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Sample records for abdominal aortic aneurysm

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem include: Smoking High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most ... body from an aortic aneurysm, you will need surgery right away. If the aneurysm is small and ...

  2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: abdominal aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain, ...

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque buildup causes the walls of the abdominal aorta to become weak and bulge outward like a ... treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, is a ...

  4. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M.; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016

  5. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: An update

    PubMed

    Chuen, Jason; Theivendran, Mayo

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains one of the hallmark pathologies in vascular surgery and an area of intense research interest. Treatment options have expanded in recent years to increase the range of morphology suitable for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and with potential implications on treatment thresholds. This article is the first of two that will outline current treatment options for AAA, including areas of controversy and research in AAA disease, to inform the development of Australasian clinical guidelines and health policy. Medical therapy options remain limited and no aneurysm-specific pharmacotherapy is currently available. Recent years have witnessed a significant shift in AAA surgery from open repair to EVAR and expansion of EVAR techniques. General management of cardiovascular risk factors remains key to reducing all-cause mortality for patients with AAA.

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open ... Open surgery to repair an AAA is sometimes done as an emergency procedure when there is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  8. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  9. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  10. Medical Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, B. Timothy; Terrin, Michael C.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of detection. A number of studies have sought to determine factors that lead to progression of aneurysmal disease that might be amenable to intervention during this period of observation. We review these studies and make recommendations for the medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis of our current knowledge of the causes of aneurysm, a number of approaches have been proposed to prevent progression of aneurysmal disease. These include hemodynamic management, inhibition of inflammation, and protease inhibition. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines rules of evidence have helped to define strength of evidence to support these approaches. Level A evidence (from large randomized trials) is available to indicate that observation of small aneurysms in men is safe up to a size of 5.5 cm and that propranolol does not inhibit aneurysm expansion. Level B evidence (from small randomized trials) suggests that roxithromycin or doxycycline will decrease the rate of aneurysm expansion. A number of studies agree that tobacco use is associated with an increased rate of aneurysm expansion. Level B and C evidence is available to suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may inhibit aneurysm expansion. There are animal data but no human data demonstrating that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, will decrease the rate of AAA expansion. A pharmacological agent without important side effects that inhibited aneurysm expansion could change

  11. Genes and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2011-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since the first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, approximately 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. These studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, only when appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called contactin-3, which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. However, two follow-up studies could not replicate this association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33, were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense ribonucleic acid that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute toward AAA pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  13. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.

  15. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Boese, Austin C; Chang, Lin; Yin, Ke-Jie; Chen, Y Eugene; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Hamblin, Milton H

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disorder with a high case fatality rate in the instance of rupture. AAA is a multifactorial disease, and the etiology is still not fully understood. AAA is more likely to occur in men, but women have a greater risk of rupture and worse prognosis. Women are reportedly protected against AAA possibly by premenopausal levels of estrogen and are, on average, diagnosed at older ages than men. Here, we review the present body of research on AAA pathophysiology in humans, animal models, and cultured cells, with an emphasis on sex differences and sex steroid hormone signaling.

  16. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.

    1999-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135

  17. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Novel Mechanisms and Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Frank M.; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition of permanent dilation that portends the potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. This review emphasizes recent advances in mechanistic insight into aneurysm pathogenesis and potential pharmacologic therapies that are on the horizon for AAAs. Recent Findings An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic factors, including 3p12.3, DAB2IP, LDLr, LRP1, MMP3, TGFβR2 and SORT1 loci, are associated with AAA development. Current human studies and animal models have shown that many leukocytes and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-17, TGF-β and angiotensin II, are involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. Leukocytic infiltration into aortic media leads to smooth muscle cell depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and extracellular matrix fragmentation. Recent preclinical investigations into pharmacological therapies for AAAs have provided intriguing insight for roles of microRNAs to regulate many pathological pathways in AAA development. Several large clinical trials are ongoing seeking to translate preclinical findings into therapeutic options. Summary Recent studies have identified many potential mechanisms involved in AAA pathogenesis that provide insight for the development of a medical treatment for this disease. PMID:26352243

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: novel mechanisms and therapies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frank M; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological condition of permanent dilation that portends the potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. This review emphasizes recent advances in mechanistic insight into aneurysm pathogenesis and potential pharmacologic therapies that are on the horizon for AAAs. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that genetic factors, including 3p12.3, DAB2IP, LDLr, LRP1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, TGFBR2, and SORT1 loci, are associated with AAA development. Current human studies and animal models have shown that many leukocytes and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-17, TGF-β, and angiotensin II, are involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs. Leukocytic infiltration into aortic media leads to smooth muscle cell depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and extracellular matrix fragmentation. Preclinical investigations into pharmacological therapies for AAAs have provided intriguing insight into the roles of microRNAs in regulating many pathological pathways in AAA development. Several large clinical trials are ongoing, seeking to translate preclinical findings into therapeutic options. Recent studies have identified many potential mechanisms involved in AAA pathogenesis that provide insight into the development of a medical treatment for this disease.

  19. Common iliac artery aneurysms in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Armon, M P; Wenham, P W; Whitaker, S C; Gregson, R H; Hopkinson, B R

    1998-03-01

    To determine the incidence of common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and to evaluate the relationship between AAA and CIA diameter. Spiral CT angiography was used to measure the maximum diameters of the abdominal aorta and the common iliac arteries of 215 patients with AAA. The median CIA diameter was 1.7 cm--significantly greater than the published mean of 1.25 (2 S.D. = 0.85-1.65) cm of an age-matched, non-vascular population. Thirty-four patients (16%) had unilateral and 26 patients (12%) bilateral CIA aneurysms > or = 2.4 cm diameter. Eight-six vessels (20%) were affected. Right CIA diameters were wider than left CIA diameters (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test). The correlation between AAA size and CIA diameter was weak. The AAA population has abnormally dilated common iliac arteries. In this population, common iliac artery aneurysms should be defined as those greater than 2.4 cm diameter. 20% of CIAs in patients with AAA are aneurysmal according to this definition.

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm neck remodeling after open aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Falkensammer, Juergen; Oldenburg, W Andrew; Biebl, Matthias; Hugl, Beate; Hakaim, Albert G; Crook, Julia E; Berland, Todd L; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo

    2007-05-01

    Proximal endovascular aortic graft fixation and maintenance of hemostatic seal depends on the long-term stability of the aortic neck. Previous investigations of aortic neck dilation mostly focused on the infrarenal aortic diameter. Fenestrated and branched stent grafts facilitate suprarenal graft fixation and may thereby improve the long-term integrity of the aortic attachment site. For these devices, the natural history of the suprarenal aortic segment is also of interest. We investigated the natural history of the supra- and infrarenal aortic segment after open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. For this retrospective analysis, we reviewed the preoperative and the initial postoperative as well as the most recent CT series that were obtained from 52 patients undergoing conventional repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm between January 1998 and December 2002. Measurements were performed using electronic calipers on a "split screen", allowing direct comparison of subsequent CT series at corresponding levels along the vessel. Main outcome measures were changes in postoperative measures of the supra- and infrarenal aortic diameters. The first postoperative exam was at a mean (+/-SD) of 7.0 +/- 3.5 months, and the final exams were at 44.4 +/- 21 months. Over this time period, the estimated rate of change in suprarenal diameter was 0.18 mm/ y with 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.08 to 0.27. The estimated rate of change for the infrarenal diameter was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.27). A clinically relevant diameter increase of >or=3 mm was observed in seven patients (13%). There was evidence of larger diameter increases associated with larger AAA diameters (P = .003 and <.001 for suprarenal and infrarenal diameters), an inverted funnel shape (P = .002 and <.001), and marginal evidence of association with a history of inguinal hernia (P = .043 and .066). Although there is statistically significant evidence of increases in the supra- and infrarenal aortic

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Evolving Controversies and Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Carino, Davide; Sarac, Timur P; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as a permanent dilatation of the abdominal aorta that exceeds 3 cm. Most AAAs arise in the portion of abdominal aorta distal to the renal arteries and are defined as infrarenal. Most AAAs are totally asymptomatic until catastrophic rupture. The strongest predictor of AAA rupture is the diameter. Surgery is indicated to prevent rupture when the risk of rupture exceeds the risk of surgery. In this review, we aim to analyze this disease comprehensively, starting from an epidemiological perspective, exploring etiology and pathophysiology, and concluding with surgical controversies. We will pursue these goals by addressing eight specific questions regarding AAA: (1) Is the incidence of AAA increasing? (2) Are ultrasound screening programs for AAA effective? (3) What causes AAA: Genes versus environment? (4) Animal models: Are they really relevant? (5) What pathophysiology leads to AAA? (6) Indications for AAA surgery: Are surgeons over-eager to operate? (7) Elective AAA repair: Open or endovascular? (8) Emergency AAA repair: Open or endovascular?

  2. Molecular Imaging of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Aneesh K.; Hamilton, Mark; Joshi, Rucha V.; Kline, Benjamin P.; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Goergen, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Current laboratory research in the field of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease often utilizes small animal experimental models induced by genetic manipulation or chemical application. This has led to the use and development of multiple high-resolution molecular imaging modalities capable of tracking disease progression, quantifying the role of inflammation, and evaluating the effects of potential therapeutics. In vivo imaging reduces the number of research animals used, provides molecular and cellular information, and allows for longitudinal studies, a necessity when tracking vessel expansion in a single animal. This review outlines developments of both established and emerging molecular imaging techniques used to study AAA disease. Beyond the typical modalities used for anatomical imaging, which include ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), previous molecular imaging efforts have used magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), bioluminescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Mouse and rat AAA models will hopefully provide insight into potential disease mechanisms, and the development of advanced molecular imaging techniques, if clinically useful, may have translational potential. These efforts could help improve the management of aneurysms and better evaluate the therapeutic potential of new treatments for human AAA disease. PMID:23737735

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  4. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... or even death. Most aneurysms are in the aorta, the main artery that runs from the heart ... TAA) - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) - ...

  5. Epidemiology and contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Hallett, Richard L; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is most commonly defined as a maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta in excess of 3 cm in either anterior-posterior or transverse planes or, alternatively, as a focal dilation ≥ 1.5 times the diameter of the normal adjacent arterial segment. Risk factors for the development of AAA include age > 60, tobacco use, male gender, Caucasian race, and family history of AAA. Aneurysm growth and rupture risk appear to be associated with persistent tobacco use, female gender, and chronic pulmonary disease. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and detected incidentally on various imaging studies, including abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomographic angiography. Symptoms associated with AAA may include abdominal or back pain, thromboembolization, atheroembolization, aortic rupture, or development of an arteriovenous or aortoenteric fistula. The Screening Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Efficiently (SAAAVE) Act provides coverage for a one-time screening abdominal ultrasound at age 65 for men who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes and women who have family history of AAA disease. Medical management is recommended for asymptomatic patients with AAAs < 5 cm in diameter and focuses on modifiable risk factors, including smoking cessation and blood pressure control. Primary indications for intervention in patients with AAA include development of symptoms, rupture, rapid aneurysm growth (> 5 mm/6 months), or presence of a fusiform aneurysm with maximum diameter of 5.5 cm or greater. Intervention for AAA includes conventional open surgical repair and endovascular aortic stent graft repair.

  6. Understanding administrative abdominal aortic aneurysm mortality data.

    PubMed

    Hussey, K; Siddiqui, T; Burton, P; Welch, G H; Stuart, W P

    2015-03-01

    Administrative data in the form of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) have been used to describe surgical activity. These data have also been used to compare outcomes from different hospitals and regions, and to corroborate data submitted to national audits and registries. The aim of this observational study was to examine the completeness and accuracy of administrative data relating to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Administrative data (SMR-01 returns) from a single health board relating to AAA repair were requested (September 2007 to August 2012). A complete list of validated procedures; termed the reference data set was compiled from all available sources (clinical and administrative). For each patient episode electronic health records were scrutinised to confirm urgency of admission, diagnosis, and operative repair. The 30-day mortality was recorded. The reference data set was used to systematically validate the SMR-01 returns. The reference data set contained 608 verified procedures. SMR-01 returns identified 2433 episodes of care (1724 patients) in which a discharge diagnosis included AAA. This included 574 operative repairs. There were 34 missing cases (5.6%) from SMR-01 returns; nine of these patients died within 30 days of the index procedure. Omission of these cases made a statistically significant improvement to perceived 30-day mortality (p < .05, chi-square test). If inconsistent SMR-01 data (in terms of ICD-10 and OPCS-4 codes) were excluded only 81.9% of operative repairs were correctly identified and only 30.9% of deaths were captured. The SMR-01 returns contain multiple errors. There also appears to be a systematic bias that reduces apparent 30-day mortality. Using these data alone to describe or compare activity or outcomes must be done with caution. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm therapy - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stoberock, Konstanze; Kölbel, Tilo; Atlihan, Gülsen; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Behrendt, Christian Alexander; Wipper, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent gender differences exist in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) therapy. For this purpose Medline (PubMed) was searched from January 1999 to January 2018. Keywords were: "abdominal aortic aneurysm", "gender", "prevalence", "EVAR", and "open surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm". Regardless of open or endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, women have a higher rate of complications and longer hospitalizations compared to men. The majority of studies showed that women have a lower survival rate for surgical and endovascular treatment of abdominal aneurysms after both elective and emergency interventions. Women receive less surgical/interventional and protective medical treatment. Women seem to have a higher risk of rupture, a lower survival rate in AAA, and a higher rate of complications, regardless of endovascular or open treatment. The gender differences may be due to a higher age of women at diagnosis and therapy associated with higher comorbidity, but also because of genetic, hormonal, anatomical, biological, and socio-cultural differences. Strategies for treatment in female patients must be further defined to optimize outcome.

  8. Mortality outcomes of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and rural presentation.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily; Walker, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    Centralisation of vascular surgery services has coincided with a move towards endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with the goal to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rural presentation and transfer times on survival from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A retrospective review. All patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to public hospitals in Tasmania between July 2006 and April 2013. Demographic data, Glasgow aneurysm score, Hardman index, transfer times, operative technique and 30-day mortality were collected from medical records. Over the study period 127 patients presented to public hospitals in Tasmania with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A total of 27 presented to north west hospitals where no vascular surgery service is provided (NWRH), 23 to a northern hospital where an intermittent vascular surgery service is provided (LGH) and 77 to the state tertiary vascular surgery service (RHH). Of these, 4 (14.8%) died at NWRH, 6 (26.1%) died at LGH and 43 (55.8%) died at RHH without operation. Of the 35 patients transferred from NWRH and LGH to RHH, 5 died without operation. Median time from presentation to theatre at RHH if transferred from NWRH was 6.25 hours, from the LGH 4.75 hours, compared to 2.75 hours when presenting directly to RHH. Open repair was performed in 41 patients and endovascular repair in 23 patients. Overall 30-day mortality in those treated at RHH was 26.6% (39.0% for open repair, 4.3% for endovascular repair). Mortality for intended operative patients initially presenting to non-RHH hospitals was 33.3% vs. 32.3% for those initially presenting to RHH. p Value 0.93. There was no clinical or statistical disadvantage to rural presentation and transfer for patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Tasmania. Endovascular repair has a role despite long transfer times. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Does specialization improve outcome in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Rachel; von Känel, Oliver; Eugster, Thomas; Stierli, Peter; Gürke, Lorenz

    2005-01-01

    Specialization and high volume are reported to be related to a better outcome after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The aim of this study was to compare, in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, the outcomes of those whose surgery was done by general surgeons with the outcomes of those whose surgery was done by specialist vascular surgeons. All patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair at the Basel University Hospital (referral center) from January 1990 to December 2000 were included. Patients with endovascular treatment were excluded. Operations in group A (n = 189), between January 1990 and May 1995, were done by general surgeons. Operations in group B (n = 291), between June 1995 and December 2000, were done by vascular surgeons. In-hospital mortality and local and systemic complications were assessed. In-hospital mortality rates were significantly lower for group B (with specialist surgeons) than for group A, both overall (group B, 11.7%; group A, 21.7%; p = .003) and for emergency interventions (group B, 28.1%; group A, 41.9%; p = .042). The reduction in mortality for elective surgery in group B was not statistically significant (group B, 1.1%; group A, 4.9%; p = .054). There were significantly fewer pulmonary complications in group B compared with group A (p = .000). We conclude that in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, those whose surgery is done by a specialized team have a significantly better outcome than those whose surgery is done by general surgeons.

  10. [The complex aortic abdominal aneurysm: is open surgery old fashion?].

    PubMed

    Saucy, F; Déglise, S; Doenz, F; Dubuis, C; Corpataux, J-M

    2012-06-20

    Open surgery is still the main treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysm. Nevertheless, this approach is associated with major complications and high mortality rate. Therefore the fenestrated endograft has been used to treat the juxtarenal aneurysms. Unfortunately, no randomised controlled study is available to assess the efficacy of such devices. Moreover, the costs are still prohibitive to generalise this approach. Alternative treatments such as chimney or sandwich technique are being evaluated in order to avoid theses disadvantages. The aim of this paper is to present the endovascular approach to treat juxtarenal aneurysm and to emphasize that this option should be used only by highly specialized vascular centres.

  11. Aortic outflow occlusion predicts rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey D; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Haller, Stephen; Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Bohannan, Colin J; Moneta, Gregory L; Rugonyi, Sandra; Azarbal, Amir F

    2016-12-01

    Current threshold recommendations for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair are based solely on maximal AAA diameter. Peak wall stress (PWS) has been demonstrated to be a better predictor than AAA diameter of AAA rupture risk. However, PWS calculations are time-intensive, not widely available, and therefore not yet clinically practical. In addition, PWS analysis does not account for variations in wall strength between patients. We therefore sought to identify surrogate clinical markers of increased PWS and decreased aortic wall strength to better predict AAA rupture risk. Patients treated at our institution from 2001 to 2014 for ruptured AAA (rAAA) were retrospectively identified and grouped into patients with small rAAA (maximum diameter <6 cm) or large rAAA (>6 cm). Patients with large (>6 cm) non-rAAA were also identified sequentially from 2009 for comparison. Demographics, vascular risk factors, maximal aortic diameter, and aortic outflow occlusion (AOO) were recorded. AOO was defined as complete occlusion of the common, internal, or external iliac artery. Computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis simulations were performed to calculate wall stress distributions and to extract PWS. We identified 61 patients with rAAA, of which 15 ruptured with AAA diameter <60 mm (small rAAA group). Patients with small rAAAs were more likely to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than were patients in the large non-rAAA group. Patients with small rAAAs were also more likely to have AOO compared with non-rAAAs >60 mm (27% vs 8%; P = .047). Among all patients with rAAAs, those with AOO ruptured at smaller mean AAA diameters than in patients without AOO (62.1 ± 11.8 mm vs 72.5 ± 16.4 mm; P = .024). PWS calculations of a representative small rAAA and a large non-rAAA showed a substantial increase in PWS with AOO. We demonstrate that AOO, PAD, and COPD in AAA are associated with rAAAs at

  12. Update on the prevention of death from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Jacomelli, Jo; Summers, Lisa; Stevenson, Anne; Lees, Tim; Earnshaw, Jonothan J

    2017-09-01

    Objectives To monitor the early effect of a national population screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in 65-year-old men. Setting The study used national statistics for death rates from abdominal aortic aneurysm (Office of National Statistics) and hospital admission data in England (Hospital Episode Statistics). Methods Information concerning deaths from abdominal aortic aneurysm (ruptured and non-ruptured) (1999-2014) and hospital admissions for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (2000-2015) was examined. Results The absolute number of deaths from abdominal aortic aneurysm in men and women aged 65 and over has decreased by around 30% from 2001 to 2014, but as the population has increased, the relative reduction was 45.6% and 40.0%, respectively. Some 65% of all abdominal aortic aneurysm deaths are in men aged over 65; women aged 65 and over account for around 31%. Deaths from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in men aged 60-74 (the screened group) appear to be declining at the same rate as in men aged 75 and over. The relative decline in admissions to hospital with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm may be greater in men and women aged 60-74 (which contains the screened group of men), than those older, giving the first possible evidence that abdominal aortic aneurysm screening is having an effect. Conclusion The death rate from abdominal aortic aneurysm is declining rapidly in England. There is the first evidence that screening may be contributing to this reduction.

  13. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  14. Current Trends in the Management of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Harris, K.A.; Ameli, F. Michael; Louis, E.L. St.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm has undergone dramatic changes over the last three decades. More sophisticated diagnostic techniques have allowed early elective repair to be carried out. Improvement has resulted in both morbidity and mortality rates. Investigations such as ultrasound, computerized tomographic scanning and arteriography allow easy confirmation of the diagnosis of aortic aneurysms and permit a better assessment of the extent prior to surgical intervention. Improvement in the pre-operative management, particularly in relation to cardiac, renal, and pulmonary disease, has led to greatly improved results. The most important change in surgical technique has been repair of the aneurysm rather than resection. Combined with better post-operative intensive care units, this development has contributed to the improved morbidity and mortality rates. Although the complication rate of elective repair is low, the major cause of death remains myocardial infarction. As a result of all these improvements, indication for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has been extended to patients over the age of 80. Following surgical repair, most patients can be expected to return to normal lifestyles and lifespans. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21263973

  15. Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair.

    PubMed

    2017-08-29

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) detect cellular inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, we assessed whether USPIO-enhanced MRI can predict aneurysm growth rates and clinical outcomes. In a prospective multicenter open-label cohort study, 342 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (diameter ≥40 mm) were classified by the presence of USPIO enhancement and were monitored with serial ultrasound and clinical follow-up for ≥2 years. The primary end point was the composite of aneurysm rupture or repair. Participants (85% male, 73.1±7.2 years) had a baseline aneurysm diameter of 49.6±7.7 mm, and USPIO enhancement was identified in 146 (42.7%) participants, absent in 191 (55.8%), and indeterminant in 5 (1.5%). During follow-up (1005±280 days), 17 (5.0%) abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared with those without uptake, patients with USPIO enhancement have increased rates of aneurysm expansion (3.1±2.5 versus 2.5±2.4 mm/year, P =0.0424), although this was not independent of current smoking habit ( P =0.1993). Patients with USPIO enhancement had higher rates of aneurysm rupture or repair (47.3% versus 35.6%; 95% confidence intervals, 1.1-22.2; P =0.0308). This finding was similar for each component of rupture (6.8% versus 3.7%, P =0.1857) or repair (41.8% versus 32.5%, P =0.0782). USPIO enhancement was associated with reduced event-free survival for aneurysm rupture or repair ( P =0.0275), all-cause mortality ( P =0.0635), and aneurysm-related mortality ( P =0.0590). Baseline abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter ( P <0.0001) and current smoking habit ( P =0.0446) also predicted the primary outcome, and the addition of USPIO enhancement to the multivariate model did not improve event prediction (c-statistic, 0.7935-0.7936). USPIO-enhanced MRI is a novel approach to the identification of aortic wall

  16. Aortic Wall Inflammation Predicts Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion, Rupture, and Need for Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) detect cellular inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, we assessed whether USPIO-enhanced MRI can predict aneurysm growth rates and clinical outcomes. Methods In a prospective multicenter open-label cohort study, 342 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (diameter ≥40 mm) were classified by the presence of USPIO enhancement and were monitored with serial ultrasound and clinical follow-up for ≥2 years. The primary end point was the composite of aneurysm rupture or repair. Results Participants (85% male, 73.1±7.2 years) had a baseline aneurysm diameter of 49.6±7.7 mm, and USPIO enhancement was identified in 146 (42.7%) participants, absent in 191 (55.8%), and indeterminant in 5 (1.5%). During follow-up (1005±280 days), 17 (5.0%) abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures, 126 (36.8%) abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, and 48 (14.0%) deaths occurred. Compared with those without uptake, patients with USPIO enhancement have increased rates of aneurysm expansion (3.1±2.5 versus 2.5±2.4 mm/year, P=0.0424), although this was not independent of current smoking habit (P=0.1993). Patients with USPIO enhancement had higher rates of aneurysm rupture or repair (47.3% versus 35.6%; 95% confidence intervals, 1.1–22.2; P=0.0308). This finding was similar for each component of rupture (6.8% versus 3.7%, P=0.1857) or repair (41.8% versus 32.5%, P=0.0782). USPIO enhancement was associated with reduced event-free survival for aneurysm rupture or repair (P=0.0275), all-cause mortality (P=0.0635), and aneurysm-related mortality (P=0.0590). Baseline abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter (P<0.0001) and current smoking habit (P=0.0446) also predicted the primary outcome, and the addition of USPIO enhancement to the multivariate model did not improve event prediction (c-statistic, 0.7935–0.7936). Conclusions USPIO-enhanced MRI is a novel approach to the

  17. Association between osteopontin and human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Muller, Juanita; Shephard, Neil; Clancy, Paula; Smallwood, Linda; Moran, Corey; Dear, Anthony E; Palmer, Lyle J; Norman, Paul E

    2007-03-01

    In vitro and animal studies have implicated osteopontin (OPN) in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm. The relationship between serum concentration of OPN and variants of the OPN gene with human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was investigated. OPN genotypes were examined in 4227 subjects in which aortic diameter and clinical risk factors were measured. Serum OPN was measured by ELISA in two cohorts of 665 subjects. The concentration of serum OPN was independently associated with the presence of AAA. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for upper compared with lower OPN tertiles in predicting presence of AAA were 2.23 (1.29 to 3.85, P=0.004) for the population cohort and 4.08 (1.67 to 10.00, P=0.002) for the referral cohort after adjusting for other risk factors. In 198 patients with complete follow-up of aortic diameter at 3 years, initial serum OPN predicted AAA growth after adjustment for other risk factors (standardized coefficient 0.24, P=0.001). The concentration of OPN in the aortic wall was greater in patients with small AAAs (30 to 50 mm) than those with aortic occlusive disease alone. There was no association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of the OPN gene and aortic diameter or AAA expansion. Serum and tissue concentrations of OPN are associated with human AAA. We found no relationship between variation of the OPN gene and AAA. OPN may be a useful biomarker for AAA presence and growth.

  18. Microarray analysis to identify the similarities and differences of pathogenesis between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guofu; Bi, Lechang; Wang, Gaofeng; Huang, Feilai; Lu, Mingjing; Zhu, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Expression profile of GSE57691 was analyzed to identify the similarities and differences between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods The expression profile of GSE57691 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 20 small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 29 large abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 9 aortic occlusive disease samples, and 10 control samples. Using the limma package in R, the differentially expressed genes were screened. Followed by enrichment analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery online tool. Based on string online tool and Cytoscape software, protein-protein interaction network and module analyses were carried out. Moreover, integrated TF platform database and Cytoscape software were used for constructing transcriptional regulatory networks. Results As a result, 1757, 354, and 396 differentially expressed genes separately were identified in aortic occlusive disease, large abdominal aortic aneurysm, and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples. UBB was significantly enriched in proteolysis related pathways with a high degree in three groups. SPARCL1 was another gene shared by these groups and regulated by NFIA, which had a high degree in transcriptional regulatory network. ACTB, a significant upregulated gene in abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, could be regulated by CLIC4, which was significantly enriched in cell motions. ACLY and NFIB were separately identified in aortic occlusive disease and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, and separately enriched in lipid metabolism and negative regulation of cell proliferation. Conclusions The downregulated UBB, NFIA, and SPARCL1 might play key roles in both aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, while the upregulated ACTB might only involve in abdominal aortic aneurysm. ACLY and NFIB were specifically involved in aortic occlusive

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: pre- and post-procedural imaging.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Richard L; Ullery, Brant W; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relatively common, potentially life-threatening disorder. Rupture of AAA is potentially catastrophic with high mortality. Intervention for AAA is indicated when the aneurysm reaches 5.0-5.5 cm or more, when symptomatic, or when increasing in size > 10 mm/year. AAA can be accurately assessed by cross-sectional imaging including computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. Current options for intervention in AAA patients include open surgery and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), with EVAR becoming more prevalent over time. Cross-sectional imaging plays a crucial role in AAA surveillance, pre-procedural assessment, and post-EVAR management. This paper will discuss the current role of imaging in the assessment of AAA patients prior to intervention, in evaluation of procedural complications, and in long-term follow-up of EVAR patients.

  20. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, e.g., inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in AAA morbidity and mortality. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) magnetic resonance imaging are two novel approaches to AAA imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (e.g., integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of AAA and show great potential for clinical translation. PMID:26763279

  1. The effect of flow recirculation on abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taib, Ishkrizat; Amirnordin, Shahrin Hisham; Madon, Rais Hanizam; Mustafa, Norrizal; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    The presences of flow recirculation at the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) region yield the unpredictable failure of aneurismal wall. The failure of the aneurismal wall is closely related to the hemodynamic factor. Hemodynamic factor such as pressure and velocity distribution play a significance role of aneurysm growth and rupture. By using the computational approach, the influence of hemodynamic factor is investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method on the virtual AAA model. The virtual 3D AAAs model was reconstructed from Spiral Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan). The blood flow is assumed as being transient, laminar and Newtonian within a rigid section of the vessel. The blood flow also driven by an imposed of pressure gradient in the form of physiological waveform. The pulsating blood flow is also considered in this simulation. The results on pressure distribution and velocity profile are analyzed to interpret the behaviour of flow recirculation. The results show the forming of vortices is seen at the aneurysm bulge. This vortices is form at the aneurysm region then destroyed rapidly by flow recirculation. Flow recirculation is point out much higher at distal end of aneurysm closed to iliac bifurcation. This phenomenon is managed to increase the possibility of aneurysm growth and rupture.

  2. Prevalence of Synchronous and Metachronous Aneurysms in Women With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wallinder, Jonas; Georgiou, Anna; Wanhainen, Anders; Björck, Martin

    2018-06-20

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is three to five times more common among men compared with women, yet up to 38% of all aneurysm related deaths affect women. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of synchronous or metachronous aneurysms among women with AAA, as diagnosis and treatment could improve survival. This is a retrospective study of prospectively registered patients. All women operated on, or under surveillance for, AAA were identified at two Swedish hospitals. Aneurysms in different locations were identified using available imaging studies. Aneurysms were defined according to location: thoracic ascending aorta ≥42 mm, descending ≥33 mm, abdominal aorta ≥30 mm, common iliac artery ≥20 mm or 50% wider than the contralateral artery, common femoral artery ≥12 mm, popliteal artery ≥10 mm. A total of 339 women with an AAA were included. The median follow up was 2.8 (range 0-15.7) years. Thirty-one per cent had an aneurysm in the thoracic aorta (67 of 217 investigated, 84% were located in the descending aorta), 13 (19%) underwent repair. Twelve per cent had a common iliac artery aneurysm (24/259, 76% were investigated). Common femoral artery aneurysms were identified in 4.3% (8/184, 54% investigated). Popliteal artery aneurysms were identified in 4.0% (6/149, 44% investigated). The prevalence of infrainguinal aneurysms was higher among patients with synchronous iliac aneurysms (40% vs. 1.6%, OR 42, 95% CI 6.4-279, p < .001). Thoracic aortic aneurysms are common among women with AAA, most commonly affecting the descending aorta, and detection frequently results in repair. Popliteal and femoral aneurysms are not rare among women with AAA, and even common if there is a synchronous iliac aneurysm. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ishibash@aichi-med-u.ac.j; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg,more » 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.« less

  4. Experience with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Palchik, Eugene; Carroccio, Alfio; Olin, Jeffrey W; Ellozy, Sharif H; Jacobs, Tikva S; Ponzio, Marc M; Teodorescu, Victoria J; Marin, Michael L

    2006-06-01

    To report a single-institution experience with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) in nonagenarians. A retrospective review was performed of all patients >90 years old undergoing EVAR over an 8-year period at a major academic medical center. The patient population was investigated for the presence of various comorbidities, initial aneurysm size, successful aneurysm exclusion, perioperative complications, disposition, endoleaks, secondary interventions, and overall survival. EVAR was performed in 18 male nonagenarians (mean age 92.4 years, range 90- 95). Mean aneurysm diameter was 7.3 cm (range 5.5-9.8). The cohort had an average of 3.2 comorbid conditions. Sixteen patients were treated electively, while 2 patients underwent emergent repair for contained rupture and bleeding aortoenteric fistula, respectively. Immediate technical success was 100%. Perioperative local/vascular complications occurred in 4 (22%) patients. Perioperative systemic complications occurred in 3 (17%) patients. There were 2 (11%) perioperative (<30 days) deaths. Three (17%) patients required secondary interventions. Mean survival in patients who expired during the follow-up period beyond the first 30 days was 34 months (range 8-78). Mean survival in 8 patients who are still alive is 17.4 months (range 9-39). Endovascular AAA repair in nonagenarians is associated with a high rate of technical success and relatively low morbidity rate. Survival times following successful hospital discharge are significant. Suitable patients over 90 years of age may benefit from an endovascular AAA repair.

  5. Animal models in the research of abdominal aortic aneurysms development.

    PubMed

    Patelis, N; Moris, D; Schizas, D; Damaskos, C; Perrea, D; Bakoyiannis, C; Liakakos, T; Georgopoulos, S

    2017-12-20

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent and potentially life threatening disease. Many animal models have been developed to simulate the natural history of the disease or test preclinical endovascular devices and surgical procedures. The aim of this review is to describe different methods of AAA induction in animal models and report on the effectiveness of the methods described in inducing an analogue of a human AAA. The PubMed database was searched for publications with titles containing the following terms "animal" or "animal model(s)" and keywords "research", "aneurysm(s)", "aorta", "pancreatic elastase", "Angiotensin", "AngII" "calcium chloride" or "CaCl(2)". Starting date for this search was set to 2004, since previously bibliography was already covered by the review of Daugherty and Cassis (2004). We focused on animal studies that reported a model of aneurysm development and progression. A number of different approaches of AAA induction in animal models has been developed, used and combined since the first report in the 1960's. Although specific methods are successful in AAA induction in animal models, it is necessary that these methods and their respective results are in line with the pathophysiology and the mechanisms involved in human AAA development. A researcher should know the advantages/disadvantages of each animal model and choose the appropriate model.

  6. Genetic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Jean, P.L.; Hart, B.K.; Zhang, X.C.

    1994-09-01

    The association between AAA and gender, smoking (SM), hypertension (HTN) and inguinal herniation (IH) was examined in 141 AAA probands and 139 of their 1st degree relatives with aortic exam (36 affected, 103 unaffected). There was no significant difference between age at diagnosis of affecteds and age at exam of unaffecteds. Of 181 males, 142 had AAA; of 99 females, 35 had AAA. Using log-linear modeling AAA was significantly associated at the 5% level with gender, SM and HTN but not IH. The association of AAA with SM and HTN held when males and females were analyzed separately. HTN wasmore » -1.5 times more common in both affected males and females, while SM was 1.5 and 2 times more common in affected males and females, respectively. Tests of association and linkage analyses were performed with relevant candidate genes: 3 COL3A1 polymorphisms (C/T, ALA/THR, AvaII), 2 ELN polymorphisms (SER/GLY, (CA)n), FBN1(TAAA)n, 2 APOB polymorphisms (Xbal,Ins/Del), CLB4B (CA)n, PI and markers D1S243 (CA)n, HPR (CA)n and MFD23(CA)n. The loci were genotyped in > 100 AAA probands and > 95 normal controls. No statistically significant evidence of association at the 5% level was obtained for any of the loci using chi-square test of association. 28 families with 2 or more affecteds were analyzed using the affected pedigree member method (APM) and lod-score analyses. There was no evidence for linkage with any loci using APM. Lod-score analysis under an autosomal recessive model resulted in excluding linkage (lod score < -2) of all loci to AAA at {theta}=0.0. Under an autosomal dominant model, linkage was excluded at {theta}=0.0 to ELN, APOB, CLG4B, D1S243, HPR and MFD23. The various genes previously proposed in AAA pathogenesis are neither associated nor casually related in our study population.« less

  7. H19 Induces Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development and Progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Daniel Y; Busch, Albert; Jin, Hong; Chernogubova, Ekaterina; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Karlsson, Joakim; Sennblad, Bengt; Liu, Shengliang; Lao, Shen; Hofmann, Patrick; Bäcklund, Alexandra; Eken, Suzanne M; Roy, Joy; Eriksson, Per; Dacken, Brian; Ramanujam, Deepak; Dueck, Anne; Engelhardt, Stefan; Boon, Reinier A; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Spin, Joshua M; Tsao, Philip S; Maegdefessel, Lars

    2018-04-18

    Background -Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical molecular regulators in various biological processes and diseases. Here we sought to identify and functionally characterize lncRNAs as potential mediators in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. Methods -We profiled RNA transcript expression in two murine AAA models, Angiotensin II (ANGII) infusion in ApoE-/- mice ( n =8) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) instillation in C57BL/6 wildtype mice ( n =12). The lncRNA H19 was identified as one of the most highly up-regulated transcripts in both mouse aneurysm models compared to sham-operated controls. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Results -Experimental knock-down of H19, utilizing site-specific antisense oligonucleotides (LNA-GapmeRs) in vivo , significantly limited aneurysm growth in both models. Upregulated H19 correlated with smooth muscle cell (SMC) content and SMC apoptosis in progressing aneurysms. Importantly, a similar pattern could be observed in human AAA tissue samples, and in a novel preclinical LDLR-/- Yucatan mini-pig aneurysm model. In vitro knock-down of H19 markedly decreased apoptotic rates of cultured human aortic SMCs, while overexpression of H19 had the opposite effect. Notably, H19-dependent apoptosis mechanisms in SMCs appeared to be independent of miR-675, which is embedded in the first exon of the H19 gene. A customized transcription factor array identified hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) as the main downstream effector. Increased SMC apoptosis was associated with cytoplasmic interaction between H19 and HIF1α and sequential p53 stabilization. Additionally, H19 induced transcription of HIF1α via recruiting the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) to the promoter region. Conclusions -The lncRNA H19 is a novel regulator of SMC survival in AAA development and progression. Inhibition of H19 expression might serve as a novel molecular therapeutic target for aortic aneurysm

  8. Effectiveness of open versus endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in population settings: A systematic review of statewide databases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2017-10-01

    Patient outcomes after open abdominal aortic aneurysm and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair have been widely reported from several large, randomized, controlled trials. It is not clear whether these trial outcomes are representative of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures performed in real-world hospital settings across the United States. This study was designed to evaluate population-based outcomes after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using statewide inpatient databases and examine how they have helped improve our understanding of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify articles comparing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using data from statewide inpatient databases. This search was limited to studies published in the English language after 1990, and abstracts were screened and abstracted by 2 authors. Our search yielded 17 studies published between 2004 and 2016 that used data from 29 different statewide inpatient databases to compare endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. These studies support the randomized, controlled trial results, including a lower mortality associated with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair extended from the perioperative period up to 3 years after operation, as well as a higher complication rate after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The evidence from statewide inpatient database analyses has also elucidated trends in procedure volume, patient case mix, volume-outcome relationships, and health care disparities associated with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Population analyses of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using statewide inpatient databases have confirmed short- and long-term mortality outcomes obtained from

  9. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of Acute Occlusion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intra-Aneurysmal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Terai, Yasuhiko; Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Nakai, Masanao; Goto, Shinnosuke; Miyano, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Hirokazu; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2015-11-01

    To report a rare case of acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occlusion successfully treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 89-year-old man complained of severe back pain and weakness in the bilateral lower extremities. Although there were neither acute ischemic signs on the brain computed tomography (CT) nor critical leg ischemia, the patient presented progressing weakness in the bilateral lower extremities and decreased sensation in the perianal and saddle area. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated an infrarenal AAA, the formation of an ulcer-like lesion in the aneurysmal wall, and the complete occlusion of distal AAA because of the caudal extension of intramural hematoma. Both common iliac arteries were patent because of the development of collateral vessels. The neurologic symptoms were considered to be caused by the occlusion of lumbar radicular arteries. EVAR seemed anatomically feasible, if the occlusion could be crossed by guidewires from both side of the common femoral artery. Wires easily traversed the occlusion, and the stent graft could be smoothly unwrapped and opened. The patient could recover decent iliac arterial flow. The neurovascular deficits recovered within 4 days after the procedure. Although our experience may not be reproduced in all case of AAA occlusion, EVAR warrants consideration to reduce the high mortality rate associated with the classical treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: Is endovascular aneurysm repair the answer for everybody?

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    Treatment paradigms for elective repair of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have evolved during the past 2 decades, with endovascular aneurysm repair as the preferred treatment modality. The patient care strategy for emergent treatment for ruptured AAA is not as straightforward, due in part to surgeon expertise and stent-graft availability at the institution. Although most reports have extrapolated elective endovascular aneurysm repair feasibility data to the ruptured AAA patient and the aneurysm anatomy, these expectations should be interpreted with caution. In the absence of level I evidence, and lack of adequate local hospital resources, endovascular aneurysm repair-first policy might not be feasible for all the patients who present with ruptured AAA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Beau

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of an office-based, family physician–administered ultrasound examination to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Design A prospective observational study. Consecutive patients were approached by nonphysician staff. Setting Rural family physician offices in Grand Forks and Revelstoke, BC. Participants The Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery screening recommendations for AAA were used to help select patients who were at risk of AAA. All men 65 years of age or older were included. Women 65 years of age or older were included if they were current smokers or had diabetes, hypertension, a history of coronary artery disease, or a family history of AAA. Main outcome measures A focused “quick screen,” which measured the maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta using point-of-care ultrasound technology, was performed in the office by a resident physician trained in emergency ultrasonography. Each patient was then booked for a criterion standard scan (ie, a conventional abdominal ultrasound scan performed by a technician and interpreted by a radiologist). The maximal abdominal aortic diameter measured by ultrasound in the office was compared with that measured by the criterion standard method. The time to screen each patient was recorded. Results Forty-five patients were included in data analysis; 62% of participants were men. The mean age was 73 years. The mean pairwise difference between the office-based ultrasound scan and the criterion standard scan was not statistically significant. The mean absolute difference between the 2 scans was 0.20 cm (95% CI 0.15 to 0.25 cm). Correlation between the scans was 0.81. The office-based ultrasound scan had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The mean time to screen each patient was 212 seconds (95% CI 194 to 230 seconds). Conclusion Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening can be safely performed in the office by family physicians who are trained to use point

  12. Office-based ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Blois, Beau

    2012-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of an office-based, family physician–administered ultrasound examination to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A prospective observational study. Consecutive patients were approached by nonphysician staff. Rural family physician offices in Grand Forks and Revelstoke, BC. The Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery screening recommendations for AAA were used to help select patients who were at risk of AAA. All men 65 years of age or older were included. Women 65 years of age or older were included if they were current smokers or had diabetes, hypertension, a history of coronary artery disease, or a family history of AAA. A focused “quick screen”, which measured the maximal diameter of the abdominal aorta using point-of-care ultrasound technology, was performed in the office by a resident physician trained in emergency ultrasonography. Each patient was then booked for a criterion standard scan (i.e., a conventional abdominal ultrasound scan performed by a technician and interpreted by a radiologist). The maximal abdominal aortic diameter measured by ultrasound in the office was compared with that measured by the criterion standard method. The time to screen each patient was recorded. Forty-five patients were included in data analysis; 62% of participants were men. The mean age was 73 years. The mean pairwise difference between the office-based ultrasound scan and the criterion standard scan was not statistically significant. The mean absolute difference between the 2 scans was 0.20 cm (95% CI 0.15 to 0.25 cm). Correlation between the scans was 0.81. The office-based ultrasound scan had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 100%. The mean time to screen each patient was 212 seconds (95% CI 194 to 230 seconds). Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening can be safely performed in the office by family physicians who are trained to use point-of- care ultrasound technology. The screening test can be completed within the time constraints of a

  13. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... ultrasound screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm under Medicare program; and (2) Is included in at least...

  14. Retroperitoneal haematoma causing gastric outflow obstruction following endovascular repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Benjamin; Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with back pain and collapse. A ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully managed by endovascular aneurysm repair. Postoperatively, he developed gastric outlet obstruction owing to duodenal compression from the unevacuated retroperitoneal haematoma. In the absence of abdominal compartment syndrome, conservative management with gastric decompression and parenteral nutrition led to a full recovery. PMID:23162028

  15. Influence of atmospheric pressure on infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicolas; Frank, Michael; Avenin, Laure; Hemery, Francois; Becquemin, Jean Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Meteorologic conditions have a significant impact on the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Previous studies have shown that abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture (AAAR) may be associated with atmospheric pressure, with conflicting results. Therefore, we aimed to further investigate the nature of the correlation between atmospheric pressure variations and AAAR. Hospital admissions related to AAAR between 2005-2009 were assessed in 19 districts of metropolitan France and correlated with geographically and date-matched mean atmospheric pressures. In parallel and from 2005-2009, all fatal AAARs as reported by death certificates were assessed nationwide and correlated to local atmospheric pressures at the time of aortic rupture. Four hundred ninety-four hospital admissions related to AAAR and 6,358 deaths nationwide by AAAR were identified between 2005-2009. Both in-hospital ruptures and aneurysm-related mortality had seasonal variations, with peak/trough incidences in January and June, respectively. Atmospheric pressure peaks occurred during winter. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association (P < 0.001) of high mean atmospheric pressure values and AAAR. After multivariate analysis, mean maximum 1-month prerupture atmospheric pressure had a persistent correlation with both in-hospital relative risk (1.05 [95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.06]; P < 0.0001) and aneurysm rupture-related mortality relative risk (1.02 [95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.03]; P < 0.0001). The annual incidence of AAAR is nonhomogeneous with a peak incidence in winter, and is independently associated with mean maximum 1-month prerupture atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  17. Strain measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysm with real-time 3D ultrasound speckle tracking.

    PubMed

    Bihari, P; Shelke, A; Nwe, T H; Mularczyk, M; Nelson, K; Schmandra, T; Knez, P; Schmitz-Rixen, T

    2013-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is caused by mechanical vascular tissue failure. Although mechanical properties within the aneurysm vary, currently available ultrasound methods assess only one cross-sectional segment of the aorta. This study aims to establish real-time 3-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking ultrasound to explore local displacement and strain parameters of the whole abdominal aortic aneurysm. Validation was performed on a silicone aneurysm model, perfused in a pulsatile artificial circulatory system. Wall motion of the silicone model was measured simultaneously with a commercial real-time 3D speckle tracking ultrasound system and either with laser-scan micrometry or with video photogrammetry. After validation, 3D ultrasound data were collected from abdominal aortic aneurysms of five patients and displacement and strain parameters were analysed. Displacement parameters measured in vitro by 3D ultrasound and laser scan micrometer or video analysis were significantly correlated at pulse pressures between 40 and 80 mmHg. Strong local differences in displacement and strain were identified within the aortic aneurysms of patients. Local wall strain of the whole abdominal aortic aneurysm can be analysed in vivo with real-time 3D ultrasound speckle tracking imaging, offering the prospect of individual non-invasive rupture risk analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene variants and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, L; Warrington, N; Allcock, R; van Bockxmeer, F; Palmer, L J; Iacopetta, B; Golledge, J; Norman, P E

    2009-08-01

    To investigate associations between two polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene (MMP2) and the incidence and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Cases and controls were recruited from a trial of screening for AAAs. The association between two variants of MMP2 (-1360C>T, and +649C>T) in men with AAA (n=678) and in controls (n=659) was examined using multivariate analyses. The association with AAA expansion (n=638) was also assessed. In multivariate analyses with adjustments for multiple testing, no association between either SNP and AAA presence or expansion was detected. MMP2 -1360C>T and +649C>T variants are not risk factors for AAA.

  19. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Annambhotla, Suman; Bourgeois, Sebastian; Wang, Xinwen; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is an increasingly common clinical condition with fatal implications. It is associated with advanced age, male gender, cigarette smoking, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and genetic predisposition. Although significant evidence has emerged in the last decade, the molecular mechanisms of AAA formation remains poorly understood. Currently, the treatment for AAA remains primarily surgical with the lone innovation of endovascular therapy. With advance in the human genome, understanding precisely which molecules and genes mediate AAA development and blocking their activity at the molecular level could lead to important new discoveries and therapies. This review summarizes recent updates in molecular mechanisms of AAA formation including animal models, autoimmune components, infection, key molecules and cytokines, mechanical forces, genetics and pharmacotherapy. This review will be helpful to those who want to recognize the newest endeavors within the field and identify possible lines of investigation in AAA. PMID:18259804

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm neck remodeling after Anaconda stent graft implantation.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Elisabeth; Czerny, Martin; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Wolkewitz, Martin; Berezowski, Mikolaj; Siepe, Matthias; Blanke, Philipp; Rylski, Bartosz

    2018-05-24

    The aim of this study was to define how the proximal landing zone changes geometrically after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the Anaconda (Vascutek, Inchinnan, United Kingdom) stent graft. Among 230 patients who underwent Anaconda stent graft implantation between 2005 and 2014, we included 126 with adequate computed tomography (CT) image quality and follow-up. CT analysis entailed the geometric changes in the main body, proximal rings, and proximal landing zone. The median CT follow-up was 2.0 years (345.8 patients-years). The proximal portion of the main body ring system flattened within the first year after EVAR, resulting in an up to 30° increase in the upper ring's angle in 40% patients and up to 40° increase in 24% patients. One year after EVAR, the upper ring angle increase slowed down. Aortic diameter measured at the level of the upper and lower ring expanded by 2 to 4 mm within 1 year, but remained unchanged afterward. The main body migrated continuously down toward the aortic bifurcation, attaining an average 6-mm increase in the distance between the superior mesenteric artery and main body within 4 years. Freedom from endoleak type IA was 95 ± 2% and 93 ± 3% after 1 and 4 years, respectively. The Anaconda main body ring system in its proximal portion flattens within the first year after EVAR, leading to an increase of 2 to 4 mm in the proximal landing zone's aortic diameter. The main body migrates slowly but continuously down toward the aortic bifurcation. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with ectopic renal artery origins: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kotsis, T; Mylonas, S; Katsenis, K; Arapoglou, V; Dimakakos, P

    2007-01-01

    The coexistense of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with ectopic main renal vasculature complicates aortic surgery and mandates a focused imaging evaluation and a carefully planned operation to minimize renal ischemia. We present the case of a 75-year-old man with an abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right kidney with two ectopic main renal arteries, one originating from the aneurysmal distal aorta and the other from the right common iliac artery; the patient underwent a surgical repair and followed an uneventful course with no deterioration of renal function. The preoperative and intraoperative details are reported, along with a review of the literature.

  2. Epithelioid Angiosarcoma With Metastatic Disease After Endovascular Therapy of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Scharpf, Marcus; Brechtel, Klaus

    2012-02-15

    Malignancies of the aortic wall represent a rare condition, and only a few reports have covered cases of sarcomas arising at the site of a prosthesis made of Dacron. A coincidence with endovascular repair has only been reported in one case to date. We report a patient with epithelioid angiosarcoma and metastatic disease, which was found in an aneurysmal sac after endovascular aortic repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  3. CXCL8 hyper-signaling in the aortic abdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kokje, Vivianne B C; Gäbel, Gabor; Dalman, Ron L; Koole, Dave; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2018-08-01

    There are indications for elevated CXCL8 levels in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA). CXCL8 is concurrently involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation and angiogenesis, two prominent and distinctive characteristics of AAA. As such we considered an evaluation of a role for CXCL8 in AAA progression relevant. ELISA's, real time PCR and array analysis were used to explore CXCL8 signaling in AAA wall samples. A role for CXCL8 in AAA disease was tested through the oral CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2156A in the elastase model of AAA disease. There is an extreme disparity in aortic wall CXCL8 content between AAA and aortic atherosclerotic disease (median [IQR] aortic wall CXCL8 content: 425 [141-1261] (AAA) vs. 23 [2.8-89] (atherosclerotic aorta) µg/g protein (P < 1 · 10 -14 )), and abundant expression of the CXCR1 and 2 receptors in AAA. Array analysis followed by pathway analysis showed that CXCL8 hyper-expression in AAA is followed increased by IL-8 signaling (Z-score for AAA vs. atherosclerotic control: 2.97, p < 0.0001). Interference with CXCL8 signaling through DF2156A fully abrogated AAA formation and prevented matrix degradation in the murine elastase model of AAA disease (p < 0.001). CXCL8-signaling is a prominent and distinctive feature of AAA, interference with the pathway constitutes a promising target for medical stabilization of AAA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgery insight: advances in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Jacobs, Tikva S; Marin, Michael L

    2007-04-01

    Despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic methods and an increased awareness of their clinical significance, abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular repair of AAAs, initially described in 1990, offers a less-invasive alternative to conventional open repair. The technology and devices used for endovascular repair of AAAs have progressed rapidly and the approach has proven to be safe and effective in short to midterm investigations. Furthermore, several large trials have demonstrated that elective endovascular repair is associated with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality than open repair. The long-term benefits of endovascular repair relative to open repair, however, continue to be studied. In addition to elective repair, the use of endovascular repair for ruptured AAAs has been increasing, and has been shown to be associated with reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality. Advances in endovascular repair of AAAs, including the development of branched and fenestrated grafts and the use of implantable devices to measure aneurysm-sac pressures following stent-graft deployment, have further broadened the application of the technique and have enhanced postoperative monitoring. Despite these advances, endovascular repair of AAAs remains a relatively novel technique, and further long-term data need to be collected.

  5. Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the Asian community.

    PubMed

    Spark, J I; Baker, J L; Vowden, P; Wilkinson, D

    2001-03-01

    Studies relating to the ethnic origin of patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are few and are mainly concerned with the differences between black and white Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the incidence of AAA among the Asian population of Bradford is different from that in the Caucasian population. A retrospective study of patients with an AAA was carried out between 1990 and 1997 using data collected by the Patient Administrative Service, personal databases of the vascular consultants and theatre records. Information about the ethnic composition of the population of Bradford was obtained from the 1991 national census. Demographic data, including ethnic origin and clinical details, were obtained from patient notes. Two hundred and thirty-three patients with an AAA were identified during the study interval. The Asian population comprised 14.0 per cent of the total population of Bradford. Twenty-eight AAAs would be expected per year. All of the aneurysms identified occurred in the Caucasian population and none in the Asian community. These early results suggest that AAA is rare among the Asian population.

  6. Extra-anatomic endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a horseshoe kidney supplied by the aneurysmal aorta.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of statin prescription with small abdominal aortic aneurysm progression

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Craig D.; Clancy, Paula; Bourke, Bernard; Walker, Philip J.; Dear, Anthony; Buckenham, Tim; Norman, Paul; Golledge, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background Statins have been suggested to reduce expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) independent of lipid lowering effects. Methods We assessed the association of statin treatment and serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations with small AAA expansion. 652 patients undergoing surveillance of small AAAs were entered into the study from five vascular centers. In a subset fasting lipids (n=451) and other biomarkers (n=216) were measured. AAA diameter was followed by ultrasound surveillance for a median of 5 years. Results 349 (54%) of the patients were prescribed statins. Adjusting for other risk factors statin prescription was not associated with AAA growth (odds ratio, OR, 1.23, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.86–1.76). Above median AAA growth was positively associated with initial diameter (OR 1.78 per 4.35mm larger initial aortic diameter, 95% CI 1.49–2.14) and negatively associated with diabetes (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22–0.62). Above median serum LDL concentration was not associated with AAA growth. Patients receiving statins had lower serum C-reactive protein concentrations but similar matrix metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-6 concentrations to those not prescribed these medications. Conclusions We found no association between statin prescription or LDL concentration with AAA expansion. The results do not support the findings of smaller studies and suggest that statins may have no benefit in reducing AAA progression. PMID:20152231

  8. Polymorphisms of the MMP-9 gene and abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Linda; Allcock, Richard; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Warrington, Nicole; Palmer, Lyle J; Iacopetta, Barry; Golledge, Jonathan; Norman, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Background Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity has been implicated in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The aim of the present study was to explore the association between potentially functional variants of the MMP-9 gene and AAA. Method The −1562C>T and −1811A>T variants of the MMP-9 gene were genotyped in 678 men with AAAs (>30mm in diameter) and 659 controls (aortic diameter 19−22mm) recruited from a population-based trial of screening for AAAs. The levels of MMP-9 were measured in a random subset of 300 cases and 84 controls. The association between genetic variants (including haplotypes) and AAA was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results There was no association between the MMP-9 −1562C>T (OR 0.70 95%CI 0.27, 1.82) or −1811A>T (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.28, 1.85) genotypes, or the most common haplotype (OR 0.81 95%CI 0.62, 1.05), and AAA. The serum MMP-9 concentration (ng/mL) was higher in cases than controls and in minor allele carriers in cases and controls although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results suggest that a genetic tendency to have higher levels of circulating MMP-9 is not associated with AAAs. PMID:18763261

  9. Geometric analysis of ruptured and nonruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masaru; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Miyahara, Kazuhiro; Nitta, Jun; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Sota; Ohshima, Marie

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study was to use parameters to determine the geometric differences between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and nonruptured AAAs. Computed tomography data of 38 ruptured AAAs and 215 electively repaired (nonruptured) AAAs were collected from multiple institutes. We compared the ruptured AAA group and nonruptured AAA group with 1:1 matching by using the Mahalanobis distance, which was calculated using the patient's age, sex, and AAA diameter. We selected the longitudinal AAA image in multiplanar reconstruction view, placed a hypothetical ellipse on the aneurysm's protruded curve, and placed a circle on the portion connecting the aneurysm and the aorta. We then measured the aspect ratio (the vertical diameter divided by the horizontal diameter) and fillet radius (the radius of arc). The aspect ratio was significantly lower in the ruptured group than in the nonruptured group (2.02 ± 0.53 vs 2.60 ± 1.02; P = .002), as was the fillet radius (0.28 ± 0.18 vs 0.81 ± 0.44; P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the area under the curve of the aspect ratio was 0.688, and the optimal cutoff point was 2.23, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.55 and 0.76, respectively. The area under the curve of the fillet radius was 0.933, and the optimal cutoff was 0.347, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.97 and 0.87, respectively. The geometric analysis performed in this study revealed that ruptured AAAs had a smaller fillet radius and smaller aspect ratio than nonruptured AAAs did. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomechanical Indices for Rupture Risk Estimation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Eva L; Willems, Tineke P; van der Laan, Maarten J; Slump, Cornelis H; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2017-04-01

    To review the use of biomechanical indices for the estimation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk, emphasizing their potential use in a clinical setting. A search of the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Compendex databases was made up to June 2015 to identify articles involving biomechanical analysis of AAA rupture risk. Outcome variables [aneurysm diameter, peak wall stress (PWS), peak wall shear stress (PWSS), wall strain, peak wall rupture index (PWRI), and wall stiffness] were compared for asymptomatic intact AAAs vs symptomatic or ruptured AAAs. For quantitative analysis of the pooled data, a random effects model was used to calculate the standard mean differences (SMDs) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the biomechanical indices. The initial database searches yielded 1894 independent articles of which 19 were included in the analysis. The PWS was significantly higher in the symptomatic/ruptured group, with a SMD of 1.11 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.26, p<0.001). Likewise, the PWRI was significantly higher in the ruptured or symptomatic group, with a SMD of 1.15 (95% CI 0.30 to 2.01, p=0.008). After adjustment for the aneurysm diameter, the PWS remained higher in the ruptured or symptomatic group, with a SMD of 0.85 (95% CI 0.46 to 1.23, p<0.001). Less is known of the wall shear stress and wall strain indices, as too few studies were available for analysis. Biomechanical indices are a promising tool in the assessment of AAA rupture risk as they incorporate several factors, including geometry, tissue properties, and patient-specific risk factors. However, clinical implementation of biomechanical AAA assessment remains a challenge owing to a lack of standardization.

  11. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in “High-Risk” Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, William D.; Alcocer, Francisco; Wirthlin, Douglas J.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Whitley, David

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the early results of endovascular grafting for high-risk surgical candidates in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Summary Background Data Since the approval of endoluminal grafts for treatment of AAA, endovascular repair of AAA (EVAR) has expanded to include patients originally considered too ill for open AAA repair. However, some concern has been expressed regarding technical failure and the durability of endovascular grafts. Methods The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Computerized Vascular Registry identified all patients who underwent abdominal aneurysm repair between January 1, 2000, and June 12, 2002. Patients were stratified by type of repair (open AAA vs. EVAR) and were classified as low risk or high risk. Patients with at least one of the following classifications were classified as high risk: age more than 80 years, chronic renal failure (creatinine > 2.0), compromised cardiac function (diminished ventricular function or severe coronary artery disease), poor pulmonary function, reoperative aortic procedure, a “hostile” abdomen, or an emergency operation. Death, systemic complications, and length of stay were tabulated for each group. Results During this 28-month period, 404 patients underwent AAA repair at UAB. Eighteen patients (4.5%) died within 30 days of their repair or during the same hospitalization. Two hundred seventeen patients (53%) were classified as high risk. Two hundred fifty-nine patients (64%) underwent EVAR repair, and 130 (50%) of these were considered high-risk patients (including four emergency procedures). One hundred forty-five patients (36%) underwent open AAA repair, including 15 emergency operations. All deaths occurred in the high-risk group: 12 (8.3%) died after open AAA repair and 6 (2.3%) died after EVAR repair. Postoperative length of stay was shorter for EVAR repair compared to open AAA. Conclusions High-risk and low-risk patients can undergo EVAR repair with a lower rate

  12. Colonic Ischemia After Standard Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, A Rare But Dangerous Complication.

