupture. The strongest predictor of AAA rupture is the diameter. Surgery is indicated to prevent rupture when the risk of rupture exceeds the risk of surgery. In this review, we aim to analyze this disease comprehensively, starting from an epidemiological perspective, exploring etiology and pathophysiology, and concluding with surgical controversies. We will pursue these goals by addressing eight specific questions regarding AAA: (1) Is the incidence of AAA increasing? (2) Are ultrasound screening programs for AAA effective? (3) What causes AAA: Genes versus environment? (4) Animal models: Are they really relevant? (5) What pathophysiology leads to AAA? (6) Indications for AAA surgery: Are surgeons over-eager to operate? (7) Elective AAA repair: Open or endovascular? (8) Emergency AAA repair: Open or endovascular?

  17. Antioxidant effect of lidocaine and procaine on reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial dysfunction in the rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Myeong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Cho, Sang Yun; Kim, Dong Won

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in the endothelium. We tested the antioxidant effect of lidocaine and procaine on ROS-induced endothelial damage in the rabbit aorta. Methods Aortic rings isolated from rabbits were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution bubbled with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 at 37.5℃. After precontraction with phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M), changes in tension were recorded following a cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh 3 × 10-8 to 10-6 M). Differences were measured as percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS as generated by electrolysis of the K-H solution. The aortic rings were pretreated with lidocaine or procaine (10-5 M to 3 × 10-3 M) to compare their effects, as well as ROS scavengers, catalase, mannitol, sodium salicylate, and deferoxamine, and a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Lidocaine and procaine dose-dependently maintained endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh despite ROS activity (P < 0.05 vs control value). The 3AT pretreated procaine (3 × 10-3 M) group decreased more significantly than the un-pretreated procaine group (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that lidocaine and procaine dose-dependently preserve endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against ROS attack, potentially via hydrogen peroxide scavenging. PMID:20740215

  18. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  19. Antioxidant effects of methylprednisolone and hydrocortisone on the impairment of endothelium dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Jong; Song, Hyun Hoo; Jeong, Mi Ae; Yeom, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Won

    2013-01-01

    Background The reperfusion following ischemia produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). We studied the influences of methylprednisolone (MPD) and hydrocortisone (CRT) on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. After precontraction with norepinephrine, changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with MPD or CRT at the same concentrations, and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavenger inhibitors: superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethylthiocarbamate (DETCA), and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both MPD and CRT maintained endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner in spite of ROS attack. The restored ACh-induced relaxation of MPD and CRT group was not attenuated by pretreatment of 3AT and DETCA. Conclusions MPD and CRT preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a dose-related manner. Endothelial protection mechanisms of MPD and CRT may be not associated with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide scavenging. PMID:23372887

  20. Aortic Branch Artery Pseudoaneurysms Associated with Intramural Hematoma: When and How to Do Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Seitun, Sara

    To describe when and how to perform endovascular embolization of aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms associated with type A and type B intramural hematoma (IMH) involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III) that increased significantly in size during follow-up. Sixty-one patients (39 men; mean {+-} standard deviation age 66.1 {+-} 11.2 years) with acute IMH undergoing at least two multidetector computed tomographic examinations during follow-up for 12 months or longer were enrolled. Overall, 48 patients (31 men, age 65.9 {+-} 11.5) had type A and type B IMH involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey Imore » and III). Among the 48 patients, 26 (54 %; 17 men, aged 64.3 {+-} 11.4 years) had 71 aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms. Overall, during a mean follow-up of 22.1 {+-} 9.5 months (range 12-42 months), 31 (44 %) pseudoaneurysms disappeared; 22 (31 %) decreased in size; two (3 %) remained stable; and 16 (22 %) increased in size. Among the 16 pseudoaneurysms with increasing size, five of these (three intercostal arteries, one combined intercostobronchial/intercostal arteries, one renal artery), present in five symptomatic patients, had a significant increase in size (thickness >10 mm; width and length >20 mm). These five patients underwent endovascular embolization with coils and/or Amplatzer Vascular Plug. In all patients, complete thrombosis and exclusion of aortic pseudoaneurysm and relief of back pain were achieved. Aortic branch artery pseudoaneurysms associated with type A and type B IMH involving the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta (DeBakey I and III) may be considered relatively benign lesions. However, a small number may grow in size or extend longitudinally with clinical symptoms during follow-up, and in these cases, endovascular embolization can be an effective and safe procedure.« less

  1. Utility of ⁹⁹mTc-human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid SPECT for evaluating endoleak after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Motoki; Sato, Hirotatsu; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of (99m)Tc-human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-HSAD) SPECT in the detection of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Fifteen patients (11 men, four women) with aneurysm sac expansion of 5 mm or greater after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair underwent three-phase CT, (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT, and CT during aortography. Sensitivity calculations for three-phase CT and (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT were performed with CT during aortography as the reference standard. The volume of each endoleak was measured with CT during aortography. Seven subjects underwent embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol (ethiodized oil, Guerbet and metallic coils. Three-phase CT and (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT were repeated after embolization to assess their efficacy. Endoleaks were interpreted as perigraft radioisotope accumulation in 12 patients (80.0%) on (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT images, in 13 patients (86.7%) on three-phase CT images, and in 15 patients (100%) on CT during aortography. The mean endoleak volume visualized with (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT was 8.37 cm(3) (range, 5.2-15.1 cm(3)), and the volume not visualized was 3.47 cm(3) (2.5-4.6 cm(3)), a statistically significant difference (p = 0.019). In two patients, (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT depicted endoleaks evident at delayed phase CT during aortography but not at three-phase CT, suggesting they were slow-filling endoleaks. Accumulation of (99m)Tc-HSAD corresponding to endoleaks disappeared after embolization, but CT evaluation of embolization was impeded by artifacts of NBCA-Lipiodol and metallic coils. Technetium-99m-labeled HSAD SPECT proved less sensitive than three-phase CT but depicted endoleaks with volumes 5.2 cm(3) or greater as perigraft radioisotope accumulation. Slow-filling endoleaks can be visualized with (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT, which can be used to evaluate the efficacy of embolization.

  2. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mudassar; Fowler, Kathryn J; Mellnick, Vincent M; Sicard, Gregorio A; Narra, Vamsi R

    2016-06-01

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR.

  3. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta and Resuscitative Thoracotomy in Select Patients with Hemorrhagic Shock: Early Results from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma's Aortic Occlusion in Resuscitation for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery Registry.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Megan; Inaba, Kenji; Aiolfi, Alberto; DuBose, Joseph; Fabian, Timothy; Bee, Tiffany; Holcomb, John B; Moore, Laura; Skarupa, David; Scalea, Thomas M

    2018-05-01

    Aortic occlusion is a potentially valuable tool for early resuscitation in patients nearing extremis or in arrest from severe hemorrhage. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma's Aortic Occlusion in Resuscitation for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery registry identified trauma patients without penetrating thoracic injury undergoing aortic occlusion at the level of the descending thoracic aorta (resuscitative thoracotomy [RT] or zone 1 resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta [REBOA]) in the emergency department (ED). Survival outcomes relative to the timing of CPR need and admission hemodynamic status were examined. Two hundred and eighty-five patients were included: 81.8% were males, with injury due to penetrating mechanisms in 41.4%; median age was 35.0 years (interquartile range 29 years) and median Injury Severity Score was 34.0 (interquartile range 18). Resuscitative thoracotomy was used in 71%, and zone 1 REBOA in 29%. Overall survival beyond the ED was 50% (RT 44%, REBOA 63%; p = 0.004) and survival to discharge was 5% (RT 2.5%, REBOA 9.6%; p = 0.023). Discharge Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 in 85% of survivors. Prehospital CPR was required in 60% of patients with a survival beyond the ED of 37% and survival to discharge of 3% (all p > 0.05). Patients who did not require any CPR before had a survival beyond the ED of 70% (RT 48%, REBOA 93%; p < 0.001) and survival to discharge of 13% (RT 3.4%, REBOA 22.2%, p = 0.048). If aortic occlusion patients did not require CPR but presented with hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg; 9% [65% RT; 35% REBOA]), they achieved survival beyond the ED in 65% (p = 0.009) and survival to discharge of 15% (RT 0%, REBOA 44%; p = 0.008). Overall, REBOA can confer a survival benefit over RT, particularly in patients not requiring CPR. Considerable additional study is required to definitively recommend REBOA for specific subsets of injured patients. Copyright © 2018 American College of

  4. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction - a Finite Element Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-08-01

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30-40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach.

  5. Endovascular Electrodes for Electrical Stimulation of Blood Vessels for Vasoconstriction – a Finite Element Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kezurer, Noa; Farah, Nairouz; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock accounts for 30–40 percent of trauma mortality, as bleeding may sometimes be hard to control. Application of short electrical pulses on blood vessels was recently shown to elicit robust vasoconstriction and reduction of blood loss following vascular injury. In this study we present a novel approach for vasoconstriction based on endovascular application of electrical pulses for situations where access to the vessel is limited. In addition to ease of access, we hypothesize that this novel approach will result in a localized and efficient vasoconstriction. Using computer modeling (COMSOL Multiphysics, Electric Currents Module), we studied the effect of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment on abdominal aorta of pigs, and compared the efficiency of different electrodes configurations on the electric field amplitude, homogeneity and locality when applied on a blood vessel wall. Results reveal that the optimal configuration is the endovascular approach where four electrodes are used, spaced 13 mm apart. Furthermore, computer based temperature investigations (bio-heat model, COMSOL Multiphysics) show that the maximum expected temperature rise is of 1.2 degrees; highlighting the safety of the four endovascular electrodes configuration. These results can aid in planning the application of endovascular pulsed electrical treatment as an efficient and safe vasoconstriction approach. PMID:27534438

  6. Effect of ketorolac and diclofenac on the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yoon; Choi, Jin Hwa; Jeon, Woo Jae; Cheong, Mi Ae

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in endothelium. We studied the influences of ketorolac and diclofenac on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution bubbled with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 at 37.5℃. After being stimulated to contract with phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M), changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh, 3 × 10-8 to 10-6 M). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with ketorolac or diclofenac at the same concentrations (10-5 M to 3 × 10-4 M), and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavengers: catalase, mannitol, sodium salicylate and deferoxamine and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both ketorolac and diclofenac maintained endothlium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner inspite of ROS attack (P < 0.05 vs. control value). The 3AT pretreated ketorolac (3 × 10-3 M) group was decreased more significantly than un-pretreated ketorolac (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that ketorlac and diclofenac preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a concentration-related manner. One of the endothelial protection mechanisms of ketorolac may be hydrogen peroxide scavenging. PMID:20877705

  7. Incremental balloon deflation following complete resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta results in steep inflection of flow and rapid reperfusion in a large animal model of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Anders J; Russo, Rachel M; Ferencz, Sarah-Ashley E; Cannon, Jeremy W; Rasmussen, Todd E; Neff, Lucas P; Johnson, M Austin; Williams, Timothy K

    2017-07-01

    To avoid potential cardiovascular collapse after resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), current guidelines recommend methodically deflating the balloon for 5 minutes to gradually reperfuse distal tissue beds. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that this approach may still result in unpredictable aortic flow rates and hemodynamic instability. We sought to characterize aortic flow dynamics following REBOA as the balloon is deflated in accordance with current practice guidelines. Eight Yorkshire-cross swine were splenectomized, instrumented, and subjected to rapid 25% total blood volume hemorrhage. After 30 minutes of shock, animals received 60 minutes of Zone 1 REBOA with a low-profile REBOA catheter. During subsequent resuscitation with shed blood, the aortic occlusion balloon was gradually deflated in stepwise fashion at the rate of 0.5 mL every 30 seconds until completely deflated. Aortic flow rate and proximal mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured continuously over the period of balloon deflation. Graded balloon deflation resulted in variable initial return of aortic flow (median, 78 seconds; interquartile range [IQR], 68-105 seconds). A rapid increase in aortic flow during a single-balloon deflation step was observed in all animals (median, 819 mL/min; IQR, 664-1241 mL/min) and corresponded with an immediate decrease in proximal MAP (median, 30 mm Hg; IQR, 14.5-37 mm Hg). Total balloon volume and time to return of flow demonstrated no correlation (r = 0.016). This study is the first to characterize aortic flow during balloon deflation following REBOA. A steep inflection point occurs during balloon deflation that results in an abrupt increase in aortic flow and a concomitant decrease in MAP. Furthermore, the onset of distal aortic flow was inconsistent across study animals and did not correlate with initial balloon volume or relative deflation volume. Future studies to define the factors that affect aortic flow during balloon

  8. Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography as an option for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Chiara; Sardanelli, Francesco; Perego, Matteo; Alì, Marco; Casilli, Francesco; Inglese, Luigi; Mauri, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    To assess feasibility, efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to guide endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). After Ethical Committee approval, the records of 13 patients (all male, mean age 74.6 ± 8.0 years) with CKD, who underwent EVAR to exclude an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) under CO 2 angiography guidance, were reviewed. The AAA to be excluded had a mean diameter of 52.0 ± 8.0 mm. CO 2 angiography was performed by automatic (n = 7) or hand (n = 6) injection. The endograft was correctly placed and the AAA was excluded in all cases, without any surgical conversions. Two patients (15.4%) had an endoleak: one type-Ia, detected by CO 2 -DSA and effectively treated with prosthesis dilatation; one type-III, detected by CO 2 -DSA, confirmed using 10 ml of ICM, and conservatively managed. In one patient, CO 2 angiograms were considered of too low quality for guiding the procedure and 200 ml of ICM were administered. Overall, 11 patients (84.6%) underwent a successful EVAR under the guidance of the sole CO 2 angiography. No patients suffered from major complications, including those typically CO 2 -related. Two patients suffered from abdominal pain during the procedure secondary to a transient splanchnic perfusion's reduction due to CO 2 , and one patient had a worsening of renal function probably caused by a cholesterol embolization during the procedure. In patients with CKD, EVAR under CO 2 angiography guidance is feasible, effective, and safe.

  9. Radiation Awareness for Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in the Hybrid Operating Room. An Instant Patient Risk Chart for Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Quirina M; Gijsberts, Crystel M; Hazenberg, Constantijn E; Moll, Frans L; van Herwaarden, Joost A

    2017-06-01

    predict when follow-up dose thresholds are reached during abdominal endovascular procedures.

  10. Octogenarians Undergoing Open Repair Have Higher Mortality Compared with Fenestrated Endovascular Repair of Intact Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Involving the Visceral Vessels.

    PubMed

    Locham, Satinderjit; Faateh, Muhammad; Dakour-Aridi, Hanaa; Nejim, Besma; Malas, Mahmoud

    2018-04-18

    Prior studies have shown that octogenarians have a higher risk of mortality than nonoctogenarians undergoing open aneurysm repair (OAR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (F-EVAR) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 and has been used as a less invasive approach to treat patients with suboptimal neck anatomy with favorable outcomes compared with traditional OAR. The aim of the study is to compare 30-day outcomes of F-EVAR versus OAR in octogenarians undergoing repair of AAA involving the visceral vessels in the United States. All patients with postoperative diagnosis of nonruptured AAA repair were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2006-2015). Univariate and multivariate analyses were implemented to examine 30-day morbidity and mortality adjusting for patient demographics and comorbidities. A total of 548 octogenarians underwent repair of nonruptured AAA involving the visceral vessels, of which 242 (44%) were F-EVARs, and 306 (56%) were OARs. Octogenarians undergoing F-EVAR were on average 1-year older (median age [interquartile range]: 83 [82, 86] versus 82 [81, 85], P = 0.004) and more likely to be male (82% vs. 64%, P < 0.001) compared with OAR. Prevalence of diabetes (13% vs. 6%, P = 0.005) and progressive renal failure (57% vs. 47%, P = 0.03) was also higher in patients undergoing F-EVAR compared with OAR. Thirty-day postoperative mortality was higher after OAR (8.5% vs. 4.1%, P = 0.04). Secondary outcomes including cardiopulmonary (27.1% vs. 5.8%, P < 0.001) and renal injury (10.8% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001) were also significantly higher in OAR compared with F-EVAR. After adjusting for patients' demographics and comorbidities, OAR had almost 4-fold increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality compared with F-EVAR (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 3.90 [1.48-10.31], P = 0.006). In this large

  11. Risk models for mortality following elective open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Choke, E; Lee, K; McCarthy, M; Nasim, A; Naylor, A R; Bown, M; Sayers, R

    2012-12-01

    To develop and validate an "in house" risk model for predicting perioperative mortality following elective AAA repair and to compare this with other models. Multivariate logistics regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for perioperative-day mortality from one tertiary institution's prospectively maintained database. Consecutive elective open (564) and endovascular (589) AAA repairs (2000-2010) were split randomly into development (810) and validation (343) data sets. The resultant model was compared to Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS), Modified Customised Probability Index (m-CPI), CPI, the Vascular Governance North West (VGNW) model and the Medicare model. Variables associated with perioperative mortality included: increasing age (P = 0.034), myocardial infarct within last 10 years (P = 0.0008), raised serum creatinine (P = 0.005) and open surgery (P = 0.0001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicted probability of 30-day mortality in development and validation data sets were 0.79 and 0.82 respectively. AUCs for GAS, m-CPI and CPI were poor (0.63, 0.58 and 0.58 respectively), whilst VGNW and Medicare model were fair (0.73 and 0.79 respectively). In this study, an "in-house" developed and validated risk model has the most accurate discriminative value in predicting perioperative mortality after elective AAA repair. For purposes of comparative audit with case mix adjustments, national models such as the VGNW or Medicare models should be used. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the completemore » regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.« less

  13. Early and Late Outcomes of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair versus Open Surgical Repair of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyunghak; Han, Youngjin; Ko, Gi-Young; Cho, Yong-Pil; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2018-06-09

    The objective of the study was to compare the treatment outcomes and cost of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) at a single center. Patients treated for an AAA at a single center between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively identified and classified based on the treatment they received (EVAR or OSR). Patient demographics and in-hospital costs were recorded. Long-term survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the study period, 401 patients with AAA were treated at Asan Medical Center. Among these cases, 226 were treated with EVAR (56%) and 175 received OSR (44%). The mean age of the EVAR group was higher than that of the OSR group (71.25 ± 7.026 vs. 61.26 ± 8.175, P < 0.001). The need for intraoperative transfusion and total length of in-hospital stay were significantly lower in the EVAR group (P < 0.001). The OSR group showed significantly reduced rates of overall mortality (P = 0.003), overall reintervention (P = 0.001), and long-term survival (63.98 ± 1.86 vs. 99.54 ± 3.17, P < 0.001). The OSR group was charged significantly less than the EVAR group ($12,879.21 USD vs. $18,057.78 USD, P < 0.001). EVAR has advantages over OSR in terms of short-term mortality, in-hospital length of stay, and rates of perioperative transfusion. However, OSR is associated with better long-term survival, lower reintervention rates, and lower costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for Severe Pelvic Fracture and Intra Abdominal Hemorrhagic Shock using Continuous Vital Signs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    University of Maryland Baltimore, MD 21202 DATE OF REPORT: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel...ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5014 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Prytime Medical , Boerne, TX )) in October 2015, we incorporated this catheter into our practice in February 2016. Our REBOA training course (Basic

  15. Clinical Study of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) for Severe Pelvic Fracture and Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhagic Shock Using Continuous Vital Signs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    University of Maryland, Baltimore Baltimore, MD 21201 REPORT DATE: March 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research ...ongoing. After FDA approval of a new novel REBOA catheter (ER-REBOATM (Prytime Medical , Boerne, TX )) in October 2015, we incorporated this catheter into...Scalea, MD 39th Annual CONFERENCE ON SHOCK – June 11-14th, Austin , TX 2. REBOA IMPROVES MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE (MBP) AND SHOCK INDEX (SI) AS MEASURED

  16. Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms in a Chinese population during introduction of endovascular repair, 1994 to 2013: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Greta; Chan, Yiu Che; Chong, Ka Chun; Lee, Kam Pui; Cheung, Grace Chung-Yan; Cheng, Stephen Wing-Keung

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and mortality during a period when endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was introduced.Open repair surgery was the mainstay of treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but EVAR is increasingly utilized. Studies in the Western population have reported improved short-term or postoperative mortality and shorter length of hospital stay with EVAR. However, scant data are available in the Chinese population.We conducted a retrospective observational study using the database of the Hospital Authority, which provides public health care to most of the Hong Kong population. AAA patients admitted to public hospitals for intact repair or rupture from 1994 to 2013 were included in this study. We calculated the incidence of ruptured AAA, annual repair rates according to type of AAA and surgery, as well as death rates (operative and overall short-term). We calculated whether there were significant changes over time and compared short-term mortality between open surgery and EVAR.One thousand eight hundred eighty-five patients were admitted for intact repair and 1306 patients were admitted for AAA rupture, of whom 795 underwent rupture repair. Intact repair rates significantly increased in all age groups (7.3-37.8%, P < .001) over the study period.The incidence of ruptured AAA increased, in all age groups, except in < 64 years old. By 2013, 85% of intact repairs and 55.4% of rupture repair were done by EVAR. Over time, there was a significant decrease in operative mortality for intact repair (16.5 in 1994 to 7.1 in 2013, P = .01) and rupture repair (59.7 in 1994 to 30.8 in 2013, P = .003). Over the same time period, short-term AAA-related deaths decreased by more than half (73% in 1994 to 24% in 2013, P < .001), with a significant decline in all age groups, except < 64 years old. Short-term mortality was significantly lower for EVAR than for open repair (17.2% vs 40.3%, P

  17. Reparación Endovascular para Aneurisma de Aorta: Revisión Panorámica sobre su evidencia en el mundo y su aplicación en Latinoamérica.

    PubMed

    Calderón, María; Brito, Viviana; Alcaraz, Andrea; Rey-Ares, Lucila; Augustovski, Federico; García-Martí, Sebastián; Bardach, Ariel; Ciapponi, Agustín; López, Analía; Pichón-Riviere, Andrés

    2018-05-10

    Aortic aneurysm (AA) is a pathology with high morbidity and mortality. The management can be expectant, surgical, or through endovascular repair (EVAR). In Latin America the incidence of AA has increased and the analysis of therapeutic options, especially if they are expensive, is fundamental. To analyze available evidence on the effectiveness, safety and coverage policies of the EVAR. Panoramic review in the main bibliographical bases (MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE) and generic internet searchers, main health technology assessment (HTA) agencies and health insurance companies. Systematic reviews (SR), clinical practice guidelines (CPG), HTA and coverage policies, followed by the identification of primary studies published after the SR search date were included. A search of studies published until November 2015 in English and Spanish was carried out. 311 references were recovered, from which seven SRs were selected, one clinical study and 15 CPGs, consensus or coverage policies and ETS. For abdominal AA, high quality evidence showed no differences inlong-term survival with the use of EVAR compared to conventional surgery, but lower early mortality was observed (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.20 -0.55). EVAR was associated with a greater need for re-intervention. In the case of other types of AA, further evidence is still required to establish the benefit of EVAR. The CPGs, consensus, HTAs and coverage policies identified, mostly consider open surgery as the treatment of choice, reserving the EVAR for patients with high surgical risk for conventional surgery in the presence of favorable anatomy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Endovascular treatment of complicated aortic aneurysms in patients with underlying arteriopathies.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Carroccio, Alfio; Palchik, Eugene; Ellozy, Sharif H; Jacobs, Tikva S; Teodorescu, Victoria; Marin, Michael L

    2006-07-01

    Patients with arteriopathies including giant cell arteritis, Marfan syndrome, and Takayasu's disease are at risk for aneurysmal degeneration of the aorta. Aortic repair has been recommended for these patients to prevent rupture. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes following endovascular stent graft (EVSG) repair of aortic aneurysms in this patient population. Over an 8-year period, 11 patients (six men, five women) with arteriopathies underwent endovascular aortic repair. The mean age was 50 (range 15-81). Diseases included Marfan syndrome (n = 6), Takayasu's disease (n = 3), and giant cell arteritis (n = 2). Success of EVSG repair was evaluated per the reporting standards of the Society for Vascular Surgery/American Association for Vascular Surgery. Follow-up was a mean of 28.9 months (range 3-68). Six patients underwent EVSG repair of the thoracic aorta, four underwent EVSG repair of the abdominal aorta, and one underwent a staged repair of the thoracic and subsequently the abdominal aorta. Six true aneurysms and six pseudoaneurysms were repaired. Eight patients had previous aortic surgery, including four with multiple aortic operations. For the 12 aneurysms treated, technical success was achieved in 11 (91.7%). One technical failure occurred due to a small iliac access vessel, requiring an eventual iliac conduit for insertion. Early complications (<30 days) occurred in three patients. Type I or III endoleak developed following two repairs (16.7%). Aneurysm expansion occurred following one repair (8.3%). No aneurysm-related deaths occurred during follow-up. EVSG repair of aortic aneurysms is feasible and can be safely performed in patients with arteriopathies. Long-term durability in this younger group of patients who carry an ongoing risk of arterial degeneration remains to be determined.

  19. Moving into the paravisceral aorta using fenestrated and branched endografts.

    PubMed

    Farber, Mark A; Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer

    2012-12-01

    When one compares the potential advantages of endovascular aortic repair with respect to traditional open repair, it would seem logical that extension into the paravisceral aorta would be easily justified, given the complexity of open aortic repair and its associated complications. Eight years have transpired between trial initiation and Food and Drug Administration approval of the first fenestrated device in the United States for the treatment of juxtarenal aneurysms. While there are only a few centers in the United States with substantial experience performing fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repair, there is a diverse experience outside the United States that has been gained over the past decade. It is through the experience of these centers that the technical and procedural complexities of complex endovascular aortic repair has been solved and provide the foundation that has allowed aortic specialists to move endovascular therapy into the paravisceral aorta with fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Statistically Corrected Operative Risk Evaluation (AAA SCORE) for predicting mortality after open and endovascular interventions.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Graeme K; Gohel, Manjit S; Mitchell, David C; Loftus, Ian M; Boyle, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Accurate adjustment of surgical outcome data for risk is vital in an era of surgeon-level reporting. Current risk prediction models for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair are suboptimal. We aimed to develop a reliable risk model for in-hospital mortality after intervention for AAA, using rigorous contemporary statistical techniques to handle missing data. Using data collected during a 15-month period in the United Kingdom National Vascular Database, we applied multiple imputation methodology together with stepwise model selection to generate preoperative and perioperative models of in-hospital mortality after AAA repair, using two thirds of the available data. Model performance was then assessed on the remaining third of the data by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and compared with existing risk prediction models. Model calibration was assessed by Hosmer-Lemeshow analysis. A total of 8088 AAA repair operations were recorded in the National Vascular Database during the study period, of which 5870 (72.6%) were elective procedures. Both preoperative and perioperative models showed excellent discrimination, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of .89 and .92, respectively. This was significantly better than any of the existing models (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for best comparator model, .84 and .88; P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). Discrimination remained excellent when only elective procedures were considered. There was no evidence of miscalibration by Hosmer-Lemeshow analysis. We have developed accurate models to assess risk of in-hospital mortality after AAA repair. These models were carefully developed with rigorous statistical methodology and significantly outperform existing methods for both elective cases and overall AAA mortality. These models will be invaluable for both preoperative patient counseling and accurate risk adjustment of published outcome data. Copyright © 2015 Society

  1. Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm: concurrent comparison of outcome of those occurring after endovascular repair versus those occurring without previous treatment in an 11-year single-center experience.

    PubMed

    May, James; White, Geoffrey H; Stephen, Michael S; Harris, John P

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this single-center study was to compare findings at presentation and surgical outcome in patients in whom abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) ruptured after endovascular repair and patients in whom AAAs ruptured before any treatment, over a defined period. From May 1992 to September 2003, 1043 patients underwent elective repair of intact infrarenal AAAs. Endovascular repair was performed in 609 patients, and open repair in 434 patients. Eighteen of 609 patients (3%) who underwent endovascular AAA repair required treatment because of rupture of the aneurysm after a mean of 29 months (group 1). During the same 11-year period, another 91 patients without previous treatment required urgent repair of a ruptured AAA (group 2). Rupture was diagnosed at contrast material-enhanced computed tomography or by presence of extramural extravasation of blood at open repair. Except for a higher incidence of women in group 2, patients in both groups were similar with regard to demographics and clinical characteristics but differed in findings at presentation. Eight patients in group 1 had a known endoleak before AAA rupture, whereas contrast-enhanced computed tomography, performed in 15 patients at presentation, demonstrated an endoleak in all. Hypotension (systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg) was noted at presentation in 4 of 18 patients (22%) in group 1 and 76 of 91 patients (84%) in group 2. All patients underwent open repair via a transperitoneal approach, except for 4 patients in group 1 and 3 patients in group 2 who underwent endovascular repair of ruptured AAAs. The proportion of patients with hypotension at presentation in group 1 (4 of 18) was significantly less than in group 2 (76 of 91; P < .01). The difference in perioperative (30 day) mortality rate in group 1 (3 of 18; 16.6%) compared with group 2 (49 of 91; 53.8%) was also significant (P < .01). The outcome in group 1 was therefore superior to that in group 2. This study confirms that endovascular AAA

  2. Systematic review of recent evidence for the safety and efficacy of elective endovascular repair in the management of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Drury, D; Michaels, J A; Jones, L; Ayiku, L

    2005-08-01

    Conventional management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is by open repair and is associated with a mortality rate of 2-6 per cent. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an alternative technique first introduced in 1991. A systematic review was undertaken of the evidence for the safety and efficacy of elective EVAR in the management of asymptomatic infrarenal AAA. Thirteen electronic bibliographical databases were searched, covering biomedical, health-related, science and social science literature. Outcomes were assessed with respect to efficacy (successful deployment, technical success, conversion rates and secondary intervention rates) and safety (30-day mortality rate, procedure morbidity rates and technical issues-endoleaks, graft thrombosis, stenosis and migration). Of 606 reports identified, 61 met the inclusion criteria (three randomized and 15 non-randomized controlled trials, and 43 uncontrolled studies). There were 29 059 participants in total; 19,804 underwent EVAR. Deployment was successful in 97.6 per cent of cases. Technical success (complete aneurysm exclusion) was 81.9 per cent at discharge and 88.8 per cent at 30 days. Secondary intervention to treat endoleak or maintain graft patency was required in 16.2 per cent of patients. Mean stay in the intensive care unit and mean hospital stay were significantly shorter following EVAR. The 30-day mortality rate for EVAR was 1.6 per cent (randomized controlled trials) and 2.0 per cent in nonrandomized trials and case series. Technical complications comprised stent migration (4.0 per cent), graft limb thrombosis (3.9 per cent), endoleak (type I, 6.8 per cent; type II, 10.3 per cent; type III, 4.2 per cent) and access artery injury (4.8 per cent). EVAR is technically effective and safe, with lower short-term morbidity and mortality rates than open surgery. However, there is a need for extended follow-up as the long-term success of EVAR in preventing aneurysm-related deaths is not yet known.