    PubMed

    Berchiolli, R; Adami, D; Marconi, M; Mari, M; Puta, B; Ferrari, M

    2018-05-21

    Colonic Ischemia (CI) after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, although rare, is associated with severe prognosis. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) is becoming the standard of practice in most vascular centers, and it also may reduce CI incidence in comparison to conventional open repair. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Logistic considerations for a successful institutional approach to the endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Dieter; Rancic, Zoran; Pfammatter, Thomas; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Veith, Frank J; Donas, Konstantin; Lachat, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The value of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in the setting of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains controversial owing to differing results. However, interpretation of published results remains difficult as there is a lack of generally accepted protocols or standard operating procedures. Furthermore, such protocols and standard operating procedures often are reported incompletely or not at all, thereby making interpretation of results difficult. We herein report our integrated logistic system for the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. Important components of this system are prehospital logistics, in-hospital treatment logistics, and aftercare. Further studies should include details about all of these components, and a description of these logistic components must be included in all future studies of emergency EVAR for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  14. Results of open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: single centre series and pooled analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    van Lammeren, Guus W; Ünlü, Çağdaş; Verschoor, Sjoerd; van Dongen, Eric P; Wille, Jan; van de Pavoordt, Eric Dwm; de Vries-Werson, Debbie Ab; De Vries, Jean-Paul Pm

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Endovascular treatment of pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm has gained terrain over the past decade, despite the substantial need for reinterventions during follow-up. However, open repair is still a well-established treatment option. With the current study we report the results of a consecutive series of elective primary open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a tertiary vascular referral centre, combined with an overview of current literature and pooled data analysis of perioperative mortality of open and endovascular pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of all elective open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs in the St. Antonius Hospital between 2005 and 2014 was performed. Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Secondary endpoints were 30-day morbidity, new onset dialysis, reintervention free survival, and overall survival during follow-up. Results Between 2005 and 2014, 214 consecutive patients underwent elective open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Mean age was 69.8 (±7.1) years, 82.7% (177/214) were men, and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter was 62 (±11) mm. Thirty-day mortality was 3.4%. Thirty-day morbidity was 27.1%, which predominantly consisted of pneumonia (18.7% (40/214)), cardiac events (3.3% (7/214)), and new onset dialysis (2.8% (6/214)). Estimated five-year overall survival rate was 74.2%. 0.9% (2/214) of patients required abdominal aortic aneurysm-related reintervention, and an additional 2.3% (5/214) required surgical repair of an incisional hernia. Pooled analysis of literature revealed a 30-day mortality of 3.0% for open pararenal repair and 1.9% for fenestrated endovascular repair. Conclusion Open pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the era of increasing endovascular options results in acceptable perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Mid-term reintervention rate is low compared to fenestrated endovascular

  15. The effect of aortic morphology on peri-operative mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether aneurysm shape and extent, which indicate whether a patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is eligible for endovascular repair (EVAR), influence the outcome of both EVAR and open surgical repair. The influence of six morphological parameters (maximum aortic diameter, aneurysm neck diameter, length and conicality, proximal neck angle, and maximum common iliac diameter) on mortality and reinterventions within 30 days was investigated in rAAA patients randomized before morphological assessment in the Immediate Management of the Patient with Rupture: Open Versus Endovascular strategies (IMPROVE) trial. Patients with a proven diagnosis of rAAA, who underwent repair and had their admission computerized tomography scan submitted to the core laboratory, were included. Among 458 patients (364 men, mean age 76 years), who had either EVAR (n = 177) or open repair (n = 281) started, there were 155 deaths and 88 re-interventions within 30 days of randomization analysed according to a pre-specified plan. The mean maximum aortic diameter was 8.6 cm. There were no substantial correlations between the six morphological variables. Aneurysm neck length was shorter in those undergoing open repair (vs. EVAR). Aneurysm neck length (mean 23.3, SD 16.1 mm) was inversely associated with mortality for open repair and overall: adjusted OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.57, 0.92) for each 16 mm (SD) increase in length. There were no convincing associations of morphological parameters with reinterventions. Short aneurysm necks adversely influence mortality after open repair of rAAA and preclude conventional EVAR. This may help explain why observational studies, but not randomized trials, have shown an early survival benefit for EVAR. ISRCTN 48334791. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Matricellular protein CCN3 mitigates abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; van der Voort, Dustin; Shi, Hong; Qing, Yulan; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Yokote, Koutaro; Moxon, Joseph V.; Norman, Paul; Rittié, Laure; Atkins, G. Brandon; Gerson, Stanton L.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Golledge, Jonathan; Dong, Nianguo; Perbal, Bernard; Prosdocimo, Domenick A.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms that are involved in disease initiation and progression are incompletely understood. Extracellular matrix proteins play an integral role in modulating vascular homeostasis in health and disease. Here, we determined that the expression of the matricellular protein CCN3 is strongly reduced in rodent AAA models, including angiotensin II–induced AAA and elastase perfusion–stimulated AAA. CCN3 levels were also reduced in human AAA biopsies compared with those in controls. In murine models of induced AAA, germline deletion of Ccn3 resulted in severe phenotypes characterized by elastin fragmentation, vessel dilation, vascular inflammation, dissection, heightened ROS generation, and smooth muscle cell loss. Conversely, overexpression of CCN3 mitigated both elastase- and angiotensin II–induced AAA formation in mice. BM transplantation experiments suggested that the AAA phenotype of CCN3-deficient mice is intrinsic to the vasculature, as AAA was not exacerbated in WT animals that received CCN3-deficient BM and WT BM did not reduce AAA severity in CCN3-deficient mice. Genetic and pharmacological approaches implicated the ERK1/2 pathway as a critical regulator of CCN3-dependent AAA development. Together, these results demonstrate that CCN3 is a nodal regulator in AAA biology and identify CCN3 as a potential therapeutic target for vascular disease. PMID:26974158

  17. Lipoprotein(a) Levels in Patients With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Rizzo, Manfredi; Kostner, Karam; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    Circulating markers relevant to the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are currently required. Lipoprotein(a), Lp(a), is considered a candidate marker associated with the presence of AAA. The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between circulating Lp(a) levels and the presence of AAA. The PubMed-based search was conducted up to April 30, 2015, to identify the studies focusing on Lp(a) levels in patients with AAA and controls. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random effects model, with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as summary statistics. Overall, 9 studies were identified. After a combined analysis, patients with AAA were found to have a significantly higher level of Lp(a) compared to the controls (SMD: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.41-1.33, P < .001). This result remained robust in the sensitivity analysis, and its significance was not influenced after omitting each of the included studies from the meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis confirmed a higher level of circulating Lp(a) in patients with AAA compared to controls. High Lp(a) levels can be associated with the presence of AAA, and Lp(a) may be a marker in screening for AAA. Further studies are needed to establish the clinical utility of measuring Lp(a) in the prevention and management of AAA.

  18. Stent grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, Edward B

    2003-01-01

    Stent grafting for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been a major advance in endovascular surgery. Initial success with the original endoluminal stent graft encouraged worldwide study of the technology. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) insisted on considerable experience with the devices before approval because of early problems with device rupture, stent fracture, fabric perforation, graft migration, and modular separation. Complications associated with the endovascular graft technology led many to recommend its use only in patients who were considered at "high risk" for the standard, open procedure. Further study and device improvements have led to results that indicate the procedure has the potential to reduce operating time and blood loss and shorten intensive care unit and hospital stays compared with open surgical intervention. At present, there are three FDA-approved devices available for use, and a fourth is expected in 2003. The ultimate decision by the individual practitioner or the institutional team regarding which patients should be treated with endovascular technology is still not entirely straightforward. Patient selection should be based on vascular anatomy, the availability of a suitable device, the patient's desire for a minimally invasive procedure, and a commitment to what is likely to be a lifetime of device surveillance.

  19. ACE DD genotype: a predisposing factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fatini, C; Pratesi, G; Sofi, F; Gensini, F; Sticchi, E; Lari, B; Pulli, R; Dorigo, W; Azas, L; Pratesi, C; Gensini, G F; Abbate, R

    2005-03-01

    To examine the role of polymorphisms in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, I/D) and angiotensin II receptor (AT1R, A1166C) in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We investigated 250 consecutive patients, 217 males and 33 females (median age 72, range 50-83), undergone AAA elective repair and 250 healthy controls, comparable for sex and age. ACE and AT1R polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP analysis. The genotype distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all polymorphisms. The genotype distribution and allele frequency of ACE I/D, but not AT1R A1166C polymorphism were significantly different between patients and controls (ACE I/D: p=0.0002 and p<0.0001, respectively, and AT1R A1166C: p=0.6 and p=0.4, respectively). An association between the ACE DD genotype and the predisposition to AAA was found (OR DD vs. ID+II=1.9 95% CI 1.3-2.9, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, traditional vascular risk factors and other atherosclerotic localizations, showed ACE DD genotype to be independently related to the disease (OR DD vs. ID+II=2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.2 p=0.003). Our findings document that ACE DD genotype represents a susceptibility factor for AAA.

  20. Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  1. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta.

  2. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasationmore » of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.« less

  3. The pathogenesis shared between abdominal aortic aneurysms and intracranial aneurysms: a microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Lan, Qing; Wang, Jiangfei; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and intracranial saccular aneurysms (IAs) are the most common types of aneurysms. This study was to investigate the common pathogenesis shared between these two kinds of aneurysms. We collected 12 IAs samples and 12 control arteries from the Beijing Tiantan Hospital and performed microarray analysis. In addition, we utilized the microarray datasets of IAs and AAAs from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), in combination with our microarray results, to generate messenger RNA expression profiles for both AAAs and IAs in our study. Functional exploration and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis were performed. A total of 727 common genes were differentially expressed (404 was upregulated; 323 was downregulated) for both AAAs and IAs. The GO and pathway analyses showed that the common dysregulated genes were mainly enriched in vascular smooth muscle contraction, muscle contraction, immune response, defense response, cell activation, IL-6 signaling and chemokine signaling pathways, etc. The further protein-protein analysis identified 35 hub nodes, including TNF, IL6, MAPK13, and CCL5. These hub node genes were enriched in inflammatory response, positive regulation of IL-6 production, chemokine signaling pathway, and T/B cell receptor signaling pathway. Our study will gain new insight into the molecular mechanisms for the pathogenesis of both types of aneurysms and provide new therapeutic targets for the patients harboring AAAs and IAs.

  4. Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair and clinical trial devices for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Brinster, Clayton J; Milner, Ross

    2018-06-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has revolutionized the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with consistently low reported perioperative morbidity and mortality. Universal applicability of EVAR to treat AAA is hindered by several specific anatomic constraints, however, and many patients cannot be treated with commercially available stent-grafts within the device specific instructions for use. Treatment of these complex pararenal aneurysms is increasingly accomplished by extension of EVAR into the visceral segment of the abdominal aorta with branches or fenestrations that allow perfusion of the visceral and renal arteries. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) was initially developed to treat high-risk patients unfit for open surgery and anatomically ineligible for standard infrarenal EVAR, but this technique has evolved over the past decade into a mature treatment option for complex AAA. High-volume, single-center reports, multicenter series and clinical reviews have demonstrated that FEVAR is a safe and effective technique with favorable results at proficient centers. Generalizability of these outcomes to less advanced centers remains unproven, and reintervention rates following FEVAR in the mid- and long-term, even among the most experienced centers, remain a concern. Several off-the-shelf devices that are undergoing clinical trial seek to broaden the anatomic applicability and overall availability of FEVAR. A significant number of patients are not candidates for off-the-shelf or customized stent-grafts, however, stressing the need for continued refinement of existing devices, development of novel devices with broader indications for use, and maintenance of open surgical skills.

  5. Controlled release of ascorbic acid from gelatin hydrogel attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in rat experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm model.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Morimoto, Keisuke; Bao, Wulan; Yu, Jie; Okita, Yutaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Okada, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. We investigated the hypothesis that the known antioxidant ascorbic acid, which can also promote elastin and collagen production by smooth muscle cells, would prevent AAA formation in a rat model. An intraluminal elastase and extraluminal calcium chloride-induced rat AAA model was used, and the animals were divided into three groups: control (group C, n = 18), the aorta wrapped with a saline-impregnated gelatin hydrogel sheet (group G, n = 18), and the aorta wrapped with a gelatin hydrogel sheet incorporating ascorbic acid (group A, n = 18). Wrapping of the sheet was completed at the end of treatment for AAA creation. The aortic dilatation ratio was measured, and aortic tissues were further examined for oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage using biochemical and histologic techniques. Aortic dilatation at both 4 and 8 weeks was inhibited in group A (dilatation ratio [%] at 4 weeks: 186.2 ± 21.8 in group C, 152.3 ± 10.2 in group G, 126.8 ± 11.6 in group A; P < .0001; dilatation ratio [%] at 8 weeks: 219.3 ± 37.5 in group C, 194.0 ± 11.6 in group G, 145.7 ± 8.3 in group A; P = .0002). Elastin and collagen content were significantly preserved in group A (elastin, P = .0015; collagen, P < .0001). The messenger RNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-1β, and tissue necrosis factor-α (P = .0024, P < .0001, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) were downregulated in group A (P = .0024), whereas tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were both upregulated in group A (TIMP-1, P = .0014; TIMP-2, P < .0001). Gelatin zymography showed activities of pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly suppressed in group C (P < .0001 for each). Reactive oxygen species expression and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and cluster of differentiation 68 staining were significantly suppressed in group A (reactive

  6. Hemodynamic Study of Flow Remodeling Stent Graft for the Treatment of Highly Angulated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yeow, Siang Lin; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a novel flow remodeling stent graft (FRSG) on the hemodynamic characteristics in highly angulated abdominal aortic aneurysm based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. An idealized aortic aneurysm with varying aortic neck angulations was constructed and CFD simulations were performed on nonstented models and stented models with FRSG. The influence of FRSG intervention on the hemodynamic performance is analyzed and compared in terms of flow patterns, wall shear stress (WSS), and pressure distribution in the aneurysm. The findings showed that aortic neck angulations significantly influence the velocity flow field in nonstented models, with larger angulations shifting the mainstream blood flow towards the center of the aorta. By introducing FRSG treatment into the aneurysm, erratic flow recirculation pattern in the aneurysm sac diminishes while the average velocity magnitude in the aneurysm sac was reduced in the range of 39% to 53%. FRSG intervention protects the aneurysm against the impacts of high velocity concentrated flow and decreases wall shear stress by more than 50%. The simulation results highlighted that FRSG may effectively treat aneurysm with high aortic neck angulations via the mechanism of promoting thrombus formation and subsequently led to the resorption of the aneurysm. PMID:27247612

  7. Temporary closure of the abdominal wall by use of silicone rubber sheets after operative repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Akers, D L; Fowl, R J; Kempczinski, R F; Davis, K; Hurst, J M; Uhl, S

    1991-07-01

    Management of patients after operative repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms can be further complicated if primary closure of the abdominal wall cannot be technically accomplished or is associated with profound increases in intraabdominal and peak inspiratory pressures. We recently treated five patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and one patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm whose abdominal incisions had to be closed with a Dacron reinforced, silicone sheet. All patients were hemodynamically unstable either at admission to the hospital or became so during operation. Four patients required the insertion of a silicone rubber sheet at the primary operation because of massive retroperitoneal hematoma or edema of the bowel wall or both. Incisions in two patients were closed primarily, but the patients required reexploration and secondary closure with silicone rubber sheets because of the development of marked increases in peak inspiratory pressures, intraabdominal pressures, and decreased urinary output. Four of the six patients subsequently underwent successful removal of the silicone rubber sheets with delayed primary closure of the abdominal wall, and two others died before removal. The patient with the ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm died on postoperative day 20 because of pulmonary sepsis but had a healed abdominal incision. The three surviving patients have been discharged. A silicone rubber sheet may be necessary for closure of the abdominal wall after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients where primary abdominal wall closure is impossible or where it results in compromise in respiratory or renal function.

  8. Thresholds for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in England and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Karthikesalingam, Alan; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Holt, Peter J.; Loftus, Ian M.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Soden, Peter A.; Landon, Bruce E.; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thresholds for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms vary considerably among countries. METHODS We examined differences between England and the United States in the frequency of aneurysm repair, the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of the procedure, and rates of aneurysm rupture and aneurysm-related death. Data on the frequency of repair of intact (nonruptured) abdominal aortic aneurysms, in-hospital mortality among patients who had undergone aneurysm repair, and rates of aneurysm rupture during the period from 2005 through 2012 were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Data on the aneurysm diameter at the time of repair were extracted from the U.K. National Vascular Registry (2014 data) and from the U.S. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2013 data). Aneurysm-related mortality during the period from 2005 through 2012 was determined from data obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.K. Office of National Statistics. Data were adjusted with the use of direct standardization or conditional logistic regression for differences between England and the United States with respect to population age and sex. RESULTS During the period from 2005 through 2012, a total of 29,300 patients in England and 278,921 patients in the United States underwent repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms. Aneurysm repair was less common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.49; P<0.001), and aneurysm-related death was more common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.64; P<0.001). Hospitalization due to an aneurysm rupture occurred more frequently in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 2.19 to 2.27; P<0.001), and the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of repair was larger in England (63.7 mm vs. 58.3 mm, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS We found a lower rate

  9. [Exceptional association of bilateral popliteal aneurysm with an abdominal aortic aneurysm in Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tijani, Y; Mameli, A; Chtata, H; Taberkant, M; Lekehal, B; Sefiani, Y; Elmesnaoui, A; Ammar, F; Bensaid, Y; Feito, B; Bellenot, F; Fallouh, A; Cheysson, E

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with rheumatoid, ophthalmological, neurological, cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations. Aneurysmal lesions affecting both the abdominal aorta and the peripheral arteries are not often described in the literature. We report a case associating a bilateral popliteal aneurysm and an aneurysm of the infra-renal abdominal aorta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Waldemar; Sliwczynski, Andrzej; Pinkas, Jaroslaw; Jawien, Arkadiusz; Karnafel, Waldemar

    2017-09-01

    The publication is a polemical response to reports that present data that diabetes reduces the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study analyzed all cases of developing AAA in patients with and without diabetes in 2012 in Poland. Data for the analysis were obtained with a unique and complete resources of the National Health Fund (NFZ) and population data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS). In Poland during 2012 2,227,453 patients with diabetes were treated, 975,364 males and 1,252,089 females. The incidence of AAA without rupture in patients without diabetes calculated per 100,000 of the non-diabetes general population was 25.0 +/- 9.0 in males and 5.6 +/- 2.3 in females. The incidence of ruptured AAA in the general population without diabetes was 3.6 +/- 0.9 in males, and 0.6 +/- 0.3 in females calculated per 100,000 of inhabitants without diabetes. The incidence of AAA without rupture in patients with diabetes was 184.897 +/- 70.653 in males and 35.364 +/- 24.925 in females calculated per 100,000 of patients diagnosed with diabetes. The incidence of ruptured AAA in patients with diabetes was 21.090 +/- 6.050 in males and 5.170 +/- 3.053 in females calculated per 100,000 of patients diagnosed with diabetes. The incidence rate for ruptured AAA in 2012 in Poland is statistically higher both in females and males in the population with diabetes. The incidence rate for AAA without rupture in 2012 in Poland is statistically higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes.

  11. Functional characterization of T cells in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Forester, Nerys D; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) exhibit features of a chronic inflammatory disorder. The functional attributes of the T cells in AAA tissue are unclear, with little quantitative or functional data. Using a novel, non-enzymatic method to isolate viable cells from AAA tissue, functional properties of AAA T cells were investigated for the first time. Composition and phenotype of AAA T cells was determined by flow cytometry and verified by immunohistochemistry. Tissue mononuclear cells (MNCs) were cultured in the presence of T-cell mitogens, and cell cycle analysis and cytokine production assessed. Typical cell yield was 4·5 × 106 cells per gram of AAA tissue. The majority (58·1 ± 5·3%) of haematopoietic (CD45+) cells recovered were CD3+ T cells, B cells comprised 41·1 ± 5·7%, natural killer cells 7·3 ± 2·5%, and macrophages 2%. Freshly isolated T cells were in resting (G1) state, with 25% expressing the activation-associated cell surface antigens major histocompatibility complex II and CD25. When stimulated in vitro, a significant proportion entered S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, up-regulated CD25, and secreted tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6. Despite patient differences, the composition of the AAA inflammatory infiltrate was remarkably consistent, and when re-stimulated ex-vivo T cells produced a stereotypical cytokine response, consistent with the hypothesis that AAA T cells can promote tissue inflammation by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and in addition provide signals for B-cell help. PMID:15885133

  12. Functional characterization of T cells in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Forester, Nerys D; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2005-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) exhibit features of a chronic inflammatory disorder. The functional attributes of the T cells in AAA tissue are unclear, with little quantitative or functional data. Using a novel, non-enzymatic method to isolate viable cells from AAA tissue, functional properties of AAA T cells were investigated for the first time. Composition and phenotype of AAA T cells was determined by flow cytometry and verified by immunohistochemistry. Tissue mononuclear cells (MNCs) were cultured in the presence of T-cell mitogens, and cell cycle analysis and cytokine production assessed. Typical cell yield was 4.5 x 10(6) cells per gram of AAA tissue. The majority (58.1+/-5.3%) of haematopoietic (CD45+) cells recovered were CD3+ T cells, B cells comprised 41.1+/-5.7%, natural killer cells 7.3+/-2.5%, and macrophages 2%. Freshly isolated T cells were in resting (G1) state, with 25% expressing the activation-associated cell surface antigens major histocompatibility complex II and CD25. When stimulated in vitro, a significant proportion entered S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, up-regulated CD25, and secreted tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6. Despite patient differences, the composition of the AAA inflammatory infiltrate was remarkably consistent, and when re-stimulated ex-vivo T cells produced a stereotypical cytokine response, consistent with the hypothesis that AAA T cells can promote tissue inflammation by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and in addition provide signals for B-cell help.

  13. Plasma D-dimer as a predictor of the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vele, E; Kurtcehajic, A; Zerem, E; Maskovic, J; Alibegovic, E; Hujdurovic, A

    2016-11-01

    Essentials D-dimer could provide important information about abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression. The greatest diameter of the infrarenal aorta and the value of plasma D-dimer were determined. AAA progression is correlated with increasing plasma D-dimer levels. The increasing value of plasma D-dimer could be a predictor of aneurysm progression. Background The natural course of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is mostly asymptomatic and unpredictable. D-dimer could provide potentially important information about subsequent AAA progression. Objectives The aims of this study were to establish the relationship between the progression of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and plasma D-dimer concentration over a 12-month period and determine the value of plasma D-dimer in patients with sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation. Patients/Methods This was a prospective observational study that involved 33 patients with an AAA, 30 patients with sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation and 30 control subjects. The greatest diameter of the infrarenal aorta, which was assessed by ultrasound, and the value of plasma D-dimer were determined for all subjects at baseline assessment, as well as after 12 months for those with an AAA. Results A positive correlation was found between the diameter of an AAA and plasma D-dimer concentration at the baseline and the control measurement stages. There was a strong positive correlation between AAA progression and increasing plasma D-dimer concentration over a 12-month period. Among patients with sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation (n = 30), the value of plasma D-dimer was higher compared with matched controls (n = 30). Conclusions There is a strongly positive correlation between AAA progression and increasing plasma D-dimer concentration. The value of plasma D-dimer is higher in patients with sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation than in control subjects. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Minimally invasive retrieval of a dislodged Wallstent endoprosthesis after an endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Lam, Russell C; Rhee, Soo J; Morrissey, Nicholas J; McKinsey, James F; Faries, Peter L; Kent, K Craig

    2008-02-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is being performed more frequently in patients with concomitant iliac artery occlusive disease. We report a case of a 70-year-old male status post angioplasty and stenting of bilateral iliac arteries for occlusive disease who subsequently underwent EVAR for a rapidly expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). One month after the placement of the endograft, it was discovered that the previously placed Wallstent had been dislodged during the endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Minimally invasive retrieval using an Amplatz Goose Neck Snare was successful in recovering the stent. This case underscores the danger of performing EVAR in the setting of prior iliac artery stenting and the potential complications that may ensue.

  15. Clinical Outcomes of Total Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Aortic Aneurysms Involving the Proximal Anastomotic Aneurysm following Initial Open Repair for Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takeshi; Ohki, Takao; Kanaoka, Yuji; Maeda, Koji; Toya, Naoki; Ohta, Hiroki; Fukushima, Soichiro; Hara, Masayuki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate initial and midterm clinical outcomes of aortic aneurysms involving the proximal anastomotic aneurysm (AAPAAs) following initial open repair for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Between July 2006 and August 2015, 24 patients underwent elective endovascular repair for the treatment of AAPAAs at our institution. AAPAA classification has been categorized as 3 types. Type I AAPAA is the most extensive, extending from the descending aorta to the prior proximal anastomosis as similar to Crawford type II or III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Type II AAPAA is limited to the aortic aneurysm below the diaphragm including the abdominal visceral arteries. Finally, similar to pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, type III AAPAA involves the renal origins, but does not extend to the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. Total endovascular aneurysm repair (t-EVAR) consisted of fenestrated EVAR (f-EVAR), multibranched EVAR (t-Branch), and snorkel EVAR (s-EVAR) were performed for patients with high-risk open surgical repair. We retrospectively analyzed 24 cases, which were categorized with 3 types of AAPAA. F-EVAR, t-Branch, and s-EVAR for AAPAAs were performed in 15 patients (62.5%), 5 patients (20.8%), and 4 patients (16.7%), respectively. Type I and type II AAPAA were identified in 13 patients (54.2%) and 7 patients (29.2%), and type III AAPAA was identified in 4 patients (16.7%). Technical success was 95.8%, and clinical success was 79.2% with t-EVAR. Spinal cord ischemia was identified in 2 patients (8.3%) of type I AAPAA, the 30-day mortality rate was 4.2% (n = 1, type I AAPAA). Type II and III endoleaks occurred in 1 (4.2%, type III AAPAA) and 3 patients (12.5%, each case of type I, II, and III AAPAA), respectively. There was no open conversion or aneurysm rupture in the late follow-up period. The estimated overall survival rates of t-EVAR after 1 and 3 years were 95.6% and 76.2%, respectively. Rates of freedom from aneurysm-related death and

  16. Mortality After Elective and Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgical Repair: 12-Year Single-Center Experience of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lieberg, J; Pruks, L-L; Kals, M; Paapstel, K; Aavik, A; Kals, J

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a degenerative vascular pathology with high mortality due to its rupture, which is why timely treatment is crucial. The current single-center retrospective study was undertaken to analyze short- and long-term all-cause mortality after operative treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm and to examine the factors that influence outcome. The data of all abdominal aortic aneurysm patients treated with open repair or endovascular aneurysm repair in 2004-2015 were retrospectively retrieved from the clinical database of Tartu University Hospital. The primary endpoint was 30-day, 90-day, and 5-year all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoint was determination of the risk factors for mortality. Elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair was performed on 228 patients (mean age 71.8 years), of whom 178 (78%) were treated with open repair and 50 (22%) with endovascular aneurysm repair. A total of 48 patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with open repair (mean age 73.8 years) at the Department of Vascular Surgery, Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. Mean follow-up period was 4.2 ± 3.3 years. In patients with elective abdominal aortic aneurysm, 30-day, 90-day, and 5-year all-cause mortality rates were 0.9%, 2.6%, and 32%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the main predictors for 5-year mortality were preoperative creatinine value and age (p < 0.05). In patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, 30-day, 90-day, and 5-year all-cause mortality rates were 22.9%, 33.3%, and 55.1%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors for 30-day mortality in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm were perioperative hemoglobin and lactate levels (p < 0.05). According to this study, the all-cause mortality rates of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at our hospital were comparable to those at other centers worldwide. Even though some variables were identified as

  17. Maximal aortic diameter affects outcome after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Gloviczki, Peter; Duncan, Audra A; Kalra, Manju; Oderich, Gustavo S; Fleming, Mark D; Harmsen, William S; Bower, Thomas C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maximal aortic diameter affects outcome after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical data of patients undergoing EVAR between 1997 and 2011 for nonruptured asymptomatic AAAs in a tertiary center were reviewed. Patients were classified according to diameter of AAA: group 1, <5.0 cm; group 2, 5.0 to 5.4 cm; group 3, 5.5 to 5.9 cm; and group 4, ≥6.0 cm. The primary end point was all-cause mortality; secondary end points were complications, reinterventions, and ruptures. There were 874 patients studied (female, 108 [12%]; group 1, 119; group 2, 246; group 3, 243; group 4, 266); mean age was 76 ± 7.2 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.0%, not significantly different between groups (P = .22); complication and reintervention rates were 13% and 4.1%, respectively, similar between groups (P < .05). Five-year survival was 68%; freedom from complications and reinterventions was 65% and 74%, respectively; rupture rate was 0.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors associated with all-cause mortality included maximal aortic diameter, age, gender, surgical risk, cancer history, and endograft type (P < .05). Group 4 had increased risks of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.85; P = .002) and complications (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = .009) relative to group 1. Reinterventions were more frequent for aneurysms ≥6.0 cm (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.3; P = .01). Late rupture rate after EVAR was not different between groups. Maximal aortic diameter is associated with long-term outcomes after elective EVAR. Patients with large AAAs (≥6.0 cm) have higher all-cause mortality, complication, and reintervention rates after EVAR than those with smaller aneurysms. We continue to recommend that AAAs be repaired when they reach 5.5 cm as recommended by the guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. On the basis of our data, EVAR

  18. Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Young Man with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Maria Weinkouff; Huynh, Khiem Dinh; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Andersen, Niels Holmark

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are very rare in Marfan syndrome. We present a case with a young nonsmoking and normotensive male with Marfan syndrome, who developed an infrarenal AAA that presented with rupture to the retroperitoneal cavity causing life-threatening bleeding shock. The patient had acute aortic surgery and survived. Five months before this incident, the patient had uneventful elective aortic root replacement (ad modum David) due to an enlarged aortic root. At that time, his abdominal aorta was assessed with a routine ultrasound scan that showed a normal-sized abdominal aorta. This documents that the aneurysm had evolved very rapidly despite young age and absence of risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonography for endoleak detection after endoluminal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Abraha, Iosief; Luchetta, Maria Laura; De Florio, Rita; Cozzolino, Francesco; Casazza, Giovanni; Duca, Piergiorgio; Parente, Basso; Orso, Massimiliano; Germani, Antonella; Eusebi, Paolo; Montedori, Alessandro

    2017-06-09

    People with abdominal aortic aneurysm who receive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) need lifetime surveillance to detect potential endoleaks. Endoleak is defined as persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is considered the reference standard for endoleak surveillance. Colour duplex ultrasound (CDUS) and contrast-enhanced CDUS (CE-CDUS) are less invasive but considered less accurate than CT. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of colour duplex ultrasound (CDUS) and contrast-enhanced-colour duplex ultrasound (CE-CDUS) in terms of sensitivity and specificity for endoleak detection after endoluminal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, ISI Conference Proceedings, Zetoc, and trial registries in June 2016 without language restrictions and without use of filters to maximize sensitivity. Any cross-sectional diagnostic study evaluating participants who received EVAR by both ultrasound (with or without contrast) and CT scan assessed at regular intervals. Two pairs of review authors independently extracted data and assessed quality of included studies using the QUADAS 1 tool. A third review author resolved discrepancies. The unit of analysis was number of participants for the primary analysis and number of scans performed for the secondary analysis. We carried out a meta-analysis to estimate sensitivity and specificity of CDUS or CE-CDUS using a bivariate model. We analysed each index test separately. As potential sources of heterogeneity, we explored year of publication, characteristics of included participants (age and gender), direction of the study (retrospective, prospective), country of origin, number of CDUS operators, and ultrasound manufacturer. We identified 42 primary studies with 4220 participants. Twenty studies provided accuracy data based on the number of individual participants (seven of which provided data with and without the use of contrast). Sixteen of

  20. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  1. First long-term evidence supporting endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Muhs, Bart E; Dardik, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The traditional method of treating abdominal aortic aneurysms with open surgical repair has been steadily replaced by endovascular repair, thought to be a more minimally invasive approach. It is not known, however, whether the endovascular approach is truly less invasive for operative physiology; in addition, this approach has a different spectrum of complications. As such, it is uncertain whether elective endovascular repair of nonruptured aortic aneurysms reduces long-term morbidity and mortality compared with traditional open approaches. In this article, the authors evaluate a recent publication investigating long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms treated with either endovascular or open repair, and discuss the results in the context of current evidence.

  2. Surgical Treatment of Synchronous Type B Acute Aortic Dissection and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bellosta, Raffaello; Gelpi, Guido; Lomazzi, Chiara; Romagnoni, Claudia; Castelli, Patrizio; Trimarchi, Santi; Piffaretti, Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of the operative treatment of synchronous type B acute aortic dissection (TBAAD) and infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). It is an observational, descriptive multicenter case series. Inclusion criterion was patients with diagnosis of TBAAD and AAA detected synchronously for the first time at clinical onset of dissection. Follow-up imaging protocol included triple-phase spiral/computed tomography angiography performed at 1, 6, and 12 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and annually thereafter. Major end points were perioperative mortality and long-term survival, freedom from aortic events, and freedom from reintervention. We identified and treated 15 cases. All TBAADs were treated by TEVAR in the acute phase: infrarenal aortic repair was performed with stent graft (SG) in 10 (66.7%) patients, with open repair in 5 (33.3%). Overall, staged repair was used in 11 (73.3%) patients. Mean descending aortic endovascular length coverage was 21 cm ± 7 (range, 10-35; interquartile range [IQR], 150-265). Overall, early perioperative mortality occurred in 1 (6.7%) patient. Median radiologic follow-up was 48 months (range, 6-120; IQR, 36-67). During the follow-up, TEVAR-related mortality was not observed. Aortic remodeling after TEVAR was obtained in 12 (85.7%) patients; abdominal sac shrinkage after SG was obtained in 8 (80.0%) patients. Freedom from aortic event rate was 79% ± 10 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.1-92.6) at 1 year and 64% ± 13 (95% CI: 38.1-83.5) at 5 year. Freedom from reintervention rate at 1 and 5 year was 85% ± 10 (95% CI: 57.8-95.7). In our experience, the association of TBAAD and AAA was a rare finding. Because of the lack of available evidence to opt for a single intervention or a staged approach, selective approach with TEVAR and endovascular/open conventional treatment of the abdominal aorta yielded satisfactory results at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. The effect of endograft device on patient outcomes in endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Vinay; Nagpal, Sudhir; Jetty, Prasad

    2017-12-01

    Objective Endovascular aneurysm repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is being increasingly applied as the intervention of choice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether survival and reintervention rates after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm vary between endograft devices. Methods This cohort study identified all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms performed at The Ottawa Hospital from January 1999 to May 2015. Data collected included patient demographics, stability index at presentation, adherence to device instructions for use, endoleaks, reinterventions, and mortality. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare outcomes between groups. Mortality outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and multivariate Cox regression modeling. Results One thousand sixty endovascular aneurysm repairs were performed using nine unique devices. Ninety-six ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms were performed using three devices: Cook Zenith ( n = 46), Medtronic Endurant ( n = 33), and Medtronic Talent ( n = 17). The percent of patients presented in unstable or extremis condition was 30.2, which did not differ between devices. Overall 30-day mortality was 18.8%, and was not statistically different between devices ( p = 0.16), although Medtronic Talent had markedly higher mortality (35.3%) than Cook Zenith (15.2%) and Medtronic Endurant (15.2%). AUI configuration was associated with increased 30-day mortality (33.3% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.02). Long-term mortality and graft-related reintervention rates at 30 days and 5 years were similar between devices. Instructions for use adherence was similar across devices, but differed between the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and elective endovascular aneurysm repair cohorts (47.7% vs. 79.0%, p < 0.01). Notably, two patients who received Medtronic Talent grafts underwent open conversion >30 days post-endovascular aneurysm repair ( p = 0.01). Type 1 endoleak rates differed

  4. Differential gene expression in human abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Corey S.; Schreurs, Charlotte; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Walker, Philip J.; Nataatmadja, Maria; West, Malcolm; Holdt, Lesca M.; Hinterseher, Irene; Pilarsky, Christian; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and aortic occlusive disease (AOD) represent common causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly populations which were previously believed to have common aetiologies. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression in human AAA and AOD. We performed microarrays using aortic specimen obtained from 20 patients with small AAAs (≤ 55mm), 29 patients with large AAAs (> 55mm), 9 AOD patients, and 10 control aortic specimens obtained from organ donors. Some differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR)/immunohistochemistry. We identified 840 and 1,014 differentially expressed genes in small and large AAAs, respectively. Immune-related pathways including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and T-cell-receptor signalling were upregulated in both small and large AAAs. Examples of validated genes included CTLA4 (2.01-fold upregulated in small AAA, P = 0.002), NKTR (2.37-and 2.66-fold upregulated in small and large AAA with P = 0.041 and P = 0.015, respectively), and CD8A (2.57-fold upregulated in large AAA, P = 0.004). 1,765 differentially expressed genes were identified in AOD. Pathways upregulated in AOD included metabolic and oxidative phosphorylation categories. The UCP2 gene was downregulated in AOD (3.73-fold downregulated, validated P = 0.017). In conclusion, the AAA and AOD transcriptomes were very different suggesting that AAA and AOD have distinct pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25944698

  5. A numerical framework for studying the biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalahmadi, Golnaz; Linte, Cristian; Helguera, María.

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known as a leading cause of death in the United States. AAA is an abnormal dilation of the aorta, which usually occurs below the renal arteries and causes an expansion at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. It has been shown that biomechanical parameters of the aortic tissue coupled with a set of specific geometric parameters characterizing the vessel expansion, affect the risk of aneurysm rupture. Here, we developed a numerical framework that incorporates both biomechanical and geometrical factors to study the behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our workflow enables the extraction of the aneurysm geometry from both clinical quality, as well as low-resolution MR images. We used a two-parameter, hyper-elastic, isotropic, incompressible material to model the vessel tissue. Our numerical model was tested using both synthetic and mouse data and we evaluated the effects of the geometrical and biomechanical properties on the developed peak wall stress. In addition, we performed several parameter sensitivity studies to investigate the effect of different factors affecting the AAA and its behavior and rupture. Lastly, relationships between different geometrical and biomechanical parameters and peak wall stress were determined. These studies help us better understand vessel tissue response to various loading, geometry and biomechanics conditions, and we plan to further correlate these findings with the pathophysiological conditions from a patient population diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  6. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance.

  7. Massive Blood Transfusion in Patients with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Montan, C; Hammar, U; Wikman, A; Berlin, E; Malmstedt, J; Holst, J; Wahlgren, C M

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to study blood transfusions and blood product ratios in massively transfused patients treated for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs). This was a registry based cohort study of rAAA patients repaired at three major vascular centres between 2008 and 2013. Data were collected from the Swedish Vascular Registry, hospitals medical records, and local transfusion registries. The transfusion data were analysed for the first 24 h of treatment. Massive transfusion (MT) was defined as 4 or more units of red blood cell (RBC) transfused within 1 h, or 10 or more RBC units within 24 h. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of 30 day mortality associated with the ratios of blood products and timing of first units of platelets (PLTs) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfused. Three hundred sixty nine rAAA patients were included: 80% men; 173 endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) and 196 open repairs (ORs) with median RBC transfusion 8 units (Q1-Q3, 4-14) and 14 units (Q1-Q3, 8-28), respectively. A total of 261 (71%) patients required MT. EVAR patients with MT (n = 96) required less transfusion than OR patients (n = 165): median RBC 10 units (Q1-Q3, 6-16.5) vs. 15 units (Q1-Q3, 9-26) (p = .002), FFP 6 units (Q1-Q3, 2-14.5) vs. 13 units (Q1-Q3, 7-24) (p < .001), and PLT 0 units (Q1-Q3, 0-2) vs. 2 units (Q1-Q3, 0-4) (p = .01). Median blood product ratios in MT patients were FFP/RBC (EVAR group 0.59 [0.33-0.86], OR group 0.84 [0.67-1.2]; p < .001], and PLT/RBC (EVAR 0 [0-0.17], OR 0.12 (0-0.18); p < .001]. In patients repaired by OR a FFP/RBC ratio close to 1 was associated with reduced 30 day mortality (p = .003). The median PLT/RBC ratio was higher during the later part of the study period (p < .001, median test), whereas there was no significant difference in median FFP/RBC ratio (p = .101, median test). The majority of rAAA patients undergoing EVAR required MT. EVAR patients treated with MT had lower FFP/RBC and PLT

  8. The role of intraluminal thrombus on oxygen transport in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Sudharsan; Cherry Kemmerling, Erica

    2017-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is ranked as the 13th leading cause of death in the United States. The presence of intraluminal thrombus is thought to cause hypoxia in the vessel wall eventually aggravating the condition. Our work investigates oxygen transport and consumption in a patient-specific model of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The model includes intraluminal thrombus and consists of the abdominal aorta, renal arteries, and iliac arteries. Oxygen transport to and within the aortic wall layer was modeled, accounting for oxygen consumption and diffusion. Flow and transport in the lumen layer were modeled using coupled Navier-Stokes and scalar transport equations. The thrombus layer was assumed to be biomechanically inactive but permeable to oxygen transport in accordance with previously-measured diffusion coefficients. Plots of oxygen concentration through the layers illustrating reduced oxygen supply to the vessel walls in parts of the model that include thrombus will be presented.

  9. Suspected leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm: use of sonography in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Shuman, W P; Hastrup, W; Kohler, T R; Nyberg, D A; Wang, K Y; Vincent, L M; Mack, L A

    1988-07-01

    To determine the value of sonography in the emergent evaluation of suspected leaking abdominal aortic aneurysms, the authors examined 60 patients in the emergency department using sonography and a protocol involving advance radio notification from the ambulance; arrival of sonographic personnel and equipment in the triage room before patient arrival; and, during other triage activities, rapid sonographic evaluation of the aorta for aneurysm and of the paraaortic region for extraluminal blood. Sonographic findings were correlated with surgical results and clinical outcome. When performed under these circumstances, sonography was accurate in demonstrating presence or absence of aneurysm (98%), but its sensitivity for extraluminal blood was poor (4%). A combination of sonographic confirmation of aneurysm, abdominal pain, and unstable hemodynamic condition resulted in the correct decision to perform emergent surgery in 21 of 22 patients (95%). An abbreviated sonographic examination done in the emergency room can provide accurate, useful information about the presence of aneurysm; this procedure does not significantly delay triage of these patients.

  10. Adjusted Hospital Outcomes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Reported in the Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit.

    PubMed

    Lijftogt, N; Vahl, A C; Wilschut, E D; Elsman, B H P; Amodio, S; van Zwet, E W; Leijdekkers, V J; Wouters, M W J M; Hamming, J F

    2017-04-01

    The Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit (DSAA) is mandatory for all patients with primary abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the Netherlands. The aims are to present the observed outcomes of AAA surgery against the predicted outcomes by means of V-POSSUM (Vascular-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity). Adjusted mortality was calculated by the original and re-estimated V(physiology)-POSSUM for hospital comparisons. All patients operated on from January 2013 to December 2014 were included for analysis. Calibration and discrimination of V-POSSUM and V(p)-POSSUM was analysed. Mortality was benchmarked by means of the original V(p)-POSSUM formula and risk-adjusted by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM on the DSAA. In total, 5898 patients were included for analysis: 4579 with elective AAA (EAAA) and 1319 with acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAA), acute symptomatic (SAAA; n = 371) or ruptured (RAAA; n = 948). The percentage of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) varied between hospitals but showed no relation to hospital volume (EAAA: p = .12; AAAA: p = .07). EAAA, SAAA, and RAAA mortality was, respectively, 1.9%, 7.5%, and 28.7%. Elective mortality was 0.9% after EVAR and 5.0% after open surgical repair versus 15.6% and 27.4%, respectively, after AAAA. V-POSSUM overestimated mortality in most EAAA risk groups (p < .01). The discriminative ability of V-POSSUM in EAAA was moderate (C-statistic: .719) and poor for V(p)-POSSUM (C-statistic: .665). V-POSSUM in AAAA repair overestimated in high risk groups, and underestimated in low risk groups (p < .01). The discriminative ability in AAAA of V-POSSUM was moderate (.713) and of V(p)-POSSUM poor (.688). Risk adjustment by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM did not have any effect on hospital variation in EAAA but did in AAAA. Mortality in the DSAA was in line with the literature but is not discriminative for hospital comparisons in EAAA. Adjusting for V(p)-POSSUM, revealed no

  11. The influence of computational assumptions on analysing abdominal aortic aneurysm haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ene, Florentina; Delassus, Patrick; Morris, Liam

    2014-08-01

    The variation in computational assumptions for analysing abdominal aortic aneurysm haemodynamics can influence the desired output results and computational cost. Such assumptions for abdominal aortic aneurysm modelling include static/transient pressures, steady/transient flows and rigid/compliant walls. Six computational methods and these various assumptions were simulated and compared within a realistic abdominal aortic aneurysm model with and without intraluminal thrombus. A full transient fluid-structure interaction was required to analyse the flow patterns within the compliant abdominal aortic aneurysms models. Rigid wall computational fluid dynamics overestimates the velocity magnitude by as much as 40%-65% and the wall shear stress by 30%-50%. These differences were attributed to the deforming walls which reduced the outlet volumetric flow rate for the transient fluid-structure interaction during the majority of the systolic phase. Static finite element analysis accurately approximates the deformations and von Mises stresses when compared with transient fluid-structure interaction. Simplifying the modelling complexity reduces the computational cost significantly. In conclusion, the deformation and von Mises stress can be approximately found by static finite element analysis, while for compliant models a full transient fluid-structure interaction analysis is required for acquiring the fluid flow phenomenon. © IMechE 2014.

  12. Is Conventional Open Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Feasible in Nonagenarians?

    PubMed

    Uehara, Kyokun; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Omura, Atsushi; Seike, Yoshimasa; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-09-25

    Background : Although endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm has been found to be beneficial in very elderly patients, some patients have contraindications to this procedure. For nonagenarians, the results of open repair remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of open vs. endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm in nonagenarian patients. Methods and Results : Fourteen patients undergoing open surgical repair and 24 undergoing endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm were evaluated. There was no significant difference in early mortality between the open and endovascular groups (0% vs. 4.1%, p=0.16). The open repair group required much longer hospital stays (26.4 vs. 10.6 days, respectively, p=0.003). Finally, 12 patients (86%) undergoing open repair vs. 21 (88%) undergoing endovascular repair returned home (p=0.49). During a mean follow-up period of 23.4±23.5 months, cumulative estimated 1- and 3-year survival rates were 90.0% and 48.0%, respectively in the open repair group and 90.6% and 54.9%, respectively in the endovascular repair group (p=0.51). Conclusion : Although endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm was superior in terms of recovery, the results of conventional open repair were acceptable even in nonagenarian patients. Open repair remains an alternative for patients with contraindications to endovascular repair.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with periaortic malignant lymphoma differentiated from aneurysmal rupture by clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Sokichi; Itou, Yoshito; Idoguchi, Koji; Imakita, Masami; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Yagihara, Toshikatsu

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated with periaortic malignant lymphoma is difficult to differentiate from aneurysmal rupture because of similarities in their clinical presentation and appearance on computed tomography images. We here report a case of AAA associated with periaortic malignant lymphoma diagnosed preoperatively with an absence of typical symptoms, showing that AAA in periaortic malignant lymphoma can present without any clinical correlates. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was treated by endovascular repair, which may be safer and more effective than open surgery for AAA associated with malignant lymphoma because of the tight adhesion between the aneurysm and the lymphoid tissue.

  14. Colorectal cancer associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm: results of EVAR followed by colectomy.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The association of colorectal cancer and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is infrequent but poses special problems of priority of treatment under elective circumstances. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcome of 16 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) followed by colectomy. Operative mortality was nil. Operative morbidity included two transient rise of serum creatinine level and one extraperitoneal anastomotic leakage which evolved favourably with conservative treatment. EVAR allowed a very short delay of treatment of colorectal cancer after aneurysm repair, minimizing operative complications.

  15. Three-dimensional finite volume modelling of blood flow in simulated angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algabri, Y. A.; Rookkapan, S.; Chatpun, S.

    2017-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is considered a deadly cardiovascular disease that defined as a focal dilation of blood artery. The healthy aorta size is between 15 and 24 mm based on gender, bodyweight, and age. When the diameter increased to 30 mm or more, the rupture can occur if it is kept growing or untreated. Moreover, the proximal angular neck of aneurysm is categorized as a significant morphological feature with prime harmful effects on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Flow pattern in pathological vessel can influence the vascular intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood flow behaviours in angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm with simulated geometry based on patient’s information using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The 3D angular neck AAA models have been designed by using SolidWorks Software. Consequently, CFD tools are used for simulating these 3D models of angular neck AAA in ANSYS FLUENT Software. Eventually, based on the results, we summarized that the CFD techniques have shown high performance in explaining and investigating the flow patterns for angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  16. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  17. Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm have a high prevalence of popliteal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tuveson, Viktoria; Löfdahl, Hedvig E; Hultgren, Rebecka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are more prone to develop popliteal artery aneurysms (PAA), but the prevalence is not well known. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of PAA in patients with AAA, and to determine whether a certain risk factor profile is more commonly found in patients with concurrent aneurysms. All AAA patients (ICD code I71.3, I71.4) attending the outpatient clinic at the Karolinska University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study cohort (n=465); 48% (225) had been subjected to an ultrasound or computed tomography scan of their popliteal arteries. In these patients, three definitions of PAA were considered (⩾ 10.5, ⩾ 12, ⩾ 15 mm), although the overall analysis is based on PAA ⩾ 12 mm. The mean age was 70.7 years (SD 7.5), 89% were men, and the mean AAA diameter was 47 mm (SD 14). The prevalence of PAA was 19% (n=43) by definition ⩾ 12 mm, and 11% (n=25) with 15 mm. Claudication was more frequently found in AAA patients with PAA than patients without PAA. Sensitivity between clinical examination and radiology was 26%, and the specificity for clinical examination was 90%. In conclusion, owing to the high prevalence of PAA in AAA patients, described by us and others, the low cost and risks associated with ultrasound and the poor sensitivity at clinical examination, all women and men with AAA should undergo one radiological examination of their popliteal arteries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Successful Aortic Banding for Type IA Endoleak Due to Neck Dilatation after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Yasushi; Tamai, Koichi; Shirasugi, Takehiro; Sato, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Imamura, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo; Kobinata, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-25

    A 69-year-old man with a type IA endoleak that developed approximately 21 months after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) of a 46 mm diameter aneurysm was referred to our department. He had impaired renal function, Parkinson's disease, and previous cerebral infarction. Computed tomography angiography showed a type IA endoleak with neck dilatation and that the aneurysm had grown to 60 mm in diameter. We decided to perform aortic banding. The type IA endoleak disappeared after banding and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. Aortic banding may be effective for type IA endoleak after EVAR and less invasive for high-risk patients in particular.

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm with aorta-left renal vein fistula with left varicocele.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, S L; Haider, S A; Gupta, N; O'Dorsio, J E; McKinsey, J F; Schwartz, L B

    2000-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm with spontaneous aorto-left renal vein fistula is a rare but well-described clinical entity usually with abdominal pain, hematuria, and a nonfunctioning left kidney. This report describes a 44-year-old man with left-sided groin pain and varicocele who was treated with conservative measures only. The diagnosis was eventually made when he returned with microscopic hematuria, elevated serum creatinine level, and nonfunction of the left kidney; computed tomography scan demonstrated a 6-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, a retroaortic left renal vein, and an enlargement of the left kidney. This patient represents the youngest to be reported with aorto-left renal vein fistula and the second case with a left-sided varicocele.

  20. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following risk categories: (i) Has a family history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. (ii) Is a man age 65 to...: (1) A procedure using soundwaves (or other procedures using alternative technologies of commensurate...

  1. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an ultrasound...

  2. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an ultrasound...

  3. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.19 Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic... definitions apply: Eligible beneficiary means an individual who— (1) Has received a referral for an ultrasound...

  4. Adventitial adipogenic degeneration is an unidentified contributor to aortic wall weakening in the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Stefan A; Gäbel, Gabor; Kokje, Vivianne B C; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2018-06-01

    The processes driving human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression are not fully understood. Although antiinflammatory and proteolytic strategies effectively quench aneurysm progression in preclinical models, so far all clinical interventions failed. These observations hint at an incomplete understanding of the processes involved in AAA progression and rupture. Interestingly, strong clinical and molecular associations exist between popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) and AAAs; however, PAAs have an extremely low propensity to rupture. We thus reasoned that differences between these aneurysms may provide clues toward (auxiliary) processes involved in AAA-related wall debilitation. A better understanding of the pathophysiologic processes driving AAA growth can contribute to pharmaceutical treatments in the future. Aneurysmal wall samples were collected during open elective and emergency repair. Control perirenal aorta was obtained during kidney transplantation, and reference popliteal tissue obtained from the anatomy department. This study incorporates various techniques including (immuno)histochemistry, Western Blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray, and cell culture. Histologic evaluation of AAAs, PAAs, and control aorta shows extensive medial (PAA) and transmural fibrosis (AAA), and reveals abundant adventitial adipocytes aggregates as an exclusive phenomenon of AAAs (P < .001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and microarray analysis showed enrichment of adipogenic mediators (C/EBP family P = .027; KLF5 P < .000; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, P = .032) in AAA tissue. In vitro differentiation tests indicated a sharply increased adipogenic potential of AAA adventitial mesenchymal cells (P < .0001). Observed enrichment of adipocyte-related genes and pathways in ruptured AAA (P < .0003) supports an association between the extent of fatty degeneration and rupture. This

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with congenital solitary pelvic kidney treated with novel hybrid technique.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Michael J; Al-Nouri, Omar; Hershberger, Richard; Halandras, Pegge M; Aulivola, Bernadette; Cho, Jae S

    2014-08-01

    Renal ectopia in the rare condition of associated abdominal aortic aneurysm presents a difficult clinical challenge with respect to access to the aorto-iliac segment and preservation of renal function because of its anomalous renal arterial anatomy and inevitable renal ischemia at the time of open repair. Multiple operative techniques are described throughout the literature to cope with both problems. We report a case of a 57-year-old male with an aorto-iliac aneurysm and a congenital solitary pelvic kidney successfully treated by hybrid total renal revascularization using iliorenal bypass followed by unilateral internal iliac artery coil embolization and conventional endovascular aortic aneurysm repair without any clinical evidence of renal impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aortic iron overload with oxidative stress and inflammation in human and murine abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hisashi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Naito, Yoshiro; Oboshi, Makiko; Hirotani, Shinichi; Mitsuno, Masataka; Miyamoto, Yuji; Hirota, Seiichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-06-01

    Although iron is an essential element for maintaining physiological function, excess iron leads to tissue damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, it has not been investigated whether iron plays a role in AAA formation through oxidative stress and inflammation. We, therefore, examined whether iron is involved in the pathophysiology of AAA formation using human AAA walls and murine AAA models. Human aortic walls were collected from 53 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery (non-AAA=34; AAA=19). Murine AAA was induced by infusion of angiotensin II to apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Iron was accumulated in human and murine AAA walls compared with non-AAA walls. Immunohistochemistry showed that both 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and CD68-positive areas were increased in AAA walls compared with non-AAA walls. The extent of iron accumulated area positively correlated with that of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine expression area and macrophage infiltration area in human and murine AAA walls. We next investigated the effects of dietary iron restriction on AAA formation in mice. Iron restriction reduced the incidence of AAA formation with attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation. Aortic expression of transferrin receptor 1, intracellular iron transport protein, was increased in human and murine AAA walls, and transferrin receptor 1-positive area was similar to areas where iron accumulated and F4/80 were positive. Iron is involved in the pathophysiology of AAA formation with oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary iron restriction could be a new therapeutic strategy for AAA progression. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Prediction of Mortality From Clinical Presentation and Glasgow Aneurysm Score.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Toby N; Thompson, Lauren T; Licatino, Lauren K; Bailey, Christopher H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    To examine association of presenting clinical acuity and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS) with perioperative and 1-year mortality. Retrospective chart review. Major tertiary care facility. Patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) from 2003 through 2013. Emergency repair of rAAA. The authors reviewed outcomes after stable versus unstable presentation and by GAS. Unstable presentation included hypotension, cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, and preoperative tracheal intubation. In total, 125 patients (40 stable) underwent repair. Perioperative mortality rates were 41% and 12% in unstable and stable patients, respectively (p<0.001). Unstable status had 88% sensitivity and 41% specificity for predicting perioperative mortality. Using logistic regression, higher GAS was associated with perioperative mortality (p<0.001). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.62-0.82) and cutoff GAS≥96 had 63% and 72% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Perioperative mortality for GAS≥96 was 51% (25/49), whereas it was 20% (15/76) for GAS≤95. The estimated 1-year survival (95% CI) was 75% (62%-91%) for stable patients and 48% (38%-60%) for unstable patients. Estimated 1-year survival (95% CI) was 23% (13%-40%) for GAS≥96 and 77% (67%-87%) for GAS≤95. Clinical presentation and GAS identified patients with rAAA who were likely to have a poor surgical outcome. GAS≥96 was associated with poor long-term survival, but>20% of these patients survived 1 year. Thus, neither clinical presentation nor GAS provided reliable guidance for decisions regarding futility of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel risk predictor for thrombus deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, M. G. C.; Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Succi, S.

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the basic mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular diseases stands as one of the most challenging problems in modern medical research including various mechanisms which encompass a broad spectrum of space and time scales. Major implications for clinical practice and pre-emptive medicine rely on the onset and development of intraluminal thrombus in which effective clinical therapies require synthetic risk predictors/indicators capable of informing real-time decision-making protocols. In the present contribution, two novel hemodynamics synthetic indicators, based on a three-band decomposition (TBD) of the shear stress signal, are introduced. Extensive fluid-structure computer simulations of patient-specific scenarios confirm the enhanced risk-prediction capabilities of the TBD indicators. In particular, they permit a quantitative and accurate localization of the most likely thrombus deposition in realistic aortic geometries, where previous indicators would predict healthy operation. The proposed methodology is also shown to provide additional information and discrimination criteria on other factors of major clinical relevance, such as the size of the aneurysm.

  9. Current status of endoluminal grafting for exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The beauty and the beast.

    PubMed Central

    Diethrich, E B

    1998-01-01

    The exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms with endoluminal grafts has generated a great deal of interest since the early 1990s, and many centers are currently evaluating the procedure and comparing it to classic surgical exclusion. Although endoluminal grafting procedures show promise, development and clinical testing of devices is a time-consuming process that is influenced greatly by the regulatory climate in the country where the clinical trials take place. Nevertheless, a number of devices are currently under study, and the advantages of 2nd- and 3rd-generation technology are reflected in reduced rates of complications such as endoleaks and thrombosis. Further study will be required to perfect these devices and observe their long-term success in the exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Images PMID:9566057

  10. Current status of endoluminal grafting for exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The beauty and the beast.