  3. Health-related quality of life prospectively evaluated by the 8-item short form after endovascular repair versus open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayoshi; Tamaki, Mototsugu; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Motoji, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Okawa, Yasuhide; Tomita, Shinji

    2017-08-01

    Open repair for infra-renal abdominal aortic and iliac artery aneurysms (AAAs) is a robust treatment. On the other hand, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been widespread because of its less invasiveness. However, patients after EVAR frequently require postoperative radiographic examinations and may feel anxiety for their endoleaks. We prospectively evaluated Health-related Quality of Life of the patients with these two fashions using the 8-item Short Form (SF-8). From 2011 to 2013, 89 consecutive elective cases of AAAs were treated. They were prospectively divided into EVAR and open repair groups but not randomly. The exclusion criteria were as follows: perioperative status for other surgeries, infectious aneurysm, severely deteriorated conditions, and patients who cannot answer for these questionnaire or show their consent. The SF-8 questionnaire was completed through interviews preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The SF-8 questionnaire was completed for 55 cases [EVAR group (ER): 25, open repair group (OR): 30]. There was no significant difference between these groups regarding patients' characteristics except congestive heart disease. The preoperative scores of the SF-8 were similar in both groups except physical function and social function, which were lower in ER (p < 0.05). There was no operative death in both groups. Operative duration and hospital stay in EVAR were significantly shorter than those in OR (p < 0.05). Follow-up rate at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months was 100, 100, 68.0, and 64.0% in ER, and 100, 90.0, 80.0, and 66.6% in OR, respectively. During follow-up, both groups had no AAAs associated death. Regarding changes of the SF-8 scales, there were some trends at physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) in ER. The PCS decreased at 1 month, gradually increased at 3 months, and levelled off until 12 months. The MCS increased at 1 and 3 months, but gradually went down and

  4. Type II endoleak after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a conservative approach with selective intervention is safe and cost-effective.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Eric; Rubin, Brian G; Sanchez, Luis A; Choi, Eric T; Geraghty, Patrick J; Baty, Jack; Thompson, Robert W; Flye, M Wayne; Hovsepian, David M; Picus, Daniel; Sicard, Gregorio A

    2004-02-01

    The conservative versus therapeutic approach to type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR) has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and cost-effectiveness of the conservative approach of embolizing type II endoleak only when persistent for more than 6 months and associated with aneurysm sac growth of 5 mm or more. Data for 486 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR were analyzed for incidence and outcome of type II endoleaks. Spiral computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed, and patient outcome was evaluated at either office visit or telephone contact. Patients with new or late-appearing type II endoleak were evaluated with spiral CT at 6-month intervals to evaluate both persistence of the endoleak and size of the aneurysm sac. Persistent (>or=6 months) type II endoleak and aneurysm sac growth of 5 mm or greater were treated with either translumbar glue or coil embolization of the lumbar source, or transarterial coil embolization of the inferior mesenteric artery. Type II endoleaks were detected in 90 (18.5%) patients. With a mean follow-up of 21.7 +/- 16 months, only 35 (7.2%) patients had type II endoleak that persisted for 6 months or longer. Aneurysm sac enlargement was noted in 5 patients, representing 1% of the total series. All 5 patients underwent successful translumbar sac embolization (n = 4) or transarterial inferior mesenteric artery embolization (n = 4) at a mean follow-up of 18.2 +/- 8.0 months, with no recurrence or aneurysm sac growth. No patient with treated or untreated type II endoleak has had rupture of the aneurysm. The mean global cost for treatment of persistent type II endoleak associated with aneurysm sac growth was US dollars 6695.50 (hospital cost plus physician reimbursement). Treatment in the 30 patients with persistent type II endoleak but no aneurysm sac growth would have represented an additional cost of US dollars 200000 or more. The presence or absence of a

  5. [Macroscopic hematuria secondary to nutcracker syndrome and successful endovascular treatment].

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Boyer-Duck, Estefanía; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Torres-Machorro, Adriana; Lizola, Rene

    2017-12-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is a rare entity, and in the majority of cases is the result of extrinsic compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, associated with functional stenosis. To present the case of a 19-year-old female with no significant medical history with confirmed diagnosed of nutcracker syndrome treated successfully by endovascular means. She was referred to the Vascular Surgery Department with a 6-month history of macroscopic haematuria, after other aetiologies were ruled out. Abdominal computed tomography angiography revealed compression of the left renal vein; the patient underwent endovascular treatment, and a 12×16 mm balloon expandable stent was placed with immediate angiographic improvement, decreased pressure gradients and progressive resolution of haematuria. At one year, she remains symptom-free. Nutcracker syndrome is uncommon, and a high index of suspicion is needed. Macroscopic haematuria is not always present, and in our case stent placement demonstrated effectiveness in the resolution of symptoms at 12 months' follow--up. We also present a brief review of the literature. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Unstable patients with retroperitoneal vascular trauma: an endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    Boufi, Mourad; Bordon, Sébastien; Dona, Bianca; Hartung, Olivier; Sarran, Anthony; Nadeau, Sébastien; Maurin, Charlotte; Alimi, Yves S

    2011-04-01

    In hemodynamically unstable patients, the management of retroperitoneal vascular trauma is both difficult and challenging. Endovascular techniques have become an alternative to surgery in several trauma centers. Between 2004 and 2006, 16 patients (nine men, mean age: 46 years, range: 19-79 years) with retroperitoneal vascular trauma and hemodynamic instability were treated using an endovascular approach. The mean injury severity score was 30.7 ± 13.1. Mean systolic blood pressure and the shock index were 74 mm Hg and 1.9, respectively. Vasopressor drugs were required in 68.7% of cases (n = 11). Injuries were attributable to road traffic accidents (n = 15) and falls (n = 1). The hemorrhage sites included the internal iliac artery or its branches (n = 12) with bilateral injury in one case, renal artery (n = 2), abdominal aorta (n = 1), and lumbar artery (n = 1). In all, 14 coil embolizations and three stent-grafts were implanted. The technical success rate was 75%, as early re-embolization was necessary in one case and three patients died during the perioperative period. Six patients died during the period of hospitalization (37.5%). No surgical conversion or major morbidity was reported. In comparison with particulates, coil ± stent-graft may provide similar efficacy with regard to survival, and thus may be a valuable solution when particulate embolization is not available or feasible. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ascending Aorta to Hepatic and Mesenteric Artery Bypassing, in Patients with Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia and Extensive Aortic Disease-A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barr, James; Kokotsakis, John; Tsipas, Pantelis; Papapavlou, Prodromos; Velissarios, Konstantinos; Kratimenos, Theodoros; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-02-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder caused by severe stenosis of the mesenteric arterial supply that results in postprandial pain and weight loss. Treatment options are surgical or endovascular. Surgical bypass can be performed in an antegrade fashion from the supraceliac abdominal aorta (AA) or the distal descending thoracic aorta or in a retrograde fashion from the infrarenal aorta or the common iliac artery. However, in some patients with disease of the descending thoracic aorta or the AA, another site for the proximal anastomosis needs to be found. In this article, we report the case of a 69-year-old man with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and CMI in whom we performed bypass grafts to the hepatic and superior mesenteric arteries using the ascending aorta as the site for the proximal anastomoses via a median sternolaparotomy. In addition, we performed a literature review of all similar cases and provide an analysis of this technique and an assessment of the success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  9. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  10. Epidemiology and contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Hallett, Richard L; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is most commonly defined as a maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta in excess of 3 cm in either anterior-posterior or transverse planes or, alternatively, as a focal dilation ≥ 1.5 times the diameter of the normal adjacent arterial segment. Risk factors for the development of AAA include age > 60, tobacco use, male gender, Caucasian race, and family history of AAA. Aneurysm growth and rupture risk appear to be associated with persistent tobacco use, female gender, and chronic pulmonary disease. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and detected incidentally on various imaging studies, including abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomographic angiography. Symptoms associated with AAA may include abdominal or back pain, thromboembolization, atheroembolization, aortic rupture, or development of an arteriovenous or aortoenteric fistula. The Screening Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Efficiently (SAAAVE) Act provides coverage for a one-time screening abdominal ultrasound at age 65 for men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and women who have family history of AAA disease. Medical management is recommended for asymptomatic patients with AAAs < 5 cm in diameter and focuses on modifiable risk factors, including smoking cessation and blood pressure control. Primary indications for intervention in patients with AAA include development of symptoms, rupture, rapid aneurysm growth (> 5 mm/6 months), or presence of a fusiform aneurysm with maximum diameter of 5.5 cm or greater. Intervention for AAA includes conventional open surgical repair and endovascular aortic stent graft repair.

  11. Meta-analysis of individual-patient data from EVAR-1, DREAM, OVER and ACE trials comparing outcomes of endovascular or open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Powell, J T; Sweeting, M J; Ulug, P; Blankensteijn, J D; Lederle, F A; Becquemin, J-P; Greenhalgh, R M

    2017-02-01

    The erosion of the early mortality advantage of elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compared with open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm remains without a satisfactory explanation. An individual-patient data meta-analysis of four multicentre randomized trials of EVAR versus open repair was conducted to a prespecified analysis plan, reporting on mortality, aneurysm-related mortality and reintervention. The analysis included 2783 patients, with 14 245 person-years of follow-up (median 5·5 years). Early (0-6 months after randomization) mortality was lower in the EVAR groups (46 of 1393 versus 73 of 1390 deaths; pooled hazard ratio 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·42 to 0·89; P = 0·010), primarily because 30-day operative mortality was lower in the EVAR groups (16 deaths versus 40 for open repair; pooled odds ratio 0·40, 95 per cent c.i. 0·22 to 0·74). Later (within 3 years) the survival curves converged, remaining converged to 8 years. Beyond 3 years, aneurysm-related mortality was significantly higher in the EVAR groups (19 deaths versus 3 for open repair; pooled hazard ratio 5·16, 1·49 to 17·89; P = 0·010). Patients with moderate renal dysfunction or previous coronary artery disease had no early survival advantage under EVAR. Those with peripheral artery disease had lower mortality under open repair (39 deaths versus 62 for EVAR; P = 0·022) in the period from 6 months to 4 years after randomization. The early survival advantage in the EVAR group, and its subsequent erosion, were confirmed. Over 5 years, patients of marginal fitness had no early survival advantage from EVAR compared with open repair. Aneurysm-related mortality and patients with low ankle : brachial pressure index contributed to the erosion of the early survival advantage for the EVAR group. Trial registration numbers: EVAR-1, ISRCTN55703451; DREAM (Dutch Randomized Endovascular Aneurysm Management), NCT00421330; ACE (Anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale, Chirurgie versus

  12. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.petersen@i-med.ac.at; Glodny, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.glodny@i-med.ac.at

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III inmore » 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.« less

  13. Preoperative Evaluation and Endovascular Procedure of Intraoperative Aneurysm Rupture During Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Bin-Shan, E-mail: binszha2013@163.com; Zhu, Hua-Gang, E-mail: huagzhu@yeah.net; Ye, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: yeyusheng@aliyun.com

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are now routinely repaired with endovascular repair if anatomically feasible because of advantages in safety and recovery. However, intraoperative aneurysm rupture is a severe complication which may have an adverse effect on the outcome of treatment. Comprehensive preoperative assessment and considerate treatment are keys to success of endovascular aneurysm repair, especially during unexpected circumstances. Few cases have reported on intraoperative aortic rupture, which were successfully managed by endovascular treatment. Here, we present a rare case of an intraoperative aneurysm rupture during endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm with narrow neck and angulated aorta arch (coarctation-associated aneurysm), whichmore » was successfully treated using double access route approach and iliac limbs of infrarenal devices.Level of EvidenceLevel 5.« less

  14. [Use of an iliac branched endoprostheis in endovascular treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm combined with aneurysms of both common iliac arteries].

    PubMed

    Imaev, T E; Kuchin, I V; Lepilin, P M; Kolegaev, A S; Medvedeva, I S; Komlev, A E; Akchurin, R S

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm appears to be combined with aneurysmatic lesions of the common iliac arteries in 30-40% of cases. Like abdominal aortic aneurysms, aneurysms of the common iliac arteries rarely manifest themselves clinically. The lethality rate in case of rupture is comparable to that for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. During endoprosthetic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms combined with aneurysms of the common iliac arteries, in order to prevent endoleaks and to improve the distal zone of fixation of endografts surgeons often resort to embolization of internal iliac arteries, which may lead to ischaemic postoperative complications. One of the methods of preserving pelvic blood flow is the use of an iliac branched endograft. A series of studies evaluating long-term outcomes demonstrated that this method proved to be both safe and effective, and with the suitable anatomy is a method of choice in high surgical risk patients. The present article deals with a clinical case report concerning bilateral endoprosthetic repair of the common iliac arteries, combined with endoprosthetic repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, with the description of technical peculiarities of implanting an iliac branched graft.

  15. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections: endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Cho, Jae S; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of thoracic aortic disease has changed radically with the advances made in endovascular therapy since the concept of thoracic endovascular aortic repair was first described 15 years ago. Currently, there is a diverse array of endografts that are commercially available to treat the thoracic aorta. Multiple studies, including industry-sponsored and single-institution reports, have demonstrated excellent outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms, with less reported perioperative morbidity and mortality in comparison with conventional open repair. Additionally, similar outcomes have been demonstrated for the treatment of type B dissections. However, the technology remains relatively novel, and larger studies with longer term outcomes are necessary to more fully evaluate the role of endovascular therapy for the treatment of thoracic aortic disease. This review examines the currently available thoracic endografts, preoperative planning for thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for the treatment of both thoracic aortic aneurysms and type B aortic dissections. Mt Sinai J Med 77:256-269, 2010. (c) 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  16. Flow and wall shear stress characterization after endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm sealing in an infrarenal aneurysm model.

    PubMed

    Boersen, Johannes T; Groot Jebbink, Erik; Versluis, Michel; Slump, Cornelis H; Ku, David N; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-12-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a modular endograft has become the preferred treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. A novel concept is endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), consisting of dual endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags. This dual-lumen configuration is different from a bifurcation with a tapered trajectory of the flow lumen into the two limbs and may induce unfavorable flow conditions. These include low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS), linked to atherosclerosis, and high shear rates that may result in thrombosis. An in vitro study was performed to assess the impact of EVAR and EVAS on flow patterns and WSS. Four abdominal aortic aneurysm phantoms were constructed, including three stented models, to study the influence of the flow divider on flow (Endurant [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn], AFX [Endologix, Irvine, Calif], and Nellix [Endologix]). Experimental models were tested under physiologic resting conditions, and flow was visualized with laser particle imaging velocimetry, quantified by shear rate, WSS, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) in the suprarenal aorta, renal artery (RA), and common iliac artery. WSS and OSI were comparable for all models in the suprarenal aorta. The RA flow profile in the EVAR models was comparable to the control, but a region of lower WSS was observed on the caudal wall compared with the control. The EVAS model showed a stronger jet flow with a higher shear rate in some regions compared with the other models. Small regions of low WSS and high OSI were found near the distal end of all stents in the common iliac artery compared with the control. Maximum shear rates in each region of interest were well below the pathologic threshold for acute thrombosis. The different stent designs do not influence suprarenal flow. Lower WSS is observed in the caudal wall of the RA after EVAR and a higher shear rate after EVAS. All stented models have a small region of low WSS and high OSI near the distal outflow

  17. Treatment of symptomatic coral reef aorta with an uncovered stent graft.

    PubMed

    Bosanquet, D C; Wood, A; Williams, I M

    2015-10-01

    Coral reef aorta is a rare condition characterised by extreme calcific growths affecting the juxta and suprarenal aorta. It can cause symptoms due to visceral ischaemia, lower limb hypoperfusion, and distal embolisation. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with unresponsive hypertension, who was found to have an occluded right renal artery, and an extensive coral reef aorta with a marked pressure gradient across the lesion. Renal hypoperfusion secondary to aortic coral reef aorta was thought to be the cause for his hypertension. Endovascular placement of a balloon expandable uncovered stent resolved his hypertension within one month, with no adverse effects noted at subsequent follow-up. Endovascular treatment of coral reef aorta is technically possible and avoids a major vascular procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePlus

    ... aorta may include: Narrowing of the aortic valve (aortic stenosis) High blood pressure Stroke Enlargement in a section of the wall of the aorta (aneurysm) Aortic rupture or tear (dissection) Premature coronary ...

  19. Mid- and long-term device migration after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparison of AneuRx and Zenith endografts.

    PubMed

    Tonnessen, Britt H; Sternbergh, W Charles; Money, Samuel R

    2005-09-01

    Freedom from migration is key to the durability of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). This study evaluates the mid- and long-term incidence of migration with two different endografts. Between September 1997 and June 2004, 235 patients were scheduled for EVAR with an AneuRx (Medtronic/AVE Inc.) or Zenith (Cook) endograft. Patients with fusiform, infrarenal aneurysms and a minimum 12 months of follow-up were analyzed, for a final cohort of 130 patients. Migration was assessed on axial computed tomography (CT) (2.5 to 3 mm cuts) as the distance from the most caudal renal artery to the first slice containing endograft (AneuRx) or to the top of the bare suprarenal stent (Zenith). Aortic neck diameters were measured at the most caudal renal artery. The initial postoperative CT scan was the baseline. Migration was defined by caudal movement of the endograft at two thresholds, > or =5 mm and > or =10 mm, or any migration with a related clinical event. Life-table analysis demonstrated AneuRx freedom from migration (> or =10 mm or clinical event) was 96.1%, 89.5%, 78.0%, and 72.0% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively. Zenith freedom from migration was 100%, 97.6%, 97.6%, and 97.6% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (P = .01, log-rank test). The stricter 5-mm migration threshold found 67.4% of AneuRx and 90.1% of Zenith patients free from migration at 4 years of follow-up. Twelve out of 14 (85.7%) AneuRx patients (12/14) with migration (> or =10 mm or clinical event) underwent 14 related secondary procedures (13 endovascular, 1 open conversion). The single Zenith patient with migration (> or =10 mm) has not required adjuvant treatment. Mean follow-up was 39.0 +/- 2.3 months (AneuRx) and 30.8 +/- 1.9 months (Zenith, P = .01). Patients with and without migration did not differ in age, gender ratio, aneurysm diameter, and neck diameter. However, initial neck length was shorter in patients with migration (22.1 +/- 2.1 mm vs 31.2 +/- 1.2 mm, P = .02). A subset of patients

  20. An Unusual Endovascular Therapeutic Approach for a Rare Case of May-Thurner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrian; Masha, Luke; Peerbhai, Shareez

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: May-Thurner syndrome secondary to left common iliac artery aneurysm Symptoms: Left lower extremity edema • left lower extremity erythema • left lower extremity pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of the infra-renal abdominal aorta aneurysm and right common iliac artery aneurysm Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: The etiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may pose a significant diagnostic challenge because truly reversible causes of DVT are rare. In this regard, known pelvic anatomic abnormalities such as aortic and iliac aneurysms should be seriously considered as a complicating factor in patients presenting with acute DVT so as not to miss a potentially curable etiology of May-Thurner syndrome (MTS). Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a known abdominal aortic aneurysm and bilateral iliac artery aneurysms who presented with an acute DVT. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed increased dilation of his aneurysmal disease with new resultant compression of the left iliac vein representing acquired MTS. The patient underwent endovascular aneurysm repair of the infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm and right common iliac artery aneurysm with a Gore Excluder endoprosthesis in lieu of venous stenting, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusions: Infra-renal aortic and iliac aneurysms causing MTS are extremely rare, and patients at risk for MTS through these mechanisms do not fit the classical demographics associated with this syndrome. Furthermore, this is the first case described in which MTS was treated by addressing the aneurysm through an endoprosthetic approach instead of venous stenting, which is the conventional intervention for MTS. PMID:28260745

  1. Effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on the expression of PPARγ, caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA in the abdominal aortas of rats with hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    LV, FENG-HUA; GAO, JIAN-ZHI; TENG, QING-LEI; ZHANG, JIN-YING

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia may lead to endothelial injury, due to its effects on homocysteine and vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum, and the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and caspase-3 and -8 in the vascular wall. In order to prevent and mitigate the high-fat state that results from endothelial injury, this study examined the effect of folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 (VB12) on the expression of PPARγ and caspase-3 and -8 mRNA in the abdominal aortas of rats with hyperlipidemia. Sixty 4-week-old healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (each n=12): the normal control (NC), high-fat diet (HL), FA, VB12 and FA+VB12 groups. Following one week of adaptive feeding, the FA, VB12 and FA+VB12 groups were subject to the intraperitoneal injection of FA (0.5 mg/day), VB12 (0.05 mg/day) and FA+VB12 (0.5 mg/day and 0.05 mg/day), respectively, while fed a high-fat diet. The rats in the NC group were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl solution (0.5 ml/day) and fed a normal diet, whereas those in the HL group were fed a high-fat diet only. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay demonstrated that at the end of week 12, the FA treatment had effectively increased the PPARγ mRNA level, while reducing the caspase-3 and -8 mRNA levels, compared with the high-fat diet treatment (P<0.05). The effect of FA on the expression of PPARγ and caspase-3 and -8 was enhanced when used in combination with VB12 (P<0.05). These results revealed that the application of FA, alone or in combination with VB12, improves and mitigates the high-fat state that results from endothelial injury. PMID:23935743

  2. Intramural Hematoma of the Thoracic Aorta as a Form of Aortic Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert; Pukacki, Fryderyk; Oszkinis, Grzegorz

    Intramural hematoma (IMH) of the thoracic aorta is a complication with unknown etiology and a poorly predictable prognosis. There is also considerable controversy about the management and prognosis of IMH as well as the treatment. We present two cases of endovascular treatment of IMH with stent-graft placement. On the basis of references, we discuss risks of progression of the given pathology and possible complications. Despite the lack of uniform opinion about the management of this disorder, we present our observations of and experiences with endovascular treatment of IMH of the thoracic aorta.

  3. Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Lui, George K.; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy–Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258

  4. Extra-anatomic bypass for recurrent abdominal aortic and renal in-stent stenoses following radiotherapy for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Luehr, Maximilian; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Schlensak, Christian

    2009-04-01

    We describe the case of an 11-year-old girl with an abdominal neuroblastoma which was operated and intraoperatively irradiated nine years ago. After six years, she developed stenoses of the infrarenal abdominal aorta and both renal arteries. Initial treatment of the stenosed vessels comprised endovascular balloon dilatations and repeated stent-graft implantations, including drug eluting stents. However, severe in-stent stenoses occurred during follow-up and the girl developed acute renal failure. Open surgery was performed with two extra-anatomic bypasses, a thoracic-to-abdominal aortic bypass and a left iliac-to-renal bypass, on an urgent basis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged home two weeks after the operation with full recovery of renal function. We conclude that endovascular stent-graft placement in children can only be a palliative treatment due to outgrowing of the stent-graft and the potential risk of re-stenosis, especially after a history of irradiation. Vascular surgery with placement of extra-anatomic bypasses will provide a definite treatment.

  5. Electromagnetic navigation versus fluoroscopy in aortic endovascular procedures: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Tystad Lund, Kjetil; Tangen, Geir Arne; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode

    2017-01-01

    To explore the possible benefits of electromagnetic (EM) navigation versus conventional fluoroscopy during abdominal aortic endovascular procedures. The study was performed on a phantom representing the abdominal aorta. Intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the phantom was acquired and merged with a preoperative multidetector CT (MDCT). The CBCT was performed with a reference plate fixed to the phantom that, after merging the CBCT with the MDCT, facilitated registration of the MDCT volume with the EM space. An EM field generator was stationed near the phantom. Navigation software was used to display EM-tracked instruments within the 3D image volume. Fluoroscopy was performed using a C-arm system. Five operators performed a series of renal artery cannulations using modified instruments, alternatingly using fluoroscopy or EM navigation as the sole guidance method. Cannulation durations and associated radiation dosages were noted along with the number of cannulations complicated by loss of guidewire insertion. A total of 120 cannulations were performed. The median cannulation durations were 41.5 and 34.5 s for the fluoroscopy- and EM-guided cannulations, respectively. No significant difference in cannulation duration was found between the two modalities (p = 0.736). Only EM navigation showed a significant reduction in cannulation duration in the latter half of its cannulation series compared with the first half (p = 0.004). The median dose area product for fluoroscopy was 0.0836 [Formula: see text]. EM-guided cannulations required a one-time CBCT dosage of 3.0278 [Formula: see text]. Three EM-guided and zero fluoroscopy-guided cannulations experienced loss of guidewire insertion. Our findings indicate that EM navigation is not inferior to fluoroscopy in terms of the ability to guide endovascular interventions. Its utilization may be of particular interest in complex interventions where adequate visualization or minimal use of contrast agents is

  6. Does lower limb exercise worsen renal artery hemodynamics in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm?

    PubMed

    Sun, Anqiang; Tian, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients.

  7. Coarctation of the aorta

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain Early development of coronary artery disease (CAD) Endocarditis (infection in the heart) Heart failure Hoarseness Kidney ... include: Continued or repeated narrowing of the aorta Endocarditis High blood pressure

  8. A penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer rupture in the ascending aorta with hemopericardium: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-07-11

    Acute aortic syndrome, including classic aortic dissection, intramural aortic hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU), is a term used to describe a group of conditions with similar clinical symptoms, but with different pathophysiological mechanisms. PAU is a lesion that penetrates the internal elastic lamina through the media. It is usually located in the descending aorta and rarely observed in the ascending aorta. A 76-year-old man with a history of essential hypertension was brought to the emergency department (ED) because of a sudden-onset chest pain at rest. He had not been taking his medication as ordered. His vital signs in the ED were a blood pressure of 82/60 mmHg, heart rate of 158 beats per min, respiratory rate of 22 breaths per min, and a body temperature of 37.2 °C. An electrocardiogram did not show an ST segment elevation, and cardiac enzymes were within normal limits. No widening mediastinum was found on chest radiography, but a large pericardial effusion with an impending cardiac tamponade was revealed on echocardiography. The diagnosis of PAU rupture in the ascending aorta with hemopericardium was made with chest computed tomography. An emergent sternotomy and ascending aorta reconstruction were performed. A ruptured ulcerative plaque through the intima to the adventitia without flap dissection in the ascending aorta was confirmed. The patient was discharged 18 days after the operation. Although PAU in the ascending aorta is uncommon, it is commonly lethal when it ruptures. With the current advances in endovascular techniques and devices, endovascular repair of PAU in the ascending aorta is currently recommended only for high-risk patients unsuitable for open repair. However, we anticipate that endovascular repair may become feasible in patients with PAU in the ascending aorta in the future.

  9. Multiple Re-entry Closures After TEVAR for Ruptured Chronic Post-dissection Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, R; Ganaha, F; Ito, J; Ohyama, N; Abe, N; Yamazato, T; Munakata, H; Mabuni, K; Kugai, T

    2018-01-01

    Although thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has become a promising treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, its role in treating chronic post-dissection thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA) is still limited owing to persistent retrograde flow into the false lumen (FL) through abdominal or iliac re-entry tears. A case of chronic post-dissection TAA treatment, in which a dilated descending FL ruptured into the left thorax, is described. The primary entry tear was closed by emergency TEVAR and multiple abdominal re-entries were closed by EVAR. In addition, major re-entries at the detached right renal artery and iliac bifurcation were closed using covered stents. To close re-entries as far as possible, EVAR was carried out using the chimney technique, and additional aortic extenders were placed above the coeliac artery. A few re-entries remained, but complete FL thrombosis of the rupture site was achieved. Follow-up computed tomography showed significant shrinkage of the FL. In treating post-dissection TAA, entry closure by TEVAR is sometimes insufficient, owing to persistent retrograde flow into the FL from abdominal or iliac re-entries. Adjunctive techniques are needed to close these distal re-entries to obtain complete FL exclusion, especially in rupture cases. Recently, encouraging results of complete coverage of the thoraco-abdominal aorta with fenestrated or branched endografts have been reported; however, the widespread employment of such techniques appears to be limited owing to technical difficulties. The present method with multiple re-entry closures using off the shelf and immediately available devices is an alternative for the endovascular treatment of post-dissection TAA, especially in the emergency setting.

  10. The focused abdominal sonography for trauma examination can reliably identify patients with significant intra-abdominal hemorrhage in life-threatening pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Christian, Nicole Townsend; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Geddes, Andrea E; Wagenaar, Amy E; Fox, Charles J; Pieracci, Fredric M

    2018-06-01

    The focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) examination has been reported to be unreliable in pelvic fracture patients. Additionally, given the advent of new therapeutic interventions, such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), rapid identification of intra-abdominal hemorrhage compared with Zone III hemorrhage may guide different therapeutic strategies. We hypothesized that FAST is reliable for detecting clinically significant intra-abdominal hemorrhage in the face of complex pelvic fractures. Our pelvic fracture database of all hemodynamically unstable patients requiring intervention from January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2015, was reviewed. The FAST examination was compared with operative and computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Confirmatory evaluation for FAST(-) patients was considered positive if therapeutic intervention was required. During the study period, 81 patients in refractory shock with FAST imaging in our emergency department (ED) underwent pelvic packing. Mean age was 45 ± 2 years and Injury Severity Score was 50 ± 1.5. The FAST examination was negative in 53 patients; 52 patients did not require operative intervention for abdominal bleeding while one patient required splenectomy. The FAST examination was positive in 28 patients; 26 had findings confirmed by CT or laparotomy while two patients did not have intra-abdominal hemorrhage on further evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity for FAST in this population was 96% and 96%, respectively, positive predictive value was 93%, and negative predictive value was 98%. The false-negative and -positive rates for FAST were 2% and 7%. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma examination reliably identifies clinically significant hemoperitoneum in life-threatening, pelvic fracture related hemorrhage. The incidence of a false-negative FAST in this unstable pelvic fracture population was 2%. FAST results may be used when determining the role of REBOA in these

  11. Open Versus Endovascular or Hybrid Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Clare, Ryan; Jorgensen, Julianne; Brar, Somjot S

    2016-10-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are multiple underlying etiologies, including genetic abnormalities, that have important implications in their natural history. The variable histologic, anatomic, and clinical presentations necessitate careful consideration of available treatment options. Surgical repair of these aneurysms has been the mainstay of treatment; however, these approaches can carry a relatively high risk of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular approaches have now become first-line therapy for descending thoracic aneurysms, and with advancements in graft technology, endovascular approaches are being increasingly employed for hybrid repairs of the aortic arch and even the ascending aorta. However, to date, clinical outcomes from randomized trials and long-term follow-up are limited. As technology continues to advance, there is the potential for further integration of surgical and endovascular treatments so that patients have the best opportunity for a favorable outcome.

  12. Endovascular Management of Acute Bleeding Arterioenteric Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, Henrik; Mellander, Stefan; Snygg, Johan

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this study was to review the outcome of endovascular transcatheter repair of emergent arterioenteric fistulas. Cases of abdominal arterioenteric fistulas (defined as a fistula between a major artery and the small intestine or colon, thus not the esophagus or stomach), diagnosed over the 3-year period between December 2002 and December 2005 at our institution, were retrospectively reviewed. Five patients with severe enteric bleeding underwent angiography and endovascular repair. Four presented primary arterioenteric fistulas, and one presented a secondary aortoenteric fistula. All had massive persistent bleeding with hypotension despite volume substitution and transfusion by the time of endovascularmore » management. Outcome after treatment of these patients was investigated for major procedure-related complications, recurrence, reintervention, morbidity, and mortality. Mean follow-up time was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). All massive bleeding was controlled by occlusive balloon catheters. Four fistulas were successfully sealed with stent-grafts, resulting in a technical success rate of 80%. One patient was circulatory stabilized by endovascular management but needed immediate further open surgery. There were no procedure-related major complications. Mean hospital stay after the initial endovascular intervention was 19 days. Rebleeding occurred in four patients (80%) after a free interval of 2 weeks or longer. During the follow-up period three patients needed reintervention. The in-hospital mortality was 20% and the 30-day mortality was 40%. The midterm outcome was poor, due to comorbidities or rebleeding, with a mortality of 80% within 6 months. In conclusion, endovascular repair is an efficient and safe method to stabilize patients with life-threatening bleeding arterioenteric fistulas in the emergent episode. However, in this group of patients with severe comorbidities, the risk of rebleeding is high and further intervention must be considered

  13. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective: The objective of this story of case is to describe an uncommon cause of associated peripheral Vestibulopathy to the unilateral auditory loss in aged patient after catheterization of urgency. Story of case: Patient of the masculine sort, 82 years, submitted to the correction of abdominal ragged aneurism of aorta, in the intra-operative suffered heart attack acute from the myocardium needing primary angioplasty. High after hospital it relates to complaint of accented hearing loss to the right and crippling vertigo, without focal neurological signals. To the otorhinolaryngological clinical examination it presented: Test of Weber lateralized for the left, spontaneous nystagmus for the left, marches rocking, has taken normal disbasia and ataxia, index-nose and diadochokinesia, Test of Romberg with oscillation without fall and Fukuda with lateral shunting line for the right. The audiometric examination evidenced deafness to the right and sensorineural loss to the left in sharps, areflexia initial to the right in caloric test e, the computerized tomography of the secular bones and brainstem, presence of metallic connecting rod crossing the right secular bone, from the vein internal jugular vein and bulb jugular vein, crossing the posterior, superior and vestibule semicircular canals, projecting itself in temporal lobe. The radiological diagnoses was traumatic injury for guide to endovascular metallic during catheterization of urgency and the behavior, considering that the patient had not compensated the balance, it was vestibular rehabilitation. Conclusion: Complaints of giddiness in the aged patient must be closely evaluated of its pathological clinical description because the antecedents of illnesses and previous treatments, in general, direct the diagnostic hypotheses however they can bring unexpected alterations. PMID:25991947

  14. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-04-01

     The objective of this story of case is to describe an uncommon cause of associated peripheral Vestibulopathy to the unilateral auditory loss in aged patient after catheterization of urgency. Story of case: Patient of the masculine sort, 82 years, submitted to the correction of abdominal ragged aneurism of aorta, in the intra-operative suffered heart attack acute from the myocardium needing primary angioplasty. High after hospital it relates to complaint of accented hearing loss to the right and crippling vertigo, without focal neurological signals. To the otorhinolaryngological clinical examination it presented: Test of Weber lateralized for the left, spontaneous nystagmus for the left, marches rocking, has taken normal disbasia and ataxia, index-nose and diadochokinesia, Test of Romberg with oscillation without fall and Fukuda with lateral shunting line for the right. The audiometric examination evidenced deafness to the right and sensorineural loss to the left in sharps, areflexia initial to the right in caloric test e, the computerized tomography of the secular bones and brainstem, presence of metallic connecting rod crossing the right secular bone, from the vein internal jugular vein and bulb jugular vein, crossing the posterior, superior and vestibule semicircular canals, projecting itself in temporal lobe. The radiological diagnoses was traumatic injury for guide to endovascular metallic during catheterization of urgency and the behavior, considering that the patient had not compensated the balance, it was vestibular rehabilitation.  Complaints of giddiness in the aged patient must be closely evaluated of its pathological clinical description because the antecedents of illnesses and previous treatments, in general, direct the diagnostic hypotheses however they can bring unexpected alterations.

  15. Early endovascular treatment of superior mesenteric occlusion secondary to thromboemboli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z; Jiang, G; Tian, F; Zhao, J; Li, S; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Jiang, L; Wang, W

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate our early experience with endovascular revascularization in patients with acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic SMA occlusion from May 2005 to May 2012. Endovascular revascularization was performed using aspiration, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and adjunctive stent-placement techniques. Laparotomy was performed if the patient developed clinical signs of advanced bowel ischemia after endovascular procedure. Twenty-one patients underwent endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic SMA occlusion. All presented with acute-onset abdominal pain. Three patients had rebound tenderness before the procedure. Computed tomography angiography revealed complete occlusion in seven cases and incomplete occlusion in 14 cases, with no evidence of free gas or bowel necrosis. The median duration from onset of symptoms to revascularization was 8.7 ± 4.1 hours (range, 2-18 hours). Completely successful endovascular revascularization occurred in six cases (aspiration alone, 3 cases; combined aspiration and urokinase, 3 cases); partial success was achieved in 15 cases (aspiration alone, 4 cases; combined aspiration and urokinase, 10 cases; and combined aspiration, urokinase, and stent placement, 1 case). Laparotomy was required in five patients, all of whom had SMA main trunk complete occlusion and required small bowel resection. The 30-day mortality for all patients was 9.5%. During a median follow-up of 26 months, 15 patients remained asymptomatic, three patients reported occasional abdominal pain, and one patient had temporary short-bowel syndrome. Percutaneous revascularization is a promising alternative to surgery for acute SMA occlusion in selected patients who have no signs of advanced bowel ischemia. Early diagnosis followed by prompt endovascular intervention with close postprocedural monitoring is

  16. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio, E-mail: claudiocec@hotmail.it; Leonini, Sara

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  17. Infolding of fenestrated endovascular stent graft.

    PubMed

    Zelt, Jason G E; Jetty, Prasad; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Nagpal, Sudhir

    2017-09-01

    We report a case of infolding of a fenestrated stent graft involving the visceral vessel segment after a juxtarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm repair. The patient remains free of any significant endoleak, and the aortic sac has shown regression. The patient remains asymptomatic, with no abdominal pain, with normal renal function, and without ischemic limb complications. We hypothesize that significant graft oversizing (20%-30%) with asymmetric engineering of the diameter-reducing ties may have contributed to the infolding. Because of the patient's asymptomatic nature and general medical comorbidities, further intervention was deemed inappropriate as the aneurysmal sac is regressing despite the infolding.

  18. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clearinghouse What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ... Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Adhesion Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can form between abdominal ...

  19. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  20. Three-dimensional finite volume modelling of blood flow in simulated angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algabri, Y. A.; Rookkapan, S.; Chatpun, S.

    2017-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is considered a deadly cardiovascular disease that defined as a focal dilation of blood artery. The healthy aorta size is between 15 and 24 mm based on gender, bodyweight, and age. When the diameter increased to 30 mm or more, the rupture can occur if it is kept growing or untreated. Moreover, the proximal angular neck of aneurysm is categorized as a significant morphological feature with prime harmful effects on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Flow pattern in pathological vessel can influence the vascular intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood flow behaviours in angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm with simulated geometry based on patient’s information using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The 3D angular neck AAA models have been designed by using SolidWorks Software. Consequently, CFD tools are used for simulating these 3D models of angular neck AAA in ANSYS FLUENT Software. Eventually, based on the results, we summarized that the CFD techniques have shown high performance in explaining and investigating the flow patterns for angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  1. Towards an entirely endovascular aortic world: an update of techniques and outcomes for endovascular and open treatment of type I, II, and III endoleaks.

    PubMed

    Mangialardi, Nicola; Orrico, Matteo; Ronchey, Sonia; Praquin, Barbara; Alberti, Vittorio; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is largely the most adopted strategy for aneurysmal disease of the aorta. Nevertheless, the high incidence of reintervention makes it difficult to identify EVAR as a definitive solution; in particular, the most frequent indication of reintervention is endoleak, which is defined as persistent flow into the aneurysmal sac from different sources. Several treatment strategies are described. A contemporary literature search was performed with the intent of describing techniques and outcomes of endovascular and open strategies to type I, II, and III endoleak. Described techniques and outcomes were organized by indication (type I, II, and III endoleak) and by type of approach (endovascular, open, and laparoscopic) to give an overview of the current status of the treatment for the three most frequent types of endoleak. Several endovascular means are described in the literature for the treatment of endoleak.

  2. Predictive factors for cerebrovascular accidents after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    PubMed

    Mariscalco, Giovanni; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Tozzi, Matteo; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Carrafiello, Giampaolo; Sala, Andrea; Castelli, Patrizio

    2009-12-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents are devastating and worrisome complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. The aim of this study was to determine cerebrovascular accident predictors after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Between January 2001 and June 2008, 76 patients treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair were prospectively enrolled. The study cohort included 61 men; mean age was 65.4 +/- 16.8 years. All patients underwent a specific neurologic assessment on an hourly basis postoperatively to detect neurologic deficits. Cerebrovascular accidents were diagnosed on the basis of physical examination, tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, or autopsy. Cerebrovascular accidents occurred in 8 (10.5%) patients, including 4 transient ischemic attack and 4 major strokes. Four cases were observed within the first 24-hours. Multivariable analysis revealed that anatomic incompleteness of the Willis circle (odds ratio [OR] 17.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10 to 140.66), as well as the presence of coronary artery disease (OR 6.86, 95 CI% 1.18 to 40.05), were independently associated with postoperative cerebrovascular accident development. Overall hospital mortality was 9.2%, with no significant difference for patients hit by cerebrovascular accidents (25.0% vs 7.3%, p = 0.102). Preexisting coronary artery disease, reflecting a severe diseased aorta and anomalies of Willis circle are independent cerebrovascular accident predictors after thoracic endovascular aortic repair procedures. A careful evaluation of the arch vessels and cerebral vascularization should be mandatory for patients suitable for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  3. Quantified Aortic Luminal Irregularity as a Predictor of Complications and Prognosis After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Akihiro; Kato, Masaaki; Motoki, Manabu; Sugai, Hiroko; Okubo, Nobukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atheromatous degeneration of the aorta is considered to be a risk factor for postoperative embolic complications after endovascular treatment, and is associated with a high incidence of vascular events in the long term. We devised a method to quantify the shagginess of the aorta using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images. This study examined the method's validity and prognostic usefulness in patients undergoing elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). We retrospectively investigated 427 patients who underwent elective EVAR between 2007 and 2013. Preoperative contrast-enhanced CT images with a slice thickness of 1 mm were analyzed using a workstation, and the degree of aortic luminal irregularity from the level of the left subclavian artery ostium to that of the celiac artery ostium was quantified by computing a shagginess score. We compared the computed scores with subjective visual assessments of aortic shagginess. Subsequently, we evaluated the relationship between the computed scores and postoperative prognosis. The shagginess scores were significantly correlated with the visual assessments of the aortic lumen, which were performed by 5 experienced vascular surgeons (rho ranged from 0.564–0.654, all P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the shagginess score was independently associated with the development of renal impairment within a month after EVAR (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83–4.22, P < 0.001). The shagginess score was significantly higher in patients who suffered postoperative intestinal and peripheral ischemic complications, as compared with those who did not (P < 0.001). The mean postoperative follow-up period was 1207 ± 641 days. Cox proportional hazards regression showed that the shagginess score was a significant independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09–1.72, P = 0

  4. Cadaveric aorta implantation for aortic graft infection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asad; Bahia, Sandeep S S; Ali, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 73-year-old gentleman who underwent explantation of an infected prosthetic aorto-iliac graft and replacement with a cryopreserved thoracic and aorto-iliac allograft. The patient has been followed up a for more than a year after surgery and remains well. After elective tube graft repair of his abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in 2003, he presented to our unit in 2012 in cardiac arrest as a result of a rupture of the distal graft suture line due to infection. After resuscitation he underwent aorto-bifemoral grafting using a cuff of the original aortic graft proximally. Distally the new graft was anastomosed to his common femoral arteries, with gentamicin beads left in situ. Post discharge the patient was kept under close surveillance with serial investigations including nuclear scanning, however it became apparent that his new graft was infected and that he would require aortic graft replacement, an operation with a mortality of at least 50%. The patient underwent the operation and findings confirmed a synthetic graft infection. This tube graft was explanted and a cryopreserved aorta was used to the refashion the abdominal aorta and its bifurcation. The operation required a return to theatre day one post operatively for a bleeding side branch, which was repaired. The patient went on to make a full recovery stepping down from the intensive therapy unit day 6 post operatively and went on to be discharged 32 days after his cryopreserved aorta implantation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Tight contact technique during side-to-side laser tissue soldering of rabbit aortas improves tensile strength.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A; Bregy, A; Constantinescu, M; Stuker, F; Schaffner, T; Frenz, M; Banic, A; Reinert, M

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral revascularization may be indicated either for blood flow preservation or flow augmentation, often in clinical situations where neither endovascular nor standard surgical intervention can be performed. Cerebral revascularization can be performed by using a temporary occlusive or a non-occlusive technique. Both of these possibilities have their specific range of feasibility. Therefore non-occlusive revascularization techniques have been developed. To further reduce the risks for patients, less time consuming, sutureless techniques such as laser tissue soldering are currently being investigated. In the present study, a new technique for side-to-side anastomosis was developed. Using a "sandwich technique", two vessels are kept in close contact during the laser soldering. Thoraco-abdominal aortas from 24 different rabbits were analyzed for laser irradiation induced tensile strength. Two different irradiation modes (continuous and pulsed) were used. The results were compared to conventional, noncontact laser soldering. Histology was performed using HE, Mason's Trichrome staining. The achieved tensile strengths were significantly higher using the close contact "sandwich technique" as compared to the conventional adaptation technique. Furthermore, tensile strength was higher in the continuously irradiated specimen as compared to the specimen undergoing pulsed laser irradiation. The histology showed similar denaturation areas in both groups. The addition of a collagen membrane between vessel components reduced the tensile strength. These first results proved the importance of close and tight contact during the laser soldering procedure thus enabling the development of a "sandwich laser irradiation device" for in vivo application in the rabbit.

  6. Abdominal tap

    MedlinePlus

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... abdominal cavity ( most often cancer of the ovaries ) Cirrhosis of the liver Damaged bowel Heart disease Infection ...

  7. Animal models in the research of abdominal aortic aneurysms development.

    PubMed

    Patelis, N; Moris, D; Schizas, D; Damaskos, C; Perrea, D; Bakoyiannis, C; Liakakos, T; Georgopoulos, S

    2017-12-20

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent and potentially life threatening disease. Many animal models have been developed to simulate the natural history of the disease or test preclinical endovascular devices and surgical procedures. The aim of this review is to describe different methods of AAA induction in animal models and report on the effectiveness of the methods described in inducing an analogue of a human AAA. The PubMed database was searched for publications with titles containing the following terms "animal" or "animal model(s)" and keywords "research", "aneurysm(s)", "aorta", "pancreatic elastase", "Angiotensin", "AngII" "calcium chloride" or "CaCl(2)". Starting date for this search was set to 2004, since previously bibliography was already covered by the review of Daugherty and Cassis (2004). We focused on animal studies that reported a model of aneurysm development and progression. A number of different approaches of AAA induction in animal models has been developed, used and combined since the first report in the 1960's. Although specific methods are successful in AAA induction in animal models, it is necessary that these methods and their respective results are in line with the pathophysiology and the mechanisms involved in human AAA development. A researcher should know the advantages/disadvantages of each animal model and choose the appropriate model.

  8. Use of the Abdominal Aortic Tourniquet for Hemorrhage Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    compression to the aorta at the abdominal-pelvic junction to occlude blood flow in the common iliac and inguinal arteries. The target of the compression...circumferential device that utilizes a belt, windlass and pneumatic pressure to compress the aorta . The belt and windlass together greatly increase the...clamping the aorta or fully stopping all blood flow to the pelvis and lower extremities. In essence the AAT™ acts as a valve to figuratively ‘turn the

  9. [Exceptional association of bilateral popliteal aneurysm with an abdominal aortic aneurysm in Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tijani, Y; Mameli, A; Chtata, H; Taberkant, M; Lekehal, B; Sefiani, Y; Elmesnaoui, A; Ammar, F; Bensaid, Y; Feito, B; Bellenot, F; Fallouh, A; Cheysson, E

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with rheumatoid, ophthalmological, neurological, cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations. Aneurysmal lesions affecting both the abdominal aorta and the peripheral arteries are not often described in the literature. We report a case associating a bilateral popliteal aneurysm and an aneurysm of the infra-renal abdominal aorta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and functional characterization of the contractile aorta and associated hemocytes of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Sigle, Leah T; Hillyer, Julián F

    2018-06-22

    The primary pump of the circulatory system of insects is a dorsal vessel that traverses the length of the insect. The anterior portion, located in the head, neck and thorax, is the aorta, and the posterior portion, located in the abdomen, is the heart. Here, we characterize the structure and function of the aorta and conical chamber of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae The aorta begins in the head with an excurrent opening located above the dorsal pharyngeal plate and ends at the thoraco-abdominal junction where it joins the conical chamber of the heart. The aorta lacks ostia, and based on the diameter of the vessel as well as the density and helical orientation of muscle, consists of three regions: the anterior aorta, the bulbous chamber, and the posterior aorta. The aorta contracts in the anterograde direction, but these contractions are independent of heart contractions and do not play a major role in hemolymph propulsion. Intravital imaging of the venous channels, the first abdominal segment and the neck revealed that hemolymph only travels through the aorta in the anterograde direction, and does so only during periods of anterograde heart flow. Furthermore, hemolymph only enters the thoraco-abdominal ostia of the conical chamber when the heart contracts in the retrograde direction, propelling this hemolymph to the posterior of the body. Finally, very few hemocytes associate with the aorta, and unlike what is seen in the periostial regions of the heart, infection does not induce the aggregation of hemocytes on the aorta. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Endovascular surgery in Marfan syndrome: CON.

    PubMed

    Kouchoukos, Nicholas T

    2017-11-01

    The frequency of endovascular stent grafting procedures to treat various conditions of the thoracic aorta has increased dramatically over the past three decades. Stent grafting has been applied on a limited basis in patients with Marfan syndrome and other connective tissue disorders, despite recommendations from current guidelines and expert consensus statements against its use in this setting. A review of publications reporting outcomes after stent grafting of the descending thoracic aorta in Marfan patients with acute or chronic aortic dissection indicates that these procedures can be accomplished with rates of early mortality, stroke and spinal cord ischemic injury that are comparable to those observed in patients who do not have Marfan syndrome. However, the rates of primary treatment failure (principally endoleak), secondary treatment failure, need for open repair and late death among the Marfan patients are substantially higher than those observed in patients without this condition. In addition, the rates of retrograde aortic dissection and development of stent-graft induced new entry (SINE), are also greater among patients with Marfan syndrome. All of these findings argue strongly against the routine use of endovascular grafts in Marfan patients with type B or residual type A dissection. Few data are available to assess the role of endografting in Marfan patients with aneurysmal disease, but the progressive aortic dilatation noted in these patients argues strongly against its use in this setting as well. At present, the available data indicate that there is no justification for elective stent grafting in Marfan patients with aortic dissection or aneurysm. The only reasonable indications for primary aortic stent grafting are in the setting of acute aortic dissection or rupture, where the intervention is considered life-saving and rarely, considering the relatively young age of these patients, where the risk of open operation is considered to be prohibitive.

  12. Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGFβ signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress. PMID:24514259

  13. [Hybrid operating rooms: only for advanced endovascular procedures?].

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Katsargyris, A; Töpel, I; Steinbauer, M

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of endovascular techniques has led to the concept of the "hybrid operating room" (hybrid OR). A hybrid OR combines the sterility of an OR in an operating theatre environment with a high-quality fixed imaging system. On the basis of these advantages it would be desirable that an angio-hybrid OR becomes a standard requirement for endovascular surgery. In Great Britain guidelines have already been published that require a hybrid OR even for normal endovascular management of the infrarenal aorta. However, in Germany there are no guidelines from professional societies or formal rules from the federal joint committee, thus in this article a classification of endovascular procedures according to their complexity and the necessary infrastructures are proposed in order to define particular procedures that should only be performed in an angio-hybrid OR. According to our experience, endovascular procedures can be classified into four categories based on their complexity and the requirements regarding fluoroscopy: level 1: standard EVAR, TEVAR, iliac and popliteal artery procedures; level 2: iliac branched (IBD) and standard (2 fenestrations for the renal arteries and a scallop for the superior mesenteric artery) fenestrated stent-grafting; level 3: more complex fenestrated procedures (three or four fenestrations); and level 4: branched stent-grafting for TAAA. At this moment it is still acceptable to perform level 1 and level 2 procedures outside of a hybrid OR. In our opinion, it is not recommended to perform level 3 and level 4 endovascular procedures without a hybrid OR. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. A combined endovascular and open ''reverse hybrid'' technique for repair of complex juxtarenal inflammatory aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rigberg, David; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Lawrence, Peter; Gelabert, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) can present significant challenges to surgeons, especially in the juxtarenal location where they may not be amenable to endovascular repair. The dense, inflammatory component of these lesions can encase adjacent structures including the duodenum, ureters, and inferior vena cava putting them at risk for injury during open exposure. We report a novel ''reverse hybrid'' technique using a combined endovascular and open approach for repair of large, juxtarenal IAAA's.

  15. Endovascular Management of Delayed Complete Graft Thrombosis After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Thurley, Peter D., E-mail: pthurley@doctors.org.u; Glasby, Michael J.; Pollock, John G.

    2010-08-15

    Graft thrombosis rates after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms vary widely in published series. When thrombosis does occur, it usually involves a single limb and occurs within 3 months of stent-graft insertion. If the entire endoprosthesis is thrombosed, treatment may be challenging because femoro-femoral crossover graft insertion is not an option and a greater volume of thrombus is present, thus making thrombolysis more difficult. We present two cases of delayed thrombosis after EVAR involving the entire stent-graft. These were successfully treated by a combined surgical and endovascular technique, and patency has been maintained in both cases tomore » date.« less

  16. Surgical Treatment of Synchronous Type B Acute Aortic Dissection and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bellosta, Raffaello; Gelpi, Guido; Lomazzi, Chiara; Romagnoni, Claudia; Castelli, Patrizio; Trimarchi, Santi; Piffaretti, Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of the operative treatment of synchronous type B acute aortic dissection (TBAAD) and infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). It is an observational, descriptive multicenter case series. Inclusion criterion was patients with diagnosis of TBAAD and AAA detected synchronously for the first time at clinical onset of dissection. Follow-up imaging protocol included triple-phase spiral/computed tomography angiography performed at 1, 6, and 12 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and annually thereafter. Major end points were perioperative mortality and long-term survival, freedom from aortic events, and freedom from reintervention. We identified and treated 15 cases. All TBAADs were treated by TEVAR in the acute phase: infrarenal aortic repair was performed with stent graft (SG) in 10 (66.7%) patients, with open repair in 5 (33.3%). Overall, staged repair was used in 11 (73.3%) patients. Mean descending aortic endovascular length coverage was 21 cm ± 7 (range, 10-35; interquartile range [IQR], 150-265). Overall, early perioperative mortality occurred in 1 (6.7%) patient. Median radiologic follow-up was 48 months (range, 6-120; IQR, 36-67). During the follow-up, TEVAR-related mortality was not observed. Aortic remodeling after TEVAR was obtained in 12 (85.7%) patients; abdominal sac shrinkage after SG was obtained in 8 (80.0%) patients. Freedom from aortic event rate was 79% ± 10 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.1-92.6) at 1 year and 64% ± 13 (95% CI: 38.1-83.5) at 5 year. Freedom from reintervention rate at 1 and 5 year was 85% ± 10 (95% CI: 57.8-95.7). In our experience, the association of TBAAD and AAA was a rare finding. Because of the lack of available evidence to opt for a single intervention or a staged approach, selective approach with TEVAR and endovascular/open conventional treatment of the abdominal aorta yielded satisfactory results at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Primary aortoduodenal fistula associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm with presentation of gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chang, Yao-Tien; Hu, Sung-Yuan

    2018-06-07

    Primary aortoduodenal fistula (ADF) is a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and is difficult to diagnose as the clinical presentation is subtle. Clinicians should keep a high level of suspicion for an unknown etiology of GI bleeding, especially in older patients with or without abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can be used to detect primary ADF. Open surgery or endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for ADF with bleeding will improve the survival rate. We report a rare case of AAA complicating ADF with massive GI bleeding in a 73-year-old Taiwanese man. He presented with abdominal pain and tarry stool for 5 days and an initial upper GI endoscopy at a rural hospital showed gastric ulcer only, but hypotension with tachycardia and a drop in hemoglobin of 9 g/dl from 12 g/dl occurred the next day. He was referred to our hospital for EVAR and primary closure of fistula defect due to massive GI bleeding with shock from ADF caused by AAA. Diagnosis was made by CTA of aorta. A timely and accurate diagnosis of primary ADF may be challenging due to insidious episodes of GI bleeding, which are frequently under-diagnosed until the occurrence of massive hemorrhage. Clinical physicians should keep a high index of awareness for primary ADF, especially in elderly patients with unknown etiology of upper GI bleeding with or without a known AAA.

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine as a Potential Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Wang, Ning; Bensoussan, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible condition where the abdominal aorta is dilated leading to potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of AAA, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) apoptosis, immune cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Currently surgical therapies, including minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), are the only viable interventions for AAAs. However, these treatments are not appropriate for the majority of AAAs, which measure <50 mm. Substantial effort has been invested to identify and develop pharmaceutical treatments such as statins and doxycycline for this potentially lethal condition but these interventions failed to offer a cure or to retard the progression of AAA. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for the management of cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China and other Asian countries. The unique multi-component and multi-target property of CHMs makes it a potentially ideal therapy for multifactorial diseases such as AAA. In this review, we review the current scientific evidence to support the use of CHMs for the treatment of AAA. Mechanisms of action underlying the effects of CHMs on AAA are also discussed. PMID:29732374

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicine as a Potential Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Wang, Ning; Bensoussan, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible condition where the abdominal aorta is dilated leading to potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of AAA, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) apoptosis, immune cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Currently surgical therapies, including minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), are the only viable interventions for AAAs. However, these treatments are not appropriate for the majority of AAAs, which measure <50 mm. Substantial effort has been invested to identify and develop pharmaceutical treatments such as statins and doxycycline for this potentially lethal condition but these interventions failed to offer a cure or to retard the progression of AAA. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for the management of cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China and other Asian countries. The unique multi-component and multi-target property of CHMs makes it a potentially ideal therapy for multifactorial diseases such as AAA. In this review, we review the current scientific evidence to support the use of CHMs for the treatment of AAA. Mechanisms of action underlying the effects of CHMs on AAA are also discussed.