    PubMed

    Diethrich, E B

    1998-01-01

    The exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms with endoluminal grafts has generated a great deal of interest since the early 1990s, and many centers are currently evaluating the procedure and comparing it to classic surgical exclusion. Although endoluminal grafting procedures show promise, development and clinical testing of devices is a time-consuming process that is influenced greatly by the regulatory climate in the country where the clinical trials take place. Nevertheless, a number of devices are currently under study, and the advantages of 2nd- and 3rd-generation technology are reflected in reduced rates of complications such as endoleaks and thrombosis. Further study will be required to perfect these devices and observe their long-term success in the exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  11. Abdominal Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Borioni, Raoul; Garofalo, Mariano; De Paulis, Ruggero; Nardi, Paolo; Scaffa, Raffaele; Chiariello, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Isolated abdominal aortic dissections are rare events. Their anatomic and clinical features are different from those of atherosclerotic aneurysms. We report 4 cases of isolated abdominal aortic dissection that were successfully treated with surgical or endovascular intervention. The anatomic and clinical features and a review of the literature are also presented. PMID:15902826

  12. The quality of research on physical examination for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nunnelee, Janice D; Spaner, Steven D

    2004-03-01

    A review of nursing literature revealed no studies regarding physical examination or other interventions (except unit based) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The physician literature was explored, revealing an excellent meta-analysis in 1999 of studies before that date with regard to physician accuracy in physical examination for AAA. These are reviewed for quality and recommendations made for nursing research and the role of the Society for Vascular Nursing in teaching nurses.

  13. Postoperative Development of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome among Patients Undergoing Endovascular Aortic Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Elizabeth; Manzur, Miguel; Han, Sukgu; Ham, Sung Wan; Weaver, Fred A; Rowe, Vincent L

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has a reported incidence of 9%-14% among trauma patients. However, in patients with similar hemodynamic changes, the incidence of ACS remains unclear. Our aim was to determine the incidence of ACS among patients undergoing endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) and to identify associated risk factors. A retrospective review was performed for consecutive patients who underwent EVAR for rAAA from March 2010 to November 2016 at our institution. The development of ACS was diagnosed based on a variety of factors, including bladder pressure, laboratory abnormalities, hemodynamic monitoring, and clinical evaluation. Previously validated risk factors for ACS development in trauma and EVAR patients (preoperative hypotension, aggressive fluid resuscitation, postoperative anemia, use of an aorto-uniiliac graft, and placement of an aortic occlusive balloon) were analyzed. Association between patient characteristics and ACS development was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. During the study period, 25 patients had image-confirmed rAAA and underwent emergent EVAR. Mortality rate was 28% (n = 7), and ACS incidence was 12% (n = 3). Of the analyzed risk factors, hypotension on arrival (P = 0.037), transfusion of 3 or more units of packed red blood cells (P = 0.037), and postoperative anemia (P = 0.02) were all significantly associated with postoperative ACS development. In addition, having greater than 3 of the studied risk factors was associated with increased odds of developing ACS (P = 0.015), and having greater than 4 of the studied risk factors showed the strongest association with ACS development (P = 0.0017). Overresuscitation should be avoided in patients with rAAA. In addition, patients who present with multiple risk factors for ACS should be monitored very closely with serial bladder pressures and may require decompression laparotomy immediately after EVAR. Copyright © 2018

  14. Open versus endovascular stent graft repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms: an historical view.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Robert B

    2012-03-01

    Development of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysms repair (EVAR), now in its 4th decade, has involved at least 16 different devices, not counting major modifications of some, only 4 of which have emerged from clinical trials and gained US Food and Drug Administration approval. The main impetus behind EVAR has been its potential for significantly reducing procedural mortality and morbidity, but it was also expected to speed recovery and reduce costs through decreased use of hospital resources. At the outset, EVAR was touted as a better alternative to OPEN in high-risk patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms, and to "watchful waiting" (periodic ultrasound surveillance) for those with small abdominal aortic aneurysms. This new technology has evoked a mixed response with enthusiasts and detractors debating its pros and cons. Bias and conflict of interest exist on both sides. This review will attempt to present a balanced review of the development and current status of this controversial competition between EVAR and OPEN, comparing them in terms of the following key considerations: mortality and morbidity, complications, failure modes and durability, and costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm events in the women's health initiative: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Frank A; Larson, Joseph C; Margolis, Karen L; Allison, Matthew A; Freiberg, Matthew S; Cochrane, Barbara B; Graettinger, William F; Curb, J David

    2008-10-14

    To assess the association between potential risk factors and subsequent clinically important abdominal aortic aneurysm events (repairs and ruptures) in women. Large prospective observational cohort study with mean follow-up of 7.8 years. 40 clinical centres across the United States. 161 808 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 enrolled in the women's health initiative. Association of self reported or measured baseline variables with confirmed abdominal aortic aneurysm events assessed with multiple logistic regression. Events occurred in 184 women and were strongly associated with age and smoking. Ever smoking, current smoking, and amount smoked all contributed independent risk. Diabetes showed a negative association (odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.13, 0.68), as did postmenopausal hormone therapy. Positive associations were also seen for height, hypertension, cholesterol lowering treatment, and coronary and peripheral artery disease. Our findings confirm the strong positive associations of clinically important abdominal aortic aneurysm with age and smoking in women and the negative association with diabetes previously reported in men.

  16. Background differences in baseline and stimulated MMP levels influence abdominal aortic aneurysm susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Matthew A.; Ruhlman, Melissa K.; Zhao, Shijia; Meisinger, Trevor; Gu, Linxia; Swier, Vicki J.; Agrawal, Devendra K.; Greiner, Timothy C.; Carson, Jeffrey S.; Baxter, B. Timothy; Xiong, Wanfen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence has demonstrated profound influence of genetic background on cardiovascular phenotypes. Murine models in Marfan syndrome (MFS) have shown that genetic background-related variations affect thoracic aortic aneurysm formation, rupture, and lifespan of mice. MFS mice with C57Bl/6 genetic background are less susceptible to aneurysm formation compared to the 129/SvEv genetic background. In this study, we hypothesize that susceptibility to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) will be increased in 129/SvEv mice versus C57Bl/6 mice. We tested this hypothesis by assessing differences in aneurysm size, tissue properties, immune response, and MMP expression. Methods Mice of C57Bl/6 or 129/SvEv background underwent AAA induction by periaortic application of CaCl2. Baseline aortic diameters, tissue properties and MMP levels were measured. After aneurysm induction, diameters, MMP expression, and immune response (macrophage infiltration and bone marrow transplantation) were measured. Results Aneurysms were larger in 129/SvEv mice than C57Bl/6 mice (83.0% ± 13.6 increase compared to 57.8% ± 6.4). The aorta was stiffer in the 129/SvEv mice compared to C57Bl/6 mice (952.5 kPa ± 93.6 versus 621.4 kPa ± 84.2). Baseline MMP-2 and post-aneurysm MMP-2 and -9 levels were higher in 129/SvEv aortas compared to C57Bl/6 aortas. Elastic lamella disruption/fragmentation and macrophage infiltration were increased in 129/SvEv mice. Myelogenous cell reversal by bone marrow transplantation did not affect aneurysm size. Conclusions These data demonstrate that 129/SvEv mice are more susceptible to AAA compared to C57Bl/6 mice. Intrinsic properties of the aorta between the two strains of mice, including baseline expression of MMP-2, influence susceptibility to AAA. PMID:26546710

  17. Fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given

  18. Open versus endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: What have we learned after more than 2 decades of ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William P

    2017-12-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most difficult clinical problems in surgical practice, with extraordinarily high morbidity and mortality. During the past 23 years, the literature has become replete with reports regarding ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of study designs and databases have been utilized to compare ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair and open surgical repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and studies of various designs from different databases have yielded vastly different conclusions. It therefore remains controversial whether ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair improves outcomes after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. The purpose of this article is to review the best available evidence comparing ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair and open surgical repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, including single institution and multi-institutional retrospective observational studies, large national population-based studies, large national registries of prospectively collected data, and randomized controlled clinical trials. This article will analyze the study designs and databases utilized with their attendant strengths and weaknesses to understand the sometimes vastly different conclusions the studies have reached. This article will attempt to integrate the data to distill some of the lessons that have been learned regarding ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair and identify ongoing needs in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Use of an iliac branched endoprostheis in endovascular treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm combined with aneurysms of both common iliac arteries].

    PubMed

    Imaev, T E; Kuchin, I V; Lepilin, P M; Kolegaev, A S; Medvedeva, I S; Komlev, A E; Akchurin, R S

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm appears to be combined with aneurysmatic lesions of the common iliac arteries in 30-40% of cases. Like abdominal aortic aneurysms, aneurysms of the common iliac arteries rarely manifest themselves clinically. The lethality rate in case of rupture is comparable to that for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. During endoprosthetic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms combined with aneurysms of the common iliac arteries, in order to prevent endoleaks and to improve the distal zone of fixation of endografts surgeons often resort to embolization of internal iliac arteries, which may lead to ischaemic postoperative complications. One of the methods of preserving pelvic blood flow is the use of an iliac branched endograft. A series of studies evaluating long-term outcomes demonstrated that this method proved to be both safe and effective, and with the suitable anatomy is a method of choice in high surgical risk patients. The present article deals with a clinical case report concerning bilateral endoprosthetic repair of the common iliac arteries, combined with endoprosthetic repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, with the description of technical peculiarities of implanting an iliac branched graft.

  20. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33 mm (range 20 to 74 mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Intraluminal Thrombus: Current Concepts of Development and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Piechota-Polanczyk, Aleksandra; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Nowak, Witold; Eilenberg, Wolf; Neumayer, Christoph; Malinski, Tadeusz; Huk, Ihor; Brostjan, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) shows several hallmarks of atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic disease, but comprises an additional, predominant feature of proteolysis resulting in the degradation and destabilization of the aortic wall. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on AAA development, involving the accumulation of neutrophils in the intraluminal thrombus and their central role in creating an oxidative and proteolytic environment. Particular focus is placed on the controversial role of heme oxygenase 1/carbon monoxide and nitric oxide synthase/peroxynitrite, which may exert both protective and damaging effects in the development of the aneurysm. Treatment indications as well as surgical and pharmacological options for AAA therapy are discussed in light of recent reports. PMID:26664891

  2. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm sizing and case planning using the TeraRecon Aquarius workstation.

    PubMed

    Lee, W Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The gold standard for preoperative evaluation of an aortic aneurysm is a computed tomography angiogram (CTA). Three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of the computed tomography data set is enormously helpful, and even sometimes essential, in proper sizing and planning for endovascular stent graft repair. To a large extent, it has obviated the need for conventional angiography for morphologic evaluation. The TeraRecon Aquarius workstation (San Mateo, Calif) represents a highly sophisticated but user-friendly platform utilizing a combination of task-specific hardware and software specifically designed to rapidly manipulate large Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets and provide surface-shaded and multiplanar renderings in real-time. This article discusses the basics of sizing and planning for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and the role of 3-dimensional analysis using the TeraRecon workstation.

  3. Personal resources and satisfaction with life in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic pathology and in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients.

    PubMed

    Stanišić, Michał-Goran; Rzepa, Teresa; Gawrońska, Alicja; Kubaszewski, Przemysław; Putowski, Maciej; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Perek, Bartłomiej

    2018-03-01

    Whether or not the source of aortic pathology is Marfan syndrome (MFS) or other processes leading to development of abdominal aorta aneurysms (AAA), the awareness of pathology may lead to an emotional upset and low assessment of satisfaction with life. To assess, in regard to MFS patients with aortic pathology and to abdominal aortic aneurysm patients: 1) whether or not self-efficacy (SE) and health locus of control (HLoC) affect the patients' satisfaction with life; 2) whether the two groups of patients differ in terms of mental dispositions. The study population consisted of 16 MFS patients with aortic pathology and 16 AAA patients, 9 men and 7 women in each group. The mean age of the MFS patients was 28.5 ±8.214, and of the AAA patients 64.25 ±7.019. The following scales were applied: Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Abdominal aorta aneurysms patients compared to MFS patients gave a higher rating for SE ( MD = 33.94 and MD = 29.56), internal health locus of control ( MD = 25.00 and MD = 21.13), external personal HL o C ( MD = 24.50 and MD = 19.25), external impersonal HLoC ( MD = 23.06 and MD = 18.25), and satisfaction with life ( M = 22.06 and M = 20.13). Internal and external HL o C were significantly lower in MFS patients compared to AAA patients. In patients with aortic diseases, special attention must be paid to the state of personal resources (PR). Interactions made by medical professionals should focus on enhancing PR supporting the patients' self-knowledge on their SE. This will help to improve their satisfaction with life and form a positive attitude to the illness.

  4. Multiple sites of vascular dilation or aneurysmal disease and matrix metalloproteinase genetic variants in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fiotti, Nicola; Calvagna, Cristiano; Sgorlon, Giada; Altamura, Nicola; Pitacco, Paola; Zamolo, Francesca; Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Chiarandini, Stefano; Biolo, Gianni; Adovasio, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether functional genetic polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 3, 9, and 12 are associated with arterial enlargements or aneurysms of the thoracic aorta or popliteal arteries in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The associations between MMP1 (-1607 G in/del, rs1799750), MMP3 (-1171 A in/del rs35068180), MMP9 (13-26 CA repeats around -90, rs2234681, rs917576, rs917577), and MMP12 (G/T missense variation, rs652438) polymorphisms and enlargements or aneurysms of the thoracic aorta and popliteal arteries were tested in 169 consecutive AAA patients. Thoracic aorta enlargement or aneurysm (TE/A; maximum diameter, >35 mm) was detected in 34 patients (20.1% prevalence). MMP9 rs2234681 microsatellite was the only genetic determinant of TE/A in AAA patients (P = .003), followed by hypercholesterolemia and antiplatelet use. Carriers of both alleles with ≥22 CA repeats had a 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-18.6; P < .0001) increased odds of TE/A, and a score considering all three variables showed 98% negative predictive value and 30% positive predictive value for thoracic aortic aneurysm detection. Eighty-two popliteal artery enlargements or aneurysms (diameter >10 mm) occurred in 55 patients (33.1% prevalence). Carriers of MMP12 rs652438 C allele showed an 18% (P = .006) increased diameter in popliteal arteries and a 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-6; P = .008) increased odds of popliteal artery enlargement or aneurysm compared with TT genotype. Among patients with AAA, carriers of homozygous ≥22 CA repeats in MMP9 rs12234681 and of C allele in MMP12 rs652438 have a substantial risk of carrying thoracic and popliteal enlargements, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluid displacement from intraluminal thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of uniform compression.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Kim; Schuurmann, Richte Cl; Wermelink, Bryan; Slump, Cornelis H; Kuijpers, Karel C; de Vries, Jean-Paul Pm

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The results after aneurysm repair with an endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) system are dependent on the stability of the aneurysm sac and particularly the intraluminal abdominal aortic thrombus (ILT). The postprocedural ILT volume is decreased compared with preprocedural ILT volume in aortic aneurysm patients treated with EVAS. We hypothesize that ILT is not stable in all patients and pressurization of the ILT may result in displacement of fluids from the ILT, no differently than serum is displaced from whole blood when it settles. To date, the mechanism and quantification of fluid displacement from ILT are unknown. Methods The study included 21 patients who underwent elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The ILT was harvested as a routine procedure during the operation. After excision of a histologic sample of the ILT specimen in four patients, ILT volume was measured and the ILT was compressed in a dedicated compression setup designed to apply uniform compression of 200 mmHg for 5 min. After compression, the volumes of the remaining thrombus and the displaced fluid were measured. Results The median (interquartile-range) of ILT volume before compression was 60 (66) mL, and a median of 5.7 (8.4) mL of fluid was displaced from the ILT after compression, resulting in a median thrombus volume decrease of 11% (10%). Fluid components can be up to 31% of the entire ILT volume. Histologic examination of four ILT specimens showed a reduction of the medial layer of the ILT after compression, which was the result of compression of fluid-containing canaliculi. Conclusions Applying pressure of 200 mmHg to abdominal aortic aneurysm ILT resulted in the displacement of fluid, with a large variation among patients. Fluid displacement may result in decrease of ILT volume during and after EVAS, which might have implications on pre-EVAS volume planning and on stability of the endobags during follow-up which may lead to migration, endoleak or both.

  6. Bilateral hypogastric artery occlusion in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zander, Tobias; Baldi, Sebastian; Rabellino, Martin; Rostagno, Roman; Isaza, Baltasar; Llorens, Rafael; Carreira, Jose M; Maynar, Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Endovascular treatment of aortoiliac aneurysms near or involving the hypogastric artery (HGA) requires HGA occlusion before endografting to avoid retrograde filling of the aneurysm. The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of bilateral HGA occlusion and determine if benefits gained by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) outweigh the morbidity associated with the procedure. Between 1999 and 2004, 128 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated with bifurcated endograft placement. Bilateral coverage or embolization of HGAs was performed in 14 patients (10.9%). Embolization was achieved by deployment of coils and coverage was accomplished by extending the endoprosthesis into the external iliac artery. Clinical follow-up and computed tomographic angiography were performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and annually thereafter to detect potential aneurysm growth and endoleaks. During follow-up (range, 1-72 months), buttock claudication was noted in four patients (28.6%), including unilateral claudication in two and bilateral claudication in two. One patient experienced claudication longer than 12 months, which resolved within 18 months. De novo erectile dysfunction was seen in one patient, and pelvic ischemia was not found in any patient. There was no evidence of endoleak, aneurysm enlargement, or death associated with HGA occlusion. In our series, complications of bilateral HGA occlusion before EVAR were moderate and resolved over time. The benefits gained from EVAR outweigh the clinical problems caused by bilateral HGA occlusion, as there are no technical complications added to the EVAR procedure.

  7. Place of endovascular repair in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    BenHammamia, Mohamed; Kaouel, Karim; Ben Mrad, Malek; Ziadi, Jalel; Derbel, Bilel; Ghedira, Faker; Denguir, Raouf

    2017-01-01

    Open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a significant morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of endovascular techniques, much progress has been made. The aim of this study is to clarify the feasibility and the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in short and middle terms. Between 2008 and 2015, 14 patients underwent EVAR. The average age was 65 years. Comorbidities were found in 7 patients. It was coronary artery disease in 3 cases and severe respiratory failure in 4 cases. The aneurysm was atherosclerotic in 12 cases and inflammatory in 2 cases. The average length of the proximal neck was 29 mm. The mean aneurysm diameter was 65mm. A bifurcated stent graft has been deployed in 12 cases and an aorto-mono-iliac stent graft was deployed in 2 cases. Immediate technical success was achieved in 13 patients. Immediate surgical conversion was performed in 1 case. The average hospital stay was 5 days. We haven't deployed any early death. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, we deployed 3 late deaths; two deaths were not related to the aneurysm and one death was secondary to rupture of the aneurysm caused by a proximal stent graft migration. EVAR is actually a therapeutic increasingly used. Its results, especially late, are still being evaluated. Meanwhile, its indications must be selective.

  8. Three-dimensional workstation is useful for measuring the correct size of abdominal aortic aneurysm diameters.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Tsutomu; Komori, Kimihiro; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Banno, Hiroshi; Kodama, Akio

    2013-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter is usually measured by the maximum minor-axis diameter on axial computed tomography (CT). However, this "traditional" diameter may underestimate the real size, as the aorta is not always straight and the aneurysm shape is sometimes in the form of an ellipse along the cross section. Therefore, we measured maximum major-axis diameters using a three-dimensional (3D) workstation and compared them with the traditional maximum minor-axis diameters measured using thin-slice axial CT. CT data of 141 AAA patients (with fusiform aneurysms) were stored in a 3D workstation. These thin-slice CT images were reviewed on the 3D workstation to obtain curved multiplanar reconstruction images (CPR images). Using the CPR images, we measured the maximum major-axis and minor-axis diameters on CPR and the angle of the aneurysms to the body axis. The mean traditional maximum minor-axis diameter was 51.2 ± 8.2 mm, whereas the mean maximum major-axis diameter on CPR was 54.7 ± 10.1 mm. Sixty eight patients had a mean aneurysm size of <50 mm when measured by the traditional minor-axis diameter. Among these patients, five (7.4%) had a major-axis diameter >55 mm on CPR. The measurement of the traditional maximum minor-axis diameter of aneurysms is useful in the case of most patients. However, the traditional maximum minor-axis diameter may underestimate the real aneurysmal diameter, particularly in patients with an ellipse-shaped aneurysm. The maximum major-axis diameter as measured using CPR images is effective for representing the real aneurysmal size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlled hypotension versus normotensive resuscitation strategy for people with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniel H; Cacione, Daniel G; Baptista-Silva, Jose C C

    2016-05-13

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the pathological enlargement of the aorta and can develop in both men and women. Progressive aneurysm enlargement can lead to rupture. The rupture of an AAA is frequently fatal and accounts for the death from haemorrhagic shock of at least 45 people per 100,000 population. The outcome of people with ruptured AAA varies among countries and healthcare systems, with mortality ranging from 53% to 90%. Definitive treatment for ruptured AAA includes open surgery or endovascular repair. The management of haemorrhagic shock is crucial for the person's outcome and aims to restore organ perfusion and systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg through immediate and aggressive fluid replacement. This rapid fluid replacement is known as the normotensive resuscitation strategy. However, evidence suggests that infusing large volumes of cold fluid causes dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. The association of these factors may exacerbate bleeding, resulting in a 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidaemia, and coagulopathy. An alternative to the normotensive resuscitation strategy is the controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation strategy, with a target systolic blood pressure of 50 to 100 mm Hg. The principle of controlled or hypotensive resuscitation has been used in some management protocols for endovascular repair of ruptured AAA. It may be beneficial in preventing blood loss by avoiding the clot disruption caused by the rapid increase in systolic blood pressure; avoiding dilution of clotting factors, platelets and fibrinogen; and by avoiding the temperature decrease that inhibits enzyme activity involved in platelet and clotting factor function. To compare the effects of controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation and normotensive resuscitation strategies for people with ruptured AAA. The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register (April 2016) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (CENTRAL (2016

  10. Prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysm progression by targeted inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity with batimastat-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nosoudi, Nasim; Nahar-Gohad, Pranjal; Sinha, Aditi; Chowdhury, Aniqa; Gerard, Patrick; Carsten, Christopher G; Gray, Bruce H; Vyavahare, Naren R

    2015-11-06

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated extracellular matrix destruction is the major cause of development and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Systemic treatments of MMP inhibitors have shown effectiveness in animal models, but it did not translate to clinical success either because of low doses used or systemic side effects of MMP inhibitors. We propose a targeted nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery of MMP inhibitor at low doses to the abdominal aortic aneurysms site. Such therapy will be an attractive option for preventing expansion of aneurysms in patients without systemic side effects. Our previous study showed that poly(d,l-lactide) NPs conjugated with an antielastin antibody could be targeted to the site of an aneurysm in a rat model of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In the study reported here, we tested whether such targeted NPs could deliver the MMP inhibitor batimastat (BB-94) to the site of an aneurysm and prevent aneurysmal growth. Poly(d,l-lactide) NPs were loaded with BB-94 and conjugated with an elastin antibody. Intravenous injections of elastin antibody-conjugated BB-94-loaded NPs targeted the site of aneurysms and delivered BB-94 in a calcium chloride injury-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in rats. Such targeted delivery inhibited MMP activity, elastin degradation, calcification, and aneurysmal development in the aorta (269% expansion in control versus 40% elastin antibody-conjugated BB-94-loaded NPs) at a low dose of BB-94. The systemic administration of BB-94 alone at the same dose was ineffective in producing MMP inhibition. Targeted delivery of MMP inhibitors using NPs may be an attractive strategy to inhibit aneurysmal progression. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30–49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  12. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in the Presence of a Transplanted Kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: silverberg-d@msn.com; Yalon, Tal; Halak, Moshe

    PurposeTo present our experience performing endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in kidney transplanted patients.MethodsA retrospective review of all patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) performed at our institution from 2007 to 2014. We identified all patients who had previously undergone a kidney transplant. Data collected included: comorbidities, preoperative imaging modalities, indication for surgery, stent graft configurations, pre- and postoperative renal function, perioperative complications, and survival rates.ResultsA total of 267 EVARs were performed. Six (2 %) had a transplanted kidney. Mean age was 74 (range, 64–82) years; five were males. Mean time from transplantation tomore » EVAR was 7.5 (range, 2–12) years. Five underwent preoperative planning with noncontrast modalities only. Devices used included bifurcated (n = 3), aortouniiliac (n = 2), and tube (n = 1) stent grafts. Technical success was achieved in all patients. None experienced deterioration in renal function. Median follow-up was 39 (range, 6–51) months. Four patients were alive at the time of the study. Two patients expired during the period of follow-up from unrelated causes.ConclusionsEVAR is an effective modality for the management of AAAs in the coexistence of a transplanted kidney. It can be performed with minimal morbidity and mortality without harming the transplanted kidney. Special consideration should be given to device configuration to minimize damage to the renal graft.« less

  13. The effects of preoperative cardiology consultation prior to elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair on patient morbidity.

    PubMed

    Boniakowski, Anna E; Davis, Frank M; Phillips, Amanda R; Robinson, Adina B; Coleman, Dawn M; Henke, Peter K

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The relationship between preoperative medical consultations and postoperative complications has not been extensively studied. Thus, we investigated the impact of preoperative consultation on postoperative morbidity following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on 469 patients (mean age 72 years, 20% female) who underwent elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair from June 2007 to July 2014. Data elements included detailed medical history, preoperative cardiology consultation, and postoperative complications. Primary outcomes included 30-day morbidity, consult-specific morbidity, and mortality. A bivariate probit regression model accounting for the endogeneity of binary preoperative medical consult and patient variability was estimated with a maximum likelihood function. Results Eighty patients had preoperative medical consults (85% cardiology); thus, our analysis focuses on the effect of cardiac-related preoperative consults. Hyperlipidemia, increased aneurysm size, and increased revised cardiac risk index increased likelihood of referral to cardiology preoperatively. Surgery type (endovascular versus open repair) was not significant in development of postoperative complications when controlling for revised cardiac risk index ( p = 0.295). After controlling for patient comorbidities, there was no difference in postoperative cardiac-related complications between patients who did and did not undergo cardiology consultation preoperatively ( p = 0.386). Conclusions When controlling for patient disease severity using revised cardiac risk index risk stratification, preoperative cardiology consultation is not associated with postoperative cardiac morbidity.

  14. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm--a pilot study in six medical schemes.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Alan D; McLeod, Heather; Walters, Laubi; Veller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A pilot study to assess the feasibility and affordability of a targeted screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysms in a group of employer-based medical schemes. Administrative database review and data extraction. Member enrolment by mail. Analysis using simple descriptive statistics. Review of international experience. Screening uptake and findings, type and cost of interventions recommended by providers. Database review identified 2187 age-eligible subjects (males between 60 and 65 years) who were advised to consult with their doctor/s if they had a history of smoking/and or cardiovascular disease. Two hundred and seven were referred for abdominal ultrasound screening, and aneurysms > or = 3.0 cm were found in 11 (5.3%). Only 1 subject had an aneurysm of sufficient size to justify early surgical intervention, and which resulted in the patient's death. Total cost of this pilot study approached R1 million. Analysis indicated that the sampling rate would have to be increased if such a programme were to be introduced as a routine medical benefit. International experience has been that screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms reduces morbidity and mortality but at a significant cost. Opinion of the researchers and trustees of the participating medical schemes was that this cost would be beyond the means of schemes at this time. Screening programmes, particularly those that increase health care costs in the early phases by identifying subjects for costly interventions, are unlikely to enjoy support as long as the health funding environment maintains its focus on short-term costs and benefits.

  15. Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into sigmoid colon: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Murat; Yanar, Hakan; Taviloglu, Korhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Ayalp, Kemal; Yanar, Fatih; Guloglu, Recep; Kurtoglu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Primary aorto-colic fistula is rarely reported in the literature. Although infrequently encountered, it is an important complication since it is usually fatal unless detected. Primary aorto-colic fistula is a spontaneous rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into the lumen of the adjacent colon loop. Here we report a case of primary aorto-colic fistula in a 54-year old male. The fistulated sigmoid colon was repaired by end-to-end anastomosis. Despite inotropic support, the patient died of sepsis and multiorgan failure on the first postoperative day. PMID:17167850

  16. Creation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Sheep by Extrapolation of Rodent Models: Is It Feasible?

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Peter; Verhoeven, Jelle; Clijsters, Marnick; Vervoort, Dominique; Coudyzer, Walter; Verbeken, Eric; Meuris, Bart; Herijgers, Paul

    2018-06-07

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a potentially deathly disease, needing surgical or endovascular treatment. To evaluate potentially new diagnostic tools and treatments, a large animal model, which resembles not only the morphological characteristics but also the pathophysiological background, would be useful. Rodent animal aneurysm models were extrapolated to sheep. Four groups were created: intraluminal infusion with an elastase-collagenase solution (n = 4), infusion with elastase-collagenase solution combined with proximal stenosis (n = 7), aortic xenograft (n = 3), and elastase-collagenase-treated xenograft (n = 4). At fixed time intervals (6, 12, and 24 weeks), computer tomography and autopsy with histological evaluation were performed. The described models had a high perioperative mortality (45%), due to acute aortic thrombosis or fatale hemorrhage. A maximum aortic diameter increase of 30% was obtained in the protease-stenosis group. In the protease-treated groups, some histological features of human AAAs, such as inflammation, thinning of the media, and loss of elastin could be reproduced. In the xenotransplant groups, a pronounced inflammatory reaction was visible at the start. In all models, inflammation decreased and fibrosis occurred at long follow-up, 24 weeks postoperatively. None of the extrapolated small animal aneurysm models could produce an AAA in sheep with similar morphological features as the human disease. Some histological findings of human surgical specimens could be reproduced in the elastase-collagenase-treated groups. Long-term histological evaluation indicated stabilization and healing of the aortic wall months after the initial stimulus. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Review of pre- and post-treatment multidetector computed tomography findings in abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Casula, E; Lonjedo, E; Cerverón, M J; Ruiz, A; Gómez, J

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the frequency of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and the widely accepted use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) as a first-line treatment or as an alternative to conventional surgery make it necessary for radiologists to have thorough knowledge of the pre- and post-treatment findings. The high image quality provided by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) enables CT angiography to play a fundamental role in the study of AAA and in planning treatment. The objective of this article is to review the cases of AAA in which CT angiography was the main imaging technique, so that radiologists will be able to detect the signs related to this disease, to diagnose it, to plan treatment, and to detect complications in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Biomarkers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease: Identifying Gaps and Dispelling Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Avgerinos, Efthymios; Makris, Marinos; Bakoyiannis, Chris; Pikoulis, Emmanuel; Georgopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent and potentially life-threatening disease. Early detection by screening programs and subsequent surveillance has been shown to be effective at reducing the risk of mortality due to aneurysm rupture. The aim of this review is to summarize the developments in the literature concerning the latest biomarkers (from 2008 to date) and their potential screening and therapeutic values. Our search included human studies in English and found numerous novel biomarkers under research, which were categorized in 6 groups. Most of these studies are either experimental or hampered by their low numbers of patients. We concluded that currently no specific laboratory markers allow screeing for the disease and monitoring its progression or the results of treatment. Further studies and studies in larger patient groups are required in order to validate biomarkers as cost-effective tools in the AAA disease. PMID:24967416

  19. Total laparorobotic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with sac exclusion obliteration and aortobifemoral bypass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Timothy; Prema, Jateen; Zagaja, Gregory; Shalhav, Arieh; Bassiouny, Hisham S

    2009-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with coronary artery disease, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease was found to have an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of 5.5 cm on surveillance for his peripheral vascular disease. Cardiac stress testing demonstrated no evidence of myocardial ischemia, and he opted to undergo open repair of his aneurysm. Laparorobotic repair of the infrarenal AAA using the da Vinci robotic system was performed with an aortobifemoral bypass. We describe a novel technique for AAA exclusion using a cerclage method, which greatly facilitates repair of infrarenal AAAs using laparorobotic techniques. Laparorobotic repair of infrarenal AAA can be greatly facilitated by AAA sac exclusion and obliteration without the need to ligate all lumbar arteries or to open the aneurysm. This virtually avoids blood loss from the sac and minimizes the possibility for open conversion as a result of poor visualization. Minimally invasive aortic intervention for aneurysmal disease using laparascopic methods has been reported in the literature. Problems associated with this technique include a prolonged learning curve and difficulty completing intracorporeal anastomoses. Robotic surgery provides an advantage over laparoscopic surgery in its ability to provide greater degrees of freedom in a relatively small field of view along with superior high-definition, three-dimensional visualization. To date, there have been no known reports of using robotic surgery in the United States as a sole method for repair of AAA. We report our technique of combining robotic surgery with a novel procedure for sac exclusion and obliteration to successfully repair AAA without the need for opening the aneurysm sac and endoaneurysmorrhaphy.

  20. Risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) among male and female relatives of AAA patients.

    PubMed

    van de Luijtgaarden, Koen M; Rouwet, Ellen V; Hoeks, Sanne E; Stolker, Robert J; Verhagen, Hence Jm; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle

    2017-04-01

    Sex affects the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although AAAs are less prevalent in women, at least in the general population, women with an AAA have a poorer prognosis in comparison to men. Sex differences in the genetic predisposition for aneurysm disease remain to be established. In this study we investigated the familial risk of AAA for women compared to men. All living AAA patients included in a 2004-2012 prospective database were invited to the multidisciplinary vascular/genetics outpatient clinic between 2009 and 2012 for assessment of family history using detailed questionnaires. AAA risk for male and female relatives was calculated separately and stratified by sex of the AAA patients. Families of 568 AAA patients were investigated and 22.5% of the patients had at least one affected relative. Female relatives had a 2.8-fold and male relatives had a 1.7-fold higher risk than the estimated sex-specific population risk. Relatives of female AAA patients had a higher aneurysm risk than relatives of male patients (9.0 vs 5.9%, p = 0.022), corresponding to 5.5- and 2.0-fold increases in aneurysm risk in the female and male relatives, respectively. The risk for aortic aneurysm in relatives of AAA patients is higher than expected from population risk. The excess risk is highest for the female relatives of AAA patients and for the relatives of female AAA patients. These findings endorse targeted AAA family screening for female and male relatives of all AAA patients.

  1. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair complicated by spondylodiscitis and iliaco-enteral fistula.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Heleen D; van Sterkenburg, Steven M M; Pierie, Maurice E N; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2008-06-01

    Infections of abdominal aortic endografts are rare. There are no reports on the association with spondylodiscitis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and subsequently femorofemoral bypass placement due to occlusion of the right limb of the endograft. Six months later, he presented with rectal bleeding, weight loss, back pain, and low abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed extensive abscess formation with air in and around the endograft and psoas muscles, in continuity with destructive spondylodiscitis L3-4. There was a small bowel loop in close proximity to the occluded right leg of the endograft, which was filled with air bubbles. An axillofemoral bypass was created followed by a laparotomy. Intra-operatively, an iliaco-enteral fistula was found. The small bowel defect was sutured, the endograft completely removed, and the infrarenal aorta and both common iliac arteries were closed. Necrotic fragments of the former L3-4 disk were removed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Seven months postoperatively, the patient had recovered well. Iliaco-enteric fistula and spondylodiscitis are rare complications of aortic aneurysm repair. This is the first report of spondylodiscitis after EVAR.

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine as a Potential Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Wang, Ning; Bensoussan, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible condition where the abdominal aorta is dilated leading to potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of AAA, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) apoptosis, immune cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Currently surgical therapies, including minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), are the only viable interventions for AAAs. However, these treatments are not appropriate for the majority of AAAs, which measure <50 mm. Substantial effort has been invested to identify and develop pharmaceutical treatments such as statins and doxycycline for this potentially lethal condition but these interventions failed to offer a cure or to retard the progression of AAA. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for the management of cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China and other Asian countries. The unique multi-component and multi-target property of CHMs makes it a potentially ideal therapy for multifactorial diseases such as AAA. In this review, we review the current scientific evidence to support the use of CHMs for the treatment of AAA. Mechanisms of action underlying the effects of CHMs on AAA are also discussed. PMID:29732374

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine as a Potential Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Wang, Ning; Bensoussan, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an irreversible condition where the abdominal aorta is dilated leading to potentially fatal consequence of aortic rupture. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the development and progression of AAA, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) apoptosis, immune cell infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Currently surgical therapies, including minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), are the only viable interventions for AAAs. However, these treatments are not appropriate for the majority of AAAs, which measure <50 mm. Substantial effort has been invested to identify and develop pharmaceutical treatments such as statins and doxycycline for this potentially lethal condition but these interventions failed to offer a cure or to retard the progression of AAA. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for the management of cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China and other Asian countries. The unique multi-component and multi-target property of CHMs makes it a potentially ideal therapy for multifactorial diseases such as AAA. In this review, we review the current scientific evidence to support the use of CHMs for the treatment of AAA. Mechanisms of action underlying the effects of CHMs on AAA are also discussed.

  4. Gorham disease of the lumbar spine with an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Yohei; Iizuka, Haku; Kobayashi, Ryoichi; Iizuka, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toru; Mohara, Jun; Takagishi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Reports of Gorham disease of the lumbar spine complicated by abdominal aortic aneurysms are rare. We herein report the case of a patient with Gorham disease of the lumber spine involving an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Case report. A 49-year-old man had a 1-month history of right leg pain and severe low back pain. Plain lumbar radiography revealed an osteolytic lesion in the L4 vertebral body. Computed tomography images demonstrated the presence of an extensive osteolytic lesion in the L4 vertebral body and an AAA in front of the L4 vertebral body. The patient underwent mass resection, spinal reconstruction, and blood vessel prosthesis implantation. During surgery, it was found that the wall of the aorta had completely disappeared and was shielded by the tumor mass; therefore, we speculated that the mass in the lumbar spine had directly invaded the aorta. The patient was able to walk without right leg or low back pain 1 year after undergoing surgery. No recurrence was demonstrated in the magnetic resonance images taken 1 year and 10 months after surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Failure to rescue and mortality following repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Waits, Seth A; Sheetz, Kyle H; Campbell, Darrell A; Ghaferi, Amir A; Englesbe, Michael J; Eliason, Jonathan L; Henke, Peter K

    2014-04-01

    Recently, failure to rescue (FTR; death following major complication) has been shown to be a primary driver of mortality in highly morbid operations. Establishing this relationship for open and endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms may be a critical first step in improving mortality following these procedures. We sought to examine the relative contribution of severe complications and FTR to variations in mortality rate. We examined endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) and open aortic repair (OAR; n = 3215) performed in 40 hospitals participating in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative from 2007 to 2012. Hospitals were first divided into risk-adjusted mortality tertiles. We then determined rates of severe complications and FTR within each tertile. For EVAR, risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates varied significantly between the lowest and highest tertiles (0.07% vs 6.14%; P < .01). However, while major complication rates were almost identical (9.0 vs 9.8; P = NS), FTR rates were about 35 times greater in high-mortality hospitals (4.0% vs 33.3%). Similar associations with mortality, severe complications, and FTR were seen for OAR as well. The most common complications that led to FTR events were postoperative transfusion (OAR 29.8% vs EVAR 5.8%) and prolonged ventilation (OAR 18.2% vs EVAR 1.0%). The average number of severe complications per FTR event was 2.85 and 2.66 for OAR and EVAR, respectively. FTR appears to drive a large proportion of the variation in mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The exact mechanisms underlying this variation remain unknown. Nonetheless, FTR is influenced by the structural characteristics and safety culture related to the timely recognition and management of severe complications. Hospitals that are unable to effectively handle severe complications following EVAR or OAR require close scrutiny. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. French Women From Multiplex Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Families Should Be Screened

    PubMed Central

    Le Hello, Claire; Koskas, Fabien; Cluzel, Philippe; Tazi, Zoubida; Gallos, Corina; Piette, Jean Charles; Lasserve, Elisabeth Tournier; Kieffer, Edouard; Cacoub, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Background: Multiplex abdominal aortic aneurysm families (MAAAFs) (≥1 subject plus the proband) represent 1% to 34% of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but the percentage in France is unknown. Method: The MAAAF rate was retrospectively defined by analysis of 3 groups: 72 of 104 consecutive individuals undergoing AAA surgery during 1994, 24 of 53 women and 35 of 76 men with giant (≥9 cm) AAA operated on during 1986 to 1994. MAAAF characteristics were determined based on 10 families issued from these 3 groups and 34 others identified nationwide. Data were obtained from a standardized questionnaire for probands and relatives, detailed pedigrees of each family, and computed tomography (CT) scans without contrast medium of the aorta and lower limb arteries for first-degree relatives ≥40-year-of age. Results: The MAAAF rate was 4.2% for the consecutive-surgery patients (proband M/F ratio, 17:1; mean age at surgery, 68.5 ± 8.5 years). CT detected no additional AAA among them (screened individuals M/F ratio, 0.63; mean age, 54.0 ± 11.2 years). MAAAF rates were 8.3% and 14.3% for the women's and giant-AAA groups with CT screening, respectively. Characteristics were investigated in 104 affected subjects from 44 MAAAFs: female relatives were more often affected than probands (P < 0.025). Compared with men, affected female relatives were significantly older at diagnosis and surgery (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively), as were affected women (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). CT scan screening identified significantly more AAA and abdominal aortic dilatations among the 44 MAAAFs than the consecutive-surgery group (5 and 4, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Although the MAAAF rate seems low in France, women from MAAAF were affected more often and later, suggesting that they should be screened. PMID:16244549

  7. Effect of exercise on patient specific abdominal aortic aneurysm flow topology and mixing

    PubMed Central

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Les, Andrea S.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to investigate changes in blood transport topology between rest and exercise conditions in five patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm models. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to provide the vascular anatomy and necessary boundary conditions for simulating blood velocity and pressure fields inside each model. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields, and associated Lagrangian coherent structures, were computed from blood velocity data, and used to compare features of the transport topology between rest and exercise both mechanistically and qualitatively. A mix-norm and mix-variance measure based on fresh blood distribution throughout the aneurysm over time were implemented to quantitatively compare mixing between rest and exercise. Exercise conditions resulted in higher and more uniform mixing, and reduced the overall residence time in all aneurysms. Separated regions of recirculating flow were commonly observed in rest, and these regions were either reduced or removed by attached and unidirectional flow during exercise, or replaced with regional chaotic and transiently turbulent mixing, or persisted and even extended during exercise. The main factor that dictated the change in flow topology from rest to exercise was the behavior of the jet of blood penetrating into the aneurysm during systole. PMID:24493404

  8. Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: Structural and geometrical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesri, Yaser; Niazmand, Hamid; Deyranlou, Amin; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza

    2015-08-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the result of the relatively complex interaction of blood hemodynamics and material behavior of arterial walls. In the present study, the cumulative effects of physiological parameters such as the directional growth, arterial wall properties (isotropy and anisotropy), iliac bifurcation and arterial wall thickness on prediction of wall stress in fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of five idealized AAA models have been investigated. In particular, the numerical model considers the heterogeneity of arterial wall and the iliac bifurcation, which allows the study of the geometric asymmetry due to the growth of the aneurysm into different directions. Results demonstrate that the blood pulsatile nature is responsible for emerging a time-dependent recirculation zone inside the aneurysm, which directly affects the stress distribution in aneurismal wall. Therefore, aneurysm deviation from the arterial axis, especially, in the lateral direction increases the wall stress in a relatively nonlinear fashion. Among the models analyzed in this investigation, the anisotropic material model that considers the wall thickness variations, greatly affects the wall stress values, while the stress distributions are less affected as compared to the uniform wall thickness models. In this regard, it is confirmed that wall stress predictions are more influenced by the appropriate structural model than the geometrical considerations such as the level of asymmetry and its curvature, growth direction and its extent.

  9. Effect of exercise on patient specific abdominal aortic aneurysm flow topology and mixing.

    PubMed

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Les, Andrea S; Dalman, Ronald L; Shadden, Shawn C

    2014-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to investigate changes in blood transport topology between rest and exercise conditions in five patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm models. MRI was used to provide the vascular anatomy and necessary boundary conditions for simulating blood velocity and pressure fields inside each model. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields and associated Lagrangian coherent structures were computed from blood velocity data and were used to compare features of the transport topology between rest and exercise both mechanistically and qualitatively. A mix-norm and mix-variance measure based on fresh blood distribution throughout the aneurysm over time were implemented to quantitatively compare mixing between rest and exercise. Exercise conditions resulted in higher and more uniform mixing and reduced the overall residence time in all aneurysms. Separated regions of recirculating flow were commonly observed in rest, and these regions were either reduced or removed by attached and unidirectional flow during exercise, or replaced with regional chaotic and transiently turbulent mixing, or persisted and even extended during exercise. The main factor that dictated the change in flow topology from rest to exercise was the behavior of the jet of blood penetrating into the aneurysm during systole. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Streptococcus suis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Laohapensang, Kamphol; Rutherford, Robert B; Arworn, Supapong

    2010-04-01

    Streptococcus suis is a common infection of pigs. Human infection is often related to accidental inoculation through skin injuries during occupational exposure to pigs and pork. The disease may present as meningitis, bacteremia, and less commonly endocarditis, arthritis, or bronchopneumonia. Case report and review of the literature. We report a case of bacteremia and severe sepsis caused by S. suis serotype 2 complicated by septic arthritis in a 56-year-old male with history of a prior contact with unprocessed pork. The causative agent was isolated from blood cultures and aspirated synovial fluid. The patient's condition improved after treatment with penicillin, but he was found subsequently to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm, confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scan. The mycotic aneurysm was successfully repaired using an in situ graft reconstruction. Tissue samples analyzed using polymerase chain reaction identified S. suis serotype 2 as the causative organism. After completion of two weeks of parenteral antibiotics, an oral form of ciprofloxacin (0.25 g twice a day) was continued for one month. The patient was discharged from our institution after uncomplicated recovery. Clinical review, a CT scan, and inflammatory markers nine months after surgery revealed no evidence of infection. This is the first report of mycotic aneurysm caused by S. suis, which may be an etiologic agent of mycotic aneurysms, especially when complicated by bacteremia in adults with a recent history of contact with pigs or unprocessed pork.

  11. Hemodynamics-Driven Deposition of Intraluminal Thrombus in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Di Achille, P.; Tellides, G.; Humphrey, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that intraluminal thrombus plays many roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms. There is, therefore, a pressing need for computational models that can describe and predict the initiation and progression of thrombus in aneurysms. In this paper, we introduce a phenomenological metric for thrombus deposition potential and use hemodynamic simulations based on medical images from six patients to identify best-fit values of the two key model parameters. We then introduce a shape optimization method to predict the associated radial growth of the thrombus into the lumen based on the expectation that thrombus initiation will create a thrombogenic surface, which in turn will promote growth until increasing hemodynamically induced frictional forces prevent any further cell or protein deposition. Comparisons between predicted and actual intraluminal thrombus in the six patient-specific aneurysms suggest that this phenomenological description provides a good first estimate of thrombus deposition. We submit further that, because the biologically active region of the thrombus appears to be confined to a thin luminal layer, predictions of morphology alone may be sufficient to inform fluid-solid-growth models of aneurysmal growth and remodeling. PMID:27569676

  12. Inflammatory Cells and Proteases in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and its Complications.

    PubMed

    Haiying, Jiang; Sasaki, Takeshi; Jin, Enze; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Cheng, Xianwu

    2018-05-30

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a common disease among elderly individuals, involves the progressive dilatation of the abdominal aorta as a consequence of degeneration. The mechanisms of AAA formation, development and rupture are largely unknown. Surgical repair is the only available method of treatment since the lack of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of AAA has hindered the development of suitable medical treatments, particularly the development of drugs. In this review, we describe the inflammatory cells and proteases that may be involved in the formation and development of AAA. This knowledge can contribute to the development of new drugs for AAA. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Seychelles population aged 50 to 65 years.

    PubMed

    Yerly, Patrick; Madeleine, George; Riesen, Walter; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its risk factors are well known in Western countries but few data are available from low- and middle- income countries. We are not aware of systematically collected population- based data on AAA in the African region. We evaluated the prevalence of AAA in a population- based cardiovascular survey conducted in the Republic of Seychelles in 2004 (Indian Ocean, African region). Among the 353 participants aged 50 to 64 years and screened with ultrasound, the prevalence of AAA was 0.3% (95% CI: 0- 0.9) and the prevalence of ectatic dilatations of the abdominal aorta was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2- 2.8). The prevalence of AAA in the general population seemed lower in Seychelles than in Western countries, despite a high prevalence in Seychelles of risk factors of AAA, such as smoking (in men), high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia.

  14. Intervisceral artery origins in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysmal disease; evidence for systemic vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Damian M; Evans, Tom G; Thomas, Kate Gower; White, Richard D; Twine, Chistopher P; Lewis, Michael H; Williams, Ian M

    2016-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? To what extent focal abdominal aortic aneurysmal (AAA) disease is associated with systemic remodelling of the vascular tree remains unknown. The present study examined whether anatomical differences exist between distances of the intervisceral artery origins and AAA location/size in patients with disease compared with healthy patients. What is the main finding and its importance? Intervisceral artery distances were shown to be consistently greater in AAA patients, highlighting the systemic nature of AAA disease that extends proximally to the abdominal aorta and its branches. The anatomical description of the natural variation in visceral artery origins has implications for the design of stent grafts and planning complex open aortic surgery. The initial histopathology of abdominal aortic aneurysmal (AAA) disease is atherosclerotic, later diverting towards a distinctive dilating rather than occlusive aortic phenotype. To what extent focal AAA disease is associated with systemic remodelling of the vascular tree remains unknown. The present study examined whether anatomical differences exist between the intervisceral artery origins and AAA location/size in patients with AAA disease (AAA+) relative to those without (AAA-). Preoperative contrast-enhanced computerized tomograms were reviewed in 90 consecutive AAA+ patients scheduled for open repair who underwent an infrarenal (n = 45), suprarenal (n = 26) or supracoeliac clamp (n = 19). These were compared with 39 age-matched AAA- control patients. Craniocaudal measurements were recorded from the distal origin of the coeliac artery to the superior mesenteric artery and from the origin of the superior mesenteric artery to both renal artery origins. Serial blood samples were obtained for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate before and after surgery. Intervisceral artery origins were shown to be consistently greater in AAA+ patients (P < 0.05 versus AAA-), although

  15. PM2.5 promotes abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in angiotensin Ⅱ-infused apoe-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xie; Jin, Geng; Fu, Chen; Jinxuan, Zhao; Xuelin, Li; Jiaxin, Hu; Shuaihua, Qiao; Anqi, Shan; Jianzhou, Chen; Lian, Zhou; Xiwen, Zhang; Baoli, Zhu; Biao, Xu

    2018-08-01

    Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has proven to be associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. However, whether PM2.5 could promote the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is unclear. Present study aimed to explore the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and AAA development. Ang Ⅱ-infused apoe -/- mice were treated with PM2.5 or saline by intranasal instillation. Four weeks later, histological and immunohistological analyses were used to evaluate the effect of PM2.5 on AAA formation. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were also employed to further analyze the adverse effect of PM2.5 in vitro. We found that PM2.5 could significantly increase the AAA incidence, the maximal abdominal aortic diameter and could promote the degradation of elastin. Additionally, the expression of senescence markers, P21 and P16 were also enhanced after PM2.5 exposure. We also found that PM2.5 significantly increased the AAA related pathological changes, MMP2 and MCP-1 expression in HASMCs. Meanwhile, PM2.5 could increase the expression of senescence markers P21, P16 and SA-β-gal activity, also the reactive oxygen species levels in vitro. PM2.5 promoted the formation of AAA in an Ang Ⅱ-induced AAA model. The underlying mechanism might be cellular senescence after PM2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term survival following open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Englund, Raymond; Katib, Nedal

    2017-05-01

    Long-term results for patients being managed for ruptured compared to elective abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are unclear. We hypothesize that patients who survive 30 days or more following repair of ruptured AAA (RAAA) performed by open technique have a life expectancy no different to those patients surviving 30 days or more following elective AAA repair, or compared to a general age-matched population. Between 1987 and December 2014, 620 consecutive patients were treated by the principal author for aortic aneurysmal disease. Two subgroups were selected from this population, elective open abdominal repair (215) and RAAA open repair (105). Comparable age-matched life curves with the general population were used from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for each patient according to gender, age and date of presentation. Statistical comparison was by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Both the open and RAAA groups were well matched for age and sex. There was no statistical difference between RAAA survival and an age-matched population P = 0.23, or was there any difference between open repair and an age-matched population, P = 0.1. Survival curves for RAAA and open repair were similar, P = 0.98. For elective open repair 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year survival was 93.6, 71.2, 40, 17 and 2% respectively. Corresponding results for RAAA were 92.5, 74, 36.7, 13.5 and 5% respectively. Open AAA repair for RAAA or elective aneurysm treatment restores predicted life expectancy for those patients surviving 30 days or more and is therefore a durable method of treatment for this condition. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of open versus endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    van Bochove, Cornelis A; Burgers, Laura T; Vahl, Anco C; Birnie, Erwin; van Schothorst, Marien G; Redekop, William K

    2016-03-01

    Patients with a large unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with a diameter >5.0 cm are treated with open surgical repair (OSR) or endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Because many studies have assessed the cost-effectiveness of these treatments with conflicting results, this systematic review examined published cost-effectiveness analyses of elective EVAR vs OSR in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. A systematic search strategy using three databases was conducted to find all relevant studies. Characteristics extracted from these studies included study characteristics (eg, age of the population), input parameters (eg, costs of the EVAR procedure), general results, and sensitivity analyses. The quality of each study was assessed using the Drummond checklist. The search identified 1141 potentially relevant studies, of which 13 studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies found that EVAR was more expensive and more effective than OSR. However, most studies concluded that the health gained from EVAR did not offset the higher total costs, leading to an unacceptably high incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. EVAR was considered more cost-effective in patient groups with a high surgical risk. The quality of most studies was judged as reasonably good. Overall, published cost-effectiveness analyses of EVAR do not provide a clear answer about whether elective EVAR is a cost-effective solution because the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio varies considerably among the studies. This answer can best be provided through a cost-effectiveness analysis of EVAR that incorporates more recent technologic advances and the improved experience that clinicians have with EVAR. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program using hand-held ultrasound in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Kostov, Belchin; Navarro González, Marta; Cararach Salami, Daniel; Pérez Jiménez, Alfonso; Gilabert Solé, Rosa; Bru Saumell, Concepció; Donoso Bach, Lluís; Villalta Martí, Mireia; González-de Paz, Luis; Ruiz Riera, Rafael; Riambau Alonso, Vicenç; Acar-Denizli, Nihan; Farré Almacellas, Marta; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Benavent Àreu, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We determined the feasibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening program led by family physicians in public primary healthcare setting using hand-held ultrasound device. The potential study population was 11,214 men aged ≥ 60 years attended by three urban, public primary healthcare centers. Participants were recruited by randomly-selected telephone calls. Ultrasound examinations were performed by four trained family physicians with a hand-held ultrasound device (Vscan®). AAA observed were verified by confirmatory imaging using standard ultrasound or computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were determined. The prevalence of AAA was computed as the sum of previously-known aneurysms, aneurysms detected by the screening program and model-based estimated undiagnosed aneurysms. We screened 1,010 men, with mean age of 71.3 (SD 6.9) years; 995 (98.5%) men had normal aortas and 15 (1.5%) had AAA on Vscan®. Eleven out of 14 AAA-cases (78.6%) had AAA on confirmatory imaging (one patient died). The total prevalence of AAA was 2.49% (95%CI 2.20 to 2.78). The median aortic diameter at diagnosis was 3.5 cm in screened patients and 4.7 cm (p<0.001) in patients in whom AAA was diagnosed incidentally. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified coronary heart disease (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 15.9) as the independent factor with the highest odds ratio. A screening program led by trained family physicians using hand-held ultrasound was a feasible, safe and reliable tool for the early detection of AAA. PMID:28453577

  19. Use of the Hardman index in predicting mortality in endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Daniel M; Altaf, Nishath; Goode, Steve D; Braithwaite, Bruce D; MacSweeney, Shane T; Richards, Toby

    2011-12-01

    The Hardman index is a predictor of 30-day mortality after open ruptured abdominal aneurysm repair through the use of preoperative patient factors. The aim of this study was to assess the Hardman index in patients undergoing endovascular repair of ruptured aortic aneurysms. A retrospective analysis of 95 patients undergoing emergency endovascular repairs of computed tomography-confirmed ruptured aneurysms from 1994 to 2008 in a university hospital was performed. All relevant patient variables, calculations of the Hardman index, and the incidence of 30-day mortality were collected in these patients. Correlation of the relationship between each variable and the overall score with the incidence of 30-day mortality was undertaken. The 24-hour mortality was 16% and 30-day mortality 36%. Increasing scores on the Hardman index showed an increasing mortality rate. Thirty-day mortality in patients with a score of 0 to 2 was 30.5%, and in those with a score of ≥3 was 69.2% (P = .01, risk ratio = 2.26, 95% confidence interval = 0.98 to 5.17). This is lower than predicted in both patient groups based on Hardman index score. Loss of consciousness was the only statistically significant independent predictor of 30-day mortality with a risk ratio of 3.16 (95% confidence interval = 2.00-4.97, P < .001). These data suggest that the Hardman index can predict an increased risk of 30-day mortality from endovascular repairs of ruptured aortic aneurysms. However, mortality from endovascular repair is much lower than would be predicted in open repair and it therefore cannot be used clinically as a tool for exclusion from intervention.