  20. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Policy Makers Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Click here ... narrower than usual. What is Coarctation of the Aorta? Coarctation of the aorta is a birth defect ...

  1. Apico-brachiocephalic artery bypass for aortic stenosis with porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Nakai, Mikizo; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshizumi, Ko; Ochi, Yoshiki; Okada, Masahiro; Sano, Shunji

    2010-02-01

    Apicoaortic bypass for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction has been performed with acceptable mid-term mortality. However, sometimes it is difficult to anastomose the distal end of the conduit to the calcified descending aorta in patients with a porcelain aorta. We report an aortic non-touch modification of the apicoaortic bypass in an 80-year-old woman with valvular aortic stenosis and a porcelain aorta extending from the ascending to abdominal aorta. We performed apico-brachiocephalic artery bypass under circulatory arrest with deep hypothermia. This procedure may become a useful surgical option for patients with a severe porcelain aorta. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianhua; Yang, F; Li, X; Xu, X; Wang, G X

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas. A material model was fitted to the biaxial experimental data to obtain constitutive parameters. Histological and mass fraction analyses were performed to investigate the underlying microstructure and dry weight percentages of elastin and collagen in the control and the diabetic aortas. No statistically significant difference was found in ultimate tensile strength between the control and the diabetic aortas. Regarding biaxial mechanical responses, the diabetic aortas exhibited significantly lower extensibility and significantly higher tissue stiffness than the control aortas. Notably, tissue stiffening occurred in both circumferential and axial directions for the diabetic aortas; however, mechanical anisotropy does not change significantly. The material model was able to fit biaxial experimental data very well. Histology showed that a number of isolated foam cells were embedded in the diabetic aortas and hyperplasia of collagen was identified. The dry weight percentages of collagen within the diabetic aortas increased significantly as compared to the control aortas, whereas no significant change was found for that of elastin. Our data suggest that the diabetes impairs elastic properties and alters microstructure of the aortas and consequently, these changes may further contribute to complex aortic wall remodeling.

  4. Is Conventional Open Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Feasible in Nonagenarians?

    PubMed

    Uehara, Kyokun; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Omura, Atsushi; Seike, Yoshimasa; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-09-25

    Background : Although endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm has been found to be beneficial in very elderly patients, some patients have contraindications to this procedure. For nonagenarians, the results of open repair remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of open vs. endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm in nonagenarian patients. Methods and Results : Fourteen patients undergoing open surgical repair and 24 undergoing endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm were evaluated. There was no significant difference in early mortality between the open and endovascular groups (0% vs. 4.1%, p=0.16). The open repair group required much longer hospital stays (26.4 vs. 10.6 days, respectively, p=0.003). Finally, 12 patients (86%) undergoing open repair vs. 21 (88%) undergoing endovascular repair returned home (p=0.49). During a mean follow-up period of 23.4±23.5 months, cumulative estimated 1- and 3-year survival rates were 90.0% and 48.0%, respectively in the open repair group and 90.6% and 54.9%, respectively in the endovascular repair group (p=0.51). Conclusion : Although endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm was superior in terms of recovery, the results of conventional open repair were acceptable even in nonagenarian patients. Open repair remains an alternative for patients with contraindications to endovascular repair.

  5. Validation of the Simbionix PROcedure Rehearsal Studio sizing module: A comparison of software for endovascular aneurysm repair sizing and planning.

    PubMed

    Velu, Juliëtte F; Groot Jebbink, Erik; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Slump, Cornelis H; Geelkerken, Robert H

    2017-02-01

    An important determinant of successful endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is proper sizing of the dimensions of the aortic-iliac vessels. The goal of the present study was to determine the concurrent validity, a method for comparison of test scores, for EVAR sizing and planning of the recently introduced Simbionix PROcedure Rehearsal Studio (PRORS). Seven vascular specialists analyzed anonymized computed tomography angiography scans of 70 patients with an infrarenal aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, using three different sizing software packages Simbionix PRORS (Simbionix USA Corp., Cleveland, OH, USA), 3mensio (Pie Medical Imaging BV, Maastricht, The Netherlands), and TeraRecon (Aquarius, Foster City, CA, USA). The following measurements were included in the protocol: diameter 1 mm below the most distal main renal artery, diameter 15 mm below the lowest renal artery, maximum aneurysm diameter, and length from the most distal renal artery to the left iliac artery bifurcation. Averaged over the locations, the intraclass correlation coefficient is 0.83 for Simbionix versus 3mensio, 0.81 for Simbionix versus TeraRecon, and 0.86 for 3mensio versus TeraRecon. It can be concluded that the Simbionix sizing software is as precise as two other validated and commercially available software packages.

  6. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    risk for peripartum hemorrhage. Early removal of the endovascular catheter and close postoperative surveillance of the vascular system are required with this procedure to minimize the risk of vascular complications. However, further studies are needed to determine whether the potential benefits of temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon outweigh the potential risks.

  7. Case report and review of the literature total endovascular repair of acute ascending aortic rupture: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    McCallum, John C; Limmer, Karl K; Perricone, Anthony; Bandyk, Dennis; Kansal, Nikhil

    2013-07-01

    Thoracic aortic endografting has been successfully implemented to treat aneurysmal disease of the distal aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. Although there are reports of ascending aortic endovascular interventions, the total endovascular repair of a ruptured ascending aorta secondary to a Type A dissection has not been described. We report the case of a 77-year-old patient who presented with a ruptured ascending aortic aneurysm secondary to degeneration of a Stanford type A aortic dissection. His surgical history was significant for orthotropic heart transplant 19 years prior. The dissection, aneurysm, and rupture occurred in the native aorta distal to the ascending aortic suture line. At presentation, he was hemodynamically unstable with a right hemothorax. We placed 3 Medtronic Talent Thoracic Stent Graft devices (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) across the suture line in the ascending aorta, excluding the rupture. The patient survived and has been followed to 25 months.

  8. Associated injuries, management, and outcomes of blunt abdominal aortic injury.

    PubMed

    de Mestral, Charles; Dueck, Andrew D; Gomez, David; Haas, Barbara; Nathens, Avery B

    2012-09-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) is very rare, and current literature is limited to case series of single-center experience. Through an analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank, the largest aggregation of United States trauma registry data, our aim was to characterize the associated injury pattern, contemporary management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with BAAI. We used a nested case-control design. The overall cohort consisted of adult patients (age ≥ 16 years) severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16) after blunt trauma who were treated at a level 1 or 2 trauma center in years 2007 to 2009. Cases were patients with BAAI and were frequency-matched by age group and mechanism to randomly selected controls at a one-to-five ratio. Multivariable matched analysis (conditional logistic regression) was used to derive adjusted measures of association between BAAI and adjacent arterial, intra-abdominal, and bony injuries. We identified 436 patients with BAAI from 180 centers. The mean Injury Severity Score was 35 ± 14, and most patients were injured in motor vehicle crashes (84%). Multivariable analysis showed injury to the thoracic aorta, renal and iliac artery, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidney, as well as lumbar spine fractures were independently associated with BAAI. A total of 394 patients (90%) were managed nonoperatively, and 42 (10%) underwent repair. Of these 42 patients, 29 (69%) underwent endovascular repair, with 11 patients undergoing open aortic repair and two extra-anatomic bypasses. Median time from admission to repair was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-2 days). Overall mortality was 29%. A total of 271 (69%) patients managed nonoperatively survived to hospital discharge. The index of suspicion for BAAI should be raised in severely injured patients by the presence of injuries to the lumbar spine, bowel, retroperitoneal organs, and adjacent major arteries. Although endovascular repair is the most common intervention, most

  9. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  10. External validation of Vascular Study Group of New England risk predictive model of mortality after elective abdominal aorta aneurysm repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative and comparison against established models.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis V; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to externally validate a recently reported Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model of postoperative mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to compare its predictive ability across different patients' risk categories and against the established risk predictive models using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) AAA sample. The VQI AAA database (2010-2015) was queried for patients who underwent elective AAA repair. The VSGNE cases were excluded from the VQI sample. The external validation of a recently published VSGNE AAA risk predictive model, which includes only preoperative variables (age, gender, history of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, creatinine levels, and aneurysm size) and planned type of repair, was performed using the VQI elective AAA repair sample. The predictive value of the model was assessed via the C-statistic. Hosmer-Lemeshow method was used to assess calibration and goodness of fit. This model was then compared with the Medicare, Vascular Governance Northwest model, and Glasgow Aneurysm Score for predicting mortality in VQI sample. The Vuong test was performed to compare the model fit between the models. Model discrimination was assessed in different risk group VQI quintiles. Data from 4431 cases from the VSGNE sample with the overall mortality rate of 1.4% was used to develop the model. The internally validated VSGNE model showed a very high discriminating ability in predicting mortality (C = 0.822) and good model fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .309) among the VSGNE elective AAA repair sample. External validation on 16,989 VQI cases with an overall 0.9% mortality rate showed very robust predictive ability of mortality (C = 0.802). Vuong tests yielded a significant fit difference favoring the VSGNE over then Medicare model (C = 0.780), Vascular Governance Northwest (0.774), and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (0

  11. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery that carries blood to your lower body (aorta). To perform the procedure: Your doctor made a ... to guide the stent and graft into your aorta where the aneurysm was located. The graft and ...

  12. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using a Reverse Chimney Technique in a Patient With Marfan Syndrome and Contained Ruptured Chronic Type B Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Kalender, Guenay; Heuschmid, Martin

    2011-10-15

    We report endovascular thoracic and abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) with reverse chimney technique in a patient with contained ruptured type B dissection. EVAR seems feasible as a bailout option in Marfan patients with acute life-threatening disease.

  13. Controlled hypotension versus normotensive resuscitation strategy for people with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniel H; Cacione, Daniel G; Baptista-Silva, Jose C C

    2016-05-13

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the pathological enlargement of the aorta and can develop in both men and women. Progressive aneurysm enlargement can lead to rupture. The rupture of an AAA is frequently fatal and accounts for the death from haemorrhagic shock of at least 45 people per 100,000 population. The outcome of people with ruptured AAA varies among countries and healthcare systems, with mortality ranging from 53% to 90%. Definitive treatment for ruptured AAA includes open surgery or endovascular repair. The management of haemorrhagic shock is crucial for the person's outcome and aims to restore organ perfusion and systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg through immediate and aggressive fluid replacement. This rapid fluid replacement is known as the normotensive resuscitation strategy. However, evidence suggests that infusing large volumes of cold fluid causes dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. The association of these factors may exacerbate bleeding, resulting in a 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidaemia, and coagulopathy. An alternative to the normotensive resuscitation strategy is the controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation strategy, with a target systolic blood pressure of 50 to 100 mm Hg. The principle of controlled or hypotensive resuscitation has been used in some management protocols for endovascular repair of ruptured AAA. It may be beneficial in preventing blood loss by avoiding the clot disruption caused by the rapid increase in systolic blood pressure; avoiding dilution of clotting factors, platelets and fibrinogen; and by avoiding the temperature decrease that inhibits enzyme activity involved in platelet and clotting factor function. To compare the effects of controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation and normotensive resuscitation strategies for people with ruptured AAA. The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register (April 2016) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (CENTRAL (2016

  14. Coarctation of the Aorta (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Coarctation of the Aorta KidsHealth / For Teens / Coarctation of the Aorta What's ... español Estrechamiento aórtico What Is Coarctation of the Aorta? The aorta (pronounced: ay-OR-tuh) is the ...

  15. Contemporary Strategies in the Management of Civilian Abdominal Vascular Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karaolanis, Georgios; Moris, Dimitrios; McCoy, C. Cameron; Tsilimigras, Diamantis I.; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Bakoyiannis, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation and management of patients with abdominal vascular trauma or injury requires immediate and effective decision-making in these unfavorable circumstances. The majority of these patients arrive at trauma centers in profound shock, secondary to massive blood loss, which is often unrelenting. Moreover, ischemia, compartment syndrome, thrombosis, and embolization may also be life threatening and require immediate intervention. To minimize the risk of these potentially lethal complications, early understanding of the disease process and emergent therapeutic intervention are necessary. In the literature, the management of acute traumatic vascular injuries is restricted to traditional open surgical techniques. However, in penetrating injuries surgeons often face a potentially contaminated field, which renders the placement of prosthetic grafts inappropriate. Currently, however, there are sparse data on the management of vascular trauma with endovascular techniques. The role of endovascular technique in penetrating abdominal vascular trauma, which is almost always associated with severe active bleeding, is limited. It is worth mentioning that hybrid operating rooms with angiographic radiology capabilities offer more opportunities for the management of this kind of injuries by either temporary control of the devastating bleeding using endovascular balloon tamponade or with embolization and stenting. On the other hand, blunt abdominal injuries are less dangerous and they could be treated at most times by endovascular means. Since surgeons continue to encounter abdominal vascular trauma, open and endovascular techniques will evolve constantly giving us encouraging messages for the near future. PMID:29516005

  16. Computer-aided endovascular aortic repair using fully automated two- and three-dimensional fusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Giuseppe; Torsello, Giovanni Federico; Pfister, Markus; Bisdas, Theodosios; Bosiers, Michel J; Torsello, Giovanni; Austermann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    To assess the usability of a fully automated fusion imaging engine prototype, matching preinterventional computed tomography with intraoperative fluoroscopic angiography during endovascular aortic repair. From June 2014 to February 2015, all patients treated electively for abdominal and thoracoabdominal aneurysms were enrolled prospectively. Before each procedure, preoperative planning was performed with a fully automated fusion engine prototype based on computed tomography angiography, creating a mesh model of the aorta. In a second step, this three-dimensional dataset was registered with the two-dimensional intraoperative fluoroscopy. The main outcome measure was the applicability of the fully automated fusion engine. Secondary outcomes were freedom from failure of automatic segmentation or of the automatic registration as well as accuracy of the mesh model, measuring deviations from intraoperative angiography in millimeters, if applicable. Twenty-five patients were enrolled in this study. The fusion imaging engine could be used in successfully 92% of the cases (n = 23). Freedom from failure of automatic segmentation was 44% (n = 11). The freedom from failure of the automatic registration was 76% (n = 19), the median error of the automatic registration process was 0 mm (interquartile range, 0-5 mm). The fully automated fusion imaging engine was found to be applicable in most cases, albeit in several cases a fully automated data processing was not possible, requiring manual intervention. The accuracy of the automatic registration yielded excellent results and promises a useful and simple to use technology. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair and Sealing (EVARS): A Useful Adjunct in Treating Challenging Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Gareth J., E-mail: garethjamesharrison@yahoo.co.uk; Antoniou, George A., E-mail: antoniou.ga@hotmail.com; Torella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.torella@rlbuht.nhs.uk

    An 81-year-old male with previous open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair presented with asymptomatic large pseudoaneurysms at both ends of an open surgical tube graft. Endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) in combination with the iliac limbs of a standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) successfully excluded both pseudoaneurysms from circulation. We describe the combination of elements of EVAS and EVAR and have termed this endovascular aneurysm repair and sealing (EVARS). EVARS has the advantage of harnessing the benefits of endobag sealing in aortic necks unsuitable for standard EVAR whilst providing the security of accurate stent placement within short common iliac arteries. In conclusion,more » EVAS may be combined with standard endovascular iliac limbs and is a possible treatment option for pseudoaneurysm following open aneurysm repair.« less

  18. The Influence of Positioning of the Nellix Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing System on Suprarenal and Renal Flow: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Boersen, Johannes T; Groot Jebbink, Erik; Van de Velde, Lennart; Versluis, Michel; Lajoinie, Guillaume; Slump, Cornelius H; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-10-01

    To examine the influence of device positioning and infrarenal neck diameter on flow patterns in the Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) system. The transition of the aortic flow lumen into two 10-mm-diameter stents after EVAS creates a mismatched area. Flow recirculation may affect local wall shear stress (WSS) profiles and residence time associated with atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To examine these issues, 7 abdominal aortic aneurysm flow phantoms were created, including 3 unstented controls and 3 stented models with infrarenal neck diameters of 24, 28, and 32 mm. Stents were positioned within the instructions for use (IFU). Another 28-mm model was created to evaluate lower positioning of the stents outside the IFU (28-mm LP). Flow was visualized using optical particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and quantified by time-averaged WSS (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and relative residence time (RRT) in the aorta at the anteroposterior (AP) midplane, lateral midplane, and renal artery AP midplane levels. Flow in the aorta AP midplane was similar in all models. Vortices were observed in the stented models in the lateral midplane near the anterior and posterior walls. In the 32-mm IFU and 28-mm LP models, a steady state of vortices appeared, with varying location during a cycle. In all models, a low TAWSS (<10 -2 Pa) was observed at the anterior wall of the aorta with peak OSI of 0.5 and peak RRT of 10 4 Pa -1 . This region was more proximally located in the stented models. The 24- and 28-mm IFU models showed flow with a higher velocity at the renal artery inflow compared to controls. TAWSS in the renal artery was lower near the orifice in all models, with the largest area in the 24-mm IFU model. OSI and RRT in the renal artery were near zero for all models. EVAS enhances vorticity proximal to the seal zone, especially with lower positioning of the device and in larger neck diameters. Endobags just below the renal artery affect the flow profile in a

  19. Endobag separation - an ominous sign after endovascular aneurysm sealing with the Nellix device.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Sadia; Badri, Hassan; Ranjeet, Narlawar; Antoniou, George A

    2018-06-01

    Our report aims to alert physicians performing endovascular aneurysm sealing with the Nellix endoprosthesis to the risk of rupture when endobag separation is noticed on computed tomography. Endobag separation when observed with acute presentation of abdominal pain is an indicator of imminent rupture and prompt interventional treatment should be undertaken.

  20. [Aneurysm in the aorta. Diagnostic confirmation by means of a helicoidal CAT scan].

    PubMed

    Lema Garrido, Fernando; Moya Merino, Mariano; Jordán López, Cristóbal

    2004-09-01

    A helicoidal radiological CAT Scan, which produces reconstructions in varying planes and makes use of an injected contrasting liquid, confirms a diagnosis of an abdominal aorta aneurysm in the shortest time possible, whether this aneurysm is broken or dried, in order to facilitate a patient's treatment to the highest degree.

  1. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care.

  2. Bare Metal Stenting for Endovascular Exclusion of Aortic Arch Thrombi

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnken, Andreas H., E-mail: mahnken@med.uni-marburg.de; Hoffman, Andras; Autschbach, Ruediger

    BackgroundAortic thrombi in the ascending aorta or aortic arch are rare but are associated with a relevant risk of major stroke or distal embolization. Although stent grafting is commonly used as a treatment option in the descending aorta, only a few case reports discuss stenting of the aortic arch for the treatment of a thrombus. The use of bare metal stents in this setting has not yet been described.MethodsWe report two cases of ascending and aortic arch thrombus that were treated by covering the thrombus with an uncovered stent. Both procedures were performed under local anesthesia via a femoral approach.more » A femoral cutdown was used in one case, and a total percutaneous insertion was possible in the second case.ResultsBoth procedures were successfully performed without any periprocedural complications. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. In both cases, no late complications or recurrent embolization occurred at midterm follow-up, and control CT angiography at 1 respectively 10 months revealed no stent migration, freely perfused supra-aortic branches, and no thrombus recurrence.ConclusionTreating symptomatic thrombi in the ascending aorta or aortic arch with a bare metal stent is feasible. This technique could constitute a minimally invasive alternative to a surgical intervention or complex endovascular therapy with fenestrated or branched stent grafts.« less

  3. Three-dimensional (3D) printed endovascular simulation models: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mafeld, Sebastian; Nesbitt, Craig; McCaslin, James; Bagnall, Alan; Davey, Philip; Bose, Pentop; Williams, Rob

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a manufacturing process in which an object is created by specialist printers designed to print in additive layers to create a 3D object. Whilst there are initial promising medical applications of 3D printing, a lack of evidence to support its use remains a barrier for larger scale adoption into clinical practice. Endovascular virtual reality (VR) simulation plays an important role in the safe training of future endovascular practitioners, but existing VR models have disadvantages including cost and accessibility which could be addressed with 3D printing. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of 3D printing an anatomically accurate human aorta for the purposes of endovascular training. A 3D printed model was successfully designed and printed and used for endovascular simulation. The stages of development and practical applications are described. Feedback from 96 physicians who answered a series of questions using a 5 point Likert scale is presented. Initial data supports the value of 3D printed endovascular models although further educational validation is required.

  4. Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Clinical Need Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition. The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases. The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia. The Technology Endovascular aortic aneurysm

  5. Endovascular repair of aortic disease: a venture capital perspective.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Lucas W; Stavropoulos, S William; Resnick, Joshua B; Solomon, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    Endovascular devices for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic disease are poised to become the next $1 billion medical device market. A shift from open repair to endovascular repair, advances in technology, screening initiatives, and new indications are driving this growth. Although billion-dollar medical device markets are rare, this field is fraught with risk and uncertainty for startups and their venture capital investors. Technological hurdles, daunting clinical and regulatory timelines, market adoption issues, and entrenched competitors pose significant barriers to successful new venture creation. In fact, the number of aortic endografts that have failed to reach commercialization or have been pulled from the market exceeds the number of Food and Drug Administration-approved endografts in the United States. This article will shed some light on the venture capital mind-set and decision-making paradigm in the context of aortic disease.

  6. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic tears.

    PubMed

    Mansour, M Ashraf; Kirk, Jeffrey S; Cuff, Robert F; Banegas, Shonda L; Ambrosi, Gavin M; Liao, Timothy H; Chambers, Christopher M; Wong, Peter Y; Heiser, John C

    2012-03-01

    Patients with thoracic aorta injuries (TAI) present a unique challenge. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with TAI. A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted for TEVAR for trauma was performed. In a 5-year period, 19 patients (6 women and 13 men; average age, 42 y) were admitted to our trauma center with TAI. Mechanism of injury was a motor vehicle crash in 12 patients, motorcycle crash in 2 patients, automobile-pedestrian accident in 2 patients, 1 fall, 1 crush injury, and 1 stab wound to the back. A thoracic endograft was used in 6 patients and proximal aortic cuffs were used in 13 patients (68%). One patient (5%) died. There were no strokes, myocardial infarctions, paraplegia, or renal failure. TEVAR for TAI appears to be a safe option for patients with multiple injuries. TEVAR in young patients is still controversial because long-term endograft behavior is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Revascularisation of the aorta, of the renal and of the lower limb arterial systems].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Csaba; Király, István; Bánsághi, Zoltán; Doros, Attila

    2015-04-26

    Revascularisation aims to create a patent lumen in an acutely or chronically occluded or stenosed vessel. Interventional radiology has developed and used minimally invasive methods for decades concurring surgical methods and medical therapy. Innovative fields in healthcare may be handicapped since revolutionary solutions usually gain wide acceptance slowly and the results of randomized controlled trials are reported late. At present endovascular recanalization, dilatation and stent placement have achieved a well-established role in the treatment of stenosis or occlusion of the aorta, and renal and peripheral arteries.

  8. Upper extremity access for fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is not associated with increased morbidity.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Martyn; Nation, David A; Timaran, David E; Gomez, Luis F; Baig, M Shadman; Valentine, R James; Timaran, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    Fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR) is an alternative to open repair in patients with complex abdominal aortic aneurysms who are neither fit nor suitable for standard open or endovascular repair. Chimney and snorkel grafts are other endovascular alternatives but frequently require bilateral upper extremity access that has been associated with a 3% to 10% risk of stroke. However, upper extremity access is also frequently required for FEVAR because of the caudal orientation of the visceral vessels. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of upper extremity access for FEVAR and the associated morbidity. During a 5-year period, 148 patients underwent FEVAR, and upper extremity access for FEVAR was used in 98 (66%). Outcomes were compared between those who underwent upper extremity access and those who underwent femoral access alone. The primary end point was a cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, and the secondary end point was local access site complications. The mean number of fenestrated vessels was 3.07 ± 0.81 (median, 3) for a total of 457 vessels stented. Percutaneous upper extremity access was used in 12 patients (12%) and open access in 86 (88%). All patients who required a sheath size >7F underwent high brachial open access, with the exception of one patient who underwent percutaneous axillary access with a 12F sheath. The mean sheath size was 10.59F ± 2.51F (median, 12F), which was advanced into the descending thoracic aorta, allowing multiple wire and catheter exchanges. One hemorrhagic stroke (one of 98 [1%]) occurred in the upper extremity access group, and one ischemic stroke (one of 54 [2%]) occurred in the femoral-only access group (P = .67). The stroke in the upper extremity access group occurred 5 days after FEVAR and was related to uncontrolled hypertension, whereas the stroke in the femoral group occurred on postoperative day 3. Neither patient had signs or symptoms of a stroke immediately after FEVAR

  9. Endovascular Repair of a Splenic Artery Aneurysm With Anomalous Origin From the Superior Mesenteric Artery.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Lalithapriya; Caputo, Francis J; Lombardi, Joseph V

    2017-04-01

    A 22 year old female with a history of recurrent abdominal pain was transferred to our institution with a diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm identified on imaging. CT angiography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a partially thrombosed 3.0 cm splenic artery aneurysm without signs of rupture and with an anomalous origin from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm. Herein we review some of the nuances of endovascular repair of splenic artery aneurysm.

  10. A novel experimental animal model of arterial stenosis based on endovascular radiofrequency energy application.

    PubMed

    Lazoura, Olga; Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Kanavou, Theodora; Rountas, Christos; Katsimboulas, Michael; Tzovaras, George; Habib, Nagy

    2011-01-01

    To develop a new rabbit model of arterial stenosis using endovascular radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ten rabbits were used for multiple endovascular RF applications to the aorta and left common carotid artery through the Habib™ VesCoag™ catheter. Angiography and color Doppler ultrasound were used to assess vessel patency immediately following the procedure and six weeks later. One rabbit was sacrificed following the procedure for histopathologic analysis of the vessel wall. Two rabbits died of aortic and carotid rupture, respectively, immediately after the procedure. The remaining seven rabbits were sacrificed after six-week follow-up for histopathological analysis. Optimal RF generator settings to induce significant arterial stenosis (>50%) without complications were standardized at 24-26 watts (W) for 1.5 min for the aorta and 6 W for 1 min for the common carotid artery. The six-week follow-up showed permanent results in all surviving rabbits. Histopathology revealed intima and medial smooth muscle layer necrosis. We have developed a novel rabbit model of arterial stenosis using endovascular RF energy. Our model is fast, safe, inexpensive, and reproducible. It would be useful for experimental investigations and new therapeutic devices.

  11. High risk endovascular aneurysm repair: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Samanthi

    2017-10-01

    Mr AB is a 66-year old gentleman who presented for elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) following a routine screening scan identifying a 5.5cm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). He had a past history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with FEV1/FVC ratio of 48% on pre-assessment. He was hypertensive with a history of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), which has remained asymptomatic following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) eight years prior to this presentation. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  12. Descending aorta-external iliac artery bypass for middle aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Tsutomu; Asami, Fuyuki; Nagasawa, Ayako; Shiraiwa, Satoru; Nakamura, Norihito; Yoshii, Shinpei

    2014-11-01

    We encountered a surgical case of middle aortic syndrome (MAS) in a 56-year-old man who had resistant hypertension. Computed tomography showed severe stenosis of the abdominal aorta from below the superior mesenteric artery to above the inferior mesenteric artery. Although bilateral renal artery stenosis was confirmed, renal function was within normal limits. A 10-mm vascular prosthetic graft was used to perform a descending aorta to left external iliac artery bypass. His hypertension was well controlled without medication. This extra-anatomic bypass may be a simple and useful approach for treating MAS if it is not necessary to reconstruct the renal artery or visceral artery.

  13. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Seehofnerová, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; de Haan, Michiel J W; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100 kV. A bolus of 50 ml CM (Iopromide 300 mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6 ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR = 1.8 g/s; Iodine load 15 g) followed by a saline bolus of 40 ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 324 ± 28 HU. Mean attenuation was 350 ± 60 HU at the thoracic aorta and 315 ± 83 HU at the abdominal aorta. A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging.

  14. Aorta-Iliac Bypass in Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Young Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu-Yin; Ge, Yi-Peng; Zheng, Jun; Pan, Xu-Dong; Dong, Xiu-Hua; Ma, Wei-Guo; Cheng, Li-Jian; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Many surgical methods of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (TAAAR) have been introduced over the past several decades, with varying degrees of success. We developed an aorta-iliac bypass technique to treat thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) in young Chinese patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of this technique intraoperatively and postoperatively. From June 2014 to March 2015, 28 patients underwent TAAAR using aorta-iliac bypass technique. A four-branched tetrafurcate graft was used. Two branches of the graft are sutured to bilateral common iliac arteries in an end-to-side fashion. The trunk of the graft was sutured to the proximal descending aorta in an end-to-end fashion. Then aorta-iliac bypass was established, and the lower extremities, viscera organ and spinal cord (SC) obtained perfusion from proximal descending aorta via the bypass graft. The thoracic and abdominal aorta were clamped in a staged fashion. The patent segmental arteries (SAs), and visceral arteries (coeliac trunk, superior mesenteric arteries, and renal arteries) were reattached sequentially. Evoked potential (EP) monitoring was adopted to assess the SC ischaemia throughout the procedure. The postoperative outcomes and follow-up results of this technique were evaluated. There was no in-hospital mortality. Complications included acute kidney dysfunction and pulmonary haemorrhage in one case (3.6%) each. The SAs were reattached in all cases. The EP wave disappeared after proximal descending aorta was clamped, and gradually recovered after the patent SAs reattached. The median follow-up after operation was eight months (range, 1-10 months). There was no delayed neurologic deficit or late death. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair using aorta-iliac bypass may be a simple and safe choice for young Chinese patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the

  15. Middle-term results of endovascular aneurysm repair in Japan: does intraoperative endovascular management against the hostile aneurysmal neck prevent the proximal type I endoleak?

    PubMed

    Hoshina, K; Kato, M; Hosaka, A; Miyahara, T; Mikuriya, A; Ohkubo, N; Miyata, T

    2011-10-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first approved in Japan in 2007. In order to avoid the learning curve generally seen in the initial stages of implementation, we have aimed for procedural perfection. As the proximal type I endoleak (EL) is associated with a higher risk of late conversion and rupture, so we have treated the intraoperative type I EL scrupulously. The hostile neck, which is known to be a risk for perigraft leakage, is the focus of this study. We showed both the middle-term results of EVAR in our country and the possible necessity of intraoperative management for the hostile neck. From a consecutive series of 134 patients who underwent EVAR of abdominal aortic aneurysms, 129 cases in which contrast agent was used intraoperatively were selected. All cases had at least 12-month follow-up postoperatively (12-40 months). Of the 129 selected cases, 49 cases (37%) that did not fulfill the commercially recommended criteria of the aneurysmal neck (length <15 mm and angle >60° of the aneurysm or >45° of the suprarenal aorta) were assigned to the off-label group. The other 80 cases were assigned to the on-label group. We carefully observed the completion angiography and when we found or suspected a type I EL, we performed a re-touch up, changed to a non-compliant balloon, and used a supportive device, such as a PalmazTM stent or aortic cuffs, in sequence. No postoperative type I ELs were detected within the follow-up period. Intraoperative type I ELs were detected more frequently in the off-label group (51%) than the on-label group (20%) (P<0.01). The rate of type I EL in the off-label group in terms of the neck length criteria (11/14 cases) was higher than that in the on-label group (30/115 cases) (P<0.01). In terms of the neck angle, patients in the off-label group had a greater tendency to develop the type I EL than those in the on-label group (18/42 vs. 23/87 cases) (P=0.06). Off-label usage regarding aneurysmal neck length and angle tends to be

  16. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm therapy - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stoberock, Konstanze; Kölbel, Tilo; Atlihan, Gülsen; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Behrendt, Christian Alexander; Wipper, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent gender differences exist in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) therapy. For this purpose Medline (PubMed) was searched from January 1999 to January 2018. Keywords were: "abdominal aortic aneurysm", "gender", "prevalence", "EVAR", and "open surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm". Regardless of open or endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, women have a higher rate of complications and longer hospitalizations compared to men. The majority of studies showed that women have a lower survival rate for surgical and endovascular treatment of abdominal aneurysms after both elective and emergency interventions. Women receive less surgical/interventional and protective medical treatment. Women seem to have a higher risk of rupture, a lower survival rate in AAA, and a higher rate of complications, regardless of endovascular or open treatment. The gender differences may be due to a higher age of women at diagnosis and therapy associated with higher comorbidity, but also because of genetic, hormonal, anatomical, biological, and socio-cultural differences. Strategies for treatment in female patients must be further defined to optimize outcome.

  17. Intraoperative endovascular ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eton, Darwin; Ahn, Samuel S.; Baker, J. D.; Pensabene, Joseph; Yeatman, Lawrence S.; Moore, Wesley S.

    1991-05-01

    The early experience using intra-operative endovascular ultrasonography (EU) is reported in eight patients undergoing lower extremity revasularization. In four patients, intra-operative EU successfully characterized inflow stenoses that were inadequately imaged with pre- operative arteriography. Two patients were found to have hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses, and were treated with intra-operative balloon angioplasty followed by repeat EU. The other two patients were found to have non-hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses requiring no treatment. Additional outflow procedures were required in all four patients. In the remaining four patients, EU was used to evaluate the completeness of TEC rotary atherectomy, of Hall oscillatory endarterectomy, of thrombectomy of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, and of valve lysis during in situ saphenous vein grafting, respectively. In the latter case, the valve leaflets were not clearly seen. In the other cases, EU assisted the surgeon. Angioscopy and angiography were available for comparison. In one case, angioscopy failed because of inability to clear the field while inspecting retrograde the limb of an aorto-bi-femoral graft. EU however was possible. No complications of EU occurred. EU is a safe procedure indicated when characterization of a lesion is needed prior to an intervention or when evaluation of the intervention's success is desired. We did not find it useful in valve lysis for in-site grafting.

  18. The role of robotic endovascular catheters in fenestrated stent grafting.

    PubMed

    Riga, Celia V; Cheshire, Nicholas J W; Hamady, Mohamad S; Bicknell, Colin D

    2010-04-01

    Fenestrated stent grafting has allowed the treatment of complex thoraco-abdominal aneurysm disease via a totally endovascular approach, but the procedure can be technically challenging and time consuming. We investigated whether this procedure may be enhanced by remotely steerable robotic endovascular catheters. A four-vessel fenestrated stent graft partially deployed within a computed tomography (CT)-reconstructed pulsatile thoraco-abdominal aneurysm silicon model was used. Fifteen operators were recruited to participate in the study and divided into three groups, based on their endovascular experience: group A (n = 4, 100-200 endovascular procedures, group B (n = 5, 200-300), and group C (n = 6, >300). All operators were asked to cannulate the renal and visceral vessels under fluoroscopic guidance, using conventional and robotic techniques. Quantitative (catheterization times and wire/catheter tip movements) and qualitative metrics (procedure-specific-rating scale [IC3ST]), which grades operators on catheter use, instrumentation, successful cannulation/catheterization, and overall performance were compared. Median procedure time for cannulation of all four vessels was reduced using the robotic system (2.87 min, interquartile range [IQR; 2.20-3.90] versus 17.24 min [11.90-19.80]; P < .001) for each individual operator, regardless of the level of endovascular experience. The total number of wire/catheter movements taken to complete the task was also significantly reduced (38, IQR [29-57] versus 454 [283-687]; P < .001). There were significant differences in time and movement for cannulation of each individual vessel in the phantom. Robotic catheter operator radiation exposure was negligible as the robotic workstation is remote and away from the radiation source. Overall performance scores significantly improved using the robotic system, despite minimal operator exposure to this technology (IC3ST score 29/35, IQR [22.8-30.7] versus 19/35 [13-24.3]; P = .002). Each

  19. [Abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Sido, B; Grenacher, L; Friess, H; Büchler, M W

    2005-09-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is much more frequent than penetrating abdominal trauma in Europe. As a consequence of improved quality of computed tomography, even complex liver injuries are increasingly being treated conservatively. However, missed hollow viscus injuries still remain a problem, as they considerably increase mortality in multiply injured patients. Laparoscopy decreases the rate of unnecessary laparotomies in perforating abdominal trauma and helps to diagnose injuries of solid organs and the diaphragm. However, the sensitivity in detecting hollow viscus injuries is low and the role of laparoscopy in blunt abdominal injury has not been defined. If intra-abdominal bleeding is difficult to control in hemodynamically unstable patients, damage control surgery with packing of the liver, total splenectomy, and provisional closure of hollow viscus injuries is of importance. Definitive surgical treatment follows hemodynamic stabilization and restoration of hemostasis. Injuries of the duodenum and pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma are often associated with other intra-abdominal injuries and the treatment depends on their location and severity.

  20. Microsurgical Bypass Training Rat Model, Part 1: Technical Nuances of Exposure of the Aorta and Iliac Arteries.

    PubMed

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Yousef, Sonia; Gandhi, Sirin; Benet, Arnau

    2017-11-01

    Animal models using rodents are frequently used for practicing microvascular anastomosis-an essential technique in cerebrovascular surgery. However, safely and efficiently exposing rat's target vessels is technically difficult. Such difficulty may lead to excessive hemorrhage and shorten animal survival. This limits the ability to perform multiple anastomoses on a single animal and may increase the overall training time and costs. We report our model for microsurgical bypass training in rodents in 2 consecutive articles. In part 1, we describe the technical nuances for a safe and efficient exposure of the rat abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries (CIAs) for bypass. Over a 2-year period, 50 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent inhalant anesthesia for practicing microvascular anastomosis on the abdominal aorta and CIAs. Lessons learned regarding the technical nuances of vessel exposure were recorded. Several technical nuances were important for avoiding intraoperative bleeding and preventing animal demise while preparing an adequate length of vessels for bypass. The most relevant technical nuances include (1) generous subcutaneous dissection; (2) use of cotton swabs for the blunt dissection of the retroperitoneal fat; (3) combination of sharp and blunt dissection to isolate the aorta and iliac arteries from the accompanying veins; (4) proper control of the posterior branches of the aorta; and (5) efficient division and mobilization of the left renal pedicle. Applying the aforementioned technical nuances enables safe and efficient preparation of the rat abdominal aorta and CIAs for microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Signal quality of endovascular electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bryan D.; Ebrahimi, Mosalam; Palafox, Leon; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2016-02-01

    Objective, Approach. A growing number of prototypes for diagnosing and treating neurological and psychiatric diseases are predicated on access to high-quality brain signals, which typically requires surgically opening the skull. Where endovascular navigation previously transformed the treatment of cerebral vascular malformations, we now show that it can provide access to brain signals with substantially higher signal quality than scalp recordings. Main results. While endovascular signals were known to be larger in amplitude than scalp signals, our analysis in rabbits borrows a standard technique from communication theory to show endovascular signals also have up to 100× better signal-to-noise ratio. Significance. With a viable minimally-invasive path to high-quality brain signals, patients with brain diseases could one day receive potent electroceuticals through the bloodstream, in the course of a brief outpatient procedure.

  2. Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: Is It a Real Emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; Lillo, Antonio; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening condition that occurs due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Clinical manifestations are variable, and the time interval from the initial trauma to diagnosis is variable. A prompt diagnosis and an aggressive management approach are required to avoid catastrophic complications. Possible treatment options are open surgical repair, endovascular repair, pseudoanerysmal sac thrombosis induction through direct thrombin injection, and coil embolization. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man affected by an infrarenal abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting with abdominal and lumbar pain for 3 days, who was successfully treated with an endograft. PMID:29515707

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of aorta autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, A. A.; Pushkareva, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    Results of numerical simulation of autofluorescence of the aorta by the method of Monte Carlo are reported. Two states of the aorta, normal and with atherosclerotic lesions, are studied. A model of the studied tissue is developed on the basis of information about optical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties. It is shown that the data obtained by numerical Monte Carlo simulation are in good agreement with experimental results indicating adequacy of the developed model of the aorta autofluorescence.

  4. Radiation exposure to eye lens and operator hands during endovascular procedures in hybrid operating rooms.

    PubMed

    Attigah, Nicolas; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Hinz, Ulf; Knoch, Thomas; Demirel, Serdar; Verhoeven, Eric; Böckler, Dittmar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of vascular surgeons' eye lens and fingers during complex endovascular procedures in modern hybrid operating rooms. Prospective, nonrandomized multicenter study design. One hundred seventy-one consecutive patients (138 male; median age, 72.5 years [interquartile range, 65-77 years]) underwent an endovascular procedure in a hybrid operating room between March 2012 and July 2013 in two vascular centers. The dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, operating time, and amount of contrast dye were registered prospectively. For radiation dose recordings, single-use dosimeters were attached at eye level and to the ring finger of the hand next to the radiation field of the operator for each endovascular procedure. Dose recordings were evaluated by an independent institution. Before the study, precursory investigations were obtained to simulate the radiation dose to eye lens and fingers with an Alderson phantome (RSD, Long Beach, Calif). Interventions were classified into six treatment categories: endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aneurysm (n = 65), thoracic endovascular aortic repair (n = 32), branched endovascular aortic repair for thoracoabdominal aneurysms (n = 17), fenestrated endovascular aortic repair for complex abdominal aortic aneurysm, (n = 25), iliac branched device (n = 8), and peripheral interventions (n = 24). There was a significant correlation in DAP between both lens (P < .01; r = 0.55) and finger (P < .01; r = 0.56) doses. The estimated fluoroscopy time to reach a radiation threshold of 20 mSv/y was 1404.10 minutes (90% confidence limit, 1160, 1650 minutes). According to correlation of the lens dose with the DAP an estimated cumulative DAP of 932,000 mGy/m(2) (90% confidence limit, 822,000, 1,039,000) would be critical for a threshold of 20 mSv/y for the eyes. Radiation protection is a serious issue for vascular surgeons because most complex endovascular procedures are delivering

  5. Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

  6. Implications of renal artery anatomy for endovascular repair using fenestrated, branched, or parallel stent graft techniques.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Bernardo C; Oderich, Gustavo S; Reis de Souza, Leonardo; Banga, Peter; Macedo, Thanila A; DeMartino, Randall R; Misra, Sanjay; Gloviczki, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated renal artery (RA) and accessory renal artery (ARA) anatomy and implications for endovascular repair using fenestrated, branched, or parallel (chimney, snorkel, and periscope) stent graft techniques. We analyzed the digital computed tomography angiograms of 520 consecutive patients treated by open or fenestrated endovascular repair for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms (2000-2012). RA/ARA anatomy was assessed using diameter, length, angles, and kidney perfusion based on analysis of estimated volumetric kidney parenchyma. Endovascular suitability was determined by RA diameter ≥4 mm, length to RA bifurcation ≥13 mm, and preservation of >75% of a single kidney or >60% of two kidneys by volumetric kidney parenchyma analysis. There were 222 juxtarenal (43%), 241 suprarenal (46%), and 57 type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (11%), Analysis of 1009 RAs and 177 ARAs showed endovascular incorporation was possible in 884 RAs (88%) and 30 ARAs (17%) using the proposed criteria. One or more factors rendered RA incorporation unsuitable in 97 patients (19%), including early bifurcation in 45 (9%), small diameter in 28 (5%), or inability to preserve kidney parenchyma in 28 (5%). Other anatomic issues were present in 170 patients (33%) that would increase technical difficulty to RA incorporation using transfemoral access, including excessive downward angulation in 125 (24%), high-grade stenosis in 51 (10%), or prior renal stents in 11 (2%). Independent of the endovascular technique that is selected to treat a complex abdominal aortic aneurysm, one of five patients has anatomic limitations to endovascular incorporation. In these patients, open repair may provide the best alterative to maximize RA patency and preserve renal function. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computed tomography-based anatomic characterization of proximal aortic dissection with consideration for endovascular candidacy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Michael C; Greenberg, Roy K; Morales, Jose P; Martin, Zenia; Lu, Qingsheng; Dowdall, Joseph F; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2011-04-01

    Proximal aortic dissections are life-threatening conditions that require immediate surgical intervention to avert an untreated mortality rate that approaches 50% at 48 hours. Advances in computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques have permitted increased characterization of aortic dissection that are necessary to assess the design and applicability of new treatment paradigms. All patients presenting during a 2-year period with acute proximal aortic dissections who underwent CT scanning were reviewed in an effort to establish a detailed assessment of their aortic anatomy. Imaging studies were assessed in an effort to document the location of the primary proximal fenestration, the proximal and distal extent of the dissection, and numerous morphologic measurements pertaining to the aortic valve, root, and ascending aorta to determine the potential for an endovascular exclusion of the ascending aorta. During the study period, 162 patients presented with proximal aortic dissections. Digital high-resolution preoperative CT imaging was performed on 76 patients, and 59 scans (77%) were of adequate quality to allow assessment of anatomic suitability for treatment with an endograft. In all cases, the dissection plane was detectable, yet the primary intimal fenestration was identified in only 41% of the studies. Scans showed 24 patients (32%) appeared to be anatomically amenable to such a repair (absence of valvular involvement, appropriate length and diameter of proximal sealing regions, lack of need to occlude coronary vasculature). Of the 42 scans that were determined not to be favorable for endovascular repair, the most common exclusion finding was the absence of a proximal landing zone (n = 15; 36%). Appropriately protocoled CT imaging provides detailed anatomic information about the aortic root and ascending aorta, allowing the assessment of which dissections have proximal fenestrations that may be amenable to an endovascular repair. Copyright © 2011 Society for

  8. The future of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion in combat operations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shane A; Hilsden, R; Beckett, A; McAlister, V C

    2017-08-09

    Damage control resuscitation and early thoracotomy have been used to increase survival after severe injury in combat. There has been a renewed interest in resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in both civilian and military medical practices. REBOA may result in visceral and limb ischaemia that could be harmful if use of REBOA is premature or prolonged. The purpose of this paper is to align our experience of combat injuries with the known capability of REBOA to suggest an implementation strategy for the use of REBOA in combat care. It may replace the resuscitative effect of thoracotomy; can provide haemostasis of non-compressible torso injuries such as the junctional and pelvic haemorrhage caused by improvised explosive devices. However, prehospital use of REBOA must be in the context of an overall surgical plan and should be restricted to deployment in the distal aorta. Although REBOA is technically easier than a thoracotomy, it requires operator training and skill to add to the beneficial effect of damage control resuscitation and surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Dissection: Hemodynamic Shear Stress Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yik Sau; Lai, Siu Kai; Cheng, Stephen Wing Keung; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2012-11-01

    Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TAD), a life threatening cardiovascular disease, occurs when blood intrudes into the layers of the aortic wall, creating a new artificial channel (the false lumen) beside the original true lumen. The weakened false lumen wall may expand, enhancing the risk of rupture and resulting in high mortality. Endovascular treatment involves the deployment of a stent graft into the aorta, thus blocking blood from entering the false lumen. Due to the irregular geometry of the aorta, the stent graft, however, may fail to conform to the vessel curvature, and would create a ``bird-beak'' configuration, a wedge-shaped domain between the graft and the vessel wall. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is employed to study the hemodynamics of this pathological condition. With the `beaking' configuration, the local hemodynamic shear stress will drop below the threshold of safety reported earlier in the literature. The oscillating behavior of the shear stress might lead to local inflammation, atherosclerosis and other undesirable consequences. Supported by the Innovation and Technology Fund of the Hong Kong Government.

  10. Identifying patients with AAA with the highest risk following endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Cadili, Ali; Turnbull, Robert; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Ghosh, Sunita; Chyczij, Harold

    2012-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that endovascular repair of arterial disease results in reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. The rates of complications and need for reinterventions, however, have been found to be higher than that in open repair. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of endograft complications and mortality in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair; specifically, our aim was to identify a subset of patients with AAA whose risk of periprocedure mortality was so high that they should not be offered endovascular repair. We undertook a prospective review of patients with AAA receiving endovascular therapy at a single institution. Collected variables included age, gender, date of procedure, indication for procedure, size of aneurysm (where applicable), type of endograft used, presence of rupture, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, major medical comorbidities, type of anesthesia (general, epidural, or local), length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay. These factors were correlated with the study outcomes (overall mortality, graft complications, morbidity, and reintervention) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 199 patients underwent endovascular AAA repair during the study period. The ICU stay, again, was significantly correlated with the primary outcomes (death and graft complications). In addition, length of hospital stay greater than 3 days, also emerged as a statistically significant predictor of graft complications in this subgroup (P = .024). Survival analysis for patients with AAA revealed that age over 85 years and ICU stay were predictive of decreased survival. Statistical analysis for other subgroups of patients (inflammatory AAA or dissection) was not performed due to the small numbers in these subgroups. Patients with AAA greater than 85 years of age are at a greater risk of mortality

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Various Aortic Pathologies: Review of the Latest Data and Technologies.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Koji; Ohki, Takao; Kanaoka, Yuji

    2018-06-01

    The technologies and innovations applicable to endovascular treatment for complex aortic pathologies have progressed rapidly over the last two decades. Although the initial outcomes of an endovascular aortic repair have been excellent, as long-term data became available, complications including endoleaks, endograft migration, and endograft infection have become apparent and are of concern. Previously, the indication for endovascular therapy was restricted to descending thoracic aortic aneurysms and abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, its indication has expanded along with the improvement of techniques and devices, and currently, it has become possible to treat pararenal aortic aneurysms and Crawford type 4 thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) using the off-the-shelf devices. Additionally, custom-made devices allow for the treatment of arch or more extensive TAAAs. Endovascular treatment is applied not only to aneurysms but also to acute/chronic dissections. However, long-term outcomes are still unclear. This article provides an overview of available devices and the results of endovascular treatment for various aortic pathologies.

  12. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositolmore » uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.« less

  13. Regional distribution of circumferential residual strains in the human aorta according to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Sokolis, Dimitrios P; Savva, Giannis D; Papadodima, Stavroula A; Kourkoulis, Stavros K

    2017-03-01

    The biomechanical response of the human aorta varies with axial location, but little is known about the respective variation of residual strains. Such data are available for common lab animals, but in the traditional opening angle measurement the aorta is considered as an ideal cylinder and average residual strains are measured, so that the spatial variations of local residual strains are not determined. The present study provides opening angle and residual strain data throughout the course and around the circumference of the aorta harvested during autopsy. Opening angle showed notable topographical variation; the highest value was at the top of aortic arch, declining abruptly toward the ascending aorta and to a near-constant value in the descending aorta, and rising in the abdominal aorta. The variation of curvature and of external but not internal residual stretch resembled that of opening angle. Extensive residual stress and wall thickness differences were evidenced among quadrants, with the more pre-stressed being also the thicker quadrants. Gender had overall minor effects, but aging led to increased parameters, occurring earlier in the distal aorta but at later stages becoming predominant proximally. Differences in caliber were pronounced in older subjects, unlike those in opening angle, residual stretches, and thickness that were striking in middle-aged subjects. By contrast, curvature decreased with aging in relation to the smaller percentwise opening angle differences. Detailed knowledge of the zero-stress/no-load geometry of the human aortic wall is critical for an in-depth understanding of aortic physiology, while providing the basis for comparison with disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abdominal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  15. Mortality outcomes of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and rural presentation.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily; Walker, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    Centralisation of vascular surgery services has coincided with a move towards endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with the goal to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rural presentation and transfer times on survival from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A retrospective review. All patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to public hospitals in Tasmania between July 2006 and April 2013. Demographic data, Glasgow aneurysm score, Hardman index, transfer times, operative technique and 30-day mortality were collected from medical records. Over the study period 127 patients presented to public hospitals in Tasmania with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A total of 27 presented to north west hospitals where no vascular surgery service is provided (NWRH), 23 to a northern hospital where an intermittent vascular surgery service is provided (LGH) and 77 to the state tertiary vascular surgery service (RHH). Of these, 4 (14.8%) died at NWRH, 6 (26.1%) died at LGH and 43 (55.8%) died at RHH without operation. Of the 35 patients transferred from NWRH and LGH to RHH, 5 died without operation. Median time from presentation to theatre at RHH if transferred from NWRH was 6.25 hours, from the LGH 4.75 hours, compared to 2.75 hours when presenting directly to RHH. Open repair was performed in 41 patients and endovascular repair in 23 patients. Overall 30-day mortality in those treated at RHH was 26.6% (39.0% for open repair, 4.3% for endovascular repair). Mortality for intended operative patients initially presenting to non-RHH hospitals was 33.3% vs. 32.3% for those initially presenting to RHH. p Value 0.93. There was no clinical or statistical disadvantage to rural presentation and transfer for patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Tasmania. Endovascular repair has a role despite long transfer times. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An update

    PubMed

    Chuen, Jason; Theivendran, Mayo

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Medical therapy options remain limited and no aneurysm-specific pharmacotherapy is currently available. Recent years have witnessed a significant shift in AAA surgery from open repair to EVAR and expansion of EVAR techniques. General management of cardiovascular risk factors remains key to reducing all-cause mortality for patients with AAA.

  17. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a population undergoing computed tomography colonography in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Khashram, M; Jones, G T; Roake, J A

    2015-08-01

    There is compelling level 1 evidence in support of screening men for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to reduce AAA mortality. However, New Zealand (NZ) lacks data on AAA prevalence, and national screening has not been implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AAA in a population undergoing a computed tomography colonography (CTC) for gastrointestinal symptoms. This was an observational study; all consecutive CTCs performed in three regions of the South Island of NZ over a 4 year period were reviewed. Data on abdominal and thoracic aorta diameters ≥30 mm, and iliac and femoral aneurysms ≥20 mm were recorded. Previous aortic surgical grafts or endovascular stents were also documented. Demographics, survival, and AAA related outcomes were collected and used for analysis. Included were 4,893 scans on 4,644 patients (1,933 men [41.6%], 2,711 women [58.4%]) with a median age of 69.3 years (range 17.0-97.0 years). There were 309 scans on 289 patients (75.4% men) who had either an aneurysm or a previous aortic graft with a median age of 79.6 years (range 57.0-96.0 years). Of these, 223 had a native AAA ≥30 mm. The prevalence of AAA rose with age from 1.3% in men aged 55-64 years, to 9.1% in 65-74 year olds, 16.8% in 75-84 year olds, and 22.0% in ≥85 year olds. The corresponding figures in women were 0.4%, 2%, 3.9%, and 6.2%, respectively. In this observational study, the prevalence of AAA was high and warrants further evaluation. The results acquired help to define a population that may benefit from a national AAA screening programme. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of Reintervention After Endovascular Repair of Isolated Iliac Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Zayed, Hany A., E-mail: hany.zayed@gstt.nhs.uk; Attia, Rizwan; Modarai, Bijan

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this study was to identify factors predicting the need for reintervention after endovascular repair of isolated iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA). We reviewed prospectively collected database records of all patients who underwent endovascular repair of IIAA between 1999 and 2008. Detailed assessment of the aneurysms was performed using computed tomography angiography (CTA). Follow-up protocol included CTA at 3 months. If this showed no complication, then annual duplex scan was arranged. Multivariate analysis and analysis of patient survival and freedom from reintervention were performed using Kaplan-Meier life tables. Forty IIAAs (median diameter 44 mm) in 38 patients were treatedmore » (all men; median age 75 years), and median follow-up was 27 months. Endovascular repair of IIAA was required in 14 of 40 aneurysms (35%). The rate of type I endoleak was significantly higher with proximal landing zone (PLZ) diameter >30 mm in the aorta or >24 mm in the common iliac artery or distal landing zone (DLZ) diameter >24 mm (P = 0.03, 0.03, and 0.0014, respectively). Reintervention rate (RR) increased significantly with increased diameter or decreased length of PLZ; increased DLZ diameter; and endovascular IIAA repair (P = 0.005, 0.005, 0.02, and 0.02 respectively); however, RR was not significantly affected by length of PLZ or DLZ. Freedom-from-reintervention was 97, 93, and 86% at 12, 24, and 108 months. There was no in-hospital or aneurysm-related mortality. Endovascular IIAA repair is a safe treatment option. Proper patient selection is essential to decrease the RR.« less

  19. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms do you have at the same time? For example, do you have abdominal pain ? You may have the following tests: Barium studies of the stomach and intestines (such as an upper GI series ) Blood tests Colonoscopy Gastroscopy Peritoneal lavage Stool studies ...

  20. Endovascular Treatment of a Carotid Dissecting Pseudoaneurysm in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV with Fatal Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Siok Ping, E-mail: siokpinglim@yahoo.co.uk; Duddy, Martin J.

    2008-01-15

    We present a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) with a carotid dissecting pseudoaneurysm causing severe carotid stenosis. This lesion was treated endovascularly. Unfortunately, the patient died of remote vascular catastrophes (intracranial hemorrhage and abdominal aortic rupture). This unique case illustrates the perils of endovascular treatment of EDS IV patients and the need for preoperative screening for concomitant lesions. It also shows that a dissecting pseudoaneurysm can feasibly be treated with a covered stent and that closure is effective using Angioseal in patients with EDS IV.

  1. Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Homocysteinemic Porcine Aorta

    PubMed Central

    França, Luís Henrique Gil; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Perini, Sílvio César

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare aortic intimal thickening of normal and hyperhomocysteinemic pigs (induced with a methionine-rich diet) following placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent. METHODS Eighteen Macau pigs were used. They were older than eight weeks in age and had an average weight of 30 kg. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups. The first, Group C (control), was fed a regular diet, and the second group, Group M, was fed a methionine-rich diet for 30 days to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. The self-expandable nitinol stents were 25mm in length and 8 mm in diameter after expansion. Blood samples were collected to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and homocysteine concentrations. All animals were subjected to angiography. Thirty days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the abdominal aorta was removed for histological and digital morphometry analysis. RESULTS Under microscopic evaluation, the intima was significantly thicker in Group C than in Group M. When groups were compared by digital morphometric analysis, intimal thickening of the vessel wall was higher in Group C than in Group M. There was no significant change in total cholesterol, triglycerides or HDL concentrations in either group. In group C the levels of plasma homocysteine ranged from 14,40 to 16,73μmol/l; in Group M, plasma homocysteine levels ranged from 17.47 to 59.80 μmol/l after 30 days of a methionine-rich diet. CONCLUSION Compared to normal pigs, less intimal hyperplasia was observed in the abdominal aortas of hyperhomocysteinemic pigs thirty days after the insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent. PMID:18438578

  2. Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: A Rare Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maximilien; Martineau, Chloé; Rahmi, Gabriel; Pellerin, Olivier; Sapoval, Marc; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Malamut, Georgia; Samaha, Elia; Cellier, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a rare disease with nonspecific clinical symptoms, such as chronic postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. Diagnostic modalities and revascularization techniques have evolved during the past 20 years. The significance of stenosis in a single splanchnic vessel remains unclear. Our aims were to assess the outcomes of 2 revascularization techniques and report on the diagnostic modalities of splanchnic vessel stenoses. The demographic data, medical history, technical characteristics, and outcomes of the revascularization procedures were recorded for all of the patients admitted for endovascular revascularization or open surgical revascularization of the splanchnic vessels as treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia in our tertiary referral center since 2000. Fifty-four patients were included in this study: 43 received endovascular revascularization, and 11 had open surgical revascularization. The symptoms were abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea in 98%, 53%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. Computed tomography angiography was the key diagnostic tool for 60% of the patients. A single-vessel stenosis was found in one-third of the patients. Endovascular and open revascularization had similar early and late outcomes, and no 30-day mortality was observed. However, we did observe higher morbidity in the open revascularization group (73% vs 19%, P <.03). Chronic mesenteric ischemia may be diagnosed in the presence of a splanchnic syndrome and stenosis of a single splanchnic vessel, typically assessed using computed tomography angiography. In selected patients, endovascular revascularization had similar efficacy as, and lower complication rates than open revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M.; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  4. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  5. Endovascular approach to treat ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with previous CABG and very high surgical risk.