  20. In Vivo Molecular Characterization of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Fibrin-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Botnar, René M; Brangsch, Julia; Reimann, Carolin; Janssen, Christian H P; Razavi, Reza; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R

    2018-05-30

    The incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) will significantly increase during the next decade. Novel biomarkers, besides diameter, are needed for a better characterization of aneurysms and the estimation of the risk of rupture. Fibrin is a key protein in the formation of focal hematoma associated with the dissection of the aortic wall and the development of larger thrombi during the progression of AAAs. This study evaluated the potential of a fibrin-specific magnetic resonance (MR) probe for the in vivo characterization of the different stages of AAAs. AAAs spontaneously developed in ApoE -/- mice following the infusion of angiotensin-II (Ang-II, 1 μg/kg -1 ·per minute). An established fibrin-specific molecular MR probe (EP2104R, 10 μmol/kg -1 ) was administered after 1 to 4 weeks following Ang-II infusion (n=8 per group). All imaging experiments were performed on a clinical 3T Achieva MR system with a microscopy coil (Philips Healthcare, Netherlands). The development of AAA-associated fibrin-rich hematoma and thrombi was assessed. The high signal generated by the fibrin probe enabled high-resolution MR imaging for an accurate assessment and quantification of the relative fibrin composition of focal hematoma and thrombi. Contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) and R1-relaxation rates following the administration of the fibrin probe were in good agreement with ex vivo immunohistomorphometry ( R 2 =0.83 and 0.85) and gadolinium concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy ( R 2 =0.78 and 0.72). The fibrin-specific molecular MR probe allowed the delineation and quantification of changes in fibrin content in early and advanced AAAs. Fibrin MRI could provide a novel in vivo biomarker to improve the risk stratification of patients with aortic aneurysms. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients with congenital renal vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D B; Kwon, C C; Marin, M L; Hollier, L H

    1999-09-01

    The endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been suggested as an alternative to conventional aortic reconstruction. The presence of anomalous renal vascular anatomy frequently necessitates special planning during conventional aortic replacement and may also create unique challenges for endovascular repair. We analyzed our experience with 24 patients with variant renal vascular anatomies who underwent treatment with aortic endografts to determine the safety and efficacy of this technique in this population. During a 6-year period, 204 patients underwent aortic endograft procedures, 24 (11.8%) of whom had variations in renal vascular anatomy. There were 19 men and five women. Each of the 24 patients had variant renal vascular anatomy, which was defined by the presence of multiple renal arteries (n = 32), with or without a renal parenchymal anomaly (horseshoe or solitary pelvic kidney). Twenty patients underwent aneurysm repair with balloon expandable polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, and the remaining patients underwent endograft placement with self-expanding attachment systems. Eighteen patients underwent exclusion and presumed thrombosis of anomalous renal branches to effectively attach the aortic endograft. The decision to sacrifice a supernumerary artery was made on the basis of the vessel size (<3 mm), the absence of coexisting renal insufficiency, and the expectation for successful aneurysm exclusion. The successful exclusion of the AAAs was achieved in all the patients, with the loss of a total of 17 renal artery branches in 12 patients. Small segmental renal infarcts (<20%) were detected in only six of the 12 patients with follow-up computed tomographic scan results, despite angiographic evidence of vessel occlusion at the time of endografting. No evidence of new onset hypertension or changes in antihypertensive medication was seen in this group. No retrograde endoleaks were detected through the excluded renal branches on late follow

  2. Editor's Choice - Inequalities in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening in England: Effects of Social Deprivation and Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jacomelli, J; Summers, L; Stevenson, A; Lees, T; Earnshaw, J J

    2017-06-01

    Population screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men is currently ongoing in several countries. The aim was to examine the effects of deprivation and ethnicity on uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and prevalence of AAA. This was a review of outcomes from a population screening programme using data collected contemporaneously on a bespoke national database. Men aged 65 in two annual cohorts (2013/14 and 2014/15) were invited for AAA screening. Attendance and prevalence of AAA (aortic diameter >2.9 cm) were recorded. Results were compared according to measures of social deprivation and recorded ethnicity. Some 593,032 men were invited and 461,898 attended for ultrasound screening; uptake 77.9%. Uptake was related to social deprivation: 65.1% in the most deprived decile, 84.1% in the least deprived: OR for least deprived 2.84, 95% CI 2.76-2.92, p<.0001. Men in deprived areas were more likely to actively decline screening: 6% versus 3.8% in the least deprived decile. AAA were twice as common in the most deprived compared with the least deprived decile: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.77-2.27, p<.0001. AAA were more common in white British men than in black (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.31-0.71) or Asian (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.13-0.26) men. There was considerable local variation in all findings. Social deprivation affects uptake of AAA screening in 65 year old men. Local factors are the most important determinants of uptake, so solutions to improve uptake must be designed at local, not national level. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled hypotension versus normotensive resuscitation strategy for people with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniel H; Cacione, Daniel G; Baptista-Silva, Jose Cc

    2018-06-13

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the pathological enlargement of the aorta and can develop in both men and women. Progressive aneurysm enlargement can lead to rupture. The rupture of an AAA is frequently fatal and accounts for the death from haemorrhagic shock of at least 45 people per 100,000 population. The outcome of people with ruptured AAA varies among countries and healthcare systems, with mortality ranging from 53% to 90%. Definitive treatment for ruptured AAA includes open surgery or endovascular repair. The management of haemorrhagic shock is crucial for the person's outcome and aims to restore organ perfusion and systolic blood pressure above 100 mmHg through immediate and aggressive fluid replacement. This rapid fluid replacement is known as the normotensive resuscitation strategy. However, evidence suggests that infusing large volumes of cold fluid causes dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. The association of these factors may exacerbate bleeding, resulting in a 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidaemia, and coagulopathy. An alternative to the normotensive resuscitation strategy is the controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation strategy, with a target systolic blood pressure of 50 mmHg to 100 mmHg. The principle of controlled or hypotensive resuscitation has been used in some management protocols for endovascular repair of ruptured AAA. It may be beneficial in preventing blood loss by avoiding the clot disruption caused by the rapid increase in systolic blood pressure; avoiding dilution of clotting factors, platelets and fibrinogen; and by avoiding the temperature decrease that inhibits enzyme activity involved in platelet and clotting factor function. This is an update of a review first published in 2016. To compare the effects of controlled (permissive) hypotension resuscitation and normotensive resuscitation strategies for people with ruptured AAA. The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register (August

  4. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  5. Effect of AMPK signal pathway on pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Le; Shen, Lin; Gao, Peixian; Li, Gang; He, Yuxiang; Wang, Maohua; Zhou, Hua; Yuan, Hai; Jin, Xing; Wu, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Determine the effect of AMPK activation and inhibition on the development of AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm). Methods AAA was induced in ApoE−/− mice by Ang II (Angiotensin II)-infusion. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside) was used as AMPK activator and Compound C was used as AMPK inhibitor. We further investigate the effect of metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug which could activate AMPK signal pathway, on the pathogenesis of aneurysm. Results Phospho-AMPK level was significantly decreased in AAA tissue compared with control aortas. AICAR significantly reduced the incidence, severity and mortality of aneurysm in the Ang II-infusion model. AICAR also alleviated macrophage infiltration and neovascularity in Ang II infusion model at day 28. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors, angiogenic factors and the activity of MMPs were also alleviated by AICAR during AAA induction. On the other hand, Compound C treatment did not exert obvious protective effect. AMPK activation may inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) during AAA induction. Administration of metformin also activated AMPK signal pathway and retarded AAA progression in Ang II infusion model. Conclusions Activation of AMPK signaling pathway may inhibit the Ang II-induced AAA in mice. Metformin may be a promising approach to the treatment of AAA. PMID:29190959

  6. A Methodology for the Derivation of Unloaded Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Geometry With Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Santanu; Gnanaruban, Vimalatharmaiyah; Riveros, Fabian; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Finol, Ender A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method for the derivation of the unloaded geometry of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from a pressurized geometry in turn obtained by 3D reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images. The approach was experimentally validated with an aneurysm phantom loaded with gauge pressures of 80, 120, and 140 mm Hg. The unloaded phantom geometries estimated from these pressurized states were compared to the actual unloaded phantom geometry, resulting in mean nodal surface distances of up to 3.9% of the maximum aneurysm diameter. An in-silico verification was also performed using a patient-specific AAA mesh, resulting in maximum nodal surface distances of 8 μm after running the algorithm for eight iterations. The methodology was then applied to 12 patient-specific AAA for which their corresponding unloaded geometries were generated in 5–8 iterations. The wall mechanics resulting from finite element analysis of the pressurized (CT image-based) and unloaded geometries were compared to quantify the relative importance of using an unloaded geometry for AAA biomechanics. The pressurized AAA models underestimate peak wall stress (quantified by the first principal stress component) on average by 15% compared to the unloaded AAA models. The validation and application of the method, readily compatible with any finite element solver, underscores the importance of generating the unloaded AAA volume mesh prior to using wall stress as a biomechanical marker for rupture risk assessment. PMID:27538124

  7. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... to guide the stent graft up into your aorta, to where the aneurysm is located. Next open ...

  8. Endothelium as a Potential Target for Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingyuan; Deng, Hongping; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was previously ascribed to weaken defective medial arterial/adventitial layers, for example, smooth muscle/fibroblast cells. Therefore, besides surgical repair, medications targeting the medial layer to strengthen the aortic wall are the most feasible treatment strategy for AAA. However, so far, it is unclear whether such drugs have any beneficial effect on AAA prognosis, rate of aneurysm growth, rupture, or survival. Notably, clinical studies have shown that AAA is highly associated with endothelial dysfunction in the aged population. Additionally, animal models of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling had a very high rate of AAA formation, indicating there is crucial involvement of the endothelium and a possible pharmacological solution targeting the endothelium in AAA treatment. Endothelial cells have been found to trigger vascular wall remodeling by releasing proteases, or recruiting macrophages along with other neutrophils, into the medial layer. Moreover, inflammation and oxidative stress of the arterial wall were induced by endothelial dysfunction. Interestingly, there is a paradoxical differential correlation between diabetes and aneurysm formation in retinal capillaries and the aorta. Deciphering the significance of such a difference may explain current unsuccessful AAA medications and offer a solution to this treatment challenge. It is now believed that AAA and atherosclerosis are two separate but related diseases, based on their different clinical patterns which have further complicated the puzzle. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the interaction between endothelium and medial/adventitial layer may provide us a better understanding and new perspective on AAA formation, especially after taking into account the importance of endothelium in the development of AAA. Moreover, a novel medication strategy replacing the currently used, but suboptimal treatments for AAA, could be

  9. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology. PMID:25993295

  10. Structure, Mechanics, and Histology of Intraluminal Thrombi in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianhua; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-07-01

    It has been recognized that the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a biologically active material contributing in the progression and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). To advance our understanding of the potential role of ILT in the natural history of AAAs, the structural, mechanical, and histological characteristics of ILTs have been studied with great interest over the past decade. Given that the ILT is evolving and changing its composition during AAA progression, attention has been paid to exploring the chemomechanical effects of ILT on the underlying wall properties. Various biomechanical and chemomechanical data, and related models have provided advanced insights into AAA pathogenesis which have served as a basis for clinical diagnosis. The goal of this review is to describe and summarize recent advances in the research of ILT found in the aorta in terms of structure, mechanics, and histology on a patient-specific basis. We point to some possible future studies which hopefully stimulate multidisciplinary research to address open problems.

  11. Comment to 'Regarding "Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms"'.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Waldemar; Sliwczynski, Andrzej; Pinkas, Jaroslaw; Jawien, Arkadiusz; Karnafel, Waldemar

    2018-01-01

    This publication is a commentary on the Letter to the Editor by Juliette Raffort and Fabien Lareyre. This article clarifies a number of concerns about the method of calculating the index of prevalence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The method of qualifying patients for the study and the method of calculating the index of prevalence of ruptured AAA in cohorts of diabetic and non-diabetic patients was presented. Most researchers calculate the Index of Prevalence per 100,000 of the general population. This gives the misleading result that diabetes reduces the risk of AAA rupture.We used a method which calculated prevalence per 100,000 with diabetes mellitus and per 100,000 without diabetes mellitus. This method confirms that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of ruptured AAA.

  12. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures: counterbalancing the benefits with the costs.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Bessias, Nikolaos; Giannoukas, Athanasios D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2010-05-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) is associated with lower 30-day mortality rates compared with open repair. Despite that, there are no significant differences in mortality rates between the two procedures at 2 years. On the other hand, EVAR is associated with considerably higher costs compared with open repair. The lack of significant long-term differences between the two procedures together with the substantially higher cost of EVAR may question the appropriateness of EVAR as an alternative to open surgical repair in patients fit for surgery. With several thousands of AAA procedures performed worldwide, the employment of EVAR for the management of all AAAs irrespective of the patient's surgical risk may hold implications for several national health economies. The lower perioperative mortality and morbidity rates associated with EVAR should thus be counterbalanced against the considerable costs of these procedures.

  13. Primary aortoduodenal fistula associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm with presentation of gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Tsai, Chung-Lin; Chang, Yao-Tien; Hu, Sung-Yuan

    2018-06-07

    Primary aortoduodenal fistula (ADF) is a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and is difficult to diagnose as the clinical presentation is subtle. Clinicians should keep a high level of suspicion for an unknown etiology of GI bleeding, especially in older patients with or without abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can be used to detect primary ADF. Open surgery or endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for ADF with bleeding will improve the survival rate. We report a rare case of AAA complicating ADF with massive GI bleeding in a 73-year-old Taiwanese man. He presented with abdominal pain and tarry stool for 5 days and an initial upper GI endoscopy at a rural hospital showed gastric ulcer only, but hypotension with tachycardia and a drop in hemoglobin of 9 g/dl from 12 g/dl occurred the next day. He was referred to our hospital for EVAR and primary closure of fistula defect due to massive GI bleeding with shock from ADF caused by AAA. Diagnosis was made by CTA of aorta. A timely and accurate diagnosis of primary ADF may be challenging due to insidious episodes of GI bleeding, which are frequently under-diagnosed until the occurrence of massive hemorrhage. Clinical physicians should keep a high index of awareness for primary ADF, especially in elderly patients with unknown etiology of upper GI bleeding with or without a known AAA.

  14. Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano

    2008-07-15

    A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infectivemore » organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.« less

  15. Elastin-derived peptides promote abdominal aortic aneurysm formation by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization1

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Matthew A; Xiong, Wanfen; Carson, Jeffrey S; Suh, Melissa K; Karpisek, Andrew D.; Meisinger, Trevor M.; Casale, George P.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dynamic vascular disease characterized by inflammatory cell invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Damage to elastin in the ECM results in release of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), which are chemotactic for inflammatory cells such as monocytes. Their effect on macrophage polarization is less well known. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages initially are recruited to sites of injury but, if their effects are prolonged, they can lead to chronic inflammation that prevents normal tissue repair. Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages reduce inflammation and aid in wound healing. Thus, a proper M1/M2 ratio is vital for tissue homeostasis. AAA tissue reveals a high M1/M2 ratio where pro-inflammatory cells and their associated markers dominate. In the present study, in vitro treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with EDPs induced M1 macrophage polarization. By using C57Bl/6 mice, antibody-mediated neutralization of EDPs reduced aortic dilation, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at early and late time points after aneurysm induction. Furthermore, direct manipulation of the M1/M2 balance altered aortic dilation. Injection of M2 polarized macrophages reduced aortic dilation after aneurysm induction. EDPs promoted a pro-inflammatory environment in aortic tissue by inducing M1 polarization and neutralization of EDPs attenuated aortic dilation. The M1/M2 imbalance is vital to aneurysm formation. PMID:27183603

  16. Antioxidant Vitamin C attenuates experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm development in an elastase-induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Shang, Tao; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Chang-jian

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that an antioxidant, Vitamin C, could attenuate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development in a rat model. An AAA model induced by intraluminal infusion was created in 36 male Sprague Dawley rats, which were randomly distributed into three groups: Sham (saline infused, placebo treated), Control (elastase infused, placebo treated), and Vitamin C (elastase infused, vitamin C treated). Vitamin C and placebo were intraperitoneally injected, initiating 1 wk before the infusion and continuing throughout the study. The aortic dilatation ratio was measured, and aortic tissues were further examined using biochemical and histologic techniques. Vitamin C attenuated the development of AAA, decreasing maximal aortic diameter by 25.8% (P < 0.05) and preserving elastin lamellae (P < 0.05). Vitamin C also decreased 8-hydroxyguanine (a marker of oxidative damage to DNA) and 8-isoprostane content (a marker of oxidative stress) in aortic tissues (P < 0.05, respectively). The proteins of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and interleukin 6 were markedly downregulated (P < 0.05, respectively), accompanied with notably reduced messenger RNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, MMP-2/9, and interleukin 1β (P < 0.05, respectively). However, messenger RNA of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 were both significantly upregulated in Vitamin C group. Vitamin C treatment had no significant effect on systolic blood pressure (P > 0.05). Vitamin C attenuated AAA development in an elastase-induced rat model via crucial protective effect, which was mediated by an increased level of antioxidant in cooperation with preserving elastin lamellae, inhibiting matrix-degrading proteinases and suppressing inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Geography, private costs and uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a remote rural area.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sandra M; Duncan, John L; Cairns, John; Godden, David J

    2006-03-29

    The relationship between geographical location, private costs, health provider costs and uptake of health screening is unclear. This paper examines these relationships in a screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, a rural and remote area of over 10,000 square miles. Men aged 65-74 (n = 9323) were invited to attend screening at 51 locations in 50 settlements. Effects of geography, deprivation and age on uptake were examined. Among 8,355 attendees, 8,292 completed a questionnaire detailing mode of travel and costs incurred, time travelled, whether accompanied, whether dependants were cared for, and what they would have been doing if not attending screening, thus allowing private costs to be calculated. Health provider (NHS) costs were also determined. Data were analysed by deprivation categories, using the Scottish Indices of Deprivation (2003), and by settlement type ranging from urban to very remote rural. Uptake of screening was high in all settlement types (mean 89.6%, range 87.4-92.6%). Non-attendees were more deprived in terms of income, employment, education and health but there was no significant difference between non-attendees and attendees in terms of geographical access to services. Age was similar in both groups. The highest private costs (median 7.29 pound sterling per man) and NHS screening costs (18.27 pound sterling per man invited) were observed in very remote rural areas. Corresponding values for all subjects were: private cost 4.34 pound sterling and NHS cost 15.72 pound sterling per man invited. Uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in is remote and rural setting was high in comparison with previous studies, and this applied across all settlement types. Geographical location did not affect uptake, most likely due to the outreach approach adopted. Private and NHS costs were highest in very remote settings but still compared favourably with other published studies.

  18. Geography, private costs and uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a remote rural area

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Sandra M; Duncan, John L; Cairns, John; Godden, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background The relationship between geographical location, private costs, health provider costs and uptake of health screening is unclear. This paper examines these relationships in a screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, a rural and remote area of over 10,000 square miles. Methods Men aged 65–74 (n = 9323) were invited to attend screening at 51 locations in 50 settlements. Effects of geography, deprivation and age on uptake were examined. Among 8,355 attendees, 8,292 completed a questionnaire detailing mode of travel and costs incurred, time travelled, whether accompanied, whether dependants were cared for, and what they would have been doing if not attending screening, thus allowing private costs to be calculated. Health provider (NHS) costs were also determined. Data were analysed by deprivation categories, using the Scottish Indices of Deprivation (2003), and by settlement type ranging from urban to very remote rural. Results Uptake of screening was high in all settlement types (mean 89.6%, range 87.4 – 92.6%). Non-attendees were more deprived in terms of income, employment, education and health but there was no significant difference between non-attendees and attendees in terms of geographical access to services. Age was similar in both groups. The highest private costs (median £7.29 per man) and NHS screening costs (£18.27 per man invited) were observed in very remote rural areas. Corresponding values for all subjects were: private cost £4.34 and NHS cost £15.72 per man invited. Conclusion Uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in this remote and rural setting was high in comparison with previous studies, and this applied across all settlement types. Geographical location did not affect uptake, most likely due to the outreach approach adopted. Private and NHS costs were highest in very remote settings but still compared favourably with other published studies. PMID:16571121

  19. Long-term comparison of endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Frank A; Freischlag, Julie A; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Matsumura, Jon S; Padberg, Frank T; Kohler, Ted R; Kougias, Panagiotis; Jean-Claude, Jessie M; Cikrit, Dolores F; Swanson, Kathleen M

    2012-11-22

    Whether elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm reduces long-term morbidity and mortality, as compared with traditional open repair, remains uncertain. We randomly assigned 881 patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms who were candidates for both procedures to either endovascular repair (444) or open repair (437) and followed them for up to 9 years (mean, 5.2). Patients were selected from 42 Veterans Affairs medical centers and were 49 years of age or older at the time of registration. More than 95% of the patients underwent the assigned repair. For the primary outcome of all-cause mortality, 146 deaths occurred in each group (hazard ratio with endovascular repair versus open repair, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.22; P=0.81). The previously reported reduction in perioperative mortality with endovascular repair was sustained at 2 years (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.98; P=0.04) and at 3 years (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.00; P=0.05) but not thereafter. There were 10 aneurysm-related deaths in the endovascular-repair group (2.3%) versus 16 in the open-repair group (3.7%) (P=0.22). Six aneurysm ruptures were confirmed in the endovascular-repair group versus none in the open-repair group (P=0.03). A significant interaction was observed between age and type of treatment (P=0.006); survival was increased among patients under 70 years of age in the endovascular-repair group but tended to be better among those 70 years of age or older in the open-repair group. Endovascular repair and open repair resulted in similar long-term survival. The perioperative survival advantage with endovascular repair was sustained for several years, but rupture after repair remained a concern. Endovascular repair led to increased long-term survival among younger patients but not among older patients, for whom a greater benefit from the endovascular approach had been expected. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of

  20. In-situ laser fenestration of endovascular stent-graft in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Filippo; Pini, Roberto; Piazza, Roberta; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Condino, Sara; Rossi, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysms repair (EVAR) involves the minimally invasive implantation of a stent-graft within the aorta to exclude the aneurysm from the circulation thus preventing its rupture. The feasibility of such operation is highly dependent on the aorta morphology and in general the presence of one/both renal arteries emerging from the aneurysm is the absolute limit for the implantation of a standard stent-graft. Consequently, classical intervention methods involve the implantation of a custom-made graft with fenestrations, leading to extremely complicated surgeries with high risks for the patient and high costs. Recent techniques introduced the use of standard grafts (i.e. without fenestrations) in association with mechanical in-situ fenestration, but this procedure is limited principally by the brittleness and low stability of the environment, in addition to the difficulty of controlling the guidance of the endovascular tools due to the temporarily block of the blood flow. In this work we propose an innovative EVAR strategy, which involves in-situ fenestration with a fiber guided laser tool, controlled via an electromagnetic navigation system. The fiber is sensorized to be tracked by means of the driving system and, using a 3D model of the patient anatomy, the surgeon can drive the fiber to the aneurysm, where the stent has been previously released, to realize the proper fenestration(s). The design and construction of the catheter laser tool will be presented, togheter with preliminary fenestration tests on graft-materials, including the effects due to the presence of blood and tissues.

  1. Predictors of long-term mortality following elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Marques-Rios, Guilherme; Oliveira-Pinto, José; Mansilha, Armando

    2018-05-09

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) became the preferred modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, long term survival benefit may sometimes be questionable as many patients would die from other causes rather than aneurysm rupture. It is paramount to identify critical risk factors for late mortality after EVAR to understand its real benefit. The aim of this review is to identify most clinically relevant determinants of late mortality after elective EVAR. English literature was searched to identify publications on long-term predictors of mortality following elective EVAR. A follow-up extending for at least 5 years was the minimum required as inclusion criteria. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We addressed clinical and demographic variables and observe if they had any associations with long-term all-cause mortality following EVAR. Thirteen studies were included describing more than 82306 patients, exploring at least one predictors of long-term mortality. All-cause mortality was associated to age (Hazard Ratio[HR] 1.06-3.34), gender (HR 1.07), aneurysm diameter (HR 1.09-1.64), smoking habits (HR 1.51-1.73), heart failure (HR 1.60-7.34), ischemic heart disease (HR 1.60), peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.30), cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.55), diabetes mellitus (HR 6.35), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.50-2.06) and chronic renal disease (HR 1.90-3.08). Risk factors associated with long-term mortality following elective EVAR remain scarcely published. Several demographic, anatomical, cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal co-morbidities seem to have an association with long-term mortality. Critical scrutiny of clinical patient status remains fundamental for a fair health resources allocation.

  2. Clinical Efficacy of Transthoracic Echocardiography for Screening Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Turkish Patients.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Salih; Saracoglu, Erhan; Cekici, Yusuf

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in Turkish patients aged ≥ 65 years, and to demonstrate the applicability of echocardiography to AAA screening. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed in all consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years who were referred to cardiology clinics or were referred from other outpatient clinics. The abdominal aorta (AA) of each patient was scanned using the same probe, and the time spent was recorded. Demographic and clinic characteristics of the patients were recorded at the end of the echocardiography. Among 1948 patients (mean age 70.9 ± 6 years; 49.8% male), the AA was visualized in 96.3%. AAA was identified in 3.7% (69/1878) of the patients, of whom AAA was previously known in 20.3% (n = 14). The prevalence of unknown AAA was 2.93%. The average time needed to scan and measure the AA was 1 minute and 3 seconds (±23 seconds). Aortic root diameters were significantly higher in the patients with AAA than in those without AAA (34.7 ± 4.2 vs. 29.8 ± 4.7; p < 0.001). Age (per 1 year increase) [odds ratio (OR), 1.245; p < 0.001], male gender (OR, 5.382; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 2.118; p = 0.037), and aortic root diameter (per 1 mm increase) (OR, 1.299; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of AAA. This study is important in that it showed a high prevalence of AAA in Turkish patients aged ≥ 65 years, and demonstrated that AAA can be visualized in the majority of patients in as little as 1 minute during TTE.

  3. Endo-exuberance and abdominal aortic aneurysm management: have we gone too far?

    PubMed

    Sternbergh, W Charles

    2003-11-01

    new technology, such as endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) may promote an 'irrational exuberance' for its application. nonsuprarenal AAA repairs performed at a single institution over a 7 year period were retrospectively studied. Method of repair, 30-day mortality and EVAR aortic neck anatomy were assessed. 431 AAA repairs were performed between January 1996 and June 2002, 238 (55%) open and 193 (45%) EVAR. The percentage of EVAR increased steadily from approximately 20% in 1996 and 1997 to a peak of 69.5% in 2000. However, in 2001-2002 the percentage of EVAR fell to approximately 40% of total repairs. In this time period our selection criteria for EVAR became more conservative, with treatment of fewer patients with short aortic necks (12.8 vs. 28.9% with neck length < or = 20 mm, p = 0.05; 3.8 vs. 10.8% with neck length < or = 15 mm, p = 0.1) or highly angulated necks (3.8 vs. 28.9% with neck angulation > or = 40 degrees, p = 0.04) in 2001-2002 versus 1999-2000, respectively. Institutional volume of AAA repairs doubled over the study period (p = 0.001). 30-day mortality over the study period for nonruptured EVAR and open AAA repair was 2.6 and 3.3%, respectively (p = NS). The complexity of open repairs increased significantly during the final 3 years of the review. the application of EVAR has fallen from a high of 69.5% of our AAA repairs in 2000 to approximately 40% in 2001-2002. More prudent patient selection in recent years regarding unfavorable aortic neck anatomy was felt to be a primary etiology of changes in overall EVAR utilization. The anticipated improvement in long-term results from EVAR await multi-year follow-up.

  4. An Experimental and Numerical Comparison of the Rupture Locations of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry J.; Corbett, Timothy J.; Callanan, Anthony; Walsh, Michael T.; Vorp, David A.; McGloughlin, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the rupture locations of idealized physical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using an in-vitro setup and to compare the findings to those predicted numerically. Methods: Five idealized AAAs were manufactured using Sylgard 184 silicone rubber, which had been mechanically characterized from tensile tests, tear tests, and finite element analysis. The models were then inflated to the point of rupture and recorded using a high-speed camera. Numerical modeling attempted to confirm these rupture locations. Regional variations in wall thickness of the silicone models was also quantified and applied to numerical models. Results: Four of the 5 models tested ruptured at inflection points in the proximal and distal regions of the aneurysm sac and not at regions of maximum diameter. These findings agree with high stress regions computed numerically. Wall stress appears to be independent of wall thickness, with high stress occurring at regions of inflection regardless of wall thickness variations. Conclusion: According to these experimental and numerical findings, AAAs experience higher stresses at regions of inflection compared to regions of maximum diameter. Ruptures of the idealized silicone models occurred predominantly at the inflection points, as numerically predicted. Regions of inflection can be easily identified from basic 3-dimensional reconstruction; as ruptures appear to occur at inflection points, these findings may provide a useful insight into the clinical significance of inflection regions. This approach will be applied to patient-specific models in a future study. PMID:19642790

  5. Stochastic modelling of wall stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysms treated by a gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohand-Kaci, Faïza; Ouni, Anissa Eddhahak; Dai, Jianping; Allaire, Eric; Zidi, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    A stochastic mechanical model using the membrane theory was used to simulate the in vivo mechanical behaviour of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in order to compute the wall stresses after stabilisation by gene therapy. For that, both length and diameter of AAAs rats were measured during their expansion. Four groups of animals, control and treated by an endovascular gene therapy during 3 or 28 days were included. The mechanical problem was solved analytically using the geometric parameters and assuming the shape of aneurysms by a 'parabolic-exponential curve'. When compared to controls, stress variations in the wall of AAAs for treated arteries during 28 days decreased, while they were nearly constant at day 3. The measured geometric parameters of AAAs were then investigated using probability density functions (pdf) attributed to every random variable. Different trials were useful to define a reliable confidence region in which the probability to have a realisation is equal to 99%. The results demonstrated that the error in the estimation of the stresses can be greater than 28% when parameters uncertainties are not considered in the modelling. The relevance of the proposed approach for the study of AAA growth may be studied further and extended to other treatments aimed at stabilisation AAAs, using biotherapies and pharmacological approaches.

  6. Hypothermia is associated with increased mortality in patients undergoing repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Elina; Tran, Nam T; Hatsukami, Thomas; Starnes, Benjamin W

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of hypothermia on mortality in patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA). Between July 2007 and September 2009, 73 patients with ruptured AAAs presented to our Emergency Department (ED). Thirteen patients did not receive surgical treatment; of the 60 patients (46 men; mean age 76 years, range 63-90) who did, 35 had endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and 25 open repair. Body temperatures, which were recorded upon arrival to the ED and operating room, during the procedure, and just prior to leaving the operating room, were analyzed for any association with mortality or hypotension. The primary outcome measure was the 30-day mortality rate. Six (17%) patients in the EVAR group and 10 (40%) patients in the open group died during the 30-day period. Temperature upon arrival to OR, lowest temperature recorded during the procedure, and temperature at the end of the procedure were higher among survivors (p<0.005), independent of the repair technique implemented. Patients in the EVAR group left the OR with a mean temperature of 35.5 degrees C versus 35.0 degrees C for patients in the open group (p = 0.12). Hypothermia is associated with increased mortality after repair of rAAA. Efforts to correct hypothermia are more frequently successful in patients undergoing EVAR. Increased communication with anesthesia providers, as well as aggressive measures to correct hypothermia, including active intravascular rewarming methods, should be considered to improve mortality in this gravely ill patient population.

  7. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy: mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapma, Marten R; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I; van der Hilst, Christian S; Tielliu, Ignace F; Zeebregts, Clark J; Prins, Ted R; van den Dungen, Jan J; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2007-12-01

    To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with acute AAA were entered into a prospective study of a new management protocol that featured preferential use of eEVAR (n=18); patients with unsuitable anatomy or who were hemodynamically unstable underwent open repair (n=31). Mortality data and costs of treatment were compared in this mixed prospective group to a historical control group consisting of 147 patients (128 men; mean age 71 years) who underwent open repair from January 1998 to December 2001. All direct medical costs were included from the moment of admission until discharge from the hospital. Mortality in the mixed prospective group (18%) was lower than in the historical control group (31%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.099). The mean total cost in the mixed prospective group was 17,164 euro compared to 21,084 euro in the historical open repair group (p=0.255). A preferential eEVAR protocol for acute AAA can decrease mortality and does not increase overall costs during initial treatment, but larger studies are needed to determine if these trends are statistically significant.

  8. Model-based segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in CTA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; van Ginneken, Bram; Niessen, Wiro J.; Loog, Marco; Viergever, Max A.

    2003-05-01

    Segmentation of thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms is complicated by regions of low boundary contrast and by the presence of many neighboring structures in close proximity to the aneurysm wall. We present an automated method that is similar to the well known Active Shape Models (ASM), combining a three-dimensional shape model with a one-dimensional boundary appearance model. Our contribution is twofold: we developed a non-parametric appearance modeling scheme that effectively deals with a highly varying background, and we propose a way of generalizing models of curvilinear structures from small training sets. In contrast with the conventional ASM approach, the new appearance model trains on both true and false examples of boundary profiles. The probability that a given image profile belongs to the boundary is obtained using k nearest neighbor (kNN) probability density estimation. The performance of this scheme is compared to that of original ASMs, which minimize the Mahalanobis distance to the average true profile in the training set. The generalizability of the shape model is improved by modeling the objects axis deformation independent of its cross-sectional deformation. A leave-one-out experiment was performed on 23 datasets. Segmentation using the kNN appearance model significantly outperformed the original ASM scheme; average volume errors were 5.9% and 46% respectively.

  9. The inflammatory response to ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is altered by endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Makar, R R; Badger, S A; O'Donnell, M E; Soong, C V; Lau, L L; Young, I S; Hannon, R J; Lee, B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) causes a significant inflammatory response. The study aims to investigate this response following endovascular and open repair of ruptured AAA. Patients and Methods. Consecutive rAAA patients had either endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open repair (OR). Blood samples were taken for cytokines, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), antioxidants, and neutrophil elastase/ α 1-anti-trypsin complexes (NE/AAT) before surgery, 6 hours after clamp release and 1, 3, 5 days postoperatively. Results. 30 patients were included in the study, with 14 undergoing eEVAR and 16 eOR, with comparable baseline comorbidities, age, and parameters. IL-6 peaked higher in eOR patients (P = 0.04), while p75TNFr was similar between groups except at day 5 (P = 0.04). The NE/AAT concentrations were higher in eOR patients (P = 0.01), particularly in the first postoperative day, and correlated with blood (r = 0.398, P = 0.029) and platelet (r = 0.424, P = 0.020) volume transfused. C-reactive protein rose and lipid hydroperoxide fell in both groups without significant intergroup difference. Vitamins C and E, lycopene, and β -carotene levels were similar between groups. Conclusion. EVAR is associated with lower systemic inflammatory response compared to OR. Its increased future use may thereby improve outcomes for patients.

  10. The Inflammatory Response to Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Is Altered by Endovascular Repair

    PubMed Central

    Makar, R. R.; Badger, S. A.; O'Donnell, M. E.; Soong, C. V.; Lau, L. L.; Young, I. S.; Hannon, R. J.; Lee, B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) causes a significant inflammatory response. The study aims to investigate this response following endovascular and open repair of ruptured AAA. Patients and Methods. Consecutive rAAA patients had either endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open repair (OR). Blood samples were taken for cytokines, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), antioxidants, and neutrophil elastase/α1-anti-trypsin complexes (NE/AAT) before surgery, 6 hours after clamp release and 1, 3, 5 days postoperatively. Results. 30 patients were included in the study, with 14 undergoing eEVAR and 16 eOR, with comparable baseline comorbidities, age, and parameters. IL-6 peaked higher in eOR patients (P = 0.04), while p75TNFr was similar between groups except at day 5 (P = 0.04). The NE/AAT concentrations were higher in eOR patients (P = 0.01), particularly in the first postoperative day, and correlated with blood (r = 0.398, P = 0.029) and platelet (r = 0.424, P = 0.020) volume transfused. C-reactive protein rose and lipid hydroperoxide fell in both groups without significant intergroup difference. Vitamins C and E, lycopene, and β-carotene levels were similar between groups. Conclusion. EVAR is associated with lower systemic inflammatory response compared to OR. Its increased future use may thereby improve outcomes for patients. PMID:24363936

  11. The Relationship Between Pulsatile Flow Impingement and Intraluminal Thrombus Deposition in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lozowy, Richard J; Kuhn, David C S; Ducas, Annie A; Boyd, April J

    2017-03-01

    Direct numerical simulations were performed on four patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) geometries and the resulting pulsatile blood flow dynamics were compared to aneurysm shape and correlated with intraluminal thrombus (ILT) deposition. For three of the cases, turbulent vortex structures impinged/sheared along the anterior wall and along the posterior wall a zone of recirculating blood formed. Within the impingement region the AAA wall was devoid of ILT and remote to this region there was an accumulation of ILT. The high wall shear stress (WSS) caused by the impact of vortexes is thought to prevent the attachment of ILT. WSS from impingement is comparable to peak-systolic WSS in a normal-sized aorta and therefore may not damage the wall. Expansion occurred to a greater extent in the direction of jet impingement and the wall-normal force from the continuous impact of vortexes may contribute to expansion. It was shown that the impingement region has low oscillatory shear index (OSI) and recirculation zones can have either low or high OSI. No correlation could be identified between OSI and ILT deposition since different flow dynamics can have similar OSI values.

  12. Influence of warfarin therapy on the occurrence of postoperative endoleaks and aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Seike, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Itonaga, Tatsuya; Morita, Yoshiaki; Oda, Tatsuya; Inoue, Yosuke; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine whether warfarin therapy influences the occurrence of endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). A total of 367 patients who underwent EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysm between 2007 and 2013 were recruited for this study. Satisfactory follow-up data including completed computed tomography scan follow-up for more than 2 years were available for 209 patients, and the mean follow-up time was 37 ± 12 months. Twenty-nine (16%) patients were on warfarin therapy (warfarin group), whereas 180 (84%) patients were not on warfarin therapy (control group). Two- and four-year freedom rates for persistent type II endoleaks were significantly lower in patients of the warfarin group compared with the control group (85 and 49% vs 93 and 91%, respectively; P = 0.0001). Similarly, 2- and 4-year freedom rates for sac enlargement (>5 mm) were significantly lower in patients of the warfarin group compared with the control group (83 and 61% vs 92 and 82%, respectively; P = 0.0036). Using Cox regression analysis, the warfarin therapy was identified to be an independent positive predictor of sac enlargement after EVAR [hazard ratio (HR): 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-5.40; P = 0.032], together with persistent type II endoleak. Warfarin therapy was also an independent predictor for persistent type II endoleak (HR: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.81-7.41; P < 0.0001) together with the number of patent lumbar arteries. Results suggested that warfarin therapy was significantly associated with an increased risk for persistent II endoleak and sac enlargement after EVAR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors and outcomes of endoleaks in the Veterans Affairs Open Versus Endovascular Repair (OVER) Trial of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lal, Brajesh K; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ziyi; Kyriakides, Tassos; Matsumura, Jon; Lederle, Frank A; Freischlag, Julie

    2015-12-01

    The Veterans Affairs Open Versus Endovascular Repair (OVER) Trial of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms study was a randomized controlled trial comparing open vs endovascular repair (EVAR) in standard-risk patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms. The analysis reported here identifies characteristics, risk factors, and long-term outcome of endoleaks in patients treated with EVAR in the OVER cohort. The OVER trial enrolled 881 patients, of whom 439 received successful EVAR. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for endoleaks and secondary interventions. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, longitudinal plots, and generalized linear mixed models methods were used to describe time to endoleak detection, resolution, or death. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 2.4 years, 135 patients (30.5%) developed 187 endoleaks. Four patients with EVAR went on to rupture; these four patients did not all have an endoleak. Mortality between patients who did and did not develop endoleaks was not significantly different. The 187 endoleaks included 12% type I, 76% type II, 3% type III, 3% type IV, and 6% indeterminate. Patient demographics and vascular risk factors were not associated with endoleak development. The presence of endoleaks resulted in an increase in aneurysm diameter over time (P < .0001). Fifty-three percent of endoleaks resolved spontaneously, and 31.9% received secondary interventions. The initial aneurysm size independently predicted a need for secondary interventions (P < .0003). Delayed type II endoleaks (detected >1 year after EVAR) were associated with aneurysm enlargement compared with the early counterpart. There was no difference in aneurysm size or length of survival between type II and other types of endoleak. We present one of the most comprehensive and longest follow-up analyses of patients treated with aortic endografts. Endoleaks were common and negatively affected aneurysm diameter reduction. Delayed type II endoleaks were associated with late

  14. Deletion of BMAL1 in Smooth Muscle Cells Protects Mice From Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lutshumba, Jenny; Liu, Shu; Zhong, Yu; Hou, Tianfei; Daugherty, Alan; Lu, Hong; Guo, Zhenheng; Gong, Ming C

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has high mortality rate when ruptured, but currently, there is no proven pharmacological therapy for AAA because of our poor understanding of its pathogenesis. The current study explored a novel role of smooth muscle cell (SMC) BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1)-a transcription factor known to regulate circadian rhythm-in AAA development. SMC-selective deletion of BMAL1 potently protected mice from AAA induced by (1) MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) agonist deoxycorticosterone acetate or aldosterone plus high salt intake and (2) angiotensin II infusion in hypercholesterolemia mice. Aortic BMAL1 was upregulated by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt, and deletion of BMAL1 in SMCs selectively upregulated TIMP4 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 4) and suppressed deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) activation and elastin breakages. Moreover, BMAL1 bound to the Timp4 promoter and suppressed Timp4 transcription. These results reveal an important, but previously unexplored, role of SMC BMAL1 in AAA. Moreover, these results identify TIMP4 as a novel target of BMAL1, which may mediate the AAA protective effect of SMC BMAL1 deletion. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The impact of personalized probabilistic wall thickness models on peak wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Biehler, J; Wall, W A

    2018-02-01

    If computational models are ever to be used in high-stakes decision making in clinical practice, the use of personalized models and predictive simulation techniques is a must. This entails rigorous quantification of uncertainties as well as harnessing available patient-specific data to the greatest extent possible. Although researchers are beginning to realize that taking uncertainty in model input parameters into account is a necessity, the predominantly used probabilistic description for these uncertain parameters is based on elementary random variable models. In this work, we set out for a comparison of different probabilistic models for uncertain input parameters using the example of an uncertain wall thickness in finite element models of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We provide the first comparison between a random variable and a random field model for the aortic wall and investigate the impact on the probability distribution of the computed peak wall stress. Moreover, we show that the uncertainty about the prevailing peak wall stress can be reduced if noninvasively available, patient-specific data are harnessed for the construction of the probabilistic wall thickness model. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, L; Allcock, R; van Bockxmeer, F; Warrington, N; Palmer, L J; Iacopetta, B; Golledge, J; Norman, P E

    2008-10-01

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 activity has been implicated in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim was to explore the association between potentially functional variants of the MMP-9 gene and AAA. The -1562C > T and -1811A > T variants of the MMP-9 gene were genotyped in 678 men with an AAA (at least 30 mm in diameter) and 659 control subjects (aortic diameter 19-22 mm) recruited from a population-based trial of screening for AAA. Levels of MMP-9 were measured in a random subset of 300 cases and 84 controls. The association between genetic variants (including haplotypes) and AAA was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. There was no association between the MMP-9-1562C > T (odds ratio (OR) 0.70 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.27 to 1.82)) or -1811A > T (OR 0.71 (95 per cent c.i. 0.28 to 1.85)) genotypes, or the most common haplotype (OR 0.81 (95 per cent c.i. 0.62 to 1.05)) and AAA. The serum MMP-9 concentration was higher in cases than controls, and in minor allele carriers in cases and controls, although the differences were not statistically significant. In this study, the genetic tendency to higher levels of circulating MMP-9 was not associated with AAA.

  17. Dual-Targeted Theranostic Delivery of miRs Arrests Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Searle, Amy Kate; Hohmann, Jan David; Liu, Ao Leo; Abraham, Meike-Kristin; Palasubramaniam, Jathushan; Lim, Bock; Yao, Yu; Wallert, Maria; Yu, Eefang; Chen, Yung-Chih; Peter, Karlheinz

    2018-04-04

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often deadly disease without medical, non-invasive treatment options. The upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on aortic endothelium provides an early target epitope for a novel biotechnological theranostic approach. MicroRNA-126 was used as a therapeutic agent, based on its capability to downregulate VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and thereby reduces leukocyte adhesion and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Ultrasound microbubbles were chosen as carriers, allowing both molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of AAA. Microbubbles were coupled with a VCAM-1-targeted single-chain antibody (scFv mVCAM-1 ) and a microRNA-126 mimic (M 126 ) constituting theranostic microbubbles (Targ MB -M 126 ). Targ MB -M 126 downregulates VCAM-1 expression in vitro and in an in vivo acute inflammatory murine model. Most importantly, using Targ MB -M 126 and ultrasound-guided burst delivery of M 126 , the development of AAA in an angiotensin-II-induced mouse model can be prevented. Overall, we describe a unique biotechnological theranostic approach with the potential for early diagnosis and long-sought-after medical therapy of AAA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelial MMP-9 drives the inflammatory response in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

    PubMed

    Ramella, Martina; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Bellofatto, Kevin; Md, Antonia Follenzi; Fusaro, Luca; Boldorini, Renzo; Casella, Francesco; Porta, Carla; Settembrini, Piergiorgio; Cannas, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is typified by chronic inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation of the aortic wall. Vascular inflammation involves complex interactions among inflammatory cells, endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), and ECM. Although vascular endothelium and medial neoangiogenesis play a key role in AAA, the molecular mechanisms underlying their involvement are only partially understood. In AAA biopsies, we found increased MMP-9, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which correlated with massive medial neo-angiogenesis (C4d positive staining). In this study, we developed an in vitro model in order to characterize the role of endothelial matrix metalloproteinase-9 (e-MMP-9) as a potential trigger of medial disruption and in the inflammatory response bridging between ECs and vSMC. Lentiviral-mediated silencing of e-MMP-9 through RNA interference inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated activation of NF-κB in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. In addition, EA.hy926 cells void of MMP-9 failed to migrate in a 3D matrix. Moreover, silenced EA.hy926 affected vSMC behavior in terms of matrix remodeling. In fact, also MMP-9 in vSMC resulted inhibited when endothelial MMP-9 was suppressed.

  19. Aneurysm-Specific miR-221 and miR-146a Participates in Human Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Premakumari; Phillippi, Julie; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes; Velsko, Irina; Gleason, Thomas; VanRyzin, Paul; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Ghanta, Ravi Kiran; Beaver, Thomas; Chan, Edward Kar Leung; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2017-01-01

    Altered microRNA expression is implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to determine microRNA signatures in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared with control non-aneurysmal aortic specimens. We evaluated the expression of fifteen selected microRNA in human TAA and AAA operative specimens compared to controls. We observed significant upregulation of miR-221 and downregulation of miR-1 and -133 in TAA specimens. In contrast, upregulation of miR-146a and downregulation of miR-145 and -331-3p were found only for AAA specimens. Upregulation of miR-126 and -486-5p and downregulation of miR-30c-2*, -155, and -204 were observed in specimens of TAAs and AAAs. The data reveal microRNA expression signatures unique to aneurysm location and common to both thoracic and abdominal pathologies. Thus, changes in miR-1, -29a, -133a, and -221 are involved in TAAs and miR-145, -146, and -331-3p impact AAAs. This work validates prior studies on microRNA expression in aneurysmal diseases. PMID:28425970

  20. Aneurysm-Specific miR-221 and miR-146a Participates in Human Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Premakumari; Phillippi, Julie; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes; Velsko, Irina; Gleason, Thomas; VanRyzin, Paul; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Ghanta, Ravi Kiran; Beaver, Thomas; Chan, Edward Kar Leung; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2017-04-20

    Altered microRNA expression is implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to determine microRNA signatures in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared with control non-aneurysmal aortic specimens. We evaluated the expression of fifteen selected microRNA in human TAA and AAA operative specimens compared to controls. We observed significant upregulation of miR-221 and downregulation of miR-1 and -133 in TAA specimens. In contrast, upregulation of miR-146a and downregulation of miR-145 and -331-3p were found only for AAA specimens. Upregulation of miR-126 and -486-5p and downregulation of miR-30c-2*, -155, and -204 were observed in specimens of TAAs and AAAs. The data reveal microRNA expression signatures unique to aneurysm location and common to both thoracic and abdominal pathologies. Thus, changes in miR-1, -29a, -133a, and -221 are involved in TAAs and miR-145, -146, and -331-3p impact AAAs. This work validates prior studies on microRNA expression in aneurysmal diseases.

  1. Reporting individual surgeon outcomes does not lead to risk aversion in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Saratzis, A; Thatcher, A; Bath, M F; Sidloff, D A; Bown, M J; Shakespeare, J; Sayers, R D; Imray, C

    2017-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Reporting surgeons' outcomes has recently been introduced in the UK. This has the potential to result in surgeons becoming risk averse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reporting outcomes for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery impacts on the number and risk profile (level of fitness) of patients offered elective treatment. METHODS Publically available National Vascular Registry data were used to compare the number of AAAs treated in those centres across the UK that reported outcomes for the periods 2008-2012, 2009-2013 and 2010-2014. Furthermore, the number and characteristics of patients referred for consideration of elective AAA repair at a single tertiary unit were analysed yearly between 2010 and 2014. Clinic, casualty and theatre event codes were searched to obtain all AAAs treated. The results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were assessed. RESULTS For the 85 centres that reported outcomes in all three five-year periods, the median number of AAAs treated per unit increased between the periods 2008-2012 and 2010-2014 from 192 to 214 per year (p=0.006). In the single centre cohort study, the proportion of patients offered elective AAA repair increased from 74% in 2009-2010 to 81% in 2013-2014, with a maximum of 84% in 2012-2013. The age, aneurysm size and CPET results (anaerobic threshold levels) for those eventually offered elective treatment did not differ significantly between 2010 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support the assumption that reporting individual surgeon outcomes is associated with a risk averse strategy regarding patient selection in aneurysm surgery at present.

  2. Comparison of Three Contemporary Risk Scores for Mortality Following Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Grant, S.W.; Hickey, G.L.; Carlson, E.D.; McCollum, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background A number of contemporary risk prediction models for mortality following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have been developed. Before a model is used either in clinical practice or to risk-adjust surgical outcome data it is important that its performance is assessed in external validation studies. Methods The British Aneurysm Repair (BAR) score, Medicare, and Vascular Governance North West (VGNW) models were validated using an independent prospectively collected sample of multicentre clinical audit data. Consecutive, data on 1,124 patients undergoing elective AAA repair at 17 hospitals in the north-west of England and Wales between April 2011 and March 2013 were analysed. The outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Model calibration (observed to expected ratio with chi-square test, calibration plots, calibration intercept and slope) and discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) were assessed in the overall cohort and procedural subgroups. Results The mean age of the population was 74.4 years (SD 7.7); 193 (17.2%) patients were women and the majority of patients (759, 67.5%) underwent endovascular aneurysm repair. All three models demonstrated good calibration in the overall cohort and procedural subgroups. Overall discrimination was excellent for the BAR score (AUC 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–0.89), and acceptable for the Medicare and VGNW models, with AUCs of 0.78 (95% CI 0.70–0.86) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.84) respectively. Only the BAR score demonstrated good discrimination in procedural subgroups. Conclusion All three models demonstrated good calibration and discrimination for the prediction of in-hospital mortality following elective AAA repair and are potentially useful. The BAR score has a number of advantages, which include being developed on the most contemporaneous data, excellent overall discrimination, and good performance in procedural subgroups. Regular model

  3. Endovascular repair or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: a Cochrane systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Badger, S A; Harkin, D W; Blair, P H; Ellis, P K; Kee, F; Forster, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) may improve outcomes for patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). The study aim was to compare the outcomes for eEVAR with conventional open surgical repair for the treatment of RAAA. Setting A systematic review of relevant publications was performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing eEVAR with open surgical repair for RAAA were included. Participants 3 RCTs were included, with a total of 761 patients with RAAA. Interventions Meta-analysis was performed with fixed-effects models with ORs and 95% CIs for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% CIs for continuous data. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was short-term mortality. Secondary outcome measures included aneurysm-specific and general complication rates, quality of life and economic analysis. Results Overall risk of bias was low. There was no difference between the 2 interventions on 30-day (or in-hospital) mortality, OR 0.91 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.22; p=0.52). 30-day complications included myocardial infarction, stroke, composite cardiac complications, renal complications, severe bowel ischaemia, spinal cord ischaemia, reoperation, amputation and respiratory failure. Reporting was incomplete, and no robust conclusion was drawn. For complication outcomes that did include at least 2 studies in the meta-analysis, there was no clear evidence to support a difference between eEVAR and open repair. Longer term outcomes and cost per patient were evaluated in only a single study, thus precluding definite conclusions. Conclusions Outcomes between eEVAR and open repair, specifically 30-day mortality, are similar. However, further high-quality trials are required, as the paucity of data currently limits the conclusions. PMID:26873043

  4. Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effectiveness of Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nevala, Terhi, E-mail: Terhi.Nevala@ppshp.f; Biancari, Fausto; Manninen, Hannu

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in treating type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent EVAR with a Zenith stent-graft from January 2000 to December 2005. During a follow-up period of 4.5 {+-} 2.3 years, solely type II endoleak was detected in 47 patients (22%), and 14 of them underwent secondary interventions to correct this condition. Ten patients had transarterial embolization, and four patients had translumbar/transabdominal embolization. The embolization materials used were coils, thrombin, gelatin, Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer), and glue. Disappearance of the endoleak withoutmore » enlargement of the aneurysm sac after the first secondary intervention was achieved in only five of these patients (5/13). One patient without surveillance imaging was excluded from analyses of clinical success. After additional interventions in four patients and the spontaneous disappearance of type II endoleak in two patients, overall clinical success was achieved in eight patients (8/12). One patient did not have surveillance imaging after the second secondary intervention. Clinical success after the first secondary intervention was achieved in two patients (2/9) in the transarterial embolization group and three patients (3/4) in the translumbar embolization group. The results of secondary interventions for type II endoleak are unsatisfactory. Although the small number of patients included in this study prevents reliable comparisons between groups, the results seem to favor direct translumbar embolization in comparison to transarterial embolization.« less

  5. Outcome after open surgery repair in endovascular-suitable patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krenzien, Felix; Matia, Ivan; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Freitas, Bruno; Moche, Michael; Schmelzle, Moritz; Jonas, Sven; Fellmer, Peter T

    2013-11-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been suggested in several studies to be superior to open surgery repair (OSR) for the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs), but this finding might be affected by selection bias based on aneurysm morphology and patient characteristics. We tested rAAA anatomy according to EVAR suitability in patients undergoing OSR to assess the impact on mortality. This retrospective analysis reports on 83 patients with rAAAs treated between November 2002 and July 2013. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated based on EVAR suitability and were determined by blinded independent reviewers. CT scans were lacking due to acquisition in an external institution with no availability (n = 9) or solely ultrasound evaluations (n = 8). In addition patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed. All patients who underwent OSR and who had available preoperative CT scans were included in the study (n = 66). In summary, 42 % of the patients (28/66; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 30.5 - 54.4) were considered eligible for EVAR according to pre-operative CT scans and 58 % of the patients (38/66; 95 % CI, 45.6 - 69.5) were categorized as unsuitable for endovascular repair. Patients suitable for EVAR had a significantly lower prevalence of in-hospital deaths (25 % [7/28]; 95 % CI, 9 - 41) in contrast to patients unsuitable for EVAR (53 % [20/38]; 95 % CI, 36.8 - 68.5; p = 0.02). EVAR-suitable patients had a highly significant mortality reduction undergoing OSR. Thus, the present study proposes that EVAR suitability is a positive predictor for survival after open repair of rAAA.

  6. Comparison of three contemporary risk scores for mortality following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Grant, S W; Hickey, G L; Carlson, E D; McCollum, C N

    2014-07-01

    A number of contemporary risk prediction models for mortality following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have been developed. Before a model is used either in clinical practice or to risk-adjust surgical outcome data it is important that its performance is assessed in external validation studies. The British Aneurysm Repair (BAR) score, Medicare, and Vascular Governance North West (VGNW) models were validated using an independent prospectively collected sample of multicentre clinical audit data. Consecutive, data on 1,124 patients undergoing elective AAA repair at 17 hospitals in the north-west of England and Wales between April 2011 and March 2013 were analysed. The outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Model calibration (observed to expected ratio with chi-square test, calibration plots, calibration intercept and slope) and discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) were assessed in the overall cohort and procedural subgroups. The mean age of the population was 74.4 years (SD 7.7); 193 (17.2%) patients were women and the majority of patients (759, 67.5%) underwent endovascular aneurysm repair. All three models demonstrated good calibration in the overall cohort and procedural subgroups. Overall discrimination was excellent for the BAR score (AUC 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.89), and acceptable for the Medicare and VGNW models, with AUCs of 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.84) respectively. Only the BAR score demonstrated good discrimination in procedural subgroups. All three models demonstrated good calibration and discrimination for the prediction of in-hospital mortality following elective AAA repair and are potentially useful. The BAR score has a number of advantages, which include being developed on the most contemporaneous data, excellent overall discrimination, and good performance in procedural subgroups. Regular model validations and recalibration will be essential. Copyright

  7. Anatomic characteristics of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm on conventional CT scans: Implications for rupture risk.

    PubMed

    Fillinger, Mark F; Racusin, Jessica; Baker, Robert K; Cronenwett, Jack L; Teutelink, Arno; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Zwolak, Robert M; Powell, Richard J; Walsh, Daniel B; Rzucidlo, Eva M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze anatomic characteristics of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), with conventional two-dimensional computed tomography (CT), including comparison with control subjects matched for age, gender, and size. Records were reviewed to identify all CT scans obtained at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center or referring hospitals before emergency AAA repair performed because of rupture or acute severe pain (RUP group). CT scans obtained before elective AAA repair (ELEC group) were reviewed for age and gender match with patients in the RUP group. More than 40 variables were measured on each CT scan. Aneurysm diameter matching was achieved by consecutively deleting the largest RUP scan and the smallest ELEC scan to prevent bias. CT scans were analyzed for 259 patients with AAAs: 122 RUP and 137 ELEC. Patients were well matched for age, gender, and other demographic variables or risk factors. Maximum AAA diameter was significantly different in comparisons of all patients (RUP, 6.5 +/- 2 cm vs ELEC, 5.6 +/- 1 cm; P <.0001), and mean diameter of ruptured AAAs was 5 mm smaller in female patients (6.1 +/- 2 cm vs 6.6 +/- 2 cm; P =.007). Two hundred patients were matched for diameter, gender, and age (100 from each group; maximum AAA diameter, 6.0 +/- 1 cm vs 6.0 +/- 1 cm). Analysis of diameter-matched AAAs indicated that most variables were statistically similar in the two groups, including infrarenal neck length (17 +/- 1 mm vs 19 +/- 1 mm; P =.3), maximum thrombus thickness (25 +/- 1 mm vs 23 +/- 1 mm, P =.4), and indices of body habitus, such as [(maximum AAA diameter)/(normal suprarenal aorta diameter)] or [(maximum AAA diameter)/(L3 transverse diameter)]. Multivariate analysis controlling for gender indicated that the most significant variables for rupture were aortic tortuosity (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, indicating greater risk with no or mild tortuosity), diameter asymmetry (OR, 3.2 for a 1-cm difference in major

  8. Long-term outcomes after repair of symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Venita; Trang, Karen; Virgin-Downey, Whitt; Dalman, Ronald L; Mell, Matthew W

    2018-04-25

    Previous studies have reported increased perioperative mortality of nonruptured symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (Sx-AAA) compared with asymptomatic elective AAA (E-AAA) repairs, but no long-term-outcomes have been reported. We sought to compare long-term outcomes of Sx-AAA and E-AAA after repair at a single academic institution. Patients receiving AAA repair for Sx-AAA and E-AAA from 1995 through 2015 were included. Ruptured AAA and suprarenal or thoracoabdominal AAA were excluded. Demographics, comorbidities, and operative approach were collected. Long-term mortality was the primary outcome, determined by chart review or link to Social Security Death Index. Additionally, long-term mortality and reinterventions were compared after groups were matched with nearest neighbor propensity to reduce bias. AAA repair was performed for 1054 E-AAA (383 open repair [36%], 671 endovascular aneurysm repair [EVAR] [64%]), and 139 symptomatic aneurysms (60 open repair [43%], 79 EVAR [57%]). Age (73 years vs 74 years; P = .13) and aneurysm diameter were similar between Sx-AAA and E-AAA (6.0 cm vs 5.8 cm; P = .5). The proportion of women was higher for Sx-AAA (26% vs 16%; P = .003), as was the proportion of non-Caucasians (40% vs 29%; P = .009). After propensity matching, there were no differences between groups for patient characteristics, AAA diameter, treatment modality, or comorbidities, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, lung disease, diabetes, renal disease, and smoking history. Women were treated for Sx-AAA at significantly smaller aortic diameters; however, compared with men (5.1 cm vs 6.3 cm; P < .001). Perioperative mortality was 5.0% for Sx-AAA and 2.3% for E-AAA (P = .055). By life-table analysis, Sx-AAA had lower 5-year (62% vs 71%) and 10-year (39% vs 51%) survivals (P = .01) compared with E-AAA for the entire cohort. Similar trends were observed for 5-year and 10-year mortality

  9. Prevention of Kinked Stent Graft Limb Due to Severe Angulated Proximal Neck during Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Kim, Minsu; Shin, Eak Kyun; Kang, Woong Chol

    2018-04-20

    Although the technology of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is evolving that make it appealing for challenging anatomy, proximal aortic neck morphology, especially severe angulation, is still one of the most determinants for a successful procedure. We describe a patient of AAA with severely angulated proximal neck, in whom kinked stent graft limb occurred against severe angulation of proximal neck. Then, we suggested how to prevent this complication in the second patient. Our case demonstrated the stent graft limb could be kinked by severe aortic neck angulation, making it challenging. However, the kinked stent graft limb could be prevented by deploying stent graft limbs below the most severely angulated aortic neck intentionally.