    PubMed

    Zago, Alexandre C; Saadi, Eduardo K; Zago, Alcides J

    2011-10-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is an uncommon pathology and a challenge in high-risk patients who undergo conventional surgery because of high operative morbidity and mortality. Endovascular exclusion of an aortic pseudoaneurysm using an endoprosthesis is a less invasive approach, but few such cases have been reported. Moreover, the use of this approach poses unique therapeutic challenges because there is no specific endoprosthesis for ascending aortic repair, particularly to treat patients with previous coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). We describe the case of a 74-year-old patient who had undergone CABG and later presented with an iatrogenic ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm that occurred during an angiography. This patient was at very high risk for surgical treatment and, therefore, an endovascular approach was adopted: percutaneous coronary intervention for the left main coronary artery, left anterior descending and left circumflex native coronary arteries followed by endovascular endoprosthesis deployment in the ascending aorta to exclude the pseudoaneurysm. Both procedures were successfully performed, and the patient was discharged without complications 4 days later. At 5 months' clinical follow-up, his clinical condition was good and he had no complications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Percutaneous Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Malignant Portal Obstruction: An Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tian-Tian, E-mail: matthewwu1979@126.com; Li, Hu-Cheng, E-mail: hucheng-li-surgery@126.com; Zheng, Fang, E-mail: fang-zheng-surgery@126.com

    PurposeThe Habib™ VesOpen Catheter is a new endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) device used to treat malignant portal obstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and safety of RFA with this device.MethodsWe collected the clinical records and follow-up data of patients with malignant portal obstruction treated with percutaneous endovascular portal RFA using the Habib™ VesOpen Catheter. Procedure-related complications, improvement of symptoms, portal patency, survival, and postoperative biochemical tests were investigated.ResultsThe 31 patients enrolled in the study underwent 41 successful endovascular portal RFA procedures. Patients were divided into a portal-stenting (PS) group (n = 13), which underwent subsequent portalmore » stenting with self-expandable metallic stents, and a non-stenting (NS) group (n = 18), which did not undergo stenting. No procedure-related abdominal hemorrhage or portal rupture occurred. Postablation complications included abdominal pain (n = 26), fever (n = 13), and pleural effusion (n = 15). Improvements in clinical manifestations were observed in 27 of the 31 patients. Of the 17 patients experiencing portal restenosis, 10 underwent successful repeat RFA. The rate of successful repeat RFA was significantly higher in the NS group than in the PS group. Median portal patency was shorter in the PS group than in the NS group. No mortality occurred during the 4 weeks after percutaneous endovascular portal RFA.ConclusionsPercutaneous endovascular portal RFA is a feasible and safe therapeutic option for malignant portal obstruction. Prospective investigations should be performed to evaluate clinical efficacy, in particular, the need to evaluate the necessity for subsequent portal stenting.« less

  7. Preclinical testing for aortic endovascular grafts: results of a Food and Drug Administration workshop.

    PubMed

    Abel, Dorothy B; Beebe, Hugh G; Dedashtian, Mark M; Morton, Michael C; Moynahan, Megan; Smith, Loius J; Weinberg, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    Since their introduction into clinical trials in the United States, endovascular aortic grafts have shown various types of problems. Although details of design and construction vary between different endovascular grafts and failure modes have had a variety of causes and clinical effects, the inability of preclinical testing to predict these failures remains common to all endovascular grafts. The need to improve preclinical testing in an attempt to reduce clinical device failures resulted in a Food and Drug Administration-sponsored workshop on endovascular graft preclinical testing held in Rockville, Md, from July 31 to August 1, 2001. FORMAT: The workshop was not designed as a consensus conference. Instead, it provided a forum for bringing stakeholders together to define problems and identify areas of agreement and disagreement. The workshop had 34 invited participants who represented device manufacturers, the medical community, the Food and Drug Administration, and testing facilities, and international attendance was more than 120 people. Discussion centered on: 1, defining the physiologic, anatomic, and morphologic characteristics of abdominal aortic aneurysms before and after endovascular graft treatment; 2, identifying the types of failures that have been observed clinically; and 3, determining which characteristics should be considered during preclinical modeling to better predict clinical performance. Attendees agreed to the need to better define and address anatomic characteristics and changes in the aneurysm after endograft treatment to optimize preclinical testing. Much discussion and little agreement occurred on the importance of flow-related forces on graft performance or the need or ability to define and model physiologic compliance during durability testing. The discussion and conclusions are summarized in this paper and are provided in detail at: http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/meetings/073101workshop.html. The workshop raised awareness of significant

  8. Chronic periaortitis with thoracic aorta and epiaortic artery involvement: a systemic large vessel vasculitis?

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Alessandra; Urban, Maria L; Corradi, Domenico; Cobelli, Rocco; Alberici, Federico; Maritati, Federica; Versari, Annibale; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo; Buzio, Carlo; Vaglio, Augusto

    2015-11-01

    Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare disease characterized by fibro-inflammatory tissue surrounding the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. Anecdotal reports have shown that CP may also involve other vascular districts, particularly the thoracic aorta. The aim of this study was to investigate the thoracic aorta and epiaortic artery involvement in CP. Patients were eligible if they had undergone imaging studies assessing inflammatory involvement of the thoracic aorta and its major branches (e.g. contrast CT, MRI or PET-CT). We explored the patterns of thoracic vessel involvement and compared the clinical characteristics of patients with and without thoracic disease. Where available, we also reviewed the thoracic vascular/perivascular tissue biopsies. Of 153 CP patients seen between 1999 and 2012, 77 were eligible. Of these, 28 (36%) had thoracic involvement: 15 (54%) had thoracic periaortitis, with 7 also showing epiaortic artery involvement; 6 (21%) had periaortitis surrounding a thoracic aortic aneurysm, 2 of them with epiaortic artery involvement; 7 (25%) had a thoracic aortic aneurysm without periaortitis. Patients with thoracic disease were more frequently female (P = 0.01), were older (P = 0.001) and had a higher frequency of pain and constitutional symptoms (P = 0.02). Thoracic (peri)vascular biopsies revealed adventitial and peri-adventitial fibro-inflammatory patterns similar to those observed in abdominal CP. In about one-third of patients, CP also involves the thoracic aorta and the epiaortic arteries, which supports the hypothesis of a systemic inflammatory disease of the large arteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of TGF beta1 expression and comparison the thickness of different aorta layers in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cuce, G; Kalkan, S S; Esen, H H

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the effects of experimental diabetes on TGF beta1 expression and tunica intima and media thickness in abdominal and thoracic aorta. Fourteen three months old female rats were divided into two groups, non-diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic group. Hematoxylin-Eosin and Verhoeff's Van Gieson elastic staining and TGF beta1 immunohistochemistry staining were performed. Abdominal and thoracic intima and media thickness of aortas were measured with the oculometer. Evaluation of intima and media thickness measurements showed no significant statistical differences between non-diabetic and diabetic groups. TGF beta1 expression increased significantly in thoracic diabetic (TD) group. The 60 day duration of diabetes is not sufficiently enough time for the development of pathological changes that could lead to thickening in aortic intima-media layers. TGF beta1 expression was negative in the abdominal aorta that can predispose to the development of atherosclerosis, which could develop overtime. This finding may be interpreted as an appropriate basis for the development of atherosclerosis. In the thoracic aorta TGF beta1 may coordinate cellular events such as tissue repair (Fig. 5, Ref. 23).

  10. A novel sax-stent method in treatment of ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysms evaluated by finite element simulations.

    PubMed

    Arokiaraj, M C; De Beule, M; De Santis, G

    2017-02-01

    A novel stent method to simplify treatment of proximal ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysms was developed and investigated by finite element analysis. Therapy of ascending aortic and aortic arch aneurysms is difficult and challenging and is associated with various complications. A 55mm wide×120mm long stent was designed without the stent graft and the stent was deployed by an endovascular method in a virtual patient-specific aneurysm model. The stress-strain analysis and deployment characteristics were performed in a finite element analysis using the Abaqus software. The stent, when embedded in the aortic wall, significantly reduced aortic wall stresses, while preserving the side coronary ostia and side branches in the aortic arch. When tissue growth was modeled computationally over the stent struts the wall stresses in aorta was reduced. This effect became more pronounced when increasing the thickness of the tissue growth. There were no abnormal stresses in the aorta, coronary ostium and at the origin of aortic branches. The stent reduced aneurysm expansion cause by hypertensive condition from 2mm without stenting to 1.3mm after stenting and embedding. In summary, we uncovered a simple treatment method using a bare nitinol stent without stent graft in the treatment of the proximal aorta and aortic arch aneurysms, which could eventually replace the complex treatment methods for this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled hypotension versus normotensive resuscitation strategy for people with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniel H; Cacione, Daniel G; Baptista-Silva, Jose Cc

    2018-06-13

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the pathological enlargement of the aorta and can develop in both men and women. Progressive aneurysm enlargement can lead to rupture. The rupture of an AAA is frequently fatal and accounts for the death from haemorrhagic shock of at least 45 people per 100,000 population. The outcome of people with ruptured AAA varies among countries and healthcare systems, with mortality ranging from 53% to 90%. Definitive treatment for ruptured AAA includes open surgery or endovascular repair. The management of haemorrhagic shock is crucial for the person's outcome and aims to restore organ perfusion and systolic blood pressure above 100 mmHg through immediate and aggressive fluid replacement. This rapid fluid replacement is known as the normotensive resuscitation strategy. However, evidence suggests that infusing large volumes of cold fluid causes dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. The association of these factors may exacerbate bleeding, resulting in a 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidaemia, and coagulopathy. An alternative to the normotensive resuscitation strategy is the controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation strategy, with a target systolic blood pressure of 50 mmHg to 100 mmHg. The principle of controlled or hypotensive resuscitation has been used in some management protocols for endovascular repair of ruptured AAA. It may be beneficial in preventing blood loss by avoiding the clot disruption caused by the rapid increase in systolic blood pressure; avoiding dilution of clotting factors, platelets and fibrinogen; and by avoiding the temperature decrease that inhibits enzyme activity involved in platelet and clotting factor function. This is an update of a review first published in 2016. To compare the effects of controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation and normotensive resuscitation strategies for people with ruptured AAA. The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register (August

  12. Combination of endovascular graft exclusion and drug therapy in AAA with hypertension or hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dile; Qu, Bihui; He, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of combination of endovascular graft exclusion and drugs for hypertension/hyperglycemia for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We analyzed 156 patients with AAA. Eighty-four patients were hypertensive and 72 were hyperglycemic. After endovascular graft exclusion, hypertensive patients were divided into four groups and treated with cyclopenthiazide, reserpine, propranolol, and placebo respectively. Hyperglycemic patients were divided into three groups and treated with metformin, insulin, and placebo respectively. Body temperature and peripheral blood leukocytes were measured at day 1, 2, 7, and 14 after endovascular graft exclusion. Size of AAAs, blood pressure, and blood sugar were measured again after 1 year. In hypertensive patients, the size of AAAs reduced after endovascular graft exclusion, while the combined treatments with cyclopenthiazide, reserpine, or propranolol helped to reduce blood pressure (blood pressure decrease <10 mmHg (18/21), <10 mmHg (12/21), <10 mmHg (8/21), and <10 mmHg (10/21) in the control group, cyclopenthiazide group, reserpine group, and propranolol group, respectively. AAA size decreased in the control group (P<0.001) and in the other three groups (P<0.0001). Similar results were obtained in hyperglycemic patients. The size of AAAs reduced after endovascular graft exclusion. Combined treatment with Metformin and Insulin reduced blood sugar (control, blood sugar >7.8 mmol/L (22/24), AAA size (P<0.001); metformin, blood sugar >7.8 mmol/L (14/24), AAA size (P<0.0001); insulin, blood sugar >7.8 mmol/L (11/24), AAA size (P<0.0001). Combination of endovascular graft exclusion with medicine is more effective than the former treatment alone for AAA therapy.

  13. Extracellular Matrix Disarray as A Mechanism for Greater Abdominal vs. Thoracic Aortic Stiffness with Aging in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Xin; Vatner, Dorothy E; McNulty, Tara; Bishop, Sanford; Sun, Zhe; Shen, You-Tang; Chen, Li; Meininger, Gerald A; Vatner, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased vascular stiffness is central to the pathophysiology of aging, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, relatively few studies have examined vascular stiffness in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta with aging, despite major differences in anatomy, embryological origin and relation to aortic aneurysm. Approach and Results The two other unique features of this study were 1) to study young (9±1 years) and old (26±1 years) male monkeys, and 2) to study direct and continuous measurements of aortic pressure and thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in conscious monkeys. As expected, aortic stiffness, β, was increased p<0.05, 2–3 fold, in old vs. young thoracic aorta, and augmented further with superimposition of acute hypertension with phenylephrine. Surprisingly, stiffness was not greater in old thoracic aorta than young abdominal aorta. These results can be explained in part by the collagen/elastin ratio, but more importantly, by disarray of collagen and elastin, which correlated best with vascular stiffness. However, vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness, was not different in thoracic vs. abdominal aorta in either young or old monkeys. Conclusions Thus, aortic stiffness increases with aging as expected, but the most severe increases in aortic stiffness observed in the abdominal aorta is novel, where values in young monkeys equaled, or even exceeded, values of thoracic aortic stiffness in old monkeys. These results can be explained by alterations in collagen/elastin ratio, but even more importantly by collagen and elastin disarray. PMID:26891739

  14. Effects of atmospheric pressure dynamics on abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture onset.

    PubMed

    Opacic, Dragan; Ilic, Nikola; Sladojevic, Milos; Schönleitner, Patrick; Markovic, Dragan; Kostic, Dusan; Davidovic, Lazar

    2018-02-01

    The effect of atmospheric pressure (AP) on the onset of abdominal aorta aneurysm rupture (RAAA) remains an unanswered question. We have investigated the seasonal variation and the effect of AP dynamics on RAAA by analysing the largest series of intraoperatively confirmed RAAA. To realize this study we have performed a retrospective analysis of 546 patients with RAAA, operated within 503 days at the Clinic for vascular and endovascular surgery CCS between 1.1.2003 and 31.12.2012. AP data for Belgrade city were obtained from meteorological yearbooks published by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia measured at the hydrometeorological station "Belgrade Observatory". Only patients with a residence within the extended Belgrade region, exposed to the similar AP values, were included in the analysis of the AP effect on RAAA. RAAA were observed more frequently during winter and autumn months but without significant difference in comparison to other seasons. Months with higher AP values were associated with a higher RAAA rate (p = 0.0008, R2 = 0.665). A similar trend was observed for the monthly AP variability (p = 0.0311, R2 = 0.374). Average AP values did not differ between days with and without RAAA. However, during the three and seven days periods preceding RAAA AP variability parameters were greater and AP was rising. Although these pressure differences are very small, higher AP values over longer periods of time as well as greater variability are associated with RAAA. The exact mechanism behind this association remains unclear. The postulation that low AP may precipitate RAAA based on the Laplace law should be discarded.

  15. Catching a floating thrombus; a case report on the treatment of a large thrombus in the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    de Maat, Gijs Eduard; Vigano, Giorgio; Mariani, Massimo Alessandro; Natour, Ehsan

    2017-05-19

    The ascending aorta is an uncommon site for non-infective thrombus. In non-aneurysmal and non-atherosclerotic vessels this condition becomes extremely rare, while it represents a source of potential cerebral and peripheral embolic events. Currently, there is no consensus in the guidelines on how to treat a free floating thrombus in ascending aorta, therefore we present our decision making process and therapeutic strategy. A healthy 48-year-old man was hospital admitted with acute abdominal pain. CT-scan showed a right renal embolism in presence of a defect in the distal ascending aorta suggestive for thrombus. After heart team discussion the patient was scheduled for surgery and successfully underwent an emergent thrombus removal. Also, owing to multiple aortic wall insertions, the ascending aorta was replaced. The patient's recovery was uneventful and histological examination showed no signs of connective tissue disorders of aortic wall while confirmed the thrombotic nature of the mass. We present a patient with a floating thrombus in the ascending aorta who underwent an ascending aorta replacement. While angio-CT scan led to a prompt diagnosis, intraoperative epi-aortic echocardiography allowed to define precise location of thrombus, minimizing operative risk. This case demonstrates that multi-disciplinary heart team discussion is essential to define a successful strategy, that surgical treatment is feasible with specific tools such as epi-aortic echocardiography.

  16. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  17. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Seehofnerová, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; de Haan, Michiel J.W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. Methods 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100 kV. A bolus of 50 ml CM (Iopromide 300 mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6 ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR = 1.8 g/s; Iodine load 15 g) followed by a saline bolus of 40 ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Results Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 324 ± 28 HU. Mean attenuation was 350 ± 60 HU at the thoracic aorta and 315 ± 83 HU at the abdominal aorta. Conclusions A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging. PMID:26937437

  18. Comparison of open and endovascular repair of inflammatory aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Stone, William M; Fankhauser, Grant T; Bower, Thomas C; Oderich, Gustavo S; Oldenburg, W Andrew; Kalra, Manju; Naidu, Sailendra; Money, Samuel R

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAAs) have been traditionally managed with open repair. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was approved September of 1999. Some authors have suggested that EVAR is not an acceptable option for management of an IAAA. However, several recent reports have suggested EVAR is a reasonable management option in these patients. The purpose of our study was to review our experience with the contemporary management of IAAA involving both open and endovascular approaches. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing repair of IAAAs from 1999 to 2011 was conducted at three geographically separate institutions. Basic demographics, diagnostic workup, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Between 1999 and 2011, 69 patients underwent surgical repair of IAAAs, 59 by open repair and 10 by EVAR. Eighty-three percent of patients were men with a mean age of 67. Aneurysm size was similar in both groups (6.3 cm open repair vs 5.9 cm EVAR). Follow-up for the open group was a mean of 42.6 months and 33.6 months for the EVAR group. Periaortic fibrosis decreased from a mean of 5.4 mm to 2.7 mm after EVAR. Hydronephrosis was present preoperatively in one patient and did not change after EVAR. Aneurysm size decreased in seven patients (70%) who underwent EVAR. Two patients had no change with one lost to follow-up. Mean aneurysm size decrease after EVAR was 1.12 cm (17.8%). There were no aneurysm-related deaths or major morbidities in the EVAR group. Twenty-two patients (37%) in the open surgical group suffered major complications, including myocardial infarction, renal failure, lower extremity amputation, sepsis, and prolonged ventilation. Endovascular repair for IAAA results in successful management with improvement of periaortic inflammation. EVAR should be considered as first-line therapy in which anatomic parameters are favorable. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 248: Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta Improves Survival in Lethal Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    analyzed to evaluate for nonconvulsvie status epilepticus (NCSE) as defined in previous studies. Results: Out of the thirty patients that underwent...and oxygenation failure in 2,000 (38%) as indications for TI. In univariate analysis, shock status (OR 6.1 95%CI: 3.8-9.7, pɘ.0001) and...attempt, shock status remained associated with CAs (OR 6.2, 95%CI: 3.9-9.7, pɘ.0001) while oxygenation fa lure and resident providers were not (p=0.54

  20. A Clinical Series of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta for Hemorrhage Control and Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    required to demonstrate proficiency through completion of a pretest and posttest including examination of hand- on skills with both animal and simulator...With available technology, this method of resuscitation can be performed by trauma and acute care surgeons who have benefited from instruction on a...the right posterior axillary line at the level of the eighth rib (Table 1). On arrival, his pulse was 119 beats per minute (bpm) and his blood pressure

  1. Endovascular treatment of mycotic aortic aneurysms: a European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sörelius, Karl; Mani, Kevin; Björck, Martin; Sedivy, Petr; Wahlgren, Carl-Magnus; Taylor, Peter; Clough, Rachel E; Lyons, Oliver; Thompson, Matt; Brownrigg, Jack; Ivancev, Krassi; Davis, Meryl; Jenkins, Michael P; Jaffer, Usman; Bown, Matt; Rancic, Zoran; Mayer, Dieter; Brunkwall, Jan; Gawenda, Michael; Kölbel, Tilo; Jean-Baptiste, Elixène; Moll, Frans; Berger, Paul; Liapis, Christos D; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Langenskiöld, Marcus; Roos, Håkan; Larzon, Thomas; Pirouzram, Artai; Wanhainen, Anders

    2014-12-09

    Mycotic aortic aneurysm (MAA) is a rare and life-threatening disease. The aim of this European multicenter collaboration was to study the durability of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of MAA, by assessing late infection-related complications and long-term survival. All EVAR treated MAAs, between 1999 and 2013 at 16 European centers, were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred twenty-three patients with 130 MAAs were identified. Mean age was 69 years (range 39-86), 87 (71%) were men, 58 (47%) had immunodeficiency, and 47 (38%) presented with rupture. Anatomic locations were ascending/arch (n=4), descending (n=34), paravisceral (n=15), infrarenal aorta (n=63), and multiple (n=7). Treatments were thoracic EVAR (n=43), fenestrated/branched EVAR (n=9), and infrarenal EVAR (n=71). Antibiotic was administered for mean 30 weeks. Mean follow-up was 35 months (range 1 week to 149 months). Six patients (5%) were converted to open repair during follow-up. Survival was 91% (95% confidence interval, 86% to 96%), 75% (67% to 83%), 55% (44% to 66%), and 41% (28% to 54%) after 1, 12, 60, and 120 months, respectively. Infection-related death occurred in 23 patients (19%), 9 after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. A Cox regression analysis demonstrated non-Salmonella-positive culture as predictors for late infection-related death. Endovascular treatment of MAA is feasible and for most patients a durable treatment option. Late infections do occur, are often lethal, and warrant long-term antibiotic treatment and follow-up. Patients with non-Salmonella-positive blood cultures were more likely to die from late infection. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. [Midterm results of thoracic aortic dissection endovascular repair in conjunctions with the location of Adamkiewicz artery].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ying-bin; Li, Jian; Su, Yong-hui; Ma, Jie-fei; Guan, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Bai-meng

    2012-10-23

    To evaluate the effects of using longer xenografts in conjunctions with the location of Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) on midterm outcomes of endovascular treatment for thoracic aortic dissection. From March 2005 to September 2011, 217 patients with type B dissection were recruited. There were 143 males and 74 females with a mean age of 65 ± 11 years. Among them, 43 patients were from Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University while another 174 patients from Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. They were divided into 2 groups according to whether AKA was identified or not pre-operatively. Endovascular repairs were performed for all patients. Distal landing levels of xenografts were recorded. The thrombosis of false lumen and the complications of spinal cord injury and endoleak were analyzed. AKA was detected in 121 (55.8%) patients (group A) but not in 96 (44.2%) patients (group B). According to the levels of AKA, the patients of group A obtained the stabilization of affected thoracic aorta over a longer distance. And the ratio of patients with distal landing levels at T8-T10 was significantly higher than in group B (59.5% vs 12.5%, χ² = 49.85, P < 0.01). Also, during the follow-up period of 7.3 months, the ratio of patients with total thrombosis of false lumen in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (32.1% vs 19.1%, χ² = 4.34, P < 0.05). During the endovascular repair of thoracic aortic dissection, selecting a longer device may provide a better structural stability of affected aorta and promote false lumen thrombosis.

  3. Endovascular Repair of a Secondary Aorto-Appendiceal Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, Donald M. L., E-mail: donald.tse@gmail.com; Thompson, Andrew R. A.; Perkins, Jeremy

    2011-10-15

    Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) is an uncommon but serious complication occurring after aortic surgery and may occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract, with the duodenum being the most common. Conventional surgical repair of secondary AEF has high mortality, whereas endovascular repair has emerged as an alternative treatment despite concerns about persistent or recurrent infection. We report the case of a 91-year old man who was admitted with rectal bleeding from an aorto-appendiceal fistula 9 years after open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This rare site for AEF was diagnosed on computed tomography, and we present the first case of endovascularmore » treatment of this uncommon complication.« less

  4. Endovascular treatment of penetrating aortic ulcers: mid-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Gaspar; Rodríguez, Rubén; García-Madrid, Cesar; Montañà, Xavier; Burrel, Marta; Cruz, Luis Fernando; Flores, Carlos; Riambau, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the short- and mid-term results of endovascular treatment of penetrating ulcers in the thoracic aorta. Between 1998 and 2010, 22 patients with penetrating ulcers in the thoracic aorta received endografts (mean age 69.8 years, 91% male); 50% were indicated for acute aortic syndrome (8 chest pain, 1 aortic rupture, 1 aortobronchial fistula, 1 distal embolization) and 50% for aortic or ulcer diameter. All preoperative, operative and follow-up data were recorded prospectively and met EUROSTAR criteria. Technical success was 100% with no intraoperative deaths or open conversions; 6 (27.3%) required preoperative supraaortic trunk debranching and 1.3 endografts were used per patient; 27.3% developed complications in-hospital and 9.1% required reintervention prior to discharge. Mortality at 30 days was 4.5%. After a mean 52.3 month follow-up (range 0.1-122), cumulative survival free from complications and reinterventions at 100 months was 61.7% and 79.5% respectively, with 95.5% cumulative survival free from aorta- or procedure-related death. We identified no factors significantly related to poor intra- or postoperative clinical course. Endovascular treatment of penetrating aortic ulcers is both possible and effective despite high patient comorbidity. Although a substantial rate of complications and reinterventions can be expected-especially in-hospital-(38.3% and 20.5% respectively at 100 months), long-term mortality is low (4.5%). Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Aortoiliac morphologic correlations in aneurysms undergoing endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Ouriel, Kenneth; Tanquilut, Eugene; Greenberg, Roy K; Walker, Esteban

    2003-08-01

    The feasibility of endovascular aneurysm repair depends on morphologic characteristics of the aortoiliac segment. Knowledge of such characteristics is relevant to safe deployment of a particular device in a single patient and to development of new devices for use in patients with a broader spectrum of anatomic variations. We evaluated findings on computed tomography scans for 277 patients being considered for endovascular aneurysm repair. Aortic neck length and angulation estimates were generated with three-dimensional trigonometry. Specific centerline points were recorded, corresponding to the aorta at the celiac axis, lowest renal artery, cranial aspect of the aneurysm sac, aortic terminus, right hypogastric artery origin, and left hypogastric origin. Aortic neck thrombus and calcium content were recorded, and neck conicity was calculated in degrees. Statistical analysis was performed with the Spearman rank correlation. Data are expressed as median and interquartile range. Median diameter of the aneurysms was 52 mm (interquartile range, 48-59 mm) in minor axis and 56 mm (interquartile range, 51-64 mm) in major axis, and median length was 88 mm (interquartile range, 74-103 mm). Median proximal aortic neck diameter was 26 mm (interquartile range, 22-29 mm), and median neck length was 30 mm (interquartile range, 18-45 mm). The common iliac arteries were similar in diameter (right artery, 16 mm [interquartile range, 13-20 mm]; left artery, 15 mm [interquartile range, 11-18 mm]) and length (right, 59 mm [interquartile range, 50-69 mm]; left, 60 mm [interquartile range, 49-70 mm]). Median angulation of the infrarenal aortic neck was 40 degrees (interquartile range, 29-51 degrees), and median angulation of the suprarenal segment was 45 degrees (interquartile range, 36-57 degrees). By gender, sac diameter, proximal neck diameter, and iliac artery diameter were significantly larger in men. Significant linear associations were identified between sac diameter and sac length

  6. Results of open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: single centre series and pooled analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    van Lammeren, Guus W; Ünlü, Çağdaş; Verschoor, Sjoerd; van Dongen, Eric P; Wille, Jan; van de Pavoordt, Eric Dwm; de Vries-Werson, Debbie Ab; De Vries, Jean-Paul Pm

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Endovascular treatment of pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm has gained terrain over the past decade, despite the substantial need for reinterventions during follow-up. However, open repair is still a well-established treatment option. With the current study we report the results of a consecutive series of elective primary open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a tertiary vascular referral centre, combined with an overview of current literature and pooled data analysis of perioperative mortality of open and endovascular pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of all elective open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs in the St. Antonius Hospital between 2005 and 2014 was performed. Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Secondary endpoints were 30-day morbidity, new onset dialysis, reintervention free survival, and overall survival during follow-up. Results Between 2005 and 2014, 214 consecutive patients underwent elective open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Mean age was 69.8 (±7.1) years, 82.7% (177/214) were men, and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter was 62 (±11) mm. Thirty-day mortality was 3.4%. Thirty-day morbidity was 27.1%, which predominantly consisted of pneumonia (18.7% (40/214)), cardiac events (3.3% (7/214)), and new onset dialysis (2.8% (6/214)). Estimated five-year overall survival rate was 74.2%. 0.9% (2/214) of patients required abdominal aortic aneurysm-related reintervention, and an additional 2.3% (5/214) required surgical repair of an incisional hernia. Pooled analysis of literature revealed a 30-day mortality of 3.0% for open pararenal repair and 1.9% for fenestrated endovascular repair. Conclusion Open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the era of increasing endovascular options results in acceptable perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Mid-term reintervention rate is low compared to fenestrated endovascular

  7. Training in endovascular surgical neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Dorothea; Hanft, Simon J; Kellner, Christopher P; Meyers, Phil M; Lavine, Sean D

    2010-07-01

    During the past few years, the field of endovascular surgical neuroradiology has been expanding. Neurosurgeons, radiologists, and neurologists are currently being trained. We analyzed data from a national survey of endovascular training programs to assess the current training status and future projections. Survey participation requests were sent out to program directors and members of the Society of Endovascular Neurosurgery, the Society of Neurointerventional Surgery, and the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology. The format was an on-line survey designed by the authors, and completed through the SurveyMonkey.com website. Forty-three programs were identified and invited to participate. We achieved a response rate of 81% (n = 35). Twenty-seven (79%) of the 35 respondents listed their training program as academic, and 7 (20%) listed it as a mixture of academic with private practice. The training program faculty consisted of 57 radiologists, 39 neurosurgeons, and 10 neurologists. Length of fellowship offered was the same for all specialties in 43%, and differed based on clinical experience/background in 51%. Of the programs, 86% offered a 2-year fellowship, 49% had a mandatory resident rotation, 17% offered an infolded complete fellowship for residents, and 34% offered an infolded partial fellowship. Only 9% reported no resident exposure at all. There were 12% of respondents who reported to have knowledge of vascular surgeons or cardiologists performing intracranial procedures. At the time of the survey, there were 68 fellows in training, and most entered training immediately after residency (38%), whereas 26% entered after a fellowship and another 26% trained while in residency. There will be a 14% increase of graduates within the next 5 years. Comparing the past 5 years (2003-2007) with future 5-year projections (2008-2012), the number of radiologists is declining by 37% (73 vs. 46), whereas the number of neurosurgeons (74 vs. 106) and neurologists (20

  8. Mid-term Results of Endovascular Treatment for Infrarenal Aortic Stenosis and Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sohgawa, Etsuji; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nango, Mineyoshi; Cho, Hisayuki; Jogo, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Focal stenosis or occlusion of the infrarenal aorta is rare, and treatment is usually conventional bypass or endarterectomy. However, endovascular treatment has advanced in recent years. The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the results of primary stenting for focal infrarenal aortic occlusive disease and clarify the usefulness of endovascular treatment. This study includes 6 consecutive patients (3 men, 3 women; mean age, 59.3 years) with infrarenal aortic stenosis or occlusion who underwent endovascular intervention at our hospital between April 2009 and February 2014. All patients had bilateral intermittent claudication. The mean preoperative ankle-brachial index (ABI) showed a slight to moderate decrease: right 0.668 and left 0.636. The mean lesion site length was 12.5 mm, the percent stenosis was 90.7%, and calcification was present in 3 patients. Primary stenting was performed in all patients. The stent selected was generally a self-expanding stent (SES). For patients with severe calcification, the stent selected was a balloon-expandable stent (BES). Four patients received an SES and two patients received a BES. The technical success rate was 100%, no complications occurred, and the mean pressure gradient disappeared or decreased. Symptoms resolved in all patients and the postoperative ABI improved: right 0.923 and left 0.968. During a mean follow-up period of 27 months, there were no recurrent symptoms and no restenosis on CT angiography. Endovascular treatment should be considered as a first line treatment for focal infrarenal aortic stenosis and occlusion.

  9. Endovascular management of arterial injuries after blunt or iatrogenic renal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Olivier; Gehin, Sophie; Midulla, Marco; Berthod, Pierre-Emmanuel; Galland, Christophe; Briche, Pascale; Duperron, Céline; Majbri, Nabil; Mousson, Christiane; Falvo, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is the third most common abdominal organ to be injured in trauma, following the spleen and liver, respectively. The most commonly used classification scheme is the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification of blunt renal injuries, which grades renal injury according to the size of laceration and its proximity to the renal hilum. Arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm are the most common iatrogenic biopsy-related or surgery-related vascular injuries in native kidneys. The approach to renal artery injuries has changed over time from more aggressive intervention to more conservative observational or endovascular management, including selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and the placement of stents/stent grafts. In this article, we describe the role and technical aspects of endovascular interventions in the management of arterial injuries after blunt or iatrogenic renal trauma. PMID:28932700

  10. Mechanical contribution of lamellar and interlamellar elastin along the mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Clark, T E; Lillie, M A; Vogl, A W; Gosline, J M; Shadwick, R E

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical properties of aortic elastin vary regionally, but the microstructural basis for this variation is unknown. This study was designed to identify the relative contributions of lamellar and interlamellar elastin to circumferential load bearing in the mouse thoracic and abdominal aortas. Forces developed in uniaxial tests of samples of fresh and autoclaved aorta were correlated with elastin content and morphology obtained from histology and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Autoclaving should render much of the interlamellar elastin mechanically incompetent. In autoclaved tissue force per unit sample width correlated with lamellar elastin content (P≪0.001) but not total elastin content. In fresh tissue at low strain where elastin dominates the mechanical response, forces were higher than in the autoclaved tissue, but force did not correlate with total elastin content. Therefore although interlamellar elastin likely contributed to the stiffness in the fresh aorta, its contribution appeared not in proportion to its quantity. In both fresh and autoclaved tissue, elastin stiffness consistently decreased along the abdominal aorta, a key area for aneurysm development, and this difference could not be fully accounted for on the basis of either lamellar or total elastin content. These findings are relevant to the development of mathematical models of arterial mechanics, particularly for mouse models of arterial diseases involving elastic tissue. In microstructural based models the quantity of each mural constituent determines its contribution to the total response. This study shows elastin's mechanical response cannot necessarily be accounted for on the basis of fibre quantity, orientation, and modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations in local elastic modulus along the length of the aorta as observed by use of a scanning haptic microscope (SHM).

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Takeshi; Oie, Tomonori; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Murayama, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Toru; Omata, Sadao; Kanda, Keiichi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2011-12-01

    Variations in microscopic elastic structures along the entire length of canine aorta were evaluated by use of a scanning haptic microscope (SHM). The total aorta from the aortic arch to the abdominal aorta was divided into 6 approximately equal segments. After embedding the aorta in agar, it was cut into horizontal circumferential segments to obtain disk-like agar portions containing ring-like samples of aorta with flat surfaces (thickness, approximately 1 mm). The elastic modulus and topography of the samples under no-load conditions were simultaneously measured along the entire thickness of the wall by SHM by using a probe with a diameter of 5 μm and a spatial resolution of 2 μm at a rate of 0.3 s/point. The elastic modulus of the wall was the highest on the side of the luminal surface and decreased gradually toward the adventitial side. This tendency was similar to that of the change in the elastin fiber content. During the evaluation of the mid-portion of each tunica media segment, the highest elastic modulus (40.8 ± 3.5 kPa) was identified at the thoracic section of the aorta that had the highest density of elastic fibers. Under no-load conditions, portions of the aorta with high elastin density have a high elastic modulus.

  12. Stenting complex aorta aneurysms with the Cardiatis multilayer flow modulator: first impressions.

    PubMed

    Debing, E; Aerden, D; Gallala, S; Vandenbroucke, F; Van den Brande, P

    2014-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Cardiatis multilayer flow modulator in the treatment of complex aorta aneurysms. This is a single-center prospective registry. Six patients (4 males and 2 females; mean age 74 years) with complex aorta aneurysms (unsuitable for endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent grafts) were treated with the Cardiatis multilayer flow modulator. Clinical success was 100%. Median follow-up was 10 months. One patient died the third postoperative day due to aneurysm rupture. Four aneurysms were completely thrombosed between 1 and 6 months after the procedure. The patency of the covered aortic branches was 100%. At 6 months, the sac volume was decreased in two patients, increased in two patients and remains stable in one patient. There were no stent migrations, retractions, thrombosis, fractures, or reinterventions. The device preserves flow into the covered aortic branches and completed aneurysm thrombosis occurs gradually; however, the stent did not prevent rupture immediately after the implantation. Longer follow-up is mandatory to prove the efficacy of this technology. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  14. Severe Obstructive Calcification of the Descending Aorta: A Case Report of "Coral Reef Aorta".

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Takahiro; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Henmi, Soichiro; Yoshida, Masato; Mukohara, Nobuhiko

    2017-06-25

    An 82-year-old man suffering from lower back pain and dyspnea presented to our institute in a state of shock. Computed tomography showed subtotal occlusion of the descending aorta with massive atherosclerotic calcification. As the proximal portion of the superior mesenteric artery was obstructed, emergency bypass from the right axillary artery to the bilateral external iliac arteries was performed, but the patient died 2 days later. Autopsy revealed that reddish-brown and verrucous masses obstructed the descending aorta, and high-grade thickening of the intima and extensive deposits of calcium in the lumina and medial layer were detected in the descending aorta histologically.

  15. Quantification of Regional Aortic Stiffness Using MR Elastography: A Phantom and Ex-vivo Porcine Aorta Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Jun; Yin, Meng; Glaser, Kevin J.; Xu, Lei; Ehman, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    MR Elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive technique for measuring tissue stiffness that has been used to assess the average stiffness of the abdominal aorta. The utility of aortic MRE would be improved if it could provide information about local variations in aortic stiffness. We hypothesize that regional variations in aortic stiffness can also be measured with MRE and the purpose of this work was to demonstrate that MRE can measure regional stiffness variations in a vascular phantom and in ex vivo porcine aortas. A vascular phantom was fabricated, containing two silicone tubes embedded in gel. A segment of one of the tubes was modified to increase its stiffness. MRE was performed on the phantom with a continuous flow of water through the tubes. The stiffness distribution along the modified tube was measured and compared to the reference tube. MRE was also performed in porcine aortas embedded in gel with segments treated with saline or formalin for 4 days. The stiffness difference between saline- and formalin-treated aortic segments was measured by MRE and mechanical tests. A positive correlation was found between the regional stiffnesses measured by MRE and mechanical tests. The results indicate that MRE can be used to evaluate the local stiffness distribution in silicone tubes and ex vivo porcine aortas. It may therefore be possible to apply MRE to measure regional stiffness variations of the aorta in vivo. PMID:26597836

  16. Hybrid Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Preservation of Pelvic Perfusion with External to Internal Iliac Artery Bypass.

    PubMed

    Mansukhani, Neel A; Havelka, George E; Helenowski, Irene B; Rodriguez, Heron E; Hoel, Andrew W; Eskandari, Mark K

    2017-07-01

    Diminished pelvic arterial flow as a result of intentional coverage/embolization of internal iliac arteries (IIA) during isolated endovascular common iliac artery aneurysm (CIAA) repair or endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) may result in symptomatic pelvic ischemia. Although generally well tolerated, in severe cases, pelvic ischemia may manifest as recalcitrant buttock claudication, vasculogenic impotence, or perineal, vesicle, rectal, and/or spinal cord ischemia. Branched graft technology has recently become available; however, many patients are not candidates for endovascular repair with these devices. Therefore, techniques to preserve pelvic arterial flow are needed. We reviewed our outcomes of isolated endovascular CIAA repair or EVAR in conjunction with unilateral external-internal iliac artery bypass. Single-center, retrospective review of 10 consecutive patients who underwent hybrid endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or CIAA repair with concomitant external-internal iliac artery bypass between 2006 and 2015. Demographics, index procedural details, postoperative symptoms, hospital length of stay (LOS), follow-up imaging, and bypass patency were recorded. The cohort of 10 patients was all men with a mean age of 71 years (range: 56-84). Hybrid repair consisted of contralateral IIA coil embolization followed by EVAR with external iliac artery-internal iliac artery (EIA-IIA) bypass. All EIA-IIA bypasses were performed via a standard lower quadrant retroperitoneal approach with a prosthetic bypass graft. Technical success was 100%, and there were no perioperative deaths. One patient developed transient paraplegia, 1 patient had buttock claudication on the side of his hypogastric embolization contralateral to his iliac bypass, and 1 developed postoperative impotence. 20% of patients sustained long-term complications (buttock claudication and postoperative impotence). Mean LOS was 2.8 days (range: 1-9 days). Postoperative imaging

  17. Associations between a Genetic Risk Score for Clinical CAD and Early Stage Lesions in the Coronary Artery and the Aorta.

    PubMed

    Salfati, Elias L; Herrington, David M; Assimes, Themistocles L

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the extent of fatty streaks, more advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and community rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) is substantially higher for the coronary artery compared to the aorta. We sought to determine whether a genetic basis contributes to these differences. We conducted a cluster analysis of 6 subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes documented in 564 white participants of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth study including the extent of fatty streaks and raised lesions in the coronary artery (CF and CR), thoracic aorta (TF and TR), and abdominal aorta (AF and AR) followed by a genetic association analysis of the same phenotypes. Our cluster analysis grouped all raised lesions and fatty streaks in the coronary into one cluster (CF, CR, TR, and AR) and the fatty streaks in the aorta into a second cluster (TF and AF). We found a genetic risk score of high-risk alleles at 57 susceptibility loci for CAD to be variably associated with the phenotypes in the first cluster (OR: 1.30 p = 0.009 for being in top quartile of degree of involvement of CF, 1.34 p = 0.005 for CR, 1.25: p = 0.11 for TR, and 1.19 p = 0.08 for AR) but not at all with the phenotypes in the second cluster (OR: 1.01, p = 0.95 for TF and 0.98, p = 0.82 for AF). The genetic determinants of fatty streaks in the aorta do not appear to overlap substantially with the genetic determinants of fatty streaks in the coronary as well as raised lesions in both the coronary and the aorta. These findings may explain why a larger fraction of fatty streaks in the aorta are less likely to progress to raised lesions compared to the coronary artery.

  18. Associations between a Genetic Risk Score for Clinical CAD and Early Stage Lesions in the Coronary Artery and the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The correlation between the extent of fatty streaks, more advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and community rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) is substantially higher for the coronary artery compared to the aorta. We sought to determine whether a genetic basis contributes to these differences. Approach and Results We conducted a cluster analysis of 6 subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes documented in 564 white participants of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth study including the extent of fatty streaks and raised lesions in the coronary artery (CF and CR), thoracic aorta (TF and TR), and abdominal aorta (AF and AR) followed by a genetic association analysis of the same phenotypes. Our cluster analysis grouped all raised lesions and fatty streaks in the coronary into one cluster (CF, CR, TR, and AR) and the fatty streaks in the aorta into a second cluster (TF and AF). We found a genetic risk score of high-risk alleles at 57 susceptibility loci for CAD to be variably associated with the phenotypes in the first cluster (OR: 1.30 p = 0.009 for being in top quartile of degree of involvement of CF, 1.34 p = 0.005 for CR, 1.25: p = 0.11 for TR, and 1.19 p = 0.08 for AR) but not at all with the phenotypes in the second cluster (OR: 1.01, p = 0.95 for TF and 0.98, p = 0.82 for AF). Conclusions The genetic determinants of fatty streaks in the aorta do not appear to overlap substantially with the genetic determinants of fatty streaks in the coronary as well as raised lesions in both the coronary and the aorta. These findings may explain why a larger fraction of fatty streaks in the aorta are less likely to progress to raised lesions compared to the coronary artery. PMID:27861582

  19. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

  20. High-pitch dual-source CT angiography without ECG-gating for imaging the whole aorta: intraindividual comparison with standard pitch single-source technique without ECG-gating

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Carmelinda; Silva, Mario; Cobelli, Rocco; Poggesi, Sara; Rossi, Cristina; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to perform intraindividual comparison of computed tomography (CT) parameters, image quality, and radiation exposure between standard CT angiography (CTA) and high-pitch dual source (DS)-CTA, in subjects undergoing serial CTA of thoracoabdominal aorta. METHODS Eighteen subjects with thoracoabdominal CTA by standard technique and high-pitch DS-CTA technique within 6 months of each other were retrieved for intraindividual comparison of image quality in thoracic and abdominal aorta. Quantitative analysis was performed by comparison of mean aortic attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Qualitative analysis was performed by visual assessment of motion artifacts and diagnostic confidence. Radiation exposure was quantified by effective dose. Image quality was apportioned to radiation exposure by means of figure of merit. RESULTS Mean aortic attenuation and noise were higher in high-pitch DS-CTA of thoracoabdominal aorta, whereas SNR and CNR were similar in thoracic aorta and significantly lower in high-pitch DS-CTA of abdominal aorta (P = 0.024 and P = 0.016). High-pitch DS-CTA was significantly better in the first segment of thoracic aorta. Effective dose was reduced by 72% in high-pitch DS-CTA. CONCLUSION High-pitch DS-CTA without electrocardiography-gating is an effective technique for imaging aorta with very low radiation exposure and with significant reduction of motion artifacts in ascending aorta; however, the overall quality of high-pitch DS-CTA in abdominal aorta is lower than standard CTA. PMID:28703104

  1. Comparison of 2 heterotopic heart transplant techniques in rats: cervical and abdominal heart.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Wang, Guodong

    2011-04-01

    Heterotopic heart transplant in rats has been accepted as the most commonly used animal model to investigate the mechanisms of transplant immunology. Many ingenious approaches to this model have been reported. We sought to improve this model and compare survival rates and histologic features of acute rejection in cervical and abdominal heart transplants. Rats were divided into cervical and abdominal groups. Microsurgical techniques were introduced for vascular anastomoses. In the abdominal heart transplant group, the donor's thoracic aorta was anastomosed end-to-side to the recipient's infrarenal abdominal aorta, and the donor's pulmonary artery was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava. In the cervical heart transplant group, the donor's thoracic aorta was anastomosed to the recipient's common carotid artery, and the donor's pulmonary artery was anastomosed to the recipient's external jugular vein. Survival time of the 2 models was followed and pathology was examined. Histologic features of allogeneic rejection also were compared in the cervical and abdominal heart transplant groups. The mean time to recover the donor's hearts was 7.4 ± 2.2 minutes in the cervical group and 7.2 ± 1.8 minutes in the abdominal group. In the cervical and abdominal heart transplant models, the mean recipient's operative time was 23.2 ± 2.6 minutes and 21.6 ± 2.8 minutes. Graft survival was 98% and 100% in the cervical and abdominal heart transplant groups. There was no significant difference in graft survival between the 2 methods. Heart allografts rejected at 5.7 and 6.2 days in the cervical and abdominal transplant groups. There was no difference in the histologic features of acute allogenic rejection in cervical and abdominal heart transplant. Both cervical and abdominal heart transplants can achieve a high rate of success. The histologic features of acute allogeneic rejection in the models are comparable.

  2. Conventional versus frozen elephant trunk surgery for extensive disease of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Borger, Michael; Petridis, Francesco D; Leontyev, Sergey; Pantaleo, Antonio; Moz, Monica; Mohr, Friedrich; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    To compare early and mid-term outcomes after repair of extensive aneurysm of the thoracic aorta using the conventional elephant trunk or frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedures. Fifty-seven patients with extensive thoracic aneurysmal disease were treated using elephant trunk (n = 36) or FET (n = 21) procedures. Patients with aortic dissection, descending thoracic aorta (DTA) diameter less than 40 mm, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms were excluded from the analysis, as were those who did not undergo antegrade selective cerebral perfusion during circulatory arrest. Short-term and mid-term outcomes were compared according to elephant trunk/FET surgical management. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were similar in the two groups, except for a higher incidence of female sex, coronary artery disease and associated procedures in elephant trunk patients. Hospital mortality (elephant trunk: 13.9% versus FET: 4.8%; P = 0.2), permanent neurologic dysfunction (elephant trunk: 5.7% versus FET: 9.5%; P = 0.4) and paraplegia (elephant trunk: 2.9% versus FET: 4.8%; P = 0.6) rates were similar in the two groups. Follow-up was 100% complete. In the elephant trunk group, 68.4% of patients did not undergo a second-stage procedure during follow-up for a variety of reasons. Of these patients, the DTA diameter was greater than 51 mm in 72.2% and two (6.7%) died due to aortic rupture while awaiting stage-two intervention. Endovascular second-stage procedures were successfully performed in all FET patients with residual DTA aneurysmal disease (n = 3), whereas nine of 11 elephant trunk patients who returned for second-stage procedures required conventional surgical replacement through a lateral thoracotomy. Kaplan-Meier estimate of 4-year survival was 75.8 ± 7.6 and 72.8 ± 10.6 in elephant trunk and FET patients, respectively (log-rank P = 0.8). In patients with extensive aneurysmal disease of thoracic aorta, elephant trunk and FET procedures

  3. Prophylactic antibiotics for percutaneous endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Greaves, N S; Katsogridakis, E; Faris, B; Murray, D

    2017-04-01

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques are used increasingly in the vascular armamentarium. Commonly performed as day case procedures under local anaesthetic, they are suited to the highly co-morbid vascular patient population. Furthermore, technological advances have resulted in ever improving outcomes for aneurysmal and occlusive disease. Endovascular procedures such as endovascular aneurysm repair or iliac artery stenting are traditionally associated with reduced infectious complications compared to equivalent open techniques. However, when they do occur, they are equally devastating and often associated with limb loss or death since the only effective treatment is removal of all infected material. The use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce infectious complications in open surgery has a strong evidence base, but there is no equivalent data for percutaneous endovascular procedures. The Society of Interventional Radiology published formal guidelines for adult antibiotic prophylaxis in 2010. Based on relatively poor quality studies, they nevertheless represent the first official guidance in the field and stress the need for large randomised controlled trials to further guide the debate. Broadly, the benefits of reduced infectious complications must be balanced against the fiscal cost of increased antimicrobial usage, promotion of multi-drug resistant organisms and patient side-effect profiles. The number needed to treat to prevent one infection is high yet without it a small but significant number of patients will suffer serious adverse outcomes secondary to infection of endovascular prostheses. This review article aims to summarise the evidence around the use of prophylactic antibiotics in percutaneous endovascular procedures.

  4. Endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Joseph P

    2009-03-01

    To review advances in endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Data from primate studies, randomized studies of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, and nonrandomized and randomized studies of endovascular therapy were reviewed. Clinical trial data demonstrate the superiority of endovascular treatment with thrombolytic medication or mechanical methods to reopen arteries compared with control patients from the PROACT II Trial treated with heparin alone. However, these same clinical trials, as well as preclinical primate models, indicate that recanalization, whether by endovascular approaches or standard-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, is unlikely to improve clinical outcome after a certain time point. Although the threshold beyond which reperfusion has no or little benefit has yet to be conclusively defined, accumulated data to this point indicate an overall threshold of approximately 6 to 7 hours. In addition, although the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage is similar in trials of intravenous lytics and endovascular approaches, endovascular approaches have distinctive risk profiles that can impact outcome. The treatment of acute ischemic stroke is evolving with new tools to reopen arteries and salvage the ischemic brain. Ongoing randomized trials of these new approaches are prerequisite next steps to demonstrate whether reperfusion translates into clinical effectiveness. Physiologic time to reperfusion will remain critical no matter which tools prove most effective and safest.

  5. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

  6. Stenting of the ascending aorta revisited.

    PubMed

    Moiduddin, Nasser J; Rios, Rodrigo; El-Said, Howaida; Moore, John W

    2017-10-01

    Despite few institutions stenting the ascending aorta, it has been discouraged because of the proximity of the aortic valve, the coronary artery orifices, and the aortic arch branches. We describe a small case series of patients having acquired stenosis of the ascending that was relieved successfully by stenting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Femoral incision morbidity following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Slappy, A L Jackson; Hakaim, Albert G; Oldenburg, W Andrew; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; McKinney, J Mark

    2003-01-01

    Currently available aortic stent-grafts require bilateral femoral incisions for device deployment. The incidence of morbidity (infection, lymphatic complications, breakdown) of vertical, infrainguinal incisions used in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) was assessed, and the natural history of asymptomatic groin fluid collections following such procedures was determined. Between June 1999 and February 2001, 77 consecutive patients underwent EVAR for AAAs utilizing bilateral vertical femoral incisions. Fifty-nine (77%) bifurcated stent-grafts (BSGs), and 18 (23%) aortouniiliac (AUI) devices, with femorofemoral bypass were performed. Patients returned at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months for physical examination, and 1 month and 6 months for abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans. The presence of fluid collections was determined from the dictation report of the attending radiologist. Data are reported as (n) mean +/-SE. Patient characteristics were compared using Fisher's exact test; p<0.05 considered significant. There were 72 males and 5 females, age 75 +/-6.4 years and aneurysm size (77) 5.6 +/-0.8 cm. There were no cases of wound breakdown or lymph fistula. Wound infections occurred in 3/150 incisions (2%), 2/34 AUI incisions (6%), and 1/116 BSG incisions (0.86%). There was no statistical difference (p=0.13) between graft types (BSG vs AUI). All infections were diagnosed clinically before the 1-month CT scan, treated without operative intervention or hospitalization, and resolved. There was a significant decrease in the BSG group and overall in asymptomatic wound fluid collections from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. At 1 and 6 months, respectively, the BSG group had 17 (14.6%) and 3 (2.6%) fluid collections out of 116 incisions (p=0.003); the AUI group had 6 (17.6%) and 1 (2.9%) fluid collection(s) out of 34 incisions (p=0.13); and overall 23 (15.3%) and 4 (2.6%) out of 150 incisions (p=0.004). The present study

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  9. Efficacy and durability of the chimney graft technique in urgent and complex thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    PubMed

    Bin Jabr, Adel; Lindblad, Bengt; Dias, Nuno; Resch, Timothy; Malina, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the early and midterm to long-term experience of chimney grafts (CGs) in urgent endovascular repair of complex lesions in the thoracic aorta. Twenty-nine high-risk patients (20 men) who were unfit for open repair were treated using CG technique for ruptured (n = 14) or symptomatic (n = 15) aortic lesions engaging the aortic arch itself (n = 9), the descending aorta (n = 10), or the thoracoabdominal aorta (n = 10). Twenty-two patients (76%) were treated urgently (≤24 hours) and seven were semiurgent (≤3 days). Of 41 chimneys used, 24 were placed in supra-aortic branches and 17 in visceral branches. Median follow-up (interquartile range) for the entire cohort was 2 years (0.6-3.8 years), 2.5 years (1-4 years) for 30-day survivors, and 3.5 years (1.9-6.4 years) for those who were still alive. Four patients (14%) died ≤30 days of cerebral infarction (n = 1), visceral ischemia secondary to the initial rupture (n = 1), multiple organ failure (n = 1), or heart failure (n = 1). There were 11 late deaths (38%); however, only two deaths were related to the CG technique. The primary and secondary technical success rates were 86% (25 of 29) and 97% (28 of 29), respectively. The secondary patency rate of CGs was 98%. Seventeen (68%) of the aortic lesions shrank significantly. Three patients (10%) had primary type I endoleak and another three (10%) had secondary type I endoleak. The endoleaks were managed with Onyx (ev3 Endovascular, Inc, Plymouth, Minn) or coil embolization (n = 2), restenting (n = 1), and conversion to open repair (n = 2). One secondary endoleak is still under observation after >20 months. All primary endoleaks and one secondary endoleak originated from CGs in the brachiocephalic trunk (4 of 6 [67%]). The midterm to long-term results of the CG technique for urgent and complex lesions of the thoracic aorta in high-risk patients are promising, with low early mortality and long durability of the CGs. More patients with longer follow

  10. Endovascular management of recurrent stenosis following left renal vein transposition for the treatment of Nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Polanco, Patricio; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2011-04-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is an entity resulting from left renal vein compression by the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, leading to symptoms of left flank pain and hematuria. Conventional treatment has been surgical, commonly through transposition of the left renal vein to a more caudal location on the inferior vena cava. Additionally, endovascular approaches, primarily via renal vein stenting, have been described for treatment of this syndrome. We report the case of a patient with Nutcracker syndrome who underwent successful left renal vein transposition but then developed recurrent symptoms 10 months postoperatively and was successfully treated with angioplasty and stenting. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm due to brucellosis: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Liu, Han; Sun, Siqiao; Sun, Xiwei; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhongying; Cheng, Zhihua

    2017-06-02

    Arterial damage is a known complication of brucellosis, but the occurrence of a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis has not been previously reported. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with a pseudoaneurysm in the descending segment of the thoracic aorta that caused symptoms of chest pain and intermittent fever. He was diagnosed with a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis based on a positive brucella serology test (standard-tube agglutination test) and imaging examination (computed tomography angiography). Anti-brucellosis treatment and covered stent graft implantation were attempted to eliminate the brucellosis and pseudoaneurysm, respectively, and were ultimately successful, with no symptoms after 6 months of follow-up. Endovascular repair may be effective and safe for treating a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm resulting from brucellosis.

  12. Application of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in treating dwarfism with Stanford B aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Cai, Wenwu; Shu, Chang; Li, Ming; Xiong, Qinggen; Li, Quanming; Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: To apply thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to treat dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 63-year-old male patient of dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection successfully treated with TEVAR. Diagnoses: He was diagnosed with dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection. Interventions: After conservative treatment, the male patient underwent TEVAR at 1 week after hospitalization. After operation, he presented with numbness and weakness of his bilateral lower extremities, and these symptoms were significantly mitigated after effective treatment. At 1- and 3-week after TEVAR, the aorta status was maintained stable and restored. Outcomes: The patient obtained favorable clinical prognosis and was smoothly discharged. During subsequent follow-up, he remained physically stable. Lessons: TEVAR is probably an option for treating dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection, which remains to be validated by subsequent studies with larger sample size. PMID:29703033

  13. Biomechanical analysis of wrapping of the moderately dilated ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Plonek, Tomasz; Rylski, Bartosz; Dumanski, Andrzej; Siedlaczek, Przemyslaw; Kustrzycki, Wojciech

    2015-08-01

    External wrapping is a surgical method performed to prevent the dilatation of the aorta and to decrease the risk of its dissection and rupture. However, it is also believed to cause degeneration of the aortic wall. A biomechanical analysis was thus performed to assess the stress of the aortic wall subjected to external wrapping. A stress analysis using the finite elements method was carried out on three models: a non-dilated aorta, a moderately dilated aorta and a wrapped aorta. The models were subjected to a pulsatile flow (120/80 mmHg) and a systolic aortic annulus motion of 11 mm. The finite elements analysis showed that the stress exerted on the outer surface of the ascending aorta in the wrapping model (0.05-0.8 MPa) was similar to that observed in the normal aorta (0.03-0.7 MPa) and was lower than in the model of a moderately dilated aorta (0.06-1.4 MPa). The stress on the inner surface of the ascending aorta ranged from 0.2 MPa to 0.4 MPa in the model of the normal aorta, from 0.3 to 1.3 MPa in the model of the dilated aorta and from 0.05 MPa to 0.4 MPa in the wrapping model. The results of this study suggest that the aortic wall is subjected to similar stress following a wrapping procedure to the one present in the normal aorta.