  10. Endovascular stent-graft repair of failed endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Silverberg, Daniel; Ellozy, Sharif H; Carroccio, Alfio; Jacobs, Tikva S; Sachdev, Ulka; Teodorescu, Victoria J; Lookstein, Robert A; Marin, Michael L

    2008-01-01

    Despite high initial technical success, the long-term durability of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) continues to be a concern. Following EVAR, patients can experience endoleaks, device migration, device fractures, or aneurysm growth that may require intervention. The purpose of this study was to review all patients treated with secondary endovascular devices at our institution for failed EVAR procedures. Over an 8-year period, 988 patients underwent EVAR, of whom 42 (4.3%) required secondary interventions involving placement of additional endovascular devices. Data regarding patient characteristics, aneurysm size, initial device type, time until failure, failure etiology, secondary interventions, and outcomes were reviewed. The mean time from initial operation until second operation was 34.1 months. Failures included type I endoleaks in 38 patients (90.5%), type III endoleaks in two patients (4.8%), and enlarging aneurysms without definite endoleaks in two patients (4.8%). The overall technical success rate for secondary repair was 92.9% (39/42). Perioperative complications occurred in nine patients (21.4%), including wound complications (n = 6), cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (n = 1), foot drop (n = 1), and death (n = 1). Mean follow-up following secondary repair was 16.4 months (range 1-50). Eighty-six percent of patients treated with aortouni-iliac devices had successful repairs compared to 45% of patients treated with proximal cuffs. Ten patients (23.8%) had persistent or recurrent type I or type III endoleaks following revision. Of these, four had tertiary interventions, including two patients who had additional devices placed. Failures following EVAR occur in a small but significant number of patients. When anatomically possible, endovascular revision offers a safe means of treating these failures. Aortouni-iliac devices appear to offer a more durable repair than the proximal cuff for treatment of proximal type I endoleaks. Midterm

  11. Effects of osteoprotegerin/TNFRSF11B in two models of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vorkapic, Emina; Kunath, Anne; Wågsäter, Dick

    2018-04-27

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), additionally termed tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B, is produced by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells in the vasculature, and its release may be modulated by pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin‑1β and tumor necrosis factor‑α. The present study investigated the effects of treatment with low‑dose human recombinant OPG on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development in mice. Mice were treated with 1 µg human recombinant OPG four times (or vehicle) for 2 weeks prior to inducing AAA. A total of two different models for inducing AAA were used to investigate the hypothesis as to whether OPG is involved in key events of AAA development, using osmotic mini‑pumps with angiotensin II in apolipoprotein‑E (ApoE‑/‑) mice for 28 days or using periaortic application of CaCl2 on the aorta in C57Bl/6J mice for 14 days. OPG was continuously administered during the experimental period. Histological staining using Masson's trichrome, Verhoeff's van‑Gieson and picro‑sirius red, in addition to reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of various markers, were used to analyze phenotypic alterations. Treatment with OPG had no inhibitory effect on AAA development in the angiotensin II model in ApoE‑/‑ mice, which developed suprarenal aneurysms, although it increased vessel wall thickness of the aorta and total collagen in C57Bl/6J mice using the CaCl2 model that induced infrarenal dilation of the aorta. Treatment with OPG did not inhibit aneurysm development and key events, including inflammation, extracellular matrix or VSMC remodeling, in aortas from OPG‑treated mice with periaortic treatment with CaCl2. The results indicated that mice treated with low levels of human recombinant OPG may have a more stable aneurysmal phenotype due to compensatory production of collagen and increased vessel wall thickness of the aorta, potentially protecting the

  12. CFD and PTV steady flow investigation in an anatomically accurate abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Boutsianis, Evangelos; Guala, Michele; Olgac, Ufuk; Wildermuth, Simon; Hoyer, Klaus; Ventikos, Yiannis; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in computational and experimental flow investigations within abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This task stipulates advanced grid generation techniques and cross-validation because of the anatomical complexity. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of velocity measurements by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in realistic AAA models. Computed tomography and rapid prototyping were combined to digitize and construct a silicone replica of a patient-specific AAA. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were acquired using PTV under steady averaged resting boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were subsequently carried out with identical boundary conditions. The computational grid was created by splitting the luminal volume into manifold and nonmanifold subsections. They were filled with tetrahedral and hexahedral elements, respectively. Grid independency was tested on three successively refined meshes. Velocity differences of about 1% in all three directions existed mainly within the AAA sack. Pressure revealed similar variations, with the sparser mesh predicting larger values. PTV velocity measurements were taken along the abdominal aorta and showed good agreement with the numerical data. The results within the aneurysm neck and sack showed average velocity variations of about 5% of the mean inlet velocity. The corresponding average differences increased for all velocity components downstream the iliac bifurcation to as much as 15%. The two domains differed slightly due to flow-induced forces acting on the silicone model. Velocity quantification through narrow branches was problematic due to decreased signal to noise ratio at the larger local velocities. Computational wall pressure and shear fields are also presented. The agreement between CFD simulations and the PTV experimental data was confirmed by three-dimensional velocity comparisons at several locations within the investigated AAA

  13. Update on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research: From Clinical to Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Hinterseher, Irene; Smelser, Diane T.; Tromp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta with a diameter of at least 3.0 cm. AAAs are often asymptomatic and are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies or when the AAA ruptures leading to a medical emergency. AAAs are more common in males than females, in individuals of European ancestry, and in those over 65 years of age. Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor. In addition, a positive family history of AAA increases the person's risk for AAA. Interestingly, diabetes has been shown to be a protective factor for AAA in many large studies. Hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. Autoimmunity may also play a role in AAA development and progression. In this Outlook paper, we summarize our recent studies on AAA including clinical studies related to surgical repair of AAA and genetic risk factor and large-scale gene expression studies. We conclude with a discussion on our research projects using large data sets available through electronic medical records and biobanks. PMID:24834361

  14. CFD modelling of abdominal aortic aneurysm on hemodynamic loads using a realistic geometry with CT.

    PubMed

    Soudah, Eduardo; Ng, E Y K; Loong, T H; Bordone, Maurizio; Pua, Uei; Narayanan, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find a correlation between the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) geometric parameters, wall stress shear (WSS), abdominal flow patterns, intraluminal thrombus (ILT), and AAA arterial wall rupture using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Real AAA 3D models were created by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of in vivo acquired computed tomography (CT) images from 5 patients. Based on 3D AAA models, high quality volume meshes were created using an optimal tetrahedral aspect ratio for the whole domain. In order to quantify the WSS and the recirculation inside the AAA, a 3D CFD using finite elements analysis was used. The CFD computation was performed assuming that the arterial wall is rigid and the blood is considered a homogeneous Newtonian fluid with a density of 1050 kg/m(3) and a kinematic viscosity of 4 × 10(-3) Pa·s. Parallelization procedures were used in order to increase the performance of the CFD calculations. A relation between AAA geometric parameters (asymmetry index ( β ), saccular index ( γ ), deformation diameter ratio ( χ ), and tortuosity index ( ε )) and hemodynamic loads was observed, and it could be used as a potential predictor of AAA arterial wall rupture and potential ILT formation.

  15. Abdominal compartment syndrome and ruptured aortic aneurysm: Validation of a predictive test (SCA-AAR).

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Betty; Salomon Du Mont, Lucie; Parmentier, Anne-Laure; Besch, Guillaume; Rinckenbach, Simon

    2018-06-01

    The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been clearly identified as being one of the main causes of mortality after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). The ACS is defined as a sustained intra-abdominal pressure > 20 mm Hg associated with a new organ dysfunction or failure. A pilot study was conducted and found that the threshold of 3 among 8 selected criteria, we would predict an ACS occurrence with a 54% positive predictive value and a 92% negative predictive value. But a multicentric prospective study was clearly needed to confirm these results. The outcome of this new study is to assess the qualities of a predictive test on occurrence of the ACS after rAAA surgery. This is a 30 months prospective cohort study conducted in 12 centers and 165 patients will be included. All patients with a rAAA will be consecutively included, whatever the surgical treatment. At the end of surgery, all patients have an abdominal closure and a monitoring of intrabladder pressure will be established every 3 to 4 hours. Decompressive laparotomy will be indicated when ACS occurs. Follow-up period is 1 month. Eight pre- and per-operative criteria will be studied: anemia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, obesity, massive fluid resuscitation, transfusion, hypothermia, and acidosis. In the literature, there is no recommendation about prophylactic decompression, but early decompressive laparotomy appears to improve survival. This study should make it possible to establish a predictive test, detect the ACS early, and consider a prophylactic decompression in the operating room. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02859662, Registered on 4 August 2016.

  16. Effect of statin therapy on serum activity of proteinases and cytokines in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Muehling, Bernd; Oberhuber, Alexander; Schelzig, Hubert; Bischoff, Gisela; Marx, Nikolaus; Sunder-Plassmann, Ludger; Orend, Karl H

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims: Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be key enzymes in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), with elevated levels in diseased aorta and in patient sera. Statins seem to exert an inhibitory effect on MMP activity in the aortic wall. No data exist on the effect of statins on serum activity of MMPs and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins, IL). Methods: The serum activities of MMP2 and MMP9, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and IL6 and IL10 in 63 patients undergoing elective infrarenal aneurysm repair were measured on the day before surgery. Levels were correlated to statin therapy and aneurysm diameter. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the activity of circulating levels of MMP2/9, OPG, and IL6/10 in patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysm. IL6 levels in patients with AAA larger than 6 cm were significantly elevated; differences in serum activities of MMP2/9, OPG, and IL10 were not related to AAA diameter. Conclusion: Serum activities of MMP2/9, OPG, and IL6/10 are not correlated to statin therapy; IL6 levels are higher in patients with large aneurysms. Hence the effect of statin therapy in the treatment of aneurismal disease remains to be elucidated. PMID:19337556

  17. A two-system, single-analysis, fluid-structure interaction technique for modelling abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S C; O'Rourke, M J

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the implementation and validation of a two-system, single-analysis, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technique that uses the finite volume (FV) method for performing simulations on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) geometries. This FSI technique, which was implemented in OpenFOAM, included fluid and solid mesh motion and incorporated a non-linear material model to represent AAA tissue. Fully implicit coupling was implemented, ensuring that both the fluid and solid domains reached convergence within each time step. The fluid and solid parts of the FSI code were validated independently through comparison with experimental data, before performing a complete FSI simulation on an idealized AAA geometry. Results from the FSI simulation showed that a vortex formed at the proximal end of the aneurysm during systolic acceleration, and moved towards the distal end of the aneurysm during diastole. Wall shear stress (WSS) values were found to peak at both the proximal and distal ends of the aneurysm and remain low along the centre of the aneurysm. The maximum von Mises stress in the aneurysm wall was found to be 408kPa, and this occurred at the proximal end of the aneurysm, while the maximum displacement of 2.31 mm occurred in the centre of the aneurysm. These results were found to be consistent with results from other FSI studies in the literature.

  18. Long-term results of Talent endografts for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Bart A N; Waasdorp, Evert J; Gorrepati, Madhu L; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Vos, Jan Albert; Wille, Jan; Moll, Frans L; Zarins, Christopher K; de Vries, Jean Paul P M

    2011-02-01

    Since the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), long-term follow-up studies reporting single-device results are scarce. In this study, we focus on EVAR repair with the Talent stent graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif). Between July 2000 and December 2007, 365 patients underwent elective EVAR with a Talent device. Patient data were gathered prospectively and evaluated retrospectively. By American Society of Anesthesiologists category, 74% were categories III and IV. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed before discharge, at 3, 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Data are presented according to reporting standards for EVAR. The mean proximal aortic neck diameter was 27 mm (range, 16-36 mm), with a neck length <15 mm in 31% (data available for 193 patients). Deployment of endografts was successful in 361 of 365 patients (99%). Initially, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in four patients. Primary technical success determined by results from computed tomography (CT) scans before discharge was achieved in 333 patients (91%). Proximal type I endoleaks were present in 28 patients (8%) during follow-up, and 14 of these patients needed additional treatment for type I endoleak. The 30-day mortality for the whole Talent group was 1.1% (4 of 365). Follow-up to 84 months is reported for 24 patients. During follow-up, 122 (33%) patients died; in nine, death was abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)-related (including 30-day mortality). Kaplan-Meier estimates revealed primary clinical success rates of 98% at 1 year, 93% at 2 years, 88% at 3 years, 79% at 4 years, 64% at 5 years, 51% at 6 years, and 48% at 7 years. Secondary interventions were performed in 73 of 365 patients (20%). Ten conversions for failed endografts were performed. Life-table yearly risk for AAA-related reintervention was 6%, yearly risk for conversion to open repair was 1.1%, yearly risk for total mortality was 8.9%, and yearly risk for AAA-related mortality was 0

  19. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-6 gene promoter and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, L; Allcock, R; van Bockxmeer, F; Warrington, N; Palmer, L J; Iacopetta, B; Norman, P E

    2008-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been reported in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Although this implicates inflammation as a cause of AAAs, there is also evidence that the aneurysmal aorta may secrete IL-6 into the circulation as a result of aortic proteolysis. Genetic association studies are one means of trying to clarify the role of specific mediators in the causal pathway. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between variants of the IL-6 gene and AAAs. An association study involving 677 men with screen-detected AAAs and 656 age-matched controls was performed. Three variants in the IL-6 promoter region were analysed: IL-6-174G>C (rs1800795), IL-6-572G>C (rs1800796) and IL-6-597G>A (rs1800797). Univariate regression of SNP genotype on AAA as a binary outcome was initially performed under a range of genetic models (additive, dominant and recessive). This was followed by multivariate analyses, testing the same models but including risk factors known to be associated with AAAs. All analyses and haplotype estimation were performed under a generalized linear model framework. IL-6-572G>C polymorphism (frequency 1.5% in cases) was identified as an independent risk factor for AAA with an odds ratio (OR) of 6.00 (95%CI: 1.22, 29.41) when applied to the recessive model. No association was seen in the additive or dominant models. In a multivariate analysis using the most common haplotype (h.111, frequency 48.7%) as a reference, h.211 (frequency 4.4%) was an independent risk factor for AAA (OR 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02, 2.39). The IL-6 572G>C polymorphism (and h.211 haplotype) is associated with AAA, however it is too rare to be an important cause of most AAAs. This does not support the concept that the elevated level of IL-6 reported in patients with AAAs is a primary cause of the aneurysmal process.

  20. Comparable perioperative mortality outcomes in younger patients undergoing elective open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nathan L; Reitz, Katherine M; Makaroun, Michel S; Malas, Mahmoud B; Tzeng, Edith

    2018-05-01

    Evidence for benefit of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) over open surgical repair for de novo infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in younger patients remains conflicting because of heterogeneous study populations and small sample sizes. The objective of this study was to compare perioperative and short-term outcomes for EVAR and open surgery in younger patients using a large national disease and procedure-specific data set. We identified patients 65 years of age or younger undergoing first-time elective EVAR or open AAA repair from the Vascular Quality Initiative (2003-2014). We excluded patients with pararenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysms, those medically unfit for open repair, and those undergoing EVAR for isolated iliac aneurysms. Clinical and procedural characteristics were balanced using inverse propensity of treatment weighting. A supplemental analysis extended the study to those younger than 70 years. We identified 2641 patients, 73% (n = 1928) EVAR and 27% (n = 713) open repair. The median age was 62 years (interquartile range, 59-64 years), and 13% were female. The median follow-up time was 401 days (interquartile range, 357-459 days). Unadjusted perioperative survival was 99.6% overall (open repair, 99.1%; EVAR, 99.8%; P < .001), with 97.4% 1-year survival overall (open repair, 97.3%; EVAR, 97.4%; P = .9). Unadjusted reintervention rates were five (open repair) and seven (EVAR) reinterventions per 100 person-years (P = .8). After propensity weighting, the absolute incidence of perioperative mortality was <1% in both groups (open repair, 0.9%, EVAR, 0.2%; P < .001), and complication rates were low. Propensity-weighted survival (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.38; P = .6) and reintervention rates (open repair, 6; EVAR, 8; reinterventions per 100 person-years; P = .8) did not differ between the two interventions. The analysis of those younger than 70 years showed similar results. In this study of younger

  1. The impact of endovascular aneurysm repair on mortality for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Karthikesalingam, Alan; Holt, Peter J; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Bahia, Sandeep S; Patterson, Benjamin O; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Thompson, Matthew M

    2016-08-01

    Procedural mortality is of paramount importance for patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Previous comparative studies have demonstrated international differences in the care of ruptured AAA. This study compared the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and in-hospital mortality for elective AAA repair in England and the United States. The English Hospital Episode Statistics and the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) were interrogated for elective AAA repair from 2005 to 2010. In-hospital mortality and the use of EVAR were analyzed separately for each health care system, after within-country risk adjustment for age, gender, year, and an accepted national comorbidity index. The study included 21,272 patients with AAA in England, of whom 86.61% were male, with median (interquartile range) age of 74 (69-79) years. There were 196,113 AAA patients in the United States, of whom 76.14% were male, with median (interquartile range) age of 73 (67-78) years. In-hospital mortality was greater in England (4.09% vs 1.96 %; P < .01) and EVAR less common (37.33% vs 64.36%; P < .01). These observations persisted in age- and gender-matched comparison. In both countries, lower mortality and greater use of EVAR were seen in centers performing greater numbers of AAA repairs per annum. In England, lower mortality and greater use of EVAR were seen in teaching hospitals with larger bed capacity. In-hospital survival and the uptake of EVAR are lower in England than in the United States. In both countries, mortality was lowest in high-caseload centers performing a greater proportion of cases with endovascular repair. These common factors suggest strategies for improving outcomes for patients requiring elective AAA repair. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mudassar; Fowler, Kathryn J; Mellnick, Vincent M; Sicard, Gregorio A; Narra, Vamsi R

    2016-06-01

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR.

  3. Vitamin E Inhibits Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Angiotensin II–Infused Apolipoprotein E–Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gavrila, Dan; Li, Wei Gen; McCormick, Michael L.; Thomas, Manesh; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Miller, Francis J.; Oberley, Larry W.; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in humans are associated with locally increased oxidative stress and activity of NADPH oxidase. We investigated the hypothesis that vitamin E, an antioxidant with documented efficacy in mice, can attenuate AAA formation during angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice. Methods and Results Six-month-old male apolipoprotein E–deficient mice were infused with Ang II at 1000 ng/kg per minute for 4 weeks via osmotic minipumps while consuming either a regular diet or a diet enriched with vitamin E (2 IU/g of diet). After 4 weeks, abdominal aortic weight and maximal diameter were determined, and aortic tissues were sectioned and examined using biochemical and histological techniques. Vitamin E attenuated formation of AAA, decreasing maximal aortic diameter by 24% and abdominal aortic weight by 34% (P<0.05, respectively). Importantly, animals treated with vitamin E showed a 44% reduction in the combined end point of fatal+nonfatal aortic rupture (P<0.05). Vitamin E also decreased aortic 8-isoprostane content (a marker of oxidative stress) and reduced both aortic macrophage infiltration and osteopontin expression (P<0.05, respectively). Vitamin E treatment had no significant effect on the extent of aortic root atherosclerosis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 or 9, serum lipid profile, or systolic blood pressure. Conclusions Vitamin E ameliorates AAAs and reduces the combined end point of fatal+nonfatal aortic rupture in this animal model. These findings are consistent with the concept that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Ang II–driven AAA formation in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:15933246

  4. Outcomes after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in obese versus nonobese patients.

    PubMed

    Locham, Satinderjit; Rizwan, Muhammad; Dakour-Aridi, Hanaa; Faateh, Muhammad; Nejim, Besma; Malas, Mahmoud

    2018-06-07

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, particularly in Western society. It predisposes surgical patients to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of our study was to use a nationally representative vascular database and to compare in-hospital outcomes in obese vs nonobese patients undergoing elective open aortic repair (OAR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). All patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair were identified in the Vascular Quality Initiative database (2003-2017). Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . Univariable (Student t-test and χ 2  test) and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were implemented to compare in-hospital mortality and any major complications (wound infection, renal failure, and cardiopulmonary failure) in obese vs nonobese patients. We identified a total of 33,082 patients undergoing elective OAR (nonobese, n = 4605 [72.4%]; obese, n = 1754 [27.6%]) and EVAR (nonobese, n = 18,338 [68.6%]; obese, n = 8385 [31.4%]). Obese patients undergoing OAR and EVAR were relatively younger compared with nonobese patients (mean age [standard deviation], 67.55 [8.26] years vs 70.27 [8.30] years and 71.06 [8.22] years vs 74.55 [8.55] years), respectively; (both P < .001). Regardless of approach, obese patients had slightly longer operative time (OAR, 259.02 [109.97] minutes vs 239.37 [99.78] minutes; EVAR, 138.27 [70.64] minutes vs 134.34 [69.98] minutes) and higher blood loss (OAR, 2030 [1823] mL vs 1619 [1642] mL; EVAR, 228 [354] mL vs 207 [312] mL; both P < .001). There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups undergoing OAR and EVAR (OAR, 2.9% vs 3.2% [P = .50]; EVAR, 0.5% vs 0.6% [P = .76]). On multivariable analysis, obese patients undergoing OAR had 33% higher odds of renal failure (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.63; P = .006) and 75% higher odds of wound infections (adjusted OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.11-2.76; P = .02

  5. Matched cohort comparison of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with and without EndoAnchors.

    PubMed

    Muhs, Bart E; Jordan, William; Ouriel, Kenneth; Rajaee, Sareh; de Vries, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether prophylactic use of EndoAnchors (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif) contributes to improved outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms through 2 years. The Aneurysm Treatment Using the Heli-FX Aortic Securement System Global Registry (ANCHOR) subjects who received prophylactic EndoAnchors during EVAR were considered for this analysis. Imaging data of retrospective subjects who underwent EVAR at ANCHOR enrolling institutions were obtained to create a control sample. Nineteen baseline anatomic measurements were used to perform propensity score matching, yielding 99 matched pairs. Follow-up imaging of the ANCHOR and control cohorts was then compared to examine outcomes through 2 years, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Freedom from type Ia endoleak was 97.0% ± 2.1% in the ANCHOR cohort and 94.1% ± 2.5% in the control cohort through 2 years (P = .34). The 2-year freedom from neck dilation in the ANCHOR and control cohorts was 90.4% ± 5.6% and 87.3% ± 4.3%, respectively (P = .46); 2-year freedom from sac enlargement was 97.0% ± 2.1% and 94.0% ± 3.0%, respectively (P = .67). No device migration was observed. Aneurysm sac regression was observed in 81.1% ± 9.5% of ANCHOR subjects through 2 years compared with 48.7% ± 5.9% of control subjects (P = .01). Cox regression analysis found an inverse correlation between number of hostile neck criteria met and later sac regression (P = .05). Preoperative neck thrombus circumference and infrarenal diameter were also variables associated with later sac regression, although not to a significant degree (P = .10 and P = .06, respectively). Control subjects with thrombus were significantly less likely to experience later sac regression than those without thrombus (6% and 43%, respectively; P = .001). In ANCHOR subjects, rate of regression was not significantly different in subjects with or without thrombus (33% and 36

  6. Outcomes over Time in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy Undergoing Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Kim, Wonho; Katzen, Barry; Benenati, James; Samuels, Shaun

    2018-07-01

    To assess differences in outcome in an early and later time period in patients with hostile neck anatomy who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). This single-center, institutional review board-approved retrospective study assessed patients who underwent EVAR between 2004 and 2013, divided into 2 time periods: 2004-2008 and 2009-2013. One hundred twenty-five patients had at least 1 hostile neck parameter that met inclusion criteria: 61 of 216 (28%) patients in the early period and 64 of 144 (44%) patients in the late period. Patients in the late group were younger compared to patients in the early group (late group, 74.5 ± 8.8 years vs early group, 77.5 ± 7.5 years; P = .046). No significant differences were observed in hostile neck anatomic factors between the early and late periods. No statistical difference was observed in periprocedural factors or outcome measures, except for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac regression in the late period compared to the early period (late period, 73.5% vs early period, 55.7%; P = .038). A statistically significant increase was observed in type 1a endoleaks in patients in the late group with suprarenal fixation compared to patients with infrarenal fixation (suprarenal, 27.0% vs infrarenal, 7.9%; P = .025) and in the overall time studied (suprarenal, 20.3% vs infrarenal, 7.6%; P = .045). Except for AAA sac regression, no changes were observed in periprocedural factors and outcome measures over time in patients with hostile neck who underwent EVAR. Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in New Zealand: a validation of the Australasian Vascular Audit.

    PubMed

    Khashram, Manar; Thomson, Ian A; Jones, Gregory T; Roake, Justin A

    2017-05-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), there are two major sources of operative data for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair: the Australasian Vascular Audit (AVA) and the National Minimum Data Set (NMDS). Since the introduction of the AVA in NZ, there has not been any attempt at the validation of outcome data. The aims of this study were to report the outcomes of AAA repair and validate the AAA data captured by AVA using the NMDS. AAA procedures performed in NZ from January 2010 to December 2014 were extracted from the AVA and NMDS. Patients identified from the AVA had their survival status matched to the NMDS. Only primary AAA procedures were included for the analysis, with re-interventions and graft infections excluded. Demographical, risk factors and outcome data were used for validation. The number of patients undergoing primary AAA procedure from AVA and NMDS was 1713 and 2078, respectively. The AVA inpatient mortality for elective and rupture AAA was 1.6 and 32.2%, respectively. The NMDS 30-day mortality from AAA was 2.5 and 31.5%. Overall, 1604 patients were available for matching, and the NMDS correctly reported 98.1% of endovascular aneurysm repair and 94.2% of elective AAA repairs; however, there were major differences in comorbidity reporting between the data sets. Both data sets were incomplete, but combining administrative (NMDS) and clinical (AVA) data sets provided a more accurate assessment of mortality figures. More than 80% of AAA repairs are captured by AVA, but further work to improve compliance and comorbidity documentation is required. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. A simple, effective and clinically applicable method to compute abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress.

    PubMed

    Joldes, Grand Roman; Miller, Karol; Wittek, Adam; Doyle, Barry

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent and irreversible dilation of the lower region of the aorta. It is a symptomless condition that if left untreated can expand to the point of rupture. Mechanically-speaking, rupture of an artery occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. It is therefore desirable to be able to non-invasively estimate the AAA wall stress for a given patient, quickly and reliably. In this paper we present an entirely new approach to computing the wall tension (i.e. the stress resultant equal to the integral of the stresses tangent to the wall over the wall thickness) within an AAA that relies on trivial linear elastic finite element computations, which can be performed instantaneously in the clinical environment on the simplest computing hardware. As an input to our calculations we only use information readily available in the clinic: the shape of the aneurysm in-vivo, as seen on a computed tomography (CT) scan, and blood pressure. We demonstrate that tension fields computed with the proposed approach agree well with those obtained using very sophisticated, state-of-the-art non-linear inverse procedures. Using magnetic resonance (MR) images of the same patient, we can approximately measure the local wall thickness and calculate the local wall stress. What is truly exciting about this simple approach is that one does not need any information on material parameters; this supports the development and use of patient-specific modelling (PSM), where uncertainty in material data is recognised as a key limitation. The methods demonstrated in this paper are applicable to other areas of biomechanics where the loads and loaded geometry of the system are known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Surface Curvature and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress.

    PubMed

    de Galarreta, Sergio Ruiz; Cazón, Aitor; Antón, Raúl; Finol, Ender A

    2017-08-01

    The maximum diameter (MD) criterion is the most important factor when predicting risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). An elevated wall stress has also been linked to a high risk of aneurysm rupture, yet is an uncommon clinical practice to compute AAA wall stress. The purpose of this study is to assess whether other characteristics of the AAA geometry are statistically correlated with wall stress. Using in-house segmentation and meshing algorithms, 30 patient-specific AAA models were generated for finite element analysis (FEA). These models were subsequently used to estimate wall stress and maximum diameter and to evaluate the spatial distributions of wall thickness, cross-sectional diameter, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature. Data analysis consisted of statistical correlations of the aforementioned geometry metrics with wall stress for the 30 AAA inner and outer wall surfaces. In addition, a linear regression analysis was performed with all the AAA wall surfaces to quantify the relationship of the geometric indices with wall stress. These analyses indicated that while all the geometry metrics have statistically significant correlations with wall stress, the local mean curvature (LMC) exhibits the highest average Pearson's correlation coefficient for both inner and outer wall surfaces. The linear regression analysis revealed coefficients of determination for the outer and inner wall surfaces of 0.712 and 0.516, respectively, with LMC having the largest effect on the linear regression equation with wall stress. This work underscores the importance of evaluating AAA mean wall curvature as a potential surrogate for wall stress.

  10. Periprocedural and long-term outcomes of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in cardiology practice.

    PubMed

    Basoor, Abhijeet; Patel, Kiritkumar C; Halabi, Abdul R; Todorov, Mina; Senthilvadivel, Prashanth; Choksi, Nishit; Phan, Thanh; LaLonde, Thomas; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; DeGregorio, Michele

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has recently been made a class I indication in the treatment of AAA. In comparison to the conventional open surgical treatment, endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is associated with equivalent long-term morbidity and mortality rates. Vascular surgeons perform majority of EVAR. There are no reports for the long-term results of this intervention performed by interventional cardiologists. We present one of the first reports of periprocedural and long-term outcomes of EVAR performed by interventional cardiologists. Retrospective chart review on patients with attempted EVAR between September 2005 and January 2011 was performed. Included cases were all consecutive patients who had attempted EVAR by interventional cardiologists. During the study period EVAR was attempted in 170 patients, with 27% being women. The mean age was 74 years (range 52-93). The endovascular graft placement was successful in 96% (163/170) of patients. Procedure failures were more common in women (6 of 46 vs 1 of 124, P = 0.003). The 30-day mortality was 1.8 % (3 of 170). In patients with successful EVAR the mean follow-up was 30 months and mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 ± 3.2 days. Major periprocedural complications were noted in 9% patients (15 of 167). During follow-up, six patients (3.5%) required re-intervention and additional 16 patients died with no aneurysm related deaths. EVAR primarily performed by interventional cardiologists demonstrates high periprocedural and long-term success rates. A higher EVAR failure rate has been observed in women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and abdominal aortic aneurysm risk

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Jia, Xin; Li, Haifeng; Jia, Senhao; Zhang, Minhong; Xu, Yongle; Du, Xin; Zhang, Nianrong; Lu, Weihang; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening condition. A number of studies reported the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and AAA risk, but substantial controversial findings were observed and the strength of the association remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the aforementioned association in the overall population and different subgroups. Methods: PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched until March 2016 to identify eligible studies, restricted to humans and articles published in English. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the susceptibility to AAA. Subgroup meta-analyses were conducted on features of the population, such as ethnicity, sex of the participants, and study design (source of control). Results: Twelve case–control studies on MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA risk, including 3555 cases and 6568 case-free controls were identified. The results revealed no significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA risk in the overall population and within Caucasian or Asian subpopulations in all 5 genetic models. Further subgroup meta-analysis indicated that significantly increased risks were observed among cases with a mean age <70 years (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.10–2.12, P = 0.02), cases with prevalence of smoking <60% (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02–1.90, P = 0.04), and cases with aneurysm diameter ≥55 mm (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.07–2.24, P = 0.02) in the dominant genetic model. No publication bias was detected in the present study. Conclusion: In conclusion, our comprehensive meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play an important role in AAA susceptibility, especially in younger, non-smoking, larger AAA-diameter subgroups of patients PMID:27603386

  12. Implicit discount rates of vascular surgeons in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Enemark, U; Lyttkens, C H; Troëng, T; Weibull, H; Ranstam, J

    1998-01-01

    A growing empirical literature has investigated attitudes towards discounting of health benefits with regard to social choices of life-saving and health-improving measures and individuals' time preferences for the management of their own health. In this study, the authors elicited the time preferences of vascular surgeons in the context of management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms, for which the choice between early elective surgery and watchful waiting is not straightforward. They interviewed 25 of a random sample of 30 Swedish vascular surgeons. Considerable variation in the time preferences was found in the choices between watchful waiting and surgical intervention among the otherwise very homogeneous group of surgeons. The discount rates derived ranged from 5.3% to 19.4%. The median discount rate (10.4%) is similar to those usually reported for social choices concerning life-saving measures. The surgeons who were employed in university hospitals had higher discount rates than did their colleagues in county and district hospitals.

  13. Quantitative HDL Proteomics Identifies Peroxiredoxin-6 as a Biomarker of Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Burillo, Elena; Jorge, Inmaculada; Martínez-López, Diego; Camafeita, Emilio; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Trevisan-Herraz, Marco; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Egido, Jesús; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Meilhac, Olivier; Vázquez, Jesús; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are complex protein and lipid assemblies whose composition is known to change in diverse pathological situations. Analysis of the HDL proteome can thus provide insight into the main mechanisms underlying abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and potentially detect novel systemic biomarkers. We performed a multiplexed quantitative proteomics analysis of HDLs isolated from plasma of AAA patients (N = 14) and control study participants (N = 7). Validation was performed by western-blot (HDL), immunohistochemistry (tissue), and ELISA (plasma). HDL from AAA patients showed elevated expression of peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6), HLA class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA-I), retinol-binding protein 4, and paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 (PON1), whereas α-2 macroglobulin and C4b-binding protein were decreased. The main pathways associated with HDL alterations in AAA were oxidative stress and immune-inflammatory responses. In AAA tissue, PRDX6 colocalized with neutrophils, vascular smooth muscle cells, and lipid oxidation. Moreover, plasma PRDX6 was higher in AAA (N = 47) than in controls (N = 27), reflecting increased systemic oxidative stress. Finally, a positive correlation was recorded between PRDX6 and AAA diameter. The analysis of the HDL proteome demonstrates that redox imbalance is a major mechanism in AAA, identifying the antioxidant PRDX6 as a novel systemic biomarker of AAA. PMID:27934969

  14. Impact of isotropic constitutive descriptions on the predicted peak wall stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Man, V; Polzer, S; Gasser, T C; Novotny, T; Bursa, J

    2018-03-01

    Biomechanics-based assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk has gained considerable scientific and clinical momentum. However, computation of peak wall stress (PWS) using state-of-the-art finite element models is time demanding. This study investigates which features of the constitutive description of AAA wall are decisive for achieving acceptable stress predictions in it. Influence of five different isotropic constitutive descriptions of AAA wall is tested; models reflect realistic non-linear, artificially stiff non-linear, or artificially stiff pseudo-linear constitutive descriptions of AAA wall. Influence of the AAA wall model is tested on idealized (n=4) and patient-specific (n=16) AAA geometries. Wall stress computations consider a (hypothetical) load-free configuration and include residual stresses homogenizing the stresses across the wall. Wall stress differences amongst the different descriptions were statistically analyzed. When the qualitatively similar non-linear response of the AAA wall with low initial stiffness and subsequent strain stiffening was taken into consideration, wall stress (and PWS) predictions did not change significantly. Keeping this non-linear feature when using an artificially stiff wall can save up to 30% of the computational time, without significant change in PWS. In contrast, a stiff pseudo-linear elastic model may underestimate the PWS and is not reliable for AAA wall stress computations. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost identification of abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging by using time and motion analyses.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G D; Armerding, M D; Dake, M D; Napel, S

    2000-04-01

    To compare the costs of performing helical computed tomographic (CT) angiography with three-dimensional rendering versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for preoperative imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A single observer determined the variable direct costs of performing nine intraarterial DSA and 10 CT angiographic examinations in age- and general health-matched patients with AAA by using time and motion analyses. All personnel directly involved in the cases were tracked, and the involvement times were recorded to the nearest minute. All material items used during the procedures were recorded. The cost of labor was determined from personnel reimbursement data, and the cost of materials, from vendor pricing. The variable direct costs of laboratory tests and using the ambulatory treatment unit for postprocedural monitoring, as well as all fixed direct costs, were assessed from hospital accounting records. The total costs were determined for each procedure and compared by using the Student t test and calculating the CIs. The mean total direct cost of intraarterial DSA (+/- SD) was $1,052 +/- 71, and that of CT angiography was $300 +/- 30, which are significantly different (P < 4.1 x 10(-11)). With 95% confidence, intraarterial DSA cost 3.2-3.7 times more than CT angiography for the assessment of AAA. Assuming equal diagnostic utility and procedure-related morbidity, institutions may have substantial cost savings whenever CT angiography can replace intraarterial DSA for imaging AAAs.

  16. Associations of Diabetes and Obesity with Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Djousse, Luc; Song, Yiqing; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O; Matsumoto, Chisa; Manson, JoAnn E; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m 2 , the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06-1.59] for BMI 25-<30 kg/m 2 and 1.69 [1.24-2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 . The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57-1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years' follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up.

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease Is Positively and Diabetes Mellitus Is Negatively Associated with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Haruhito A.; Kakio, Yuki; Umebayashi, Ryoko; Okuyama, Yuka; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Susumu; Yoshida, Masashi; Oshima, Yu; Sano, Shunji; Wada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of CKD and DM with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods We enrolled 261 patients with AAA (AAA+) and age-and-sex matched 261 patients without AAA (AAA-) at two hospitals between 2008 and 2014, and examined the association between the risk factors and the presence of AAA. Furthermore, in order to investigate the prevalence of AAA in each group, we enrolled 1126 patients with CKD and 400 patients with DM. Results The presence of CKD in patients with AAA+ was significantly higher than that in patients with AAA- (AAA+; 65%, AAA-; 52%, P = 0.004). The presence of DM in patients with AAA+ was significantly lower than that in patients with AAA- (AAA+; 17%, AAA-; 35%, P < 0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that hypertension, ischemic heart disease and CKD were independent determinants, whereas, DM was a negatively independent determinant, for the presence of AAA. The prevalence of AAA in patients with CKD 65 years old and above was 5.1%, whereas, that in patients with DM 65 years old and above was only 0.6%. Conclusion CKD is a positively associated with the presence of AAA. In contrast, DM is a negatively associated with the presence of AAA in Japanese population. PMID:27764090

  18. The role of IL-6 in pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Michihide; Aoki, Hiroki; Ohno, Satoko; Furusho, Aya; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Ito, Sohei; Hayashi, Makiko; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains unclear, evidence is accumulating to support a central role for inflammation. Inflammatory responses are coordinated by various soluble cytokines of which IL-6 is one of the major proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we examined the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of experimental AAA induced by a periaortic exposure to CaCl2 in mice. We now report that the administration of MR16-1, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody specific for the mouse IL-6 receptor, mildly suppressed the development of AAA. The inhibition of IL-6 signaling provoked by MR16-1 also resulted in a suppression of Stat3 activity. Conversely, no significant changes in either NFκB activity, Jnk activity or the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp) -2 and -9 were identified. Transcriptome analyses revealed that MR16-1-sensitive genes encode chemokines and their receptors, as well as factors that regulate vascular permeability and cell migration. Imaging cytometric analyses then consistently demonstrated reduced cellular infiltration for MR16-1-treated AAA. These results suggest that IL-6 plays an important but limited role in AAA pathogenesis, and primarily regulates cell migration and infiltration. These data would also suggest that IL-6 activity may play an important role in scenarios of continuous cellular infiltration, possibly including human AAA.

  19. The role of IL-6 in pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Michihide; Ohno, Satoko; Furusho, Aya; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Ito, Sohei; Hayashi, Makiko; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains unclear, evidence is accumulating to support a central role for inflammation. Inflammatory responses are coordinated by various soluble cytokines of which IL-6 is one of the major proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we examined the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of experimental AAA induced by a periaortic exposure to CaCl2 in mice. We now report that the administration of MR16-1, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody specific for the mouse IL-6 receptor, mildly suppressed the development of AAA. The inhibition of IL-6 signaling provoked by MR16-1 also resulted in a suppression of Stat3 activity. Conversely, no significant changes in either NFκB activity, Jnk activity or the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp) -2 and -9 were identified. Transcriptome analyses revealed that MR16-1-sensitive genes encode chemokines and their receptors, as well as factors that regulate vascular permeability and cell migration. Imaging cytometric analyses then consistently demonstrated reduced cellular infiltration for MR16-1-treated AAA. These results suggest that IL-6 plays an important but limited role in AAA pathogenesis, and primarily regulates cell migration and infiltration. These data would also suggest that IL-6 activity may play an important role in scenarios of continuous cellular infiltration, possibly including human AAA. PMID:28982132

  20. 3D analysis of vortical structures in an abdominal aortic aneurysm by stereoscopic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deplano, Valérie; Guivier-Curien, Carine; Bertrand, Eric

    2016-11-01

    The present work presents an experimental in vitro three-dimensional analysis of the flow dynamics in an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) through stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. The experimental set-up mimics the pathophysiological context involving a shear thinning blood analogue fluid, compliant AAA and aorto-iliac bifurcation walls and controlled inlet and outlet flow rate and pressure waveforms as well as working fluid temperature. SPIV was carefully calibrated and conducted to assess the three velocity components in the AAA volume. For the first time in the literature, the 3D vortex ring genesis, propagation, and vanishing in the AAA bulge are experimentally described and quantified. In comparison with classical 2-component PIV measurements (2C PIV), the third component of the velocity vector was shown to be of importance in such a geometry, especially, during the deceleration phase of the flow rate. The 3D velocity magnitude reached up more than 20 % of the 2D one showing that 2C PIV are definitively not accurate enough to provide a complete description of flow behaviour in an AAA. In addition to potential clinical implications of a full 3D vortex ring description in AAA evolution, the 3D in vitro experimental quantification of the flow dynamics carried out in the present study offers an interesting tool for the validation of fluid-structure interaction numerical studies dealing with AAA.

  1. Determining the influence of calcification on the failure properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Mulvihill, John J; Barrett, Hilary E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    Varying degrees of calcification are present in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, their impact on AAA failure properties and AAA rupture risk is unclear. The aim of this work is evaluate and compare the failure properties of partially calcified and predominantly fibrous AAA tissue and investigate the potential reasons for failure. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed on AAA samples harvested from 31 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Individual tensile samples were divided into two groups: fibrous (n=31) and partially calcified (n=38). The presence of calcification was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 69 mechanical tests were performed and the failure stretch (λf), failure stress (σf) and failure tension (Tf) were recorded for each test. Following mechanical testing, the failure sites of a subset of both tissue types were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the potential reasons for failure. It has been shown that the failure properties of partially calcified tissue are significantly reduced compared to fibrous tissue and SEM and EDS results suggest that the junction between a calcification deposit and the fibrous matrix is highly susceptible to failure. This study implicates the presence of calcification as a key player in AAA rupture risk and provides further motivation for the development of non-invasive methods of measuring calcification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipocytes and abdominal aortic aneurysm: Putative potential role of adipocytes in the process of AAA development.

    PubMed

    Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2018-01-15

    Background Adipose tissue plays a role in the storage of excess energy as triglycerides (TGs). Excess fat accumulation causes various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that ectopic fat deposition and excess TG accumulation in non-adipose tissue might be important predictors of cardiometabolic and vascular risk. For example, ectopic fat in perivascular tissue promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arterial wall. Objective Recently, it has been reported that ectopic fat (adipocyte) in the vascular wall of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is present in both human and experimental animal models. The pathological significance of adipocytes in the AAA wall has not been fully understood. In this review, we summarized the functions of adipocytes and discussed potential new drugs that target vascular adipocytes for AAA treatment. Result Previous studies suggest that adipocytes in vascular wall play an important role in the development of AAA. Conclusion Adipocytes in the vascular wall could be novel targets for the development of AAA therapeutic drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Histopathological analysis of cellular localization of cathepsins in abdominal aortic aneurysm wall.

    PubMed

    Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Zimmermann, Alexander; Ockert, Stefan; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2012-08-01

    An important feature of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the destruction of vessel wall, especially elastin and collagen. Besides matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins are the most potent elastolytic enzymes. The expression of cathepsins with known elastolytic and collagenolytic activities in the individual cells within AAA has not yet been determined. The vessel wall of 32 AAA patients and 10 organ donors was analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and cystatin C in all cells localized within AAA. Luminal endothelial cells (ECs) of AAA were positive for cathepsin D and partially for cathepsins B, K and S. Endothelial cells of the neovessels and smooth muscle cells in the media were positive for all cathepsins tested, especially for cathepsin B. In the inflammatory infiltrate all cathepsins were expressed in the following pattern: B > D = S > K = L. Macrophages showed the highest staining intensity for all cathepsins. Furthermore, weak overall expression of cystatin C was observed in all the cells localized in the AAA with the exception of the ECs. There is markedly increased expression of the various cathepsins within the AAA wall compared to healthy aorta. Our data are broadly consistent with a role for cathepsins in AAA; and demonstrate expression of cathepsins D, B and S in phagocytic cells in the inflammatory infiltrate; and also may reveal a role for cathepsin B in lymphocytes. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of targeted screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Monte Carlo-based estimates.

    PubMed

    Pentikäinen, T J; Sipilä, T; Rissanen, P; Soisalon-Soininen, S; Salo, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a cost-effectiveness analysis of targeted screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A major emphasis was on the estimation of distributions of costs and effectiveness. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation using C programming language in a PC environment. Data on survival and costs, and a majority of screening probabilities, were from our own empirical studies. Natural history data were based on the literature. Each screened male gained 0.07 life-years at an incremental cost of FIM 3,300. The expected values differed from zero very significantly. For females, expected gains were 0.02 life-years at an incremental cost of FIM 1,100, which was not statistically significant. Cost-effectiveness ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were FIM 48,000 (27,000-121,000) and 54,000 (22,000-infinity) for males and females, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the results for males were stable. Individual variation in life-year gains was high. Males seemed to benefit from targeted AAA screening, and the results were stable. As far as the cost-effectiveness ratio is considered acceptable, screening for males seemed to be justified. However, our assumptions about growth and rupture behavior of AAAs might be improved with further clinical and epidemiological studies. As a point estimate, females benefited in a similar manner, but the results were not statistically significant. The evidence of this study did not justify screening of females.

  5. Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: experience in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Davit, Flavia E; Cole, Theresa; Helling, Thomas; Tretter, James

    2007-11-01

    The endovascular technique has been recently used as an alternative procedure for selected patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) as a result of the potential for decreasing morbidity, mortality, and recovery time. We examined our institution's results with endovascular repair of RAAA. Between July 2005 and April 2006, four patients underwent endovascular repair of infrarenal RAAA. We performed a retrospective analysis of our comorbidities, operation time, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, morbidity and mortality, blood transfusions, and secondary interventions on these patients at our institution. The median age was 73.2 years (range, 66-82 years); 75 per cent were male and 25 per cent were female. Mean operating time was 90 minutes. We had no operative or postoperative mortalities. Five complications occurred in three patients. These included acute renal failure, common femoral artery intimal dissection, graft thrombosis of the iliac limb, ischemic colitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Endovascular repair of RAAA by an endovascular team is feasible in the community hospital setting. Our limited number of patients in this study does not allow us to compare it directly with results from the standard open procedure. A larger, multicenter study may eventually show this method to be helpful in patients who require repair of RAAA.

  6. Simvastatin Treatment Upregulates HO-1 in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm but Independently of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Kopacz, Aleksandra; Kloska, Damian; Zagrapan, Branislav; Neumayer, Christoph; Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Huk, Ihor; Brostjan, Christine; Dulak, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), encoded by HMOX1 gene and regulated by Nrf2 transcription factor, is a cytoprotective enzyme. Its deficiency may exacerbate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development, which is also often associated with hyperlipidemia. Beneficial effects of statins, the broadly used antilipidemic drugs, were attributed to modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 axis. However, the effect of statins on Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in patients with AAA has not been studied yet. We analyzed AAA tissue from patients treated with simvastatin (N = 28) or without statins (N = 14). Simvastatin treatment increased HO-1 protein level in AAA, both in endothelial cells (ECs) and in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but increased Nrf2 localization was restricted only to vasa vasorum. Nrf2 target genes HMOX1, NQO1, and GCLM expression remained unchanged in AAA. In vitro studies showed that simvastatin raises HO-1 protein level slightly in ECs and to much higher extent in SMCs, which is not related to Nrf2/ARE activation, although HMOX1 expression is upregulated by simvastatin in both cell types. In conclusion, simvastatin-induced modulation of HO-1 level in ECs and SMCs in vitro is not related to Nrf2/ARE activity. Likewise, divergent HO-1 and Nrf2 localization together with stable expression of Nrf2 target genes, including HMOX1, in AAA tissue denotes Nrf2 independency. PMID:29743974

  7. Reproducibility of ECG-gated ultrasound diameter assessment of small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bredahl, K; Eldrup, N; Meyer, C; Eiberg, J E; Sillesen, H

    2013-03-01

    No standardised ultrasound procedure to obtain reliable growth estimates for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently available. We investigated the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel approach controlling for a combination of vessel wall delineation and cardiac cycle variation. Prospective comparative study. Consecutive patients (N = 27) with an AAA, attending their 6-month control as part of a medical treatment trial, were scanned twice by two ultrasound operators. Then, all ultrasound recordings were transferred to a core facility and analysed by a third person. The AAA diameter was determined in four different ways: from the leading edge of adventitia on the anterior wall to either the leading edge of the adventitia (method A) or leading edge of the intima (method B) on the posterior wall, with both measurements performed in systole and diastole. Inter-operator reproducibility was ± 3 mm for all methods applied. There was no difference in outcome between methods A and B; likewise, end-diastolic measurement did not improve reproducibility in preference to peak-systolic measurement. The use of a standardised ultrasound protocol including ECG-gating and subsequent off-line reading with minute calliper placement reduces variability. This may be of use in developing protocols to better detect even small AAA growth rates during clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrete Event Simulation for Decision Modeling in Health Care: Lessons from Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edmund; Masconi, Katya L.; Sweeting, Michael J.; Thompson, Simon G.; Powell, Janet T.

    2018-01-01

    Markov models are often used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of new healthcare interventions but they are sometimes not flexible enough to allow accurate modeling or investigation of alternative scenarios and policies. A Markov model previously demonstrated that a one-off invitation to screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) for men aged 65 y in the UK and subsequent follow-up of identified AAAs was likely to be highly cost-effective at thresholds commonly adopted in the UK (£20,000 to £30,000 per quality adjusted life-year). However, new evidence has emerged and the decision problem has evolved to include exploration of the circumstances under which AAA screening may be cost-effective, which the Markov model is not easily able to address. A new model to handle this more complex decision problem was needed, and the case of AAA screening thus provides an illustration of the relative merits of Markov models and discrete event simulation (DES) models. An individual-level DES model was built using the R programming language to reflect possible events and pathways of individuals invited to screening v. those not invited. The model was validated against key events and cost-effectiveness, as observed in a large, randomized trial. Different screening protocol scenarios were investigated to demonstrate the flexibility of the DES. The case of AAA screening highlights the benefits of DES, particularly in the context of screening studies.

  9. Wall stress reduction in abdominal aortic aneurysms as a result of polymeric endoaortic paving.

    PubMed

    Ashton, John H; Ayyalasomayajula, Avinash; Simon, Bruce R; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2011-06-01

    Polymeric endoaortic paving (PEAP) may improve endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) since it has the potential to treat patients with complex AAA geometries while reducing the incidence of migration and endoleak. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyurethane (PU) blends are proposed as PEAP materials due to their range of mechanical properties, thermoformability, and resistance to biodegradation. In this study, the reduction in AAA wall stress that can be achieved using PEAP was estimated and compared to that resulting from stent-grafts. This was accomplished by mechanically modeling the anisotropic response of PCL/PU blends and implementing these results into finite element model (FEM) simulations. We found that at the maximum diameter of the AAA, the 50/50 and 10/90 PCL/PU blends reduced wall stress by 99 and 98%, respectively, while a stent-graft reduced wall stress by 99%. Our results also show that wall stress reduction increases with increasing PEAP thickness and PCL content in the blend ratio. These results indicate that PEAP can reduce AAA wall stress as effectively as a stent-graft. As such, we propose that PEAP may provide an improved treatment alternative for AAA, since many of the limitations of stent-grafts have the potential to be solved using this approach.

  10. On the potential increase of the oxidative stress status in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Pincemail, J; Defraigne, J O; Cheramy-Bien, J P; Dardenne, N; Donneau, A F; Albert, A; Labropoulos, N; Sakalihasan, N

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major cause of preventable deaths in older patients. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of AAA. However, only few studies have been conducted to evaluate the blood oxidative stress status of AAA patients. Twenty seven AAA patients (mean age of 70 years) divided into two groups according to AAA size (≤ 50 or > 50 mm) were compared with an age-matched group of 18 healthy subjects. Antioxidants (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, glutathione, thiols, and ubiquinone), trace elements (selenium, copper, zinc, and copper/zinc ratio) and markers of oxidative damage to lipids (lipid peroxides, antibodies against oxidized patients, and isoprostanes) were measured in each subject. The comparison of the three groups by ordinal logistic regression showed a significant decrease of the plasma levels of vitamin C (P = 0.011), α-tocopherol (P = 0.016) but not when corrected for cholesterol values, β-carotene (P = 0.0096), ubiquinone (P = 0.014), zinc (P = 0.0035), and of selenium (P = 0.0038), as AAA size increased. By contrast, specific markers of lipid peroxidation such as the Cu/Zn ratio (P = 0.046) and to a lesser extent isoprostanes (P = 0.052) increased. The present study emphasizes the potential role of the oxidative stress in AAA disease and suggests that an antioxidant therapy could be of interest to delay AAA progression.

  11. Homocysteine Level and Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Hu, Xinhua; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Junpeng; Shao, Yang; Liu, Bing; Xin, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We investigated this association between Hcy levels in patients with AAA and unaffected controls by conducting a meta-analysis and systematic review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search (up to August 2013) of the PubMed database and Embase. We selected observational studies that evaluated Hcy levels in subjects with AAA compared to unaffected controls. Criteria for inclusion were the assessment of baseline Hcy and risk of AAA as an outcome. The results were presented as odd ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing AAA patients to the control subjects. Results 7 studies with 6,445 participants were identified and analyzed. Overall, elevated plasma Hcy was associated with an increased risk of AAA (3.29; 95% CI 1.66–6.51). The pooled adjusted OR from a random effect model of only men participants in the AAA compared with the control group was 2.36 (95% CI 0.63–8.82). Conclusion This meta-analysis and systematic review suggested that Hcy significantly increased the risk of AAA. PMID:24465733

  12. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wei Zuo, Shang; Li, Yue; Jia, Xin; Jia, Sen Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xiang Song, Yu; Qi Wei, Ying; Xiong, Jiang; Hua Hu, Yong; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The associations between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain controversial, with only few studies focused on these associations within the Chinese population. We performed subgroup and interaction analyses in a Chinese Han population to investigate these associations. In all, 155 AAA patients and 310 control subjects were evaluated for serum total homocysteine levels and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the aforementioned associations. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, and chronic disease histories. The multiple logistic analyses showed a significant association between HHcy and AAA but no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. The interaction analysis showed that age and peripheral arterial disease played an interactive role in the association between HHcy and AAA, while drinking status played an interactive role in the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. In conclusion, HHcy is an independent risk factor of AAA in a Chinese Han population, especially in the elderly and peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials aimed to reduce homocysteine levels are warranted to assess the causal nature of these relationships PMID:26865327

  13. The preventive and curative effects of melatonin against abdominal aortic aneurysm in rats.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Gözde; İsbir, Selim; Şener, Göksel; Çevik, Özge; Çetinel, Şule; Dericioğlu, Okan; Arsan, Sinan; Çobanoğlu, Adnan

    2018-05-01

    Oxygen free radicals are important components involved in the histopathologic tissue alterations observed during abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study examined whether melatonin has protective or therapeutic effects against AAAs. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. A CaCl 2 model was used to induce AAA. Starting on the operation day (Mel+AAA+Mel group) or 4 weeks after the operation (AAA+Mel group), the rats received intraperitoneal melatonin (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 and 2 weeks, respectively. The control and AAA groups received vehicle for 2 weeks after the sham operation and AAA induction, respectively. Angiographic measurements were recorded at the beginning, week 4, and week 6 of the study. After decapitation, aorta tissues were taken for the measurement of malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, glutathione levels, and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activity. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tumor necrosis factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot technique. Aortic tissues were also examined by light microscopy. CaCl 2 caused an inflammatory response and oxidative damage indicated by rises in malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. Myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities were increased, but glutathione levels were reduced. On the one hand, MMP-2, MMP-9, tumor necrosis factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expressions were increased in the vehicle-treated AAA group. On the other hand, melatonin treatment reversed all of these biochemical indices and histopathologic alterations. According to the data, although melatonin tended to reverse the biochemical parameters given on week 4, the preventive effect is more pronounced when given concomitantly with AAA induction because values were closer to the control levels. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative expression and localization of cysteine and aspartic proteases in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Haertl, Felix; Matevossian, Edouard; Zernecke, Alma; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine and aspartic proteases possess high elastolytic activity and might contribute to the degradation of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall. The aim of this study was to analyze, in detail, the proteases (cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and inhibitor cystatin C) found in human AAA and healthy aortic tissue samples. The vessel walls from AAA patients (n=36) and nonaneurysmal aortae (n=10) were retrieved using conventional surgical repair and autopsy methods. Serum samples from the same AAA patients and 10 healthy volunteers were also collected. Quantitative expression analyses were performed at the mRNA level using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT–PCR). Furthermore, analyses at the protein level included western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Cellular sources of cysteine/aspartic proteases and cystatin C were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All cysteine/aspartic proteases and cystatin C were detected in the AAA and control samples. Using quantitative RT–PCR, a significant increase in expression was observed for cathepsins B (P=0.021) and L (P=0.018), compared with the controls. Cathepsin B and cystatin C were also detected in the serum of AAA patients. Using IHC, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages were positive for all of the tested cathepsins, as well as cystatin C; in addition, the lymphocytes were mainly positive for cathepsin B, followed by cathepsins D and S. All cysteine/aspartic proteases analyzed in our study were detected in the AAA and healthy aorta. The highest expression was found in macrophages and SMCs. Consequently, cysteine/aspartic proteases might play a substantial role in AAA. PMID:24833013

  15. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells from abdominal aortic aneurysm have increased oxidative stress and telomere attrition.

    PubMed

    Cafueri, Giuseppe; Parodi, Federica; Pistorio, Angela; Bertolotto, Maria; Ventura, Francesco; Gambini, Claudio; Bianco, Paolo; Dallegri, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Pezzolo, Annalisa; Palombo, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multi-factorial disease with life-threatening complications. AAA is typically asymptomatic and its rupture is associated with high mortality rate. Both environmental and genetic risk factors are involved in AAA pathogenesis. Aim of this study was to investigate telomere length (TL) and oxidative DNA damage in paired blood lymphocytes, aortic endothelial cells (EC), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and epidermal cells from patients with AAA in comparison with matched controls. TL was assessed using a modification of quantitative (Q)-FISH in combination with immunofluorescence for CD31 or α-smooth muscle actin to detect EC and VSMC, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage was investigated by immunofluorescence staining for 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). Telomeres were found to be significantly shortened in EC, VSMC, keratinocytes and blood lymphocytes from AAA patients compared to matched controls. 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity, indicative of oxidative DNA damage, was detected at higher levels in all of the above cell types from AAA patients compared to matched controls. Increased DNA double strand breaks were detected in AAA patients vs controls by nuclear staining for γ-H2AX histone. There was statistically significant inverse correlation between TL and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in blood lymphocytes from AAA patients. This study shows for the first time that EC and VSMC from AAA have shortened telomeres and oxidative DNA damage. Similar findings were obtained with circulating lymphocytes and keratinocytes, indicating the systemic nature of the disease. Potential translational implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. EPA Prevents the Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms through Gpr-120/Ffar-4.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Bumdelger, Batmunkh; Kokubo, Hiroki; Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture with a high mortality rate. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to prevent AAA formation, the mechanism by which EPA works on vascular smooth muscle cells is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which orally-administered EPA prevents the formation of severe AAAs that develop in Osteoprotegerin (Opg) knockout (KO) mice. In the CaCl2-induced AAA model, EPA attenuated the enhanced progression of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, including the increase in aortic diameter with destruction of elastic fibers in the media. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that EPA reduced the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1/Map3k7 (Tak-1) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9) in the media of the aorta. In smooth muscle cell cultures, rh-TRAIL-induced activation of the Tak-1-JNK pathway and increase in Mmp-9 expression were inhibited by EPA. Moreover, GW9508, a specific ligand for G-protein coupled receptor (Gpr)-120/Free fatty acid receptor (Ffar)-4, mimicked the effects of EPA. The effects of EPA were abrogated by knockdown of the Gpr-120/Ffar-4 receptor gene. Our data demonstrate that the Trail-Tak-1-JNK-Mmp-9 pathway is responsible for the enhancement of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, and that EPA inhibits the Tak-1-JNK pathway by activating Gpr-120/Ffar-4, which results in the attenuation of AAA development.

  17. EPA Prevents the Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms through Gpr-120/Ffar-4

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Ryo; Bumdelger, Batmunkh; Kokubo, Hiroki; Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture with a high mortality rate. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to prevent AAA formation, the mechanism by which EPA works on vascular smooth muscle cells is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which orally-administered EPA prevents the formation of severe AAAs that develop in Osteoprotegerin (Opg) knockout (KO) mice. In the CaCl2-induced AAA model, EPA attenuated the enhanced progression of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, including the increase in aortic diameter with destruction of elastic fibers in the media. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that EPA reduced the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1/Map3k7 (Tak-1) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9) in the media of the aorta. In smooth muscle cell cultures, rh-TRAIL-induced activation of the Tak-1-JNK pathway and increase in Mmp-9 expression were inhibited by EPA. Moreover, GW9508, a specific ligand for G-protein coupled receptor (Gpr)-120/Free fatty acid receptor (Ffar)-4, mimicked the effects of EPA. The effects of EPA were abrogated by knockdown of the Gpr-120/Ffar-4 receptor gene. Our data demonstrate that the Trail-Tak-1-JNK-Mmp-9 pathway is responsible for the enhancement of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, and that EPA inhibits the Tak-1-JNK pathway by activating Gpr-120/Ffar-4, which results in the attenuation of AAA development. PMID:27764222

  18. Histology and Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Pancheri, Francesco Q; Peattie, Robert A; Reddy, Nithin D; Ahamed, Touhid; Lin, Wenjian; Ouellette, Timothy D; Iafrati, Mark D; Luis Dorfmann, A

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) represent permanent, localized dilations of the abdominal aorta that can be life-threatening if progressing to rupture. Evaluation of risk of rupture depends on understanding the mechanical behavior of patient AAA walls. In this project, a series of patient AAA wall tissue samples have been evaluated through a combined anamnestic, mechanical, and histopathologic approach. Mechanical properties of the samples have been characterized using a novel, strain-controlled, planar biaxial testing protocol emulating the in vivo deformation of the aorta. Histologically, the tissue ultrastructure was highly disrupted. All samples showed pronounced mechanical stiffening with stretch and were notably anisotropic, with greater stiffness in the circumferential than the axial direction. However, there were significant intrapatient variations in wall stiffness and stress. In biaxial tests in which the longitudinal stretch was held constant at 1.1 as the circumferential stretch was extended to 1.1, the maximum average circumferential stress was 330 ± 70 kPa, while the maximum average axial stress was 190 ± 30 kPa. A constitutive model considering the wall as anisotropic with two preferred directions fit the measured data well. No statistically significant differences in tissue mechanical properties were found based on patient gender, age, maximum bulge diameter, height, weight, body mass index, or smoking history. Although a larger patient cohort is merited to confirm these conclusions, the project provides new insight into the relationships between patient natural history, histopathology, and mechanical behavior that may be useful in the development of accurate methods for rupture risk evaluation.

  19. Reconsidering gender relative to risk of rupture in the contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Skibba, Afshin A; Evans, James R; Hopkins, Steven P; Yoon, H Richard; Katras, Tony; Kalbfleisch, John H; Rush, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) may rupture at smaller diameters in women than in men, and women may be at higher risk and have poorer outcomes in elective and emergent interventions because of age and comorbidities. Practice guidelines recommending elective AAA repair at >5.5 cm are gender neutral and may not adequately reflect increased risks in women or the potential advantages of elective lower risk endovascular procedures. Patients with a diagnosis of AAA discharged from a single referral hospital during a 14-year period were identified for retrospective analysis. A total of 2121 patients with AAAs were studied, 499 women (23.5%) and 1622 men (76.5%). Women were older and had a greater incidence of hypertension, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyslipidemia, and renal insufficiency. Intact AAAs in 467 women had a mean diameter of 4.4 ± 1.3 cm compared with 1538 men at 5.0 ± 1.4 cm (P < .01). The ruptured AAAs in 32 women (6.4%) had a mean diameter of 6.1 ± 1.5 cm compared with 84 men (5.2%) at 7.7 ± 1.9 cm (P < .01). Women had a twofold increased frequency of AAA rupture than men at all size intervals (P < .01). The frequency of ruptured AAAs <5.5 cm among 10 of 32 women with ruptured AAAs was 31.3%; among 7 of 84 men with ruptured AAAs, it was 8.3% (P < .01). The frequency of ruptured AAAs <5.5 cm in all 383 women with AAAs <5.5 cm was 2.6%; in 1042 men, it was 0.6% (P < .01). Of the 1211 AAA repairs, 574 (47.4%) were open aneurysm repair (OAR) and 637 (52.6%) were endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Mortality after elective OAR in 475 patients of both sexes was 5.1%; for EVAR in 676 patients, mortality was 1.6% (P < .01). No differences in mortality with respect to OAR or EVAR were found between the female and male cohorts in either intact or ruptured AAAs. Women with AAAs are older and have a higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factors than men. Women rupture AAAs with a greater frequency than men at all size intervals and have a

  20. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the rural/urban population in central Poland - Gniewkowo Aortic Study.

    PubMed

    Dereziński, Tadeusz L; Fórmankiewicz, Bartosz; Migdalski, Arkadiusz; Brazis, Paweł; Jakubowski, Grzegorz; Woda, Łukasz; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a widening of the aorta below the renal arteries with a diameter equal to or greater than 3 cm. The prevalence of AAA is estimated at 4-8% in men aged 65 years or older and 1-2% among women over 65 years old. Participation in screening programmes has decreased the number of aortic ruptures. All men aged 60 years and older, and women aged 65 years and older living in the rural/urban commune in central Poland were invited to participate in the study. In total 922 persons (61% of the invited population) entered the study. The men were divided into two groups: 60-64 years old, and 65 years and older. Screening abdomen ultrasound was performed and demographic data was collected. Among the 922 examined persons two (1.01%) AAAs were diagnosed in the group of men 60-64 years of age, three (0.82%) AAAs amongst women ≥ 65 years old, and 33 (9.29%) AAAs were found in the group of men aged 65 years and older. A positive relationship between the presence of AAA and smoking (p = 0.0048), age of men (p = 0.0009), and history of myocardial infarction/acute coronary syndrome (MI/ACS) (p = 0.0079) was found. There was no correlation between the frequency of AAA and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.46), hypertension (p = 0.38), and family history of AAA (p = 0.44). The prevalence of AAA in men aged 65 years and older is seemingly larger than in previously conducted studies, while among men 60-64 years of age and women aged ≥ 65 it is similar. Older age, smoking, and a history of MI/ACS were the most important risk factors of AAA occurrence.

  1. [The role of estrogen in the formation and development of abdominal aortic aneurysm: experiment with rats].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-fei; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shi-jie; Duan, Zhi-quan; Zhang, Gong

    2007-02-13

    To investigate the role of estrogen in the formation and development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: experiment group, injected with 17-beta estradiol (E2) intraperitoneally 1 week before the establishment of AAA once a day for 3 weeks (until 2 weeks after the establishment of AAA), and underwent infusion of pancreatic elastase into the infrarenal abdominal aorta through a catheter inserted into the left common iliac artery o as to establish the AAA model, and control group, injected with normal saline intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. Two weeks after the establishment of AAA model, the rats underwent laparotomy, blood samples were collected from vena cava inferior to detect the level of E2 by radioimmunoassay and then the aneurysms were harvested to undergo immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR to detect the protein expression and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The plasma E2 level of the experiment group was (28+/-6) pg/ml, significantly higher than that of the control group [(5.86+/-0.24) pg/ml, P<0.01]. The aorta dilatation rate of the experiment group was (103+/-4)%, significantly lower than that of the control group [(172+/-13)%, P<0.01]. The destruction of arterial wall, degradation of elastic fibers, and infiltration of inflammatory cells were all more severe in the control group than in the experiment group. The relative mRNA expression of MMP-2 of the experiment group was 0.07+/-0.04, significantly lower than that of the control group (0.22+/-0.07, P<0.01); and the relative mRNA expression of MMP-9 of the experiment group was 1.4+/-0.7, significantly lower than that of the control group (7.4+/-2.8, P<0.01). The protein expression of MMP-2 of the experiment group was (22+/-3)%, significantly lower than that of the control group [(50+/-12)%, P<0.01], and the protein expression of MMP-9 of the experiment group was (23+/-2)%, significantly lower than that of

  2. Early and Late Outcomes of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair versus Open Surgical Repair of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyunghak; Han, Youngjin; Ko, Gi-Young; Cho, Yong-Pil; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2018-06-09

    The objective of the study was to compare the treatment outcomes and cost of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) at a single center. Patients treated for an AAA at a single center between January 2007 and December 2012 were retrospectively identified and classified based on the treatment they received (EVAR or OSR). Patient demographics and in-hospital costs were recorded. Long-term survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the study period, 401 patients with AAA were treated at Asan Medical Center. Among these cases, 226 were treated with EVAR (56%) and 175 received OSR (44%). The mean age of the EVAR group was higher than that of the OSR group (71.25 ± 7.026 vs. 61.26 ± 8.175, P < 0.001). The need for intraoperative transfusion and total length of in-hospital stay were significantly lower in the EVAR group (P < 0.001). The OSR group showed significantly reduced rates of overall mortality (P = 0.003), overall reintervention (P = 0.001), and long-term survival (63.98 ± 1.86 vs. 99.54 ± 3.17, P < 0.001). The OSR group was charged significantly less than the EVAR group ($12,879.21 USD vs. $18,057.78 USD, P < 0.001). EVAR has advantages over OSR in terms of short-term mortality, in-hospital length of stay, and rates of perioperative transfusion. However, OSR is associated with better long-term survival, lower reintervention rates, and lower costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experiences of the screening process and the diagnosis abdominal aortic aneurysm among 65-year-old men from invitation to a 1-year surveillance.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Monica; Hansson, Anders; Brodersen, John; Kumlien, Christine

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is reported to be 2.2%-8% among men >65 years. During recent years, screening programs have been developed to detect AAA, prevent ruptures, and thereby saving lives. Therefore, most men with the diagnosis are monitored conservatively with regular reviews. The objective of the study was to describe how men diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm <55 mm discovered by screening experience the process and diagnosis from invitation to 1 year after screening. A total of eleven 65-year-old men were included in three focus groups performed in a University Hospital in Sweden. These were qualitatively analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The experience of the screening process and having an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a long-term perspective revealed three categories: "trusting the health care system," emphasizing the need for continual follow-ups to ensure feelings of security; "the importance size," meaning that the measure was abstract and hard to understand; and "coping with the knowledge of abdominal aortic aneurysm," denoting how everyday life was based mostly on beliefs, since a majority lacked understanding about the meaning of the condition. The men want regular surveillance and surrendered to the health care system, but simultaneously experienced a lack of support thereof. Knowing the size of the aorta was important. The men expressed insecurity about how lifestyle might influence the abdominal aortic aneurysm and what they could do to improve their health condition. This highlights the importance of communicating knowledge about the abdominal aortic aneurysm to promote men's feelings of security and giving space to discuss the size of the aneurysm and lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of the mechanical behavior and pathophysiological state of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on 4D ultrasound strain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittek, Andreas; Blase, Christopher; Derwich, Wojciech; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a degenerative disease of the human aortic wall that may lead to weakening and eventually rupture of the wall with high mortality rates. Since the currently established criterion for surgical or endovascular treatment of the disease is imprecise in the individual case and treatment is not free of complications, the need for additional patient-individual biomarkers for short-term AAA rupture risk as basis for improved clinical decision making. Time resolved 3D ultrasound combined with speckle tracking algorithms is a novel non-invasive medical imaging technique that provides full-field displacement and strain measurements of aortic and aneurysmal wall motion. This is patient-individual information that has not been used so far to assess wall strength and rupture risk. The current study uses simple statistical indices of the heterogeneous spatial distribution of in-plane strain components as biomarkers for the pathological state of the aortic and aneurysmal wall. The pathophysiological rationale behind this approach are the known changes in microstructural composition of the aortic wall with progression of AAA development that results in increased stiffening and heterogeneity of the walls mechanical properties and in decreased wall strength. In a comparative analysis of the aortic wall motion of young volunteers without known cardiovascular diseases, aged arteriosclerotic patients without AAA, and AAA patients, mean values of all in-plane strain components were significantly reduced, and the heterogeneity of circumferential strain was significantly increased in the AAA group compared to both other groups. The capacity of the proposed method to differentiate between wall motion of aged, arteriosclerotic patients and AAA patients is a promising step towards a new method for in vivo assessment of AAA wall strength or stratification of AAA rupture risk as basis for improved clinical decision making on surgical or endovascular

  5. Early Experience with the Use of Inner Branches in Endovascular Repair of Complex Abdominal and Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Marques de Marino, Pablo; Mufty, Hozan; Pedro, Luis Mendes; Fernandes, Ruy; Verhoeven, Eric L G

    2018-05-01

    Visceral arteries in fenestrated and branched endovascular repair (F/BEVAR) have been addressed by fenestrations or directional side branches. Inner branches, as used in the arch branched device, could provide an extra option for visceral arteries "unsuitable" for fenestrations or directional side branches. Early experience with the use of inner branches for visceral arteries in F/BEVAR is described. All consecutive patients treated by F/BEVAR for complex abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or thoraco-abdominal aneurysm (TAAA) using stent grafts with inner branches were included. Data were collected prospectively. Thirty-two patients (28 male, mean age 71.6 ± 8.3 years) were included. Seven (21.9%) patients had a complex AAA and 25 (78.1%) had a TAAA. A stent graft with inner branches only was used in four (12.5%) patients. The remaining 28 (87.5%) patients received a stent graft with fenestrations and inner branches. In total 52 vessels were targeted with inner branches. Technical success was achieved in all 32 (100%) patients. All 38 inner branch target vessels in grafts including fenestrations and inner branches were instantly catheterised (<1 minute), whereas catheterisation of target vessels in "inner branch only" grafts proved more difficult (<1 minute, n = 3; 1-3 min, n = 4; and >3 min, n = 7). The 30 day operative mortality was 3.1% (1/32). Estimated survival at 1 year was 80.0% ± 8.3%. During follow-up, four renal inner branches occluded in three patients. The estimated inner branch target vessel stent patency at 1 year was 91.9 ± 4.5%. The estimated freedom from re-intervention at 1 year was 78.4% ± 8.9%. Early data suggest that visceral inner branches might represent a feasible third option to address selected target vessels in F/BEVAR. Stent grafts with inner branch(es) in combination with fenestrations seem to be a better configuration than stent grafts with inner branches alone. Durability of the inner branch design needs further

  6. Association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and abdominal aortic aneurysm: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunpeng; Shen, Guanghui; Wang, Haiyang; Yao, Ye; Sun, Qingfeng; Jing, Bao; Liu, Gaoyan; Wu, Jia; Yuan, Chao; Liu, Siqi; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Shiyong; Li, Haocheng

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Medline, Cochrane, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched until 22 June 2016 using the keywords predictive factors, biomarkers, abdominal aortic aneurysm, prediction, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hsCRP. Prospective studies, retrospective studies, and cohort studies were included. Twelve case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis with a total of 8345 patients (1977 in the AAA group and 6368 in the control group). The pooled results showed that AAA patients had higher hsCRP value than the control group (difference in means = 1.827, 95% CI = 0.010 to 3.645, p = .049). Subgroup analysis found AAA patients with medium or small aortic diameter (<50 mm) had higher hsCRP plasma levels than the control group (difference in means = 1.301, 95% CI = 0.821 to 1.781, p < .001). In patients with large aortic diameter (≥50 mm), no difference was observed in hsCRP levels between the AAA and control groups (difference in means = 1.769, 95% CI = -1.387 to 4.925, p = .272). Multi-regression analysis found the difference in means of hsCRP plasma levels between AAA and control groups decreased as aortic diameter increased (slope = -0.04, p < .001), suggesting that hsCRP levels may be inversely associated with increasing aneurysm size. Our findings suggest that hsCRP levels may possibly be used as a diagnostic biomarker for AAA patients with medium or small aortic diameter but not for AAA patients with large aortic diameter. The correlation between serum hsCRP level and AAA aneurysm is not conclusive due to the small number of included articles and between-study heterogeneity.

  7. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon Young, E-mail: pjy1331@hanmail.net; Kim, Shin Jung, E-mail: witdd2@hanmail.net; Kim, Hyoung Ook, E-mail: chaos821209@hanmail.net

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up ofmore » 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.« less

  8. A computational simulation of the effect of hybrid treatment for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Qingyuan; Hu, Yao; Zhao, Jichun; Zheng, Tinghui; Fan, Yubo

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid visceral-renal debranching procedures with endovascular repair have been proposed as an appealing technique to treat conventional thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). This approach, however, still remained controversial because of the non-physiological blood flow direction of its retrograde visceral revascularization (RVR) which is generally constructed from the aortic bifurcation or common iliac artery. The current study carried out the numerical simulation to investigate the effect of RVR on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta. The results indicated that the inflow sites for the RVR have great impact on the hemodynamic performance. When RVR was from the distal aorta, the perfusion to visceral organs were adequate but the flow flux to the iliac artery significantly decreased and a complex disturbed flow field developed at the distal aorta, which endangered the aorta at high risk of aneurysm development. When RVR was from the right iliac artery, the abdominal aorta was not troubled with low WSS or disturbed flow, but the inadequate perfusion to the visceral organs reached up to 40% and low WSS and flow velocity predominated appeared at the right iliac artery and the grafts, which may result in the stenosis in grafts and aneurysm growth on the host iliac artery.

  9. Seventeen years' experience of late open surgical conversion after failed endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with 13 variant devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Liang; Qu, Lefeng; Raithel, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the causes and results of late open surgical conversion (LOSC) after failed abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and to summarize our 17 years' experience with 13 various endografts. Retrospective data from August 1994 to January 2011 were analyzed at our center. The various devices' implant time, the types of devices, the rates and causes of LOSC, and the procedures and results of LOSC were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 1729 endovascular aneurysm repairs were performed in our single center (Nuremberg South Hospital) with 13 various devices within 17 years. The median follow-up period was 51 months (range 9-119 months). Among them, 77 patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms received LOSC. The LOSC rate was 4.5 % (77 of 1729). The LOSC rates were significantly different before and after January 2002 (p < 0.001). The reasons of LOSC were mainly large type I endoleaks (n = 51) that were hard to repair by endovascular techniques. For the LOSC procedure, 71 cases were elective and 6 were emergent. The perioperative mortality was 5.2 % (4 of 77): 1 was elective (due to septic shock) and 3 were urgent (due to hemorrhagic shock). Large type I endoleaks were the main reasons for LOSC. The improvement of devices and operators' experience may decrease the LOSC rate. Urgent LOSC resulted in a high mortality rate, while selective LOSC was relatively safe with significantly lower mortality rate. Early intervention, full preparation, and timely LOSC are important for patients who require LOSC.

  10. Pulse Wave Analysis after Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with the Ovation Device.

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2017-04-01

    Ovation aortic stent-graft system is a new device for the endovascular treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms achieving fixation via a 35-mm long, rigid anchored suprarenal stent and sealing stent at the infrarenal level by a means of a polymer-filling pair of inflatable O-rings, which cause narrowing of flow lumen and regional stenosis. Thus, concerns have been raised regarding hemodynamic consequences associated with this new design. Our preliminary report showed no significant increase of aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) immediately after implantation of the ovation in 3 patients. We studied further the hemodynamic implications of the Ovation implantation in 6 patients for a follow-up of 6 months. A brachial cuff-based automatic oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph; IEM, Stolberg, Germany) was used to perform noninvasively pulse wave analysis and stiffness estimation. Measurements were held preoperatively in 6 patients treated for abdominal aortic aneurysm, at the end of the first postoperative week, first and sixth postoperative month. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (cSyst, cDiast), heart rate, aPWV, augmentation index (AI@75), augmentation pressure (AP), and in the amplitude ratio of the reflected-to-forward pressure waves (reflection magnitude, RM) were recorded and compared. Significant change in any parameter was examined via analysis of variance repeated measures. The cSyst was 132 ± 19.6, 127 ± 17.63, 131.3 ± 19.96, and 129.83 ± 31.72 mm Hg (P = 0.81) and cDiast was 88 ± 10.58, 86.83 ± 11.72, 89.83 ± 16.01, and 98.5 ± 24.56 mm Hg (P = 0.40). The heart rate showed an increasing yet nonsignificant tendency (67 ± 10.60, 75.1 ± 8.63, 74.33 ± 8.89, and 70.66 ± 6.65 beats/min, 0.27). The aPWV remained constant (11.61 ± 1.88, 11.6 ± 1.74, 11.8 ± 2.08, and 11.85 ± 2.30 m/sec, P = 0.79). Similarly, RM (71.16 ± 9.94, 60.66 ± 11.79, 61.5 ± 14.47, and 64.5 ± 3.78), AI@75 (33.83

  11. Combining two potential causes of metalloproteinase secretion causes abdominal aortic aneurysms in rats: a new experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Karina M; Prudente, Paula S; Rocha, Fabio S; Prado, Cibele M; Floriano, Elaine M; Elias, Jorge; Rizzi, Elen; Gerlach, Raquel F; Rossi, Marcos A; Ramos, Simone G

    2011-01-01

    Progress in understanding the pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is dependent in part on the development and application of effective animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the disease. The objective was to produce an experimental model of AAA in rats by combining two potential causes of metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion: inflammation and turbulent blood flow. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: Injury, Stenosis, Aneurysm and Control (40/group). The Injury group received a traumatic injury to the external aortic wall. The Stenosis group received an extrinsic stenosis at a corresponding location. The Aneurysm group received both the injury and stenosis simultaneously, and the Control group received a sham operation. Animals were euthanized at days 1, 3, 7 and 15. Aorta and/or aneurysms were collected and the fragments were fixed for morphologic, immunohistochemistry and morphometric analyses or frozen for MMP assays. AAAs had developed by day 3 in 60–70% of the animals, reaching an aortic dilatation ratio of more than 300%, exhibiting intense wall remodelling initiated at the adventitia and characterized by an obvious inflammatory infiltrate, mesenchymal proliferation, neoangiogenesis, elastin degradation and collagen deposition. Immunohistochemistry and zymography studies displayed significantly increased expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in aneurysm walls compared to other groups. The haemo-dynamic alterations caused by the stenosis may have provided additional contribution to the MMPs liberation. This new model illustrated that AAA can be multifactorial and confirmed the key roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in this dynamic remodelling process. PMID:21039990

  12. Cost-effectiveness of intensive smoking cessation therapy among patients with small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mani, Kevin; Wanhainen, Anders; Lundkvist, Jonas; Lindström, David

    2011-09-01

    Smoking cessation is one of the few available strategies to decrease the risk for expansion and rupture of small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The cost-effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation therapy in patients with small AAAs identified at screening was evaluated. A Markov cohort simulation model was used to compare an 8-week smoking cessation intervention with adjuvant pharmacotherapy and annual revisits vs nonintervention among 65-year-old male smokers with a small AAA identified at screening. The smoking cessation rate was tested in one-way sensitivity analyses in the intervention group (range, 22%-57%) and in the nonintervention group (range, 3%-30%). Literature data on the effect of smoking on AAA expansion and rupture was factored into the model. The intervention was cost-effective in all tested scenarios and sensitivity analyses. The smoking cessation intervention was cost-effective due to a decreased need for AAA repair and decreased rupture rate even when disregarding the positive effects of smoking cessation on long-term survival. The incremental cost/effectiveness ratio reached the willingness-to-pay threshold value of €25,000 per life-year gained when assuming an intervention cost of > €3250 or an effect of ≤ 1% difference in long-term smoking cessation between the intervention and nonintervention groups. Smoking cessation resulted in a relative risk reduction for elective AAA repair by 9% and for rupture by 38% over 10 years of follow-up. An adequate smoking cessation intervention in patients with small AAAs identified at screening can cost-effectively increase long-term survival and decrease the need for AAA repair. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative analysis of the outcomes of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in England and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Karthikesalingam, A.; Holt, P. J.; Vidal‐Diez, A.; Thompson, M. M.; Wanhainen, A.; Bjorck, M.; Mani, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background There is substantial international variation in mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair; many non‐operative factors influence risk‐adjusted outcomes. This study compared 90‐day and 5‐year mortality for patients undergoing elective AAA repair in England and Sweden. Methods Patients were identified from English Hospital Episode Statistics and the Swedish Vascular Registry between 2003 and 2012. Ninety‐day mortality and 5‐year survival were compared after adjustment for age and sex. Separate within‐country analyses were performed to examine the impact of co‐morbidity, hospital teaching status and hospital annual caseload. Results The study included 36 249 patients who had AAA treatment in England, with a median age of 74 (i.q.r. 69–79) years, of whom 87·2 per cent were men. There were 7806 patients treated for AAA in Sweden, with a median of age 73 (68–78) years, of whom 82·9 per cent were men. Ninety‐day mortality rates were poorer in England than in Sweden (5·0 versus 3·9 per cent respectively; P < 0·001), but were not significantly different after 2007. Five‐year survival was poorer in England (70·5 versus 72·8 per cent; P < 0·001). Use of EVAR was initially lower in England, but surpassed that in Sweden after 2010. In both countries, poor outcome was associated with increased age. In England, institutions with higher operative annual volume had lower mortality rates. Conclusion Mortality for elective AAA repair was initially poorer in England than Sweden, but improved over time alongside greater uptake of EVAR, and now there is no difference. Centres performing a greater proportion of EVAR procedures achieved better results in England. PMID:29468657

  14. Genetic analysis on HLA loci in Japanese patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Sada, M; Miyamoto, T; Yao, H

    2003-08-01

    autoimmunity has been proposed as one of the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). There is also a likelihood that when aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AIOD) coexists with AAA, some other occlusive atherosclerotic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, may develop, leading to a very poor long-term prognosis. Previous studies using serological HLA typing showed that HLA-DR15 was a risk factor for AAA. In this study, we performed HLA-DNA typing by PCR to clarify the relationship between AAA and HLA genotypes in Japanese patients with AAA. In addition, we analyzed whether HLA genotypes are involved in the pathogenesis of AIOD. we examined 78 HLA genotypes of class I (HLA-A and -B) and class II (HLA-DR) and found that 60.4 and 30.4% of 49 AAA patients had HLA-A2 and HLA-B61, respectively. These frequencies were significantly higher than those in control individuals (HLA-A2, p < 0.05; HLA-B61, p < 0.005). We also found that 55.6% of nine AAA patients with AIOD had both HLA-B52 and HLA-DR B1*1502. In contrast, only 10.0% each of 40 AAA patients without AIOD showed HLA-B53 or HLA-DR B1*1502. this study showed that HLA A-2 and HLA B-61, but not HLA DR-15, were important genetic risk factors for the development of AAA among the Japanese population. We also found high frequencies of HLA-B52 and HLA-DR B1*1502 in the AAA patients with AIOD than in those without, although this must be confirmed using a larger number of AAA patients with AIOD.

  15. Computational Growth and Remodeling of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Constrained by the Spine

    PubMed Central

    Farsad, Mehdi; Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Choi, Jongeun; Baek, Seungik

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) evolve over time, and the vertebral column, which acts as an external barrier, affects their biomechanical properties. Mechanical interaction between AAAs and the spine is believed to alter the geometry, wall stress distribution, and blood flow, although the degree of this interaction may depend on AAAs specific configurations. In this study, we use a growth and remodeling (G&R) model, which is able to trace alterations of the geometry, thus allowing us to computationally investigate the effect of the spine for progression of the AAA. Medical image-based geometry of an aorta is constructed along with the spine surface, which is incorporated into the computational model as a cloud of points. The G&R simulation is initiated by local elastin degradation with different spatial distributions. The AAA–spine interaction is accounted for using a penalty method when the AAA surface meets the spine surface. The simulation results show that, while the radial growth of the AAA wall is prevented on the posterior side due to the spine acting as a constraint, the AAA expands faster on the anterior side, leading to higher curvature and asymmetry in the AAA configuration compared to the simulation excluding the spine. Accordingly, the AAA wall stress increases on the lateral, posterolateral, and the shoulder regions of the anterior side due to the AAA–spine contact. In addition, more collagen is deposited on the regions with a maximum diameter. We show that an image-based computational G&R model not only enhances the prediction of the geometry, wall stress, and strength distributions of AAAs but also provides a framework to account for the interactions between an enlarging AAA and the spine for a better rupture potential assessment and management of AAA patients. PMID:26158885

  16. The Hardman index in patients operated on for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Stefan; Ogren, Mats; Bergqvist, David; Lindblad, Bengt; Dencker, Magnus; Zdanowski, Zbigniew

    2006-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to (1) analyze preoperative predictors for outcome suggested by Hardman and surgical mortality after open repair and endovascular repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA), and (2) further evaluate the Hardman index in a systematic review. Patients operated on for rAAA during a 5-year period between 2000 and 2004 were scored according to Hardman-1 point for either age >76 years, loss of consciousness after presentation, hemoglobin <90 g/L, serum creatinine >190 micromol/L or electrocardiographic (ECG) signs of ischemia-with blinded evaluation of ECGs by a specialist in clinical physiology. The results were included in a systematic review of studies evaluating the Hardman index. In-hospital mortality after operation was 41% (67/162). There was no difference in in-hospital mortality between open repair (n = 106) and EVAR (n = 56), whereas the Hardman index was associated with operative mortality in our institution and in the systematic review of 970 patients (P < .001). Mortality rate in patients with Hardman index > or =3 was 77% in the pooled analysis. A full data set of all five scoring variables was obtained in 94 (58%) of 162 patients in our study, and potential underscoring was thus possible in 68 patients. Of the available ECGs, 12 (8.7%) of 138 were judged nondiagnostic. Five studies did not state their missing data on ECG and hemoglobin and serum creatinine concentrations, nor did they specify the criteria for ECG ischemia. A strong correlation between the Hardman index and mortality was found. A Hardman index > or =3 cannot be used as an absolute limit for denial of surgery. The utility of the Hardman index seems to be impeded by variability in scoring resulting from missing or nondiagnostic data.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Netherlands and Norway.

    PubMed

    Spronk, S; van Kempen, B J H; Boll, A P M; Jørgensen, J J; Hunink, M G M; Kristiansen, I S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 65 years, for both the Netherlands and Norway. A Markov model was developed to simulate life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years, net health benefits, lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for both screening and no screening for AAA. The best available evidence was retrieved from the literature and combined with primary data from the two countries separately, and analysed from a national perspective. A threshold willingness-to-pay (WTP) of €20,000 and €62,500 was used for data from the Netherlands and Norway respectively. The additional costs of the screening strategy compared with no screening were €421 (95 per cent confidence interval 33 to 806) per person in the Netherlands, and the additional life-years were 0·097 (-0·180 to 0·365), representing €4340 per life-year. For Norway, the values were €562 (59 to 1078), 0·057 (-0·135 to 0·253) life-years and €9860 per life-year respectively. In Norway the results were sensitive to a decrease in the prevalence of AAA in 65-year-old men to 1 per cent, or lower. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that AAA screening has a 70 per cent probability of being cost-effective in the Netherlands with a WTP threshold of €20,000, and 70 per cent in Norway with a threshold of €62,500. Using this model, screening for AAA in 65-year-old men would be highly cost-effective in both the Netherlands and Norway. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Beneficial effect of statins on total mortality in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Sven Ross; Abdelnoor, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In this single center, retrospective cohort study we wished to compare early and total mortality for all patients treated for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with open surgery who were taking statins compared to those who were not. A cohort of 640 patients with AAA was treated with open surgery between 1999 and 2012. Patients were consecutively recruited from a source population of 390,000; 21.3% were female, and the median age was 73 years. The median follow-up was 3.93 years, with an interquartile range of 1.79-6.58 years. The total follow-up was 2855 patient-years. An explanatory strategy was used. The propensity score (PS) was implemented to control for selection bias and confounders. The crude effect of statin use showed a 78% reduction of the 30-day mortality. A stratified analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method on quintiles of the PS gave an adjusted effect of the odds ratio equal to 0.43 (95% CI: 0.18-0.96), indicating a 57% reduction of the 30-day mortality for statin users. The adjusted rate ratio was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.45-0.83), indicating a reduction of long-term mortality of 38% for statin users compared to non-users for a median follow-up of 3.93 years. This retrospective cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of statin use on early and long-term survival for patients treated with open surgery. To be conclusive, our results need to be replicated by a randomized clinical trial.

  19. Computational Growth and Remodeling of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Constrained by the Spine.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Mehdi; Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Choi, Jongeun; Baek, Seungik

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) evolve over time, and the vertebral column, which acts as an external barrier, affects their biomechanical properties. Mechanical interaction between AAAs and the spine is believed to alter the geometry, wall stress distribution, and blood flow, although the degree of this interaction may depend on AAAs specific configurations. In this study, we use a growth and remodeling (G&R) model, which is able to trace alterations of the geometry, thus allowing us to computationally investigate the effect of the spine for progression of the AAA. Medical image-based geometry of an aorta is constructed along with the spine surface, which is incorporated into the computational model as a cloud of points. The G&R simulation is initiated by local elastin degradation with different spatial distributions. The AAA-spine interaction is accounted for using a penalty method when the AAA surface meets the spine surface. The simulation results show that, while the radial growth of the AAA wall is prevented on the posterior side due to the spine acting as a constraint, the AAA expands faster on the anterior side, leading to higher curvature and asymmetry in the AAA configuration compared to the simulation excluding the spine. Accordingly, the AAA wall stress increases on the lateral, posterolateral, and the shoulder regions of the anterior side due to the AAA-spine contact. In addition, more collagen is deposited on the regions with a maximum diameter. We show that an image-based computational G&R model not only enhances the prediction of the geometry, wall stress, and strength distributions of AAAs but also provides a framework to account for the interactions between an enlarging AAA and the spine for a better rupture potential assessment and management of AAA patients.

  20. Impact of preoperative regular physical activity on postoperative course after open abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Kodama, Akio; Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Yasukawa, Yuto; Shimizu, Miho; Kondo, Takahisa; Komori, Kimihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-04-01

    Early ambulation after open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery is assumed to play a key role in preventing postoperative complications and reducing hospital length of stay. However, the factors predicting early ambulation after open AAA surgery have not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we investigated which preoperative and intraoperative variables are associated with start time for ambulation in patients after open AAA surgery. A total of 67 consecutive patients undergoing open AAA surgery were included in the study [male, 62 (92 %); mean age, 68 years (range, 47-82 years), mean AAA diameter, 53 mm (range, 28-80 mm)]. Preoperative physical activity was examined by means of 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and a medical interview. Patients were divided into two groups, according to when independence in walking was attained: early group <3 days (n = 36) and late group ≥3 days (n = 31), and the pre-, intra-, and postoperative recovery data were compared. There were no significant differences in patient baseline characteristics or intraoperative data between the two groups. The number of patients engaging in preoperative regular physical activity and 6MWD were significantly greater (p = 0.042 and p = 0.034, respectively) in the early group than in the late group. In addition, time to hospital discharge was significantly shorter in the early group than in the late group (p = 0.031). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative regular physical activity was the only independent factor for identifying patients in the early group (odds ratio 2.769, 95 % confidence interval 1.024-7.487, p = 0.045). These results suggest that engaging in regular physical activity is an effective predictor of early ambulation after open AAA surgery.

  1. Meta-analysis of peak wall stress in ruptured, symptomatic and intact abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Khosla, S; Morris, D R; Moxon, J V; Walker, P J; Gasser, T C; Golledge, J

    2014-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of sudden death; however, there are currently incomplete means to predict the risk of AAA rupture. AAA peak wall stress (PWS) can be estimated using finite element analysis (FEA) methods from computed tomography (CT) scans. The question is whether AAA PWS can predict AAA rupture. The aim of this systematic review was to compare PWS in patients with ruptured and intact AAA. The MEDLINE database was searched on 25 May 2013. Case-control studies assessing PWS in asymptomatic intact, and acutely symptomatic or ruptured AAA from CT scans using FEA were included. Data were extracted independently. A random-effects model was used to calculate standard mean differences (SMDs) for PWS measurements. Nine studies assessing 348 individuals were identified and used in the meta-analysis. Results from 204 asymptomatic intact and 144 symptomatic or ruptured AAAs showed that PWS was significantly greater in the symptomatic/ ruptured AAAs compared with the asymptomatic intact AAAs (SMD 0·95, 95 per cent confidence interval 0·71 to 1·18; P < 0·001). The findings remained significant after adjustment for mean systolic blood pressure, standardized at 120 mmHg (SMD 0·68, 0·39 to 0·96; P < 0·001). Minimal heterogeneity between studies was noted (I(2)  = 0 per cent). This study suggests that PWS is greater in symptomatic or ruptured AAA than in asymptomatic intact AAA. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between plasma lipids and abdominal aortic aneurysm: A Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Roetker, Nicholas S; Lutsey, Pamela L; Alonso, Alvaro; Guan, Weihua; Pankow, James S; Folsom, Aaron R; Steffen, Lyn M; Pankratz, Nathan; Tang, Weihong

    2018-01-01

    Studies have reported that higher circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and lower of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol may be associated with increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Whether dyslipidemia causes AAA is still unclear and is potentially testable using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. We investigated the associations between blood lipids and AAA using two-sample MR analysis with SNP-lipids association estimates from a published genome-wide association study of blood lipids (n = 188,577) and SNP-AAA association estimates from European Americans (EAs) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 8,793). We used inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR as the primary method and MR-Egger regression and weighted median MR estimation as sensitivity analyses. Over a median of 22.7 years of follow-up, 338 of 8,793 ARIC participants experienced incident clinical AAA. Using the IVW method, we observed positive associations of plasma LDL cholesterol and TC with the risk of AAA (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, P = 0.02 for LDL cholesterol and OR = 1.61, P = 0.01 for TC per 1 standard deviation of lipid increment). Using the MR-Egger regression and weighted median methods, we were able to validate the association of AAA risk with TC, although the associations were less consistent for LDL cholesterol due to wider confidence intervals. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were not associated with AAA in any of the MR methods. Assuming instrumental variable assumptions are satisfied, our finding suggests that higher plasma TC and LDL cholesterol are causally associated with the increased risk of AAA in EAs.

  3. The impact of weather factors, moon phases, and seasons on abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Kózka, Mateusz Andrzej; Bijak, Piotr; Chwala, Maciej; Mrowiecki, Tomasz; Kotynia, Maksymilian; Kaczmarek, Bogusz; Szczeklik, Michał; Lall, Kulvinder S; Szczeklik, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have documented that weather factors, seasons of the year, time of the day, and even changes in moon phases have an impact on the occurrence of rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA); however, the available data are confounding. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of these factors on the prevalence and mortality rate of RAAA. This is a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients treated for RAAA over a 10-year period. Weather data (i.e., atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity, visibility, and wind speed) and weather events (i.e., rain, snow, and storms, etc) were obtained from the local meteorologic weather station and analyzed for a correlation with RAAA. Five hundred thirty patients with RAAA were identified, and these patients presented on 478 days during the 10-year study period (3,652 days), with the overall in-hospital mortality rate of 48.7%. The RAAA mortality was higher during weekends and national holidays, when compared to weekdays (59% vs 45%; P = 0.006) and in patients admitted between 3-7 am when compared to work day hours (65.5% vs 44.1%; P = 0.035). Season changes had no influence on the frequency of RAAA; however, summer seemed to be associated with an increase in mortality as opposed to autumn (54.4% vs 42.5%; P = 0.047). Mean atmospheric pressure (and fluctuations thereof) and other weather factors, including phases and parts of the moon, did not correlate with RAAA occurrence or its mortality. Patients with RAAA who were admitted on weekends, national holidays and in late night hours had lower survival rates. Weather factors (including atmospheric pressure) do not influence the prevalence and mortality of RAAA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of Diabetes and Obesity with Risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men

    PubMed Central

    Djousse, Luc; Song, Yiqing; Akinkuolie, Akintunde O.; Matsumoto, Chisa; Manson, JoAnn E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1.30 [1.06–1.59] for BMI 25–<30 kg/m2 and 1.69 [1.24–2.30] for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The risk of diagnosed AAA was significantly higher by 6% with each unit increase in baseline BMI. This association was consistent regardless of the other known AAA risk factors and preexisting vascular diseases. Overall, baseline history of diabetes tended to be associated with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA (HR = 0.79 [0.57–1.11]); this association appeared to vary by follow-up time (HR = 1.56 and 0.63 during ≤ and >2 years' follow-up, resp.). Conclusion. In a large cohort of middle-aged and older men, obesity was associated with a higher risk, while history of diabetes tended to associate with a lower risk of diagnosed AAA, particularly over longer follow-up. PMID:28326193

  5. The effect of surgeon specialization on outcomes after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Alexander T; Smith, Ann D; Schaumeier, Maria J; de Vos, Marit S; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Nguyen, Louis L

    2014-09-01

    Although mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has steadily declined, operative mortality for a ruptured AAA (rAAA) remains high. Repair of rAAA at hospitals with a higher elective aneurysm workload has been associated with lower mortality rates irrespective of the mode of treatment. This study sought to determine the association between surgeon specialization and outcomes after rAAA repair. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database from 2005 to 2010 was used to examine the 30-day mortality and morbidity outcomes of patients undergoing rAAA repair by vascular and general surgeons. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed for each death and morbidity, adjusting for all independently predictive preoperative risk factors. Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. We identified 1893 repairs of rAAAs, of which 1767 (96.1%) were performed by vascular surgeons and 72 (3.9%) were performed by general surgeons. There were no significant differences between patients operated on by general vs vascular surgeons in preoperative risk factors or method of repair. Overall 30-day mortality was 34.3% (649 of 1893). After risk adjustment, mortality was significantly lower in the vascular surgery group compared with the general surgery group (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.86; P = .011). The risk of returning to the operating room (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.97; P = .038), renal failure (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.95; P = .034), and a cardiac complication (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28-0.99; P = .047) were all significantly less in the vascular surgery group. Despite similar preoperative risk factors profiles, patients who were operated on by vascular surgeons had lower mortality, less frequent returns to the operating room, and decreased incidences of postoperative renal failure and cardiac events. These data add weight to the case for further centralization of

  6. Secondary procedures after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms endovascular repair with second-generation endografts.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Michel A; Thevenin, Benjamin; Sarlon, Gabrielle; Giorgi, Roch; Albertini, Jean Noël; Lerussi, Gilles; Branchereau, Alain; Magnan, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-02-01

    To study the incidence, the types, and the results of secondary procedures performed after endovascular treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). To compare the population of patients who underwent secondary procedure (P2) with the population of those who did not require it. Between 1998 and 2008, this study included all the patients electively treated for AAA with stentgrafts that were still available on the market on January 1, 2009. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative follow-up included at least a systematic computed tomography scan at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and then every year. P2 were defined as any additionnal procedures performed to treat aneurysm related complications after initial stentgraft implantation. We studied 162 patients with a mean 40 ± 31 months' follow-up. In 32 patients (19.7%), there were 46 P2, 3 of them were surgical conversion and 1 with endovascular conversion. Thirty-nine P2 were scheduled, and seven were performed in emergency. Nine patients underwent more than one P2. P2 was indicated for type II endoleak in 17 cases, 13 of them with a diameter increase; for type I endoleak in 10 cases; for AAA rupture in 3 cases; for occlusion or stentgraft stenosis in 13 cases; and for 1 type III endoleak, 1 endotension, and 1 femoro-femoral crossover bypass infection. Two ruptures occurred in patients who had undergone P2. The immediate technical success was 89.1%. At 30 days, morbidity was 10.9%, and there was no mortality. Survival rates at 3 and 5 years were respectively 85.2% and 71.9% in patients with secondary procedure and 70.6% and 47.5% in the others (p = 0.046). In patients treated for AAA with second generation stentgrafts, in the long term, secondary procedure rate was 19.7%. Survival rate for patients who underwent a secondary procedure was better, which was probably related to the fact that they were younger at the time of stentgraft implantation. Large AAA diameter was a

  7. Use of regional mechanical properties of abdominal aortic aneurysms to advance finite element modeling of rupture risk.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Áine P; Callanan, Anthony; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the use of regional variations in the mechanical properties of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in finite element (FE) modeling of AAA rupture risk, which has heretofore assumed homogeneous mechanical tissue properties. Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography scans from 3 male patients with known infrarenal AAA were used to characterize the behavior of the aneurysm in 4 different segments (posterior, anterior, and left and right lateral) at maximum diameter and above the infrarenal aorta. The elasticity of the aneurysm (circumferential cyclic strain, compliance, and the Hudetz incremental modulus) was calculated for each segment and the aneurysm as a whole. The FE analysis inclusive of prestress (pre-existing tensile stress) produced a detailed stress pattern on each of the aneurysm models under pressure loading. The 4 largest areas of stress in each region were considered in conjunction with the local regional properties of the segment to define a specific regional prestress rupture index (RPRI). In terms of elasticity, there were average reductions of 68% in circumferential cyclic strain and 63% in compliance, with a >5-fold increase in incremental modulus, between the healthy and the aneurysmal aorta for each patient. There were also regional variations in all elastic properties in each individual patient. The average difference in total stress inclusive of prestress was 59%, 67%, and 15%, respectively, for the 3 patients. Comparing the strain from FE models with the CT scans revealed an average difference in strain of 1.55% for the segmented models and 3.61% for the homogeneous models, which suggests that the segmented models more accurately reflect in vivo behavior. RPRI values were calculated for each segment for all patients. A greater understanding of the local material properties and their use in FE models is essential for greater accuracy in rupture prediction. Quantifying the regional behavior will yield insight into the changes in

  8. Point-of-care ultrasound performed by a medical student compared to physical examination by vascular surgeons in the detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mai, Trinh; Woo, Michael Y; Boles, Kim; Jetty, Prasad

    2018-05-16

    To determine the test characteristics of point-of-care ultrasonography performed by a medical student versus physical examination by vascular surgeons compared to a gold standard reference scan for the detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We conducted a prospective, observer-blinded study recruiting patients from an outpatient vascular surgery clinic. Participants were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms by standardized physical examination by a blinded vascular surgeon, followed by a point-of-care ultrasound examination by a blinded medical student. The student underwent prior training by a vascular sonographer and emergency physician on 60 patients (16 were supervised). Ultrasonography was used to visualize and measure the proximal, mid, and distal aortic diameters. The maximal aortic diameter was noted and compared to measurements obtained by the reference scan (CT scan or vascular sonographer-performed ultrasound). Reference scans were completed within 3 months of the recruitment visit. A total of 57 patients were enrolled over a 5-month period between October 2015 and March 2016. Mean age of recruited patients was 71 years and 61% were male. Mean body mass index was 27.9 ± 4.3 and mean waist-hip ratio was 0.96 ± 0.10. Sixteen abdominal aortic aneurysms were detected by the reference scan, with an average maximal aortic diameter of 44.9 mm. Physical examination by a vascular surgeon detected 11 of 16 abdominal aortic aneurysms with 2 false positives (sensitivity and specificity of 66.7% (95% CI 38.4-88.2) and 94.4% (95% CI 81.3-99.3), respectively). Point-of-care ultrasound detected 15 of 16 abdominal aortic aneurysms (sensitivity and specificity of 93.3% (95% CI 68.1-99.8) and 100% (95% CI 88.4-100), respectively). Seven of the 64 point-of-care ultrasound scans were indeterminate (>1 cm of the aorta was not visualized). Average time to conduct the physical examination was 35 seconds vs. 4.0 minutes for point-of-care ultrasonography. There was a

  9. Reasons for non-participation in population-based abdominal aortic aneurysm screening.

    PubMed

    Linne, A; Leander, K; Lindström, D; Törnberg, S; Hultgren, R

    2014-04-01

    A population-based screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) started in 2010 in Stockholm County, Sweden. This present study used individual data from Sweden's extensive healthcare registries to identify the reasons for non-participation in the AAA screening programme. All 65-year-old men in Stockholm are invited to screening for AAA; this study included all men invited from July 2010 to July 2012. Participants and non-participants were compared for socioeconomic factors, travel distance to the examination centre and healthcare use. The influence of these factors on participation was analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. The participation rate for AAA screening was 77·6 per cent (18 876 of 24 319 men invited). The prevalence of AAA (aortic diameter more than 2·9 cm) among participants was 1·4 per cent. The most important reasons for non-participation in the multivariable regression analyses were: recent immigration (within 5 years) (odds ratio (OR) 3·25, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·94 to 5·47), low income (OR 2·76, 2·46 to 3·10), marital status single or divorced (OR 2·23, 2·08 to 2·39), low level of education (OR 1·28, 1·16 to 1·40) and long travel distance (OR 1·23, 1·10 to 1·37). Non-participants had a higher incidence of stroke (4·5 versus 2·8 per cent; P < 0·001) and chronic pulmonary disease (2·9 versus 1·3 per cent; P < 0·001). Daily smoking was more common in residential areas where the participation rate for AAA screening was low. Efforts to improve participation in AAA screening should target the groups with low income, a low level of education and immigrants. The higher morbidity in the non-participant group, together with a higher rate of smoking, make it probable that this group also has a high risk of AAA. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Role of Interleukin-1 Signaling in a Mouse Model of Kawasaki Disease-Associated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Daiko; Kurashima, Yosuke; Crother, Timothy R; Noval Rivas, Magali; Lee, Youngho; Chen, Shuang; Fury, Wen; Bai, Yu; Wagner, Shawn; Li, Debiao; Lehman, Thomas; Fishbein, Michael C; Hoffman, Hal M; Shah, Prediman K; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

    2016-05-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired cardiac disease in US children. In addition to coronary artery abnormalities and aneurysms, it can be associated with systemic arterial aneurysms. We evaluated the development of systemic arterial dilatation and aneurysms, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the Lactobacillus casei cell-wall extract (LCWE)-induced KD vasculitis mouse model. We discovered that in addition to aortitis, coronary arteritis and myocarditis, the LCWE-induced KD mouse model is also associated with abdominal aorta dilatation and AAA, as well as renal and iliac artery aneurysms. AAA induced in KD mice was exclusively infrarenal, both fusiform and saccular, with intimal proliferation, myofibroblastic proliferation, break in the elastin layer, vascular smooth muscle cell loss, and inflammatory cell accumulation in the media and adventitia. Il1r(-/-), Il1a(-/-), and Il1b(-/-) mice were protected from KD associated AAA. Infiltrating CD11c(+) macrophages produced active caspase-1, and caspase-1 or NLRP3 deficiency inhibited AAA formation. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-1R antagonist (Anakinra), anti-IL-1α, or anti-IL-1β mAb blocked LCWE-induced AAA formation. Similar to clinical KD, the LCWE-induced KD vasculitis mouse model can also be accompanied by AAA formation. Both IL-1α and IL-1β play a key role, and use of an IL-1R blocking agent that inhibits both pathways may be a promising therapeutic target not only for KD coronary arteritis, but also for the other systemic arterial aneurysms including AAA that maybe seen in severe cases of KD. The LCWE-induced vasculitis model may also represent an alternative model for AAA disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Calpain-2 Compensation Promotes Angiotensin II-Induced Ascending and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Calpain-1 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateswaran; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A.; Chishti, Athar H.; Uchida, Haruhito A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Recently, we demonstrated that angiotensin II (AngII)-infusion profoundly increased both aortic protein and activity of calpains, calcium-activated cysteine proteases, in mice. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of calpain attenuated AngII-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AA) in mice. Recent studies have shown that AngII infusion into mice leads to aneurysmal formation localized to the ascending aorta. However, the precise functional contribution of calpain isoforms (-1 or -2) in AngII-induced abdominal AA formation is not known. Similarly, a functional role of calpain in AngII-induced ascending AA remains to be defined. Using BDA-410, an inhibitor of calpains, and calpain-1 genetic deficient mice, we examined the relative contribution of calpain isoforms in AngII-induced ascending and abdominal AA development. Methodology/Results To investigate the relative contribution of calpain-1 and -2 in development of AngII-induced AAs, male LDLr −/− mice that were either calpain-1 +/+ or −/− were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet and infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. Calpain-1 deficiency had no significant effect on body weight or blood pressure during AngII infusion. Moreover, calpain-1 deficiency showed no discernible effects on AngII-induced ascending and abdominal AAs. Interestingly, AngII infusion induced increased expression of calpain-2 protein, thus compensating for total calpain activity in aortas of calpain-1 deficient mice. Oral administration of BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, along with AngII-infusion significantly attenuated AngII-induced ascending and abdominal AA formation in both calpain-1 +/+ and −/− mice as compared to vehicle administered mice. Furthermore, BDA-410 administration attenuated AngII-induced aortic medial hypertrophy and macrophage accumulation. Western blot and immunostaining analyses revealed BDA-410 administration attenuated AngII-induced C-terminal fragmentation of filamin A, an

  12. Patients with end-stage renal disease have poor outcomes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Komshian, Sevan; Farber, Alik; Patel, Virendra I; Goodney, Philip P; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Blazick, Elizabeth A; Jones, Douglas W; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2018-06-23

    Although endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has been demonstrated to have favorable outcomes, not all cohorts of patients with AAA fare equally well. Our goal was to investigate perioperative and 1-year outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis, who have traditionally fared worse after vascular interventions, to assess how ESRD affects outcomes in a large modern cohort of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) patients. The Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing EVAR from 2010 to 2017. ESRD patients were compared with patients not on dialysis. Propensity-matched scoring and multivariable analysis were used to isolate the effects of ESRD. Of 28,683 EVARs identified, there were 321 (1.12%) patients with ESRD on dialysis. Patients with ESRD had no difference in presenting AAA size (57.5 ± 12.7 mm vs 56.7 ± 17.2 mm; P = .44); however, they had more urgent/emergent repairs (20.6% vs 13.6%; P = .002) than those without ESRD. ESRD patients were more often younger, nonwhite, and nonobese and less likely to have commercial insurance (P < .05). ESRD patients more often had hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, previous lower extremity bypass, aneurysm repair, and carotid interventions (P < .05). There was no difference in the rate of concomitant procedures. Matching based on demographics, comorbidities, and operative details showed that ESRD patients had longer hospital length of stay (4.8 ± 9.4 days vs 4.1 ± 12.6 days; P = .026) and higher 30-day mortality (7% vs 2.4%; P < .001). There was no difference in cardiac, pulmonary, lower extremity, bowel, and stroke complications or return to the operating room. On multivariable analysis, ESRD was associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.7; P < .001). Of the 24,750 elective EVARs, 1.04% had ESRD on dialysis. Matched data for elective EVAR show increased

  13. Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a population undergoing computed tomography colonography in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Khashram, M; Jones, G T; Roake, J A

    2015-08-01

    There is compelling level 1 evidence in support of screening men for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to reduce AAA mortality. However, New Zealand (NZ) lacks data on AAA prevalence, and national screening has not been implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AAA in a population undergoing a computed tomography colonography (CTC) for gastrointestinal symptoms. This was an observational study; all consecutive CTCs performed in three regions of the South Island of NZ over a 4 year period were reviewed. Data on abdominal and thoracic aorta diameters ≥30 mm, and iliac and femoral aneurysms ≥20 mm were recorded. Previous aortic surgical grafts or endovascular stents were also documented. Demographics, survival, and AAA related outcomes were collected and used for analysis. Included were 4,893 scans on 4,644 patients (1,933 men [41.6%], 2,711 women [58.4%]) with a median age of 69.3 years (range 17.0-97.0 years). There were 309 scans on 289 patients (75.4% men) who had either an aneurysm or a previous aortic graft with a median age of 79.6 years (range 57.0-96.0 years). Of these, 223 had a native AAA ≥30 mm. The prevalence of AAA rose with age from 1.3% in men aged 55-64 years, to 9.1% in 65-74 year olds, 16.8% in 75-84 year olds, and 22.0% in ≥85 year olds. The corresponding figures in women were 0.4%, 2%, 3.9%, and 6.2%, respectively. In this observational study, the prevalence of AAA was high and warrants further evaluation. The results acquired help to define a population that may benefit from a national AAA screening programme. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anatomical Features and Early Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm from a Korean Multicenter Registry.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Lee, Do Yun; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Park, Ki Hyuk; Min, Seung-Kee; Chang, Jeong-Hwan; Huh, Seung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Won, Jehwan; Byun, Seung Jae; Park, Sang Jun; Jang, Lee Chan; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2015-09-01

    To introduce a nation-based endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) registry in South Korea and to analyze the anatomical features and early clinical outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in patients who underwent EVAR. The Korean EVAR registry (KER) was a template-based online registry developed and established in 2009. The KER recruited 389 patients who underwent EVAR from 13 medical centers in South Korea from January 2010 to June 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the anatomic features and 30-day clinical outcomes. Initial deployment without open conversion was achieved in all cases and procedure-related 30-day mortality rate was 1.9%. Anatomic features showed the following variables: proximal aortic neck angle 48.8±25.7° (mean±standard deviation), vertical neck length 35.0±17.2 mm, aneurysmal sac diameter 57.2±14.2 mm, common iliac artery (CIA) involvement in 218 (56.3%) patients, and median right CIA length 34.9 mm. Two hundred and nineteen (56.3%) patients showed neck calcification, 98 patients (25.2%) had neck thrombus, and the inferior mesenteric arteries of 91 patients (23.4%) were occluded. Anatomical features of AAA in patients from the KER were characterized as having angulated proximal neck, tortuous iliac artery, and a higher rate of CIA involvement. Long-term follow-up and ongoing studies are required.

  15. Dutch experience with the fenestrated Anaconda endograft for short-neck infrarenal and juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Martijn L; Tielliu, Ignace F J; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Pierie, Maurice; van Brussel, Jerome; Schurink, Geert Willem H; Lardenoye, Jan-Willem; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2014-08-01

    In the past decennium, the management of short-neck infrarenal and juxtarenal aortic aneurysms with fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) has been shown to be successful, with good early and midterm results. Recently, a new fenestrated device, the fenestrated Anaconda (Vascutek, Renfrewshire, Scotland), was introduced. The aim of this study was to present the current Dutch experience with this device. A prospectively held database of patients treated with the fenestrated Anaconda endograft was analyzed. Decision to treat was based on current international guidelines. Indications for FEVAR included an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with unsuitable neck anatomy for EVAR. Planning was performed on computed tomography angiography images using a three-dimensional workstation. Between May 2011 and September 2013, 25 patients were treated in eight institutions for juxtarenal (n = 23) and short-neck AAA (n = 2). Median AAA size was 61 mm (59-68.5 mm). All procedures except one were performed with bifurcated devices. A total of 56 fenestrations were incorporated, and 53 (94.6%) were successfully cannulated and stented. One patient died of bowel ischemia caused by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. On completion angiography, three type I endoleaks and seven type II endoleaks were observed. At 1 month of follow-up, all endoleaks had spontaneously resolved. Median follow-up was 11 months (range, 1-29 months). There were no aneurysm ruptures or aneurysm-related deaths and no reinterventions to date. Primary patency at 1 month of cannulated and stented target vessels was 96%. Initial and short-term results of FEVAR using the fenestrated Anaconda endograft are promising, with acceptable technical success and short-term complication rates. Growing experience and long-term results are needed to support these findings. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mini-invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms: current roles of endovascular, laparoscopic, and open techniques.

    PubMed

    Coscas, Raphaël; Maumias, Thibault; Capdevila, Clément; Javerliat, Isabelle; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR), laparoscopic aortic surgery (LAS), and open surgery (OS) are three established treatment methods of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). While these techniques are often percieved as competitive between them, they are complementary for the vascular surgeon, whose goal is to provide a treatment adapted to each case that is noninvasive and durable. The objective of this study was to report our results of AAA repair to better define the roles of the three techniques. From January 2009 to December 2011, we operated on 235 patients for AAAs. Patients for whom the three technical methods were discussed preoperatively were selected. Cases where the three techniques were not discussed were excluded (ruptured AAA, technique not available). One hundred seventy-five (75%) patients were included. Four groups were established based on the surgical risk and the anatomic EVAR criteria of the French Health Authority (Haute Autorité de Santé [HAS]), including: (1) good risk and favorable anatomy (GR-FA); (2) good risk and unfavorable anatomy (GR-UA); (3) high-risk and favorable anatomy (HR-FA); and (4) high-risk and unfavorable anatomy (HR-UA). Data collection was prospective. The numerical data were expressed as median and range. There were 166 (95%) men, aged 74 years (range 38-97 years). AAA diameter was 51 mm (range 30-81 mm). Mini-invasive treatment (EVAR or LAS) was chosen in 156 (89%) cases. Mortality at 30 days was 3.4% (6 patients, 1 EVAR, 1 LAS, and 4 OS), including 3 patients presenting with a "shaggy aorta." There were 58, 19, 65, and 33 patients in groups GR-FA (33%), GR-UA (11%), HR-FA (37%), and HR-UA (19%), respectively. The distribution of the three techniques (EVAR, LAS, OS) according to the groups was as follows: GR-FA (9, 46, 3); GR-UA (0, 13, 6); HR-FA (50, 13, 2); and HR-UA (12, 13, 8), respectively. The results by subgroups are presented. Based on our results, we present a new algorithm for AAA treatment. Among GR-FA patients

  17. Application of a novel particle tracking algorithm in the flow visualization of an artificial abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; He, Wenbo; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    A novel Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithm based on Voronoi Diagram (VD) is proposed and briefed as VD-PTV. The robustness of VD-PTV for pulsatile flow is verified through a test that includes a widely used artificial flow and a classic reference algorithm. The proposed algorithm is then applied to visualize the flow in an artificial abdominal aortic aneurysm included in a pulsatile circulation system that simulates the aortic blood flow in human body. Results show that, large particles tend to gather at the upstream boundary because of the backflow eddies that follow the pulsation. This qualitative description, together with VD-PTV, has laid a foundation for future works that demand high-level quantification.

  18. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Aortic Aneurysm For ...