  14. Endograft collapse following endovascular repair of traumatic aortic injury.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Ganesan; Cook, Richard; Martin, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The advent of endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries offers a valuable, minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. However, there are limitations of the current endovascular stent graft technology for this group of patients. After endovascular repair meticulous follow-up is required with a high index of suspicion for potential complications including the lethal complication of endograft collapse.

  15. 21 CFR 870.3460 - Endovascular Suturing System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endovascular Suturing System. 870.3460 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3460 Endovascular Suturing System. (a) Identification. An endovascular suturing system is a medical device intended to provide...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3460 - Endovascular Suturing System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endovascular Suturing System. 870.3460 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3460 Endovascular Suturing System. (a) Identification. An endovascular suturing system is a medical device intended to provide...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3460 - Endovascular Suturing System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endovascular Suturing System. 870.3460 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3460 Endovascular Suturing System. (a) Identification. An endovascular suturing system is a medical device intended to provide...

  18. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  19. Evaluation of normal abdominal aortic diameters in the Indian population using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jasper, A; Harshe, G; Keshava, S N; Kulkarni, G; Stephen, E; Agarwal, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal diameters for the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta measured at T12 and L3 vertebral levels in the Indian population and to study the variation in aortic diameters with age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body surface area (BSA). One hundred and forty-two patients who underwent helical contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen for non-cardiovascular reasons were recruited.. The mean internal diameters of the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta (maximum anteroposterior and transverse diameter) were measured at T12 and L3 vertebral levels and tabulated according to various age groups for both men and women. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between aortic diameters, height, weight, BSA, and BMI. The mean diameters of the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta measured at T12 and L3 vertebral levels, in men were 19.0 ± 2.3 and 13.8 ± 1.9 mm and in women 17.1 ± 2.3 and 12.0 ± 1.6 mm, respectively. The aortic diameter progressively increased in caliber with increasing age of the patients and was smaller in women than men. A significant positive correlation was found in men between the suprarenal and infrarenal aortic diameters and weight, BSA, and BMI. In women, this correlation was significant in the infrarenal aorta but not in the suprarenal aorta. We obtained a set of normal values for the abdominal aorta in the Indian population. The aortic diameters correlated with age, gender, and body size of the patients as seen with previously published data in the Western population. A brief comparison of data between Indian and Western population showed that the values obtained were less than published elsewhere and hence, this should be considered while formulating intervention protocols.

  20. Hemothorax Management After Endovascular Treatment For Thoracic Aortic Rupture.

    PubMed

    Piffaretti, G; Menegolo, M; Kahlberg, A; Mariscalco, G; Rinaldi, E; Castelli, P; Grego, F; Chiesa, R; Antonello, M

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to describe and analyze the management of hemothorax (HTX) and the occurrence of respiratory complications after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic rupture (TEVAR). This was a multicenter study with retrospective analysis. Between November 2000 and December 2012, all patients with confirmed HTX due to rupture of the descending thoracic aorta treated with TEVAR were included. Respiratory function (acid base status, Pao2, Paco2, lactate, and respiratory index) was monitored throughout hospitalization. Primary endpoints were survival and post-operative respiratory complications. Fifty-six patients were treated. The mean age was 62 ± 21 years (range 18-92 years). Etiology included traumatic rupture (n = 23, 41%), atherosclerotic aneurysm (n = 20, 36%), Debakey type IIIa dissection (n = 8, 14%), and penetrating aortic ulcer (n = 5, 9%). The primary technical success of TEVAR was 100%. The in hospital mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 7). Hemothorax was drained in 21 (37.5%) cases. In hospital respiratory complications occurred in 23 (41%) patients who required a longer intensive care unit stay (days 2.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.9 ± 0.8, p = .017), and hospitalization (26 ± 17 vs. 19 ± 17, p = .021). Those who developed post-operative respiratory complications had lower pre-operative PO2 values (mmHg, 80 ± 24 vs. 91 ± 21, p = .012). Respiratory complications and in hospital mortality did not differ among aortic pathologies (p = .269 and p = 1.0, respectively), nor did in hospital mortality differ between patients with and without respiratory complications (13% vs. 12%; p = .990). Thoracic aortic rupture still has a high mortality rate. Respiratory complications have not been eliminated by endovascular repair. HTX evacuation may have had a positive influence on the survival in these patients. Although traumatic and degenerative ruptures are two significantly different scenarios, survival and respiratory outcomes were similar and

  1. A 5-year evaluation using the talent endovascular graft for endovascular aneurysm repair in short aortic necks.

    PubMed

    Jim, Jeffrey; Sanchez, Luis A; Rubin, Brian G; Criado, Frank J; Fajardo, Andres; Geraghty, Patrick J; Sicard, Gregorio A

    2010-10-01

    Although endovascular aneurysm repair has been shown to be an effective way to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), certain anatomic characteristics such as a short aortic neck, limit its applicability. Initially, commercially available devices were approved only for the treatment of AAA with an aortic neck length ≥ 15 mm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the recently approved Talent endograft for AAAs with a short aortic neck length (10-15 mm). Data were obtained from the prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter Talent enhanced Low Profile Stent Graft System trial which enrolled patients between February 2002 and April 2003. A total of 154 patients with adequate preoperative imaging were identified for this study. Subgroup analyses were performed for AAA with 10-15 mm aortic neck and those with >15 mm neck. Safety and effectiveness endpoints were evaluated at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years postprocedure. Patients treated with aortic neck lengths of 10-15 mm (n = 35) and those with >15 mm (n = 102) had similar age, gender, and risk factor profile. Both groups had similar preoperative aneurysm morphology in terms of maximum aneurysm size, degree of neck angulation, or proximal neck diameter. There were no statistically significant differences in freedom from major adverse events and mortality rates at 30 and 365 days. Similarly, there was no difference in the effectiveness endpoints at 12 months. At 5 years, there was no difference in migration rate, endoleaks, or change in aneurysm diameter from baseline. In addition, there is no difference in freedom from aneurysm-related mortality (94% vs. 99%). AAAs with short aortic necks (10-15 mm) and otherwise suitable anatomy for endovascular repair can be safely and effectively treated with the Talent endograft with excellent 1 and 5 year outcomes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Reinterventions after open and endovascular AAA repair.

    PubMed

    Malina, M

    2015-04-01

    Reinterventions seem to occur more frequently after endovascular aneurysm repair than after open surgical repair and are encountered in about 20% versus 10% of the cases, respectively. However, reinterventions following endovascular repair are predominantly endoluminal and early reinterventions are more frequent after open repair. The indications for reintervention after EVAR have changed over time. The incidence and type of reintervention depends on the complexity of the primary procedure, irrespective of whether it was open or endovascular. The use of a device outside instructions for use is associated with a higher complication rate but it may nevertheless be fully justified. Advanced stent-grafts such as fenestrated and branched devices require secondary procedures more often than a standard stent-graft. Similarly, more complex open repair, e.g. a bifurcated bypass, reimplantation of visceral arteries or a redo procedure, is also associated with more reinterventions than a simple tube graft. This manuscript presents some of the most common complications of open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and the reinterventions they require. Many of the complications are similar with both open and endovascular techniques. Limb thrombosis, infections and endoleaks are the most frequent indications for reintervention.

  3. Zone zero thoracic endovascular aortic repair: A proposed modification to the classification of landing zones.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Eric E; Idrees, Jay J; Johnston, Douglas R; Eagleton, Matthew J; Desai, Milind Y; Svensson, Lars G

    2018-04-01

    Endovascular stent-grafting provides an alternative treatment option for high-risk patients with ascending aortic disease. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated before. We assess the updated experience with ascending thoracic endovascular aortic repair and propose a modification of the landing zone classification based on the outcomes. From 2006 to 2016, 39 patients deemed very high risk for open replacement underwent endovascular repair of ascending aorta for acute type A dissection (12, 31%), intramural hematoma (2, 5%), pseudoaneurysm (22, 56%), and chronic dissection suture line entry tear (3, 8%). Ascending thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed in 36 patients. In 3 patients with pseudoaneurysm, occluder devices were used. Computed tomography imaging analysis was performed, and the extent of aortic pathology was designated by segmental proximity to the left ventricle. Segmental anatomy of the proximal aorta was designed as zone 0A from the annulus to the distal margin of highest coronary, 0B extends from above the coronary to the distal margin of right pulmonary artery, and 0C extends from the right pulmonary artery border to the innominate artery. Multivariable time to event Cox regression analysis was performed to predict mortality, and long-term survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Operative mortality was 13%; all 5 deaths occurred after emergency ascending thoracic endovascular aortic repair for type A dissection. Other complications included stroke in 4 patients (10%), myocardial infarction in 2 patients (5%), tracheostomy in 2 patients (5%), and dialysis in 2 patients (5%). In patients with acute type A dissection, the ascending pathology extended into zone 0A in 10 (71%) and 0B in 4 (29%). Among those with pseudoaneurysm, the location of the defect was in 0B in 11 (50%), 0C in 10 (45%), and 0A in 1. Among the patients with chronic dissection, the defect was located in 0C in all 3 (100%). After multivariable

  4. Transesophageal echocardiography evaluation of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Patil, T. A.; Nierich, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can be used to identify risk factors such as aortic atherosclerosis[2] before any sort of surgical manipulations involving aorta and its related structures. TEE has become an important noninvasive tool to diagnose acute thoracic aortic pathologies. TEE evaluation of endoleaks helps early detection and immediate corrective interventions. TEE is an invaluable imaging modality in the management of aortic pathology. TEE has to a large extent improved the patient outcomes. PMID:27762248

  5. Stent Repair for Complex Coarctation of Aorta.

    PubMed

    Suárez de Lezo, José; Romero, Miguel; Pan, Manuel; Suárez de Lezo, Javier; Segura, José; Ojeda, Soledad; Pavlovic, Djordje; Mazuelos, Francisco; López Aguilera, José; Espejo Perez, Simona

    2015-08-24

    This study sought to determine whether several anatomic or evolving characteristics of the coarctation may create challenging conditions for treatment. Stent repair of coarctation of aorta is an alternative to surgical correction. We analyzed our 21-year experience in the percutaneous treatment of complex coarctation of aorta. Adverse conditions for treatment were as follow: 1) complete interruption of the aortic arch (n = 11); 2) associated aneurysm (n = 18); 3) complex stenosis (n = 30); and 4) the need for re-expansion and/or restenting (n = 21). Twenty patients (33%) belonged to more than 1 group. Ten interruptions were type A and 1 was type B. The mean length of the interrupted aorta was 9 ± 11 mm. The associated aneurysms were native in 8 patients and after previous intervention in 10 patients. Aneurysm shapes were fusiform in 8 patients and saccular in 10. The following characteristics defined complex stenosis as long diffuse stenosis, very tortuous coarctation, or stenosis involving a main branch or an unusual location. Patients previously stented at an early age, required re-expansion and/or restenting after reaching 16 ± 5 years of age. Two patients had died by 1-month follow-up. The remaining 58 patients did well and were followed-up for a mean period of 10 ± 6 years. Late adverse events occurred in 3 patients (5%). All remaining patients are symptom-free, with normal baseline blood pressure. Imaging techniques revealed good patency at follow-up without associated aneurysm or restenosis. The actuarial survival free probability of all complex patients at 15 years was 92%. Stent repair of complex coarctation of aorta is feasible and safe. Initial results are maintained at later follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contemporary Endovascular Embolotherapy for Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Dubel, Gregory J.; Ahn, Sun Ho; Soares, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative endovascular tumor embolization has been used for 40 years. Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumor in which preoperative embolization has been most extensively described in the literature. Advocates of embolization report that it reduces operative blood-loss, and softens the tumor, thus making surgery safer and easier. Opponents suggest that it adds additional risk and cost for patients without controlled studies showing conclusive benefit. The literature suggests a 3 to 6% neurological complication rate related to embolization. The combined external and internal carotid artery blood supply and complex anastomoses of the meninges can make embolization challenging. Positive outcomes require thorough knowledge of the pertinent vascular anatomy, familiarity with the neurovascular equipment and embolics, and meticulous technique. There remains debate on several aspects of embolization, including tumors most appropriate for embolization, embolic agent of choice, ideal size of embolic, and the choice of vessel(s) to embolize. This detailed review of pertinent vascular anatomy, embolization technique, results, and complications should allow practitioners to maximize treatment outcomes in this setting. PMID:24436548

  7. An Alternative Approach for Treating a Type Ia Endoleak after Conventional EVAR Using the Nellix Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ombretta; Fresilli, Mauro; Irace, Luigi; Venosi, Salvatore; Jabbour, Jihad; Picone, Veronica; Maruca, Debora; Di Girolamo, Alessia; Gossetti, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    To report the use of a Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) device, to successfully treat a type Ia endoleak (EL) after an endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with a 90-mm aortic aneurysm, suspicious for being inflammatory. It was initially treated successfully, with a Medtronic Endurant (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Five years after the index endovascular repair, an asymptomatic type Ia EL was detected on duplex ultrasound and computed tomographic angiogram. Other endovascular solutions in the form of proximal cuff, chimney was considered difficult to execute due to challenges in planning, manipulation, and renal cannulation caused by the short proximal sealing zone above the existing stent graft and the constraints of the previous endograft. Thus, a relining of the previous endoprothesis was performed using the Nellix system (Endologix, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA). One-year follow-up imaging demonstrated successful resolution of the EL and persistent sealing of the Nellix device. Nellix EVAS system can be an alternative and safe option for relining a stent graft with a type Ia EL. Nellix platform can be added to the clinician's armamentarium for treating type Ia EL after conventional EVAR of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Aortas of Patients with Advanced Occlusive and Aneurysmal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Márcio L; Carraro, Cristina C; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Kalil, Antônio N; Aerts, Newton R; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Fernandes, Marilda C; Zettler, Claudio G

    2018-06-06

    Aortoiliac occlusive disease (AOD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are very important cardiovascular diseases that present different aspects of pathophysiology; however, oxidative stress and inflammatory response seem be relevant in both of them. Our objective was to evaluate oxidative damage and degree of inflammatory infiltrate in aortas of patients surgically treated for AOD and AAA. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression as well as nitrite levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were evaluated in aortas of patients with AOD (n = 16) or AAA (n = 14), while the control group was formed by cadaveric organ donors (n = 10). We also analyzed the degree of inflammatory infiltrate in these aortas. There was an increase in ROS levels and NADPH oxidase activity in patients with AOD and AAA when compared with the control group, and the AOD group demonstrated higher ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity and also nitrite levels when compared with the AAA group (P < 0.001). On the other hand, an increase of SOD activity in the AOD group and CAT activity in the AAA group was observed. Inflammatory infiltrate and MPO expression were higher in the AOD group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Oxidative stress is relevant in both AOD and AAA, though AOD presented higher ROS levels and NADPH activity. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory phenomenon which occurs in aortas of patients with AOD and AAA. Perhaps, a relationship between oxidative stress and degree of inflammatory infiltrate may exist in the pathophysiology of AOD and AAA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endovascular interventions for central vein stenosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil K

    2015-12-01

    Central vein stenosis is common because of the placement of venous access and cardiac intravascular devices and compromises vascular access for dialysis. Endovascular intervention with angioplasty and/or stent placement is the preferred approach, but the results are suboptimal and limited. Primary patency after angioplasty alone is poor, but secondary patency can be maintained with repeated angioplasty. Stent placement is recommended for quick recurrence or elastic recoil of stenosis. Primary patency of stents is also poor, though covered stents have recently shown better patency than bare metal stents. Secondary patency requires repeated intervention. Recanalization of occluded central veins is tedious and not always successful. Placement of hybrid graft-catheter with a combined endovascular surgical approach can maintain patency in many cases. In the presence of debilitating symptoms, palliative approach with endovascular banding or occlusion of the access may be necessary. Prevention of central vein stenosis is the most desirable strategy.

  10. Prenatal Sonographic Predictors of Neonatal Coarctation of the Aorta.

    PubMed

    Anuwutnavin, Sanitra; Satou, Gary; Chang, Ruey-Kang; DeVore, Greggory R; Abuel, Ashley; Sklansky, Mark

    2016-11-01

    To identify practical prenatal sonographic markers for the postnatal diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. We reviewed the fetal echocardiograms and postnatal outcomes of fetal cases of suspected coarctation of the aorta seen at a single institution between 2010 and 2014. True- and false-positive cases were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine echocardiographic predictors of coarctation of the aorta. Optimal cutoffs for these markers and a multivariable threshold scoring system were derived to discriminate fetuses with coarctation of the aorta from those without coarctation of the aorta. Among 35 patients with prenatal suspicion of coarctation of the aorta, the diagnosis was confirmed postnatally in 9 neonates (25.7% true-positive rate). Significant predictors identified from multivariate analysis were as follows: Z score for the ascending aorta diameter of -2 or less (P = < .001), Z score for the mitral valve annulus of -2 or less (P= .033), Zscore for the transverse aortic arch diameter of -2 or less (P= .028), and abnormal aortic valve morphologic features (P= .026). Among all variables studied, the ascending aortic Z score had the highest sensitivity (78%) and specificity (92%) for detection of coarctation of the aorta. A multivariable threshold scoring system identified fetuses with coarctation of the aorta with still greater sensitivity (89%) and only mildly decreased specificity (88%). The finding of a diminutive ascending aorta represents a powerful and practical prenatal predictor of neonatal coarctation of the aorta. A multivariable scoring system, including dimensions of the ascending and transverse aortas, mitral valve annulus, and morphologic features of the aortic valve, provides excellent sensitivity and specificity. The use of these practical sonographic markers may improve prenatal detection of coarctation of the aorta. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Endovascular treatment of peripheral and visceral arterial injuries in patients with acute trauma.

    PubMed

    Erbahçeci Salık, Aysun; Saçan İslim, Filiz; Çil, Barbaros Erhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study is an evaluation of the efficacy of endovascular treatment in emergency setting for patients with acute peripheral and visceral arterial injury secondary to penetrating or blunt trauma. Twelve patients (11 men) aged 35.8±11.3 years (range: 18-56 years) with penetrating or blunt trauma who underwent endovascular treatment in our department between March 2010 and June 2014 for peripheral and visceral arterial injury were retrospectively reviewed. Selective coil embolization was performed on 11 patients and particle embolization of the injured vessel was performed on 1 patient. Criteria for endovascular treatment included active extravasation or pseudoaneurysm on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and decrease in hemoglobin level or temporary hemodynamic instability. Arterial injuries were secondary to penetrating injury due to gunshot wound in 4 patients and stab wound in 5, and blunt abdominal injury as result of traffic accident in 3 patients. Traumatic lesions were in the right hepatic artery (n=3), left hepatic (n=2), right hepatic and right renal (n=1), left inferior epigastric (n=2), left facial (n=1), anterior tibial (n=1), and deep femoral (n=1) arteries. Technical success with no procedural complications was seen in all cases. Two patients died due to coexisting injuries on 29th and 43rd days of hospitalization. Median hospitalization period was 6.0 days (range: 1-43 days) and mean intensive care unit hospitalization was 7.7 days (range: 0-43 days). In our experience, endovascular treatment was a safe and effective option for acute traumatic peripheral and visceral arterial lesions.

  12. Endovascular Neurosurgery: Personal Experience and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jean

    2016-09-01

    From Luessenhop's early clinical experience until the present day, experimental methods have been introduced to make progress in endovascular neurosurgery. A personal historical narrative, spanning the 1980s to 2010s, with a review of past opportunities, current problems, and future perspectives. Although the technology has significantly improved, our clinical culture remains a barrier to methodologically sound and safe innovative care and progress. We must learn how to safely practice endovascular neurosurgery in the presence of uncertainty and verify patient outcomes in real time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431

  14. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify collagen and elastin in an in vitro model of extracellular matrix degradation in aorta.

    PubMed

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A; Kiani, Mohammad F; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-06-21

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues.

  15. Financial Impact of PEVAR Compared With Standard Endovascular Repair in Canadian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Roche-Nagle, Graham; Hazel, Maureen; Rajan, Dheeraj K

    2018-05-01

    The percutaneous endovascular abdominal aortic repair (PEVAR) approach is a minimally invasive technique that has demonstrated clinical benefit over traditional surgical cut down associated with standard endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR). The objective of our study was to evaluate the budget impact to a Canadian hospital of changing the technique for AAA repair from the EVAR approach to the PEVAR approach. We examined the budget impact of replacing the EVAR approach with the PEVAR approach in a Canadian hospital that performs 100 endovascular AAA repairs annually. The model incorporates the costs associated with surgery, length of stay, and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days. The use of PEVAR in AAA repair is associated with increased access device costs when compared with the EVAR approach (CAD$1000 vs CAD$400). However, AAA repair completed with the PEVAR approach demonstrates reduced operating time (101 minutes vs 133 minutes), length of stay (2.2 days vs 3.5 days), time in the recovery room (174 minutes vs 193 minutes), and postoperative complications (6% vs 30%), which offset the increased device costs. The model establishes that switching to the PEVAR approach in a Canadian hospital performing 100 AAA repairs annually would result in a potential cost avoidance of CAD$245,120. A change in AAA repair technique from EVAR to PEVAR can be a cost-effective solution for Canadian hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The complex aortic abdominal aneurysm: is open surgery old fashion?].

    PubMed

    Saucy, F; Déglise, S; Doenz, F; Dubuis, C; Corpataux, J-M

    2012-06-20

    Open surgery is still the main treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysm. Nevertheless, this approach is associated with major complications and high mortality rate. Therefore the fenestrated endograft has been used to treat the juxtarenal aneurysms. Unfortunately, no randomised controlled study is available to assess the efficacy of such devices. Moreover, the costs are still prohibitive to generalise this approach. Alternative treatments such as chimney or sandwich technique are being evaluated in order to avoid theses disadvantages. The aim of this paper is to present the endovascular approach to treat juxtarenal aneurysm and to emphasize that this option should be used only by highly specialized vascular centres.

  17. Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Young Man with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Maria Weinkouff; Huynh, Khiem Dinh; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are very rare in Marfan syndrome. We present a case with a young nonsmoking and normotensive male with Marfan syndrome, who developed an infrarenal AAA that presented with rupture to the retroperitoneal cavity causing life-threatening bleeding shock. The patient had acute aortic surgery and survived. Five months before this incident, the patient had uneventful elective aortic root replacement (ad modum David) due to an enlarged aortic root. At that time, his abdominal aorta was assessed with a routine ultrasound scan that showed a normal-sized abdominal aorta. This documents that the aneurysm had evolved very rapidly despite young age and absence of risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition. The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases. The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia. Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a stent graft, a procedure called

  19. Feasibility and Proposed Training Pathway for Austere Application of Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliot M; Redman, Theodore T

    Noncompressible junctional and truncal hemorrhage remains a significant cause of combat casualty death. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an effective treatment for many junctional and noncompressible hemorrhages. The current hospital standard for time of placement of REBOA is approximately 6 minutes. This study examined the training process and the ability of nonsurgical physicians to apply REBOA therapy in an austere field environment. This was a skill acquisition and feasibility study. The participants for this experiment were two board-certified military emergency medicine physicians with no prior endovascular surgery exposure. Both providers attended two nationally recognized REBOA courses for training. A perfused cadaver model was developed for the study. Each provider then performed REBOA during different phases of prehospital care. Time points were recorded for each procedure. There were 28 REBOA catheter placement attempts in 14 perfused cadaver models in the nonhospital setting: eight placements in a field setting, eight placements in a static ambulance, four placements in a moving ambulance, and eight placements inflight on a UH-60 aircraft. No statistically significant differences with regard to balloon inflation time were found between the two providers, the side where the catheter was placed, or individual cadaver models. Successful placement was accomplished in 85.7% of the models. Percutaneous access was successful 53.6% of the time. The overall average time for REBOA placement was 543 seconds (i.e., approximately 9 minutes; median, 439 seconds; 95% confidence interval [CI], 429-657) and the average placement time for percutaneous catheters was 376 seconds (i.e., 6.3 minutes; 95% CI, 311-44 seconds) versus those requiring vascular cutdown (821 seconds; 95% CI, 655-986). Importantly, the time from the decision to convert to open cutdown until REBOA placement was 455 seconds (95% CI, 285-625). This study demonstrated

  20. Tuberculous abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm with renal and vertebral tuberculosis: a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Bing; Gu, Yongquan; Luo, Tao; Yang, Shengjia; Liang, Weitao; Wang, Zhonggao

    2014-09-12

    Tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the aorta is rare and exposes patients to a very high risk of unpredictable rupture. To our best knowledge, only 32 cases have been reported related to all arterial systems from 1993 to 2013 in the literature. We report a 44-year-old male who presented with an aortic pseudoaneurysm and tuberculosis of the kidney and vertebrae. He underwent endovascular repair and antibiotic therapy for tuberculosis, combined with a bare stent implanted to seal endoleaks after endograft stenting. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient recovered and lived well afterwards. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, management, and mortality of this entity were reviewed and discussed.

  1. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  2. Endovascular treatment of false-aneurysm ten years after dacron patch aortoplasty for coarctation of the aortic isthmus. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    False aneurysm degeneration is a known complication of patch aortoplasty for coarctation of the aortic isthmus. Open surgical treatment consists of prosthetic graft repair of the involved aorta, often requires circulatory arrest to achieve a safe proximal aortic control and perform proximal anastomosis, and finally is associated with substantial perioperative morbidity. Endografting of the diseased aorta is a valuable alternative to open repair, when feasible, with good short and long term results. We now report one more case of false aneurysm ten years after Dacron patch aortoplasty for isthmic coarctation in a 26-year-old woman, successfully treated by endovascular repair via the left common iliac artery, and a complete exclusion of the aneurysm at two year follow-up.

  3. Mechanical deterioration underlies malignant behavior of aneurysmal human ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Koullias, George; Modak, Raj; Tranquilli, Maryann; Korkolis, Dimitris P; Barash, Paul; Elefteriades, John A

    2005-09-01

    The human ascending aorta becomes markedly prone to rupture and dissection at a diameter of 6 cm. The mechanical substrate for this malignant behavior is unknown. This investigation applied engineering analysis to human ascending aortic aneurysms and compared their structural characteristics with those of normal aortas. We measured the mechanical characteristics of the aorta by direct epiaortic echocardiography at the time of surgery in 33 patients with ascending aortic aneurysm undergoing aortic replacement and in 20 control patients with normal aortas undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Six parameters were measured in all patients: aortic diameter in systole and diastole, aortic wall thickness in systole and diastole, and blood pressure in systole and diastole. These were used to calculate mechanical characteristics of the aorta from standard equations. Aortic distensibility reflects the elastic qualities of the aorta. Aortic wall stress reflects the disrupting force experienced within the aortic wall. Incremental elastic modulus indicates loss of elasticity reserve. Aortic distensibility falls to extremely low levels as aortic dimension rises toward 6 cm (3.02 mm Hg(-1) for small aortas versus 1.45 mm Hg(-1) for aortas larger than 5 cm, P < .05). Aortic wall stress rises to 157.8 kPa for the aneurysmal aorta, compared with 92.5 kPa for normal aortas. For 6-cm aortas at pressures of 200 mm Hg or more, wall stress rises to 857 kPa, nearly exceeding the known maximal tensile strength of human aneurysmal aortic wall. Incremental elastic modulus deteriorates (1.93 +/- 0.88 MPa vs 1.18 +/- 0.21 MPa, P < .05) in aneurysmal aortas relative to that in normal aortas. The mechanical properties of the aneurysmal aorta deteriorate dramatically as the aorta enlarges, reaching critical levels associated with rupture by a diameter of 6 cm. This mechanical deterioration provides an explanation in engineering terms for the malignant clinical behavior (rupture and

  4. Thrombus formation in the interrupted segment of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Karavelioğlu, Yusuf; Kalçık, Macit; Yetim, Mucahit; Doğan, Tolga; Gölbaşı, Zehra

    2017-06-01

    Interrupted aorta is a very rare heart defect in which there is a gap between the ascending and the descending thoracic aorta. It is usually associated with other cardiac anomalies, including ventricular septal defect, ductus arteriosus, and truncus arteriosus. Severe cases present with serious complications such as hypertension, heart failure, or intracranial hemorrhage. Neurological complications are very rare form of presentation and commonly associated with intracranial aneurysms. We have reported a case of interrupted aorta who presented with transient ischemic attack due to thrombus formation in the interrupted segment of the aorta. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Penetrating injury of ascending aorta with arrow in situ.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Siddharth; Prakash, Shashi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Panigrahi, Debasish

    2012-04-01

    Penetrating injuries of the aorta are rare and highly lethal; very few patients are able to reach the hospital alive. We report a case of penetrating injury into the ascending aorta with the arrow still in situ, shot by a bow in a tribal region of India. The wound of entry into the aorta was sealed by the arrow itself. The patient came to us walking and supporting the arrow with his left hand. He was operated on, and the arrow was successfully removed from the aorta. Copyright