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and the association with serum levels of Homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Markus; Hellström, Anders; Henriksson, Anders E

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown hyperhomocysteinemi in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In the present study we evaluated the circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) in relation to renal function, vitamins B6, B12 and folate status in AAA patients with special regard to aneurysm size, and rupture. Hcy, Creatinine, B6, B12 and folate were measured in 119 patients with AAA and 36 controls without aneurysm matched by age, gender and smoking habit. As expected there was a weak correlation between Hcy and vitamins B6, B12 or folate. We found similar levels of Hcy, B6 and folic acid in patients with nonruptured AAA compared to the control group matched by age, gender and smoking habit. There was no correlation between maximum diameter of the nonruptured AAA (n=78) and Hcy, B6 or folate. However, the present study shows a significant inverse correlation between maximum diameter of the nonruptured AAA (n=78) and B12 (r = -0.304, p=0.007) with significant higher levels in small AAA compared to large AAA. In conclusion, Hcy does not seem to be a useful biomarker in AAA disease. The unexpected finding of B12 levels correlating to aneurysm diameter warrants urgent further investigation of B12 supplement to prevent progression of small AAA. PMID:23173106

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and the association with serum levels of Homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and Folate.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Markus; Hellström, Anders; Henriksson, Anders E

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown hyperhomocysteinemi in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In the present study we evaluated the circulating level of homocysteine (Hcy) in relation to renal function, vitamins B6, B12 and folate status in AAA patients with special regard to aneurysm size, and rupture. Hcy, Creatinine, B6, B12 and folate were measured in 119 patients with AAA and 36 controls without aneurysm matched by age, gender and smoking habit. As expected there was a weak correlation between Hcy and vitamins B6, B12 or folate. We found similar levels of Hcy, B6 and folic acid in patients with nonruptured AAA compared to the control group matched by age, gender and smoking habit. There was no correlation between maximum diameter of the nonruptured AAA (n=78) and Hcy, B6 or folate. However, the present study shows a significant inverse correlation between maximum diameter of the nonruptured AAA (n=78) and B12 (r = -0.304, p=0.007) with significant higher levels in small AAA compared to large AAA. In conclusion, Hcy does not seem to be a useful biomarker in AAA disease. The unexpected finding of B12 levels correlating to aneurysm diameter warrants urgent further investigation of B12 supplement to prevent progression of small AAA.

  1. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a structured reporting web tool for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sulafa; Fegeler, Christian; Boeckler, Dittmar; H Schwartz, Lawrence; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik

    2013-08-16

    The majority of radiological reports are lacking a standard structure. Even within a specialized area of radiology, each report has its individual structure with regards to details and order, often containing too much of non-relevant information the referring physician is not interested in. For gathering relevant clinical key parameters in an efficient way or to support long-term therapy monitoring, structured reporting might be advantageous. Despite of new technologies in medical information systems, medical reporting is still not dynamic. To improve the quality of communication in radiology reports, a new structured reporting system was developed for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), intended to enhance professional communication by providing the pertinent clinical information in a predefined standard. Actual state analysis was performed within the departments of radiology and vascular surgery by developing a Technology Acceptance Model. The SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis focused on optimization of the radiology reporting of patients with AAA. Definition of clinical parameters was achieved by interviewing experienced clinicians in radiology and vascular surgery. For evaluation, a focus group (4 radiologists) looked at the reports of 16 patients. The usability and reliability of the method was validated in a real-world test environment in the field of radiology. A Web-based application for radiological "structured reporting" (SR) was successfully standardized for AAA. Its organization comprises three main categories: characteristics of pathology and adjacent anatomy, measurements, and additional findings. Using different graphical widgets (eg, drop-down menus) in each category facilitate predefined data entries. Measurement parameters shown in a diagram can be defined for clinical monitoring and be adducted for quick adjudications. Figures for optional use to guide and standardize the reporting are embedded. Analysis of variance

  2. Disparities in outcomes for Hispanic patients undergoing endovascular and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Williams, Timothy K; Schneider, Eric B; Black, James H; Lum, Ying Wei; Freischlag, Julie A; Perler, Bruce A; Abularrage, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities associated with the outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, although little is known about the influence of race and ethnicity on the costs associated with these disparities. The current study was undertaken to examine the influence of race and ethnicity on the outcomes of endovascular (EVAR) and open repair (open AAA) of unruptured AAA and its effect on costs in contemporary practice. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2005 to 2008) was queried using ICD-9-CM codes for unruptured AAA (441.4). The primary outcomes were mortality and total hospital charges. Multivariate analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, comorbidities (Charlson index), year, insurance type, and hospital characteristics. A total of 62,728 patients underwent EVAR and 24,253 patients underwent open AAA. White patients (72%) were more likely to undergo EVAR than Hispanic (69%) or black patients (69%; P = 0.02). On univariate analysis, in-hospital mortality after EVAR was increased in Hispanic patients compared with white patients (1% vs 2%; P = 0.02). There were no differences in mortality after EVAR between white and black patients, and there were no racial or ethnic differences in mortality after open AAA. Hispanic ethnicity remained an independent risk factor for increased mortality after AAA repair on multivariate analysis (RR 1.64; 95% CI [1.05 to 2.57]; P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was associated with increased hospital charges compared with white ethnicity after both EVAR ($108,886 vs $77,748; P < 0.001) and open AAA ($134,356 vs $85,536; P < 0.001) and for black patients after open AAA ($101,168 vs $85,536; P = 0.04). Hispanic ethnicity is an independent risk factor for mortality after AAA repair independent of insurance type or hospital characteristics. There were dramatic disparities in hospital costs for Hispanic patients undergoing either EVAR or open AAA and for black patients after open AAA

  3. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Structured Reporting Web Tool for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sulafa; Fegeler, Christian; Boeckler, Dittmar; H Schwartz, Lawrence; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of radiological reports are lacking a standard structure. Even within a specialized area of radiology, each report has its individual structure with regards to details and order, often containing too much of non-relevant information the referring physician is not interested in. For gathering relevant clinical key parameters in an efficient way or to support long-term therapy monitoring, structured reporting might be advantageous. Objective Despite of new technologies in medical information systems, medical reporting is still not dynamic. To improve the quality of communication in radiology reports, a new structured reporting system was developed for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), intended to enhance professional communication by providing the pertinent clinical information in a predefined standard. Methods Actual state analysis was performed within the departments of radiology and vascular surgery by developing a Technology Acceptance Model. The SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis focused on optimization of the radiology reporting of patients with AAA. Definition of clinical parameters was achieved by interviewing experienced clinicians in radiology and vascular surgery. For evaluation, a focus group (4 radiologists) looked at the reports of 16 patients. The usability and reliability of the method was validated in a real-world test environment in the field of radiology. Results A Web-based application for radiological “structured reporting” (SR) was successfully standardized for AAA. Its organization comprises three main categories: characteristics of pathology and adjacent anatomy, measurements, and additional findings. Using different graphical widgets (eg, drop-down menus) in each category facilitate predefined data entries. Measurement parameters shown in a diagram can be defined for clinical monitoring and be adducted for quick adjudications. Figures for optional use to guide and standardize the

  4. Feasibility of wall stress analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms using three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kok, Annette M; Nguyen, V Lai; Speelman, Lambert; Brands, Peter J; Schurink, Geert-Willem H; van de Vosse, Frans N; Lopata, Richard G P

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are local dilations that can lead to a fatal hemorrhage when ruptured. Wall stress analysis of AAAs is a novel tool that has proven high potential to improve risk stratification. Currently, wall stress analysis of AAAs is based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging; however, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) has great advantages over CT and magnetic resonance imaging in terms of costs, speed, and lack of radiation. In this study, the feasibility of 3D US as input for wall stress analysis is investigated. Second, 3D US-based wall stress analysis was compared with CT-based results. The 3D US and CT data were acquired in 12 patients (diameter, 35-90 mm). US data were segmented manually and compared with automatically acquired CT geometries by calculating the similarity index and Hausdorff distance. Wall stresses were simulated at P = 140 mm Hg and compared between both modalities. The similarity index of US vs CT was 0.75 to 0.91 (n = 12), with a median Hausdorff distance ranging from 4.8 to 13.9 mm, with the higher values found at the proximal and distal sides of the AAA. Wall stresses were in accordance with literature, and a good agreement was found between US- and CT-based median stresses and interquartile stresses, which was confirmed by Bland-Altman and regression analysis (n = 8). Wall stresses based on US were typically higher (+23%), caused by geometric irregularities due to the registration of several 3D volumes and manual segmentation. In future work, an automated US registration and segmentation approach is the essential point of improvement before pursuing large-scale patient studies. This study is a first step toward US-based wall stress analysis, which would be the modality of choice to monitor wall stress development over time because no ionizing radiation and contrast material are involved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cathepsin S is associated with degradation of collagen I in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Veronika; Schmies, Fadwa; Reeps, Christian; Trenner, Matthias; Geisbüsch, Sarah; Lohoefer, Fabian; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2018-06-01

    Cathepsins have been described in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), their exact role, especially in collagen degradation, is still unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to analyse relevant cathepsins in human AAA tissue samples in relation to collagen I, III, and their degradation products. Samples from 37 AAA patients obtained from elective open surgical repair and eight healthy non-aneurysmatic aortas from kidney donors were included. Expression of cathepsins B, D, K, L, S, cystatin C, collagen I and III, their degraded products C-Telopeptide of type 1 and 3 collagen (CTX-I, CTX-III), cellular markers for leukocytes (CD45), T cells (CD3), macrophage scavenger receptor-1 (MSR-1), synthetic, and contractile smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (smoothelin: SMTH, collagen I and III, myosin heavy chain: MHC, embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain: SMemb) were determined at messenger RNA (mRNA) level, using SYBRGreen-based quantitative PCR and at protein level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of cathepsins B, D, L, and S at mRNA level was significantly elevated in AAA compared to control aorta (1.7-fold, p = 0.025; 2.5-fold, p = 0.002; 2.6-fold, p = 0.034; and 7.0-fold, p = 0.003). Expression of cathepsin S correlated significantly with leukocytes and macrophages (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.033 and ρ = 0.422, p = 0.020), synthetic SMCs were significantly associated with cathepsins B, D, and L (ρ = 0.522, p = 0.003; ρ = 0.431, p = 0.015 and ρ = 0.467, p = 0.008). At protein level, cathepsins B and S were elevated in AAA compared to controls (5.4-fold, p = 0.001 and 7.3-fold, p < 0.001). Significant correlations were observed between collagen I, its degraded product, and cathepsin S (r = -0.350, p = 0.034 and r = +0.504, p < 0.001). Expression of cathepsin B was associated with SMCs, expression of cathepsin S with inflammatory cells. Particularly cathepsin S was associated with the degradation product of collagen I and

  6. Sex differences in mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Saratzis, A.; Sweeting, M. J.; Michaels, J.; Powell, J. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Bown, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The UK abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening programmes currently invite only men for screening because the benefit in women is uncertain. Perioperative risk is critical in determining the effectiveness of screening, and contemporary estimates of these risks in women are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare mortality following AAA repair between women and men in the UK. Methods Anonymized data from the UK National Vascular Registry (NVR) for patients undergoing AAA repair (January 2010 to December 2014) were analysed. Co‐variables were extracted for analysis by sex. The primary outcome measure was in‐hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included mortality by 5‐year age groups and duration of hospital stay. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for age, calendar time, AAA diameter and smoking status. NVR‐based outcomes were checked against Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data. Results A total of 23 245 patients were included (13·0 per cent women). Proportionally, more women than men underwent open repair. For elective open AAA repair, the in‐hospital mortality rate was 6·9 per cent in women and 4·0 per cent in men (odds ratio (OR) 1·48, 95 per cent c.i. 1·08 to 2·02; P = 0·014), whereas for elective endovascular AAA repair it was 1·8 per cent in women and 0·7 per cent in men (OR 2·86, 1·72 to 4·74; P < 0·001); the results in HES were similar. For ruptured AAA, there was no sex difference in mortality within the NVR; however, in HES, for ruptured open AAA repair, the in‐hospital mortality rate was higher in women (33·6 versus 27·1 per cent; OR 1·36, 1·16 to 1·59; P < 0·001). Conclusion Women have a higher in‐hospital mortality rate than men after elective AAA repair even after adjustment. This higher mortality may have an impact on the benefit offered by any screening programme offered to women. PMID:28745403

  7. Usefulness of the Hardman index in predicting outcome after endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Karkos, Christos D; Karamanos, Dimitrios; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Kantas, Alexandros S; Theochari, Evangelia G; Kamparoudis, Apostolos G; Gerassimidis, Thomas S

    2008-10-01

    The Hardman index, which has five variables, has been recommended as a predictor of outcome after open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). It has been reported that the presence of three or more variables is uniformly fatal. The aim of this study was to test the same model in an independent series of RAAA patients undergoing endovascular repair. A consecutive series of 41 patients undergoing endovascular repair for RAAA during an 8-year period was analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-day mortality and patient variables, including the five Hardman risk factors of age >76 years, serum creatinine >190 micromol/L, hemoglobin <9 g/dL, loss of consciousness, and electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of ischemia, were recorded. The Hardman index and a revised version of the index with four variables (without ECG ischemia) were calculated and related to clinical outcome. Operative mortality was 41% (17 of 41). On univariate analysis, only age >76 years (P = .01) and the use of local anesthesia (P < .0001) were statistically significant. Loss of consciousness (P = .05) showed a trend toward a higher mortality, albeit not statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, the use of local anesthesia was the only significant predictor of survival (odds ratio [OR], 0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.003-0.25, P = .001). Again, loss of consciousness showed an association with a higher chance of dying but did not achieve statistical significance (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 0.93-42.51, P = .059). The original and revised versions of the Hardman index were both significantly associated with death (P = .02 and P = .001, chi(2) test for trend). The cumulative effect of 0, 1, 2, and >/=3 risk factors on mortality was 0%, 27%, 36%, and 71% for the original index, and 12.5%, 21%, 60%, and 78% for the revised version, respectively. Four and two patients with a score of >/=3 in each version of the index survived endovascular repair. The Hardman index, with or without

  8. The interleukin-10-1082 'A' allele and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bown, Matthew J; Lloyd, Geraint M; Sandford, Rebecca M; Thompson, John R; London, Nicholas J M; Samani, Nilesh J; Sayers, Robert D

    2007-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are caused by inflammatory processes in the wall of the aorta resulting in degradation of structural proteins. This inflammatory process is mediated, in part, by cytokines, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a predominantly anti-inflammatory cytokine. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene that affects transcription has been associated with AAA in a small study. The aim of this study was to determine whether this polymorphism is associated with AAA and also examine its effect on the growth of small AAA. A case control study was performed. A total of 389 patients with AAA and 404 healthy controls were recruited. IL-10-1082 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based methods. In the case of patients with small AAA (<5.5 cm), serial size measurements were recorded to determine mean growth rate. There was a statistically significant difference both in allele and genotype frequencies between the case and control groups with the IL-10-1082 'A' allele being more common in the AAA group (P = .006). In the AAA group, genotype frequencies were as follows: GG 84, GA 201, and AA 104. In the control group, the genotype frequencies were GG 118, GA 205, and AA 81. The odds ratio for the 'A' allele as a risk factor for AAA was 1.50 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.07). Regression modeling revealed that the IL-10-1082 genotype was, however, not independently associated with AAA if age, tobacco use, hypertension, and history of coronary or peripheral artery disease was taken into account. There was a trend towards lower plasma IL-10 level in IL-10 AA carriers, but the IL-10 'A' allele did not have any discernible effect on the growth of small AAA. This study demonstrates that the IL-10-1082 'A' allele is associated with AAA, although this association is likely to be secondary to an association between IL-10-1082 genotype and other markers of cardiovascular disease rather than AAA per se.

  9. Distal small bowel motility and lipid absorption in patients following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Robert J; Ritz, Marc; Matteo, Addolorata C Di; Vozzo, Rosalie; Kwiatek, Monika; Foreman, Robert; Stanley, Brendan; Walsh, Jack; Burnett, Jim; Jury, Paul; Dent, John

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate distal small bowel motility and lipid absorption in patients following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair surgery. METHODS: Nine patients (aged 35-78 years; body mass index (BMI) range: 23-36 kg/m2) post-surgery for AAA repair, and seven healthy control subjects (20-50 years; BMI range: 21-29 kg/m2) were studied. Continuous distal small bowel manometry was performed for up to 72 h, during periods of fasting and enteral feeding (Nutrison®). Recordings were analyzed for the frequency, origin, length of migration, and direction of small intestinal burst activity. Lipid absorption was assessed on the first day and the third day post surgery in a subset of patients using the 13C-triolein-breath test, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects received a 20-min intraduodenal infusion of 50 mL liquid feed mixed with 200 μL 13C-triolein. End-expiratory breath samples were collected for 6 h and analyzed for 13CO2 concentration. RESULTS: The frequency of burst activity in the proximal and distal small intestine was higher in patients than in healthy subjects, under both fasting and fed conditions (P < 0.005). In patients there was a higher proportion of abnormally propagated bursts (71% abnormal), which began to normalize by d 3 (25% abnormal) post-surgery. Lipid absorption data was available for seven patients on d 1 and four patients on d 3 post surgery. In patients, absorption on d 1 post-surgery was half that of healthy control subjects (AUC 13CO2 1 323 ± 244 vs 2 646 ±365; P < 0.05, respectively), and was reduced to the one-fifth that of healthy controls by d 3 (AUC 13CO2 470 ± 832 vs 2 646 ± 365; P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both proximal and distal small intestinal motor activity are transiently disrupted in critically ill patients immediately after major surgery, with abnormal motility patterns extending as far as the ileum. These motor disturbances may contribute to impaired absorption

  10. Variations in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Care: A Report From the International Consortium of Vascular Registries

    PubMed Central

    Sedrakyan, Art; Mao, Jialin; Venermo, Maarit; Faizer, Rumi; Debus, Sebastian; Behrendt, Christian-Alexander; Scali, Salvatore; Altreuther, Martin; Schermerhorn, Marc; Beiles, Barry; Szeberin, Zoltan; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Danielsson, Gudmundur; Thomson, Ian; Wigger, Pius; Björck, Martin; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Mani, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This project by the ICVR (International Consortium of Vascular Registries), a collaboration of 11 vascular surgical quality registries, was designed to evaluate international variation in the contemporary management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with relation to recommended treatment guidelines from the Society for Vascular Surgery and the European Society for Vascular Surgery. Methods: Registry data for open and endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) during 2010 to 2013 were collected from 11 countries. Variations in patient selection and treatment were compared across countries and across centers within countries. Results: Among 51 153 patients, 86% were treated for intact AAA (iAAA) and 14% for ruptured AAA. Women constituted 18% of the entire cohort (range, 12% in Switzerland–21% in the United States; P<0.01). Intact AAAs were repaired at diameters smaller than recommended by guidelines in 31% of men (<5.5 cm; range, 6% in Iceland–41% in Germany; P<0.01) and 12% of women with iAAA (<5 cm; range, 0% in Iceland–16% in the United States; P<0.01). Overall, use of EVAR for iAAA varied from 28% in Hungary to 79% in the United States (P<0.01) and for ruptured AAA from 5% in Denmark to 52% in the United States (P<0.01). In addition to the between-country variations, significant variations were present between centers in each country in terms of EVAR use and rate of small AAA repair. Countries that more frequently treated small AAAs tended to use EVAR more frequently (trend: correlation coefficient, 0.51; P=0.14). Octogenarians made up 23% of all patients, ranging from 12% in Hungary to 29% in Australia (P<0.01). In countries with a fee-for-service reimbursement system (Australia, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States), the proportions of small AAA (33%) and octogenarians undergoing iAAA repair (25%) were higher compared with countries with a population-based reimbursement model (small AAA repair, 16%; octogenarians, 18%; P<0.01). In general

  11. External validation of a 5-year survival prediction model after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    DeMartino, Randall R; Huang, Ying; Mandrekar, Jay; Goodney, Philip P; Oderich, Gustavo S; Kalra, Manju; Bower, Thomas C; Cronenwett, Jack L; Gloviczki, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The benefit of prophylactic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is based on the risk of rupture exceeding the risk of death from other comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to validate a 5-year survival prediction model for patients undergoing elective repair of asymptomatic AAA <6.5 cm to assist in optimal selection of patients. All patients undergoing elective repair for asymptomatic AAA <6.5 cm (open or endovascular) from 2002 to 2011 were identified from a single institutional database (validation group). We assessed the ability of a prior published Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) model (derivation group) to predict survival in our cohort. The model was assessed for discrimination (concordance index), calibration (calibration slope and calibration in the large), and goodness of fit (score test). The VSGNE derivation group consisted of 2367 patients (70% endovascular). Major factors associated with survival in the derivation group were age, coronary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal function, and antiplatelet and statin medication use. Our validation group consisted of 1038 patients (59% endovascular). The validation group was slightly older (74 vs 72 years; P < .01) and had a higher proportion of men (76% vs 68%; P < .01). In addition, the derivation group had higher rates of advanced cardiac disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and baseline creatinine concentration (1.2 vs 1.1 mg/dL; P < .01). Despite slight differences in preoperative patient factors, 5-year survival was similar between validation and derivation groups (75% vs 77%; P = .33). The concordance index of the validation group was identical between derivation and validation groups at 0.659 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.69). Our validation calibration in the large value was 1.02 (P = .62, closer to 1 indicating better calibration), calibration slope of 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.97), and score test of P = .57 (>.05

  12. Tissue factor levels and the fibrinolytic system in thin and thick intraluminal thrombus and underlying walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Siennicka, Aldona; Zuchowski, Marta; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Cnotliwy, Miłosław; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Jastrzębska, Maria

    2018-03-20

    The hemostatic system cooperates with proteolytic degradation in processes allowing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. In previous studies, it has been suggested that aneurysm rupture depends on intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness, which varies across each individual aneurysm. We hypothesized that hemostatic components differentially accumulate in AAA tissue in relation to ILT thickness. Thick (A1) and thin (B1) segments of ILTs and aneurysm wall sections A (adjacent to A1) and B (adjacent to B1) from one aneurysm sac were taken from 35 patients undergoing elective repair. Factor levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of protein extract. Tissue factor (TF) activities were significantly higher in thinner segments of AAA (B1 vs A1, P = .003; B vs A, P < .001; B vs A1, P < .001; B vs B1, P = .001). Significantly higher tissue plasminogen activator was found in thick thrombus-covered wall segments (A) than in B, A1, and B1 (P = .015, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). Plasminogen concentrations were highest in ILT. Concentrations of α 2 -antiplasmin in thin ILT adjacent walls (B) were higher compared with wall (A) adjacent to thick ILT (P = .021) and thick ILT (A1; P < .001). Significant correlations between levels of different factors were mostly found in thick ILT (A1). However, no correlations were found at B sites, except for a correlation between plasmin and TF activities (r = 0.55; P = .004). These results suggest that higher TF activities are present in thinner AAA regions. These parameters and local fibrinolysis may be part of the processes leading to destruction of the aneurysm wall. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Re-entry Closures After TEVAR for Ruptured Chronic Post-dissection Thoraco-abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, R; Ganaha, F; Ito, J; Ohyama, N; Abe, N; Yamazato, T; Munakata, H; Mabuni, K; Kugai, T

    2018-01-01

    Although thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has become a promising treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, its role in treating chronic post-dissection thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA) is still limited owing to persistent retrograde flow into the false lumen (FL) through abdominal or iliac re-entry tears. A case of chronic post-dissection TAA treatment, in which a dilated descending FL ruptured into the left thorax, is described. The primary entry tear was closed by emergency TEVAR and multiple abdominal re-entries were closed by EVAR. In addition, major re-entries at the detached right renal artery and iliac bifurcation were closed using covered stents. To close re-entries as far as possible, EVAR was carried out using the chimney technique, and additional aortic extenders were placed above the coeliac artery. A few re-entries remained, but complete FL thrombosis of the rupture site was achieved. Follow-up computed tomography showed significant shrinkage of the FL. In treating post-dissection TAA, entry closure by TEVAR is sometimes insufficient, owing to persistent retrograde flow into the FL from abdominal or iliac re-entries. Adjunctive techniques are needed to close these distal re-entries to obtain complete FL exclusion, especially in rupture cases. Recently, encouraging results of complete coverage of the thoraco-abdominal aorta with fenestrated or branched endografts have been reported; however, the widespread employment of such techniques appears to be limited owing to technical difficulties. The present method with multiple re-entry closures using off the shelf and immediately available devices is an alternative for the endovascular treatment of post-dissection TAA, especially in the emergency setting.

  14. Association of Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels with Collagen Degradation in the Context of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Klaus, V; Tanios-Schmies, F; Reeps, C; Trenner, M; Matevossian, E; Eckstein, H-H; Pelisek, J

    2017-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have already been identified as key players in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the current data remain inconclusive. In this study, the expression of MMPs at mRNA and protein levels were investigated in relation to the degradation of collagen I and collagen III. Tissue samples were obtained from 40 patients with AAA undergoing open aortic repair, and from five healthy controls during kidney transplantation. Expression of MMPs 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 12, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1, and TIMP2 were measured at the mRNA level using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. At the protein level, MMPs, collagen I, and collagen III, and their degradation products carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (CTX)-I and CTX-III, were quantified via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, immunohistochemistry and gelatine zymography were performed. In AAA, significantly enhanced mRNA expression was observed for MMPs 3, 9, and 12 compared with controls (p ≤ .001). MMPs 3, 9, and 12 correlated significantly with macrophages (p = .007, p = .018, and p = .015, respectively), and synthetic smooth muscle cells with MMPs 1, 2, and 9 (p = .020, p = .018, and p = .027, respectively). At the protein level, MMPs 8, 9, and 12 were significantly elevated in AAA (p = .006, p = .0004, and p < .001, respectively). No significant correlation between mRNA and protein was observed for any MMP. AAA contained significantly reduced intact collagen I (twofold; p = .002), whereas collagen III was increased (4.6 fold; p < .001). Regarding degraded collagen I and III relative to intact collagens, observations were inverse (1.4 fold increase for CTX-1 [p < .001]; fivefold decrease for CTX-III [p = .004]). MMPs 8, 9, and 12 correlated with collagen I (p = .019, p < .001, and p = 0.003, respectively), collagen III (p = .015, p < .001, and p < .001

  15. From tissue iron retention to low systemic haemoglobin levels, new pathophysiological biomarkers of human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, J S; Madrigal-Matute, J; Blanco-Colio, L M; Esteban-Salan, M; Torres-Fonseca, M M; Lefebvre, T; Delbosc, S; Laustsen, J; Driss, F; Vega de Ceniga, M; Gouya, L; Weiss, G; Egido, J; Meilhac, O; Michel, J-B; Martin-Ventura, J

    2014-07-03

    Iron deposits are observed in tissue of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Therefore we explored circulating markers of iron metabolism in AAA patients, and tested if they could serve as biomarkers of AAA. Increased red blood cell (RBC)-borne iron retention and transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin expression was observed in AAA tissue compared to control aorta (immunohistochemistry and western blot). In contrast, decreased circulating iron, transferrin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and haemoglobin concentration, along with circulating RBC count, were observed in AAA patients (aortic diameter >3 cm, n=114) compared to controls (aortic diameter <3 cm, n=88) (ELISA), whereas hepcidin concentrations were increased in AAA subjects (MS/MS assay). Moreover, iron, transferrin and haemoglobin levels were negatively, and hepcidin positively, correlated with aortic diameter in AAA patients. The association of low haemoglobin with AAA presence or aortic diameter was independent of specific risk factors. Moreover, MCHC negatively correlated with thrombus area in another cohort of AAA patients (aortic diameter 3-5 cm, n=357). We found that anaemia was significantly more prevalent in AAA patients (aortic diameter >5 cm, n=8,912) compared to those in patients with atherosclerotic aorto-iliac occlusive disease (n=17,737) [adjusted odds ratio=1.77 (95% confidence interval: 1.61;1.93)]. Finally, the mortality risk among AAA patients with anaemia was increased by almost 30% [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.16;1.44)] as compared to AAA subjects without anaemia. In conclusion, local iron retention and altered iron recycling associated to high hepcidin and low transferrin systemic concentrations could lead to reduced circulating haemoglobin levels in AAA patients. Low haemoglobin levels are independently associated to AAA presence and clinical outcome.

  16. A Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of a Training Walking Program in Patients Recovering from Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Bartosz R; Durmała, Jacek; Ziaja, Krzysztof; Kotyla, Przemysław; Woźniewski, Marek; Błaszczak, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Major surgical procedures as well as general anesthesia contribute to muscle weakness and posture instability and may result in increased postoperative complications and functional disorders resulting from an elective operation. We aim to state the significance of backward walking as a form of interval march training with patients after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Sixty-five patients were randomly divided into three subgroups and three various models of physiotherapy were applied. The participants were males, aged 65-75 years, with stable cardiologic status, absence of neurological disorders, and non-symptomatic aneurysm - non-ruptured, no pain complaints and no motor system impairments. The control group had only routine physiotherapy, since therapeutic groups I and II also had walking exercises, forward in group II and backward in group I. Both experimental groups were applied interval training. The patient data analyzed was as follows: hospitalization period-days; 6-min walking test-distance (m), training heart rate (1/min), mean speed (km/h), MET; spirometry test-FVC(L), FEV1(L), FEV1/FVC and PEF(L/s). The hospital stay period in all groups did not vary significantly. Statistical analysis showed that patients with backward walking had a statistically significantly lower reduction of walking distance in the corridor test when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). After the operation, a significant reduction of mean speed in the control group was noted in comparison with both the forward and backward walking groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the experimental groups in average walking speed as well as in heart rate in all observed groups. Physical training applied to patients after major abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery influences sustaining the level of exercise tolerance to a small extent. Both backward and forward walking seem to be alternative methods when compared to classic post-surgery physiotherapy.

  17. [A study on residual strain of abdominal aortic aneurysm after intraperitoneal administration of saturated hydrogen saline in rats].

    PubMed

    Song, Yuxiang; Chen, Feng; Xiong, Jiang; Guo, Wei; Pan, Xiujie; Jia, Senhao; Liu, Jie

    2013-07-01

    By observation of the diameter, progression rate, wall thickness, and the opening angle of the abnormal aortic of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rats, to observe the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on residual strain of AAA rats, and to investigate its inhibition effect on AAA formation. Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats (weighing, 200-220 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups, which was made the AAA model by infiltration of the abdominal arota with 0.5 mol/L calcium chloride. Saturated hydrogen saline (5 mL/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in the experimental group or control group respectively, every day for 28 days. At 28 days, the diameter, progression rate, wall thickness, and opening angle of the abnormal aorta were mearsured. The aortic tissue was harvested for histological examination (HE staining and aldehyde-fuchsin staining). At 28 days after operation, the diameter of abnormal aorta in 2 groups were significantly higher than preoperative ones (P < 0.05), the progression rate in experimental group (65% +/- 15%) was significantly lower than that in control group (128% +/- 54%) (t=3.611, P=0.005). The opening angle and the wall thickness in experimental group were (88.78 +/- 29.20) degrees and (0.14 +/- 0.03) mm respectively, had significant differences when compared with the values in control group [(44.23 +/- 28.52) degrees and (0.36 +/- 0.05) mm respectively] (P < 0.01). The integrity and continuity of the aortic wall in experimental group were superior to that in the control group. Compared with the control group, the injury of elastic fiber in aortic wall and the infiltration of inflammation were all reduced. Saturated hydrogen saline can maintain good mechanical properties and reduce dilatation of the aorta by increasing residual strain and reducing the remodeling of it.

  18. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  19. Astragaloside IV Attenuated 3,4-Benzopyrene-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Ameliorating Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaoni; Zhou, Yingying; Wu, Shaoze; Huang, Kaiyu; Thapa, Saroj; Tao, Luyuan; Wang, Jie; Shen, Yigen; Wang, Jinsheng; Xue, Yangjing; Ji, Kangting

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by macrophage infiltration-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potentially fatal disease. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been acknowledged to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of AS-IV against AAA formation induced by 3,4-benzopyrene (Bap) and angiotensin II (Ang II), and to explore probable mechanisms. Results showed that AS-IV decreased AAA formation, and reduced macrophage infiltration and expression of matrix metalloproteinase. Furthermore, AS-IV abrogated Bap-/Ang II-induced NF-κB activation and oxidative stress. In vitro , AS-IV inhibition of macrophage activation and NF-κB was correlated with increased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT. Together, our findings suggest that AS-IV has potential as an intervention in the formation of AAA. (1)The protective effect of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with its suppressing effects on inflammation in the aortic wall.(2)AS-IV abrogated 3,4-benzopyrene (Bap)/angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and oxidative stress.(3)AS-IV inhibited Bap-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells activation by inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB activation through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT pathway.AS-IV is a potential preventive agent for cigarette smoking-related AAA.

  20. Rationale and Design of the ARREST Trial Investigating Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Keisin; Green, Linden A; Gutwein, Ashley R; Drucker, Natalie A; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Fajardo, Andres; Babbey, Clifford M; Murphy, Michael P

    2018-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major source of morbidity and mortality despite continuing advances in surgical technique and care. Although the inciting factors for AAA development continue to be elusive, accumulating evidence suggests a significant periaortic inflammatory response leading to degradation and dilation of the aortic wall. Previous human trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of inflammation-related pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, graft versus host disease, and transplant rejection. Therefore, herein, we describe the Aortic Aneurysm Repression with Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ARREST) trial, a phase I investigation into the safety of MSC infusion for patients with small AAA and the cells' effects on modulation of AAA-related inflammation. ARREST is a phase I, single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating infusion both dilute and concentrated MSCs compared to placebo in 36 small AAA (35-45 mm) patients. Subjects will be followed by study personnel for 12 months to ascertain incidence of adverse events, immune cell phenotype expression, peripheral cytokine profile, and periaortic inflammation. Maximum transverse aortic diameter will be assessed regularly for 5 years by a combination of computed tomography and duplex sonography. Four patients have thus far been enrolled, randomized, and treated per protocol. We anticipate the conclusion of the treatment phase within the next 24 months with ongoing long-term follow-up. ARREST will be pivotal in assessing the safety of MSC infusion and provide preliminary data on the ability of MSCs to favorably modulate the pathogenic AAA host immune response. The data gleaned from this phase I trial will provide the groundwork for a larger, phase III RCT which may provide the first pharmaceutical intervention for AAA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mortality rates and risk factors for emergent open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Felice; Gloekler, Steffen; Mader, Caecilia E; Roos, Malgorzata; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mangialardi, Nicola; Neff, Thomas; Lachat, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The background of this paper is to report the mortality at 30 and 90 days and at mean follow-up after open abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) emergent repair and to identify predictive risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality. Between 1997 and 2002, 104 patients underwent emergent AAA open surgery. Symptomatic and ruptured AAAs were observed, respectively, in 21 and 79% of cases. Mean patient age was 70 (SD 9.2) years. Mean aneurysm maximal diameter was 7.4 (SD 1.6) cm. Primary endpoints were 30- and 90-day mortality. Significant mortality-related risk factor identification was the secondary endpoint. Open repair trend and its related perioperative mortality with a per-year analysis and a correlation subanalysis to identify predictive mortality factor were performed. Mean follow-up time was 23 (SD 23) months. Overall, 30-day mortality was 30%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were the use of computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative diagnostic tool, AAA rupture, preoperative shock, intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of aortic balloon occlusion, intraoperative massive blood transfusion (MBT), and development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Previous abdominal surgery was identified as a protective risk factor. The mortality rate at 90 days was 44%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were AAA rupture, aortocaval fistula, peripheral artery disease (PAD), preoperative shock, CPR, MBT, and ACS. The mortality rate at follow-up was 45%. Correlation analysis showed that MBT, shock, and ACS are the most relevant predictive mortality factor at 30 and 90 days. During the transition period from open to endovascular repair, open repair mortality outcomes remained comparable with other contemporary data despite a selection bias for higher risk patients. MBT, shock, and ACS are the most pronounced predictive mortality risk factors.

  2. Trends in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: impact of endovascular repair and implications for future care.

    PubMed

    Park, Brian D; Azefor, Nchang; Huang, Chun-Chih; Ricotta, John J

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to determine national trends in treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), with specific emphasis on open surgical repair (OSR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and its impact on mortality and complications. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2005 to 2009 were queried to identify patients older than 59 years with RAAA. Three groups were studied: nonoperative (NO), EVAR, and OSR. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the relationship between treatment type and patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital type. The impact of EVAR compared with OSR on mortality and overall complications was examined using logistic regression analysis. We identified 21,206 patients with RAAA from 2005 to 2009, of which 16,558 (78.1%) underwent operative repair and 21.8% received no operative treatment. In the operative group, 12,761 (77.1%) underwent OSR and 3,796 (22.9%) underwent EVAR. Endovascular aneurysm repair was more common in teaching hospitals (29.1% vs 15.2%, p < .0001) and in urban versus rural settings. Nonoperative approach was twice as common in rural versus urban hospitals. Reduced mortality was seen in patients transferred from another institutions (31.2% vs 39.4%, p = 0.014). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a benefit of EVAR on both complication rate (OR = 0.492; CI, 0.380-0.636) and mortality (OR=0.535; CI, 0.395-0.724). Endovascular aneurysm repair use is increasing for RAAA and is more common in urban teaching hospitals while NO therapy is more common in rural hospitals. Endovascular aneurysm repair is associated with reduced mortality and complications across all age groups. Efforts to reduce mortality from RAAA should concentrate on reducing NO and OSR in patients who are suitable for EVAR. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Interventional Planning and Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Francois, Christopher J; Skulborstad, Erik P; Majdalany, Bill S; Chandra, Ankur; Collins, Jeremy D; Farsad, Khashayar; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Gornik, Heather L; Kendi, A Tuba; Khaja, Minhajuddin S; Lee, Margaret H; Sutphin, Patrick D; Kapoor, Baljendra S; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common vascular problem that can be treated with either open, surgical repair or endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Both approaches to AAA repair require dedicated preoperative imaging to minimize adverse outcomes. After EVAR, cross-sectional imaging has an integral role in confirming the successful treatment of the AAA and early detection of complications related to EVAR. CT angiography is the primary imaging modality for both preoperative planning and follow-up after repair. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low molecular weight fucoidan attenuates experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm through interfering the leukocyte-endothelial cells interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Ding, Yong; Cai, Liang; Wang, Yonggang; Lin, Changpo; Shi, Zhenyu

    2018-05-01

    Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Saccharina Japonica that presents high affinity for P-selectin and abolish selectin-dependent recruitment of leukocytes. We hypothesized that dietary intake of LMWF, as a competitive binding agent of P‑selectin, could limit the inflammatory infiltration and aneurysmal growth in an Angiotensin II‑induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) mouse model. The Gene Expression Omnibus database was used for gene expressions and gene set enrichment analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that focal adhesion was involved in the development of AAA. However, dietary intake of LMWF could limit the enlargement of AAA, decreasing maximal aortic diameter and preserving elastin lamellae. Although LMWF did not decrease the circulatory monocytes count and lower the expression of P‑selectin in endothelium, it reduced macrophages infiltration in media and adventitia. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase expression was markedly downregulated, accompanied with reduced expression of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor‑α and monocyte chemotactic protein‑1. The present study revealed a novel target for the treatment of AAA and the anti‑inflammatory effects of LMWF.

  5. Detection and visualization of endoleaks in CT data for monitoring of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Egger, J.; Wimmer, A.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for the segmentation of the inner and outer boundary of thoratic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA & AAA) in computed tomography angiography (CTA) acquisitions. The aneurysm segmentation includes two steps: first, the inner boundary is segmented based on a grey level model with two thresholds; then, an adapted active contour model approach is applied to the more complicated outer boundary segmentation, with its initialization based on the available inner boundary segmentation. An opacity image, which aims at enhancing important features while reducing spurious structures, is calculated from the CTA images and employed to guide the deformation of the model. In addition, the active contour model is extended by a constraint force that prevents intersections of the inner and outer boundary and keeps the outer boundary at a distance, given by the thrombus thickness, to the inner boundary. Based upon the segmentation results, we can measure the aneurysm size at each centerline point on the centerline orthogonal multiplanar reformatting (MPR) plane. Furthermore, a 3D TAA or AAA model is reconstructed from the set of segmented contours, and the presence of endoleaks is detected and highlighted. The implemented method has been evaluated on nine clinical CTA data sets with variations in anatomy and location of the pathology and has shown promising results.

  6. Three-year audit and cost assessment of open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    El Kafsi, J; Wake, J; Lintott, P; Northeast, A; McLaren, A

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study were to audit the outcome of elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in a district general hospital, as well as investigate the true costs for this procedure in relation to the national tariff. A database is maintained on AAA surgery in the trust. Data were supplemented by drawing information from blood bank and clinical notes. Patients with symptomatic or emergency aneurysms were excluded. Data from January 2005 to December 2007 were obtained on demographics, morbidity, 30-day mortality and blood usage. Costs were obtained from the trust finance department. Between January 2005 and December 2007, 79 elective AAA procedures were undertaken. Median age was 75 years (range, 52-85 years), median aneurysm size was 63 mm (range, 42-105 mm) and median ITU stay was 3 days (range, 1-41 days). Major morbidity rate was 20.3% (16 of 79 patients) and 30-day mortality overall was 5.1% (4 of 79 patients). Average cost per case was pound15,012.91 (range, pound4,040.03- pound82,158.00), when National Tariff is pound6,722.00 ( pound5,649.00 x local Market Forces Factor of 1.19). Loss per case for our trust was pound8,290.91 with a total annual loss of pound218,299.56. Morbidity and mortality in this district general hospital compare well with national studies; however, the total cost is far in excess of the national tariff.

  7. A small case series of aortic balloon occlusion in trauma: lessons learned from its use in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Hörer, T M; Skoog, P; Pirouzram, A; Nilsson, K F; Larzon, T

    2016-10-01

    EndoVascular and Hybrid Trauma Management (EVTM) is an emerging concept for the early treatment of trauma patients using aortic balloon occlusion (ABO), embolization agents and stent grafts to stop ongoing traumatic bleeding. These techniques have previously been implemented successfully in the treatment of ruptured aortic aneurysm. We describe our very recent experience of EVTM using ABO in bleeding patients and lessons learned over the last 20 years from the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA). We also briefly describe current knowledge of ABO usage in trauma. A small series of educational cases in our hospital is described, where endovascular techniques were used to gain temporary hemorrhage control. The methods used for rAAA and their applicability to EVTM with a multidisciplinary approach are presented. Establishing femoral arterial access immediately on arrival at the emergency room and use of an angiography table in the surgical suite may facilitate EVTM at an early stage. ABO may be an effective method for the temporary stabilization of severely hemodynamically unstable patients with hemorrhagic shock, and may be useful as a bridge to definitive treatment of the bleeding patients. EVTM, including the usage of ABO, can be initiated on patient arrival and is feasible. Further data need to be collected to investigate proper indications for ABO, best clinical usage, results and potential complications. Accordingly, the ABOTrauma Registry has recently been set up. Existing experiences of EVTM and lessons from the endovascular treatment of rAAA may be useful in trauma management.

  8. Effect of a High-sucrose Diet on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development in a Hypoperfusion-induced Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Chie; Kugo, Hirona; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Sawaragi, Ayaka; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease that results in rupture of the abdominal aorta. The risk factors for the development of AAA include smoking, male sex, hypertension, and age. AAA has a high mortality rate, but therapy for AAA is restricted to surgery in cases of large aneurysms. Clarifying the effect of dietary food on the development of AAA would be helpful for patients with AAAs. However, the relationship between dietary habits and the development of AAA is largely unknown. In our previous study, we demonstrated that adipocytes in vascular wall can induce the rupture of AAA. Therefore, we focused on the diet-induced abnormal triglyceride metabolism, which has the potential to drive AAA development. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of a high-sucrose diet on the development of AAA in a vascular hypoperfusion-induced animal model. A high sucrose diet induced high serum TG level and fatty liver. However, the AAA rupture risk and the AAA diameter were not significantly different between the control and high-sucrose groups. The intergroup differences in the elastin degradation score and collagen-positive area were insignificant. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinases, macrophages, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-positive areas did not differ significantly between groups. These results suggest that a high-sucrose diet does not affect the appearance of vascular adipocyte and AAA development under the vascular hypoperfusion condition.

  9. Does lower limb exercise worsen renal artery hemodynamics in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm?

    PubMed

    Sun, Anqiang; Tian, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients.

  10. Endovascular strategy or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: one-year outcomes from the IMPROVE randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Bruce; Cheshire, Nicholas J.; Greenhalgh, Roger M.; Grieve, Richard; Hassan, Tajek B.; Hinchliffe, Robert; Howell, Simon; Moore, Fionna; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Soong, Chee V.; Thompson, Matt M.; Thompson, Simon G.; Ulug, Pinar; Heatley, Francine; Anjum, Aisha; Kalinowska, Gosia; Sweeting, Michael J.; Thompson, Simon G.; Gomes, Manuel; Grieve, Richard; Powell, Janet T.; Ashleigh, Ray; Gomes, Manuel; Greenhalgh, Roger M.; Grieve, Richard; Hinchliffe, Robert; Sweeting, Michael; Thompson, Matt M.; Thompson, Simon G.; Ulug, Pinar; Roberts, Ian; Bell, Peter R. F.; Cheetham, Anne; Stephany, Jenny; Warlow, Charles; Lamont, Peter; Moss, Jonathan; Tijssen, Jan; Braithwaite, Bruce; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Thompson, Matthew; Ashleigh, Ray; Thompson, Luke; Cheshire, Nicholas J.; Boyle, Jonathan R.; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Thompson, Matt M.; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Bell, Rachel; Wilson, Noel; Bown, Matt; Dennis, Martin; Davis, Meryl; Ashleigh, Ray; Howell, Simon; Wyatt, Michael G.; Valenti, Domenico; Bachoo, Paul; Walker, Paul; MacSweeney, Shane; Davies, Jonathan N.; Rittoo, Dynesh; Parvin, Simon D.; Yusuf, Waquar; Nice, Colin; Chetter, Ian; Howard, Adam; Chong, Patrick; Bhat, Raj; McLain, David; Gordon, Andrew; Lane, Ian; Hobbs, Simon; Pillay, Woolagasen; Rowlands, Timothy; El-Tahir, Amin; Asquith, John; Cavanagh, Steve; Dubois, Luc; Forbes, Thomas L.; Ashworth, Emily; Baker, Sara; Barakat, Hashem; Brady, Claire; Brown, Joanne; Bufton, Christine; Chance, Tina; Chrisopoulou, Angela; Cockell, Marie; Croucher, Andrea; Dabee, Leela; Dewhirst, Nikki; Evans, Jo; Gibson, Andy; Gorst, Siobhan; Gough, Moira; Graves, Lynne; Griffin, Michelle; Hatfield, Josie; Hogg, Florence; Howard, Susannah; Hughes, Cían; Metcalfe, David; Lapworth, Michelle; Massey, Ian; Novick, Teresa; Owen, Gareth; Parr, Noala; Pintar, David; Spencer, Sarah; Thomson, Claire; Thunder, Orla; Wallace, Tom; Ward, Sue; Wealleans, Vera; Wilson, Lesley; Woods, Janet; Zheng, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Aims To report the longer term outcomes following either a strategy of endovascular repair first or open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, which are necessary for both patient and clinical decision-making. Methods and results This pragmatic multicentre (29 UK and 1 Canada) trial randomized 613 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm; 316 to an endovascular first strategy (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) and 297 to open repair. The principal 1-year outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were re-interventions, hospital discharge, health-related quality-of-life (QoL) (EQ-5D), costs, Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness [incremental net benefit (INB)]. At 1 year, all-cause mortality was 41.1% for the endovascular strategy group and 45.1% for the open repair group, odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62, 1.17], P = 0.325, with similar re-intervention rates in each group. The endovascular strategy group and open repair groups had average total hospital stays of 17 and 26 days, respectively, P < 0.001. Patients surviving rupture had higher average EQ-5D utility scores in the endovascular strategy vs. open repair groups, mean differences 0.087 (95% CI 0.017, 0.158), 0.068 (95% CI −0.004, 0.140) at 3 and 12 months, respectively. There were indications that QALYs were higher and costs lower for the endovascular first strategy, combining to give an INB of £3877 (95% CI £253, £7408) or €4356 (95% CI €284, €8323). Conclusion An endovascular first strategy for management of ruptured aneurysms does not offer a survival benefit over 1 year but offers patients faster discharge with better QoL and is cost-effective. Clinical trial registration ISRCTN 48334791. PMID:25855369

  11. Endovascular strategy or open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: one-year outcomes from the IMPROVE randomized trial.

    PubMed

    2015-08-14

    To report the longer term outcomes following either a strategy of endovascular repair first or open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, which are necessary for both patient and clinical decision-making. This pragmatic multicentre (29 UK and 1 Canada) trial randomized 613 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm; 316 to an endovascular first strategy (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) and 297 to open repair. The principal 1-year outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were re-interventions, hospital discharge, health-related quality-of-life (QoL) (EQ-5D), costs, Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness [incremental net benefit (INB)]. At 1 year, all-cause mortality was 41.1% for the endovascular strategy group and 45.1% for the open repair group, odds ratio 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62, 1.17], P = 0.325, with similar re-intervention rates in each group. The endovascular strategy group and open repair groups had average total hospital stays of 17 and 26 days, respectively, P < 0.001. Patients surviving rupture had higher average EQ-5D utility scores in the endovascular strategy vs. open repair groups, mean differences 0.087 (95% CI 0.017, 0.158), 0.068 (95% CI -0.004, 0.140) at 3 and 12 months, respectively. There were indications that QALYs were higher and costs lower for the endovascular first strategy, combining to give an INB of £3877 (95% CI £253, £7408) or €4356 (95% CI €284, €8323). An endovascular first strategy for management of ruptured aneurysms does not offer a survival benefit over 1 year but offers patients faster discharge with better QoL and is cost-effective. ISRCTN 48334791. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Science to Practice: IT Solutions to Drive Standardized Report Recommendations for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Danny C; Herskovits, Edward H; Johnson, Pamela T

    2018-06-01

    Inadequate imaging surveillance has been identified as the most significant contributor to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture. Radiologists can contribute value to patient care and reduce morbidity and mortality related to AAA by incorporating evidence-based management recommendations from the ACR and Society of Vascular Surgery into their report impression. The challenges lie in achieving 100% radiologist compliance to incorporate the recommendations and ensuring that the patient is notified by their provider, the follow-up examination is scheduled, and the patient returns for an imaging test that may be scheduled 3 to 5 years in the future. To address these barriers, radiology quality and informatics leads have harnessed IT solutions to facilitate integration of content, communication of results, and patient follow-up. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Relation Between Near-Wall Particle-Hemodynamics and Onset of Thrombus Formation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Basciano, C.; Kleinstreuer, C.; Hyun, S.; Finol, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational particle-hemodynamics analysis of key criteria for the onset of an intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented. The focus is on enhanced platelet and white blood cell residence times as well as their elevated surface-shear loads in near-wall regions of the AAA sac. The generalized results support the hypothesis that a patient's AAA geometry and associated particle-hemodynamics have the potential to entrap activated blood particles, which will play a role in the onset of ILT. Although the ILT history of only a single patient was considered, the modeling and simulation methodology provided allow for the development of an efficient computational tool to predict the onset of ILT formation in complex patient-specific cases. PMID:21373952

  14. Scientific second-order 'nudging' or lobbying by interest groups: the battle over abdominal aortic aneurysm screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Brodersen, John

    2014-11-01

    The idea that it is acceptable to 'nudge' people to opt for the 'healthy choice' is gaining currency in health care policy circles. This article investigates whether researchers evaluating Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening Programmes (AAASP) attempt to influence decision makers in ways that are similar to popular 'nudging' techniques. Comparing two papers on the health economics of AAASP both published in the BMJ within the last 3 years, it is shown that the values chosen for the health economics modelling are not representative of the literature and consistently favour the conclusions of the articles. It is argued (1) that this and other features of these articles may be justified within a Libertarian Paternalist framework as 'nudging' like ways of influencing decision makers, but also (2) that these ways of influencing decision makers raise significant ethical issues in the context of democratic decision making.

  15. Results of complex aortic stent grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms stratified according to the proximal landing zone using the Society for Vascular Surgery classification.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay D; Constantinou, Jason; Simring, Dominic; Ramirez, Manfred; Agu, Obiekezie; Hamilton, Hamish; Ivancev, Krassi

    2015-08-01

    Advances in endovascular technology have led to the successful treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, there is currently no consensus on what constitutes a juxtarenal, pararenal, or suprarenal aneurysm. There is emerging evidence that the extent of the aneurysm repair is associated with outcome. We compare the outcomes of 150 consecutive patients treated with a fenestrated or branched stent graft and present the data stratified according to the Society for Vascular Surgery classification based on proximal anatomic landing zones. A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients undergoing fenestrated or branched stent graft insertion in a tertiary center between 2008 and 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. Aneurysms were subdivided into zones according to where the area of proximal seal could be achieved in relation to the visceral arteries. Zone 8 covers the renal arteries, zone 7 covers the superior mesenteric artery, and zone 6 covers the celiac axis. Patient demographics, operative variables, mortality, and major morbidity were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis to assess for differences between zones. During the study period, 150 patients were treated. There were 49 in zone 8, 76 in zone 7, and 25 in zone 6. Prior aortic surgery had been performed in 19 patients, which included 11 patients with previous endovascular aneurysm repairs. There was significantly increased blood loss (P < .001), operative time (P < .0001), total hospital stay (P = .018), and intensive care unit stay (P < .0001) as the zones ascended the aorta. There were 14 inpatient deaths recorded across all zones with a 30-day mortality rate of 8%. Logistic regression analysis for 30 day mortality showed a significant increase as the zones ascended (P = .007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 5-year survival significantly deteriorated as the zones ascended (P = .039), with no significant difference in the freedom from reintervention curves between zones

  16. 3D Printed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Phantom for Image Guided Surgical Planning with a Patient Specific Fenestrated Endovascular Graft System.

    PubMed

    Meess, Karen M; Izzo, Richard L; Dryjski, Maciej L; Curl, Richard E; Harris, Linda M; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N

    2017-02-11

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging.

  17. Survival following ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm before and during the IMPROVE Trial: a single-centre series.

    PubMed

    Ambler, G K; Twine, C P; Shak, J; Rollins, K E; Varty, K; Coughlin, P A; Hayes, P D; Boyle, J R

    2014-04-01

    The first large-scale randomised trial (Immediate Management of the Patient with Rupture: Open Versus Endovascular repair [IMPROVE]) for endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rEVAR) has recently finished recruiting patients. The aim of this study was to examine the impact on survival after rEVAR when the IMPROVE protocol was initiated in a high volume abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) centre previously performing rEVAR. One hundred and sixty-nine patients requiring emergency infrarenal AAA repair from January 2006 to April 2013 were included. Eighty-four patients were treated before (38 rEVAR, 46 open) and 85 (31 rEVAR, 54 open) were treated during the trial period. A retrospective analysis was performed. Before the trial, there was a significant survival benefit for rEVAR over open repair (90-day mortality 13% vs. 30%, p = .04, difference remained significant up to 2 years postoperatively). This survival benefit was lost after starting randomisation (90-day mortality 35% vs. 33%, p = .93). There was an increase in overall 30-day mortality from 15% to 31% (p = .02), while there was no change for open repair (p = .438). There was a significant decrease in general anaesthetic use (p = .002) for patients treated during the trial. Randomised patients had shorter hospital and intensive treatment unit stays (p = .006 and p = .03 respectively). The change in survival seen during the IMROVE trial highlights the need for randomised rather than cohort data to eliminate selection bias. These results from a single centre reinforce those recently reported in IMPROVE. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional Differences in Case Mix and Peri-operative Outcome After Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in the Vascunet Database.

    PubMed

    Mani, K; Venermo, M; Beiles, B; Menyhei, G; Altreuther, M; Loftus, I; Björck, M

    2015-06-01

    National differences exist in the outcome of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. The role of case mix variation was assessed based on an international vascular registry collaboration. All elective AAA repairs with aneurysm size data in the Vascunet database in the period 2005-09 were included. AAA size and peri-operative outcome (crude and age adjusted mortality) were analysed overall and in risk cohorts, as well as per country. Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS) was calculated as risk score, and patients were stratified in three equal sized risk cohorts based on GAS. Predictors of peri-operative mortality were analysed with multiple regression. Missing data were handled with multiple imputation. Patients from Australia, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Sweden and the UK (n = 5,895) were analysed; mean age was 72.7 years and 54% had endovascular repair (EVAR). There were significant variations in GAS (lowest = Finland [75.7], highest = UK [79.4], p for comparison of all regions < .001), proportion of AAA < 5.5 cm (lowest = UK [6.4%], highest = Hungary [29.0%]; p < .001), proportion undergoing EVAR (lowest = Finland [10.1%], highest = Australia [58.9%]; p < .001), crude mortality (lowest = Norway [2.0%], highest = Finland [5.0%]; p = .006), and age adjusted mortality (lowest = Norway [2.5%], highest = Finland [6.0%]; p = .048). Both aneurysm size and peri-operative mortality were highest among patients with a GAS >82. Of those with a GAS >82, 8.4% of men and 20.8% of women had an AAA <5.5 cm. Important regional differences exist in case selection for elective AAA repair, including variations in AAA size and patient risk profile. These differences partly explain the variations in peri-operative mortality. Further audit is warranted to assess the underlying reasons for the regional variation in case-mix. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    PubMed

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  20. Systemic Upregulation of IL-10 (Interleukin-10) Using a Nonimmunogenic Vector Reduces Growth and Rate of Dissecting Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Adam, Matti; Kooreman, Nigel; Jagger, Ann; Wagenhaeuser, Markus U; Mehrkens, Dennis; Wang, Yongming; Kayama, Yosuke; Toyama, Kensuke; Raaz, Uwe; Schellinger, Isabel N; Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Hamming, Jaap F; Quax, Paul H A; Baldus, Stephan; Wu, Joseph C; Tsao, Philip S

    2018-06-07

    Recruitment of immunologic competent cells to the vessel wall is a crucial step in formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Innate immunity effectors (eg, macrophages), as well as mediators of adaptive immunity (eg, T cells), orchestrate a local vascular inflammatory response. IL-10 (interleukin-10) is an immune-regulatory cytokine with a crucial role in suppression of inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that an increase in systemic IL-10-levels would mitigate AAA progression. Using a single intravenous injection protocol, we transfected an IL-10 transcribing nonimmunogenic minicircle vector into the Ang II (angiotensin II)-ApoE -/- infusion mouse model of AAA. IL-10 minicircle transfection significantly reduced average aortic diameter measured via ultrasound at day 28 from 166.1±10.8% (control) to 131.0±5.8% (IL-10 transfected). Rates of dissecting AAA were reduced by IL-10 treatment, with an increase in freedom from dissecting AAA from 21.5% to 62.3%. Using flow cytometry of aortic tissue from minicircle IL-10-treated animals, we found a significantly higher percentage of CD4 + /CD25 + /Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) + regulatory T cells, with fewer CD8 + /Granzyme B + cytotoxic T cells. Furthermore, isolated aortic macrophages produced less TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), more IL-10, and were more likely to be MRC1 (mannose receptor, C type 1)-positive alternatively activated macrophages. These results concurred with gene expression analysis of LPS-stimulated and Ang II-primed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Taken together, we provide an effective gene therapy approach to AAA in mice by enhancing antiinflammatory and dampening proinflammatory pathways through minicircle-induced augmentation of systemic IL-10 expression. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Two C-C Family Chemokines, Eotaxin and RANTES, Are Novel Independent Plasma Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gregory T; Phillips, L Victoria; Williams, Michael J A; van Rij, Andre M; Kabir, Tasnuva D

    2016-04-28

    Inflammation of the aortic wall is recognised as a key pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study was undertaken to determine whether inflammatory cytokines could be used as biomarkers for the presence of AAA. Tissue profiles of 27 inflammatory cytokine were examined in AAA (n=14) and nonaneurysmal (n=14) aortic tissues. Three cytokines, regulated upon activation normally T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), eotaxin, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1b), had increased expression in AAA, particularly within the adventitial layer of the aortic wall. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) had reduced expression in all layers of the AAA wall. Examination of the circulating plasma profiles of AAA (n=442) and AAA-free controls (n=970) suggested a (risk factor adjusted) AAA-association with eotaxin, RANTES, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A plasma inflammatory cytokine score, calculated using these three markers, suggested a strong risk association with AAA (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 3.5-6.7; P<0.0001), independent of age, sex, history of ischemic heart disease, and smoking. Contrary to reports suggesting a distinct T helper 2-associated inflammatory profile in AAA, this current study suggests a more-generalized pattern of inflammation, albeit with some potentially distinct features, including elevated plasma eotaxin and decreased plasma RANTES. In combination with hsCRP, these markers may have potential utility as AAA biomarkers. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Incidence of periodontitis in Japanese patients with cardiovascular diseases: a comparison between abdominal aortic aneurysm and arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Aoyama, Norio; Aoki, Mieko; Tada, Yuko; Wakayama, Kouji; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Komuro, Issei; Miyata, Tetsuro; Hirata, Yasunobu; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-07-01

    Although there is a link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the influence of periodontitis on CVD is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between periodontal bacterial burden and CVD. We studied 142 patients with tachyarrhythmia (TA) and 25 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We examined periodontitis and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia in the patients' saliva and subgingival plaque using PCR. We also measured serum antibody titers against the pathogens using ELISA. We found that the patients with AAA had fewer remaining teeth (14.6 ± 2.0 vs. 20.9 ± 0.7, P < 0.05) and deeper pocket depth (3.01 ± 0.26 vs. 2.52 ± 0.05 mm, P < 0.05) compared to the TA patients. The existence of each periodontal bacterium in their saliva or subgingival plaque and serum antibody titers was comparable between the two groups. Periodontitis may have a larger affect on aneurysm progression compared to arrhythmia.

  3. Porphyromonas gingivalis Participates in Pathogenesis of Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Neutrophil Activation. Proof of Concept in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delbosc, Sandrine; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Journe, Clement; Louedec, Liliane; Castier, Yves; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Ruimy, Raymond; Rossignol, Patrick; Bouchard, Philippe; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Meilhac, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Background Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) represent a particular form of atherothrombosis where neutrophil proteolytic activity plays a major role. We postulated that neutrophil recruitment and activation participating in AAA growth may originate in part from repeated episodes of periodontal bacteremia. Methods and Findings Our results show that neutrophil activation in human AAA was associated with Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) formation in the IntraLuminal Thrombus, leading to the release of cell-free DNA. Human AAA samples were shown to contain bacterial DNA with high frequency (11/16), and in particular that of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), the most prevalent pathogen involved in chronic periodontitis, a common form of periodontal disease. Both DNA reflecting the presence of NETs and antibodies to Pg were found to be increased in plasma of patients with AAA. Using a rat model of AAA, we demonstrated that repeated injection of Pg fostered aneurysm development, associated with pathological characteristics similar to those observed in humans, such as the persistence of a neutrophil-rich luminal thrombus, not observed in saline-injected rats in which a healing process was observed. Conclusions Thus, the control of periodontal disease may represent a therapeutic target to limit human AAA progression. PMID:21533243

  4. A nurse-run clinic for patients with incidentally discovered small abdominal aortic aneurysms is feasible and cost-effective.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J L; Clarke, G A; Roake, J A; Lewis, D R

    2015-04-01

    Patients with incidentally discovered small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) require assessment by a vascular surgery department for possible enrollment in a surveillance programme. Our unit implemented a vascular nurse-run AAA clinic in October 2010. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a specialist nurse-run small AAA clinic. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively for all patients seen in the new vascular nurse clinic between October 2010 and November 2012. A validated AAA operative mortality score was used to aid decision making by the vascular nurse. Some 250 patients were seen in the clinic. 198 (79.2%) patients were enrolled in surveillance, 40 (16%) declined enrollment and 12 (4.8%) were referred to a consultant clinic for further assessment. The majority of patients were male and the mean age was 73.7 years. Co-morbidities included hypertension, a history of cardiovascular disease, and hyperlipidaemia. The majority of referrals were considered to be low operative risk. No aneurysms ruptured whilst under surveillance. A nurse-run clinic that assesses patients with incidentally discovered small AAAs for inclusion in AAA surveillance is a feasible alternative to assessment of these patients in a consultant-run clinic. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Impact of graft composition on the systemic inflammatory response after an elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Kwan; Kwon, Hyunwook; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Min Joo; Han, Youngjin; Chung, Young Soo; Park, Hojong; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and the role of graft material in the development of an acute phase systemic inflammatory response, and the clinical outcome in patients who undergo endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open surgical repair (OSR) of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods We retrospectively evaluated the risk factors and the role of graft material in an increased risk of developing systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and the clinical outcome in patients who underwent EVAR or OSR of an AAA. Results A total of 308 consecutive patients who underwent AAA repair were included; 178 received EVAR and 130 received OSR. There was no significant difference in the incidence of SIRS between EVAR patients and OSR patients. Regardless of treatment modality, SIRS was observed more frequently in patients treated with woven polyester grafts. Postoperative hospitalization was significantly prolonged in patients that experienced SIRS. In multivariate analyses, the initial white blood cell count (P = 0.001) and the use of woven polyester grafts (P = 0.005) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing SIRS in patients who underwent EVAR. By contrast, the use of woven polyester grafts was the only factor associated with an increased risk of developing SIRS in patients who underwent OSR, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.052). Conclusion The current study shows that the graft composition plays a primordial role in the development of SIRS, and it leads to prolonged hospitalization in both EVAR and OSR patients. PMID:25553321

  6. Optimization of the model of abdominal aortic aneurysm by co-incubation of calcium chloride and collagenase in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang; Huang, Ying; Lu, Xin-Wu; Lu, Min; Huang, Xin-Tian; Li, Wei-Min; Jiang, Mi-Er

    2009-08-01

    To optimize the model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rats using calcium chloride (CaCl2) and collagenase together. This study was performed at the 9th People's Hospital, Institute of Traumatic Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China from July 2008 to February 2009. Aortas of 55 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed and incubated for 20 minutes with fresh normal saline solutions supplemented with CaCl2 (0.4 M) and collagenase (4%, w/v) (group A), CaCl2 alone (group B), collagenase alone (group C), or normal saline alone (group D). After 4 weeks, the treated aortas were evaluated by digital measurement, angiography, and histological examination. In group A, there was a mean increase in diameter of 87.86% +/- 69.49% (range, 35.33-299.29%) weeks after surgery. The frequency of AAA in this group was 83.3% (10/12). One (1/13) AAA occurred in group C and none in other groups. Partial endothelial loss, elastin disruption, and abnormal collagen deposition were noted in the AAA tissues in group A, corresponded well to native aneurysms in human. The use of collagenase optimized the established CaCl2-induced rat model, giving a high frequency of AAA in a short period of time.

  7. Trends of 30-day mortality and morbidities in endovascular repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysm during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kanhua; Locham, Satinderjit S; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Malas, Mahmoud B

    2018-06-15

    Significant research efforts have been made to improve the safety and efficacy of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in treating abdominal aortic aneurysm. This study aimed to examine the trends of perioperative outcomes of EVAR in the recent decade using a national validated database. Patients who underwent EVAR for intact abdominal aortic aneurysm between 2006 and 2015 were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and divided into early (2006-2010) and late (2011-2015) periods. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included operative time, length of hospital stay, and 30-day major complications (renal, cardiopulmonary, and wound infection). A total of 30,076 patients were identified, with 11,539 in the early period and 18,537 in the late period. The 30-day mortality was kept at a low level in both periods (1.2% vs 1.2%; P = .98), whereas both the mean operation time (155.5 ± 72.6 minutes vs 141.9 ± 73.7 minutes; P < .001) and length of hospital stay (3.24 ± 5.32 days vs 2.81 ± 4.30 days; P < .001) were decreased in the late period. The 30-day major complication rate was reduced by 19.6% (5.1% vs 4.1%; P < .0001), with decreased renal failure (1.4% vs 1.0%; P = .003), cardiopulmonary complications (2.2% vs 1.7%; P = .006), and wound complications (2.5% vs 1.8%; P < .001). All the decreasing trends of mortality, any 30-day complication, and each type of major complication were statistically significant. Being treated in the late period was independently associated with decreased 30-day major complications (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.87; P < .001), and this effect was confirmed in the propensity score-matched cohort (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.90; P < .001). Although the 30-day mortality remains similar, postoperative complications in EVAR have decreased significantly during the recent decade. The continuous improvement in endograft

  8. Medium-Term Outcomes Following Endovascular Repair of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with an Unfavourable Proximal Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Prakash, E-mail: prakash.2.saha@kcl.ac.uk; Hughes, John, E-mail: johnhughes387@rocketmail.com; Patel, Ashish S., E-mail: ashish.s.patel@kcl.ac.uk

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to evaluate medium-term outcomes following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) with unfavourable neck anatomy using stent grafts with a 36 mm or larger proximal diameter.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of 27 patients who underwent elective EVAR between 2006 and 2008 using a stent graft with a 36 mm or larger proximal diameter was carried out. All patients had computed tomography angiography (CTA) for procedure planning, and detailed assessment of the aneurysm neck was performed using a three-dimensional CTA workstation. Patients were followed up with CTA at 3 and 12 months and annual duplex thereafter.ResultsThe medianmore » aneurysm diameter was 7 cm, and the median aneurysm neck diameter was 31 mm. Cook Zenith stent grafts were used in all patients, with a proximal diameter of 36 mm (n = 25) and 40 mm (n = 2). Primary and assisted primary technical success rates were 74 and 93 %, respectively. The follow-up period ranged from 62 to 84 months, with a median of 72 months. 15 patients died during follow-up. Two patients died from aortic rupture, and the remaining patients died from cardiac disease (n = 4), chest sepsis (n = 6), cancer (n = 2) and renal failure (n = 1). Complications included type I endoleak (n = 5), limb occlusion (n = 2), limb stenosis (n = 2), limb kinking (n = 1), dissection of an artery (n = 1), occlusion of a femorofemoral cross-over graft (n = 1) and poor attachment of a distal limb (n = 1).ConclusionsEVAR using stent grafts in the presence of an unfavourable neck has a high risk of complications. Medium-term survival in this group is low but mainly due to patient co-morbidities.« less

  9. Cytokines as biomarkers of inflammatory response after open versus endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsilimigras, Diamantis I; Sigala, Fragiska; Karaolanis, Georgios; Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Spartalis, Michael; Patelis, Nikolaos; Papalampros, Alexandros; Long, Chandler; Moris, Demetrios

    2018-05-17

    The repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a high-risk surgical procedure related to hormonal and metabolic stress-related response with an ensuing activation of the inflammatory cascade. In contrast to open repair (OR), endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) seems to decrease the postoperative stress by offering less extensive incisions, dissection, and tissue manipulation. However, these beneficial effects may be offset by the release of cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites during intra-luminal manipulation of the thrombus using catheters in endovascular repair, resulting in systemic inflammatory response (SIR), which is clinically called post-implantation syndrome. In this systematic review we compared OR with EVAR in terms of the post-interventional inflammatory response resulting from alterations in the circulating cytokine levels. We sought to summarize all the latest evidence regarding post-implantation syndrome after EVAR. We searched Medline (PubMed), ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane library for clinical studies reporting on the release of cytokines as part of the inflammatory response after both open/conventional and endovascular repair of the AAA. We identified 17 studies examining the cytokine levels after OR versus EVAR. OR seemed to be associated with a greater SIR than EVAR, as evidenced by the increased cytokine levels, particularly IL-6 and IL-8, whereas IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α showed conflicting results or no difference between the two groups. Polyester endografts appear to be positively correlated with the incidence of post-implantation syndrome after EVAR. Future large prospective studies are warranted to delineate the underlying mechanisms of the cytokine interaction in the post-surgical inflammatory response setting.

  10. The Relationship Between Serum Interleukin-1α and Asymptomatic Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Size, Morphology, and Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mehtab; Kuravi, Sahithi; Hodson, James; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B; Vohra, Rajiv K; Bradbury, Andrew W

    2018-02-16

    In a pilot study, a relationship between abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter and serum interleukin (IL)-1α levels was reported, and that endothelial cell (EC) activation in vitro in response to serum from patients with AAA was blocked by anti-IL-1α antibodies. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the relationship between serum IL-1α and asymptomatic infrarenal AAA size, morphology, and growth rates. Serum IL-1α was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 101 patients with asymptomatic, infrarenal AAA and related to aneurysm size, morphology, and growth rates. IL-1α was measured in 101 patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age between men and women. IL-1α was detectable in 62.4% of patients; median IL-1α titre was 3.26 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant relationship between IL-1α and maximum AAA antero-posterior diameter as measured by ultrasound (p = .649), AAA morphology (aortic length [p = .394], sac [p = .369], and thrombus volume [p = .629]) as measured on computed tomography, absolute increase in AAA diameter (p = .214), or AAA growth rate (p = .230). IL-1α is detectable in the majority of patients with infrarenal AAA, but the cause and clinical significance of this novel observation remains unknown. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateswaran; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Ijaz, Talha; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) augments atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAs) formation in hypercholesterolemic mice. AngII-induced AAAs are associated with medial macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Inhibition of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease, by overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, attenuates AngII-induced leukocyte infiltration, perivascular inflammation, and MMP activation in mice. The purpose of this study was to define whether pharmacological inhibition of calpain influences AngII-induced AAAs in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDL receptor −/− mice were fed a fat-enriched diet and administered with either vehicle or a calpain-specific inhibitor, BDA-410 (30 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. After 1 week of feeding, mice were infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. AngII-infusion profoundly increased aortic calpain protein and activity. BDA-410 administration had no effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations or AngII-increased systolic blood pressure. Calpain inhibition significantly attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development. BDA-410 administration attenuated activation of MMP12, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1) and macrophage infiltration into the aorta. BDA-410 administration significantly attenuated thioglycollate-elicited macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. We conclude that calpain inhibition using BDA-410 attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development in LDL receptor −/− mice. PMID:21964156

  12. Telomerase deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Lovett, David H; Howatt, Deborah A; Daugherty, Alan; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an age-related vascular disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to determine whether the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), modulates angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA formation. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow-derived cells from TERT-deficient (TERT-/-) mice or littermate wild-type mice. Mice were placed on a diet enriched in cholesterol, and AAA formation was quantified after 4 weeks of Ang II infusion. Repopulation of LDLr-/- mice with TERT-/- bone marrow-derived cells attenuated Ang II-induced AAA formation. TERT-deficient recipient mice revealed modest telomere attrition in circulating leukocytes at the study end point without any overt effect of the donor genotype on white blood cell counts. In mice repopulated with TERT-/- bone marrow, aortic matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was reduced, and TERT-/- macrophages exhibited decreased expression and activity of MMP-2 in response to stimulation with Ang II. Finally, we demonstrated in transient transfection studies that TERT overexpression activates the MMP-2 promoter in macrophages. TERT deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages attenuates Ang II-induced AAA formation in LDLr-/- mice and decreases MMP-2 expression. These results point to a previously unrecognized role of TERT in the pathogenesis of AAA.

  13. Assessment of the accuracy of AortaScan for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

    PubMed

    Abbas, A; Smith, A; Cecelja, M; Waltham, M

    2012-02-01

    AortaScan AMI 9700 is a portable 3D ultrasound device that automatically measures the maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta without the need for a trained sonographer. It is designed to rapidly diagnose or exclude an AAA and may have particular use in screening programs. Our objective was to determine its accuracy to detect AAA. Subjects from our AAA screening and surveillance programs were examined. The aorta was scanned using the AortaScan and computed tomography (CT). Ninety-one subjects underwent imaging (44 AAA on conventional ultrasound surveillance and 47 controls). The largest measurement obtained by AortaScan was compared against the CT-aortic measurement. The mean aortic diameter was 2.8 cm. The CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of AAA in 43 subjects. There was one false positive measurement on conventional ultrasound. AortaScan missed the diagnosis of AAA in eight subjects. There were thirteen false positive measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81%, 72%, 72% and 81% respectively. A device to detect AAA without the need for a trained operator would have potential in a community-based screening programme. The AortaScan, however, lacks adequate sensitivity and significant technical improvement is necessary before it could be considered a replacement for trained screening personnel. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Identifying barriers to screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in general practice: Qualitative study of 14 general practitioners in Paris].

    PubMed

    Niclot, J; Stansal, A; Saint-Lary, O; Lazareth, I; Priollet, P

    2018-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a silent pathology with often fatal consequences in case of rupture. AAA screening, recommended in France and many other countries, has shown its effectiveness in reducing specific mortality. However, AAA screening rate remains insufficient. To identify barriers to AAA screening in general practice. Qualitative study carried out during 2016 among general practitioners based in Paris. Fourteen physicians were included. Most of the barriers were related to the physician: unawareness about AAA and screening recommendations, considering AAA as a secondary question not discussed with the patient, abdominal aorta not included in cardiovascular assessment, no search for a familial history of AAA, AAA considered a question for the specialist, lack of time, lack of training, numerous screenings to propose, oversight. Some barriers are related to the patient: unawareness of the pathology and family history of AAA, refusal, questioning the pertinence of the doctor's comments, failure to respect the care pathway. Others are related to AAA: source of anxiety, low prevalence, rarity of complications. The remaining barriers are related to screening: cost-benefit and risk-benefit ratios, sonographer unavailability, constraint for the patient, overmedicalization. Information and training of general practitioners about AAA must be strengthened in order to optimize AAA screening and reduce specific mortality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. 3D Printed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Phantom for Image Guided Surgical Planning with a Patient Specific Fenestrated Endovascular Graft System

    PubMed Central

    Meess, Karen M.; Izzo, Richard L.; Dryjski, Maciej L.; Curl, Richard E.; Harris, Linda M.; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-01-01

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. Results With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. Conclusions With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging. PMID:28638171

  16. 3D printed abdominal aortic aneurysm phantom for image guided surgical planning with a patient specific fenestrated endovascular graft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meess, Karen M.; Izzo, Richard L.; Dryjski, Maciej L.; Curl, Richard E.; Harris, Linda M.; Springer, Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2017-03-01

    Following new trends in precision medicine, Juxatarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (JAAA) treatment has been enabled by using patient-specific fenestrated endovascular grafts. The X-ray guided procedure requires precise orientation of multiple modular endografts within the arteries confirmed via radiopaque markers. Patient-specific 3D printed phantoms could familiarize physicians with complex procedures and new devices in a risk-free simulation environment to avoid periprocedural complications and improve training. Using the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), 3D Data from a CTA imaging of a patient scheduled for Fenestrated EndoVascular Aortic Repair (FEVAR) was segmented to isolate the aortic lumen, thrombus, and calcifications. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) was generated and then modified in Autodesk MeshMixer for fabrication via a Stratasys Eden 260 printer in a flexible photopolymer to simulate arterial compliance. Fluoroscopic guided simulation of the patient-specific FEVAR procedure was performed by interventionists using all demonstration endografts and accessory devices. Analysis compared treatment strategy between the planned procedure, the simulation procedure, and the patient procedure using a derived scoring scheme. Results: With training on the patient-specific 3D printed AAA phantom, the clinical team optimized their procedural strategy. Anatomical landmarks and all devices were visible under x-ray during the simulation mimicking the clinical environment. The actual patient procedure went without complications. Conclusions: With advances in 3D printing, fabrication of patient specific AAA phantoms is possible. Simulation with 3D printed phantoms shows potential to inform clinical interventional procedures in addition to CTA diagnostic imaging.

  17. Vitamin D Receptor Activation Reduces Angiotensin-II-Induced Dissecting Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Sara; Hueso, Luisa; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Collado, Aida; Sanz, Maria-Jesus; Piqueras, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the aortic wall. Low concentrations of vitamin D3 are associated with AAA development; however, the potential direct effect of vitamin D3 on AAA remains unknown. This study evaluates the effect of oral treatment with the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) ligand, calcitriol, on dissecting AAA induced by angiotensin-II (Ang-II) infusion in apoE(-/-) mice. Oral treatment with calcitriol reduced Ang-II-induced dissecting AAA formation in apoE(-/-) mice, which was unrelated to systolic blood pressure or plasma cholesterol concentrations. Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated a significant increase in macrophage infiltration, neovessel formation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9, chemokine (CCL2 [(C-C motif) ligand 2], CCL5 [(C-C motif) ligand 5], and CXCL1 [(C-X-C motif) ligand 1]) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in suprarenal aortic walls of apoE(-/-) mice infused with Ang-II, and all were significantly reduced by cotreatment with calcitriol. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-κB was also decreased in the suprarenal aortas of apoE(-/-) mice cotreated with calcitriol. These effects were accompanied by a marked increase in VDR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) interaction in the aortas of calcitriol-treated mice. In vitro, VDR activation by calcitriol in human endothelial cells inhibited Ang-II-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, morphogenesis, and production of endothelial proinflammatory and angiogenic chemokines through VDR-RXR interactions, and knockdown of VDR or RXR abolished the inhibitory effects of calcitriol. VDR activation reduces dissecting AAA formation induced by Ang-II in apoE(-/-) mice and may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent AAA progression. © 2016 American

  18. A Systematic Review of Proximal Neck Dilatation After Endovascular Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kouvelos, George N; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Antoniou, George A; Verhoeven, Eric L G; Katsargyris, Athanasios

    2017-02-01

    To provide an updated systematic literature review and summarize current evidence on proximal aortic neck dilatation (AND) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A review of the English-language medical literature from 1991 to 2015 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies reporting AND after EVAR. Studies considered for inclusion and full-text review fulfilled the following criteria: (1) reported AND after EVAR, (2) included at least 5 patients, and (3) provided data on AND quantification. The search identified 26 articles published between 1998 and 2015 that encompassed 9721 patients (median age 71.8 years; 9439 men). AND occurred in 24.6% of patients (95% CI 18.6% to 31.8%) over a period ranging from 15 months to 9 years after EVAR. No significant dilatation of the suprarenal part of the aorta was reported by most studies. The incidence of combined clinical events (endoleak type I, migration, reintervention during follow-up) was higher in the AND group (26%) when compared with 2% in the group without AND (OR 28.7, 95% CI 5.43 to 151.67, p<0.001). AND affects a considerable proportion of EVAR patients and was related to worse clinical outcome, as indicated by increased rates of type I endoleak, migration, and reinterventions. Future studies should focus on a better understanding of the pathophysiology, predictors, and risk factors of AND, which could identify patients who may warrant a different EVAR strategy and/or a closer post-EVAR surveillance strategy.

  19. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  20. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  1. Angiotensin-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Hypercholesterolemic Mice: Role of Serum Cholesterol and Temporal Effects of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Petra A.; Hill, Michael F.; Airey, David; Nwosu, Sam; Perati, Prudhvidhar R.; Tavori, Hagai; F. Linton, MacRae; Kon, Valentina; Fazio, Sergio; Sampson, Uchechukwu K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding variations in size and pattern of development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) may inform translational research strategies. Thus, we sought insight into the temporal evolution of AAA in apolipoprotein (apo)E−/− mice. Approach A cohort of mice underwent a 4-week pump-mediated infusion of saline (n = 23) or 1500 ng/kg/min of Ang II (n = 85) and AAA development was tracked via in vivo ultrasound imaging. We adjusted for hemodynamic covariates in the regression models for AAA occurrence in relation to time. Results The overall effect of time was statistically significant (p<0.001). Compared to day 7 of AngII infusion, there was no decrease in the log odds of AAA occurrence by day 14 (−0.234, p = 0.65), but compared to day 21 and 28, the log odds decreased by 9.07 (p<0.001) and 2.35 (p = 0.04), respectively. Hemodynamic parameters were not predictive of change in aortic diameter (Δ) (SBP, p = 0.66; DBP, p = 0.66). Mean total cholesterol (TC) was higher among mice with large versus small AAA (601 vs. 422 mg/ml, p<0.0001), and the difference was due to LDL. AngII exposure was associated with 0.43 mm (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.61, p<0.0001) increase in aortic diameter; and a 100 mg/dl increase in mean final cholesterol level was associated with a 12% (95% CI, 5.68 to 18.23, p<0.0001) increase in aortic diameter. Baseline cholesterol was not associated with change in aortic diameter (p = 0.86). Conclusions These are the first formal estimates of a consistent pattern of Ang II-induced AAA development. The odds of AAA occurrence diminish after the second week of Ang II infusion, and TC is independently associated with AAA size. PMID:24465413

  2. Gender, smoking, body size, and aneurysm geometry influence the biomechanical rupture risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms as estimated by finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindquist Liljeqvist, Moritz; Hultgren, Rebecka; Siika, Antti; Gasser, T Christian; Roy, Joy

    2017-04-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) has been suggested to be superior to maximal diameter measurements in predicting rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Our objective was to investigate to what extent previously described rupture risk factors were associated with FEA-estimated rupture risk. One hundred forty-six patients with an asymptomatic AAA of a 40- to 60-mm diameter were retrospectively identified and consecutively included. The patients' computed tomography angiograms were analyzed by FEA without (neutral) and with (specific) input of patient-specific mean arterial pressure (MAP), gender, family history, and age. The maximal wall stress/wall strength ratio was described as a rupture risk equivalent diameter (RRED), which translated this ratio into an average aneurysm diameter of corresponding rupture risk. In multivariate linear regression, RRED neutral increased with female gender (3.7 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-7.3) and correlated with patient height (0.27 mm/cm; 95% CI, 0.11-0.43) and body surface area (BSA, 16 mm/m 2 ; 95% CI, 8.3-24) and inversely with body mass index (BMI, -0.40 mm/kg m -2 ; 95% CI, -0.75 to -0.054) in a wall stress-dependent manner. Wall stress-adjusted RRED neutral was raised if the patient was currently smoking (1.1 mm; 95% CI, 0.21-1.9). Age, MAP, family history, and patient weight were unrelated to RRED neutral . In specific FEA, RRED specific increased with female gender, MAP, family history positive for AAA, height, and BSA, whereas it was inversely related to BMI. All results were independent of aneurysm diameter. Peak wall stress and RRED correlated with aneurysm diameter and lumen volume. Female gender, current smoking, increased patient height and BSA, and low BMI were found to increase the mechanical rupture risk of AAAs. Previously described rupture risk factors may in part be explained by patient characteristic-dependent variations in aneurysm biomechanics. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular

  3. Effects of atmospheric pressure dynamics on abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture onset.

    PubMed

    Opacic, Dragan; Ilic, Nikola; Sladojevic, Milos; Schönleitner, Patrick; Markovic, Dragan; Kostic, Dusan; Davidovic, Lazar

    2018-02-01

    The effect of atmospheric pressure (AP) on the onset of abdominal aorta aneurysm rupture (RAAA) remains an unanswered question. We have investigated the seasonal variation and the effect of AP dynamics on RAAA by analysing the largest series of intraoperatively confirmed RAAA. To realize this study we have performed a retrospective analysis of 546 patients with RAAA, operated within 503 days at the Clinic for vascular and endovascular surgery CCS between 1.1.2003 and 31.12.2012. AP data for Belgrade city were obtained from meteorological yearbooks published by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia measured at the hydrometeorological station "Belgrade Observatory". Only patients with a residence within the extended Belgrade region, exposed to the similar AP values, were included in the analysis of the AP effect on RAAA. RAAA were observed more frequently during winter and autumn months but without significant difference in comparison to other seasons. Months with higher AP values were associated with a higher RAAA rate (p = 0.0008, R2 = 0.665). A similar trend was observed for the monthly AP variability (p = 0.0311, R2 = 0.374). Average AP values did not differ between days with and without RAAA. However, during the three and seven days periods preceding RAAA AP variability parameters were greater and AP was rising. Although these pressure differences are very small, higher AP values over longer periods of time as well as greater variability are associated with RAAA. The exact mechanism behind this association remains unclear. The postulation that low AP may precipitate RAAA based on the Laplace law should be discarded.

  4. Successful Occlusion of a Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug: A Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, Tobias, E-mail: tobiaszander@gmx.de; Baldi, Sebastian; Rabellino, Martin

    2011-02-15

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is related with a 100% mortality rate if left untreated. Even with surgical intervention or endovascular repair, mortality is still extremely high. However, there are conditions in which neither open surgical aneurysm repair nor endovascular aneurysm repair can be considered a viable therapeutic option because of comorbidities or anatomic reasons. We report a case of successful endovascular treatment in a patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm by occluding the abdominal aneurysm using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP II).

  5. Effect of aorto-iliac bifurcation and iliac stenosis on flow dynamics in an abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shivam; Usmani, Abdullah Y.; Muralidhar, K.

    2017-06-01

    Physiological flows in rigid diseased arterial flow phantoms emulating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) under rest conditions with aorto-iliac bifurcation and iliac stenosis are examined in vitro through 2D PIV measurements. Flow characteristics are first established in the model resembling a symmetric AAA with a straight outlet tube. The influence of aorto-iliac bifurcation and iliac stenosis on AAA flow dynamics is then explored through a comparison of the nature of flow patterns, vorticity evolution, vortex core trajectory and hemodynamic factors against the reference configuration. Specifically, wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index in the bulge portion of the models are of interest. The results of this investigation indicate overall phenomenological similarity in AAA flow patterns across the models. The pattern is characterized by a central jet and wall-bounded vortices whose strength increases during the deceleration phase as it moves forward. The central jet impacts the wall of AAA at its distal end. In the presence of an aorto-iliac bifurcation as well as iliac stenosis, the flow patterns show diminished strength, expanse and speed of propagation of the primary vortices. The positions of the instantaneous vortex cores, determined using the Q-function, correlate with flow separation in the bulge, flow resistance due to a bifurcation, and the break in symmetry introduced by a stenosis in one of the legs of the model. Time-averaged WSS in a healthy aorta is around 0.70 N m-2 and is lowered to the range ±0.2 N m-2 in the presence of the downstream bifurcation with a stenosed common iliac artery. The consequence of changes in the flow pattern within the aneurysm on disease progression is discussed.

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Prevalence and associated risk factors in a population of patients hospitalised in Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Belloch García, S L

    2018-05-29

    To determine the prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients hospitalised in a department of internal medicine, as well as the associated risk factors. An observational, cross-sectional, single-centre, randomised study was conducted on 241 patients hospitalised in Internal Medicine. The patients were older than 50 years, had no previous diagnosis of AAA and underwent clinical ultrasonography. The dependent variable was the presence or absence of an aneurysm. The independent variables were age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, renal function, ankle brachial index (ABI), family history (first degree) of AAA or of early ischaemic heart disease. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of AAA was 2.9% (95% CI: 0.8-5). The cases were confirmed through ultrasonography or computed tomography by the Department of Radiology. All patients were men with a history of smoking and with an age≥65 years. The bivariate analysis found an association between being male (OR, 9.39), smoking (OR, 13.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 5.6; 95% CI: 1.21-25.91; P<.05) and ABI<0.9 (OR, 12.50; 95% CI: 2.34-66.77; P<.05). In the multivariate analysis, the independently associated variable was an ABI<0.9 (OR, 10.758; 95% CI: 1.968-58.815; P=.006). The prevalence of undiagnosed AAA in patients older than 50 years hospitalised in internal medicine was 2.9%. The data lead us to recommend AAA screening for this population of male patients with a history of smoking and an ABI<0.9. Clinical ultrasonography enables this screening in a reliable manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Meteorology in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: an institutional study and a meta-analysis of published studies reporting atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Takagi, H; Watanabe, T; Mizuno, Y; Kawai, N; Umemoto, T

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether weather factors including atmospheric pressure are associated with the occurrence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). We investigated our institutional experiences of RAAA in more than 150 patients during 8 years. Further, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies reporting the influence of atmospheric pressure on RAAA. We retrospectively evaluated 152 patients who underwent surgery for RAAA (including ruptured iliac arterial aneurysm) at our institute between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013. Daily regional meteorological data (in the nearest weather station located 3.5 km from the hospital) were obtained online from Japan Meteorological Agency. To identify comparative studies of mean atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA versus that on the day without RAAA, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through January 2014 using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). Mean sea level atmospheric pressure, delta mean atmospheric pressure (difference between mean sea level atmospheric pressure on the day and that on the previous day), and sunshine duration on the day with RAAA were significantly lower than those on the day without RAAA: 1012.43±7.44 versus 1013.71±6.49 hPa, P=0.039, -1.18±5.15 versus 0.05±5.62 hPa, P=0.005; and 4.76±3.76 versus 5.47±3.88 h, P=0.026; respectively. A pooled analysis of 8 studies (including our institutional study) demonstrated that mean atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA was significantly lower than that on the day without RAAA: standardized mean difference, -0.09; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.04; P=0.0009. Atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA appears lower than that on the day without RAAA. Atmospheric pressure may be associated with the occurrence of RAAA.

  8. Clonal Expansion of T Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Role for Doxycycline as Drug of Choice?

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Albert M.; Taanman, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Most reported studies with animal models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and several studies with patients have suggested that doxycycline favourably modifies AAA; however, a recent large long-term clinical trial found that doxycycline did not limit aneurysm growth. Thus, there is currently no convincing evidence that doxycycline reduces AAA expansion. Here, we critically review the available experimental and clinical information about the effects of doxycycline when used as a pharmacological treatment for AAA. The view that AAA can be considered an autoimmune disease and the observation that AAA tissue shows clonal expansion of T cells is placed in the light of the well-known inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis by doxycycline. In T cell leukaemia animal models, this inhibitory effect of the antibiotic has been shown to impede T cell proliferation, resulting in complete tumour eradication. We suggest that the available evidence of doxycycline action on AAA is erroneously ascribed to its inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by competitive binding of the zinc ion co-factor. Although competitive binding may explain the inhibition of proteolytic activity, it does not explain the observed decreases of MMP mRNA levels. We propose that the observed effects of doxycycline are secondary to inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Provided that serum doxycycline levels are kept at adequate levels, the inhibition will result in a proliferation arrest, especially of clonally expanding T cells. This, in turn, leads to the decrease of proinflammatory cytokines that are normally generated by these cells. The drastic change in cell type composition may explain the changes in MMP mRNA and protein levels in the tissue samples. PMID:25993290

  9. Reproducibility of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Diameter Measurement and Growth Evaluation on Axial and Multiplanar Computed Tomography Reformations

    SciTech Connect

    Dugas, Alexandre; Therasse, Eric; Kauffmann, Claude

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare different methods measuring abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximal diameter (Dmax) and its progression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan. Materials and Methods: Forty AAA patients with two MDCT scans acquired at different times (baseline and follow-up) were included. Three observers measured AAA diameters by seven different methods: on axial images (anteroposterior, transverse, maximal, and short-axis views) and on multiplanar reformation (MPR) images (coronal, sagittal, and orthogonal views). Diameter measurement and progression were compared over time for the seven methods. Reproducibility of measurement methods was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Dmax, as measuredmore » on axial slices at baseline and follow-up (FU) MDCTs, was greater than that measured using the orthogonal method (p = 0.046 for baseline and 0.028 for FU), whereas Dmax measured with the orthogonal method was greater those using all other measurement methods (p-value range: <0.0001-0.03) but anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.18 baseline and 0.10 FU). The greatest interobserver ICCs were obtained for the orthogonal and transverse methods (0.972) at baseline and for the orthogonal and sagittal MPR images at FU (0.973 and 0.977). Interobserver ICC of the orthogonal method to document AAA progression was greater (ICC = 0.833) than measurements taken on axial images (ICC = 0.662-0.780) and single-plane MPR images (0.772-0.817). Conclusion: AAA Dmax measured on MDCT axial slices overestimates aneurysm size. Diameter as measured by the orthogonal method is more reproducible, especially to document AAA progression.« less

  10. Endothelial Cell Tetrahydrobiopterin Modulates Sensitivity to Ang (Angiotensin) II-Induced Vascular Remodeling, Blood Pressure, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chuaiphichai, Surawee; Rashbrook, Victoria S; Hale, Ashley B; Trelfa, Lucy; Patel, Jyoti; McNeill, Eileen; Lygate, Craig A; Channon, Keith M; Douglas, Gillian

    2018-07-01

    GTPCH (GTP cyclohydrolase 1, encoded by Gch1 ) is required for the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin; a critical regulator of endothelial NO synthase function. We have previously shown that mice with selective loss of Gch1 in endothelial cells have mild vascular dysfunction, but the consequences of endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency in vascular disease pathogenesis are unknown. We investigated the pathological consequence of Ang (angiotensin) II infusion in endothelial cell Gch1 deficient ( Gch1 fl/fl Tie2cre) mice. Ang II (0.4 mg/kg per day, delivered by osmotic minipump) caused a significant decrease in circulating tetrahydrobiopterin levels in Gch1 fl/fl Tie2cre mice and a significant increase in the Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhabitable production of H 2 O 2 in the aorta. Chronic treatment with this subpressor dose of Ang II resulted in a significant increase in blood pressure only in Gch1 fl/fl Tie2cre mice. This finding was mirrored with acute administration of Ang II, where increased sensitivity to Ang II was observed at both pressor and subpressor doses. Chronic Ang II infusion in Gch1 fl/fl Tie2ce mice resulted in vascular dysfunction in resistance mesenteric arteries with an enhanced constrictor and decreased dilator response and medial hypertrophy. Altered vascular remodeling was also observed in the aorta with an increase in the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in Gch1 fl/fl Tie2ce mice. These findings indicate a specific requirement for endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin in modulating the hemodynamic and structural changes induced by Ang II, through modulation of blood pressure, structural changes in resistance vessels, and aneurysm formation in the aorta. © 2018 The Authors.

  11. Transcatheter Embolization of Type I Endoleaks Associated With Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Graif, Assaf; Vance, Ansar Z; Garcia, Mark J; Lie, Kevin T; McGarry, Michael K; Leung, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and outcome of transcatheter embolization using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) of type I endoleaks associated with endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify 8 consecutive patients who had undergone EVOH embolization for type I endoleaks between 2012 and 2015. The primary approach used to access the endoleak was the perigraft technique, where the endoleak itself is catheterized at the anastomotic site. Six type Ia and 2 type Ib endoleaks were treated. In 2 patients, a direct transabdominal approach was used to access the endoleak because it was inaccessible via the perigraft approach. Coils were used in addition to EVOH in 5 cases. Residual endoleak was noted in 1 case, whereas 2 patients developed a recurrent type I endoleak during follow-up. No EVOH complications were observed. The 5 remaining patients demonstrated freedom from endoleak and reintervention at a mean follow-up of 6.9 months. Type I endoleaks can be safely and effectively treated by embolotherapy with EVOH. Larger endoleaks resulting from grossly undersized endografts appear to be unsuitable for EVOH embolization.

  12. Direct health costs and clinical outcomes of open surgery in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm in Spain. The RECAPTA study.

    PubMed

    Egea, Marta; Fernández-Samos, Rafael; Lechón, José Antonio; Reparaz, Luis; Álvarez, María; Cairols, Marc

    2018-06-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic, progressive disease that often requires surgical repair. This study aimed to assess the healthcare costs and clinical outcomes of open AAA repair in Spain. Observational, retrospective, multicenter study with a one-year follow-up. Healthcare resource use and costs related to the surgical procedure, hospital stay, and follow-up period were assessed. Ninety patients with asymptomatic AAA who underwent open repair were recruited between 2003 and 2009 at three Spanish hospitals. Four patients (4.44%) died in the first 30 postoperative days. Mean [standard deviation] procedure time was 292.83 [72.10] minutes and mean hospital length of stay was 11.44 days [5.42]. Thirty two patients (35.56%) presented in-hospital complications and three patients (3.45%) underwent re-intervention during follow-up. The mean overall cost per patient during the study period was €21,622.59, of which 42.40% (€9,168.19), 52.08% (€11,261.74), and 5.52% (€1,192.66) corresponded to the surgical procedure, the inpatient stay, and the study follow-up period, respectively. Given the economic burden imposed by the treatment of patients admitted with AAA on the Spanish health system, additional efforts comparing the cost of open repair with endovascular treatments are needed to ensure greater efficiency.

  13. Inhibition of miR-155 attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice by regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhidong; Liang, Kai; Zou, Gangqiang; Chen, Xiaosan; Shi, Shuaitao; Wang, Guoquan; Zhang, Kewei; Li, Kun; Zhai, Shuiting

    2018-06-29

    The aim of the present study was to identify abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)-associated miR-155 contributing to AAA pathology by regulating macrophage-mediated inflammation. Angiotensin II (AngII)-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice and THP-1 cells model of miR-155 overexpression and deficiency were used in the experiments. The expression of miR-155 was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cytokines were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Western blotting was used to measure the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, iNOS, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 proteins. Immunostaining and transwell were used to determine CD68, elastic collagen, proliferation, and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The results showed that miR-155 and cytokines were up-regulated in AAA patients or ApoE-/- mice. Overexpression of miR-155 enhanced MMP-2, MMP-9, iNOS, and MCP-1 levels, and stimulated the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Meanwhile, inhibition of miR-155 had the opposite effect. In addition, histology demonstrated accumulation of CD68 and elastic collagen-positive areas significantly decreased in miR-155 antagomir injection group. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that inhibiting miR-155 is crucial to prevent the development of AAA by regulating macrophage inflammation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of human plasma-derived microvesicles to find protein signatures of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pinna, Roxana; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne; Monsarrat, Bernard; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis

    2014-08-01

    To find potential biomarkers of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), we performed a differential proteomic study based on human plasma-derived microvesicles. Exosomes and microparticles isolated from plasma of AAA patients and control subjects (n = 10 each group) were analyzed by a label-free quantitative MS-based strategy. Homemade and publicly available software packages have been used for MS data analysis. The application of two kinds of bioinformatic tools allowed us to find differential protein profiles from AAA patients. Some of these proteins found by the two analysis methods belong to main pathological mechanisms of AAA such as oxidative stress, immune-inflammation, and thrombosis. Data analysis from label-free MS-based experiments requires the use of sophisticated bioinformatic approaches to perform quantitative studies from complex protein mixtures. The application of two of these bioinformatic tools provided us a preliminary list of differential proteins found in plasma-derived microvesicles not previously associated to AAA, which could help us to understand the pathological mechanisms related to this disease. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Time trends in hospital admissions and mortality due to abdominal aortic aneurysms in France, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Robert, M; Juillière, Y; Gabet, A; Kownator, S; Olié, V

    2017-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are serious disease with a high fatality rate but recent epidemiologic data showed a decrease of AAA mortality. Our objective was to estimate, in France, the hospitalization, inhospital mortality and mortality rates due to AAA and to analyze their trends over time. Hospitalization data were extracted from the hospital discharge summaries in the national database between 2002 and 2013. The analysis covered all patients hospitalized for AAA as a principal diagnosis. During the same period, all death certificates mentioning AAA as an initial cause of death were included in the study. Crude and standardized rates were calculated according to age and sex. Poisson regression was used to analyze the average annual percent change. In 2013, there were 8853 patients hospitalized for AAA in France (7986 unruptured and 867 ruptured). Between 2002 and 2013, the rate of patients hospitalized for unruptured AAA decreased slightly in men (-5.0%) but increased in women (+5.2%). By contrast, the rate of patients hospitalized for ruptured AAA has decreased by >20% in men and women. The proportion of endovascular treatment of unruptured AAA rose from <10% in 2005 to 35% in women and 40% in men in 2013. In 2013, 939 deaths from AAA were recorded. Mortality for this disease declined significantly from 2002 to 2013 in men and women. The unfavorable epidemiological trends in women and important evolution of the management of AAA call for an epidemiological surveillance of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lower Mortality for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in High-Volume Hospitals Is Contingent upon Nurse Staffing

    PubMed Central

    Wiltse Nicely, Kelly L; Sloane, Douglas M; Aiken, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether and to what extent the lower mortality rates for patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in high-volume hospitals is explained by better nursing. Data Sources State hospital discharge data, Multi-State Nursing Care and Patient Safety Survey, and hospital characteristics from the AHA Annual Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of linked patient outcomes for individuals undergoing AAA repair in four states. Data Collection Secondary data sources. Principal Findings Favorable nursing practice environments and higher hospital volumes of AAA repair are associated with lower mortality and fewer failures-to-rescue in main-effects models. Furthermore, nurse staffing interacts with volume such that there is no mortality advantage observed in high-volume hospitals with poor nurse staffing. When hospitals have good nurse staffing, patients in low-volume hospitals are 3.4 times as likely to die and 2.6 times as likely to die from complications as patients in high-volume hospitals (p < .001). Conclusions Nursing is part of the explanation for lower mortality after AAA repair in high-volume hospitals. Importantly, lower mortality is not found in high-volume hospitals if nurse staffing is poor. PMID:23088426

  17. Statins: the holy grail of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) growth attenuation? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Jonathan A; Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Sohrabi, Soroush; Coughlin, Patrick A; Scott, D Julian A

    2014-01-01

    In the era of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) screening, pharmacotherapies to attenuate AAA growth are sought. HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins) have pleiotropic actions independent of their lipid lowering effects and have been suggested as potential treatment for small AAAs. We systematically review the clinical evidence for this effect. Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1950-2011) were searched for studies reporting data on the role of statin therapy on AAA growth rate. No language restrictions were placed on the search. References of retrieved articles and pertinent journals were hand searched. Included studies were reviewed by 2 independent observers. The search retrieved 164 papers, 100 were irrelevant based on their title, 47 were reviews and 1 was a letter. 8 studies were excluded based on review of their abstract leaving 8 for inclusion in the study. Eight observational clinical studies with a total of 4,466 patients were reviewed. Four studies demonstrated reduced AAA expansion in statin users while 4 studies failed to demonstrate this effect. The method of determining AAA growth rates varied significantly between the studies and the ability of many studies to control for misclassification bias was poor. The claim that statins attenuate AAA growth remains questionable. Further prospective studies with stringent identification and verification of statin usage and a standardised method of estimating AAA growth rates are required. Statin type and dose also merit consideration.

  18. Correlation between atmospheric pressure changes and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture: results of a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Molacek, Jiri; Treska, Vladislav; Kasik, Miroslav; Houdek, Karel; Baxa, Jan

    2013-09-01

    There is much interest in all factors that influence the etiopathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture. Apart from the well-established factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, age, and genetic predisposition, less common factors that may play a role in the mechanism of the rupture are the subject of much discussion. These include atmospheric conditions, temperature, and atmospheric pressure. We conducted this study to investigate the effects of the absolute value of atmospheric pressure and its changes on the frequency of AAA rupture. We retrospectively examined 54 patients who underwent treatment for a ruptured AAA at the Clinic of Surgery in the University Hospital in Pilsen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009. We collected data on the atmospheric pressure in this period from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in Pilsen. We did not find a significant difference in atmospheric pressure values between the days when the rupture occurred versus the other days (p < 0.5888). Moreover, we did not find significant changes in the atmospheric pressure during the 48 h preceding the rupture (Student's test p < 0.4434) versus the day of rupture or in the mean atmospheric pressure in that month. These findings suggest that atmospheric pressure and its changes do not affect the pathogenesis of AAA rupture.

  19. An integrated fluid-chemical model toward modeling the formation of intra-luminal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio; Swedenborg, Jesper; Gasser, T Christian

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the presence of an Intra-Luminal Thrombus (ILT) known to influence their evolution biochemically and biomechanically. The ILT progression mechanism is still unclear and little is known regarding the impact of the chemical species transported by blood flow on this mechanism. Chemical agonists and antagonists of platelets activation, aggregation, and adhesion and the proteins involved in the coagulation cascade (CC) may play an important role in ILT development. Starting from this assumption, the evolution of chemical species involved in the CC, their relation to coherent vortical structures (VSs) and their possible effect on ILT evolution have been studied. To this end a fluid-chemical model that simulates the CC through a series of convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) equations has been developed. The model involves plasma-phase and surface-bound enzymes and zymogens, and includes both plasma-phase and membrane-phase reactions. Blood is modeled as a non-Newtonian incompressible fluid. VSs convect thrombin in the domain and lead to the high concentration observed in the distal portion of the AAA. This finding is in line with the clinical observations showing that the thickest ILT is usually seen in the distal AAA region. The proposed model, due to its ability to couple the fluid and chemical domains, provides an integrated mechanochemical picture that potentially could help unveil mechanisms of ILT formation and development.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Pre-operative Exercise Therapy in Patients with an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, S; Willigendael, E M; van Sambeek, M R H M; Nienhuijs, S W; Cuypers, P W M; Teijink, J A W

    2015-01-01

    The impact of post-operative complications in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery is substantial, and increases with age and concomitant co-morbidities. This systematic review focuses on the possible effects of pre-operative exercise therapy (PET) in patients with AAA on post-operative complications,aerobic capacity, physical fitness, and recovery. A systematic search on PET prior to AAA surgery was conducted. The methodological quality of the included studies was rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. The agreement between the reviewers was assessed with Cohen's kappa. Five studies were included, with a methodological quality ranging from moderate to good. Cohen's kappa was 0.79. Three studies focused on patients with an AAA (without indication for surgical repair) with physical fitness as the outcome measure. One study focused on PET in patients awaiting AAA surgery and one study focused on the effects of PET on post-operative complications, length of stay, and recovery. PET has beneficial effects on various physical fitness variables of patients with an AAA. Whether this leads to less complications or faster recovery remains unclear. In view of the large impact of post-operative complications, it is valuable to explore the possible benefits of a PET program in AAA surgery.

  1. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is more profitable than open repair based on contribution margin per day.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Barry L; Comstock, Matthew C; Butz, David A; Taheri, Paul A; Williams, David M; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-03-01

    Earlier studies have reported that endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (EAAA) repair yields lower total profit margins than open AAA (OAAA) repair. This study compared EAAA versus OAAA based on contribution margin per day, which may better measure profitability of new clinical technologies. Contribution margin equals revenue less variable direct costs (VDCs). VDCs capture incremental resources tied directly to individual patients' activity (eg, invoice price of endograft device, nursing labor). Overhead costs factor into total margin, but not contribution margin. The University of Michigan Health System's cost accounting system was used to extract fiscal year 2002-2003 information on revenue, total margin, contribution margin, and duration of stay for Medicare patients with principal diagnosis of AAA (ICD-9 code 441.4). OAAA had revenues of $37,137 per case versus $28,960 for EAAA, similar VDCs per case, and thus higher contribution margin per case ($24,404 for OAAA vs $13,911 for EAAA, P < .001). However, OAAA had significantly longer mean duration of stay per case (10.2 days vs 2.2 days, P < .001). Therefore, mean contribution margin per day was $2948 for OAAA, but $8569 for EAAA ( P < .001). On the basis of contribution margin per day, EAAA repair dominates OAAA repair. The shorter duration of stay with EAAA allows higher throughput, fuller overhead amortization, better use of scarce inpatient beds, and higher health system profits. Surgeons must understand overhead allocation to devices, especially when new technologies cut duration of stay markedly.

  2. Short- and long-term survival after open versus endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm-Polish population analysis.

    PubMed

    Symonides, Bartosz; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pinkas, Jarosław; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare short and long-term mortality and readmissions in patients with non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treated with endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or open aneurysm repair (OAR). Retrospective survival analysis based on prospectively collected medical records of the national Polish public health insurer. In the National Health Fund database we identified all patients who underwent elective open or endovascular treatment of AAA between January 1st 2011 and March 22nd 2016. The data on mortality, selected concomitant diseases and readmissions were collected. A total of 7805 patients (mean age 70.9±8.1 yrs, 85.8% males) underwent OAR (n = 2336) or EVAR (n = 5469). A median follow up was 27.5 months (IQR range 10.0-38.4 months). The primary outcome variable was all-cause mortality, secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality and readmissions. Kaplan-Meier (K-M), Cox proportional-hazards and propensity score analyses were performed for primary and secondary outcomes adjusting for repair type of AAA (OAR vs. EVAR), age, sex and concomitant diseases. EVAR patients had higher all-cause mortality (6.4% vs. 4.6% P = 0.002, adjHR 1.34, 95%CI 1.07-1.67, P = 0.010) compared with OAR. The mortality risks for OAR patients decreased below those for EVAR patients after 9.9 months. Of all the tested confounding factors only age independently and significantly influenced long-term mortality. Readmissions occurred more often in EVAR than in OAR (16.5% vs. 8.4% P<0.001, adjHR 2.15, 95%CI 1.84-2.52, P<0.001) independently from other covariants. Survival and readmissions Kaplan-Meier curves remained statistically different between OAR and EVAR patients after propensity score matching. Survival benefit of EVAR over OAR disappeared early during the first year after procedure, particularly in patients below 70 years of age, accompanied by an increased frequency of readmissions of EVAR patients. Our data suggest re-evaluation of the strategy for

  3. Endovascular or open repair strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: 30 day outcomes from IMPROVE randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Janet T; Sweeting, Michael J; Thompson, Matthew M; Ashleigh, Ray; Bell, Rachel; Gomes, Manuel; Greenhalgh, Roger M; Grieve, Richard; Heatley, Francine; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Thompson, Simon G; Ulug, Pinar

    2014-01-13

    To assess whether a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair reduces early mortality for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Randomised controlled trial. 30 vascular centres (29 UK, 1 Canadian), 2009-13. 613 eligible patients (480 men) with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm. 316 patients were randomised to the endovascular strategy (275 confirmed ruptures, 174 anatomically suitable for endovascular repair) and 297 to open repair (261 confirmed ruptures). 30 day mortality, with 24 hour and in-hospital mortality, costs, and time and place of discharge as secondary outcomes. 30 day mortality was 35.4% (112/316) in the endovascular strategy group and 37.4% (111/297) in the open repair group: odds ratio 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.28; P=0.62); odds ratio after adjustment for age, sex, and Hardman index 0.94 (0.67 to 1.33). Women may benefit more than men (interaction test P=0.02) from the endovascular strategy: odds ratio 0.44 (0.22 to 0.91) versus 1.18 (0.80 to 1.75). 30 day mortality for patients with confirmed rupture was 36.4% (100/275) in the endovascular strategy group and 40.6% (106/261) in the open repair group (P=0.31). More patients in the endovascular strategy than in the open repair group were discharged directly to home (189/201 (94%) v 141/183 (77%); P<0.001). Average 30 day costs were similar between the randomised groups, with an incremental cost saving for the endovascular strategy versus open repair of £1186 (€1420; $1939) (95% confidence interval -£625 to £2997). A strategy of endovascular repair was not associated with significant reduction in either 30 day mortality or cost. Longer term cost effectiveness evaluations are needed to assess the full effects of the endovascular strategy in both men and women. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48334791.

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging-Derived Collagen Content and Maturity Correlates with Stress in the Aortic Wall of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Patients.

    PubMed

    Cheheltani, Rabee; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Rao, Jayashree; Weinbaum, Justin S; Kiani, Mohammad F; Vorp, David A; Pleshko, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aorta characterized by severe disruption of the structural integrity of the aortic wall and its major molecular constituents. From the early stages of disease, elastin in the aorta becomes highly degraded and is replaced by collagen. Questions persist as to the contribution of collagen content, quality and maturity to the potential for rupture. Here, using our recently developed Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) method, we quantified collagen content and maturity in the wall of AAA tissues in pairs of specimens with different wall stresses. CT scans of AAAs from 12 patients were used to create finite element models to estimate stress in different regions of tissue. Each patient underwent elective repair of the AAA, and two segments of the AAA tissues from anatomic regions more proximal or distal with different wall stresses were evaluated by histology and FT-IRIS after excision. For each patient, collagen content was generally greater in the tissue location with lower wall stress, which corresponded to the more distal anatomic regions. The wall stress/collagen ratio was greater in the higher stress region compared to the lower stress region (1.01 ± 1.09 vs. 0.55 ± 0.084, p = 0.02). The higher stress region also corresponded to the location with reduced intraluminal thrombus thickness. Further, collagen maturity tended to decrease with increased collagen content (p = 0.068, R = 0.38). Together, these results suggest that an increase in less mature collagen content in AAA patients does not effectively compensate for the loss of elastin in the aortic wall, and results in a reduced capability to endure wall stresses.

  5. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Stephen J; Yow, Heng; Saedon, Mahmud; Shakespeare, Joanna; Hill, Christopher E; Watson, Duncan; Marshall, Colette; Mahmood, Asif; Higman, Daniel; Imray, Christopher He

    2013-05-19

    In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction.A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison.Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0.001) and perioperative

  6. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction. A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison. Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Results Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0

  7. The first resection of an aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2008-02-01

    The report of the first successful resection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, carried out in Paris in 1951, greatly influenced surgeons throughout the world who, until then, had regarded such an operation as probably being outside the bounds of surgical removal and vascular reconstruction. I well remember as a young surgeon reading of attempts to control such aneurysms by wrapping them in cellophane, or introducing coils of wire into them to induce thrombosis and I was familiar with having to stand by hopelessly as patients exsanguinated when their aneurysms ruptured.

  8. One-year outcomes after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms repair: is evar the best choice? A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, O; Fenelli, C; Ben-Hamida, J; Fresilli, M; Irace, F G; Picone, V; Malaj, A; Gossetti, B; Irace, L

    2018-06-06

    Treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) is still burdened by high morbidity and mortality. Although endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) offers encouraging results in elective setting, its role as first line strategy to treat rAAA is still debated. Our aim was to compare early and late outcomes in patients undergoing open surgical repair (OSR) compared with those submitted to vs EVAR for rAAAs. A retrospective review of data extracted from medical records identified 105 consecutive patients with rAAA who were submitted to open or endovascular repairs from 2008 to 2016. Primary endpoint was to assess the rAAA-related mortality in the immediate postoperative, within 1 month and 1 year after ORS and EVAR Secondary endpoints included: length of stay, AAA-related postoperative complications such as acute limb ischemia, myocardial infarction, renal and respiratory failure and rAAA-related re-interventions. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test,χ2 test and logistic regression calculations. Early and midterm survival rates were assessed with Cox model. Of the 105 patients with rAAA 70.48% underwent OSR including 41.89% which was hemodynamically (Hd) unstable and the remaining 29.52% was submitted to rEVAR. (all Hd stable). Compared EVAR group, the OSR group had a higher RAAA-related mortality rate for both Hd stable and Hd unstable patients: 18.92% vs 6.45% at 24 hours; (P = .185) 39.19% vs 19.35% at 30 days (P = .082); 44.59% vs 38.71% at 1 year (P = .734) If only Hd stable patients were considered, mortality following OSR and EVAR was: 6.98% vs 6.45% at 24 hours (P = .703); 27.91% vs 19.35% at 30 days (P = .567); 32.56% vs 38.71% at 1 year (P = .764). Mean length of stay for patients was 15 days after OSR and 10 days after rEVAR (P = .002). At 1-year follow-up, the overall rAAA-related complications incidence was higher in the rEVAR group than in the OSR group (47.85% vs 18.33%; P = .008); re-interventions were 18.33% in OSR group

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Parulkar, Madhura

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Bodymore » weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  10. PET Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with 64Cu-Labeled Anti-CD105 Antibody Fab Fragment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sixiang; Orbay, Hakan; Yang, Yunan; Graves, Stephen A; Nayak, Tapas R; Hong, Hao; Hernandez, Reinier; Luo, Haiming; Goel, Shreya; Theuer, Charles P; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2015-06-01

    The critical challenge in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) research is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of AAA progression. Angiogenesis is a pathologic hallmark of AAA, and CD105 is highly expressed on newly formed vessels. Our goal was to use (64)Cu-labeled anti-CD105 antibody Fab fragment for noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis in the aortic wall in a murine model of AAA. Fab fragment of TRC105, a mAb that specifically binds to CD105, was generated by enzymatic papain digestion and conjugated to NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) for (64)Cu labeling. The binding affinity/specificity of NOTA-TRC105-Fab was evaluated by flow cytometry and various ex vivo studies. BALB/c mice were anesthetized and treated with calcium phosphate to induce AAA and underwent weekly PET scans using (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab. Biodistribution and autoradiography studies were also performed to confirm the accuracy of PET results. NOTA-TRC105-Fab exhibited high purity and specifically bound to CD105 in vitro. Uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab increased from a control level of 3.4 ± 0.1 to 9.5 ± 0.4 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 6 h after injection on day 5 and decreased to 7.2 ± 1.4 %ID/g on day 12, which correlated well with biodistribution and autoradiography studies (i.e., much higher tracer uptake in AAA than normal aorta). Of note, enhanced AAA contrast was achieved, due to the minimal background in the abdominal area of mice. Degradation of elastic fibers and highly expressed CD105 were observed in ex vivo studies. (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab cleared rapidly through the kidneys, which enabled noninvasive PET imaging of the aorta with enhanced contrast and showed increased angiogenesis (CD105 expression) during AAA. (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab PET may potentially be used for future diagnosis and prognosis of AAA. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake Is Predictive of Rupture in a Novel Rat Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Model

    PubMed Central

    English, Sean J.; Piert, Morand R.; Diaz, Jose A.; Gordon, David; Ghosh, Abhijit; D'Alecy, Louis G.; Whitesall, Steven E.; Sharma, Ashish K.; DeRoo, Elise P.; Watt, Tessa; Su, Gang; Henke, Peter K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) micro–positron emission tomography (micro-PET) can predict abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture. Background An infrarenal AAA model is needed to study inflammatory mechanisms that drive rupture. 18F-FDG PET can detect vascular inflammation in animal models and patients. Methods After exposing Sprague-Dawley